Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.
Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…
Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin
All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…
Hayez, J Y; Vervier, J F; Charlier, D
When a child under age states he/she has been sexually abused, there seldom exists an objective certainty to support the allegation. Whereas clinicians know that a child who speaks spontaneously probably speaks the truth, it is nonetheless difficult to exclude the possibility of fabulating, lying or mistaking. The error probability is sharply increased when abuse is referred by a parent, specially in a context of parental separation. This article thus presents a review of criteria which help to better assess the truth or error of allegations. Criteria include analysis of the child's talk, application of projective techniques, observation of his/her behavior, etc. The author also describes some differential diagnoses based on the behaviors and sexual allegations of children under age. PMID:7878137
Ney, Tara, Ed.
This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse"…
Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
This exploratory study of 42 cases with sexual abuse allegations and polygraph results found that polygraph findings were unrelated to other evidence of likelihood of sexual abuse, including the child's statements, medical evidence, psychological symptoms, or indicators of sexual abuse. When alleged offenders passed polygraphs, criminal…
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…
This study found that 39 women alleging satanic ritual abuse and 47 women reporting less controversial forms of sexual trauma as children were characterized by high but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology. Patients alleging satanic ritual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with…
Wells, Robert D.; And Others
Girls who had been sexually abused (n=68) or had alleged being sexually abused (n=68) exhibited sleep problems, fearfulness, emotional and behavioral changes, concentration problems, and sexual curiosity and knowledge. Girls known to have been abused were more self-conscious, fearful of being left alone, and had more nightmares than the allegedly…
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
Despite growing public interest and debate concerning satanic ritual abuse, few objective studies examine this controversial subject matter. To address this issue, measures of general psychopathology and dissociation were administered to patients alleging satanic ritual abuse and to patients alleging less controversial forms of sexual trauma. The subjects were women alleging a history of sexual abuse starting prior to the age of 12, involving penetration, and lasting for a period of at least 12 months. High but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology characterized both patient groups. Key differences were limited to dissociative symptomatology. Patients alleging satanic ritual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with multiple personality disorders. The implications of the findings for SRA credibility are addressed. PMID:8187024
Aldridge, Jan; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Orbach, Yael; Esplin, Phillip W.; Bowler, Lynn
Ninety 4- to 13-year-old alleged victims of sexual abuse were interviewed by police officers using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) investigative interview protocol, following which they were shown a human figure drawing and asked a series of questions. The drawing and associated questions elicited an average of…
Lindahl, Mary W.
In the emerging literature, cases involving recurring, unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse have generally been categorized as Munchausen by proxy. Recent scholars have recommended restricting the label to the original conceptualization, involving purposeful deception motivated by psychological needs for medical attention. This leaves…
Minto, Kiara; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Gillespie, Nicole; Healy, Karen; Jetten, Jolanda
Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused–and more skeptical of the accuser—than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404), the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church. PMID:27111546
Minto, Kiara; Hornsey, Matthew J; Gillespie, Nicole; Healy, Karen; Jetten, Jolanda
Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused-and more skeptical of the accuser-than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404), the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church. PMID:27111546
Lindahl, Mary W
In the emerging literature, cases involving recurring, unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse have generally been categorized as Munchausen by proxy. Recent scholars have recommended restricting the label to the original conceptualization, involving purposeful deception motivated by psychological needs for medical attention. This leaves many cases unclassified that do not fit the Munchausen by proxy criteria, involve significant risks to the child, and ultimately fall outside of existing structures for Child Protective Services/legal intervention. This paper presents a reconceptualization of such cases, proposing to label them "recurring sexual abuse allegation" cases. Defining the set of cases more clearly can aid child protection workers in their management and encourage research on prevalence, consequences to children, treatment strategies, and needed legal reforms. PMID:19306207
Bottoms, Bette L.; Diviak, Kathleen R.; Davis, Suzanne L.
Mock jurors (N=243) rendered judgment about a case involving childhood sexual abuse allegations made with or without allegations of satanic ritual abuse. Although jurors, especially nonreligious jurors, were less likely to believe the satanic ritual allegations than other case details, they were as likely to vote guilty and believe the victim in…
Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Gulick, Elsie E
The use of therapy animals during forensic interviews for child sexual abuse allegations is a recommendation by the Therapy Animals Supporting Kids Program to help ease children's discomfort during the forensic interview process. Based on this recommendation, this study incorporated a certified therapy canine into the forensic interview process for child sexual abuse allegations. This study investigated changes in salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, blood pressure, and heart rate as a result of forensic interview phenomenon (e.g., outcry) incorporating animal-assisted intervention versus a control condition in children (N = 42) interviewed for alleged child sexual abuse. The results supported significantly greater heart rate values for the control group (n = 23) who experienced sexual contact and/or indecency than the experience of aggravated sexual assault compared to no difference in HR for the intervention group (n = 19). The results suggest that the presence of the canine in the forensic interview may have acted as a buffer or safeguard for the children when disclosing details of sexual abuse. In the intervention group, children's HR was lower at the start of the forensic interview compared to the control group. Finding an effect of having a certified handler-canine team available during the forensic interview on physiological measures of stress has real-world value for children, child welfare personnel, and clinical therapists. It is suggested that animal-assisted intervention be expanded to children facing other types of trauma and to treatment programs for child survivors of sexual abuse. PMID:26701279
Lainpelto, Katrin; Isaksson, Johan; Lindblad, Frank
This study aimed at investigating if attitudes toward children with neuropsychiatric disorders influence evaluations concerning allegations of child sexual abuse. Law students (n = 107) at Stockholm University, Sweden, were presented a transcript of a mock police interview with a girl, 11 years of age. This interview was based on a real case, selected as a "typical" example from these years concerning contributions from the interviewer and the alleged victim. After having read the transcript, the students responded to a questionnaire concerning degree of credibility, if the girl talked about events that had really occurred, richness of details, and if the narrations were considered truthful and age-adequate. Fifty-four of the students were also told that the girl had been given the diagnoses of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Asperger syndrome. Students who were informed about the diagnoses gave significantly lower scores concerning credibility of the interviewee. To a lesser degree they regarded her narrations as expressions of what had really occurred and considered her statements less truthful. Furthermore, they found that the narrations contained fewer details. Finally, they found the girl less competent to tell about abuse. We conclude that a neuropsychiatric disorder may infer risks of unjustified skeptical attitudes concerning trustworthiness and cognitive capacity. PMID:27135382
Thierry, Karen L.; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen
The impact of anatomical dolls on reports provided by 3- to 12-year-old alleged sexual abuse victims (N = 178) was examined. Children produced as many details in response to open-ended invitations with and without the dolls. In response to directive questions, the 3- to 6-year-olds were more likely to reenact behaviorally than to report verbally,…
Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegations of abuse did not occur in the context of parental separation, divorce, or custody disputes concerning the children. They occurred in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The age of the children, 3 to 9 years, was older than the usual age for Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The mother was the source of the false allegations and was the person who encouraged or taught six of the children to substantiate allegations of sexual abuse. PMID:8503664
Katz, Carmit; Paddon, Misha Janet; Barnetz, Zion
Addressing the characteristics of children as witnesses has been a focus of many researchers; however, the emotion derived from children during investigative interviews is an understudied field that is vital for practitioners from various contexts. The current study explores the emotional language that children use during forensic investigations following suspected sexual abuse. The sample comprises 97 investigative interviews with children (N = 97) aged 3-14 years. These interviews were randomly selected from all forensic interviews carried out in Israel in 2011. All of the interviews were conducted in conformity with the National Institute of Child Health and Development Protocol, and the emotional language of the children was coded. The results reveal a limited overall presence of emotional language. Children hardly used positive emotional language and mainly employed negative emotional language. The interview phase and the age of the children greatly affected the use of emotional language, and gender and suspect familiarity had no effect on the children's emotional language. The findings from the current study enhance existing knowledge on the emotional language of children during forensic investigations and highlight the study's unique characteristics in the context of abuse, trauma, and forensic investigation. The results of this study demonstrate the need for including probes about emotions in investigative interviews and the addition of emotional language to coding schemes for investigative interviews. PMID:27135380
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...
The Continuum of Disclosure: Exploring Factors Predicting Tentative Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations During Forensic Interviews and the Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Research.
Anderson, Gwendolyn D
When a child sexual abuse investigation ensues, many children do not disclose readily to professionals. Defining disclosure beyond the disclosure versus nondisclosure dichotomy is essential, yet little research exists on factors associated with a continuum of disclosure, including active and tentative disclosure. Through the coding of 196 forensic interviews using content analysis and subsequent regression analysis, findings suggest that children of color, children abused by adults, unintentional initial disclosure, and those lacking family support were more likely to tentatively disclose in this study. Implications include a need to understand tentative disclosure as part of a normal continuum of disclosure within court proceedings and investigations of abuse allegations. PMID:27266535
Andrews, Samantha J; Lamb, Michael E
We examined transcripts of forensic interviews with 115 children aged between 3 and 12 years, interviewed between 1 day and 18 months after allegedly experiencing a single incident of sexual abuse. Repeated questions were categorized with respect to the reasons why interviewers asked questions again, how interviewers asked repeated questions, and how children responded. On average, interviewers asked 3 repeated questions per interview. As age increased, the frequency of question repetition declined but there was no association between repetition and delay. Interviewers most often repeated questions for clarification (53.1%), but questions were also repeated frequently to challenge children's previous responses (23.7%), and for no apparent reason (20.1%). In response, children typically repeated (54.1%) or elaborated on (31.5%) their previous answers; they contradicted themselves less often (10.8%). Questions repeated using suggestive prompts were more likely to elicit contradictions. There was no association between age or delay and the reasons why questions were repeated, how they were repeated, and how children responded. These findings emphasize the importance of training forensic interviewers to repeat questions only when the children or interviewers seek clarification and to encourage children who are anxious or reluctant to disclose. All repeated questions should be open-ended and interviewers should explain to children why questions are being repeated. PMID:24341834
Schreier, Herbert A.
In cases of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy, the perpetrator (generally the mother) simulates or fabricates child abuse in order to maintain an intense relationship with hospital personnel, police personnel, child protection workers, lawyers, or school personnel. A case involving law enforcement agents as a primary "target" illustrates this, and…
Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Cordisco-Steele, Linda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This article describes the state of knowledge about extended assessments/forensic evaluations in situations of possible sexual abuse. It provides a critical review of the modest body of relevant research, describes two models for extended assessments, and presents descriptive survey findings of 62 professionals conducting extended assessments,…
Background Children are vulnerable to abuse and violence because their level of development makes them unable to protect themselves. Such adversities during early childhood may have a negative impact on the future lives of the victims. This study was done to determine the delay to hospital presentation, clinical manifestations and immediate health effects of child sexual abuse in two tertiary care hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods We reviewed records of all cases of child sexual and physical abuse between January 2011 and December 2012. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the presence and strength of association between time to reporting to hospital and, age and sex of the victim, place of residence and relation of the victim to the perpetrator. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were generated. Significance was taken as p-value < 0.05. Results During the study period, we identified records of 275 children who were seen for alleged physical and sexual abuse; they accounted for 0.6% of the outpatient department (OPD) visits. The majority of the victims were cases of sexual abuse (97.3%) and most of them were female (75.7%). The mean age of the victims was 9.5 years (standard deviation (SD) = 4.2 years). The majority of the abusers were known to the victim (73.0%) and male (98.8%). Neighbors (38.95%), teachers (7.9%) and relatives (13.4%) were the most commonly reported perpetrators. The median length of time taken to present to hospital after the abuse incident was 4 days (range = 2 hours to 3 years). Male victims were 2.4 times more likely to have a delay of greater than one week to present to hospital (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 2.40; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 1.34-4.31; P-value = 0.002). Sexual abuse was associated with various immediate health effects, for example, hymenal tear, urinary tract infection and, perineal laceration or tear. Conclusion Presentation for care was often delayed. Male sex was
The growing sex abuse scandal plaguing the Roman Catholic Church has spread to many facets of the secular world, and the healthcare community is also coping with the crisis. At least six hospital chaplains have been relieved of their duties because past allegations of abuse came to light. Catholic healthcare officials are concerned that a few alleged abusers could tarnish the image of chaplains. PMID:12038165
Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L
The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302
Mapes, Bruce E.
Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
Savich, Nancy L.
Due to the increase in child sexual abuse allegations, it is essential to know possible predictors or risk factors to aid in prevention. This study examines the correlation between a mother who was sexually abused as a child and the increased risk of her children being sexually abused. The sample consisted of 60 child sexual abuse investigations…
Hewitt, Sandra K.
The issue of child sexual abuse is not a black and white issue; young children often cannot describe their experiences in a way that can be admitted in court, and, even if admitted, they are often unable to stand for cross examination of their statements. The custodial parent believes something has happened as they have witnessed the fears,…
Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...
Cyr, Mireille; Lamb, Michael E.
Objectives: The study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the flexibly structured NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol for child sexual abuse (CSA) investigative interviews by police officers and mental health workers in Quebec. The NICHD Protocol was designed to operationalize "best practice" guidelines and to help forensic interviewers…
Objective: This study is centered on interviewing techniques with alleged child sexual abuse victims who do and do not disclose sexual abuse. Method: Ninety randomly selected videotapes are reviewed, and the interviewing techniques are recorded on a 69-item Child Sexual Abuse Interviewing Skills Instrument. Results: The nondisclosure children are…
Shamroy, Jerilyn A.
The Cincinnati Children's Hospital treated preadolescent children for symptoms, signs, or complaints of sexual abuse. The alleged abuser was known to the children in 72 percent of the cases. Describes the hospital's procedure for identifying these children and the follow-up services necessary for their protection and emotional adjustment. (Author)
... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...
Deblinger, Esther; Taub, Brandi; Maedel, Allyson B.; Lippmann, Julie; Stauffer, Lori B.
Examines factors influencing nonoffending mothers' reports of their sexually abused children's symptomatology (N=96). Results indicate that maternal belief in the allegations, combined with physical abuse perpetrated by the sexual offender, contributed unique variance to the number of post-traumatic stress symptoms reported. Physical abuse,…
Martone, Mary; And Others
This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…
Myers, John E. B.
Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…
Reviews the literature on children's retraction of their disclosure of having been sexually abused. The evidence indicates that very few lied originally. The circumstances that underlie recantation, including false allegations, secrecy, denial, lack of support, pressure to recant, societal attitudes, and intervening events, are discussed, and…
From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…
Underwager, Ralph; Wakefield, Hollida
The investigation and adjudication of cases of alleged sexual abuse of children can cause as much or more trauma to a child as the sexual abuse itself. Such secondary victimization may occur when children are subjected to repeated interviews, questionable techniques, intrusive physical examinations, inappropriate reactions and overreactions by…
McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne
Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…
Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...
Rabinerson, David; Prag-Rosenberg, Roni; Gabbay-Binziv, Rinnat
Allegations of sexual misconduct against physicians by patients, as well as their relatives, are becoming more prevalent recently. No physician is immuned against such allegations. However, several medical specialties are at an increased risk for such claims; among them are Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry and Family Physicians. Such claims can also be forwarded by relatives or friends. The law that deals with sexual harassment is probably one of the most elusive and troublesome regulations. In the present review, the magnitude of the phenomenon, as well as preventive measures, including the use of a chaperone nurse, are discussed. PMID:26380462
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
... allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse? 101.301 Section 101.301 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., fraud, and abuse? The Office of Inspector General should receive all information or allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse regarding SBA programs and operations....
... allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse? 101.301 Section 101.301 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., fraud, and abuse? The Office of Inspector General should receive all information or allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse regarding SBA programs and operations....
... allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse? 101.301 Section 101.301 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., fraud, and abuse? The Office of Inspector General should receive all information or allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse regarding SBA programs and operations....
Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...
Sivan, A B
Allegations of mistreatment by adults made by children of preschool age are often dismissed as fictitious with the suggestion that children of this age are prone to fantasy and unable to discriminate fact from fiction. This paper is intended to familiarize those with a general concern about child abuse with the research and theories in child development. Specifically, it reviews those aspects of normal child development which have direct relevance to the question of the veracity of reports made by children ages 2 to 5 years. Examination of the research on children's thought and language, memory and learning, fears, fantasy, and play, as well as the research on the influence of television on children of this age, led to the conclusion that preschoolers base their play on the reality of their experience. PMID:1959080
Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.
This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…
... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...
Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G
To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse. PMID:2329432
Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B
The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179
Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.
An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…
Powell, R A; Boer, D P
While serious questions have arisen concerning the validity of Freud's seduction theory of neurosis, a related issue concerns the extent to which Freud, following the abandonment of the seduction theory, may have misinterpreted real memories of sexual abuse as imaginary. Certain theoretical statements by Freud as well as his advice to Jung concerning a 6-yr.-old patient who had accused her foster-father of sexual abuse indicate that he may have been significantly biased toward interpreting certain types of incest allegations as fantasies. Increased awareness of Freud's biases, both in his early tendency to pressure patients into believing that they were victims of abuse and in his later tendency to regard certain types of incest allegations as unreal, may contribute to a more objective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of sexual abuse in the future. PMID:8559882
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. 0.29b Section 0.29b Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or...
ElSohly, M A; Salamone, S J
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs, often in conjunction with alcohol, to commit sexual assault. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of drug use in sexual assault cases in which substances are suspected of being involved. Law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers across the U.S. were offered the opportunity to submit urine samples collected from victims of alleged sexual assault, where drug use was suspected, for analysis of alcohol and drugs which may be associated with sexual assault. Each sample was tested by immunoassay for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, methaqualone, opiates, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. The positive screen results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, each sample was tested for flunitrazepam metabolites and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) by GC-MS and for ethanol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Over a 26-month period, 1179 samples were collected and analyzed from 49 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The states sending the most samples were California (183), Texas (119), Florida (61), Pennsylvania (61), New York (61), Minnesota (50), Illinois (47), Indiana (44), Michigan (40), Maryland (37), Virginia (32), and Massachusetts (31). Four-hundred sixty eight of the samples were found negative for all the substances tested; 451 were positive for ethanol, 218 for cannabinoids, 97 for benzoylecgonine, 97 for benzodiazepines, 51 for amphetamines, 48 for GHB, 25 for opiates, 17 for propoxyphene, and 12 for barbiturates. There were no samples identified as positive for phencyclidine or methaqualone. In addition, 35% of the drug-positive samples contained multiple drugs. This study indicates that, with respect to alleged sexual assault cases, the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186 Section 115.186 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT...) Consider whether the incident or allegation was motivated by race; ethnicity; gender identity; lesbian,...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186 Section 115.186 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT...) Consider whether the incident or allegation was motivated by race; ethnicity; gender identity; lesbian,...
Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary
This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…
Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan
In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665
Comings, David E.; Comings, Brenda G.
Notes that sexual abuse of children is common and serious problem and that wide range of behavioral abnormalities have been linked to sexual and physical abuse. Notes that many symptoms also are seen in children with other disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Tourette syndrome. Presents case report of seven-year-old…
Tong, Liz; And Others
The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)
Helweg-Larsen, K.; Larsen, H.B.
Objective:: To describe different data sources that may illuminate the incidence and character of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Denmark in the late 1990s. Method:: Data concerning alleged sexual abuse of children below 15 years of age in the 1990s were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Criminal Register. In…
McGrath, Mary Jo
According to a veteran education attorney, understanding a school community's psychological dynamics is essential when probing sexual abuse allegations. When an educator is accused of sexual abuse, the key to fair and just resolution is a prompt, thorough investigation that includes a broad interview field and concentrates on possible "boundary"…
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Cambridge, Paul; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Milne, Alisoun; Mansell, Jim; Whelton, Beckie
Background: Adult protection monitoring data held by local authorities in England provide opportunities to examine referrals for alleged sexual abuse for people with intellectual disability to identify patterns of risk. Methods: Adult protection monitoring data collected by two local authorities was analysed, with referrals for alleged sexual…
Reinhart, M A
Male victims of child sexual abuse have received inadequate attention in the literature. This article is a retrospective review of the reports of 189 boys evaluated during 1983-85. This population was younger than those previously reported. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of girl victims seen during the same period revealed many similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. The acts perpetrated against the boys included a wide array of invasive acts at all ages, but sodomy was more frequently reported in the older victims. Abnormal anogenital findings were seen more often in younger children, but the findings were often nonspecific. An examiner experienced with young children and infants is essential. PMID:3594283
Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers. PMID:22994693
McMillen, Curtis; And Others
Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…
Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David
This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)
Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A
An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is made, therefore, not only for the abused child but for other members of the family (including both parents). The method adopted is to offer group therapy to the child, mother, and father and regular family meetings with professionals in the community, concerned with care and protection of children. Clinical data on the first 56 children treated are discussed and our approach to treatment is evaluated. PMID:6486864
Goodman, Gail S.; Quas, Jodi A.; Bottoms, Bette L.; Qin, Jianjian; Shaver, Phillip R.
Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of religious and satanic concepts. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of satanism and satanic worship. Results suggest that most children probably do not generally possess sufficient…
Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.
To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)
Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna
This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J
The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers. PMID:10446522
Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A
The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520
Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381
Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher
The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims. PMID:26075920
Rencken, Robert H.
This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…
Larson, Noel Ruth
This report describes various aspects of an inservice training program for human service professionals concerned with family sexual abuse. Covered in the report are the content, objectives and phases of the training program, demographic information on the trainees, and a description of the types of evaluation conducted. The overall purpose of the…
Realmuto, G M; Jensen, J B; Wescoe, S
Sexually anatomically correct dolls are often used to verify or refute allegations of sexual abuse in young children. As a test of their effectiveness in facilitating decisions about the abuse status of young children, the authors conducted blind interviews with six abused subjects, five nonclinic controls and four psychiatric controls. The child psychiatrist interviewer followed a standardized protocol and was able to correctly categorize 33% of the abused and 67% of the nonabused children. Proper classification was 53% for the sample using this protocol. The authors' preliminary conclusion is that, without other information available to the interviewer, sexually anatomically correct dolls are a poor source of information to decide the abuse status of a young child. The authors recommend that professionals should be cautious when basing decisions on a single instrument, such as sexually anatomically correct dolls. Mental health professionals are encouraged to maintain quality standards in evaluation of children by conducting a comprehensive examination in child sexual abuse cases. PMID:2228927
Holt, Karen; Massey, Christina
The overwhelming number of male victims of clergy sexual abuse led to assumptions regarding sexual preference of clergy offenders. The present study examined 9,540 records (incidents) of alleged cleric sexual abuse in the United States between 1950 and 1999 to explore situational factors of the abuse by victim gender. No evidence was found to suggest that male victims were purposefully targeted more than female victims; rather, the abuse appeared to be more a function of opportunity. These findings support a situational framework of sexual abuse for the majority of clergy abuse and the assertion that abuse in church can be understood as not a crisis regarding homosexuality but as a social problem that must be examined in its context. PMID:23264544
Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Grossman, L S; Wasyliw, O E; Hardy, D W
Cleric sexual misconduct with minors is a problem receiving increased attention from the media, victims groups, and church authorities. Mental health professionals are increasingly being asked to assist church and civil authorities to help better understand the problem of cleric sexual misconduct with minors. In the current study we compared self-reported sexual functioning among cleric alleged child molesters, noncleric alleged child molesters, and normal control subjects. We hypothesized clerics would differ from nonclerics and normals in reported sexual functioning. Our sample included 30 Roman Catholic clerics and 39 nonclerics who were alleged to have engaged in sexual misconduct with minors, and 38 normal control subjects, all of whom took the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) as part of their forensic psychiatric evaluation. Our results indicated clerics were more likely to report fewer victims, older victims, and victims of male gender than noncleric alleged child molesters. Clerics differed from nonclerics and normal control subjects on several dimensions of self-reported sexual functioning. Lower offense rate histories among clerics suggest that, as a group, clerics may be less seriously psychologically disordered than noncleric child molesters. Low DSFI scores among Roman Catholic clerics may be accounted for in part by their unique training and socialization process. Future studies should attempt to study the influence of social desirability on DSFI scores. Normative data from nonoffending celibate clergy are needed. PMID:8800527
When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424
Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.
Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…
Leach, Chelsea; Stewart, Anna; Smallbone, Stephen
The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis posits that persons, especially males, who are sexually abused as children are at particular risk of sexually abusing others later in life. We tested this hypothesis by prospectively examining associations between maltreatment and offending in a birth cohort of 38,282 males with a maltreatment history and/or at least one finalized offense. We examined these associations within the context of the wider birth population. Proportionally few boys were the subject of official notifications for sexual abuse (14.8% of maltreated boys, and 1.4% of the birth population); proportionally very few of these sexually abused boys (3%) went on to become sexual offenders; and, contrary to findings typically reported in retrospective clinical studies, proportionally few sexual offenders (4%) had a confirmed history of sexual abuse. Poly-victimization (exposure to multiple types of maltreatment) was significantly associated with sexual offending, violent offending, and general (nonsexual, nonviolent) offending. We found no specific association between sexual abuse and sexual offending, and nor did we find any association between sexual abuse and sexual offending specifically within the poly-victimized group. The total number of sexual abuse notifications did make a small unique contribution to the variance in sexual offending compared to other offending. Implications concerning maltreated boys and male sexual offenders are discussed. PMID:26615777
Rubin, Linda J.
Presents an argument for the possibility of faulty memory in perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse as an additional component in a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between sexual trauma and memory loss. Discusses motivations perpetrators may have for repressing memories, the most prominent being their own sexual abuse as children.…
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…
Alexander, Randell A.
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…
Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine
Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803
Magalhães, Teresa; Taveira, Francisco; Jardim, Patrícia; Santos, Liliana; Matos, Eduarda; Santos, Agostinho
The existing data suggest that individuals experiencing intra-familial abuse are affected more significantly than those experiencing extra-familial abuse. This study aims to identify possible differences between these types of abuse. A retrospective study was performed based on medico-legal reports related to children suspected of being sexually abused (n=1054). The results revealed that 40.2% of the suspected abuses were intra-familial and were significantly different than extra-familial cases with respect to the following: (a) the complainants were younger; (b) their relationship to the alleged abuser was closer; (c) the alleged abusers had higher rates of previous sexual abuse; (d) the suspected abuses were less intrusive physically; (e) there was less physical but more psychological violence; (f) the delay between the last abuse and the medico-legal examination was greater; and (g) there were fewer physical signs and DNA evidence (none in the great majority of cases). These results highlight aspects of intra-familial abuse that have been identified as factors influencing the severity of its consequences - physically, these instances of abuse were less intrusive but psychologically they were more intrusive than extra-familial abuse. This justifies the use of different strategies in the diagnosis and support for victims within the family. PMID:19782315
Sinal, S H
Increasingly, clinicians are being asked to help determine whether a child or adolescent has been a victim of sexual abuse. Since the late 1970s numerous articles about sexual abuse have appeared in the literature. This review article will acquaint the clinician with the definition and incidence of sexual abuse and the characteristics of the abused and the abuser. Practical guidelines are included for interviewing the victim, performing the physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing, treatment, reporting to appropriate authorities, and court testimony. PMID:7973924
Benbow, S. M.; Haddad, P. M.
Sexual abuse of the elderly may occur more commonly than is recognized. Reasons for the neglect of this area and possible risk factors are discussed. A definition of elder sexual abuse is proposed, and four case histories, each of which raises various issues about the nature, detection and management of sexual abuse, are described. In the absence of procedures for dealing with elder sexual abuse, professional staff need to be open to its occurrence and to be prepared to carry out thorough, sympathetic, collaborative assessments of both parties involved where it is suspected. PMID:8290413
Chave-Cox, Rebecca S
Individuals who have mental disabilities are more vulnerable to sexual abuse than the general population and even less likely to report the offence. Furthermore they face greater barriers if they wish to seek help, support or prosecution. Where abuse is alleged or suspected, a complainant with a mental disability will often have the capacity to decide whether they wish to undergo intimate forensic examination. However, in cases where the individual truly lacks capacity it must be decided on an case to case basis without assumption or preconception whether such an examination is truly in their best interests. This aim of this review is to discuss sexual offences against adults with mental disabilities and the identification and management of these individuals. PMID:24931867
Coulborn-Faller, Kathleen; Corwin, David L.
This article discusses use of child interview data to decide whether or not a child has been sexually abused. It examines the role of child interview findings from a historical perspective, discusses the challenge of researching criteria indicative of a true allegation, reviews existing studies of child interview data, draws conclusions, and…
Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet
In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.; Simone, Monique; Kolko, David J.
Objective: This study examines the impact of Children's Advocacy Centers (CAC) and other factors, such as the child's age, alleged penetration, and injury on the use of forensic medical examinations as part of the response to reported child sexual abuse. Methods: This analysis is part of a quasi-experimental study, the Multi-Site Evaluation of…
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.
Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…
Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…
Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.
This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…
Barham, Martha; Clark, Mary McGinn
This paper presents clinical observations, experiences, and interventions from group psychotherapy when the main theme was molestation/sexual abuse. The findings presented are a synthesis of experiences in three areas: (1) the difficulty patients encounter when trying to disconnect with the negative effects of sexual abuse; (2) assessment and…
Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.
Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…
Bolen, Rebecca M.
Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)
Friedrich, William N.
This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…
Berkowitz, Carol D.
Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Hindmarch, I; ElSohly, M; Gambles, J; Salamone, S
The results of 3303 analyses of urine samples, collected in an independent testing programme from individuals who claimed to have been sexually assaulted and believed that drugs were involved, were examined in detail. Of the samples provided, 2026 (61.3%) proved positive for one or more substances. Alcohol, either alone or in combination with other drugs, was by far the commonest substance found, being present in 1358 samples (67.0% of positives). Cannabis was the second most prevalent drug, present in 613 samples, (30.3% of positives). Detailed examination of the testing results does not support the contention that any single drug, apart from alcohol, can be particularly identified as a 'date rape' drug. Rather, the alleged sexual assaults may often take place against a background of licit or recreational alcohol or drug use, where alcohol and other drugs are frequently taken together. The extensive forensic database examined here does not support the concept of a commonly occurring 'date rape' scenario, in which the victim's drink is covertly 'spiked' with a tablet, capsule or powder containing a sedative-hypnotic. This research highlights the need for the early collection of forensic samples in cases of alleged sexual assault. Law enforcement agencies and health professionals should establish guidelines and procedures to ensure that appropriate forensic samples (blood and urine) are collected in a timely manner following allegations of possible drug mediated sexual assault. PMID:16083685
Ben-Amitay, Galit; Kimchi, Nir; Wolmer, Leo; Toren, Paz
Sexual abuse has physiological and emotional implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neurobiological sequels of childhood sexual trauma by monitoring physiological variables among sexually abused girls and women compared to controls. We assessed posttrauma and traumatic life events of 35 females sexually abused in their childhood (age range 7-51 years) and 25 control females (age range 7-54 years). Electroencephalography, frontalis electromyography, electrodermal activity, and heart rate parameters were recorded while watching sets of pictures representing neutral and trauma-suggestive stimuli. A minority of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Abused females displayed significant elevations in heart rate, electromyography, and electroencephalography while viewing allusive stimuli and elevated heart rate while viewing neutral stimuli. The dysfunctional regulation of the physiological stress system associated with child sexual abuse may endanger the victims with various stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26934544
Sjöberg, R L
The creation of false memories, psychiatric symptoms and false allegations of satanic child abuse during an outbreak of witch hysteria in Sweden in the seventeenth century are described and related to contemporary issues in child testimonies. Case studies of 28 children and 14 adults are presented. The mechanisms underlying the spread of these allegations, as well as the reactions and influence of the adult world on the children's testimonies, are discussed. PMID:9443001
Fivush, Robyn; Edwards, Valerie J.
Twelve white middle-class women who had been severely sexually abused as children by a family member were asked to provide a narrative of their abuse and discuss their subsequent remembering and forgetting of these experiences. Most claimed they had undergone periods during which they had not recalled their abuse, but also claimed that they had…
Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David; Mellor, David
The success of prosecutions of perpetrators of sexual abuse often depends substantially upon the perceived credibility of the victim witness. However, perceptions of credibility may vary by generation of the observer, and the constitution of juries may therefore lead to bias. In this study we examined whether perceptions of credibility of female victims of sexual abuse varied across generation Y, generation X, "baby boomers", and "builders". One hundred and twenty-eight jury-eligible members of the community from each generation (N=512) responded to ten questions assessing the perceived believability, competence, trustworthiness, demeanour and sexual naiveté of females providing testimony related to alleged sexual abuse. Although consistent between-generation differences were not found for all questions, or all four groups of generational cohorts, in instances where significant differences were found, it was consistently the older generation groups (builders and baby boomers) that attributed less credibility to the victim than the younger generation groups (generation Y and generation X). The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26439120
Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M
Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799
Ross, Colin A; Keyes, Benjamin B; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing factory. The results were compared to a previous sample of 502 respondents in the general population in Winnipeg, Canada. The identities of the perpetrators of physical and sexual abuse, and the types of sexual abuse reported were similar in the two countries; however, the rates of reported abuse were lower in China. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be far less common in the general population in Canada than in China. PMID:16354651
Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.
Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817
Verdich, J U
Sexual abuse in children is reported increasingly frequently. The abuse frequently comes to the attention of the authorities when the children present symptoms which raise the suspicion of sexual abuse. One of these symptoms may be sexually transmitted disease in the child. Previously, there was a tendency to accept the possibility that sexually transmitted disease in children could be transmitted by other means than sexual contact, eg indirectly by infected bedclothes and toilet articles. Where gonorrhoea is concerned, no documentation exists in the literature for non-sexual infection in children. Condylomata acuminata are caused by infection with the human papilloma virus and may possibly infect children by non-sexual contact in rare instances but, in the majority of cases, meticulous investigation of the surroundings of the children will raise the suspicion of sexual abuse as the cause of the infection. The case history of gonococcal vulvo-vaginitis in a girl aged 23 months were the source of infection could not be successfully proved is mentioned. Two case histories are reported concerning anal condylomata acuminata in a girl aged nine years who had been sexually abused and a girl aged 25 months where there was a strong suspicion of sexual abuse but where the source of infection remained unknown. On the basis of literature from recent years and the case histories reported here, it is concluded that all gonococcal infections in children must be regarded as being sexually transmitted and these should, therefore, be reported to the social authorities. In addition, all children with ano-genital condylomata acuminata should be investigated meticulously for sexual abuse and be reported to the social authorities, if the suspicion is well founded. PMID:2922864
Ghetti, Simona; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne L.
A study investigated the consistence of 222 children's (ages 3-16) reports of sexual and physical abuse. Older children were more consistent, children were more consistent when reporting sexual abuse, and girls were more consistent in sexual abuse reports. Consistency in sexual abuse reports was predicted by measures of memory. (Contains…
Alexander, Randell A
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area. PMID:21970641
Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P
A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646
McCoy, Monica L
These studies explored attitudes toward maternal culpability in cases of alleged fetal abuse. In experiment one, general culpability for the use of various substances during pregnancy was assessed as well as the impact of other potentially relevant factors. One hundred and twenty students completed the survey. Participants overwhelmingly supported treating drug use by pregnant women as a criminal offense. With regard to the assessment of more specific questions, the lack of consensus regarding what factors effect culpability is striking. Experiment two examined the possible impact of the mothers' race (White or Black) and social class (Poor or Middle class) on the assessment of culpability. One hundred and sixty-four community members responded to a survey sent to randomly selected persons in upstate South Carolina. The results indicate that at least in response to a brief, written, case scenario, neither race nor social class make a large impact on participants' sanction recommendations. PMID:15022861
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601(c) of the NGPA. 2.300 Section 2.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...
Finkel, K C
An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988
Mason, Carole; Kennedy, Neil
Potential human immunodeficiency virus transmission makes prompt disclosure of child sexual abuse in Africa critical. The pattern of disclosure of 133 children presenting to the largest hospital in Malawi were analyzed. Eighty percent presented early enough for effective use of HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Seventy-five percent of children made a disclosure of child sexual abuse; 29% spontaneously and 47% after prompting. Disclosures were most commonly made to a parent, and age did not affect the pattern of disclosure. The number of children reporting child sexual abuse is increasing, possibly because of increasing awareness, availability of services, and fear of HIV. Although prompt disclosure rates were relatively high, facilitating easier disclosure of child sexual abuse by a free telephone help-line and better training of teachers may be helpful. PMID:24641596
Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David
Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)
Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn
The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)
Jones, Jerry G.
Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Byram, Victoria; And Others
Female undergraduates (n=100) were surveyed concerning body percept and past experience with sexual abuse. Body size overestimation was greater in noneating-disordered women who had relatively unhealthy eating attitudes. Overall findings suggested that age at time of abuse and body image are only associated where there is a degree of eating…
Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…
Whisnant, Roberta Ann
Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…
Gauthier, M C; Saucier, J F
The long term effects of sexual abuse are often measured by measuring behaviours such as social adjustment, job stability and marriage. This study was conducted to add to these internal measures. Using a semi-prospective instrument adapted from G. Kelly's repertory grid, the adolescents' perceptions of themselves and significant others are measured. Three hundred and twelve female adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 (average age = 16) participated in the study; 79 presented with non sexual behaviour disorders (delinquency, stealing, etc.), 56 presented with serious sexual behaviour disorders (prostitution, persistent sexual promiscuity) and 177 presented with no problems requiring psychosocial intervention. Various analyses (descriptive, multiple variance, regression analysis) showed that sexual abuse significantly affects many of the adolescents' perceptions. Sexually abused adolescents perceived their two real parents as less competent and their ideal mother and father as less protective than adolescents who had not been abused. In contrast, their perception of self and the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding which will spark discussion. PMID:1933745
Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures. PMID:16555518
Rellini, Alessandra H.
Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…
Boisso, Cynthia V.; And Others
While female victims of sexual abuse have received increased attention, male victims continue to be overlooked. Recognition of effects of sexual abuse has been an important step in increasing identification of and treatment for victims of abuse. To assess the characteristics of male victims, sexually abused male (N=13) and female (N=16)…
Samson, Alana; And Others
This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…
Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.
Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa
The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different
Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse
The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention. PMID:20345776
Draucker, C B
Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8407289
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the United States and internationally. Guidelines for culturally sensitive child abuse interviewing are provided to facilitate disclosures of abuse from culturally diverse children in formal settings. PMID:20924908
Csorba, Roland; Lampé, Rudolf; Póka, Róbert
The evaluation of a child presenting with an anogenital complaint or lesion can be challenging for both the clinician and the patient. The doctor met the real possibility that a diagnosis of a condition caused by sexual abuse will affect significantly the child and the family. A misdiagnosis of abuse or failure to recognize a treatable condition can also have detrimental consequences. Most primary care physicians are not trained to recognize the variety of systemic and dermatologic problems that affect the anogenital area. Dermatologists and other specialists often do not appreciate the possibility of sexual abuse. In this article we present a systematic approach to the child with anogenital complaints which may mimic sexual abuse. PMID:19939783
Hammerschlag, Margaret R.
This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…
Connors, M E; Morse, W
Studies investigating a possible relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders have reported highly discrepant results. Some variability can be accounted for by methodological issues including diagnostic criteria, study design, and assessment techniques. The heterogeneity of an eating disordered population, especially regarding the comorbidity of eating pathology and personality disorder, is also a factor. Overall results suggest that around 30% of eating disordered patients have been sexually abused in childhood, a figure that is relatively comparable to rates found in normal populations. For some patients there may be a direct link between sexual trauma and eating pathology, but in general sexual abuse is best considered a risk factor in a biopsychosocial etiological model of eating disorders. Complex associations between trauma, self-regulatory deficits, and psychopathology require further research. PMID:8477269
Warrington, S A; de San Lazaro, C
AIMS: The aetiology of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is unknown. A series of 42 cases of this uncommon condition is reported. The aim of this study was to identify associations of LSA and document the association with sexual abuse. METHODS: Information about the patients was obtained by retrospective case note review and some patients were contacted by telephone for further information. RESULTS: In 12 cases there was evidence of sexual abuse. The abused group were slightly older than the non-abused group but were similar in all other respects. All three patients who presented over the age of 12 years had evidence of sexual abuse. Genital trauma was recalled by the patient or found at examination in 17 cases. Evidence of autoimmunity was present in five cases. Positive microbiological isolates were obtained in 18 cases. In only 11 cases were there no associated factors. The symptoms of LSA started between the ages of 3 and 7 years in most patients. The usual symptoms were related to genital skin involvement, and symptoms related to bladder and bowel function were common (50%). CONCLUSION: In this large series of paediatric LSA, associations with trauma, autoimmunity, and infection were noted. There was a high rate of coexisting sexual abuse with LSA, possibly due to genital trauma. Images Figure 2 PMID:9014605
Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa
Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349
Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; Newcomb, Michael
Examined 111 women's retrospective reports of childhood sexual abuse. Explored domains of circumstances of abuse, mediators, and outcomes (negative effects of abuse). Found long-term negative outcomes of abuse directly affected by close relationship to perpetrator and severity of abuse from circumstance of abuse domain, and immediate negative…
Regotti, Terri L.
Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)
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Leavitt, F; Labott, S M
Distinguishing authentic abuse from false memory among adults who recover memories of childhood sexual trauma has far-reaching significance. This study initially examined 13 previously reported Rorschach signs of sexual abuse in women not abused, and women sexually abused (and not amnestic). The abuse signs were more prevalent in the abused group. A sexual abuse index composed of 8 signs correctly classified 93% of the abused, and 98% of the nonabused group. The index was then applied to women who recovered memories of abuse; some had analogues of dissociation in their protocols and others did not. Those exhibiting dissociative signs produced more signs of sexual abuse. The index classified 88% of the dissociative group as abused, but only 24% of the nondissociative group. The relevance of these findings for assessing authenticity of recovered memories is explored. PMID:8827651
McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha
Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…
Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.
Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…
Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.
School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
Vernon, Irene S.; Bubar, Roe
Victims of child abuse are at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, not only directly through sexual abuse, but also because they engage in more high-risk behaviors. Because American Indian youth experience higher rates of sexual abuse and have less access to treatment and counseling, they are especially at risk.…
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This research examines the understudied issue of race/ethnicity in relation to child sexual abuse experiences (CSA) in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 461 female college students completing a survey. Comparisons of students' abuse experiences revealed ethnic differences in sexual abuse prevalence, severity of abuse, the victim-offender…
Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.
Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…
Freshwater, K; Leach, C; Aldridge, J
Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11589329
Freshwater, Kate; Leach, Chris; Aldridge, Jan
Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11802849
Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John
Analysis of data from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls, ages 3-7 years, identified five variables predictive of sexual behavior problems, including sexual arousal of the child during the abuse, perpetrator's use of sadism, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and who the child blames for the abuse. (DB)
Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.
Reviews the literature on sexual victimization of minors and the role of school psychologists in assessing and intervening with sexually abused minors. Although estimates of child sexual abuse prevalence differ widely owing to disclosure biases and the researcher definitions, it is clear that child sexual abuse is a serious public problem.…
Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…
Roberto, Karen A.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Nikzad, Katherina A.
During a 4-year period, aggregated data from Adult Protective Services case files in Virginia revealed 17 cases of sexually abused young, middle-age, and old men. The most common types of sexual abuse across age groups involved instances of sexualized kissing and fondling and unwelcome sexual interest in the individual men's bodies. The majority…
Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo
Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)
Vyssoki, David; Schürmann-Emanuely, Alexander
Violence is what the victims experience as violence. Only they are able to measure what oppression, injury, pain or sexual violence can cause. Violence starts where human beings are constrained, humiliated, abjected and injured in their self-determination by other human beings. The experienced violence causes a trauma in most cases and in many cases also a PTSD. As a lot of epidemiological studies have affirmed, the highest lifetime-prevalence of PTSD appears after one respectively after a repeated act of sexual violence.It is important to define the circumstances of the action, by defining three fields of violence: domestic sexual violence, sexual violence in civil everyday life respectively violence, that occurs not inside families and sexual violence in wartime.Victims of all fields of violence can be found in Western Europe, the last mentioned form of violence predominant among refugees, but also among survivors of the last world war. PMID:19011596
Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim
A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…
McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane
This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…
David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…
Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others
Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)
Lambie, Ian; McCarthy, John
Adolescents who have sexually abused may pose a serious problem for both the community and the treatment provider concerning the management of risk and the application of effective intervention strategies. Fundamental to providing good clinical treatment is an assessment that results in an individualized treatment plan specifically tailored to the…
Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…
Socolar, Rebecca R. S.
A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…
Lindsay, D. Stephen
This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic childhood…
Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…
Elrod, Jeanne M.; Rubin, Roger H.
Parental knowledge of child sexual abuse and interest in educating themselves and their children for primary prevention was studied, via interviews with 51 mothers and 50 fathers of preschool and day-care center children. There were significant differences by sex of parent for sources of preferred information, preferred educators, and types of…
Responses of 100 parents, 30 teachers, and over 200 preschool children were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse prevention curriculum for preschool children. An orientation meeting for parents and teachers preceded a presentation of the curriculum to preschool children. Parents and teachers were already aware of child sexual…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression analysis (n=237) with cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Wave I (NSCAW, Dowd et al., 2002). This study found that school engagement, caregiver social support, hope and expectancy, caregiver education and SES predicted resilience. In line with the PPCT model, findings suggest that placing a greater emphasis on the contextual environment could improve support for adolescent resilience. Augmenting interventions that focus on individual change with those that address environmental factors may increase the benefits to adolescents affected by sexual abuse. PMID:22265933
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa
This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897
Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo
The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention. PMID:24056826
Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun
A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths. PMID:25981223
Background There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Methods Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. Controls: all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35–193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in anal abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex anal dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), anal fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), anal laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10). Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were anal fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Conclusions Anal findings are more common in children alleging anal abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed anal abuse. PMID:24884914
Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.
This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…
Alert-Dancer, Claire; Halley, Nancy; Hamate, Maryam; Bernard-Bonnie, Anne-Claude
Medical evaluation of 316 children, mean age 6 years, found 39 perpetrators of sexual abuse were less than 16 years old and 15 were between 16 and 19. Young aggressors were more likely to abuse older female children. Adolescent aggressors appeared to engage in more genital/genital and genital/anal sexual abuse than older aggressors. (Author/DB)
Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.
Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…
Schonberg, Ila J.
Child sexual abuse continues to be a problem despite efforts towards prevention. The burden of protecting children still falls mainly on women, yet society's general attitudes take away from women the tools they need to do this job. Mothers of sexually abused children have been blamed for their daughters' abuse because of their emotional…
Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.
Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…
Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…
Wurtele, Sandy K.; Schmitt, Ann
This study examined the knowledgeability of child care workers (n=97) regarding their rights and responsibilities in reporting suspected child sexual abuse. Day care personnel knew significantly less about procedures for reporting suspected abuse and their protection under the law (when compared to child sexual abuse experts). (Author/DB)
Kleemeier, Carol; And Others
The effectiveness of a six-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Findings indicated that trained teachers demonstrated significant increases in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-intervention opinions. Trained teachers were better able to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest…
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…
Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.
In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…
Roesler, T A; Savin, D; Grosz, C
A significant portion of children referred for psychiatric treatment have been sexually abused. One of the most difficult symptom manifestations to treat in young children is the management of anger. In this case, a 4-year-old boy was sexually abused by persons outside the family. He showed symptoms of regressive behavior including encopresis, enuresis, difficulty sleeping, fearfulness, recurrent nightmares, and had hyperalertness and frequent outbursts of anger. Treatment initially involved group therapy, with a concurrent parents' group. After experiencing little improvement in group therapy, the youngster was put in individual play therapy and family therapy. Family therapy proved essential in creating a safe environment for the patient where he could learn to regulate his affect and process his traumatic experience successfully. PMID:8407771
Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben
The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…
Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.
Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…
King, H. Elizabeth; And Others
These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…
Singh, H S; Yiing, W W; Nurani, H N
There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was < 10 years in 38.1% of the cases; 59.5% were repeatedly abused and 33.3% had more than one abuser. Of the abusers, 71.4% were known to the respondent, 14.2% of whom were brothers, 24.5% relatives, and 24.5% a family friend. Further, 28.9% of all students knew of an individual who had been sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse. PMID:8800523
Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben
The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose. PMID:20587459
Singh, HSS Amar; And Others
A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682765
Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L
Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77374; 1998: N = 81247). Findings indicate that sexual abuse was reported by both boys and girls and among students of all ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of adolescents reported sexual abuse in each cohort, with girls 5 times more likely to report abuse than boys. Ethnic variation was minor, with African American, Native American, and Hispanic teens slightly more likely to report abuse than White or Asian American youth. School nurses should routinely assess for a history of sexual abuse in adolescents and should be prepared to provide support and referral for abused students and their families. PMID:14498771
Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.
Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…
Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare
Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Nietert, Paul J; Rheingold, Alyssa A
Child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs often include a focus on increased reporting of suspected abuse, in addition to other prevention components such as helping trainees recognize suspected abusive situations. This study aimed to determine whether the Stewards of Children prevention program is associated with increased CSA reporting. Analyses examined whether rates of CSA allegations increased over time in three counties in South Carolina (SC) targeted with program dissemination efforts and whether CSA reporting trends differed between the three targeted counties and three comparison counties that did not experience substantial program dissemination. CSA allegation data were obtained by county and year for predissemination and postdissemination periods from the SC Department of Social Services. Results indicated that, for the targeted counties but not the nontargeted counties, estimated allegation rates increased significantly over time, corresponding with the onset of significant program dissemination efforts. Results also indicated significant between-groups differences in allegation trends for targeted versus nontargeted counties. These findings suggest that the Stewards prevention intervention may be associated with increased CSA allegations. However, results require replication with randomization of counties. Moreover, whether increased reporting is associated with decreased CSA incidence remains unknown. PMID:26530898
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo
This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329
Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.
Developmental differences in references to temporal attributes of allegedly experienced events were examined in 250 forensic interviews of 4- to 10-year-old alleged victims of sexual abuse. Children's ages, the specific temporal attributes referenced, and the types of memory tapped by the interviewers' questions significantly affected the quantity…
Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.
Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…
Murray, Joan; And Others
The idea is widely supported that abuse is far more common among acquaintances than among strangers and is most common within the family. The dating relationship is another intimate relationship in which abuse occurs. In this study the association between abuse in the family of origin and sexual abuse in dating was analyzed by determining the…
Springs, F E; Friedrich, W N
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent health risk behaviors and medical problems was examined in 511 women who had used a family practice clinic in a rural midwestern community during a 2-year period (1988 and 1989). These women completed a questionnaire that assessed various health risk behaviors--smoking, drinking, drug abuse, number of sexual partners, and age at first intercourse--and a medical symptom checklist that assessed 38 medical problems related to major systems of body function, the somatization scale from the SCL-90, a screen for sexual abuse, and a brief measure of social support. The results indicated that sexually abused women, who represented 22.1% of the sample, reported significantly more medical problems, greater levels of somatization, and more health risk behaviors than did the nonabused women. More severe abuse (for example, penetration or multiple abusers) correlated with more severe problems. Extent of social support correlated inversely with the number of gynecologic problems reported in the sexually abused group. Fewer than 2% of the sexually abused women had discussed the abuse with a physician. To identify and assist victims of sexual abuse, physicians should become experienced with nonthreatening methods of eliciting such information when the medical history is obtained. PMID:1434879
Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva
Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508
Schuman, D C
Child sexual abuse is sometimes mistakenly over-reported. This discussion of seven cases focuses on one potential area which can generate a substantial segment of false positives: conflicted domestic relations litigation situation. Such situations generate striking, regressive affect and behavior especially when issues of child custody or visitation erupt. Parental regression has been discussed in the literature, but children regress too: behavioral symptoms erupt with vegetative and social disruption, and instinctual material regarding both sex and anger is more accessible to consciousness than is age-appropriate. Heightened instinctual forces in children and regressive loosening of pre-litigation character defenses in adults, both in the context of stressful family breakdown, combine to generate genuine perceptions of abuse but invalid reports. PMID:3697518
de Oliveira Aded, Naura Liane; Galluzzi da Silva Dalcin, Bruno Luís; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares
We present an incidence analysis of forensic medical examinations at the Afrânio Peixoto Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July 2000. A sample of 124 cases of suspected sexual abuse was selected, both male and female, aged 0 to 17 years. Minors from 0 to 14 years of age represented 81.45% of the sample, coinciding with rates from a former study spanning the first quarter of 2000. Other than vaginal rape, young male subjects prevailed in cases of suspected anal, oral, or other forms of sexual violence and comprised 20.97% of the total sample, with no such cases, either male or female, in the 15-17-year group. Most cases of alleged vaginal sexual abuse were detected in the 10-17-year group. 44.36% of the alleged aggressors were related to the victims; non-related aggressors represented 13.71% of the study group. 30.65% of all cases lacked information about the aggressor. Most police complaints were recorded in the North and East Sides of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The present study did not analyze the victims' social, economic, or cultural characteristics. PMID:17653415
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane
Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540
Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial…
Sexual abuse as an extreme childhood trauma produces distorted object-images, introjects of violence which reproduce the trauma permanently through symptoms and acting-out. Although the traumatic power should be relived in transference, psychoanalytic therapy does not always mean permanent interpretation of transference, rather supporting, confirming, valuing activity is indicated. The following scopes can be differentiated: idealization, changing the therapeutic object into a triangulating one; negative transference of an archaic destructive mother imago, nevertheless also of the traumatic object, setting free hidden aggressive affects; emerging of the specific sexual trauma in transference and counter-transference. In the whole course of therapy, especially at the end, working through of guilt-feelings, shame and mourning permits the separation from the traumatic objects, although the danger of returning to them, often represented by the real actual objects, does not guarantee a full success in all cases. PMID:9499697
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…
Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.
Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…
... Ask these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ... Does staff receive training on recognizing and reporting child sexual abuse? How often? Is there a staff code of ...
Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…
Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann
This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…
Wagner, William G.
In this study of brief-term concomitant of child sexual abuse, children's reports of self-concept and depression, and parents' ratings of their children's depressive symptomology, were examined for child victims of molestation or sexual abuse outside the family, and for nonabused children whose parents sought psychological services for them. (BB)
Goldman, Renitta L.
This paper examines the characteristics and behaviors which may exacerbate the vulnerability of children with an intellectual disability toward sexually abusive relationships. It focuses on incidence, characteristics of offenders, characteristics of children, consequences of sexual abuse, and challenges for intervention and prevention. (JDD)
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie
Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…
Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese
There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186 Section 115.186 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.186 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The lockup shall conduct a...
Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen
Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…
Cooper, Sharon W.
Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa
Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…
Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.
This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…
Duhon, Rose M.
Teachers need training to work with community agencies to treat sexual abuse of children. They also need to develop the necessary skills to help sexually abused children overcome emotional trauma impeding effective learning. A survey was conducted to ascertain information on the extent of instruction and training of 510 teachers in the area of…
Viviani, Anna Michele
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…
Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.
Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…
Anaya, Henry D.; Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Risk behaviors were compared between sexually abused and nonabused youth living with HIV (YLH). Abused YLH were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide, to have been admitted into an alcohol and/or drug treatment program, and to have engaged in crack cocaine use than were nonabused YLH and had a greater number of sexual partners. A…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386 Section 115.386 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286 Section 115.286 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.286 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The...
Draucker, Claire B.
A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)
At the Time of Disclosure: A Manual for Front-Line Community Workers Dealing with Sexual Abuse Disclosures in Aboriginal Communities. Aboriginal Peoples Collection, Technical Series = A l'etape de la divulgation: guide pour les travailleurs communautaires de premiere ligne a qui des actes de violence sexuelle sont divulgues dans les collectivites Autochtones. Collection sur les Autochtones, serie technique.
Bopp, Judie; Bopp, Michael
This manual was developed to assist front-line community workers (including teachers) with issues concerning the disclosure and investigation of sexual abuse allegations in Canadian aboriginal communities. Written in English and French, this document examines the needs of individuals, families, and communities dealing with sexual abuse. Part 1…
Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W
Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality. PMID:17177094
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin
This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…
Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P
Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232
Study analyzed interviews to identify children's terminology of private body parts and sexual abuse activity. "Touching" was the most frequently used term in describing sexual parts and/or sexual abuse. Children's choice of words can imply various meanings; the interview should clarify the meaning of slang terms. Recommends interviewers use "what"…
Liberman, A; Rolle, R
Allegations of fraud in the health care field are being directed at a multitude of providers. This article, which follows an earlier one published in The Health Care Supervisor (16:2), seeks to address three questions surrounding the issue: what manner of fraud has occurred in the health care industry; which methods are being employed by our nation's legal system to address the problem, and, in the growing number of instances in which culpability is unclear, how alternative dispute resolution can be utilized to both address and resolve problems that arise. PMID:10182169
Banwari, Girish H.
Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease. PMID:24379502
Rush, Elizabeth B.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Quas, Jodi A.
Prior research has found that children disclosing physical abuse appear more reticent and less consistent than children disclosing sexual abuse. Although this has been attributed to differences in reluctance, it may also be due to differences in the process by which abuse is suspected and investigated. Disclosure may play a larger role in arousing suspicions of sexual abuse, while other evidence may play a larger role in arousing suspicions of physical abuse. As a result, children who disclose physical abuse in formal investigations may be doing so for the first time, and they may be more reluctant to provide details of the abuse. We examined abuse disclosure and evidence in comparable samples of court-substantiated physical (n = 33) and sexual (n = 28) abuse. Consistent with predictions, the likelihood that the child had disclosed abuse before an investigation began was lower in physical (27%) than that in sexual (67%) abuse cases, and there was more nondisclosure evidence of abuse in physical abuse cases. These findings have implications for understanding the dynamics and meaning of disclosure in cases involving different types of abuse. PMID:24899582
Antaki, Charles; Richardson, Emma; Stokoe, Elizabeth; Willott, Sara
When people alleging sexual assault are interviewed by police, their accounts are tested to see if they would stand up in court. Some tests are in the form of tendentious questions carrying implications (e.g., that the sex was consensual) damaging to the complainant's allegation. In a qualitative analysis of 19 English police interviews with people with intellectual disability (ID) defined in a variety of ways, we show how people with ID deal with the pragmatic complexity of such tendentious questions. We give examples in which the complainants detect and resist the questions' damaging implications; but we focus on occasions when the complainants do not do so. We discuss the use of tendentious questions in the light of national United Kingdom guidelines on the treatment of vulnerable witnesses. PMID:26458170
Lawson, David Allen
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a fairly recent inclusion in the literature as a psychiatric disorder. Currently, researchers are trying to relate PTSD to many different environmental and psychosocial stressors including physical abuse, emotional abuse, war trauma, and sexual abuse. This paper addresses research concerning the…
Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.
Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…
Hays, Kate F.; Stanley, Sheila F.
Compared the dental experiences of 132 women with a history of sexual abuse to 49 women reporting no such history. Findings show that a history of abuse, especially the severity of abuse, predicted different patterns in making and keeping dental appointments, stress-related dental problems, and post-traumatic-stress-disorder-type symptoms while at…
Allers, Christopher T.; And Others
Presents case studies and discussions regarding 3 observed characteristics of unresolved childhood sexual abuse in adult survivors over 65 years of age. Specifically, chronic depression, elder abuse, and misdiagnosis of residual abuse trauma as dementia or mental illness are compared to parallel issues identified by researchers working with…
Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of knowledge about those who sexually abuse children while working in organizations. Here, we adopt a case study approach to examine this problem. We focus on eight adult males who had been imprisoned for abusing a total of 35 children while working in educational and voluntary settings. We provide a detailed account of abusers'…
A child who has been sexually abused typically is not going to be forthcoming about the abuse. Therefore, it can be difficult and time-consuming for a physician who suspects sexual abuse to get the child to disclose what is happening. This article reviews strategies that can help physicians establish a trusting relationship with a child that may enable them to speak openly about what is going on in their lives. PMID:22372050
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…
Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.
Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The significance of the identification of a sexually transmitted agent in such children as evidence of possible child sexual abuse varies by pathogen. While culture has historically been used for the detection of STIs in cases of suspected abuse in children, the increasing use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in adults and the increasing proliferation of second-generation tests with better sensitivity and specificity has made inroads into the use of such tests in children, especially for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Acceptance by the medicolegal system for sexual abuse cases is still controversial and more test cases will be necessary before definitive use becomes standard practice. In addition, if these assays ever become legally admissible in court, there will be recommendations that more than one NAAT assay be used in order to assure confirmation of the diagnostic result. PMID:22782828
Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416
Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M
Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. PMID:27169881
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921
Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.
This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…
Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit
It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:25774414
Malmedal, Wenche; Iversen, Maria Helen; Kilvik, Astrid
Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons. PMID:25642347
Narang, Tarun; Kanwar, Amrinder Jit; Kumaran, M Sendhil
It is well-known that syphilis is a sexually-transmitted or an inherited infection. Syphilis in preschoolers is rarely described in modern medical literature. Our case represents the difficulty or dilemma faced by dermatologists after diagnosing syphilis in a girl child due to inability of the young children to provide a history of sexual abuse and more over the parents/guardians also try to hide the history of sexual-abuse. Although rare, we can consider non-sexual transmission after we have thoroughly investigated and ruled out even the remote possibility of sexual abuse, because misdiagnosis of both abuse and non-abuse can be devastating to the patient and family. PMID:24339468
Plummer, Carol A.
This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…
Kaufman, Bobbie; Wohl, Agnes
Recognizing the compelling language of imagery available in the drawings of children who have been sexually abused, this book focuses on the link between sexual abuse during the latency period and specific developmental problems. Chapter 1, "Paradigms of Trauma and Sexual Abuse," presents sexual abuse as an external event associated with a…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari
Interviews with 372 homeless and runaway adolescents found one-half reported being physically abused and almost one-third experienced sexual abuse. Females experienced significantly higher rates of sexual abuse. Sexual minority youth experienced more physical and sexual abuse compared to heterosexual youth. Nonfamily members most often perpetrated…
Collins, Christi M; O'Neill-Arana, Margarita R; Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Ossege, Jennifer M
The long-term effects of child sexual abuse include numerous psychological, social, and behavioral difficulties in women survivors, ranging from poor self-esteem and depression to sexual disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The role that religious beliefs may play in the difficulties these women suffer has been largely unexplored. This qualitative study explored women's experience of healing within the context of Catholicism. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight women raised as Catholics who reported child sexual abuse and who had participated in at least two years of psychotherapy. Results suggest that Catholic identity can both compound and relieve the suffering many women experience in healing from child sexual abuse. Participants related that their Catholicism was rarely addressed during psychotherapy. These findings have implications for clinicians working with Catholic survivors of child sexual abuse. PMID:24819394
Castro, Carolyn D.
Analysis of the transcript of a social worker's interview with a five-and-a-half-year-old girl allegedly sexually abused by a man focuses on how the interview was conducted and elements that suggest it should not be used as testimony. First, inconsistencies in the transcript that cast doubt on the child's reliability are noted, and the truth of…
Putnam, Frank W.
The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…
Meel, B L
Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested. PMID:16198970
Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958
Weatherred, Jane Long
The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed. PMID:25635896
Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L
Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources). PMID:26301441
Matas, M; Marriott, A
There has been an explosion of interest recently in sexual abuse and incest, with reported causal links to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The integrity of Freud's seduction theory has been challenged by Jeffrey Masson and sexual abuse activists. What is the position of a therapist who finds out that a patient's reports of incest and sexual abuse turn out to be fabrications? These issues are presented and discussed in the context of a brief, illustrative case history. There is also a review of the concept of "pseudologia fantastica", as well as a brief review of a feminist critique of Freudian theory. PMID:3607712
Logan, T K; Cole, Jennifer
This study examined a range of sexually abusive acts women with protective orders against violent partners experienced using three groups: (a) women who never experience stalking or rape by the violent partner; (b) women who experienced stalking but who had never been raped by the violent partner; and (c) women who were stalked and raped by the violent partner. Findings suggest that women in violent relationships experienced a wide range of sexually abusive experiences and that there is a significant association of partner stalking and partner sexual abuse beyond rape. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21665857
Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Dugal, Caroline; Poirier Stewart, Rébécca; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Briere, John
We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI. PMID:26421749
McDaniels-Wilson, Cathy; Belknap, Joanne
A growing body of research reports on the lifetime prevalence of sexual victimization experiences among incarcerated women. However, none of this research provides a detailed account of the many types and levels of sexual violations and sexual abuses, the age of occurrence, and the victim-offender relationship. This study used the Sexual Abuse Checklist (designed by the first author) and a modified version of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to obtain a detailed account of 391 incarcerated women's self-reported sexual violation and abuse histories. Seventy percent of the women reported at least one violation consistent with what qualifies as "rape" in most states in the United States today, and half of the women reported child sexual abuse victimization. The most prevalent victim-offender relationships were male strangers, male lovers or boyfriends, male dates, husbands, uncles, brothers, male cousins, and stepfathers. PMID:18757348
Jaffee, Sara R.
Objective The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics---penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment---in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with victims’ emotional and behavioral problems. Methods The sample was drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a sample of children investigated by United States child welfare services. Youth in the current study (n = 573, including 234 adolescents) were investigated for alleged sexual abuse. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test for sex differences in abuse characteristics, and to determine whether sex moderated associations between abuse characteristics and emotional and behavioral problems. Results Girls were more likely than boys to have their abuse substantiated and to experience penetrative abuse (although differences in penetration status did not emerge among adolescents). Substantiation status and child age were positively associated with caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Sex did not moderate the relationship between abuse characteristics and youth emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Sexual abuse characteristics might not be highly predictive factors when making decisions about services needs. Furthermore, there may not be a strong empirical basis for operating on the assumption that one sex is more vulnerable to negative consequences of abuse than the other, or that abuse affects girls and boys differently. The processes explaining why some victims exhibit more impairment than others are likely complex. PMID:20400178
Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey
Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…
A hypothesis, based on concepts of narcissism and perversion, is presented of the mental functioning of the physically and sexually abusive parent. The concept also gives insight into the structuring of the personality of the child-victim, who undergoes the risk of himself becoming a physically and/or sexually abusive parent. (DB)
Filipas, Henrietta H.; Ullman, Sarah E
The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and…
Jennings, A G; Armsworth, M W
As many as a third of the women in this culture experience sexual abuse prior to reaching age 18. Recent literature and research have presented divergent views related to the impact of early abuse on ego development, with arguments supporting both ego fragmentation and ego acceleration. This preliminary study compared the level of ego development, as measured by Loevinger's Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT), of 30 women with histories of childhood sexual victimization, and 30 women with no history of abuse. Results indicated no significant difference between the ego levels of the sexually abused and nonabused groups, with a slight trend toward higher ego development in the abused group. Factors contributing to these findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are suggested. PMID:1393718
Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)
Treguear, T; Peters, L
In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363
Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H
The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale
In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148
Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan
This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…
Rogers, D J; Roberts, R E
Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose. Images PMID:7750955
Mbassa Menick, D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448
Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna
Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337
Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.
Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…
As a result of the recent publicity given problems of physical and sexual child abuse, society now expects teachers to be fully informed, to educate both children and parents, and to actively intercede in abuse cases. Guidelines are given to help middle level teachers cope with these and related developments. (DCS)
Spencer, Tanya D.; Tan, Josephine C. H.
Investigates undergraduates' reactions toward hypothetical male survivor's disclosure of sexual abuse. Reports that when age of incident was higher, survivor was seen as less masculine; more responsible for abuse; and sex role and rape myths were strongly applied to him. Less positive reactions were associated with disclosing to other men, abuse…
Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata
Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…
Duty, Diane Scott
Sexual abuse of children has been recognized as a major problem. Attempts have been made to elicit descriptions of the abuse of children. A variety of interview methods for obtaining descriptions have been used. Methods of interviewing depend on the age of the child, the purpose of the interview, and the training and philosophy of the interviewer.…
Grotsky, Lynn; Camerer, Carel; Damiano, Lynn
Sexual assault is a trauma that affects the entire family as well as the individuals involved. It is a social disease that alters human development and the ability to relate to others. Without treatment, the effects of abuse can progressively undermine and overwhelm all areas of both the abused individual's and the family's functioning. This book…
Seligson, Anne Glinert
Object relations theory offers the most viable explanation of the dynamics of sexually abused individuals by allowing for the conceptualization of an individual, whose earlier object relations left him barren, lonely, or neglected, as having a predisposition or vulnerability to abuse. Children with adequate nurturing experiences react negatively…
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.
Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…
Westcott, Nina A.
Counselors must become aware of psychosocial and legal aspects of sexual abuse of children in order to provide much-needed assistance through informational programs and to establish clear channels of communication with referral agencies catering to needs of abused children. Frequently, school counselors are the only available confidants in the…
Bolen, Rebecca M.; Lamb, J. Leah
A concern in the intervention with sexually abused children is the support of their nonoffending guardians after disclosure of the abuse. Approximately a third of nonoffending guardians respond with vacillation in support, and these nonoffending guardians are at greater risk for having their children removed. This article reconceptualizes…
Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.
This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…
Kleemeier, C; Webb, C; Hazzard, A; Pohl, J
Teachers are potentially helpful resource persons for large numbers of sexually abused children who may have difficulty disclosing abuse, particularly to family members. In the present study, the effectiveness of a 6-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Responses of 26 female elementary teachers who participated in the workshop were compared to responses of 19 control teachers on several pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Relative to controls, trained teachers demonstrated significant increases from pre- to post-testing in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-prevention opinions. On a post-only vignettes measure, trained teachers were better able than control teachers to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest appropriate interventions for hypothetical sexually abused children. Over a 6-week follow-up period, trained teachers read more about child abuse than control teachers but did not differ on other behavioral dimensions such as reporting suspected abuse cases. Further research will examine the effects of additional teacher training over an extended follow-up period. PMID:3233520
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.
Sexual abuse can have negative consequences for children during the time of abuse as well as later in life. An important research question concerns the cycle of sexual abuse, specifically the likelihood that individuals who were victims of sexual abuse as children will become sexual abusers of children in adulthood. At the request of Congress, the…
Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.
The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana
Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…
Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.
Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…
Adams, Joyce A.
The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...
Eisenberg, N.; And Others
Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)
Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Baker, J N; Tanis, H J; Rice, J B
Siblings are often not included in treatment programs for children who have been sexually abused. This article describes the necessity of including siblings in the treatment of victims of child sexual abuse. Including siblings in treatment permits families to realize the maximum benefits of therapy for the victim as well as each family member. Theoretical and practical reasons to include siblings in treatment are discussed (i.e., preventing future abuse, providing support for siblings, teaching siblings to refrain from victim-blaming). Case examples using a particular intervention approach at The Family Learning Program and results of client satisfaction surveys are described. PMID:17521997
Ross, Colin A
The author reviews the psychodynamics of eating disorder behaviors in women with childhood sexual abuse histories, with a focus on anorexia, bingeing, purging, and overeating. The various defenses and behaviors interact with each other through numerous different feedback loops. The same behavior can have multiple defensive functions and the same defensive function can be served by different behaviors. None of the behaviors is specific to childhood sexual abuse, but the abuse history modifies the content, heightens the intensity of the feelings being defended against, and should be taken into account in the therapy. Several examples of therapeutic strategies are also provided. PMID:19845087
Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer
To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323
Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D
The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. PMID:26294381
Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…
Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.
This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…
Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women's adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship…
Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra
The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…
Rubenzahl, Samuel A.; Gilbert, Brenda O.
Surveys of agencies specializing in treating victims of child sexual abuse indicate that sexual education is covered in treatment with children of all ages, with male and female clients, and in both individual and group therapy. There was a statistically significant difference in the coverage of sexual education based on clients' age, but not…
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009
Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…
Gelles, Richard J.; Conte, Jon R.
Reviews research on family violence and sexual abuse of children in the 1980s. Examines family violence rates, intergenerational transmission of violence, effects of violence on children and women, and effectiveness of interventions. Review of child sexual abuse examines defining sexual abuse, its prevalence, research on sexual offenders and risk…
Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle
An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813
Leifer, M; Shapiro, J P; Martone, M W; Kassem, L
We measured psychological functioning in a group of 79 Black females between the ages of 5 and 16 and a comparison group of nonabused girls using the Rorschach. In addition to Exner's (1985) Comprehensive System, the Elizur (1949) Rorschach Content Test Scale (RCT), the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MOA; Urist, 1977; Urist & Shill, 1982), and the Barrier and Penetration Scales (Fisher & Cleveland, 1968) were used. Sexually abused girls were found to show more disturbed thinking, to experience a higher level of stress relative to their adaptive abilities, to describe human relationships more negatively, and to show more preoccupation with sexuality than the comparison group. The distress experienced by the victimized children was more related to internal mediating variables then to abuse characteristics. Sexually abused girls who are cognitively and emotionally active also experienced high levels of distress compared to abused girls who are psychologically constricted. PMID:2002437
Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. PMID:25527631
Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice. PMID:24945659
Taylor, R R; Jason, L A
Using a randomly selected community-based sample, this investigation examined whether histories of childhood sexual, physical, and death threat abuse predicted adulthood outcomes of specific medical and psychiatric conditions involving chronic fatigue. This study also tested prior suggestions that most individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome report a past history of interpersonal abuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between abuse history and chronic fatigue group outcomes while controlling for the effects of sociodemographics. Compared with healthy controls, childhood sexual abuse was significantly more likely to be associated with outcomes of idiopathic chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue explained by a psychiatric condition, and chronic fatigue explained by a medical condition. None of the abuse history types were significant predictors of chronic fatigue syndrome. A closer examination of individuals in the chronic fatigue syndrome group revealed that significantly fewer individuals with CFS reported abuse as compared with those who did not. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11708672
ABSTRACT. This article discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority, such as the child's teacher, guardian, relative, sports coach, or other person with authority over a child because of his/her particular position. The article tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Understanding the confusion and intimidation surrounding a child's experiences as a result of being sexually abused by a person in a position of authority often explains why children often fail to report or delay in reporting such abuse. Thus, existence of a perpetrator's position of authority in a particular case of child sexual abuse should influence a court's rulings on the elements of sexual abuse or assault in particular state statutes, as well as what evidence should be admissible. Ultimately, the author concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes, that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts, and, finally, that evidence of the defendant's prior acts of sexual abuse should almost always be admissible at trial. PMID:16221632
Adams, Christine B L
When children are abused they utilize strategies already in place to cope with stress. These strategies develop during early life within the family and may be part of the unconscious framework formed within attachments and relationships. The case presented illustrates a teen-aged girl who was the victim of sexual abuse and experienced depression, PTSD and substance abuse. This paper describes the psychodynamic psychotherapy used to examine the patient's coping skills, which predated the abuse, and how these coping mechanisms were used to ameliorate her symptoms. PMID:23393991
Jimenez, Melissa; Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and adolescents is a serious worldwide problem. It is, in essence, the sexual abuse of a minor for economic gain. In the United States, there is no uniform nationwide database to capture the incidence and prevalence of CSEC. Therefore, there is a great variation in the estimates, but the actual numbers are unknown. Given the clandestine nature of the practice, it is often underreported and underidentified. Healthcare providers will often encounter victims of commercial sexual exploitation due to mental health, physical health, and sexual health consequences, and therefore should be knowledgeable in the signs of possible sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to educate healthcare providers on how vulnerable children may become sexually exploited, the health consequences involved with sexual exploitation, how to better identify possible victims, and the medical evaluation of a victim of sexual exploitation. PMID:25823944
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…
Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…
Crowley, M. Sue
Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…
Mennen, Ferol E.; Meadow, Diane
Evaluated the relationship between abuse-specific variables and levels of depression, anxiety, and self-worth in a racially mixed sample of 134 sexually abused girls. Found penetration predicted a more serious outcome on all study variables, and an interaction effects between force and perpetrator's identity. (JBJ)
Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert
Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…
This article is based on observations and thoughts during intensive psychotherapeutic work with 997 sexually abused children and their parents after they had been reported to the Confidential Doctor Center Kind in Nood of the VUB (between 1986 and 1994). Without denying the existence of sexual abuse of children, it is important not to exaggerate this phenomena, which can be described as the Child Sexual Abuse Panic Syndrome. Doing this only gives way to denial and indignation or scandalization and revenge, and certainly does not lead to a clear analysis of the problem. Accurate observation enables some existing myths to become unravelled: abusive fathers are seldom power robots, mothers are not always warm-hearted, innocent creatures and children are not black boxes without feeling and sexual desires. The underlying message is about the bitter fight against modernization of sexuality, which seems again experienced as dangerous. However it is fear for a free, adult sexuality that is at the core of sexual exploitation of children, which should encourage caution in professional answers to this delicate issue. PMID:8669307
van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte
Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…
Adams, Joyce A
The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The examination is important, however, and medical providers who examine children need to be aware of published research on findings in nonabused children, studies of healing of injuries, and studies documenting the association between sexual contact and the diagnosis of sexually transmissible infections in children. This article reviews the current approach to interpreting findings in children who may have been sexually abused and why additional research is needed. PMID:21970647
G. Allan Roeher Inst., Toronto (Ontario).
Written for people with mental disabilities, this booklet focuses on ways that individuals with disabilities can protect themselves from sexual abuse and understand their individual rights pertaining to sexuality. An introduction explains discrimination and gives examples of sexual abuse. The first chapter briefly discusses sexuality and sexual…
Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…
Nathanson, D L
Competence in treating the victims of sexual abuse and exploitation requires an understanding of shame, the complex and multilayered emotion triggered when we have been exposed or when our self-esteem has been reduced. The experience of shame is initially physiologic, involving a cortical shock momentarily halting higher cognitive function, but followed immediately by a host of associations to previous experiences of shame. Acutely, the affect itself impels hiding, while defenses against it include anger, humor, silence, and a wide range of behaviors. In our culture, all sexuality involves an interplay between exposure and privacy, between control and release. The sexual abuse of adults and the sexual exploitation of children must produce shame, study of the interaction between abuser and abused suggests that shame conflict figures prominently in the genesis of such activity. To the extent that psychotherapy itself involves exposure, it must trigger shame; thus, it is likely that the therapist unskilled in the recognition of shame in all its disguises will overlook or misunderstand many of the issues that should form the core of our treatment of those whose sexual selves have been abused or exploited. PMID:2748444
Billingsley, Ralph C.
Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…
Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert
Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507
Esparza, D V; Esperat, M C
In 2 urban areas of Texas, 124 mothers, 13-20 years old, all but 6% of whom were Mexican American or African American, were recruited from 4 public agencies to a study designed to determine the incidence and effects of childhood sexual abuse on the lives of these adolescent mothers. The study used the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI) to compare the personality characteristics of those mothers who had experienced sexual abuse with their nonabused counterparts. Most adolescent mothers were single (80%), lived with their parents (63%), were pregnant for the first time (56%), currently attended school (84%), and lived in a family whose annual income was less than $12,000. 44% of the mothers had experienced some form of childhood sexual abuse. More than 50% reported oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with their abusers. The abusers tended to be male (97%) and known to the victim (66%). Male strangers accounted for 19% of abusers. The researchers were able to use data from 111 subjects to compare the 2 groups. The abused adolescent mothers always had clinically and statistically significant poorer scores than nonabused mothers. Abused mothers had greater difficulties in self-concept (p 0.0001), self-esteem (p = 0.004), body comfort (p = 0.002), sexual acceptance (p = 0.002), peer security (p = 0.002), and family rapport (p = 0.002). They also had clinically significant lower levels of academic confidence (p = 0.018), social conformity (p = 0.035), scholastic achievement (p 0.0001), and attendance consistency (p = 0.002). When researchers controlled for the effect of the Life Event Scale-Adolescents, abused mothers had differences that were significantly different than those of nonabused mothers (p = 0.001). These findings suggest that nurses within prenatal or well-baby care agencies should guide adolescent mothers who experienced childhood sexual abuse as they learn to communicate with their family or refer them to existing support services. It is
Jones, Alan Wayne; Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan
Results of toxicological analysis of blood and urine specimens from 1806 female victims of alleged non-consensual sexual activity are reported. After making contact with the police authorities, the victims were examined by a physician for injuries and biological specimens were taken for forensic toxicology and other purposes (e.g. DNA). Urine if available or otherwise on an aliquot of blood after protein precipitation was screened for the presence of drugs by enzyme immunoassay methods (EMIT/CEDIA). All positive results from screening were verified by more specific methods, involving isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for illicit drugs. A large number of prescription drugs were analyzed in blood by capillary column gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorous (N-P) detector. Ethanol was determined in blood and urine by headspace gas chromatography and concentrations less than 0.1g/L were reported as negative. The number of reported cases of alleged sexual assault was highest during the warmer summer months and the mean age of victims was 24 years (median 20 years), with approximately 60% being between 15 and 25 years. In 559 cases (31%) ethanol and drugs were negative. In 772 cases (43% of total) ethanol was the only drug identified in blood or urine. In 215 cases (12%) ethanol occurred together with at least one other drug. The mean, median and highest concentrations of ethanol in blood (N=806) were 1.24 g/L, 1.19 g/L and 3.7 g/L, respectively. The age of victims and their blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) were positively correlated (r=0.365, p<0.001). Because BAC decreases at a rate of 0.10-0.25 g/(Lh), owing to metabolism the concentration in blood at time of sampling is often appreciably less than when the crime was committed several hours earlier. Licit or illicit drugs were identified in blood or urine in N=262 cases (15%). Amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol were the most common illicit drugs at mean (median) concentrations in
Mertens, D M
Sexual abuse of deaf youth is a serious problem that needs to have attention given to it in a way that will lead to real changes in the lives of the boys and girls affected. Through the use of an emancipatory approach to research, this study investigated the various theories that people hold as to why sexual abuse occurs in this population and what can be done to prevent it. Data were collected at one residential school through document review, observation, interviews, and a survey of staff. The results revealed that some participants held theories that blame the victim or the culture and that such theories would not lead to positive, meaningful change. Other theories that recognize the power inequities inherent in a sexual abuse situation are discussed as leading to potentially fruitful political and social actions. PMID:9002320
Arenella, J; Ornduff, S R
Rorschach Inkblot Test (Rorschach, 1921/1942) records of clinical samples of sexually abused and nonabused but distressed girls were examined with respect to selected contents hypothesized to reflect aspects of bodily concern. Consistent with core psychoanalytic assumptions regarding the salience of bodily based experiences on personality development, it was proposed that sexually abused participants would produce significantly different frequencies of Rorschach contents indicative of bodily concern than their nonabused counterparts. Results revealed significant group differences on the barrier scale of the Barrier and Penetration Scoring System (Fisher & Cleveland, 1968), with sexually abused girls scoring significantly lower than nonabused girls (p < .003). No reliable group differences emerged with respect to penetration scores, or any of the Comprehensive System (Exner, 1993) variables under study. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:11070621
Hvozdík, Anton; Bugarský, Andrej; Kottferová, Jana; Vargová, Milada; Ondrasovicová, Ol'ga; Ondrasovic, Miloslav; Sasáková, Nad'a
This report presents an analysis of sexual abuse of five three-month old calves that died as a result of injury. A subsequent police investigation concluded that the animals had been sexually abused by an individual affected with zoophilia. The calves received injuries in the anogenital region resulting in fatal internal bleeding. The wounds appeared to have been caused by inserting and manipulating an unknown object into the vaginas of the animals. Post-mortem examination showed rupture of both the rectum and vagina in each calf with massive haemorrhage into the abdominal and thoracic cavities. From the psychiatric and animal welfare viewpoints animal sexual abuse is linked to clinical veterinary ethology. Ethical and legal aspects of animal welfare are evaluated with particular regard to the cases described. PMID:16019241
Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B
Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400
Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray
This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376
Shenk, Chad E.
OBJECTIVE: Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. METHODS: Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. RESULTS: Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized. PMID:23530173
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.
Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…
... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...
Diouf, A; Gaye, A; Sangare, M; Ba Gueye, M; Diadhiou, F
Sexual assaults constitute a prominent fact of our societies to this end twentieth Century. Then its's very important for physicians to be informed about obstacles encoured to manage assaults victims. Our study presents 25 cases of sexual assaults listed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of University Center Hospital of Dakar. It works out that: there are adolescents in most cases (85%); delay of examination is too long (11 cases beyond 24 hours) and compromises cytologic exams; injuries evaluation is sometimes negative; no lesion of anal sodomy is found. The authors insist to provide more informations to physicians to overcome evaluation of assault victim which has an impact for legal proceeding against offender. They call gaps to fill up un senegalese jurisprudence about assault victim who gets an accidental pregnancy. PMID:7757135
Christensen, Larissa S; Sharman, Stefanie J; Powell, Martine B
Most child sexual abuse cases do not result in a full trial or guilty plea; rather, case attrition occurs at earlier stages of the criminal justice system. One reason for the attrition of these cases is the withdrawal of complaints, by children or their caregivers. The aim of the current study was to determine the case characteristics associated with complaint withdrawal in child sexual abuse cases by the child or his or her parents once a report has been made to authorities. All child sexual abuse incidents reported to authorities in one jurisdiction of Australia in 2011 were analyzed (N=659). A multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the following case outcomes: (1) withdrawn by the child or his or her parents, (2) exited for other reasons (e.g., the alleged offender was not identified, the child refused to be interviewed), and (3) resulted in a charge. Five predictors significantly added to the prediction of case outcome: child age, suspect gender, suspect age, child-suspect relationship, and abuse frequency. These results should contribute to the design of interventions in order to reduce complaint withdrawals if these withdrawals are not in the child's best interests. PMID:27318035
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. PMID:25550167
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin
The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…
Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie
It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…
Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.
Explores the relationship between sexual abuse and two problem outcomes in adolescents (N=42,568): binge drinking and suicidal ideation. Focused on factors related to problem behaviors among adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Results indicate that adolescents who endured sexual and physical abuse exhibited more problems than those experiencing…
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…
Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung
This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
The present study sought to document an example of how childhood sexual abuse and attachment representation interact while contributing to the trait anxiety of nonoffending mothers following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse. The study sample consisted of 57 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 and 47…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
Fontes, Lisa Aronson
This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken
This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…
Muram, David; And Others
Fifty-nine girls (age 12 and under) who were associates of victims of sexual abuse received a colposcopic examination. Forty-five of the girls were found to have abnormal genital findings, which were considered specific for sexual abuse in 40 cases. Medical evaluation of siblings and close associates of sexual abuse victims is recommended.…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…
Beitchman, Joseph H.; And Others
This review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse examines age and sex of child, relationship to offender, frequency and duration of abuse, type of sexual act and use of force, and family functioning. Frequency/duration of abuse, abuse involving force, and close relationship to the perpetrator were related to more severe outcomes.…
Duffany, Adrienne; Panos, Patrick T.
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of group therapy in treating sexually abused children to prevent recidivism (subsequently re-abused or becoming abusers themselves). Methods: Recidivism rates of 617 children were compared between sexually abused children who received group treatment with those whose parents refused treatment.…
Tharinger, Deborah; And Others
Issues in the sexual abuse and exploitation of individuals with mental retardation are discussed, including sociolegal considerations of special protection from abuse and neglect, incidence of sexual abuse, increased vulnerability of individuals with mental retardation, nature of the abuse, initial and long-term effects, professional response, and…
Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…
Finkel, K. C.
The problem of child sexual abuse is of increasing relevance to family physicians. Apart from the need to recognize and manage child victims and their families, it is important to be aware of the incidence and nature of the many sequelae of childhood sexual exploitation. Common signals include physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Some physicians must deal with their own childhood victimization if the best interests of their patients are to be served. PMID:8038637
Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael
Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934
Expert opinion in child abuse has received considerable bad press and currently public confidence in this area of medical practice is low. Media interest has focused most on the diagnosis of factitious illness. However doctors who examine children in respect of proceedings arising from suspected sexual abuse should be mindful this area is potentially just as problematic. Widely different rates of abnormal findings have been reported. At least in part this has reflected inconsistency in interpretation. Findings once assumed diagnostic of penetration are now recognised to occur in non-abused children. The practical difficulties of examining a reluctant child and achieving adequate visualisation of the hymen in relaxed state, are frequently underestimated. Where normal or non-specific findings are presented as "consistent with the alleged event" there is a high risk the court will perceive them to be significant. Guidelines have tended to lag behind existing knowledge and made inadequate differentiation between prepubertal and adolescent cases. They have also placed a high degree of reliance on statements from children without regard to the context in which any "disclosure" had arisen. Photodocumentation has important benefits, and limitations. Images may not display the true depth of field and are not the same as examining the child directly. Examination must remain the gold standard. There is a moral duty of care on the examining doctor to understand and clarify the status of findings dispassionately and with due regard to the level of the evidence base. PMID:15863019
Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.
The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…
This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…
Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.; Aban, Inmaculada B.
The process of experiential avoidance has been proposed to account for many of the correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA). Explores variables related to two of the long-term correlates of CSA, general psychological distress and high risk sexual behavior. Results indicate that CSA survivors report higher levels of experiential avoidance and…
Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May
Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…
Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...
Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May
To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124
... one's own genitals Having a child pose for pornography Having a child look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child ... child may be placed with a non-abusing parent, another relative, or in a foster home.
Finlinson, H Ann; Robles, Rafaela R; Cólón, Héctor M; Soto López, Mayra; del Carmen Negrón, María; Oliver-Vélez, Denise; Deren, Sherry; Andía, Jonny F; Cant, John G H
This study integrates the results of quantitative and qualitative methods to elucidate the association between sexual identity and physical and sexual abuse among Puerto Rican drug users. A structured questionnaire was administered to 800 subjects in New York and 399 in Puerto Rico. A total of 93 subjects (7.9%) self-identified as homosexual or bisexual. Gay males were significantly more likely than heterosexual males to report first occurrence of physical abuse by a family member in childhood. Both gay and bisexual males were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report first experiencing unwanted sex in childhood and intimate partner physical abuse later in life. Lesbians were more likely than female heterosexuals to report unwanted sex in childhood. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth life histories with 21 subjects and suggest that gay and lesbian subjects perceive antihomosexual prejudice on the part of family members as one cause of childhood physical and sexual abuse. PMID:14533022
Cohen, Joy B.; Deblinger, Esther; Maedel, Allyson, B.; Stauffer, Lori B.
Compares the thoughts, feelings, and fears about sexuality in children aged 9 to 13. Sexually abused children reported significantly more sexual anxiety compared to children with no known history of such abuse. Children from both groups reported higher levels of sexual anxiety and sex-associated fears. Implications are discussed. (Author/JDM)
Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela
This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.
Anderson, Donna M.
When professionals responding to sexual abuse disclosures exhibit a parallel process of role confusion, inadequate communication, secrecy and denial, the victims and their families are further traumatized. Suggests that the nature of rural communities has attributes that may contribute to these factors. States that creating a multidisciplinary…
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Hebert, Martine
Maternal support offered to sexually abused children following disclosure may be a crucial factor in children's recovery. A person-centered approach was used to examine how profiles of nonoffending mothers could better describe their ability to support their children after disclosure. Cluster analyses based on a total of 226 nonoffending…
Feinauer, Leslie L.; Stuart, Daniel A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attribution of blame and recovery from childhood sexual abuse. Specifically, blaming self, fate, or both self and fate were associated with higher levels of symptomatology, while blaming the perpetrator was associated with the lowest level of symptomatology. The theoretical and…
Senn, Charlene Y.
Based on research conducted by the G. Allan Roeher Institute, Canada's national institute for the study of public policy affecting persons with an intellectual impairment, the book provides a comprehensive treatment of child sexual abuse in individuals with an intellectual handicap, including prevalence, developmental disabilities as a risk…
Mouesca, Juan Pablo; Indart de Arza, Miguel Javier; Stabilito, Luis
This article deals with anogenital warts (AGW) injuries caused by human papiloma virus (HPV) in children. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript. Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician. PMID:23070187
Smith, Thomas E.
The Fresh Start Program was an experiment in providing a comprehensive educational and therapeutic program for sexually abused and exploited adolescents. The program was based on the theory and practice of experiential, outdoor-challenge adventure education. The experiment involved 16 youth in a living and learning environment in the north woods…
Eckenrode, John; And Others
A sample of 796 New York sexual abuse reports was studied to explore factors associated with substantiation of the reports following an investigation. Substantiation rates increased with the child's age, and reports were more likely to be substantiated when they involved female children or came from a mandated source. (Author/JDD)
Murthi, Meera; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Elliott, Ann N.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and self-concept in a nonclinical sample of female college students. Participants with a history of CSA had lower scores than participants without a history of CSA on four domains of self-concept: familial, affect, competence, and physical. History…
Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary
This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…
Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.
This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…
Friedrich, Monika; Leiper, Rob
The study was a qualitative investigation aimed at therapists' responses to working with a population of incestuous sexual abusers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine therapists who were recruited from psychotherapy, psychology, and forensic psychology services in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. The predominant…
Love, Arnold J.
Assesses the feasibility and effectiveness of the Sexual Abuse Treatment Project used in a child welfare setting in Canada. Also evaluates the therapeutic process, which was based on an intensive psychodynamic model, and assesses its effectiveness for child and adult clients. (RJC)
Batchelor, Ervin S.; And Others
Examined incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) reports to school psychologists and perceived quality of services to child victims and surveyed usage of CSA prevention and screening programs. Subjects included 171 school psychologists who reported 498 CSA cases. Results suggest need for training school psychologists in assessment of child sexual…
Feiring, Candice; Taska, Lynn S.; Lewis, Michael
Analyzes how social support helps explain variations in child and adolescent psychological distress at time of sexual-abuse discovery (N=154). Support from a parent was related to less psychological distress, whereas support from friends is related to increased adjustment difficulties. (Author/MKA)
Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we determined whether sexually abused adolescent boys or girls were more likely to have internalizing behavior scores in the clinical range. Second, after determining boys were more likely than girls to have an internalizing behavior problem, we tested whether this relationship would persist…
Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Erginoz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Uysal, Omer; Ilter, Ozdemir
Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in female adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey from data collected as part of a school-based population study on health and health behaviors. Method: A stratified cluster sampling procedure was used for this cross-sectional study. The study sample included 1,955…
Berliner, Lucy; Conte, Jon R.
Eighty-two child victims of sexual abuse and their families were interviewed about their experiences with disclosure and intervention an average of 3.5 years later. Children reported primarily favorable experiences. Factors associated with increased distress included more contact with intervention professionals, having a medical exam, and…
Baker, Juanita N.; Tanis, Heyley J.; Rice, Jennifer B.
Describes the necessity of including siblings in the treatment of victims of child sexual abuse. Theoretical and practical reasons to include siblings in treatment are discussed. Case examples using a particular intervention approach and results of client satisfaction surveys are described. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)
Jones, Lisa M.; Atoro, Kathryn E.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Shadoin, Amy L.; Magnuson, Suzanne
Qualitative responses by caregivers (n = 203) and youth (aged 8 and older; n = 65) about their experiences with sexual abuse investigations were analyzed in conjunction with quantitative ratings of satisfaction. Respondents described mostly high levels of satisfaction, although dissatisfaction was reported with some key aspects of investigations.…
Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn
Extrafamilial sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents (ages 10-14), particularly young teen boys, are not well studied. This retrospective chart review study compared psychosocial correlates and victimization experiences between young adolescent girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 64) referred to a hospital child advocacy center. Several…
Describes an open-ended, structured, highly intensive therapy group for sexually abused preteen girls that was the primary mode of treatment for 11 girls from low-income, rural White families with numerous problems. Unique features of the group included simultaneous group and individualized goals. (Author/BB)
Zimlich, Norm; And Others
In October 1984, a national program inspection on preventing child sexual abuse in day care programs was begun. Program inspections are short-term studies designed to provide qualitative information and quantitative data for use by the Department of Health and Human Services as an additional source of information. Participants in this study, from…
Molnar, Beth E.; Shade, Starley B.; Kral, Alex H.; Booth, Robert E.; Watters, John K.
Street youth 12 to 19 years old (N=775) in four American cities were interviewed to examine the relationship between suicide attempts and antecedent home life variables. Forty-eight percent of the females and 27% of the males had attempted suicide. Sexual and physical abuse before leaving home were independent predictors of suicide attempts for…
Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…
Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…
This paper compares the results of different models of police intervention in child sexual abuse cases in New South Wales, Australia. Data suggest that specialist police units in which police manage the full investigation provide a more comprehensive service than those where the police response is fragmented among units within the police force.…
Kaplow, Julie B.; Hall, Erin; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa
Objective: The goals of this research are to develop and test a prospective model of attention problems in sexually abused children that includes fixed variables (e.g., gender), trauma, and disclosure-related pathways. Methods: At Time 1, fixed variables, trauma variables, and stress reactions upon disclosure were assessed in 156 children aged…
Norris, Thomas L.
This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…
McElroy, Linda Provus
This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)
This self-study manual, for use by individuals or groups, was developed for social work practitioners, and focuses on total family assessment to determine prevention and treatment intervention in cases of child sexual abuse and neglect. The introduction presents the philosophy of continuing education on which the manual is based, an overview of…
Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.
Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…
Leventhal, John M.
This paper describes the major findings from epidemiological studies on the sexual abuse of children, raises questions that need to be addressed by future epidemiological studies, and reviews some of the barriers to conducting these studies. Findings are organized into five categories: prevalence, reported incidence, data from children,…
Finkel, Martin A.
Reviews the technical conduct of the child-sexual-abuse medical examination and offers a research agenda. Introduction of the colposcope in the early 1980s is noted, as are other technological advances, such as the videocolposcopy and linkage with computer technology. Achievement highlights in the last 20 years of research are identified, along…
Ross, Colin A.
Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…
González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix
Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported. PMID:23156936
The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a…
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
Saathoff-Wells, Tara; Culp, Rex E.; Yancey, Candace T.
We investigated perceiver bias in relation to children labeled as sexually abused. Building on recent research indicating that adults perceive children with such a label as having more behavioral problems and lower achievement, we replicated and expanded upon an earlier study. We tested undergraduate students (N = 699), who judged a six-year old…
Koehn, Corinne V.
Fifty women who were sexually abused as children were interviewed regarding their perceptions of helpful and hindering counseling behaviors. The critical incident technique was the methodology used. One major category that emerged from the data was Approach to Power and Control. This category comprised eight subcategories: (1) flexibility with…
Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria
The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…
In this article, Rachel Fyson of the Centre for Social Work in the School of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Nottingham reports the findings of a study into sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviour occurring between pupils in special schools in four local authorities in England. The behaviours identified ranged from relatively…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore P.; Lippert, Tonya
Corroborating evidence has been associated with a decrease in children's distress during the court process, yet few studies have empirically examined the impact of evidence type on prosecution rates. This study examined the types of evidence and whether charges were filed in a sample of child sexual abuse cases (n = 329). Cases with a child…
McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack
Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…
Krebill, Joan; Taylor, Julie
This teaching guide was created for school districts and other agencies to use in developing and teaching sexual abuse prevention education programs at the secondary school level. The first section presents an eight-step approach to the development of a program at the secondary school level. The second section discusses special issues in teaching…
van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Tybur, Joshua M; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien
Nonoffending mothers of sexually abused children often exhibit high levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Emerging evidence suggests that trait-like individual differences in sensitivity to disgust play a role in the development of PTS symptoms. One such individual difference, disgust sensitivity, has not been examined as far as we are aware among victims of secondary traumatic stress. The current study examined associations between disgust sensitivity and PTS symptoms among mothers of sexually abused children (N = 72). Mothers completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Three Domain Disgust Scale (Tybur, Lieberman, & Griskevicius, 2009). More than one third of mothers scored above a suggested cutoff (mean score = 1.5) for high levels of PTS symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analysis results indicated that sexual disgust sensitivity (β = .39, p = .002) was associated with PTS symptoms (R(2) = .18). An interaction analysis showed that sexual disgust sensitivity was associated with maternal PTS symptoms only when the perpetrator was not biologically related to the child (β = -.32, p = .047; R(2) = .28). Our findings suggested that sexual disgust sensitivity may be a risk factor for developing PTS symptoms among mothers of sexually abused children. PMID:27214793
Hotelling, Barbara A.
There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregnant and parenting family; and facilitating classes that are sensitive to the needs of survivors of childhood sexual abuse as well to all expectant parents. PMID:23449947
Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin
This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims. PMID:24393089
Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean
This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…
Lee, Jayoung; Wallace, Sam; Puig, Ana; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min
This study empirically tested and compared three different models of factor structure with a sample of therapists working with sexual offenders, survivors of sexual abuse, or both. Results indicated that a modified five-factor model was the most appropriate. Practical implications for sexual offender/abuse survivor therapists are discussed.…
Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen
We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group. PMID:24088813
Xiao, Hong; Smith-Prince, Jaynina
A number of factors influence the disclosure of child sexual abuse by survivors. While the influence of race and ethnicity on disclosure patterns is getting more attention, little has been written on abused children of Pacific Islanders, due in part to both lack of relevant data and a relatively small Pacific Islander population in the United States. Drawing on interviews with Pacific Islander women who were sexually abused in childhood and who delayed revealing their victimization, we explore the reasons for delayed disclosure. Findings suggest that cultural norms and family dynamics affect disclosure decisions. Concerns for the family and self-blame were the most common reasons for delay and lack of disclosure. We discuss implications of the findings and make policy recommendations. PMID:26061022
Peles, Einat; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam
To determine the effect of sexual abuse history on chronic pain and its relation to opioid addiction and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), we studied current women MMT patients, and women patients from a sexual abuse treatment center with no history of opioid addiction. Questionnaires included Chronic Pain, Chronic Severe Pain, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (complex-PTSD). Chronic severe pain was most prevalent among sexually abused women with no history of opioid addiction (64% of 25), followed by sexually abused MMT women (30.9% of 68), and MMT women with no history of sexual abuse (25% of 8, p = 0.01). Pain severity correlated with dissociation and complex-PTSD scores. The sexually abused non-MMT women had higher rates of high dissociation scores (DES ≥ 30) and complex-PTSD, but fewer obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scored ≥16) than the MMT sexually abused women. Chronic pain was found to be highly prevalent among sexually abused women, independent of being methadone-maintained with an addiction history. The high known prevalence of chronic pain among MMT patients, which may be attributable to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, may partially reflect the sexual abuse history, and should be targeted in future studies evaluating pain indices. PMID:27430532
Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen
There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…
Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus
Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598
Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa
This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897
Bottoms, Bette L.; And Others
One of the most shocking claims about child abuse in recent years is that satanic, occult, or ritualistic abuse is occurring and on the rise. To date, no one has attempted to assess the prevalence of claims of such abuse, or to determine the range of cases and the nature of the typical case. This study is currently surveying approximately 41,000…
Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit
The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects. PMID:24161460
Cohen, Lisa R.; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N.; Nunes, Edward V.
Substance use and a history of childhood sexual abuse have both been identified as risk factors for unprotected sex among women, yet questions remain as to how their combined influence may differentially affect sexual risk behavior. In the current study a Generalized Linear Mixed Model was used to examine the interaction effect between current cocaine and opioid use and a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on number of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) in a sample of 214 sexually active women in outpatient methadone maintenance treatment programs. Results show significant interaction effects between drug use in the past 30 days and CSA on unprotected sexual occasions. These interactions, however, differ depending on type of drug used and CSA status. For women with CSA, an increase in days of cocaine use was significantly associated with an increase in USO, whereas an increase in number of days of opiate use was not significantly associated with an increase in USO. In contrast, for women who did not report CSA, an increase in number of days of cocaine use was associated with a significant decrease in USO and number of days of opiate use was significantly correlated with an increase in USO. Findings indicate that CSA is related to unprotected sexual occasions depending on drug type and severity of use. Women with childhood sexual abuse using cocaine are at particularly high risk for having unprotected sex, which suggests that this group of women should be specifically targeted for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:19637103
Mapp, Susan C.
Objective: The potential path from sexual abuse as a child to the current risk of physical abuse by mothers was assessed. Ontogenic variables including the experience of the parent's sexual abuse as a child and current depression or substance abuse were expected to have a greater impact on the risk of child abuse than microsystem and exosystem…
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Berman, Ariel K; Knight, Raymond A
The present study explored the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the adaptation of male juveniles who subsequently sexually offended (JSOs; n = 178; age, M = 16.05 years, SD = 0.27, range = 12-22). It examined multiple levels of interpersonal closeness between the perpetrators of sexual abuse and their JSO victims. JSOs who were sexually abused by older children or adults who cohabitated with them for at least 3 months reported higher levels of emotional dysregulation, callousness/manipulativeness, and sexualization than did both JSOs who were sexually abused by someone they had never lived with and JSOs who reported no experiences of sexual abuse. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25053106
Blass, Rosanne J.; And Others
The legal obligation of Ohio school employees to report situations of suspected child abuse and neglect has generated a need for school districts to adopt a written policy together with guidelines and procedures to assure school personnel are aware of the mandate to report and have a structural procedure to do so. The written policy should: (1)…
Rowe, Robert N.
Although the propensity for child abuse is shared among adults of all occupations and economic strata, this article is concerned mainly with child care professionals. Whatever the case may be, the result is the same: tragic violation of the trust that should exist between child and adult. What can be done to correct the situation? In this article…
Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine
This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD. PMID:24753498
Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Olfson, Mark; Villegas, Laura; Morcillo, Carmen; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos
Background This study examines the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric disorders of adults with history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods Data were derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population. More that 34,000 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were face-to-face interviewed in a survey conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors and other axis I psychiatric disorders. Results The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 10.14% (24.8% in men, and 75.2% in women). Child physical abuse, maltreatment, and neglect was more prevalent among individuals with CSA than among those without it. Adults with child sexual abuse history had significantly higher rates of any Axis I disorder and suicide attempts. The frequency, type and number of CSA were significantly correlated with psychopathology. Conclusions The high correlation rates of CSA with psychopathology and increased risk for suicide attempts in adulthood suggest the need for a systematic assessment of psychiatric disorders and suicide risk in these individuals. The risk factors for CSA emphasize the need for health care initiatives geared towards increasing recognition and development of treatment approaches for the emotional sequelae CSA as well as early preventive approaches. PMID:22854279
Falcão, Vera; Jardim, Patrícia; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa
Sibling incest is a serious form of intrafamilial sexual abuse with health, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of forensic medical reports of the alleged sibling incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 68) from 2004 to 2011 as well as the respective judicial outcomes. Results demonstrated that sibling's sexual abuse is associated with several circumstances that might exacerbate its severity such as vaginal, anal, and/or oral penetration. Moreover, the victim's young age, the proximity between victim and abuser, and the fact that it is committed at the victim's and/or abuser's home and by using physical violence and verbal threats justify a late detection of these cases. PMID:25085386
Shapiro, J P; Leifer, M; Martone, M W; Kassem, L
This study measured depression in sexually abused Black girls using the Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs & A. T. Beck, 1977), the Internalization scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983), and the Rorschach Depression Index (Exner, 1986). There were no significant correlations between these self-report, behavior observation (by parental report), and projective measures. The abused subjects had high scores on the behavior observation and Rorschach scales. Consistent with past research, negative results were obtained with the self-report instrument. We suggest that the low scores on self-report measures of distress produced by sexually abused children may be the result of guardedness or defensiveness rather than a genuinely low level of dysphoria in this population. There were no significant relations between abuse characteristics and scores on the depression measures. Scores on Rorschach measures of organizational activity (Zf) and available coping resources (EA) were generally positively related to depression within the abuse group and negatively related to depression within the control group. PMID:2231244
Alexander, Pamela C.
Female incest survivors (n=112) completed several inventories and checklists to measure sexual abuse severity and adult attachment. Analyses indicated that sexual abuse characteristics predicted depression, intrusive thoughts, and memory avoidance. Adult attachment, particularly a lack of secure attachment, predicted memory avoidance, and also…
Discusses factors inhibiting open talk around a client's history of abuse including gender, age and diagnosis. * Evaluates the helpfulness of a training course designed to reduce and overcome these factors. * Aim of the evaluation is to help replicate the training nationally, following the positive impact found. Abstract Despite the high prevalence of sexual abuse among users of mental health services, it appears that mental health professionals are frequently unaware of clients' abuse histories. In order to address this, a Mental Health Trusts Collaboration Project of nine trusts was formed, which piloted delivering the Department of Health's Victims of Violence & Abuse Prevention Programme one-day education and training course regarding enquiring about histories of sexual abuse to various mental health practitioners. This hoped to educate practitioners in factors associated with victims and offenders, improve confidence and competence in asking about client's history of abuse and to increase awareness of the importance of asking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of this course on mental health professionals' practice and attitudes in one of these nine trusts. It was found that since the delivery of the course, 44% (n= x) of professionals had been asking about abuse in 75-100% of cases. Gender, age and diagnosis of both the service users and the practitioners were all identified as factors potentially affecting practitioners' willingness to ask about abuse. Most importantly, 93% (n= x) of participants were found to feel they have the skills and knowledge to enquire about abuse and respond to disclosure in the appropriate way and 77% (n= x) of participants felt that this training had changed their clinical practice. The aim of this evaluation is to prove the effectiveness of the Department of Health's education and training course, which will help towards replicating the project nationally. PMID:20100302
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José
The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. PMID:24958133