Science.gov

Sample records for alleged subsidy programs

  1. 5 CFR 792.203 - Child care subsidy programs; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child care subsidy programs; eligibility... of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees § 792.203 Child care subsidy programs; eligibility. (a)(1) An Executive agency may establish a child care subsidy program in which...

  2. 5 CFR 792.203 - Child care subsidy programs; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child care subsidy programs; eligibility... of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees § 792.203 Child care subsidy programs; eligibility. (a)(1) An Executive agency may establish a child care subsidy program in which...

  3. Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

  4. 5 CFR 792.200 - What are the benefits of the child care subsidy program law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subsidy program law? 792.200 Section 792.200 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... subsidy program law? Sec. 630 of Public Law 107-67 permits executive agencies to use appropriated funds to improve the affordability of child care for lower income Federal employees. The law applies to child...

  5. 75 FR 4838 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Loan Guaranty, Insurance, and Interest Subsidy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Program. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0020, which expires... Number: 1076-0020. Title: Loan Guaranty, Insurance, and Interest Subsidy, 25 CFR 103. Brief...

  6. Notification: Review of EPA’s Transit Subsidy Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0080, January 30, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s current transit subsidy practices, policies and procedures.

  7. [The tortilla subsidy in Mexico: a nutritional or economic program?].

    PubMed

    Shamah Levy, Teresa; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Cuevas Nasu, Lucía; Chávez Villasana, Adolfo; Avila Arcos, Marco Antonio; Fernández Mendoza, Carlota

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of the tortilla subsidy on the family food consumption, on its economy and on the nutritional condition of women and under five children, from three marginal zones, with the purpose of focus nutritional interventions. Fifty families were randomly selected in each one of three similar low income sectors of the Oaxaca city. One received subsidy, other has never received it and the third received it five years ago but not at present. Anthropometry was performed in all women of reproductive age and children under five years old. In the first BMI was the indicator used and in children weight for age with two standard deviations was the cut-off point. The tortilla represents between 13.6% to 20% of the family expenditure. Anyhow the energy, protein and some nutrient consumption was higher. The malnutrition index was better in the subsidy community as 12.0% of under five children were low weight for age against 19.2% in the other two communities. The tortilla family expenditure represents 45% of their income and the subsidy reduces it 9%, surely this help a better nutrient consumption and improves the nutritional condition of the poor and marginated urban sectors of the society.

  8. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand; Rue du Can, Stephane de la; Phadke, Amol

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  9. 5 CFR 792.209 - What is the definition of child care subsidy program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the definition of child care subsidy program? 792.209 Section 792.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... and reporting to OPM information such as total cost and employee use of the program....

  10. A Preliminary Evaluation of Federal Dental Manpower Subsidy Program. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series, No. A5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Paul J.

    This paper suggests an approach and an analysis of the impact that federal manpower programs have had on dentistry. The main beneficiaries under health manpower subsidy programs are indicated and some policy alternatives suggested. Emphasis is placed on federal subsidies for increasing the supply of dentists including students' financial…

  11. 5 CFR 792.225 - May an agency disburse funds to an organization that administers the child care subsidy program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organization that administers the child care subsidy program prior to the time the employee receives the child... organization that administers the child care subsidy program prior to the time the employee receives the child care services? The agency may disburse funds to an organization that administers the child care...

  12. 5 CFR 792.225 - May an agency disburse funds to an organization that administers the child care subsidy program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organization that administers the child care subsidy program prior to the time the employee receives the child... organization that administers the child care subsidy program prior to the time the employee receives the child care services? The agency may disburse funds to an organization that administers the child care...

  13. 5 CFR 792.225 - May an agency disburse funds to an organization that administers the child care subsidy program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... organization that administers the child care subsidy program prior to the time the employee receives the child... organization that administers the child care subsidy program prior to the time the employee receives the child care services? The agency may disburse funds to an organization that administers the child care...

  14. Canada’s northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada’s remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. Design: Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011–2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program’s performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities. Results: NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program’s accountability. From 2011–15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program’s own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers’ pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities. PMID:28151097

  15. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and

  16. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  17. 5 CFR 792.207 - When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage of this law? 792.207 Section 792.207... When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

  18. 5 CFR 792.207 - When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage of this law? 792.207 Section 792.207... When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

  19. Is the Nutrition North Canada retail subsidy program meeting the goal of making nutritious and perishable food more accessible and affordable in the North?

    PubMed

    Galloway, Tracey

    2014-08-21

    The Nutrition North Canada program is a federal retail subsidy designed to make nutritious, perishable food more widely available and affordable in northern communities. Implemented in April 2011, Nutrition North replaced the Food Mail freight subsidy long used to offset the high cost of transporting perishable food to remote towns and villages lacking year-round road access. An examination of program and government reporting to date reveals little evidence that Nutrition North is meeting its goal of improving the availability and affordability of nutritious food. The fiscal reporting and food costing tools used by the program are insufficiently detailed to evaluate the accuracy of community subsidy rates and the degree to which retailers are passing on the subsidy to consumers. Action is needed to modify the program reporting structure to achieve greater accountability among retailers, and lower and more consistent food pricing across northern communities.

  20. 19 CFR 351.502 - Specificity of domestic subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subsidy programs were linked at inception. (d) Agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will not regard a... agricultural sector (domestic subsidy). (e) Subsidies to small-and medium-sized businesses. The Secretary will... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specificity of domestic subsidies. 351.502...

  1. 19 CFR 351.502 - Specificity of domestic subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subsidy programs were linked at inception. (d) Agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will not regard a... agricultural sector (domestic subsidy). (e) Subsidies to small-and medium-sized businesses. The Secretary will... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specificity of domestic subsidies. 351.502...

  2. 19 CFR 351.502 - Specificity of domestic subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... subsidy programs were linked at inception. (d) Agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will not regard a... agricultural sector (domestic subsidy). (e) Subsidies to small-and medium-sized businesses. The Secretary will... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specificity of domestic subsidies. 351.502...

  3. 19 CFR 351.502 - Specificity of domestic subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subsidy programs were linked at inception. (d) Agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will not regard a... agricultural sector (domestic subsidy). (e) Subsidies to small-and medium-sized businesses. The Secretary will... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specificity of domestic subsidies. 351.502...

  4. 19 CFR 351.502 - Specificity of domestic subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subsidy programs were linked at inception. (d) Agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will not regard a... agricultural sector (domestic subsidy). (e) Subsidies to small-and medium-sized businesses. The Secretary will... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specificity of domestic subsidies. 351.502...

  5. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-07-09

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people's expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  6. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies. PMID:26184252

  7. Impact of a Cash Subsidy Program for Families of Children with Severe Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Judith C.; Marcenko, Maureen O.

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-one Michigan families raising children with severe handicaps were interviewed prior to receiving a $225 monthly cash subsidy and one year later. Mothers reported significantly less family stress (particularly related to financial stress) and enhanced life satisfaction, regardless of marital status, employment status or education, child's…

  8. 77 FR 66584 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ....S. trade law, a subsidy exists where a government authority: (i) Provides a financial contribution...; or (iii) makes a payment to a funding mechanism to provide a financial contribution to a person, or entrusts or directs a private entity to make a financial contribution, if providing the contribution...

  9. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved.

  10. Stability of Subsidy Participation and Continuity of Care in the Child Care Assistance Program in Minnesota. Minnesota Child Care Choices Research Brief Series. Publication #2014-55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…

  11. 76 FR 14649 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Program(s) Subsidy ($/lb) Subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\........ European Union... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  12. Contracts, Vouchers, and Child Care Subsidy Stability: A Preliminary Look at Associations between Subsidy Payment Mechanism and Stability of Subsidy Receipt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holod, Aleksandra; Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation's largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children's care arrangements.…

  13. Vender/Voucher Systems: A Parent Selected Child Care Subsidy Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freis, Ruth; Miller, Miriam

    The vendor/voucher, or purchase of service, system for child care delivery is discussed as a logical model for communities which are looking for a method of developing a new system or have outgrown their current program. Discussion initially focuses on the increasing need for child care, cost/benefit aspects of child care, the regulation of child…

  14. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  15. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  16. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  17. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  18. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  19. Office of Inspector General inspection report on ``Inspection of an allegation regarding the voluntary separation program at the Savannah River Operations Office``

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    In April 1996, the Savannah River Operations Office received approval from DOE Headquarters to offer Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Bechtel Savannah River, Inc. (BSRI) employees early termination incentives to facilitate downsizing of the contractor workforce thereby minimizing involuntary separations. In 1996, 217 individuals at the Savannah River Site (SRS) accepted a Voluntary Separation Program (VSP) incentive. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) received an allegation that a former senior manager of the WSRC was provided an opportunity to terminate employment through a VSP. The complainant wrote that after separating from WSRC, and receiving a large bonus for doing so, the former senior manager returned to work at the Savannah River Site (SRS) without observing a required waiting period of one year. The inspection determined that the former senior manager terminated employment with WSRC under the VSP program. It was found that the former senior manager`s departure from WSRC was delayed for six months, until December 31, 1996, in order for a replacement to be relocated from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to SRS and be familiarized with the position. The underlying principle of the VSP was to allow WSRC and BSRI employees to voluntarily leave the SRS workforce, and, if necessary, only be replaced by current SRS employees. The Office of Inspector General concluded that WSRC allowed the former senior manager to participate in the VSP, and then replaced the senior manager with an individual from Westinghouse`s headquarters in Pittsburgh. Consequently, WSRC did not meet the test of prudent business judgment required by its contract with DOE. It was recommended that both the former senior manager`s VSP bonus payment of $99,762, as well as $36,892 in travel and relocation costs expended to move the replacement from Pittsburgh to SRS, be recovered from WSRC. They also recommended that the Manager, Savannah River Operations Office, determine whether any

  20. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  1. 76 FR 60134 - Agency Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Human... INFORMATION: Titles a. Child Care Subsidy Application Form, VA Form 0730a. b. Child Care Provider Information (For the Child Care Subsidy Program), VA Form 0730b. OMB Control Number: 2900-0717. Type of...

  2. 76 FR 44091 - Proposed Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human...' eligibility to participate in VA's child care subsidy program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on.... Child Care Subsidy Application Form, VA Form 0730a. b. Child Care Provider Information (For the...

  3. Michigan's Family Support and Family Subsidy Programs. Remarks for the New Jersey Council of Executive-ARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneaud, Susan

    "Family support" describes the philosophy of the Michigan Public Mental Health System. Family Support is also the name of a Michigan program that provides the supports that parents of children with developmental disabilities need to keep their families together. Services include respite care, client services management, parent and…

  4. The Benefits and Costs of the Section 8 Housing Subsidy Program: A Framework and Estimates of First-Year Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Haveman, Robert; Kaplan, Thomas; Wolfe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides estimates for a comprehensive set of social benefits and costs associated with the federal Housing Choice Voucher (Section 8) program. The impact categories for which we provide empirical estimates include the value of the voucher to recipients; additional services and public benefits induced by voucher receipt; improvements in…

  5. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.514 Export subsidies. (a) In general. The Secretary will consider a subsidy to be an export subsidy if the Secretary determines that eligibility...

  6. 42 CFR 405.1861 - Oral argument and written allegations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument and written allegations. 405.1861 Section 405.1861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Provider...

  7. 42 CFR 405.1861 - Oral argument and written allegations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument and written allegations. 405.1861 Section 405.1861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Provider...

  8. 13 CFR 101.301 - Who should receive information or allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse? 101.301 Section 101.301 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., fraud, and abuse? The Office of Inspector General should receive all information or allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse regarding SBA programs and operations....

  9. 13 CFR 101.301 - Who should receive information or allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse? 101.301 Section 101.301 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., fraud, and abuse? The Office of Inspector General should receive all information or allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse regarding SBA programs and operations....

  10. Agricultural subsidies and the American obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-09-01

    Government-issued agricultural subsidies are worsening obesity trends in America. Current agricultural policy remains largely uninformed by public health discourse. Although findings suggest that eliminating all subsidies would have a mild impact on the prevalence of obesity, a revision of commodity programs could have a measurable public health impact on a population scale, over time. Policy reforms will be important determinants of the future of obesity in America, primarily through indemnity program revisions, and the allocation of increasing amounts of resources to sustainable agriculture. Public health intervention will be required at the policy level to promote healthy behavioral changes in consumers. The 2013 Farm Bill will be the key mechanism to induce such policy change in the near future.

  11. Report: Investigation of Allegations Concerning Environmental Justice Issues in EPA Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-N-0145, June 14, 2010. The OIG undertook a detailed review of the allegations to determine whether the OIG had investigative jurisdiction in terms of EPA contracts, assistance agreements, programs, or personnel involvement.

  12. 19 CFR 351.523 - Upstream subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.523 Upstream subsidies. (a... countervailable subsidy rate on the input product, multiplied by the proportion of the total production costs of...—(1) Presumptions. In evaluating whether an upstream subsidy has a significant effect on the cost...

  13. Alleged allergy to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.

  14. Continuity and Stability: Dynamics of Child Care Subsidy Use in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Roberta B.; Davis, Elizabeth E.

    Although most of the substantial increase in states' child care spending between 1997 and 1999 is expended through child care subsidy programs or by contracts with child care resource and referral agencies, little research has focused on how the child care subsidy program operates, who is served, and what services are offered. This report is one…

  15. Guidebook to Collaborating with the Illinois Child Care Subsidy System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    This guide provides information on using the Illinois Child Care Subsidy System in order to assist Illinois early childhood education and care programs in collaborating with other agencies and programs to plan and provide quality, consistent early care and education services for low-income families and their children. The guide also discusses…

  16. 10 CFR 733.5 - Allegations received by DOE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allegations received by DOE. 733.5 Section 733.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ALLEGATIONS OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 733.5 Allegations received by DOE. If DOE receives directly a written allegation of research misconduct with regard to research under a DOE contract...

  17. World Wide Wonder?: Measuring the (Non-)Impact of Internet Subsidies to Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolsbee, Austan; Guryan, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The best evidence of the concern over the digital divide was the speed with which the federal government interceded to help close it. A program offering generous subsidies to schools and libraries for the purchase of Internet technology was made part of the massive overhaul of the Telecommunications Act in 1996. The subsidies were apportioned on a…

  18. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…

  19. 47 CFR 76.1206 - Equipment sale or lease charge subsidy prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment sale or lease charge subsidy... Devices § 76.1206 Equipment sale or lease charge subsidy prohibition. Multichannel video programming... subscribers, shall adhere to the standards reflected therein relating to rates for equipment and...

  20. Analysis of the alleged Kyshtym disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, D.M.; Stillman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The alleged Kyshtym disaster has been an intriguing intelligence puzzle for almost 25 years. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym in the southern Ural Mountains. Further, he has alleged that a nuclear waste disposal accident in 1957 to 1958 caused the contamination. The authors of this report are in partial disagreement with Medvedev's first allegation and in complete disagreement with his second. A contaminated area does exist east of Kyshtym, but Soviet carelessness coupled with general disregard for the citizenry and the environment are the prime causative factors, not a nuclear waste accident.

  1. Are Public Subsidies to Higher Education Regressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This article estimates the dollar amount of public higher education subsidies received by U.S. youth and examines the distribution of subsidies and the taxes that finance them across parental and student income levels. Although youths from high-income families obtain more benefit from higher education subsidies, high-income households pay…

  2. Analyzing Subsidies in Microsoft Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Applying the budget line/indifference curve apparatus to policy issues reveals important and sometimes counterintuitive policy implications. Also, it provides practice in using the apparatus. The author applies these tools to subsidies. The analysis follows textbook treatments but is extended at some points. In particular, the present analysis…

  3. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and... Countervailable Subsidies § 351.525 Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product. (a) Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate. The Secretary will calculate an ad valorem subsidy...

  4. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and... Countervailable Subsidies § 351.525 Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product. (a) Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate. The Secretary will calculate an ad valorem subsidy...

  5. 42 CFR 93.201 - Allegation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allegation. 93.201 Section 93.201 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  6. Plato alleges that God forever geometrizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ne'Eman, Yuval

    1996-05-01

    Since 1961, the experimental exploration at the fundamental level of physical reality has surprised physists by revealing to them a highly geometric scenery. Like Einstein's (classical) theory of gravity, the “standard model,” describing the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interaction, testifies in favor of Plato's reported allegation.

  7. 75 FR 17699 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Net\\2\\ Subsidy ($/ Country Program(s) Gross\\1\\ Subsidy ($/lb) lb) 27 European Union Member States\\3\\ European Union Restitution Payments $ 0.00 $0.00 Canada Export Assistance on Certain Types of Cheese $ 0.35...(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Belgium, Bulgaria,...

  8. 75 FR 52310 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... In-Quota Rate of Duty Gross \\1\\ Net \\2\\ Country Program(s) subsidy ($/lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\ European Union Restitution $0.00 $0.00 Payments. Canada Export Assistance on...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria,...

  9. 22 CFR 92.27 - Affiant's allegations in affidavit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Affiant's allegations in affidavit. 92.27... SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.27 Affiant's allegations in affidavit. (a) Substance of allegations... the affiant's attention to the following generally accepted criteria as regards the substance of...

  10. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.402 ORI allegation assessments. (a) When ORI receives an allegation of research misconduct directly or becomes aware of an allegation or apparent instance of research misconduct, it...

  11. Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted.

  12. Choices for Whom? The Rhetoric and Reality of the Direct Subsidy Scheme in Hong Kong (1988-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Thomas Kwan-choi

    2008-01-01

    School choice programs have proliferated around the world since the 1980s. Following this international trend, the Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) was launched in 1991 to revitalize Hong Kong's private school sector. DSS schools receive a similar subsidy per student to that received by aided schools, but they may charge fees and have greater control…

  13. 76 FR 2346 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...\\ Subsidy Country Program(s) ($/lb) ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\........ European Union... in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium,...

  14. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  15. 7 CFR 3550.157 - Payment subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment subsidy. 3550.157 Section 3550.157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.157 Payment subsidy....

  16. 7 CFR 3550.157 - Payment subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment subsidy. 3550.157 Section 3550.157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.157 Payment subsidy....

  17. 7 CFR 3550.157 - Payment subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment subsidy. 3550.157 Section 3550.157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.157 Payment subsidy....

  18. 7 CFR 3550.157 - Payment subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment subsidy. 3550.157 Section 3550.157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.157 Payment subsidy....

  19. 7 CFR 3550.157 - Payment subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment subsidy. 3550.157 Section 3550.157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.157 Payment subsidy....

  20. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under the... premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii) The... for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to the number of Part...

  1. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under the... premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii) The... for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to the number of Part...

  2. Assessing historical abuse allegations and damages.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Jaffe, Peter G; Leschied, Alan W; Legate, Barbara L

    2010-03-01

    Practitioners may be called upon to assess adults who have alleged child abuse as a minor and are seeking reparations. Such assessments may be used by the courts to determine harm and assess damages related to their claim or testimony. Our clinical/research team has conducted many such evaluations and reported the findings pertaining to the psychological harm stemming from historical abuse in published studies. We use the opportunity provided by this new section on Practical Strategies to describe the role of the assessor, and to provide details concerning our methods for preparing these assessments and reporting the findings for the purpose of civil or criminal actions. Specific recommendations for wording of written reports are provided.

  3. Childcare Subsidies and the Transition from Welfare to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra K.; Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Browning, Kimberly G.

    2004-01-01

    We address how childcare subsidies help in the welfare-to-work transition relative to other factors. We examine how the policy operates, whether childcare problems differ by subsidy receipt, and the effect of subsidy on work. Data are from a random sample panel study of welfare recipients after 1996. Findings show that subsidy receipt reduces…

  4. More on the alleged 1970 geomagnetic jerk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    French and United Kingdom workers have published reports describing a sudden change in the secular acceleration, called an impulse or a jerk, which took place around 1970. They claim that this change took place in a period of a year or two and that the sources of the alleged jerk are internal. An earlier paper by this author questioned their method of analysis pointing out that their method of piecemeal fitting of parabolas to the data will always create a discontinuity in the secular acceleration where the parabolas join and that the place where the parabolas join is an a priori assumption and not a result of the analysis. This paper gives a very brief summary of this first paper and then adds additional reasons for questioning the allegation that there was a worldwide sudden jerk in the magnetic field of internal origin around 1970. These new reasons are based largely on new field models which give cubic approximations of the field right through the 1970 timeframe and therefore have no discontinuities in the second derivative (jerk) around 1970. Some recent Japanese work shows several sudden changes in the secular variation pattern which cover limited areas and do not seem to be closely related to each other or to the irregularity noted in the European area near 1970. The secular variation picture which seems to be emerging is one with many local or limited-regional secular variation changes which appear to be almost unrelated to each other in time or space. A worldwide spherical harmonic model including coefficients up to degree 13 could never properly depict such a situation. ?? 1985.

  5. Development incentives for fossil fuel subsidy reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Chen, Claudine; Fuss, Sabine; Marxen, Annika; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-08-01

    Reforming fossil fuel subsidies could free up enough funds to finance universal access to water, sanitation, and electricity in many countries, as well as helping to cut global greenhouse-gas emissions.

  6. 22 CFR 92.27 - Affiant's allegations in affidavit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 92.27 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED... allegations: (1) Material facts within the personal knowledge of the affiant should be alleged directly and positively. Facts are not to be inferred where the affiant has it in his power to state them positively...

  7. 37 CFR 2.76 - Amendment to allege use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Amendment of Application § 2.76 Amendment to allege use. (a) An application under section 1(b) of the Act may be amended to allege use of the mark in commerce... authorized to sign on behalf of the applicant (see § 2.193(e)(1)) that: (i) The applicant believes it is...

  8. 37 CFR 2.76 - Amendment to allege use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Amendment of Application § 2.76 Amendment to allege use. (a) An application under section 1(b) of the Act may be amended to allege use of the mark in commerce... authorized to sign on behalf of the applicant (see § 2.193(e)(1)) that: (i) The applicant believes it is...

  9. Motives for Filing a False Allegation of Rape.

    PubMed

    De Zutter, André W E A; Horselenberg, Robert; van Koppen, Peter J

    2017-02-17

    The list of motives by Kanin (1994) is the most cited list of motives to file a false allegation of rape. Kanin posited that complainants file a false allegation out of revenge, to produce an alibi or to get sympathy. A new list of motives is proposed in which gain is the predominant factor. In the proposed list, complainants file a false allegation out of material gain, emotional gain, or a disturbed mental state. The list can be subdivided into eight different categories: material gain, alibi, revenge, sympathy, attention, a disturbed mental state, relabeling, or regret. To test the validity of the list, a sample of 57 proven false allegations were studied at and provided by the National Unit of the Dutch National Police (NU). The complete files were studied to ensure correct classification by the NU and to identify the motives of the complainants. The results support the overall validity of the list. Complainants were primarily motivated by emotional gain. Most false allegations were used to cover up other behavior such as adultery or skipping school. Some complainants, however, reported more than one motive. A large proportion, 20% of complainants, said that they did not know why they filed a false allegation. The results confirm the complexity of motivations for filing false allegations and the difficulties associated with archival studies. In conclusion, the list of Kanin is, based on the current results, valid but insufficient to explain all the different motives of complainants to file a false allegation.

  10. 42 CFR 447.90 - FFP: Conditions related to pending investigations of credible allegations of fraud against the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of credible allegations of fraud against the Medicaid program. 447.90 Section 447.90 Public Health... of fraud against the Medicaid program. (a) Basis and purpose. This section implements section 1903(i... fraud except under specified circumstances. (b) Denial of FFP. No FFP is available with respect to...

  11. 42 CFR 447.90 - FFP: Conditions related to pending investigations of credible allegations of fraud against the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of credible allegations of fraud against the Medicaid program. 447.90 Section 447.90 Public Health... of fraud against the Medicaid program. (a) Basis and purpose. This section implements section 1903(i... fraud except under specified circumstances. (b) Denial of FFP. No FFP is available with respect to...

  12. Special Report on "Allegations of Conflict of Interest Regarding Licensing of PROTECT by Argonne National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-01

    In February 2009, the Office of Inspector General received a letter from Congressman Mark Steven Kirk of Illinois, which included constituent allegations that an exclusive technology licensing agreement by Argonne National Laboratory was tainted by inadequate competition, conflicts of interest, and other improprieties. The technology in question was for the Program for Response Options and Technology Enhancements for Chemical/Biological Terrorism, commonly referred to as PROTECT. Because of the importance of the Department of Energy's technology transfer program, especially as implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act matures, we reviewed selected aspects of the licensing process for PROTECT to determine whether the allegations had merit. In summary, under the facts developed during our review, it was understandable that interested parties concluded that there was a conflict of interest in this matter and that Argonne may have provided the successful licensee with an unfair advantage. In part, this was consistent with aspects of the complaint from Congressman Kirk's constituent.

  13. A randomized pilot trial of a full subsidy vs. a partial subsidy for obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Adam G; Felton, Sue; Hill, James O; Atherly, Adam J

    2012-09-01

    Intensive obesity treatment is mandated by federal health care reform but is costly. A partial subsidy for obesity treatment could lower the cost of treatment, without reducing its efficacy. This study sought to test whether a partial subsidy for obesity treatment would be feasible, as compared to a fully subsidized intervention. The study was a pilot randomized trial. Participants (n = 50) were primary care patients with obesity and at least one comorbid condition (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or obstructive sleep apnea). Each participant received eight weight loss counseling visits as well as portion-controlled foods for weight loss. Participants were randomized to full subsidy or partial subsidy (2 vs. 1 meal per day provided). The primary outcome was weight change after 4 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in blood pressure, waist circumference, and health-related quality of life. Participants in the full and partial subsidy groups lost 5.9 and 5.3 kg, equivalent to 5.3% and 5.1% of initial weight, respectively (P = 0.71). Changes in secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups. A partial subsidy was feasible and induced a clinically similar amount of weight loss, compared to a full subsidy. Large-scale testing of economic incentives for weight control is merited given the federal mandate to offer weight loss counseling to obese patients.

  14. 40 CFR 717.10 - Allegations subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.10 Allegations subject to this part. (a... writing and signed. (2) Implicate a substance that caused the stated significant adverse reaction by...

  15. 40 CFR 717.10 - Allegations subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.10 Allegations subject to this part. (a... writing and signed. (2) Implicate a substance that caused the stated significant adverse reaction by...

  16. 40 CFR 717.10 - Allegations subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.10 Allegations subject to this part. (a... writing and signed. (2) Implicate a substance that caused the stated significant adverse reaction by...

  17. 40 CFR 717.10 - Allegations subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.10 Allegations subject to this part. (a... writing and signed. (2) Implicate a substance that caused the stated significant adverse reaction by...

  18. 40 CFR 717.10 - Allegations subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.10 Allegations subject to this part. (a... writing and signed. (2) Implicate a substance that caused the stated significant adverse reaction by...

  19. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  20. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e) Operator Comments. The operator shall have...

  1. The effects of domestic violence allegations on custody evaluators' recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hans, Jason D; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Frey, Laura M

    2014-12-01

    Judges and attorneys often request professional assessments from child custody evaluators when allegations of adult domestic violence (DV) have been made, but it is unclear whether and how evaluators' recommendations are impacted by these allegations. Custody evaluators (N = 607) in the United States responded to a multiple-segment factorial vignette designed to examine the effects of 2 key factors in DV allegations: type of alleged violence (conflict-based, control-based) and counterallegations (none, mutual, and female-initiated). Effects of control- versus conflict-based DV allegations by the mother on custody recommendations were small and the majority of evaluators recommended joint custody regardless of violence type. Reported confidence in making a recommendation increased once the father responded to the allegation, but to a smaller degree when a counterallegation of mutual or female-initiated violence was made. Evaluators were no more skeptical about the potential motive of a counterallegation in the context of controlling behavior than in the context of conflict-based behavior. Overall, results indicate that most custody evaluators are not sufficiently sensitized to distinguish between situational couple violence and coercive controlling behavior, and the postseparation safety of mothers and their children may therefore be jeopardized.

  2. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 2007

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee that the Energy Information Administration update its 1999 to 2000 work on federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of federal subsidies based on Administration or Congressional action since 2000, and providing an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies directed to electricity production are estimated on the basis of generation by fuel.

  3. 46 CFR 282.31 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 282.31 Section 282.31 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 282.31 Subsidy billing...

  4. 46 CFR 282.31 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 282.31 Section 282.31 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 282.31 Subsidy billing...

  5. 46 CFR 252.41 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 252.41 Section 252.41 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND... Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.41 Subsidy billing procedures. (a) Subsidy voucher—(1) Form....

  6. 46 CFR 252.41 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 252.41 Section 252.41 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND... Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.41 Subsidy billing procedures. (a) Subsidy voucher—(1) Form....

  7. The Distributional Effects of Higher Education Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaug, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes factors affecting whether the relationship between taxing formulas and the provision of postsecondary education subsidies in the United States results in redistribution of income from the poor to the rich or vice versa. An examination of the effects of these factors in Britain fails to resolve the question. (PGD)

  8. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... smallest number of bedrooms needed to house a family without overcrowding. (2) The subsidy standards must be consistent with space requirements under the housing quality standards (See § 982.401(d)). (3) The... no other persons) must be treated as a two-person family. (6) Any live-in aide (approved by the...

  9. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... smallest number of bedrooms needed to house a family without overcrowding. (2) The subsidy standards must be consistent with space requirements under the housing quality standards (See § 982.401(d)). (3) The... no other persons) must be treated as a two-person family. (6) Any live-in aide (approved by the...

  10. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... smallest number of bedrooms needed to house a family without overcrowding. (2) The subsidy standards must be consistent with space requirements under the housing quality standards (See § 982.401(d)). (3) The... no other persons) must be treated as a two-person family. (6) Any live-in aide (approved by the...

  11. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... smallest number of bedrooms needed to house a family without overcrowding. (2) The subsidy standards must be consistent with space requirements under the housing quality standards (See § 982.401(d)). (3) The... no other persons) must be treated as a two-person family. (6) Any live-in aide (approved by the...

  12. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... smallest number of bedrooms needed to house a family without overcrowding. (2) The subsidy standards must be consistent with space requirements under the housing quality standards (See § 982.401(d)). (3) The... no other persons) must be treated as a two-person family. (6) Any live-in aide (approved by the...

  13. 7 CFR 3550.68 - Payment subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment subsidies. 3550.68 Section 3550.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.68 Payment...

  14. 7 CFR 3550.68 - Payment subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment subsidies. 3550.68 Section 3550.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.68 Payment...

  15. 7 CFR 3550.68 - Payment subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment subsidies. 3550.68 Section 3550.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.68 Payment...

  16. 7 CFR 3550.68 - Payment subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment subsidies. 3550.68 Section 3550.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.68 Payment...

  17. 7 CFR 3550.68 - Payment subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment subsidies. 3550.68 Section 3550.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.68 Payment...

  18. 75 FR 70279 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the.... The Operating Fund Program is designed to provide the amount of operating subsidy that would be needed... OMB approval Number (2577-0029) and should be sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of Management...

  19. Maximizing Basic Education Subsidy in Pennsylvania Public School Districts by Accounting for Children in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCook, Byron Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Pennsylvania public school districts are largely funded through basic education subsidy for providing educational services for resident students and non-resident students who are placed in residential programs within the school district boundaries. Non-resident placements occur through, but are not limited to, adjudication proceedings, foster home…

  20. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  1. 20 CFR 418.3501 - What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What could cause us to increase or reduce... § 418.3501 What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility? (a) Certain changes in your circumstances could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy...

  2. 20 CFR 418.3501 - What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What could cause us to increase or reduce... § 418.3501 What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility? (a) Certain changes in your circumstances could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy...

  3. 20 CFR 418.3501 - What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What could cause us to increase or reduce... § 418.3501 What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility? (a) Certain changes in your circumstances could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy...

  4. 20 CFR 418.3501 - What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What could cause us to increase or reduce... § 418.3501 What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility? (a) Certain changes in your circumstances could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy...

  5. 20 CFR 418.3501 - What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What could cause us to increase or reduce... § 418.3501 What could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy or terminate your subsidy eligibility? (a) Certain changes in your circumstances could cause us to increase or reduce your subsidy...

  6. Importance of Resource Subsidies to Animals in Freshwater Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. J.; Hall, R. O.

    2005-05-01

    Many streams receive large resource subsidies from adjacent ecosystems. These subsidies take a variety of forms including terrestrial organic matter, dissolved nutrients, or animals. Some subsidies can have important consequences for in-stream consumers in the recipient system, while in other systems they are unimportant. We present a framework for establishing the conditions under which food subsidies to streams are likely to be important to animal consumers. Importance of cross-system subsidies will vary as a function of the spatial/temporal scales of interest. Attributes of the subsidy (e.g., stoichiometric quality) or of the donor/recipient systems (e.g., productivity gradients) can be used to predict conditions under which subsidies are important to in-stream consumers. We propose a hypothesis that classifies the importance of subsidies to streams as high, intermediate, or low based on the subsidy's nutritive quality and its flux relative to autochthonous primary production. Thus, importance will be high when the flux of a highly nutritious subsidy is a large proportion of in-stream productivity. Importance will be low in the opposite case. We test this hypothesis using data from the literature. This framework is intended to facilitate cross-system comparisons that test the ecological conditions governing the importance of resource subsidies to freshwater ecosystems.

  7. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  8. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  9. NGVs-Are ratepayer subsidies appropriate?

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.S.

    1995-05-01

    According to the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition-a national organization of local natural gas distributors, pipelines, and equipment manufacturers promoting natural gas vehicles (NGVs)-the U.S. government supports the country`s continued reliance on petroleum-based fuels for transportation through billions of subsidies and tax incentives. A new study by the Domestic Fuels Alliance claims that amount of total subsidies could reach $300 billion if one considers the Persian Gulf War a {open_quotes}hidden cost for petroleum.{close_quotes} The Coalition`s point, however, is that the petroleum industry is trying to hinder the development of NGVs to the detriment of U.S. air quality and energy independence.

  10. On the Alleged Degeneration of the Kohlbergian Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Serlin, Ronald C.

    1984-01-01

    This article reconsiders a recent application of evaluative criteria, worked out on a level of metatheory by Lakatos, to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. It is argued that Phillips's and Nicolayev's effort was compromised by two significant category errors. A response to Lapsley's and Serlin's article is also offered. (JMK)

  11. 28 CFR 115.68 - Post-allegation protective custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-allegation protective custody. 115.68 Section 115.68 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An...

  12. 28 CFR 115.68 - Post-allegation protective custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-allegation protective custody. 115.68 Section 115.68 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An...

  13. 28 CFR 115.68 - Post-allegation protective custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-allegation protective custody. 115.68 Section 115.68 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An...

  14. Filial Dependency and Recantation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…

  15. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  16. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  17. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  18. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  19. Court Cases Alleging Employment Discrimination in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speers, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine Court Cases Alleging Employment Discrimination in Public Schools by analyzing 115 law based court cases ranging during 1980-2012, through the most available publication of "West's Educational Law Digest" of 2012. Employment is a means to provide sustainable income to support the individual(s)…

  20. The Impact of Early Alleged Maltreatment on Behavioral Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of alleged early child maltreatment (before age 4) on the trajectory patterns of 3 different behavioral outcomes (anxiety/depression, aggression, and attention problems) through age 10. Methods: Two hundred forty-two children and their primary caregivers were assessed as part of a…

  1. 32 CFR 516.18 - Litigation alleging individual liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Litigation alleging individual liability. 516.18 Section 516.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.18 Litigation...

  2. The Essential Need for Research Misconduct Allegation Audits.

    PubMed

    Loikith, Lisa; Bauchwitz, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 90 % of allegations of biomedical research misconduct in the United States are dismissed by responsible institutions without any faculty assessment or auditable record. Recently, members of the U.S. Congress have complained that the penalties for those against whom findings of research misconduct are made are too light and that too few grant funds associated with research misconduct have been recovered for use by other researchers and taxpayers. Here we discuss the laws that empower federal agencies that can oversee investigations of biomedical research misconduct: the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and the Office of the Inspector General (OIG), both located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Research misconduct investigations pertaining to U.S. physical sciences funded through the National Science Foundation (NSF) are overseen by the NSF's OIG. While OIGs may provide some improvement over the ORI in the handling of research misconduct, we have found that a much more serious flaw exists which undermines an ability to conduct performance audits of the effectiveness by which allegations of research misconduct are handled in the United States. Specifically, sufficient data do not need to be retained by U.S. research institutions funded by HHS or NSF to allow effective audit of why allegations of research misconduct are dismissed before being seen by faculty inquiry or investigative committees. U.S. federal Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS/Yellow Book), if applied to the research misconduct oversight process, would allow a determination of whether the handling of allegations of biomedical research misconduct actually functions adequately, and if not, how it might be improved. In particular, we propose that independent, external peer review under GAGAS audit standards should be instituted without delay in assessing the performance of ORI, or any other similarly tasked federal agency, in handling allegations of

  3. Common Challenges in the Study of Continuity of Child Care Subsidy Participation. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Grobe, Deana; Weber, Roberta B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss several key challenges encountered when conducting a study of the continuity of participation in the child care subsidy program. While many of these issues are familiar to those who have studied participation dynamics in other assistance programs, and to those familiar with survival analysis, we describe these challenges…

  4. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  5. Money to burn. The high costs of energy subsidies

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although many countries have reduced petroleum subsidies substantially since 1981 or so, such subsidies still persist, especially in the oil-exporting countries. Moreover, subsidies to electricity, natural gas, and coal are even more pervasive. As for both microeconomic and macroeconomic effects, Kosmo shows that the putative benefits of subsidies - economic stimulation, enhanced trade performance, and inflation control - aren't the true effects. Indeed, subsidies tend to increase unemployment (as energy is substituted for labor) and encourage over-investment in energy-intensive industries at the expense of other sectors. At the same time, they have little impact on overall trade balances, inflation, or the lot of the poor. Energy subsidies also translate into foregone revenues and the inefficient use of energy. Of course, the ill effects of energy subsidies cannot be rooted out overnight without traumatizing a nation's economy, even if politics permitted. But Money to Burn. does point the way to a politically and economically acceptable transition to the next energy era, one based on sharp increases in energy efficiency in rich and poor countries alike. Chapters are devoted to the following: Energy Pricing Policy: Hwat is at Stake; Current Fuel-Pricing Trends; Macroeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies; and Microeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies. 83 references, 11 figure, 14 tables.

  6. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy.

  7. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers.

  8. Shallow groundwater subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Jayawickreme, D.; Nosetto, M.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the world, shallow groundwater systems subsidize much higher net primary productivity (NPP) than would be expected based solely on local rainfall. Such subsidies are far more prevalent and less recognized in upland systems than in more commonly studied riparian ones. We present a quantitative framework for examining and quantifying groundwater subsidies globally, illustrating subsidies to NPP across rainfall gradients in Argentina and the southern United States, including Texas and California. In the Argentine Pampas, we determined that the presence of relatively shallow ground water increased the transpiration of forest plantations by 300 to 400 mm. Farther west, the presence of well developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. We explored the vulnerability and importance of phreatic ground water for the productivity of the region, comparing the contributions of local rainfall to that of remote mountain recharge that is increasingly being diverted for irrigated agriculture before it reaches the desert. The isotopic composition of phreatic ground waters (δ2H; -137±5 ‰) closely matched the signature of water brought to the region by the Mendoza River (-137±6 ‰), suggesting that mountain river infiltration rather than in-situ rainfall deep drainage (-39±19 ‰) was the dominant mechanism of recharge. Vegetation in woodland ecosystems there relied on regionally derived ground water from Andean snowmelt located from 6.5 to 9.5 m underground. Understanding the ecohydrological coupling of surface and ground waters is vital for estimating net primary productivity and for balancing the demands of managed ecosystems with the conservation of unique natural systems.

  9. 28 CFR 0.29b - Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...

  10. 28 CFR 0.29b - Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...

  11. 28 CFR 0.29b - Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...

  12. Do Allegations of Emotional Maltreatment Predict Developmental Outcomes beyond that of Other Forms of Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, M.W.; Ross, A.; Graham, J.C.; Zielinski, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To understand the features of child abuse/neglect (CA/N) allegations in cases with emotional maltreatment (EMT) allegations, as well as the features of the EMT allegations themselves, and to describe any associations of EMT with distinct impairments of children's behavior, emotion and functioning. Method:: The sample consisted of 806…

  13. True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Tara, Ed.

    This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child…

  14. 28 CFR 0.29b - Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...

  15. 28 CFR 0.29b - Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or... OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...

  16. 76 FR 8767 - Agency Information Collection Activities: e-Allegations Submission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: e-Allegations... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: e- Allegations Submission. This is a proposed..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: e-Allegations...

  17. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  18. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  19. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252...

  4. Once perks' poster child, Spain slashes subsidies for solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-15

    Spanish solar subsidies peaked at $1.6 billion in 2008 from $310 million in 2007. Towards the end of 2008, the government slashed the subsidies and put a 500 MW annual limit on how much new solar installations it would take.

  5. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  6. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subsidizable items of expense, the daily rate shall be calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative Rates. When... advantage rather than a disadvantage in such category, the negative rate shall be deducted from positive... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a)...

  7. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative rates. When an ODS rate in any category is less than zero... negative rate shall be deducted from positive rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e... Subsidy Rates § 252.30 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily rates. Daily ODS rates shall be used...

  8. 5 CFR 792.216 - Are Federal employees with children who are enrolled in summer programs and part-time programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are enrolled in summer programs and part-time programs eligible for the child care subsidy program... summer programs and part-time programs eligible for the child care subsidy program? Federal employees... enrolled in daytime summer programs and part-time programs such as before and after school programs...

  9. 5 CFR 792.224 - Are child care subsidies paid to the Federal employee using the child care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... administer its program (see § 792.223), the organization pays the child care provider; (b) For overseas... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are child care subsidies paid to the Federal employee using the child care? 792.224 Section 792.224 Administrative Personnel OFFICE...

  10. Price subsidies and the market for mosquito nets in developing countries: A study of Tanzania's discount voucher scheme.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara; Marchant, Tanya; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-07-01

    This study uses a partial equilibrium simulation model to explore how price subsidies for insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) affect households' purchases of ITNs. The model describes the ITN market in a typical developing country and is applied to the situation in Tanzania, where the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) provides a targeted subsidy to vulnerable population groups by means of a discount voucher. The data for this study come from a nationally-representative household survey completed July-August 2006 covering over 4300 households in 21 districts. The simulation results show the impact of the voucher program on ITN coverage among target households, namely those that experienced the birth of a child. More specifically, the share of target households purchasing an ITN increased from 18 to 62 percent because of the discount voucher. The model also suggests that the voucher program could cause the retail ITN price to rise due to an overall increase in demand. As a result, ITN purchases by households without a voucher may actually decline. The simulation model suggests that additional increases toward the stated goal of 80 percent ITN coverage for pregnant women and children could best be achieved through a combination of "catch up" mass distribution programs and expanding the target group for the voucher program to cover additional households. The model can be employed in other countries considering use of a targeted price subsidy for ITNs, and could be adapted to assess the impact of subsidies for other public health commodities.

  11. 25 CFR 20.503 - When can Child Assistance funds be used for Indian adoption or guardianship subsidies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When can Child Assistance funds be used for Indian... Child Assistance Funds Can Be Used § 20.503 When can Child Assistance funds be used for Indian adoption or guardianship subsidies? You, the social services program, can use Child Assistance funds...

  12. Forensic Interviews for Child Sexual Abuse Allegations: An Investigation into the Effects of Animal-Assisted Intervention on Stress Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Gulick, Elsie E

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapy animals during forensic interviews for child sexual abuse allegations is a recommendation by the Therapy Animals Supporting Kids Program to help ease children's discomfort during the forensic interview process. Based on this recommendation, this study incorporated a certified therapy canine into the forensic interview process for child sexual abuse allegations. This study investigated changes in salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, blood pressure, and heart rate as a result of forensic interview phenomenon (e.g., outcry) incorporating animal-assisted intervention versus a control condition in children (N = 42) interviewed for alleged child sexual abuse. The results supported significantly greater heart rate values for the control group (n = 23) who experienced sexual contact and/or indecency than the experience of aggravated sexual assault compared to no difference in HR for the intervention group (n = 19). The results suggest that the presence of the canine in the forensic interview may have acted as a buffer or safeguard for the children when disclosing details of sexual abuse. In the intervention group, children's HR was lower at the start of the forensic interview compared to the control group. Finding an effect of having a certified handler-canine team available during the forensic interview on physiological measures of stress has real-world value for children, child welfare personnel, and clinical therapists. It is suggested that animal-assisted intervention be expanded to children facing other types of trauma and to treatment programs for child survivors of sexual abuse.

  13. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    SciTech Connect

    Trumpy, T.

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  14. New Investigations of the Alleged Meteorite from Igast, Estonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, John A.; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a reinvestigation of the object which allegedly fell at Igast, Estonia, in 1855, and which may be the only example of a meteorite with the chemical composition of a tektite. R is concluded that generally quoted opinions of the artificial nature of this object are based on spurious samples, specifically melted brick and quartz basalt porphyry distributed by a Russian collector. Possibly genuine specimens from this observed fall are in the British Museum, the Paris Museum, and perhaps at the University of Dorpat, Estonia. It is recommended that these specimens be re-examined and that a search for similar objects be made.

  15. 20 CFR 418.3115 - What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy? 418.3115 Section 418.3115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3115 What events...

  16. 20 CFR 418.3115 - What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy? 418.3115 Section 418.3115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3115 What events...

  17. 20 CFR 418.3115 - What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy? 418.3115 Section 418.3115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3115 What events...

  18. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  19. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  20. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  1. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  2. The Federal Work-Study Program: Impacts on Academic Outcomes and Employment. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of employment subsidies and one of the oldest forms of student aid. The Federal Work-Study program (FWS) is the largest student employment subsidy program; since 1964, it has provided about $1 billion per year to cover 75 percent of wages for student employees, who typically work on campus…

  3. Flight into sanity. Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's mental deterioration reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, C

    1999-06-01

    In 'The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud', Volume III, Ernest Jones explained Ferenczi's final contributions as the product of a mental deterioration based on a progressive psychosis. Erich Fromm collected various testimonies by witnesses of Ferenczi's last years, all contrasting with Jones's assertions, and challenged Jones's manner of writing history. However, since Fromm was himself a dissident, and his witnesses were pupils, relatives or friends of Ferenczi's, they were discarded as 'partisans'. The present study aims at reconsidering the question of Ferenczi's insanity on the basis of many unpublished documents. The consulted documents do not support Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's insanity. At the same time, they show that Jones's allegation was not a one-man fabrication, but reflected a shared belief, eliciting many questions about the nature of this belief, the lack of scrutiny that characterised its spreading, and its possible function within the psychoanalytic community. It is suggested that Ferenczi's personality and teaching, especially his emphasis on the need to accept the patient's criticism, contrasted with the dominant conception of psychoanalysis, based on the analyst's infallibility.

  4. 77 FR 75641 - Public Housing Operating Subsidy-Appeals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Public Housing Operating Subsidy--Appeals AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... INFORMATION CONTACT: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and...

  5. 25 CFR 103.20 - What is interest subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is interest subsidy? 103.20 Section 103.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY, INSURANCE, AND... industry norm....

  6. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D; Marti, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream-terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream-riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream-terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  7. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  8. Analysis of Federal Subsidies: Implied Price of Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Thomas Foulke

    2010-10-01

    For informed climate change policy, it is important for decision makers to be able to assess how the costs and benefits of federal energy subsidies are distributed and to be able to have some measure to compare them. One way to do this is to evaluate the implied price of carbon (IPC) for a federal subsidy, or set of subsidies; where the IPC is the cost of the subsidy to the U.S. Treasury divided by the emissions reductions it generated. Subsidies with lower IPC are more cost effective at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while subsidies with a negative IPC act to increase emissions. While simple in concept, the IPC is difficult to calculate in practice. Calculation of the IPC requires knowledge of (i) the amount of energy associated with the subsidy, (ii) the amount and type of energy that would have been produced in the absence of the subsidy, and (iii) the greenhouse gas emissions associated with both the subsidized energy and the potential replacement energy. These pieces of information are not consistently available for federal subsidies, and there is considerable uncertainty in cases where the information is available. Thus, exact values for the IPC based upon fully consistent standards cannot be calculated with available data. However, it is possible to estimate a range of potential values sufficient for initial comparisons. This study has employed a range of methods to generate “first order” estimates for the IPC of a range of federal subsidies using static methods that do not account for the dynamics of supply and demand. The study demonstrates that, while the IPC value depends upon how the inquiry is framed and the IPC cannot be calculated in a “one size fits all” manner, IPC calculations can provide a valuable perspective for climate policy analysis. IPC values are most useful when calculated within the perspective of a case study, with the method and parameters of the calculation determined by the case. The IPC of different policy measures can

  9. Suit alleges cosmetology school targeted gays for removal.

    PubMed

    1995-09-08

    A former executive at the [name removed] School of Beauty Culture has filed a lawsuit alleging that the school identifies employees who have higher than average health-care costs and then initiates a harassment campaign against these employees. According to the executive, [name removed], the school president discussed a plan to reduce expenses by decreasing health care insurance benefits. The suit states that the Philadelphia-based company follows a policy of identifying cancer patients and homosexuals and then targets these individuals for harassment and abuse. When Mr. [Name removed] was diagnosed with a brain tumor, he was subjected to a range of tactics that encouraged him to quit, including a barrage of verbal abuse, being barred from meetings of his peers, and an expanded workload. The former executive charges the school and its president with violating the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Discovery in the litigation has begun, but no trial date has been scheduled.

  10. Forensic evaluation in alleged sibling incest against children.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Vera; Jardim, Patrícia; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sibling incest is a serious form of intrafamilial sexual abuse with health, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of forensic medical reports of the alleged sibling incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 68) from 2004 to 2011 as well as the respective judicial outcomes. Results demonstrated that sibling's sexual abuse is associated with several circumstances that might exacerbate its severity such as vaginal, anal, and/or oral penetration. Moreover, the victim's young age, the proximity between victim and abuser, and the fact that it is committed at the victim's and/or abuser's home and by using physical violence and verbal threats justify a late detection of these cases.

  11. NSF's Handling of Allegations of Misconduct in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, Aaron

    2000-03-01

    Under NSF's Office of Inspector General mandate to prevent fraud, waste, abuse, or mismanagement involving NSF's proposals and awards, our office is unique in that it also investigates allegations of misconduct in science. I will discuss our office's handling of such matters, focusing on the ethical and legal obligations of proposal submitters and awardees and the role of the scientific community. To illustrate some of these points that are of interest to the physics community, I will discuss some of our investigative activities relevant to: duplicate funding, cost sharing, and the accuracy of information in proposals. If the OSTP policy on research misconduct has been released for public comment, I will briefly discuss this policy, which is meant to be adopted by all federal funding agencies, and what it will mean for us and the community we serve.

  12. The Alleged Crisis and the Illusion of Exact Replication.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Strack, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing criticism of the way psychologists conduct and analyze studies. These critiques as well as failures to replicate several high-profile studies have been used as justification to proclaim a "replication crisis" in psychology. Psychologists are encouraged to conduct more "exact" replications of published studies to assess the reproducibility of psychological research. This article argues that the alleged "crisis of replicability" is primarily due to an epistemological misunderstanding that emphasizes the phenomenon instead of its underlying mechanisms. As a consequence, a replicated phenomenon may not serve as a rigorous test of a theoretical hypothesis because identical operationalizations of variables in studies conducted at different times and with different subject populations might test different theoretical constructs. Therefore, we propose that for meaningful replications, attempts at reinstating the original circumstances are not sufficient. Instead, replicators must ascertain that conditions are realized that reflect the theoretical variable(s) manipulated (and/or measured) in the original study.

  13. Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools: Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan. Policy Research Working Paper 5638

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment…

  14. Young Children's References to Temporal Attributes of Allegedly Experienced Events in the Course of Forensic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental differences in references to temporal attributes of allegedly experienced events were examined in 250 forensic interviews of 4- to 10-year-old alleged victims of sexual abuse. Children's ages, the specific temporal attributes referenced, and the types of memory tapped by the interviewers' questions significantly affected the quantity…

  15. Clinical Correlates of Alleged Satanic Abuse and Less Controversial Sexual Molestation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Frank

    1994-01-01

    This study found that 39 women alleging satanic ritual abuse and 47 women reporting less controversial forms of sexual trauma as children were characterized by high but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology. Patients alleging satanic ritual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with…

  16. Manufactured Memory, Altered Belief and Self Report Mirage: The Alleged False Memory of Jean Piaget Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Frank

    1999-01-01

    It is argued that a Jean Piaget anecdote about an alleged memory implanted in a young child leading to both a visual and semantic memory that persists despite disconfirming evidence is entirely different than the recovered memory debate, which is about the alleged introduction of memories to grown adults. (CR)

  17. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  18. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  19. 28 CFR 115.222 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.222 Section 115.222 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Responsive Planning § 115.222 Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. (a) The...

  20. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    incremental approach to implementation of alternative energy programs has been a failure. In the absence of a national energy regulation policy, oil import is on the increase; exacerbating American dependence on foreign supplies. A sustainable energy policy requires vision and commitment, but policymakers do not seem to command political capital to achieve this objective. Investigation reveals that subsidies have contributed in the production of ethanol. The four billion gallons of ethanol produced in 2005 is significantly higher than the quantity produced in 1978. However, an increase in ethanol production has made no considerable contribution to reducing American dependence on foreign oil. A sustainable energy policy requires a proactive public policy that includes public and private investment in renewable energy and technology, together with a continuance of local oil drilling.

  1. Allegations of wrongdoing: the effects of reinforcement on children's mundane and fantastic claims.

    PubMed

    Garven, S; Wood, J M; Malpass, R S

    2000-02-01

    S. Garven, J. M. Wood, R. S. Malpass, and J. S. Shaw (1998) found that the interviewing techniques used in the McMartin Preschool case can induce preschool children to make false allegations of wrong doing against a classroom visitor. In this study, 2 specific components of the McMartin interviews, reinforcement and cowitness information, were examined more closely in interviews of 120 children, ages 5 to 7 years. Children who received reinforcement made 35% false allegations against a classroom visitor, compared with 12% made by controls. When questioned about "fantastic" events (e.g., being taken from school in a helicopter), children receiving reinforcement made 52% false allegations, compared with 5% made by controls. In a second interview, children repeated the allegations even when reinforcement had been discontinued. The findings indicate that reinforcement can swiftly induce children to make persistent false allegations of wrong doing.

  2. [False allegations of child sexual abuse and paranoid disorder: a report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Karanfil, Ramazan; Akçan, Ramazan; Orhan, F Özlem

    2011-01-01

    Allegations of child sexual abuse have considerable consequences for individuals and society. Herein, we report 2 cases of false allegations of child sexual abuse by mothers diagnosed as paranoid disorder. Case 1, a 31-year-old mother accused her husband of sexually abusing her 3 daughters, aged 2, 4, and 6 years. Case 2 is a 30-year-old mother that went to the public prosecutor with allegations of sexual abuse of her 6-year-old daughter by a nursery teacher and a stranger. Examination of both alleged victims did not reveal objective findings of sexual abuse. Based on psychiatric examinations, both mothers were diagnosed with paranoid disorder. Consequently, the public prosecutor decided not to prosecute. Considering the possibility of false allegations in such cases, psychiatric examination of the complainant should be performed in order to provide accurate information necessary for legal proceedings and to protect the child.

  3. Understanding clinical immunological testing in alleged chemically induced environmental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, J E

    1996-08-01

    Some believe that an abnormal immunoregulatory response based on environmental damage to T cells is fundamental to the production of symptoms in patients with alleged "multiple chemical sensitivity" and/or "environmental illness." According to this theory stimulation of T cells or T cell phenotypic subsets by environmental chemicals results in release of cytokines that can effect appropriate target cells of multiple organ systems, resulting in a wide range of symptoms. This concept is reinforced by frequent media reporting of pollution incidents and environmental disasters plus continued isolated reports of immunologic abnormalities in patients with various forms of alleged environmental illness, multiple chemical sensitivities, or other related syndromes. These include reports of slight perturbations in quantity and function of immunoglobulins, complement and its components, B cells, natural killer cells, T cells, phenotypic T cell subsets, and helper suppressor T cell ratios. There are also reports of increased or decreased interleukin levels including IL-1 and IL-2 or their receptors (IL-2R) in these patients. Such assays are not infrequently performed even though there is no evidence for their diagnostic efficacy in these alleged conditions. It is reasonable, however, to anticipate that with the wide development of assays for many of the interleukins and their receptors, these assays may become important in the future diagnosis of many autoimmune, allergic, neoplastic, and infectious diseases. At this time, however, the induction of environmental illness or multiple chemical sensitivity by exposure to trace levels of environmental "immunotoxins" is unproven and remains a matter of speculation. The reproducibility of immunologic test abnormalities reported under these conditions has not been documented, and the data have often not been analyzed statistically. Appropriate controls also have not usually been employed, nor have control values been provided in many

  4. Staffing Subsidies and the Quality of Care in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew D.; Lee, Yong Suk

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about the quality of state-financed nursing home care has led to the wide-scale adoption by states of pass-through subsidies, in which Medicaid reimbursement rates are directly tied to staffing expenditure. We examine the effects of Medicaid pass-through on nursing home staffing and quality of care by adapting a two-step FGLS method that addresses clustering and state-level temporal autocorrelation. We find that pass-through subsidies increases staffing by about 1% on average and 2.7% in nursing homes with a low share of Medicaid patients. Furthermore, pass-through subsidies reduce the incidences of pressure ulcer worsening by about 0.9%. PMID:25814437

  5. 76 FR 41857 - Petition Under Section 302 on Alleged Expropriations by the Dominican Republic; Decision Not To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... adequate compensation by the Government of the Dominican Republic, resulting in an alleged breach of the... more recent acts, policies, and practices of the Dominican Republic that petitioners allege to...

  6. Amendments to regulations regarding eligibility for a Medicare prescription drug subsidy. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-18

    This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule with request for comments we published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010. The interim final rule incorporated changes to the Medicare prescription drug coverage low-income subsidy (Extra Help) program made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act) enacted in March 2010. Under our interpretation of section 3304 of the Affordable Care Act, if the death of a beneficiary's spouse would decrease or eliminate the subsidy provided by the Extra Help program, we will extend the effective period of eligibility for the most recent determination or redetermination until one year after the month following the month we are notified of the death of the spouse. The effective date of this provision was January 1, 2011. We also revised our regulations to incorporate changes made by the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008 (MIPPA) which affect the way we account for income and resources when determining eligibility for the Extra Help program. The statute provides that we no longer count the value of any life insurance policy as a resource for Extra Help effective on and after January 1, 2010. As of that date, we also no longer count as income the help a beneficiary receives when someone else provides food and shelter, or pays household bills for food, mortgage, rent, electricity, water, property taxes, or heating fuel or gas. These revisions updated our rules to reflect these statutory changes.

  7. Effect of resource subsidies on predator-prey population dynamics: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Nevai, Andrew L; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The influence of a resource subsidy on predator-prey interactions is examined using a mathematical model. The model arises from the study of a biological system involving arctic foxes (predator), lemmings (prey), and seal carcasses (subsidy). In one version of the model, the predator, prey and subsidy all occur in the same location; in a second version, the predator moves between two patches, one containing only the prey and the other containing only the subsidy. Criteria for feasibility and stability of the different equilibrium states are studied both analytically and numerically. At small subsidy input rates, there is a minimum prey carrying capacity needed to support both predator and prey. At intermediate subsidy input rates, the predator and prey can always coexist. At high subsidy input rates, the prey cannot persist even at high carrying capacities. As predator movement increases, the dynamic stability of the predator-prey-subsidy interactions also increases.

  8. 24 CFR 969.105 - Extension of ACC upon payment of operating subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for which Operating Subsidy is paid with respect to the project. (b) Consolidated ACC. Where a single... Consolidated ACC. In any event, no Operating Subsidy payable under a Consolidated ACC or otherwise shall...

  9. 78 FR 55281 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Collection Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval... million households covered by the Public Housing and Section 8 housing subsidies. The Quality...

  10. Criminal allegations in disciplinary cases involving health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Manning, Joanna

    2008-12-01

    Recently the Supreme Court of New Zealand decided that the standard of proof in disciplinary proceedings against a registered health practitioner is the ordinary, civil "balance of probabilities" standard, even in cases where criminal or serious allegations are made. Adopting recent House of Lords' case law, it rejected the existence of a third standard of proof, the "flexible" or "heightened" civil standard commensurate with the seriousness of the issue involved. Neither did the court consider direct application of the criminal, "beyond reasonable doubt" standard appropriate in disciplinary proceedings. Secondly, the court adopted a new principle that it is an abuse of process to bring a disciplinary charge against a practitioner, which is the same or substantially the same as that which he or she faced in the criminal proceedings and which resulted in an acquittal. It is not, however, an abuse to bring disciplinary charges after a criminal acquittal based on the same conduct, providing the disciplinary charges address wider aspects of the practitioner's conduct. The court was split on both issues. This column analyses the decision, supporting it on the first issue, but not the second.

  11. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  12. Little Albert's alleged neurological impairment: Watson, Rayner, and historical revision.

    PubMed

    Digdon, Nancy; Powell, Russell A; Harris, Ben

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, Fridlund, Beck, Goldie, and Irons (2012) announced that "Little Albert"-the infant that Watson and Rayner used in their 1920 study of conditioned fear (Watson & Rayner, 1920)-was not the healthy child the researchers described him to be, but was neurologically impaired almost from birth. Fridlund et al. also alleged that Watson had committed serious ethical breaches in regard to this research. Our article reexamines the evidentiary bases for these claims and arrives at an alternative interpretation of Albert as a normal infant. In order to set the stage for our interpretation, we first briefly describe the historical context for the Albert study, as well as how the study has been construed and revised since 1920. We then discuss the evidentiary issues in some detail, focusing on Fridlund et al.'s analysis of the film footage of Albert, and on the context within which Watson and Rayner conducted their study. In closing, we return to historical matters to speculate about why historiographical disputes matter and what the story of neurologically impaired Albert might be telling us about the discipline of psychology today.

  13. 78 FR 52504 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...(s) subsidy ($/lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\ European Union Restitution $0... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  14. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND... box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  15. 42 CFR 423.904 - Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies... Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies. (a) General rule. The State agency must make eligibility determinations and redeterminations for low-income premium and cost-sharing subsidies in accordance with...

  16. The Dynamics of Child Care Subsidy Use: A Collaborative Study of Five States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Marcia K.; Peck, Laura R.; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Collins, Ann; Kreader, J. Lee; Georges, Annie; Weber, Roberta; Schexnayder, Deanna T.; Schroeder, Daniel G.; Olson, Jerry A.

    One of four being published on a five-state project on the dynamics of child care subsidy use, this report provides a detailed look at families receiving child care subsidies in Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Texas, and the factors associated with length of subsidy receipt and provider stability. Data were collected and analyzed by…

  17. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected...

  18. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  19. 14 CFR 271.3 - Carrier subsidy need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier subsidy need. 271.3 Section 271.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.3...

  20. 14 CFR 271.7 - Subsidy payout formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidy payout formula. 271.7 Section 271.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.7...

  1. Role of seasonality on predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dorian; Harrington, Heather A; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2016-05-07

    The role of seasonality on predator-prey interactions in the presence of a resource subsidy is examined using a system of non-autonomous ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The problem is motivated by the Arctic, inhabited by the ecological system of arctic foxes (predator), lemmings (prey), and seal carrion (subsidy). We construct two nonlinear, nonautonomous systems of ODEs named the Primary Model, and the n-Patch Model. The Primary Model considers spatial factors implicitly, and the n-Patch Model considers space explicitly as a "Stepping Stone" system. We establish the boundedness of the dynamics, as well as the necessity of sufficiently nutritional food for the survival of the predator. We investigate the importance of including the resource subsidy explicitly in the model, and the importance of accounting for predator mortality during migration. We find a variety of non-equilibrium dynamics for both systems, obtaining both limit cycles and chaotic oscillations. We were then able to discuss relevant implications for biologically interesting predator-prey systems including subsidy under seasonal effects. Notably, we can observe the extinction or persistence of a species when the corresponding autonomous system might predict the opposite.

  2. Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

  3. 42 CFR 423.782 - Cost-sharing subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subsidy eligible individuals are entitled to the following: (1) Elimination of the annual deductible under § 423.104(d)(1). (2) Reduction in cost-sharing for all covered Part D drugs covered under the PDP or MA-PD plan below the out-of-pocket limit (under § 423.104), including Part D drugs covered under the...

  4. 75 FR 41874 - Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations AGENCY: Office of the.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental... agency's estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information; (3) Enhance the...

  5. 24 CFR 990.295 - Resident Management Corporation operating subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident Management Corporation... Managed by Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.295 Resident Management Corporation operating subsidy. (a) General. This part applies to all projects managed by a Resident Management Corporation...

  6. Desk Reference to the Toolkit for Assessing Potential Allegations of Environmental Injustice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides an overview of tools and other reference materials to assist U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) personnel in assessing and addressing potential allegations of environmental injustice.

  7. 28 CFR 0.29c - Reporting allegations of employee misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Investigation Office of Professional Responsibility (FBI-OPR). Evidence and non-frivolous allegations of serious misconduct by employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) shall be reported by the OIG to the...

  8. How frequently do allegations of scientific misconduct occur in ecology and evolution, and what happens afterwards?

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2013-03-01

    Scientific misconduct obstructs the advance of knowledge in science. Its impact in some disciplines is still poorly known, as is the frequency in which it is detected. Here, I examine how frequently editors of ecology and evolution journals detect scientist misconduct. On average, editors managed 0.114 allegations of misconduct per year. Editors considered 6 of 14 allegations (42.9%) to be true, but only in 2 cases were the authors declared guilty, the remaining being dropped for lack of proof. The annual rate of allegations that were probably warranted was 0.053, although the rate of demonstrated misconduct was 0.018, while the rate of false or erroneous allegations was 0.024. Considering that several cases of misconduct are probably not reported, these findings suggest that editors detect less than one-third of all fraudulent papers.

  9. 28 CFR 0.29c - Reporting allegations of employee misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Investigation Office of Professional Responsibility (FBI-OPR). Evidence and non-frivolous allegations of serious misconduct by employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) shall be reported by the OIG to the...

  10. 28 CFR 0.29c - Reporting allegations of employee misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Investigation Office of Professional Responsibility (FBI-OPR). Evidence and non-frivolous allegations of serious misconduct by employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) shall be reported by the OIG to the...

  11. 28 CFR 0.29c - Reporting allegations of employee misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Investigation Office of Professional Responsibility (FBI-OPR). Evidence and non-frivolous allegations of serious misconduct by employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) shall be reported by the OIG to the...

  12. Guidance for Inspecting Alleged Cases of Pesticide-Related Bee Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Explains how to conduct an investigation into an alleged pesticide-related incident involving bee deaths including general information on beekeeping as a reference for federal, state and tribal inspectors.

  13. Hotline Allegations Regarding Accounting for the Defense Information Systems Agency Working Capital Fund

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    HOTLINE ALLEGATIONS REGARDING ACCOUNTING FOR THE DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY WORKING CAPITAL FUND Report No. D-2001- 123 ...May 2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Hotline Allegations Regarding Accounting for the Defense...Room 801) Arlington, VA 22202-2884 Performing Organization Number(s) D-2001- 123 Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency Name(s) and Address(es) Monitoring Agency

  14. Effect of subsidy regimes on economic values of functional traits in beef cattle breeding.

    PubMed

    Wolfová, M; Pribyl, J; Wolf, J; Zahrádková, R

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the impact of five monetary subsidy regimes on economic values of traits in a cow-calf pasture production system with surplus calves fed for slaughter. The following regimes were analysed: (1) maximum prices for slaughter animals actually received in the Czech Republic during 2004, with no subsidies of any kind; (2) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of permanent grassland and per calf born; (3) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land, per hectare of pasture and meadow, per beef cow in a forage system and per livestock unit; (4) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land; (5) no subsidies, but prices received for slaughter animals that covered production costs and resulted in 1% profitability. The modelled farm showed negative profit under real price conditions with no subsidies (regime 1), which led to an underestimation of economic values for functional traits. The same results were obtained in regimes in which subsidies did not depend on the number of animals (3) or on meat production from the enterprise (4). Economic values of production traits (growth and carcass traits) did not vary among subsidy regimes. To determine optimum economic values for functional traits in beef cattle, we advocate using the method applied in subsidy regime 5, no subsidies but prices for slaughter animals that cover production cost and a small profit.

  15. Quantitative gradient of subsidies reveals a threshold in community-level trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Klemmer, Amanda J; Richardson, John S

    2013-09-01

    Evidence varies on how subsidies affect trophic cascades within recipient food webs. This could be due to complex nonlinearities being masked by single-level manipulations (presence/absence) of subsidies in past studies. We predicted that trophic cascade strength would increase nonlinearly across a gradient of subsidies. We set out to reveal these complex, nonlinear relationships through manipulating a quantitative gradient of detrital subsidies to lake benthic food webs along with the presence/absence of trout. Contrary to our prediction, we found that trophic cascades only occurred at low subsidy levels, disappearing as subsidies increased. This threshold in trophic cascade strength may be due to an increase in intermediate predators in the absence of top predators, as well as changes in the proportion of armored vs. un-armored primary consumers. Future studies on the effect of subsidies on trophic cascade strength need to incorporate naturally occurring gradients to reveal the complex direct and indirect interactions within food webs.

  16. Dinosaur demise in light of their alleged perennial polar residency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewy, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    disarticulated. Accordingly, the alleged `polar dinosaurs' do not challenge the logical conclusion that the non-avian dinosaurs were cold-blooded, as a result of which they became inactive and subjected to predation during the end-Cretaceous dark period.

  17. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Are tobacco subsidies a misuse of public funds?

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1996-03-30

    The European Union spends about 1000m ecu (800m pounds, $1240m) a year subsidizing tobacco production but only about 1.55m ecu (1.2m pounds, $1.85m) on smoking prevention. The subsidies, part of the common agricultural policy, were originally intended to encourage farmers to grow commercially valued varieties of tobacco and thus reduce imports. But they also aimed to guarantee farmers' income, a goal in direct conflict with the first. The policy has failed to adapt production to demand or reduce imports, since most tobacco grown in the union has little commercial value. Reforms introduced in 1992 have had limited impact on expenditure, and data produced as a result of the reforms show that it would be much cheaper to give farmers direct income support than to subsidize them growing tobacco. Tobacco subsidies should be abolished and more should be spent on smoking prevention.

  19. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    PubMed Central

    Minto, Kiara; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Gillespie, Nicole; Healy, Karen; Jetten, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused–and more skeptical of the accuser—than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404), the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church. PMID:27111546

  20. The (in)credible words of women: false allegations in European rape research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Liz

    2010-12-01

    The issue of false allegations in rape cases cannot be understood without reference to the ways in which rape law and its interpretation has historically problematized "the words of a woman" when what they were speaking about was sexual violation. Whilst the letter of the law has been reformed in many countries, legacies remain sedimented into institutional cultures and practices, creating a risk of over-identification of false allegations by police and prosecutors. Findings from two European studies on attrition in reported rape cases are drawn on to highlight both the mechanisms and processes which create the category of false allegations, especially the opaque "no crime/unfounded" designations and that CJS personnel believe the rates to be considerably higher than their own data. The article concludes by raising the possibility of internationally agreed standards for designating a rape report "false."

  1. Coordination Procedures between the Scientific Integrity Official and the Office of Inspector General regarding Scientific Misconduct Allegations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Coordination Procedures between the Scientific Integrity Official and the Office of Inspector General regarding Scientific Misconduct Allegations written March 30, 2015 by the Office of the Science Advisor

  2. How to Design a Targeted Agricultural Subsidy System: Efficiency or Equity?

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers’ incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is “reverse redistribution” in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined. PMID:22876283

  3. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 1999: Primary Energy

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The analysis in this report was undertaken at the request of the Office of Policy, U.S. Department of Energy. In its request, the Office of Policy asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to update the 1992 EIA report on Federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of Federal subsidies based on Administration and Congressional action since the 1992 report was written, and to provide an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies to be included are those through which a government or public body provides a financial benefit.

  4. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 1999: Energy Transformation and End Use

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    his is the second report prepared in response to a two-part request from the Office of Policy, U.S. Department of Energy, to provide an estimate of U.S. Federal energy subsidies. In its request, the Office of Policy asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to update a 1992 EIA report on Federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of Federal subsidies based on Administration and Congressional action since the 1992 report was written, and to provide an estimate of the size of each current subsidy.

  5. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined.

  6. 42 CFR 57.1508 - Amount of interest subsidy payments; limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  7. 42 CFR 57.1508 - Amount of interest subsidy payments; limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  8. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  9. 42 CFR 57.1508 - Amount of interest subsidy payments; limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  10. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  11. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  12. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  13. 42 CFR 57.1508 - Amount of interest subsidy payments; limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  14. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  15. 42 CFR 57.1508 - Amount of interest subsidy payments; limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for...

  16. Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on Several Business System Audit Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-20

    2 0 , 2 0 1 4 Report No. DODIG-2014-084 Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hotline Allegations...i l / h o t l i n e HOTLINE Department of Defense F r a u d , W a s t e , & A b u s e Mission Our mission is to provide independent, relevant, and

  17. Subsidy policies with capital accumulation: maintaining employment levels.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Gang, I N; Gangopadhyay, S

    1989-12-01

    The authors study a dual economy model of growth and unemployment in the presence of Harris-Todaro type labor migration. The model is a discrete time model of economic growth with a given population but endogenous migration of labor. The economy tries to reach development in the quickest possible time while not allowing unemployment to rise above a socially acceptable level. The authors also characterize situations under which maximizing the accumulation of capital in each period is optimal and study how particular taxes and subsidies affect unemployment and capital accumulation. Finally, they show that a higher initial capital stock does not necessarily mean a quicker attainment of self- sustained full employment.

  18. African agricultural subsidy impacts food security, poverty, drought tolerance, and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galford, G. L.; Palm, C.; DeFries, R. S.; Nziguheba, G.; Droppelmann, K.; Nkonya, E.; Michelson, H.; Clark, C.; Kathewera, F.; Walsh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi has spearheaded an unprecedented policy change in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2005 when it started a widespread agricultural inputs subsidy program (AISP) targeting small farmer maize production with mineral fertilizer and improved seeds. Since then, the mean N fertilizer load has increased significantly, from ~ 0 to a modest 35 kg N/ha or 7 times greater than SSA's average 5 kg N/ha average. During the tenure of AISP, Malawi has transitioned from a food aid recipient to an exporter. Maize yields each year of AISP are double the long-term average (0.8 tons/ha/yr, 1960-2005). In 2007, subsidy inputs combined with good rains led to of an unprecedented increase in national average yields of 2.7 tons/ha. National-scale assessments covering, agriculture, poverty, and environment such as this one are required to understand the trade-offs between development, climate and the environment. Environmentally, N2O emissions from fertilizer are a concern. First order estimates put emissions from AISP fertilizers at 2,600 Mg N2O/year (0.81 Tg CO2-e). While globally insignificant, these emissions may be equivalent to 16% of Malawi's annual fossil fuel and deforestation emissions. However, our partial nutrient budgets indicate that crop removal is still higher than N applied and therefore little loss of N to the environment is expected. Mineral fertilizers are a rapid first step to increase soil N after 40 years of serious depletion. Once restored, the soils will support robust agroforestry and other forms of organic inputs produced on-farm. Fertilizer use increases carbon sequestration on agricultural soils and reduces pressure to clear forests, which may partially compensate for the N2O emissions. We find evidence that AISP significantly increases food security and mitigates the impacts of drought on maize production. This is the first work linking the distribution of fertilizer subsidies to local crop yields using government records, remotely-sensed time series of

  19. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    This dissertation seeks to raise awareness about harmful effects of fossil fuel and nuclear energy subsidies that have blocked transition from conventional energy to a decarbonized, renewable energy system. Today, humans face daunting challenges in the form of global warming, which results mainly from the burning of fossil fuels. To avoid catastrophe, the transition to a renewable energy regime should be an urgent priority; however, the reality is that the progress of renewable energy is very slow due to the various political and economic factors when compared to conventional energy resources. A chief factor is that the energy subsidy for fossil fuel and nuclear energy obstructs the "level playing field" for renewable energy. Energy subsidies for conventional energy can be understood in the context of the commodification paradigm, which regards nature as an object of conquest and supports the principle of more is better. Although fossil fuel energy damages the environment, economy, and social equity, all countries subsidize such energy, no matter the country's state of development. This holds true as much in the U.S. and the EU as in China, India and South Korea. The oceans, which cover 71% of the earth, are threatened by the activities of conventional energy, which are underpinned by subsidies. These subsidies have contributed to the destruction of the marine ecosystem through increased GHG emissions like CO2 and NOx which cause a sea temperature increase and coral bleaching. Subsidies also significantly affect fishery overexploitation, oil pollution, and thermal pollution. In-depth empirical analysis of South Korea showed how fossil fuel and nuclear energy activities have threatened marine sustainability through thermal pollution, algae bloom (red tides), overexploitation, and oil-related marine pollution. Reforming subsidies of fossil fuel and nuclear energy should be a global priority because of imminent of global warming. As strategies for energy subsidy

  20. 43 CFR 30.128 - What happens if an error in BIA's estate inventory is alleged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... decedent's lifetime, and BIA had not, as of the time of death, determined whether to approve the gift deed... inventory is alleged, the OHA deciding official will refer the matter to BIA for resolution under 25 CFR... proceeding, the probate decision will reflect the inventory determination. (2) If BIA does not make a...

  1. 25 CFR 42.3 - How should a school address alleged violations of school policies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... policies? 42.3 Section 42.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.3 How should a school address alleged violations of school policies? (a) In addressing... under § 42.7 consistent with the due process rights described in § 42.7....

  2. 25 CFR 42.3 - How should a school address alleged violations of school policies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... policies? 42.3 Section 42.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.3 How should a school address alleged violations of school policies? (a) In addressing... under § 42.7 consistent with the due process rights described in § 42.7....

  3. 28 CFR 0.29c - Reporting allegations of employee misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Professional Responsibility (DEA-OPR) or to the Deputy Attorney General. (d) Reporting to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Office of Professional Responsibility (FBI-OPR). Evidence and non-frivolous allegations of serious misconduct by employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) shall be reported by the OIG to the...

  4. Beyond Munchausen by Proxy: A Proposed Conceptualization for Cases of Recurring, Unsubstantiated Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mary W.

    2009-01-01

    In the emerging literature, cases involving recurring, unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse have generally been categorized as Munchausen by proxy. Recent scholars have recommended restricting the label to the original conceptualization, involving purposeful deception motivated by psychological needs for medical attention. This leaves…

  5. Custody Evaluators' Beliefs about Domestic Violence Allegations during Divorce: Feminist and Family Violence Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselschwerdt, Megan L.; Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Hans, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately, 20% of divorcing couples in the United States require judicial intervention to reach a custody agreement. In such cases, courts often call on child custody evaluators to conduct comprehensive evaluations and recommend custody agreements and services that meet children's best interests. Estimates suggest that allegations of domestic…

  6. 43 CFR 30.128 - What happens if an error in BIA's estate inventory is alleged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...'s estate inventory is alleged? This section applies when, during a probate proceeding, an interested... proceeding, the probate decision will reflect the inventory determination. (2) If BIA does not make a final... proceeding, the final probate decision will: (i) Include a reference to the pending inventory challenge;...

  7. 43 CFR 30.128 - What happens if an error in BIA's estate inventory is alleged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...'s estate inventory is alleged? This section applies when, during a probate proceeding, an interested... a final decision in the probate proceeding, the probate decision will reflect the inventory... issues a final decision in the probate proceeding, the final probate decision will: (i) Include...

  8. 43 CFR 30.128 - What happens if an error in BIA's estate inventory is alleged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...'s estate inventory is alleged? This section applies when, during a probate proceeding, an interested... proceeding, the probate decision will reflect the inventory determination. (2) If BIA does not make a final... proceeding, the final probate decision will: (i) Include a reference to the pending inventory challenge;...

  9. 43 CFR 30.128 - What happens if an error in BIA's estate inventory is alleged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...'s estate inventory is alleged? This section applies when, during a probate proceeding, an interested... proceeding, the probate decision will reflect the inventory determination. (2) If BIA does not make a final... proceeding, the final probate decision will: (i) Include a reference to the pending inventory challenge;...

  10. Allegations of diversion and substitution of crude oil. Bayou Choctaw Storage Site, Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    Investigation did not substantiate allegations that crude oil destined for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage site at Bayou Choctaw was diverted to private use and some other material substituted in its place. However, recommendations are made for handling intermediate transport and storage systems for crude oil to tighten security aspects. (PSB)

  11. Plagiarism Allegations Account for Most Retractions in Major Latin American/Caribbean Databases.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renan Moritz V R; de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Catelani, Fernanda; Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports (JCR). LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords "retracted", "retraction" "withdrawal", "withdrawn", "removed" and "redress". Documents were manually checked to identify those that actually referred to retractions, which were then analyzed and categorized according to the reasons alleged in the notices. Dates of publication/retraction and time to retraction were also recorded. Searching procedures were performed between June and December 2014. Thirty-one retraction notices were identified, fifteen of which were in JCR-indexed journals. "Plagiarism" was alleged in six retractions of this group. Among the non-JCR journals, retraction reasons were alleged in fourteen cases, twelve of which were attributed to "plagiarism". The proportion of retracted articles for the SciELO database was approximately 0.005 %. The reasons alleged in retraction notices may be used as signposts to inform discussions in Latin America on plagiarism and research integrity. At the international level, these results suggest that the correction of the literature is becoming global and is not limited to mainstream international publications.

  12. 28 CFR 115.322 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.322 Section 115.322 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  13. 28 CFR 115.122 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.122 Section 115.122 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Responsive Planning §...

  14. 28 CFR 115.322 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.322 Section 115.322 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  15. 28 CFR 115.122 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.122 Section 115.122 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Responsive Planning §...

  16. 28 CFR 115.22 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.22 Section 115.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Responsive...

  17. 28 CFR 115.22 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.22 Section 115.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Responsive...

  18. 28 CFR 115.122 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.122 Section 115.122 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Responsive Planning §...

  19. 28 CFR 115.322 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.322 Section 115.322 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  20. 28 CFR 115.22 - Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations. 115.22 Section 115.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Responsive...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-1302 - Responsibility for reporting allegations of misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility for reporting allegations of misconduct. 73.735-1302 Section 73.735-1302 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of misconduct. An employee who has information which he or she reasonably believes indicates...

  2. Report on Student Academic Integrity and Allegations of Contract Cheating by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    On 12 November 2014 the Fairfax media reported allegations of cheating by students at a number of Australian higher education providers through the purchase of assignments, particularly through the MyMaster website. The Honorable Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education and Training, referred the matter to the Tertiary Education Quality and…

  3. 18 CFR 292.210 - Petition alleging commitment of substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petition alleging commitment of substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986. 292.210 Section 292.210 Conservation of... substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986. (a) An applicant covered by § 292.203(c)...

  4. 18 CFR 292.210 - Petition alleging commitment of substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petition alleging commitment of substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986. 292.210 Section 292.210 Conservation of... substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986. (a) An applicant covered by § 292.203(c)...

  5. 76 FR 42707 - Amendment of OIG Hotline Allegation System (EPA-30)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... AGENCY Amendment of OIG Hotline Allegation System (EPA-30) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... System (EPA-30) to the Inspector General Enterprise Management System (IGEMS) Hotline Module. DATES.... ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ- OEI-2011-0349, by one of the...

  6. Repeated Interviews with Children Who Are the Alleged Victims of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the effects of repeated retrievals in the course of forensic investigations with children who are the alleged victims of sexual abuse. Method: Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development protocol, 56 children participated in a first free-recall interview that was followed by…

  7. Investigation of Alleged Scientific Misconduct on Grants MH-32206 and MH-37449. Final Report and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    The report presents results of a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) investigation into alleged scientific misconduct by Dr. Stephen Bruening in relation to two federally supported projects concerning tardive dyskinesia in retarded populations and stimulant drug use with mentally retarded children. The investigative panel of scientists…

  8. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  9. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  10. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  11. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  12. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  13. 20 CFR 30.609 - Is a settlement or judgment received as a result of allegations of medical malpractice in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... result of allegations of medical malpractice in treating an illness covered by EEOICPA a recovery that must be reported to OWCP? 30.609 Section 30.609 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of allegations of medical malpractice in treating an illness covered by EEOICPA a recovery that...

  14. 30 CFR 291.103 - May I use alternative dispute resolution to informally resolve an allegation that open and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... informally resolve an allegation that open and nondiscriminatory access was denied? 291.103 Section 291.103 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPEALS OPEN AND... alternative dispute resolution to informally resolve an allegation that open and nondiscriminatory access...

  15. Application of agricultural subsidy inspection using UAV image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Das, Amrita; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The most important parameters, should be considered during application of remote sensing techniques in agricultural sector, is to acquire image data in appropriate moment in accordance with the growth of the crop. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages over conventional remote sensing techniques. They can acquire high-resolution images quickly and repeatedly with a comparatively lower flight altitude i.e. 80 400m nullifying the effect of extreme weather and cloud. This study discussed the use of low cost-effective UAV based remote sensing application in inspection of agricultural subsidy. The study area includes 129.1km2 of Miwon town. UAV images acquired 41 times from July 17 to August 10, 2015 for 7 days. The UAV images identify a significant amount of incorrect applications for agricultural subsidy, almost 29.6% (559 of 1,889). Surveying with UAV for agricultural payment instead of field stuff can reduce the time as much as 76.7 % and increase the effectiveness of inspection methods.

  16. Re-evaluating the Malawian Farm Input Subsidy Programme.

    PubMed

    Messina, Joseph P; Peter, Brad G; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2017-03-06

    The Malawian Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) has received praise as a proactive policy that has transformed the nation's food security, yet irreconcilable differences exist between maize production estimates distributed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Malawi Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MoAFS) and the National Statistical Office (NSO) of Malawi. These differences illuminate yield-reporting deficiencies and the value that alternative, politically unbiased yield estimates could play in understanding policy impacts. We use net photosynthesis (PsnNet) as an objective source of evidence to evaluate production history and production potential under a fertilizer input scenario. Even with the most generous harvest index (HI) and area manipulation to match a reported error, we are unable to replicate post-FISP production gains. In addition, we show that the spatial delivery of FISP may have contributed to popular perception of widespread maize improvement. These triangulated lines of evidence suggest that FISP may not have been the success it was thought to be. Lastly, we assert that fertilizer subsidies may not be sufficient or sustainable strategies for production gains in Malawi.

  17. Amendments to regulations regarding eligibility for a Medicare prescription drug subsidy. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2010-12-29

    We are revising our regulations to incorporate changes to the Medicare prescription drug coverage low-income subsidy (Extra Help) program made by the Affordable Care Act which was enacted on March 23, 2010. Under our interpretation of section 3304 of the Affordable Care Act and this interim final rule, if the death of a beneficiary's spouse would decrease or eliminate the subsidy provided by the Extra Help program, we will, based on a determination, or redetermination, extend the effective period of eligibility for the most recent determination or redetermination until 1 year after the month following the month we are notified of the death of the spouse. These regulatory changes will allow us to implement this provision of the Affordable Care Act when it goes into effect on January 1, 2011. We are also revising our regulations to incorporate changes made by the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008 (MIPPA), which affect the way we account for income and resources when determining eligibility for the Extra Help program. The statute provides that we no longer count as a resource the value of any life insurance policy for Extra Help applications filed, or redeterminations that are effective, on or after January 1, 2010. In addition, we will no longer count as income the help a beneficiary receives when someone else provides food and shelter, or pays household bills for food, mortgage, rent, electricity, water, property taxes, or heating fuel or gas. These revisions will update our rules to reflect these statutory changes.

  18. Day Care Hopping: Stabilizing Day Care Options for Low-Income Mothers through Subsidies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drentea, Patricia; Durham, Suzanne; Mwaria, Mercie; Norman, Emily; Xi, Juan

    2004-01-01

    We examined how to allocate a subsidy to low-income women that would stabilize children in day care at a Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). The subsidy is to alleviate day care hopping (i.e. when parents move from day care to day care) leaving unpaid tuitions at each place. Day care hopping is really a survival strategy for the working…

  19. 75 FR 30529 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...Pursuant to the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000, this document is U.S. Customs and Border Protection's notice of intent to distribute assessed antidumping or countervailing duties (known as the continued dumping and subsidy offset) for Fiscal Year 2010 in connection with countervailing duty orders, antidumping duty orders, or findings under the Antidumping Act of 1921. This......

  20. 77 FR 32717 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...Pursuant to the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000, this document is U.S. Customs and Border Protection's notice of intent to distribute assessed antidumping or countervailing duties (known as the continued dumping and subsidy offset) for Fiscal Year 2012 in connection with countervailing duty orders, antidumping duty orders, or findings under the Antidumping Act of 1921. This......

  1. 76 FR 31019 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...Pursuant to the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000, this document is U.S. Customs and Border Protection's notice of intent to distribute assessed antidumping or countervailing duties (known as the continued dumping and subsidy offset) for Fiscal Year 2011 in connection with countervailing duty orders, antidumping duty orders, or findings under the Antidumping Act of 1921. This......

  2. 78 FR 32713 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Pursuant to the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000, this document is U.S. Customs and Border Protection's notice of intent to distribute assessed antidumping or countervailing duties (known as the continued dumping and subsidy offset) for Fiscal Year 2013 in connection with countervailing duty orders, antidumping duty orders, or findings under the Antidumping Act of 1921. This......

  3. Choosers and Losers: The Impact of Government Subsidies on Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Louise; Ryan, Chris

    2010-01-01

    For over three decades, government subsidies have been a major source of funds for private schools in Australia. Private schools now enrol more than one-third of all students. Analysing administrative and participation data, we find that Australian private schools have used government subsidies to increase the quality of their services (that is,…

  4. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  5. 20 CFR 418.3210 - What is a prescribed application for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a prescribed application for a subsidy? 418.3210 Section 418.3210 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES..., or an application available online on our Internet Web site (www.socialsecurity.gov). See §...

  6. An Approach to Granting Subsidies to College Students in China Using Big Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Xuan; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    China has made great improvement on subsidizing poverty-stricken students, but the current approaches of granting subsidies is not scientific or humane. Poverty-stricken students who couldn't get sufficient subsidies in suitable ways need some new and more scientific granting approaches, which inspires me to go about this study. The approach, we…

  7. 19 CFR 351.601 - Annual list and quarterly update of subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual list and quarterly update of subsidies. 351... Duty § 351.601 Annual list and quarterly update of subsidies. The Secretary will make the...) based on the available information, and will publish the annual list and quarterly updates described...

  8. Subsidies for New Technologies and Knowledge Spillovers from Learning by Doing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemet, Gregory F.

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically examines a prominent justification for public subsidies of emerging technologies: that stimulating demand for them provides opportunities for learning by doing. Even if firms learn from their experience, subsidies are still second best to pricing negative externalities if firms can appropriate the benefits of learning. I…

  9. 75 FR 82130 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Subsidies on Wind Power Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Proceeding Regarding China--Subsidies on Wind Power Equipment AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... consultations regarding certain subsidies provided by the People's Republic of China (China) on wind power... Administration of Special Fund for Industrialization of Wind Power Equipment'' (``Wind Power Equipment...

  10. 20 CFR 418.3210 - What is a prescribed application for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a prescribed application for a subsidy? 418.3210 Section 418.3210 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES..., or an application available online on our Internet Web site (www.socialsecurity.gov). See §...

  11. 20 CFR 418.3210 - What is a prescribed application for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a prescribed application for a subsidy? 418.3210 Section 418.3210 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES..., or an application available online on our Internet Web site (www.socialsecurity.gov). See §...

  12. Child Care Subsidies and Childhood Obesity. NBER Working Paper No. 15007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    Child care subsidies play a critical role in facilitating the transition of disadvantaged mothers from welfare to work. However, little is known about the influence of these policies on children's health and well-being. In this paper, we study the impact of subsidy receipt on low-income children's weight outcomes in the fall and spring of…

  13. 7 CFR 3560.260 - Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources. 3560.260 Section 3560.260 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies §...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.260 - Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources. 3560.260 Section 3560.260 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies §...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.260 - Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources. 3560.260 Section 3560.260 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies §...

  16. Report on a panel debate on agricultural subsidies from a water perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuylenstierna, J

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between subsidies, trade and water issues and poverty are complex. If trade barriers and subsidies were removed by the developed countries, it is likely that opportunities for the developing countries would improve--not just for increased trade but also for improved livelihood opportunities.

  17. 7 CFR 3560.260 - Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources. 3560.260 Section 3560.260 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies §...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.260 - Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources. 3560.260 Section 3560.260 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies §...

  19. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  20. 26 CFR 6a.103A-1 - Interest on mortgage subsidy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... be in registered form. The term “in registered form” has the same meaning as in § 1.6049-2(d). Thus... definitions apply: (1) Mortgage subsidy bond. (i) The term “mortgage subsidy bond” means any obligation which...) Bond. The term “bond” means any obligation. The term “obligation” means any evidence of...

  1. Studying Child Care Subsidies with Secondary Data Sources. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yoonsook; Johnson, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes four national surveys with data relevant to subsidy-related research and provides a useful set of considerations for subsidy researchers considering use of secondary data. Specifically, this brief describes each of the four datasets reviewed, highlighting unique features of each dataset and providing information on the survey…

  2. Bioeconomic analysis of child-targeted subsidies for artemisinin combination therapies: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eili Y.; Smith, David L.; Cohen, Justin M.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) was conceived as a global market-based mechanism to increase access to effective malaria treatment and prolong effectiveness of artemisinin. Although results from a pilot implementation suggested that the subsidy was effective in increasing access to high-quality artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the Global Fund has converted AMFm into a country-driven mechanism whereby individual countries could choose to fund the subsidy from within their country envelopes. Because the initial costs of the subsidy in the pilot countries was higher than expected, countries are also exploring alternatives to a universal subsidy, such as subsidizing only child doses. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of a child-targeted policy using an age-structured bioeconomic model of malaria from the provider perspective. Because the vast majority of malaria deaths occur in children, targeting children could potentially improve the cost-effectiveness of the subsidy, though it would avert significantly fewer deaths. However, the benefits of a child-targeted subsidy (i.e. deaths averted) are eroded as leakage (i.e. older individuals taking young child-targeted doses) increases, with few of the benefits of a universal subsidy gained (i.e. reductions in overall prevalence). Although potentially more cost-effective, a child-targeted subsidy must contain measures to reduce the possibility of leakage. PMID:25994293

  3. 24 CFR 92.250 - Maximum per-unit subsidy amount and subsidy layering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.250... the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 17151(d)(3)(ii)) for elevator-type projects that apply to the area... project, the participating jurisdiction must evaluate the project in accordance with guidelines that...

  4. 24 CFR 92.250 - Maximum per-unit subsidy amount and subsidy layering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.250... the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 17151(d)(3)(ii)) for elevator-type projects that apply to the area... project, the participating jurisdiction must evaluate the project in accordance with guidelines that...

  5. Getting quantitative about consequences of cross-ecosystem resource subsidies on recipient consumers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, John S.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of cross-ecosystem resource subsidies have demonstrated positive effects on recipient consumer populations, often with very large effect sizes. However, it is important to move beyond these initial addition–exclusion experiments to consider the quantitative consequences for populations across gradients in the rates and quality of resource inputs. In our introduction to this special issue, we describe at least four potential models that describe functional relationships between subsidy input rates and consumer responses, most of them asymptotic. Here we aim to advance our quantitative understanding of how subsidy inputs influence recipient consumers and their communities. In the papers following, fish were either the recipient consumers or the subsidy as carcasses of anadromous species. Advancing general, predictive models will enable us to further consider what other factors are potentially co-limiting (e.g., nutrients, other population interactions, physical habitat, etc.) and better integrate resource subsidies into consumer–resource, biophysical dynamics models.

  6. Care or Cash? The Effect of Child Care Subsidies on Student Performance. NBER Working Paper No. 18086

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Loken, Katrine V.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide use of childcare subsidies across countries, it is surprising how little we know about the effect of these subsidies on children's longer run outcomes. Using a sharp discontinuity in the price of childcare in Norway, we are able to isolate the effects of childcare subsidies on both parental and student outcomes. We find very small…

  7. 76 FR 59711 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Voucher program serves more than 2 million households, at a total subsidy cost of $18.2 billion per year... funding that PHAs receive includes the housing subsidy itself, plus administrative fees to cover the costs... reimbursing PHAs for the costs of program administration was loosely based on empirical evidence. Over...

  8. Quantifying Urban Water Subsidies with Hydrological Tracers of Domestic Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Sikora, M. T.; Wozniak, E.; Fisher, K. R.; Carr, J.; Elliott, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    Connections between urban hydrological systems and human water infrastructure are well established. Interactions between these systems occur at a wide range of scales, from large inter-basin transfers to individual leaking pipes. However, much of the interest in these connections arises from practical considerations, for example, substantially altered in-stream flow or the presence/absence of sewage in surface water systems. Less recognized is that in smaller urban catchments, daily water flux through human water distribution systems is often much larger than low flow surface water flux from the catchment. As infrastructure ages and cross-connections grow, transfers from the substantial human fluxes to the catchment will increasingly subsidize urban water budgets. Tools for quantifying the contribution of this subsidy to urban hydrological systems can clarify both practical questions for urban managers and our understanding of flow generation in catchments. Stream water chemistry from a multi-year sampling campaign in Nine Mile Run (Pittsburgh, PA) is used to examine potential hydrological tracers of human domestic water. In particular, we examine the use of fluoride added in precise quantities as a dental health supplement as a tracer of human domestic water (e.g., drinking and waste water). While fluoride is not necessarily a conservative tracer, equilibrium reactions governing fluoride solubility generally require substantially higher cationic concentrations than those observed in surface water chemistry. Further, during periods where human subsidies dominate (e.g., water line breaks or hydrant flushes discharging to the stream) fluoride concentrations generally approach the concentration added to domestic water. We use multiple modeling approaches to demonstrate the appropriateness of fluoride as a tracer, infer contributions of human domestic water to the hydrologic budget, and explore fluoride dynamics in the Nine Mile Run basin. A fluoride tracer is

  9. Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Investigations of Alleged Use of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Robert W.

    Chemical warfare agents were used extensively throughout the twentieth century. Many such uses are well documented; however some allegations of use of chemical warfare agents were not easily confirmed. During the early 1980s interest developed into investigation of alleged use by analytical techniques, particularly mass spectrometry. Since that time, many combined chromatographic - mass spectrometric methods have been developed, both for application to the analysis of environmental and biomedical samples and for investigation of physiological interactions of chemical warfare agents. Examples are given of some of the investigations in which the author has been involved, including those into Yellow Rain and uses of chemical warfare agents in Iraq and Iran. These examples illustrate the use of combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods and emphasise the importance of controls in analytical investigations.

  10. Illegal discharges in Spanish waters. Analysis of the profile of the Alleged Offending Vessel.

    PubMed

    Martín Alonso, J M; Ortega Piris, Andrés; Pérez Labajos, Carlos

    2015-08-15

    There is at present a growing concern, on an international level, over environmental offences caused by oil discharges into the sea from vessels. The objective of the Spanish Maritime Administration is to prevent the illegal discharges of polluting substances in Spanish maritime waters by vessels in transit. To combat such discharges, since 2007 Spain has reinforced its means of response with the use of aircrafts that provide services of maritime surveillance, identifying the Alleged Offending Vessels and acting as a deterrent. The objective of the present study is both to introduce the concept and to analyze certain aspects of the so-called "Alleged Offending Vessel" (AOV) that have been detected within Spanish Search and Rescue (SAR) jurisdiction waters in the period 2008-2012, in order to build a profile of such a vessel. For this purpose, an analysis methodology is formalized based on the GINI index and Lorenz curves, associated with certain aspects of vessels: type, flag and sailing area.

  11. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Amy A.; Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies—the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries—can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ trongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  12. The Impact of Subsidies on the Ecological Sustainability and Future Profits from North Sea Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Mackinson, Steven; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Dyck, Andrew; Little, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. Methodology/Principal Findings Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. Conclusions/Significance The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government. PMID:21637848

  13. A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takuya; El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Campbell, Kirsten; Ohta, Tamihisa; Richardson, John S

    2016-09-01

    Spatial resource subsidies can alter bottom-up and top-down forces of community regulation across ecosystem boundaries. Most subsidies are temporally variable, and recent theory has suggested that consumer-resource dynamics can be stabilized if the peak timing of a subsidy is desynchronized with that of prey productivity in the recipient ecosystem. However, magnitude of consumer responses per se could depend on the subsidy timing, which may be a critical component for community dynamics and ecosystem processes. The aim of this study was to test (i) whether a recipient consumer (cutthroat trout) responds differently to a resource subsidy occurring early in its growing season than to a subsidy occurring late in the season and, if this is the case, (ii) whether the timing-dependent consumer response has cascading effects on communities and ecosystem functions in streams. To test those hypotheses, we conducted a large-scale field experiment, in which we directly manipulated the timing of augmentation of the terrestrial invertebrates that enter stream (i.e. peak timing of June-August vs. August-October), keeping constant the total amounts of the invertebrates entered. We found large increases in the individual growth rate and population biomass of the cutthroat trout, in response to the early resource pulse, but not to the late pulse. This timing-dependent consumer response cascaded down to reduce benthic invertebrates and leaf breakdown rate, and increased water nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, the early resource pulse resulted in higher maturity rate of the cutthroat trout in the following spring, demonstrating the importance of the subsidy timing on long-term community dynamics via the consumer's numerical response. Our results emphasize the need to acknowledge timing-dependent consumer responses in understanding the effects of subsidies on communities and ecosystem processes. Elucidating the mechanisms by which consumers effectively exploit pulsed subsidies is

  14. Investigating the allegations of Indian nuclear test preparations in the Rajasthan Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.; Pabian, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes how commercial satellite imagery was used along with news reports and published scientific articles to investigate the December 1995 allegations of Indian nuclear test preparations in the Rajasthan Desert. Taking the allegations against India as an example of a future CTB compliance dispute, the investigation was conducted to test the utility of commercial satellite imagery for CTB verification. The technical inquiry produced a series of findings on India`s nuclear testing history and on the recent nuclear test allegations. These findings included the exact location of the subsidence crater created by the May 18, 1974 nuclear test, the discovery of an adjacent military range near Khetolai village, and the observation of recent large-scale, unusual activity at this military range in the immediate vicinity of the 1974 test site. The image-derived information was used to sift fact from fiction in the conflicting media reports. It was then integrated into the collection of credible evidence and analyzed to determine whether the observed activity at the Khetolai military range was conventional, missile testing, nuclear, or innocuous. 95 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Perceived credibility of children's sexual abuse allegations: effects of gender and sexual attitudes.

    PubMed

    O'Donohue, W T; Elliott, A N; Nickerson, M; Valentine, S

    1992-01-01

    We investigated whether sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, acceptance of interpersonal violence, sex of the subject, characteristics of the child (age, sex), and characteristics of the alleged perpetrator (stranger, father) affect judgments of the credibility of children's reports that they have been sexually abused. Two hundred and fifty-five college students in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement were given the Burt (1980) scales and asked to read a short vignette in which a child alleged that he/she was sexually abused and the accused male denied the abuse. Although the vast majority of subjects indicated that they believed the child was telling the truth, females rated the child's credibility significantly higher than males F(1, 253) = 6.29, p = .01226. No other significant relationships were found. The results imply that the vast majority of individuals in a college sample tended to believe children's sexual abuse allegations and that this credibility assessment is not influenced by characteristics of the child or perpetrator examined in this study. Implications of the truncated range of the dependent variable and of the Burt scales are discussed.

  16. Newfield Production agrees to resolve alleged wetlands violations at production sites in Uintah and Duchesne counties (Utah)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Denver, Colo.-February 2, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Denver, Colorado-based Newfield Production Company (Newfield) has agreed to resolve alleged Clean Water Act violations and complete wetlands restoration an

  17. 78 FR 22361 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  18. 78 FR 9987 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  19. 78 FR 8217 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  20. Direct Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy in Fiscal Year 2010

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report responds to a November 2010 request to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from U.S. Representatives Roscoe G. Bartlett, Marsha Blackburn, and Jason Chaffetz for an update to a 2008 report prepared by EIA that provided a snapshot of direct federal financial interventions and subsidies in energy markets in fiscal year (FY) 2007, focusing on subsidies to electricity production. As requested, this report updates the previous report using FY 2010 data and is limited to subsidies that are provided by the federal government, provide a financial benefit with an identifiable federal budget impact, and are specifically targeted at energy markets. Subsidies to federal electric utilities, in the way of financial support, are also included as requested.

  1. Environmental impact propagated by cross-system subsidy: chronic stream pollution controls riparian spider populations.

    PubMed

    Paetzold, Achim; Smith, Marian; Warren, Philip H; Maltby, Lorraine

    2011-09-01

    Resource subsidies between habitats are common and create the potential for the propagation of environmental impacts across system boundaries. However, recent understanding of the potential for subsidy-mediated cross-system impact propagations is limited and primarily based on passive flows of nutrients and detritus or short-term effects. Here, we assess the effects of sustained alterations in aquatic insect emergence (active subsidy pathway), due to chronic stream pollution, for riparian spiders. The sustained reduction in aquatic insect densities at the polluted reaches resulted in a marked decline in web spider population density and a shift in spider community composition. Our results provide the first evidence that stream pollution can control populations and community structure of terrestrial predators via sustained alterations in aquatic subsidies, emphasizing the role of subtle trophic linkages in the transmission of environmental impacts across ecosystem boundaries.

  2. 42 CFR 423.34 - Enrollment of low-income subsidy eligible individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MSA plan or one of the following that does not offer a Part D benefit. Low-income subsidy eligible... qualified prescription drug coverage or an MSA plan and who fail to enroll in a Part D plan must be...

  3. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval Number... Quality Control process involves selecting a nationally representative sample of assisted households...

  4. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... submitted will be summarized and included in the CBP request for Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Subsidy Offset Act of 2000 (CDSOA). 19 U.S.C. 1675c (repealed by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Pub....

  5. How families of children with severe disabilities choose to allocate a cash subsidy.

    PubMed

    Marcenko, M O; Meyers, J C

    1994-01-01

    This study examines how families raising children with severe developmental disabilities use a cash subsidy. Eighty-one families were interviewed prior to receiving the $225 monthly subsidy and again 1 year later. Families reported no change in the number of services they used, nor did they significantly increase the amount spent on services. Although families did not spend significantly more on purchases in the month prior to each interview, there was a significant increase in the amount spent on major purchases made in the year after receipt of the subsidy. The pattern and amount of expenditures are described. Lower income families reported the subsidy as significantly more helpful than higher income families. The implications of the findings for social policy are discussed and recommendations are made.

  6. Effects of Targeted Subsidies Policy on Health Behavior in Iranian Households: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    DOSHMANGIR, Leila; DOSHMANGIR, Parinaz; ABOLHASSANI, Nazanin; MOSHIRI, Esmaeil; JAFARI, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the effects of national targeted subsidies policy on health behavior of Iranian households. Methods: In this qualitative study, data were collected between January 2012 and December 2013 through face-to-face interviews (23 experts in national and provincial levels of health system and 18 household heads) and through a comprehensive and purposive document analysis. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis method (inductive-deductive) and assisted by Atlas-ti software. Results: Rising health care costs, removing some food subsidies and the increase in price of most goods and services due to the implementation of economic policy of targeted subsidies have led to significant changes in the demand for health services, changes in the consumption trends of goods and services affecting health as well as changes in the health habits of households. Conclusion: Targeted subsidies and the cash subsidy policy have some negative effects on population health behavior especially among poor people. Hence, maintaining or increasing the cash subsidy is not an efficient allocation of resources toward health care system. So, it is necessary to identify appropriate strategies and policies and apply interventions in order to moderate negative effects and enhance positive effects resulted from implementing this economic reform on population health behavior. PMID:26056676

  7. Predator-Prey-Subsidy Population Dynamics on Stepping-Stone Domains.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lulan; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2017-03-16

    Predator-prey-subsidy dynamics on stepping-stone domains are examined using a variety of network configurations. Our problem is motivated by the interactions between arctic foxes (predator) and lemmings (prey) in the presence of seal carrion (subsidy) provided by polar bears. We use the n-Patch Model, which considers space explicitly as a "Stepping Stone" system. We consider the role that the carrying capacity, predator migration rate, input subsidy rate, predator mortality rate, and proportion of predators surviving migration play in the predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics. We find that for certain types of networks, added mobility will help predator populations, allowing them to survive or coexist when they would otherwise go extinct if confined to one location, while in other situations (such as when sparsely distributed nodes in the network have few resources available) the added mobility will hurt the predator population. We also find that a combination of favorable conditions for the prey and subsidy can lead to the formation of limit cycles (boom and bust dynamic) from stable equilibrium states. These modifications to the dynamics vary depending on the specific network structure employed, highlighting the fact that network structure can strongly influence the predator-prey-subsidy dynamics in stepping-stone domains.

  8. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

  9. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  10. Ecological and evolutionary implications of food subsidies from humans.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Genovart, Meritxell; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Fowler, Mike S; Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Human activities are the main current driver of global change. From hunter-gatherers through to Neolithic societies-and particularly in contemporary industrialised countries-humans have (voluntarily or involuntarily) provided other animals with food, often with a high spatio-temporal predictability. Nowadays, as much as 30-40% of all food produced in Earth is wasted. We argue here that predictable anthropogenic food subsidies (PAFS) provided historically by humans to animals has shaped many communities and ecosystems as we see them nowadays. PAFS improve individual fitness triggering population increases of opportunistic species, which may affect communities, food webs and ecosystems by altering processes such as competition, predator-prey interactions and nutrient transfer between biotopes and ecosystems. We also show that PAFS decrease temporal population variability, increase resilience of opportunistic species and reduce community diversity. Recent environmental policies, such as the regulation of dumps or the ban of fishing discards, constitute natural experiments that should improve our understanding of the role of food supply in a range of ecological and evolutionary processes at the ecosystem level. Comparison of subsidised and non-subsidised ecosystems can help predict changes in diversity and the related ecosystem services that have suffered the impact of other global change agents.

  11. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  12. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  13. Two brothers' alleged paternity for a child: who is the father?

    PubMed

    Dogan, Muhammed; Kara, Umut; Emre, Ramazan; Fung, Wing Kam; Canturk, Kemal Murat

    2015-06-01

    In paternity cases where individuals are close relatives, it may be necessary to evaluate mother's DNA profile (trio test) and to increase the number of polymorphic STR loci that are analyzed. In our case, two alleged fathers who are brothers and the child (duo case) were analyzed based on 20 STR loci; however, no exclusions could be achieved. Then trio test (with mother) was performed using the Identifiler Plus kit (Applied Biosystems) and no exclusions could be achieved again. Analysis performed with the ESS Plex Plus kit (Qiagen), the paternity of one of the two alleged fathers was rejected only on 2 STR loci. We made the calculations of power of exclusion values to interpret our results more properly. The probability of exclusion (PE) is calculated as 0.9776546 in 15 loci of Identifiler Plus kit without mother. The PE is calculated as 0.9942803, if 5 additional loci from ESS Plex Plus kit are typed. The PE becomes 0.9961048 for the Identifiler Plus kit in trio analysis. If both Identifiler Plus and ESS Plex Plus kits are used for testing, the PE is calculated as 0.999431654, which indicates that the combined kits are highly discriminating.

  14. Perspective: Innocence and due diligence: managing unfounded allegations of scientific misconduct.

    PubMed

    Goldenring, James R

    2010-03-01

    While the incidence of fraud in science is well documented, issues related to the establishment of innocence in cases of fallacious allegations remain unaddressed. In this article, the author uses his own experience to examine issues that arise when investigators are falsely accused of scientific fraud. Investigators must understand the processes in place to protect themselves against false accusations. The present system takes a position of guilty until proven innocent, a concept that is antithetical to American principles of jurisprudence. Yet this stance is acceptable as a requirement for membership in the scientific community, more reflective of the rules within a guild organization. The necessity for proof of innocence by members of the scientific community carries obligations that transcend normal legal assumptions. Scientists must safeguard their reputations by organizing and maintaining all original image files and data relevant to publications and grant proposals. Investigators must be able to provide clear documentation rapidly whenever concerns are raised during the review process. Moreover, peer-reviewed journals must be diligent not only in the identification of fraud but also in providing rapid due process for adjudication of allegations. The success of the scientific guild rules of conduct lies in the practice of due diligence by both scientists and journal editors in questions of scientific misconduct.

  15. Investigation of an alleged mechanism of finger injury in an automobile crash.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Stephen; Kent, Richard

    2006-07-01

    This investigation centers on the case of an adult male whose finger was allegedly amputated by the steering wheel of his car during a crash. The subject claimed to have been driving with his left index finger inserted through a hole in the spoke of his steering wheel and was subsequently involved in an offset frontal collision with a tree. The finger was found to be cleanly severed at the mid-shaft of the proximal phalanx after the crash. This injury was alleged to have been caused by inertial loading from the rotation of the steering wheel during the crash. To determine whether this injury mechanism was plausible, three laboratory tests representing distinct loading scenarios were carried out with postmortem human surrogates loaded dynamically by the subject's steering wheel. It was found that the inertial loads generated in this loading scenario are insufficient to amputate the finger. Additionally, artificially constraining the finger to force an amputation to occur revealed that a separation at the proximal interphalangeal joint occurs rather than a bony fracture of the proximal phalanx. Based on these biomechanical tests, it can be concluded that the subject's injury did not occur during the automobile crash in question. Furthermore, it can be shown that the injury was self-inflicted to fraudulently claim on an insurance policy.

  16. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  17. 76 FR 60805 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... ($/ Net \\2\\ lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\...... European Union Restitution... of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  18. Shame or subsidy revisited: social mobilization for sanitation in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jui-Chen; Dickinson, Katherine L; Poulos, Christine; Patil, Sumeet R; Mallick, Ranjan K; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Praharaj, Purujit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the effectiveness of a sanitation campaign that combines “shaming” (i.e. emotional motivators) with subsidies for poor households in rural Orissa, an Indian state with a disproportionately high share of India’s child mortality. Methods Using a cluster-randomized design, we selected 20 treatment and 20 control villages in the coastal district of Bhadrak, rural Orissa, for a total sample of 1050 households. We collected sanitation and health data before and after a community-led sanitation project, and we used a difference-in-difference estimator to determine the extent to which the campaign influenced the number of households building and using a latrine. Findings Latrine ownership did not increase in control villages, but in treatment villages it rose from 6% to 32% in the overall sample, from 5% to 36% in households below the poverty line (eligible for a government subsidy) and from 7% to 26% in households above the poverty line (not eligible for a government subsidy). Conclusion Subsidies can overcome serious budget constraints but are not necessary to spur action, for shaming can be very effective by harnessing the power of social pressure and peer monitoring. Through a combination of shaming and subsidies, social marketing can improve sanitation worldwide. PMID:19705007

  19. Diet shift of lentic dragonfly larvae in response to reduced terrestrial prey subsidies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Inputs of terrestrial plant detritus and nutrients play an important role in aquatic food webs, but the importance of terrestrial prey inputs in determining aquatic predator distribution and abundance has been appreciated only recently. I examined the numerical, biomass, and diet responses of a common predator, dragonfly larvae, to experimental reduction of terrestrial arthropod input into ponds. I distributed paired enclosures (n  =  7), one with a screen between the land and water (reduced subsidy) and one without a screen (ambient subsidy), near the shoreline of 2 small fishless ponds and sampled each month during the growing season in the southern Appalachian Mountains, Virginia (USA). Screens between water and land reduced the number of terrestrial arthropods that fell into screened enclosures relative to the number that fell into unscreened enclosures and open reference plots by 36%. The δ13C isotopic signatures of dragonfly larvae shifted towards those of aquatic prey in reduced-subsidy enclosures, a result suggesting that dragonflies consumed fewer terrestrial prey when fewer were available (ambient subsidy: 30%, reduced subsidy: 19% of diet). Overall abundance and biomass of dragonfly larvae did not change in response to reduced terrestrial arthropod inputs, despite the fact that enclosures permitted immigration/emigration. These results suggest that terrestrial arthropods can provide resources to aquatic predators in lentic systems, but that their effects on abundance and distribution might be subtle and confounded by in situ factors.

  20. Child care subsidies, maternal health, and child-parent interactions: evidence from three nationally representative datasets.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal

    2014-08-01

    A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being.

  1. Price Decisions of New Product Based on Subsidy-pricedepending and Payment-sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiaolun, Gu; Tiegang, Gao

    In order to stimulate private spending and curb pollution, the Chinese government has decided to offer financial subsidy to carry out home-appliance replacement from June 1, 2009 to May 31, 2010. Because the financial subsidy can be offered until May 31, 2010, the manufacturer must face the problem: if the government stops to offer the financial subsidy, whether to continue the home-appliance replacement or not? If continue to carry out the homeappliance replacement, the manufacturer should give the payment to the replacement consumer. In this case, there is a potential risk for the manufacturer: the unit cost of the new product will increase. In this paper, we studied the price decisions for the manufacturer and the retailer under two cases: case I, the government offers the financial subsidy which is depended on the retail price; case II, the government stops to offer the financial subsidy, the manufacturer will share the payment with the retailer. At the same time, we analyze the impacts of the subsidizing rate and the sharing ratio on the optimal results by a numerical example.

  2. Happy Meals: When Lunch Subsidies Are Chopped, Kids Eat Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Explains why privately-run lunch programs are providing better nutritional value at less cost than state-run programs. Several examples are provided of schools where lunch program privatization has increased participation and cafeteria discipline, improved nutritional and food quality, and has done so with financial efficiency. (GR)

  3. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P < 0.001) and their unsubsidized neighbors (+8.5 percentage points, P = 0.001), which suggests that investment decisions are interlinked across neighbors. Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001).

  4. Location is everything: evaluating the effects of terrestrial and marine resource subsidies on an estuarine bivalve.

    PubMed

    Harding, Joel M S; Segal, Michelle R; Reynolds, John D

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are amongst the world's most productive ecosystems, lying at the intersection between terrestrial and marine environments. They receive substantial inputs from adjacent landscapes but the importance of resource subsidies is not well understood. Here, we test hypotheses for the effects of both terrestrial- and salmon-derived resource subsidies on the diet (inferred from stable isotopes of muscle tissue), size and percent nitrogen of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), a sedentary estuarine consumer. We examine how these relationships shift across natural gradients among 14 estuaries that vary in upstream watershed size and salmon density on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We also test how assimilation and response to subsidies vary at smaller spatial scales within estuaries. The depletion and enrichment of stable isotope ratios in soft-shell clam muscle tissue correlated with increasing upstream watershed size and salmon density, respectively. The effects of terrestrial- and salmon-derived subsidies were also strongest at locations near stream outlets. When we controlled for age of individual clams, there were larger individuals with higher percent nitrogen content in estuaries below larger watersheds, though this effect was limited to the depositional zones below river mouths. Pink salmon exhibited a stronger effect on isotope ratios of clams than chum salmon, which could reflect increased habitat overlap as spawning pink salmon concentrate in lower stream reaches, closer to intertidal clam beds. However, there were smaller clams in estuaries that had higher upstream pink salmon densities, possibly due to differences in habitat requirements. Our study highlights the importance of upstream resource subsidies to this bivalve species, but that individual responses to subsidies can vary at smaller scales within estuaries.

  5. Location Is Everything: Evaluating the Effects of Terrestrial and Marine Resource Subsidies on an Estuarine Bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Joel M. S.; Segal, Michelle R.; Reynolds, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are amongst the world’s most productive ecosystems, lying at the intersection between terrestrial and marine environments. They receive substantial inputs from adjacent landscapes but the importance of resource subsidies is not well understood. Here, we test hypotheses for the effects of both terrestrial- and salmon-derived resource subsidies on the diet (inferred from stable isotopes of muscle tissue), size and percent nitrogen of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), a sedentary estuarine consumer. We examine how these relationships shift across natural gradients among 14 estuaries that vary in upstream watershed size and salmon density on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We also test how assimilation and response to subsidies vary at smaller spatial scales within estuaries. The depletion and enrichment of stable isotope ratios in soft-shell clam muscle tissue correlated with increasing upstream watershed size and salmon density, respectively. The effects of terrestrial- and salmon-derived subsidies were also strongest at locations near stream outlets. When we controlled for age of individual clams, there were larger individuals with higher percent nitrogen content in estuaries below larger watersheds, though this effect was limited to the depositional zones below river mouths. Pink salmon exhibited a stronger effect on isotope ratios of clams than chum salmon, which could reflect increased habitat overlap as spawning pink salmon concentrate in lower stream reaches, closer to intertidal clam beds. However, there were smaller clams in estuaries that had higher upstream pink salmon densities, possibly due to differences in habitat requirements. Our study highlights the importance of upstream resource subsidies to this bivalve species, but that individual responses to subsidies can vary at smaller scales within estuaries. PMID:25993002

  6. Ecosystem Services Transcend Boundaries: Estuaries Provide Resource Subsidies and Influence Functional Diversity in Coastal Benthic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Candida; Thrush, Simon F.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Hewitt, Judi E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the ‘outwelling hypothesis’). However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (δ13C, δ15N) demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea) closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi), indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp.) had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities). These findings highlight the importance of

  7. Evaluation of Defense Hotline Allegations at the Defense Contract Audit Agency Santa Barbara Suboffice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-08

    No. DODIG-2015-005 O C T O B E R 8 , 2 0 1 4 Evaluation of Defense Hotline Allegations at the Defense Contract Audit Agency Santa Barbara...inside back cover. I N T E G R I T Y  E F F I C I E N C Y  A C C O U N T A B I L I T Y  E X C E L L E N C E dodig.mil/ hotline |800.424.9098... HOTLINE Department of Defense F r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY DODIG-2015-005 (Project No. D2009

  8. Custody evaluators' beliefs about domestic violence allegations during divorce: feminist and family violence perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Hans, Jason D

    2011-05-01

    Approximately, 20% of divorcing couples in the United States require judicial intervention to reach a custody agreement. In such cases, courts often call on child custody evaluators to conduct comprehensive evaluations and recommend custody agreements and services that meet children's best interests. Estimates suggest that allegations of domestic violence (DV) are raised and substantiated in about 75% of these cases. Custody evaluators are thus in a position to ensure that divorcing parents with DV receive effective services and enter into safe custody agreements. They are also in a position to minimize or deny the seriousness of DV and its relevance to custody decisions. The present study uses grounded theory methods to examine how custody evaluators' theoretical perspectives on DV and beliefs about custody disputes in the context of DV are related to their evaluation process and recommendations.

  9. Failures of foreseeability: Risk management considerations in reducing allegations of sexual violence in psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Banja, John D

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with a brief discussion of findings on causal factors leading to allegations of sexual violence in health care facilities and then offers the author's account of 4 such cases that he reviewed, 3 of which occurred in psychiatric units. These cases show remarkably similar variables, especially involving decisions to allow male and female patients to commingle, the inadequate physical layout of the units, poor or absent video surveillance, and staff unacquainted with institutional policies on patient safety or refusing to enforce relevant rules. These variables arguably amount to "failures of foreseeability" that reasonably cautious health care personnel should recognize as facilitating or enabling sexual violence. As such, the proactive message of this article for health care risk management urges critical and robust attention paid to a unit's environmental/physical design as well as to performance factors among personnel so as to prevent sexual attacks and diminish the probability of malpractice actions.

  10. Use of subsidies to low-income people for coverage through small employers.

    PubMed

    Neuschler, Ed; Curtis, Rick

    2003-01-01

    If tax credits or other public subsidies are made available only for health insurance that is not employment-based, serious erosion of employer coverage could result. To prevent this, public subsidies targeted to low-income workers and families could be applied in ways that broaden employer coverage for low-income workers and their families by encouraging small employers with largely low-wage workforces to offer and partially fund health coverage for their workers. To accomplish this, such employers--very few of which now provide health coverage--must be allowed to contribute much less than normally required in the commercial market.

  11. More nutritious food is served in child-care homes receiving higher federal food subsidies.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Kirkpatrick, Shannon; Johnson, Donna B

    2011-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) serves 2.3 million children by providing monetary subsidies for food to participating child-care providers. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that higher reimbursement rates for food result in higher food expenditures and higher nutritional quality of foods served in family child-care homes participating in CACFP. Sixty family home child-care providers were recruited in 2008-2009 from King County, Washington. Half the sample received higher reimbursements and the other half received the lower rates. Participants provided a 5-day menu of meals/snacks served and food shopping receipts. The nutritional quality of foods served was assessed from portion-standardized menus. Nutritional quality was quantified as the mean adequacy (mean percent of dietary reference intake) for seven nutrients of concern for child health. Food expenditures were calculated by linking menus with receipts. Student's t tests for independent samples and general linear models were used to test for between-group differences. The two groups of providers were socioeconomically and demographically similar with comparable professional backgrounds. However, higher reimbursement providers had significantly greater menu expenditures than the lower reimbursement group ($2.36 vs $1.96/child/day; P=0.031). Reimbursement level was not associated with a difference in calories, but menus of higher reimbursement providers showed a significantly higher mean nutritional adequacy (64.5% vs 56.3%; P=0.033). The finding that reimbursement rates were positively associated with food expenditures and the nutritional quality of foods served suggests that raising CACFP reimbursements can improve child nutrition.

  12. 24 CFR 219.1 - Program operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program operations. 219.1 Section 219.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... SUBSIDY PROGRAM FOR TROUBLED PROJECTS § 219.1 Program operations. Effective May 1, 1996, the...

  13. The Efficiency of Federal Subsidies to Medical Education. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series. No.: A8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, George E., Jr.

    This paper focuses on the efficiency of federal subsidies in meeting stated public goals and gives two reasons for doing so. First, specific data on subsidies for the education function of medical schools are available. Second, Congress is now considering the entire package of federal health manpower legislation. It is difficult to escape the…

  14. Some Thoughts on the Cost Effectiveness of Graduate Education Subsidies. ISP Discussion Papers No. 245-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.

    A mathematical model of the Ph.D. scientist labor market demonstrates that subsidies of graduate training can be more cost effective than higher wages if the supply of doctorates is substantially more responsive to $1000 of early subsidy than to higher future wages with a present discounted value of $1000. Whether this is true is an unsettled…

  15. Evaluation of Child Care Subsidy Strategies: Implementation of Three Language and Literacy Interventions in Project Upgrade. OPRE 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layzer, Carolyn J.; Layzer, Jean I.; Wolf, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of the three interventions tested in Project Upgrade, one of four experiments conducted as part of the Evaluation of Child Care Subsidy Strategies. The evaluation was a multi-site, multi-year effort to determine whether and how different child care subsidy policies and procedures and quality…

  16. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance.

  17. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De minimis net countervailable subsidies and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Scope and Definitions § 351.106 De... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  18. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false De minimis net countervailable subsidies and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Scope and Definitions § 351.106 De... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  19. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false De minimis net countervailable subsidies and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Scope and Definitions § 351.106 De... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  20. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false De minimis net countervailable subsidies and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Scope and Definitions § 351.106 De... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  1. 46 CFR 251.1 - Applications for construction-differential subsidy under Title V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bulkheads, decks, girder systems; etc.; machinery horsepower and arrangement; and arrangement of deck house..., efficient or economical operation of the ship will be permitted, but without the benefit of subsidy. Subsidy... integrated systems of transportation embracing both ocean and overland transportation. (4) Estimated...

  2. 46 CFR 251.1 - Applications for construction-differential subsidy under Title V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bulkheads, decks, girder systems; etc.; machinery horsepower and arrangement; and arrangement of deck house..., efficient or economical operation of the ship will be permitted, but without the benefit of subsidy. Subsidy... integrated systems of transportation embracing both ocean and overland transportation. (4) Estimated...

  3. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  4. 19 CFR 351.301 - Time limits for submission of factual information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time limits for submission of factual information. 351.301 Section 351.301 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... to the Secretary's satisfaction that the alleged subsidy or subsidy program has been notified,...

  5. Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Mineau, Madeleine M; Hall, Robert O

    2011-06-01

    Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework for identifying the mechanisms that govern the importance of subsidies for recipient food webs and ecosystems. Using a literature review of > 90 studies of open-water metabolism in lakes and streams, we show that high-flux, low-quality subsidies can drive freshwater ecosystem dynamics. Because most of these ecosystems are net heterotrophic, allochthonous inputs must subsidize respiration. Second, using a literature review of subsidy quality and use, we demonstrate that animals select for high-quality food resources in proportions greater than would be predicted based on food quantity, and regardless of allochthonous or autochthonous origin. This finding suggests that low-flux, high-quality subsidies may be selected for by animals, and in turn may disproportionately affect food web and ecosystem processes (e.g., animal production, trophic energy or organic matter flow, trophic cascades). We then synthesize and review approaches that evaluate the role of subsidies and explicitly merge ecosystem and food web perspectives by placing food web measurements in the context of ecosystem budgets, by comparing trophic and ecosystem production and fluxes, and by constructing flow food webs. These tools can and should be used to address future questions about subsidies, such as the relative importance of subsidies to different trophic levels and how subsidies may maintain or disrupt ecosystem stability and food web interactions.

  6. Production of resident fish benefits from experimental salmon subsidies via direct and indirect pathways across stream-riparian boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Scott F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    indicate the strength of bottom-up and top-down responses to subsidy additions was asymmetrical, with top-down forces masking bottom-up effects that required multiple years to manifest. The findings also highlight the need for nutrient mitigation programs to consider multiple pathways of energy and nutrient flow to account for the complex effects of salmon subsidies in stream-riparian ecosystems.

  7. 76 FR 2417 - OSHA-7 Form (“Notice of Alleged Safety and Health Hazards”); Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for public... Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA-7 Form (``Notice of Alleged Safety and Health Hazards... information collection requirements specified in the OSHA-7 Form. DATES: Comments must be...

  8. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  9. 31 CFR 536.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 536.408 Section 536.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 536.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  10. 31 CFR 536.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 536.408 Section 536.408... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations... narcotics trafficker. (a) A change or alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as...

  11. 31 CFR 598.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 598.408 Section 598.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 598.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  12. 31 CFR 598.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 598.408 Section 598.408... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... narcotics trafficker. (a) A change or alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as...

  13. 31 CFR 598.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 598.408 Section 598.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 598.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  14. 31 CFR 598.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 598.408 Section 598.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 598.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  15. 31 CFR 536.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 536.408 Section 536.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 536.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  16. 31 CFR 598.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 598.408 Section 598.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 598.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  17. 31 CFR 536.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 536.408 Section 536.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 536.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  18. 31 CFR 536.408 - Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of an entity designated as a specially designated narcotics trafficker. 536.408 Section 536.408 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 536.408 Alleged change in ownership or control of an entity designated as a specially designated...

  19. 30 CFR 291.102 - May I call the MMS Hotline to informally resolve an allegation that open and nondiscriminatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I call the MMS Hotline to informally... Hotline to informally resolve an allegation that open and nondiscriminatory access was denied? Before... and nondiscriminatory access by calling the toll-free MMS Hotline at 1-888-232-1713. (a) MMS...

  20. 25 CFR 42.5 - When can a school use ADR processes to address an alleged violation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... violation? 42.5 Section 42.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.5 When can a school use ADR processes to address an alleged violation? (a) The school may... special education disciplinary proceeding where use of ADR would not be compatible with the...

  1. 25 CFR 42.5 - When can a school use ADR processes to address an alleged violation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... violation? 42.5 Section 42.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.5 When can a school use ADR processes to address an alleged violation? (a) The school may... special education disciplinary proceeding where use of ADR would not be compatible with the...

  2. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  3. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  4. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  5. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  6. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  7. 18 CFR 2.300 - Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601(c) of the NGPA. 2.300 Section 2.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 18 CFR 2.300 - Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601(c) of the NGPA. 2.300 Section 2.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 18 CFR 2.300 - Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601(c) of the NGPA. 2.300 Section 2.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  11. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  12. 18 CFR 2.300 - Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passthrough of gas prices incurred by an interstate pipeline. (a) In order for the issue of fraud, as that... intervenors must file a complaint alleging that: (1) The interstate pipeline, any first seller who sells natural gas to the interstate pipeline, or both acting together, have made a fraudulent...

  13. 18 CFR 2.300 - Statement of policy concerning allegations of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds under section 601...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... passthrough of gas prices incurred by an interstate pipeline. (a) In order for the issue of fraud, as that... intervenors must file a complaint alleging that: (1) The interstate pipeline, any first seller who sells natural gas to the interstate pipeline, or both acting together, have made a fraudulent...

  14. 20 CFR 10.717 - Is a settlement or judgment received as a result of allegations of medical malpractice in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... result of allegations of medical malpractice in treating an injury covered by the FECA a gross recovery that must be reported to OWCP or SOL? 10.717 Section 10.717 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... injury covered by the FECA a gross recovery that must be reported to OWCP or SOL? Since an injury...

  15. Emotional, Behavioral, and Physical Symptoms Reported by Parents of Sexually Abused, Nonabused, and Allegedly Abused Prepubescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robert D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Girls who had been sexually abused (n=68) or had alleged being sexually abused (n=68) exhibited sleep problems, fearfulness, emotional and behavioral changes, concentration problems, and sexual curiosity and knowledge. Girls known to have been abused were more self-conscious, fearful of being left alone, and had more nightmares than the allegedly…

  16. The Impact of Child Care Subsidies on Child Well-Being: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies. NBER Working Paper No. 16250

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, child care subsidies have become an integral part of federal and state efforts to move economically disadvantaged parents from welfare to work. Although previous empirical studies consistently show that these employment-related subsidies raise work levels among this group, little is known about the impact of subsidy receipt on…

  17. 24 CFR 990.230 - PHAs that will experience a subsidy reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the PHA would receive an operating subsidy amount pursuant to this rule plus a transition-funding... assessor shall conduct an exit conference with the PHA. In response to the exit conference, the PHA may... independent assessors on a timely basis, the PHA may submit its own demonstration of a successful...

  18. Informing Parents about Child Care Subsidies. Child Care Action Campaign Issue Brief #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    On December 11, 1997, the Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) hosted an audioconference to explore the issue of how parents seeking to get off welfare can learn about subsidies available for child care in the transition from welfare to work. Presenters were Doug Baird, president of Associated Day Care Services in Boston, who discussed lessons of a…

  19. Issue Brief #1: Who Pays for Higher Education? Changing Patterns in Cost, Price, and Subsidies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To understand why tuitions are increasing at institutions of higher education, policymakers need to look at the relationships between and among cost, price and subsidy. This brief explains how to understand those relationships, what the trend data show at a national level, places to go for more information, and questions to ask. (Contains 3…

  20. Shoreline urbanization interrupts allochthonous subsidies to a benthic consumer over a gradient of lake size.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric R; Olden, Julian D; Usio, Nisikawa

    2011-08-23

    The role of resource subsidies across ecosystem boundaries has emerged as an important concept in contemporary ecology. For lake ecosystems, this has led to interest in quantifying the contribution of terrestrial allochthonous carbon to aquatic secondary production. An inverse relationship between habitat area and the role of allochthonous subsidies has been documented on marine islands and assumed for lakes, yet there have been no tests of this pattern among benthic (lake bottom) consumers. Here, we used carbon stable isotopes to trace terrestrial allochthonous and benthic autochthonous carbon use by the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus over a gradient of lake area, productivity and urbanization. Consistent with findings from terrestrial islands, habitat size dictated the importance of allochthonous subsidies, as P. leniusculus transitioned from using predominantly terrestrial carbon in small lakes to an increased reliance on autochthonous production in larger lakes. However, shoreline urbanization interacted with this pattern, particularly for small lakes where greater urbanization resulted in reduced use of allochthonous resources. As such, we provide, to our knowledge, the first confirmation of the predicted relationship between habitat size and importance of allochthonous subsidies to lake benthic consumers, but found that urbanization can interfere with this pattern.

  1. 24 CFR 990.230 - PHAs that will experience a subsidy reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., the PHA would receive an operating subsidy amount pursuant to this rule plus a transition-funding... table below: Stop-Loss Demonstration Time Line and Effective Dates Demonstration date by Applications due Reduction stopped at Reduction effective for September 30, 2007 October 15, 2007 5 percent of...

  2. Do State Subsidies for Public Universities Favor the Affluent? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason; Dancy, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Public universities typically charge students less than the full cost of education, using funds from state and local government and other sources to cover the difference. This indirect subsidy is one of the largest forms of aid in America's higher education system but is less understood in the policy community than grants and loans, which are…

  3. The Influence of Price Subsidies on Within-Year Persistence by Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Andrieu, Sandra Carlin

    1995-01-01

    The 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study was used to compare four alternative approaches for assessing the influence of price subsidies on within-year persistence by graduate students. Conclusions include tuition charge has a substantial negative influence on persistence; and comprehensive packages (grants, loans, plus assistantships)…

  4. 20 CFR 418.3230 - When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date? 418.3230 Section 418.3230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE... Web site, we will use the date of the inquiry or the date the partial Internet application was...

  5. Domestic Agricultural Subsidies’ Impacts on National Security Objectives Relative to the SOUTHCOM AOR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    domestic policies that impact regional security concerns? Background The United States National Security Strategy, National Defense Strategy...due to the preponderance of information regarding the impacts of such subsidies on new and future trade agreements. This thesis will address the...concerns of security and economic policy as an instrument of national power, specifically focusing on the impacts for the SOUTHCOM Commander. Although

  6. An Adult Life Cycle Perspective on Public Subsidies to Higher Education in Three Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Empirical analyses of higher education subsidies are commonly misleading because they disregard appropriate age composition in the parental reference population. Further distortions occur depending on parents' categorization by income, occupation, or education. This paper addresses these issues using empirical data from Chile, France, and…

  7. Improving The Affordable Care Act: An Assessment Of Policy Options For Providing Subsidies.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Evan A; Eibner, Christine; Enthoven, Alain C

    2015-12-01

    A key challenge of health reform efforts is to make health insurance affordable for individuals and families who lack coverage without harming those with coverage or increasing federal spending. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) addresses this challenge in part by providing tax subsidies to qualified individuals for purchasing individual insurance and retaining tax exemptions for employer and employee contributions to the cost of premiums of employer-sponsored insurance. These tax exemptions cost approximately $250 billion annually in lost tax revenue and have been criticized for favoring higher earners and conferring preferential treatment of employer-sponsored over individual insurance. We analyzed three options for leveling the financial playing field between the two insurance markets by reallocating the value of tax benefits of employer coverage. We found that one option that uses the subsidy formula employed in the insurance Marketplaces under the ACA for both the individual and employer-sponsored insurance markets, and additionally requires the subsidy to be at least $1,250 without an upper income limit on subsidy eligibility imposed, could expand insurance coverage and reduce individual market premiums relative to the ACA with no additional federal spending.

  8. Redistributive Taxation vs. Education Subsidies: Fostering Equality and Social Mobility in an Intergenerational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Redistributive taxation and education subsidies are common policies intended to foster education attendance of poor children. However, this paper shows that in an intergenerational framework, these policies can raise social mobility only for some investment situations but not in general. I also study the impact of both policies on the aggregate…

  9. State Labor Market Research Study: An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Labor Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others

    The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…

  10. Thoughts on "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS) in China's Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiangyang, Tian

    2008-01-01

    The policy of "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS), which is a "popular sentiment" project, has brought life to the western region's rural education and light to impoverished families. In addition to launching the battle for the "two basics" in the western region, the overall popularization of distance education…

  11. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  12. 20 CFR 418.3230 - When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date? 418.3230 Section 418.3230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE... Web site, we will use the date of the inquiry or the date the partial Internet application was...

  13. 20 CFR 418.3230 - When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date? 418.3230 Section 418.3230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE... Web site, we will use the date of the inquiry or the date the partial Internet application was...

  14. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... existing information collection: 1651-0086. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of...

  15. Carcass analog provides marine subsidies for macroinvertebrates and juvenile Atlantic 8 salmon in temperate oligotrophic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guyette, Margaret Q.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Cunjak, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Assimilation of nutrients from carcass analogues was both direct and indirect, and a nutrient legacy was evident in the second year of sampling. Incorporation of nutrients from the pellets at a range of heights in the food web demonstrated the potential for marine-derived subsidies to contribute to freshwater ecosystem processes in Atlantic salmon nursery streams.

  16. Determining advanced recycling fees and subsidies in "E-scrap" reverse supply chains.

    PubMed

    Hong, I-Hsuan; Ke, Jhih-Sian

    2011-06-01

    Primarily due to environmental concerns and legislative mandates, the disposition of end-of-life (EOL) electronics products has attracted much attention. Advanced recycling fees (ARFs) and government subsidies may play important roles in encouraging or curtailing the flows of recycled items. We present a Stackelberg-type model to determine ARFs and socially optimal subsidy fees in decentralized reverse supply chains where each entity independently acts according to its own interests. The model consists of one leader (the government) and two followers (a group of manufacturers, importers, and sellers (MISs) and a group of recyclers). To maximize social welfare, the government determines the ARFs paid by MIS and the subsidy fees for recyclers when MIS sells new products and recyclers process EOL products. We find that MIS and recyclers behave at the equilibrium status by choosing optimal selling quantity in the market and optimal reward money for customers bringing EOL products to recyclers. Under this approach the two fees achieve the maximum of social welfare at the equilibrium status, while both MIS and recyclers gain the maximum of profits. For comparative purposes, we also develop a conceptual model describing the current practice by which ARFs and the subsidy fees are determined on the basis of fund balance between revenues and costs along with recycling operations. We conclude that our results outperform current practice.

  17. Empirical evidence of the efficiency and efficacy of fat taxes and thin subsidies.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Stephen; Dittrich, Ludwig O; Xu, Qin

    2014-09-01

    This study summarizes the empirical literature on fat taxes and thin subsidies to assess their efficiency and efficacy as instruments of public policy to control obesity. Three specific types of taxes are studied in the literature: food group taxes; nutrient taxes; and nutrient index taxes. Anumber of studies use food expenditure data to assess the impact of various taxes on obesity and therefore only indirectly measure the impacts of taxes and subsidies on obesity. These studies generally conclude that food group taxes, nutrient taxes and nutrient index taxes have a small impact on the purchases of food and the nutrients purchased. Other studies use the body mass index as the explanatory variable and thus measure the impacts of taxes on body mass index directly. Nutrient taxes are found to be more effective than food group taxes, although even for nutrient taxes, the effects are small. In general, thin subsidies seem to offer more effective control of obesity than obesity taxes. However, due to the small effects of both fat taxes and thin subsidies, they are not recommended as instruments of food and nutrition policy.

  18. Report of the South Texas Project Allegations Review Team. Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499, Houston Lighting and Power Company et al.

    SciTech Connect

    Kokajko, L.; Skay, D.; Wang, H.; Murphy, D.

    1995-03-01

    This report provides the results of the South Texas Project Allegations Review Team of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This team was formed to obtain and review allegations from individuals represented by three attorneys who had contacted Congressional staff members. The allegers were employed in various capacities at South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, licensed by Houston Lighting and Power Company, et al.; therefore, the allegations are confined to this site. The South Texas Project Allegations Review Team reviewed, referred, and dispositioned concerns related to discriminatory issues (harassment and intimidation), falsification of records and omission of information, and various technical issues. The team was able to substantiate certain technical issues of minor safety significance or regulatory concern at the South Texas Project facility, but it did not find widespread discriminatory practices such as harassment and intimidation.

  19. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversity verification in Danish greening subsidy control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferré, Ty Paul Andrew; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-07-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers' declarations to warrant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers' subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014-2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach (proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring and early summer) WorldView-2 imagery (WV2) and includes the following steps: (1) automatic computation of pixel-based prediction probabilities using multiple neural networks; (2) quantification of the classification uncertainty using Endorsement Theory (ET); (3) discrimination of crop pixels and validation of the crop diversification rules at farm level; and (4) identification of farmers who are violating the requirements for greening subsidies. The prediction probabilities are computed by a neural network ensemble supplied with training samples selected automatically using farmers declared parcels (field vectors containing crop information and the field boundary of each crop). Crop discrimination is performed by considering a set of conclusions derived from individual neural networks based on ET. Verification of the diversification rules is performed by incorporating pixel-based classification uncertainty or confidence intervals with the class labels at the farmer level. The proposed approach was tested with WV2 imagery acquired in 2011 for a study area in Vennebjerg

  20. Kerosene subsidies for household lighting in India: what are the impacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Pachauri, Shonali; Purohit, Pallav; Nagai, Yu; Bates, Michael N.; Cameron, Colin; Smith, Kirk R.

    2016-04-01

    Kerosene subsidy reform is a key policy concern in India and other developing countries. As kerosene is widely used for lighting in India, any price change will likely have considerable public welfare impacts on the large fraction of the poor who do not have access to reliable electricity supply for lighting. In this study, we assess historic kerosene use for residential lighting across population groups separated by urban/rural, expenditure, and electricity service levels using data from India. Consumption trends are used to inform a service demand model and evaluate how changes in fuel price, electricity connection, and supply reliability influence environmental, health and economic outcomes. We find that users relying on kerosene for supplemental lighting—in combination (‘stacked’) with electricity—accounted for 64% of residential kerosene consumed for lighting in 2005. Tested scenarios that addressed service needs of supplemental users had the greatest welfare benefits, especially in the future. Scenarios reducing PM2.5 emissions from kerosene lighting can avert between 50 and 300 thousand disability adjusted life years relative to a baseline scenario in 2030. Lighting kerosene is highly price sensitive, resulting in a drop in demand of 97% in a scenario in which current subsidies are phased out by 2030. Deadweight loss of the subsidy in 2005 is estimated at 200-950 million, with three quarters attributable to supplemental kerosene lighting. Support for cleaner lighting technologies not reliant on fossil fuel subsidies would appear to be ‘no regrets’ or ‘co-benefits’ options for India, and could be implemented in parallel with subsidy removal.

  1. Healthy food subsidies and unhealthy food taxation: A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R

    2015-06-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review.

  2. 25 CFR 103.2 - Who does the Program help?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who does the Program help? 103.2 Section 103.2 Indians... INTEREST SUBSIDY General Provisions § 103.2 Who does the Program help? The purpose of the Program is to... direct function of the Program is to help lenders reduce excessive risks on loans they make....

  3. 25 CFR 103.2 - Who does the Program help?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who does the Program help? 103.2 Section 103.2 Indians... INTEREST SUBSIDY General Provisions § 103.2 Who does the Program help? The purpose of the Program is to... direct function of the Program is to help lenders reduce excessive risks on loans they make....

  4. 25 CFR 103.2 - Who does the Program help?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who does the Program help? 103.2 Section 103.2 Indians... INTEREST SUBSIDY General Provisions § 103.2 Who does the Program help? The purpose of the Program is to... direct function of the Program is to help lenders reduce excessive risks on loans they make....

  5. 25 CFR 103.2 - Who does the Program help?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who does the Program help? 103.2 Section 103.2 Indians... INTEREST SUBSIDY General Provisions § 103.2 Who does the Program help? The purpose of the Program is to... direct function of the Program is to help lenders reduce excessive risks on loans they make....

  6. 25 CFR 103.2 - Who does the Program help?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who does the Program help? 103.2 Section 103.2 Indians... INTEREST SUBSIDY General Provisions § 103.2 Who does the Program help? The purpose of the Program is to... direct function of the Program is to help lenders reduce excessive risks on loans they make....

  7. Better methods will be needed to project incomes to estimate eligibility for subsidies in health insurance exchanges.

    PubMed

    Graves, John A

    2012-07-01

    Under the Affordable Care Act, people who meet certain income eligibility criteria will be eligible for subsidies to offset costs of premiums and cost sharing for health insurance plans purchased through new health insurance exchanges. But determining the correct level of these subsidies will not be easy, because of several factors. These include the way in which eligibility will be calculated for participation in Medicaid or for subsidies through the exchanges; possibly inaccurate income projections; the use of different income time periods to determine eligibility; and fluctuations in income. I performed a simulation that shows that under the most likely methods to be used to determine eligibility for Medicaid or for receiving subsidies through exchanges, one-third of people with incomes initially judged to be below the Medicaid threshold would actually "churn" into an exchange at the end of the year. Other people would be wrongly deemed ineligible for advance subsidy payments because their projected income was too high, while still others judged eligible for subsidies would receive advance payments on those subsidies that were too high by $208 per year, on average. To reduce these errors, I recommend the adoption of a single eligibility standard based on income data derived from prior tax returns, along with generous accommodations during a given enrollment year for people who claim a change in circumstances, such as a change in income.

  8. 78 FR 43261 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act... for the Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation...

  9. On the definition and identifiability of the alleged “hiatus” in global warming

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Risbey, James S.; Oreskes, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Recent public debate and the scientific literature have frequently cited a “pause” or “hiatus” in global warming. Yet, multiple sources of evidence show that climate change continues unabated, raising questions about the status of the “hiatus”. To examine whether the notion of a “hiatus” is justified by the available data, we first document that there are multiple definitions of the “hiatus” in the literature, with its presumed onset spanning a decade. For each of these definitions we compare the associated temperature trend against trends of equivalent length in the entire record of modern global warming. The analysis shows that the “hiatus” trends are encompassed within the overall distribution of observed trends. We next assess the magnitude and significance of all possible trends up to 25 years duration looking backwards from each year over the past 30 years. At every year during the past 30 years, the immediately preceding warming trend was always significant when 17 years (or more) were included in the calculation, alleged “hiatus” periods notwithstanding. If current definitions of the “pause” used in the literature are applied to the historical record, then the climate system “paused” for more than 1/3 of the period during which temperatures rose 0.6 K. PMID:26597713

  10. Clothing damage analysis in alleged sexual assaults--the need for a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Boland, C A; McDermott, S D; Ryan, J

    2007-04-11

    Clothing damage analysis is an integral part of the examinations carried out in sexual assault type cases. This analysis can be used to corroborate different versions of events and is at its most powerful in elucidating false allegation cases and consent cases. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent people with varying levels of forensic awareness, experience and training could correctly carry out damage analysis. Two participant groups were asked to take part in this study. Group A ('forensic group') comprised participants at a forensic science conference, and Group B ('student group') comprised students undertaking a degree course in Forensic Science. Each group was given a practical workshop consisting of a lecture outlining common fabric types and general features observed in different damage types. Each participant was subsequently shown 25 pieces of 'damage' and asked to identify both the type of fabric construction (knit or weave) and the type of damage (cut, tear, rip, wear and tear). The ability to identify fabric construction and damage types varied within the two groups studied and across the groups. The forensic group performed better both in fabric and damage assessment than the student group. This paper suggests a systematic approach to clothing damage analysis to maximise the benefits that can be obtained from this area of forensic science and to minimise the subjectivity within the field.

  11. Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, T; Goldstein, D; Gartz, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the supposedly psychedelic Bufo toad and the allegedly psychedelic drug bufotenine, which is contained in the skin and glands of this toad. The bufo toad has held a place in human mythologies and medicines worldwide since archaic times. Used by ancient peoples for a variety of purposes, its most spectacular effects, according to lore, involve magical and shamanic or occult uses for casting spells and for divination. In the Middle Ages, the Bufo toad was celebrated as a panacea and persecuted as a powerful poison. More recently, in the 1960s the Bufo toad was resurrected as a countercultural icon, with people purportedly licking or smoking the secretions to get high. Bufotenine has been at the center of a scientific debate since its discovery in 1893. This paper examines the extensive literature surrounding the Bufo toad and bufotenine, and untangles many of the myths and the misinformation that continue to vex both science and popular reporting. Finally, to promote further investigation, a comprehensive bibliography is provided that charts the history of the Bufo toad and bufotenine.

  12. Allegations that a Political Appointee at the Environmental Protection Agency was Exercising Control over the Office of the Inspector General.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-25

    Political Appointee at the / Environmental Protection Agency was Exercising -. Pqntrol over the Office of the Inspector General , (AFMD-81-77). This letter...and are commonly referred to as political appointments. 2 B-203744 that time there was neither an Inspector General nor a Deputy Inspector General . l...AD-AI07 190 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC ACCOUNTING A--ETC FIG 5/4 ALLEGATIONS THAT A POLITI CAL APPOINTEE AT THE ENV IRONMENTAL PRO--ETC

  13. Audit of bus service subsidies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-07

    In September 1995, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the Audit of Subsidized Ancillary Services at the Nevada Test Site which concluded that the Department continued to pay high subsidies for ancillary services, including bus services, that were not used extensively, may no longer be needed, could be more fully supported by its users, or could be operated more efficiently. Consistent with the audit at Nevada, the purpose of this audit was to assess whether bus service subsidies at the Laboratory were still necessary or reasonable. Specifically, the audit determined if the current level of bus services was still needed, if operating costs could be reduced, and if users should bear a greater share of bus operations costs.

  14. Contributions of detrital subsidies to aboveground spiders during secondary succession, revealed by radiocarbon and stable isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takashi F; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2013-04-01

    Prey subsidies originating from detritus add nutrients and energy to arboreal communities. Measurement of this subsidy is required in the understanding of how food web dynamics respond to changes in surrounding environments. Shrub spiders are one of the key predators involved in food web coupling. We evaluate the effects of potential changes in prey availabilities during secondary succession on the contribution of subsidy from detrital food webs to shrub spiders and how different spider feeding guilds used the subsidy of prey from detrital food webs. We measured the relative importance of the subsidy for the spider feeding guilds, using the ratios of stable isotopes of C (δ(13)C), and N (δ(15)N) and C isotope discrimination (Δ(14)C). Diet age was calculated from Δ(14)C values, because old diet ages of spiders indicate that the spiders consume prey from detrital food sources. Dominant aerial prey (Diptera) had a distinctively old diet age compared with arboreal prey, which indicates that aerial prey were subsidized from detrital food webs. Sit-and-wait spiders tended to have an older diet age than active hunting spiders, which indicates that sit-and-wait spiders depended more on subsidies. Diet age varied only slightly for spiders in stands of different ages, indicating that rates at which spiders use grazing and detrital prey are probably determined more by foraging strategies and not by stand age. A dominance of sit-and-wait predators will lead to higher detrital subsidy inputs in shrub habitats. This study highlights the effect of shrub spider community structure (feeding guild composition) on the volume of the subsidy received from the detrital food web.

  15. Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in β-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 μmol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians.

  16. Who are the uninsured eligible for premium subsidies in the health insurance exchanges?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    A key provision of the national health reform law is the creation of state-based exchanges to provide more affordable insurance options for people, especially the uninsured. Despite premium subsidies for people with incomes up to 400 percent of the poverty level, or $88,200 for a family of four in 2010, and an individual requirement to enroll in coverage, no one knows who will enroll in the exchanges and who will not, at least initially. Almost 40 percent of uninsured people eligible to receive subsidies through the exchanges have chronic conditions or report fair or poor health, and another 28 percent report recent problems with access to care or paying medical bills, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). However, about one-third of uninsured people eligible for subsidies have had no recent problems with their health, access to medical care or paying medical bills. Enrolling these apparently healthy uninsured people is likely to be challenging but essential to avoiding adverse selection, or enrolling sicker-than-average people, in the exchanges. Otherwise, health insurance costs in the exchanges could be higher than expected. Contrary to popular perception, many of these healthy and low-cost uninsured people view themselves as risk-averse, which could motivate them to gain coverage in the absence of health or access problems. Also, most uninsured people believe they need health coverage, although fewer believe that health insurance is currently worth the cost, a situation that could change once premium subsidies are available in 2014.

  17. Welfare Reform: Effects of Changes Made to the Summer Food Service Program. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Robert A.

    These transcripts present testimony concerning the effects of changes in the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Summer Food Service Program mandated by the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. Major changes were: (1) reduced federal subsidies for sponsors; (2) eliminated federal subsidies for a fourth daily meal in…

  18. Stream thermal heterogeneity prolongs aquatic-terrestrial subsidy and enhances riparian spider growth.

    PubMed

    Uno, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects from streams are important food sources for riparian predators, yet their availability is seasonally limited. Spatial heterogeneity in stream water temperature was found to spatially desynchronize the emergence timing of aquatic insects, and prolong their flight period, potentially enhancing consumer growth. While a mayfly Ephemerella maculata emergence lasted for 12-22 d in local sites along a river, mayflies emerged 19 days earlier from warmer than cooler sites. Therefore, the overall emergence of E. maculata from the river lasted for 37 d, and adult swarms were observed over that same period in an adjacent reproductive habitat. A feeding experiment with the riparian spider Tetragnatha versicolor showed that a prolonged subsidy, as would occur in a heterogeneous river, led to higher juvenile growth than a synchronous pulsed subsidy of equal total biomass, as would typify a more homogeneous river. Since larger female adult spiders produce more eggs, spiders that received prolonged subsidy as juveniles should achieve higher fecundity. Restoring spatial heterogeneity in streams may benefit not only stream communities but also riparian predators.

  19. Reducing US oil-import dependence: A tariff, subsidy, or gasoline tax

    SciTech Connect

    Yuecel, M.K. ); Dahl, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Low oil prices and rising oil imports have caused growing concern about U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply shocks. The authors devise a measure of vulnerability and use it to compare three policies that have been proposed to reduce U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply disruptions: a 25% oil-import tariff, a $5-per-barrel subsidy to domestic oil producers, and an increase in the gasoline tax from 9 cents to 25 cents per gallon. They find that the tariff would make the United States less vulnerable to disruptions. By increasing both consumer and producer prices, the tariff lowers consumption while encouraging domestic production. The increased gasoline tax could either lower or raise vulnerability. If domestic supply is not very responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax increases vulnerability. If domestic supply is responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax reduces vulnerability. The subsidy encourages increased consumption and production, leading to a faster depletion of the resource base. Hence, the subsidy would make the United States more vulnerable to oil-supply shocks. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Bottom-up biodiversity effects increase resource subsidy flux between ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel C; Vaughn, Caryn C; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Cooper, Joshua T; Engel, Michael H

    2012-10-01

    Although biodiversity can increase ecosystem productivity and adjacent ecosystems are often linked by resource flows between them, the relationship between biodiversity and resource subsidies is not well understood. Here we test the influence of biodiversity on resource subsidy flux by manipulating freshwater mussel species richness and documenting the effects on a trophic cascade from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. In a mesocosm experiment, mussel effects on algae were linked through stable isotope analyses to mussel-derived nitrogen subsidies, but mussel biodiversity effects on algal accumulation were not significant. In contrast, mussel biodiversity significantly increased aquatic insect emergence rates, because aquatic insects were responding to mussel-induced changes in algal community structure instead of algal accumulation. In turn, mussel biodiversity also significantly increased terrestrial spider abundance as spiders tracked increases in aquatic insect prey after a reproduction event. In a comparative field study, we found that sites with greater mussel species richness had higher aquatic insect emergence rates. These results show that, because food webs in adjacent ecosystems are often linked, biodiversity effects in one ecosystem can influence adjacent ecosystems as well.

  1. FRAC's Guide to the School Lunch and Breakfast Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    In 1972 the School Breakfast Program was revised and made available to all schools in the country. The program also provides meal subsidies, surplus commodities, and equipment money. This guide is designed to help community members become aware of the programs and their benefits and to organize local school lunch and breakfast campaigns. The guide…

  2. Conditional Cash Transfer against Child Labor: Indonesia Program Keluarga Harapan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kye Woo; Hwang, Miae

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze whether subsidies provided by the Indonesian conditional cash transfer against child labor program (Program Keluarga Harapan: PKH) were sufficient for children to stop working and go back to schooling. Ex-post evaluations of the program found that it did not improve children's enrollment rate and reduce child labor…

  3. Reference News Release: U.S. Files Complaint, Announces Settlement to Address Alleged Renewable Fuel Standard Violations by NGL Crude Logistics and Western Dubuque Biodiesel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reference news release on the complaint against NGL Crude Logistics, LLC and Western Dubuque Biodiesel, LLC and a settlement with Western Dubuque to address alleged violations of the Renewable Fuel Standard.

  4. 76 FR 67148 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (Department) seeks.... ADDRESSES: Written comments (original and six copies) should be sent to the Secretary of Commerce,...

  5. 75 FR 22743 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... governments, and a benefit is thereby conferred. See section 771(5)(B) of the of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...-referenced deadline date. Dated: April 23, 2010. Edward C. Yang Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  6. 76 FR 23991 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Street & Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Terpstra, Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington... softwood lumber from Canada and Chile each account for at least one percent of U.S. imports of...

  7. 75 FR 68328 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... & Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Terpstra, Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230... from Canada and Chile each account for at least one percent of U.S. imports of softwood lumber...

  8. To amend the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to establish a technical school training subsidy program.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Barrow, John [D-GA-12

    2010-06-24

    09/13/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Experience of targeting subsidies on insecticide-treated nets: what do we know and what are the knowledge gaps?

    PubMed

    Worrall, Eve; Hill, Jenny; Webster, Jayne; Mortimer, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Widespread coverage of vulnerable populations with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) constitutes an important component of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy to control malaria. The Abuja Targets call for 60% coverage of children under 5 years of age and pregnant women by 2005; but current coverage in Africa is unacceptably low. The RBM 'Strategic Framework for Coordinated National Action in Scaling-up Insecticide-Treated Netting Programmes in Africa' promotes coordinated national action and advocates sustained public provision of targeted subsidies to maximise public health benefits, alongside support and stimulation of the private sector. Several countries have already planned or initiated targeted subsidy schemes either on a pilot scale or on a national scale, and have valuable experience which can inform future interventions. The WHO RBM 'Workshop on mapping models for delivering ITNs through targeted subsidies' held in Zambia in 2003 provided an opportunity to share and document these country experiences. This paper brings together experiences presented at the workshop with other information on experiences of targeting subsidies on ITNs, net treatment kits and retreatment services (ITN products) in order to describe alternative approaches, highlight their similarities and differences, outline lessons learnt, and identify gaps in knowledge. We find that while there is a growing body of knowledge on different approaches to targeting ITN subsidies, there are significant gaps in knowledge in crucial areas. Key questions regarding how best to target, how much it will cost and what outcomes (levels of coverage) to expect remain unanswered. High quality, well-funded monitoring and evaluation of alternative approaches to targeting ITN subsidies is vital to develop a knowledge base so that countries can design and implement effective strategies to target ITN subsidies.

  10. Base rates, multiple indicators, and comprehensive forensic evaluations: why sexualized behavior still counts in assessments of child sexual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Everson, Mark D; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the diagnostic value of sexualized behavior, including the claim that when population base rates for abuse are properly taken into account, the diagnostic value of sexualized behavior is insignificant. This article also identifies a best practice comprehensive evaluation model with a methodology that is effective in mitigating such concerns.

  11. 78 FR 59751 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of supporting Federal credit...: Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act program or TIFIA program. OMB Control Number:...

  12. 76 FR 40741 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Housing Programs, Health Care Facilities and Hospitals and Credit Subsidy Obligations for Fiscal Year (FY..., Health Care Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance programs that have commitments to be issued or... insurance programs, health care facilities, and hospital insurance programs listed in this notice, a...

  13. Tax Subsidies for Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance: Updated Microsimulation Estimates and Sensitivity to Alternative Incidence Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G Edward; Selden, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate 2012 tax expenditures for employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) in the United States and to explore the sensitivity of estimates to assumptions regarding the incidence of employer premium contributions. Data Sources Nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from the 2005–2007 Household Component (MEPS-HC) and the 2009–2010 Insurance Component (MEPS IC). Study Design We use MEPS HC workers to construct synthetic workforces for MEPS IC establishments, applying the workers' marginal tax rates to the establishments' insurance premiums to compute the tax subsidy, in aggregate and by establishment characteristics. Simulation enables us to examine the sensitivity of ESI tax subsidy estimates to a range of scenarios for the within-firm incidence of employer premium contributions when workers have heterogeneous health risks and make heterogeneous plan choices. Principal Findings We simulate the total ESI tax subsidy for all active, civilian U.S. workers to be $257.4 billion in 2012. In the private sector, the subsidy disproportionately flows to workers in large establishments and establishments with predominantly high wage or full-time workforces. The estimates are remarkably robust to alternative incidence assumptions. Conclusions The aggregate value of the ESI tax subsidy and its distribution across firms can be reliably estimated using simplified incidence assumptions. PMID:23398400

  14. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  15. Food Prices and Obesity: Evidence and Policy Implications for Taxes and Subsidies

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Pricing policies have been posited as potential policy instruments to address the increasing prevalence of obesity. This article examines whether altering the cost of unhealthy, energy-dense foods, compared with healthy, less-dense foods through the use of fiscal pricing (tax or subsidy) policy instruments would, in fact, change food consumption patterns and overall diet enough to significantly reduce individuals' weight outcomes. Methods: This article examined empirical evidence regarding the food and restaurant price sensitivity of weight outcomes based on a literature search to identify peer-reviewed English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008. Studies were identified from the Medline, PubMed, Econlit, and PAIS databases. The fifteen search combinations used the terms obesity, body mass index, and BMI each in combination with the terms price, prices, tax, taxation, and subsidy. Findings: The studies reviewed showed that when statistically significant associations were found between food and restaurant prices (taxes) and weight outcomes, the effects were generally small in magnitude, although in some cases they were larger for low–socioeconomic status (SES) populations and for those at risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions: The limited existing evidence suggests that small taxes or subsidies are not likely to produce significant changes in BMI or obesity prevalence but that nontrivial pricing interventions may have some measurable effects on Americans' weight outcomes, particularly for children and adolescents, low-SES populations, and those most at risk for overweight. Additional research is needed to be able to draw strong policy conclusions regarding the effectiveness of fiscal-pricing interventions aimed at reducing obesity. PMID:19298422

  16. Stimulating household flood risk mitigation investments through insurance and subsidies: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    In the period 1998-2009, floods triggered roughly 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard in Europe. Climate change and socio/economic trends are expected to further aggrevate floods losses in many regions. Research shows that flood risk can be significantly reduced if households install protective measures, and that the implementation of such measures can be stimulated through flood insurance schemes and subsidies. However, the effectiveness of such incentives to stimulate implementation of loss-reducing measures greatly depends on the decision process of individuals and is hardly studied. In our study, we developed an Agent-Based Model that integrates flood damage models, insurance mechanisms, subsidies, and household behaviour models to assess the effectiveness of different economic tools on stimulating households to invest in loss-reducing measures. Since the effectiveness depends on the decision making process of individuals, the study compares different household decision models ranging from standard economic models, to economic models for decision making under risk, to more complex decision models integrating economic models and risk perceptions, opinion dynamics, and the influence of flood experience. The results show the effectiveness of incentives to stimulate investment in loss-reducing measures for different household behavior types, while assuming climate change scenarios. It shows how complex decision models can better reproduce observed real-world behaviour compared to traditional economic models. Furthermore, since flood events are included in the simulations, the results provide an analysis of the dynamics in insured and uninsured losses for households, the costs of reducing risk by implementing loss-reducing measures, the capacity of the insurance market, and the cost of government subsidies under different scenarios. The model has been applied to the City of Rotterdam in The Netherlands.

  17. National trends in fuel prices and their relationship to public-housing operating subsidies

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review of consumer prices for oil, gas and electricity over the past five years, and reviews a variety of projections for these prices for 1982 to 1985. The purpose of the paper is to provide information for estimating future utility costs for Public Housing Authorities. These estimates are needed in order to provide adequate federal budgets for public housing operating subsidies. This report updates the information contained in Council of Large Public Housing Authorities (CLPHA) Research Report No. 82-1 dated February 1, 1982. 4 references, 5 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Aquatic pollution increases use of terrestrial prey subsidies by stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pomeranz, Justin F.; Todd, Andrew S.; Walters, David M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that diets of aquatic consumers can become more terrestrial as aquatic stressors that limit in situ food production increase and that these subsidies may compensate for loss of aquatic resources. This work implies an important connection between preserving aquatic–terrestrial linkages and management of fish populations in stressed watersheds. Specifically, intact riparian zones and aquatic–terrestrial linkages are likely to be important for maintaining trout production in streams with moderate metal contamination.

  19. The fat of the land: do agricultural subsidies foster poor health?

    PubMed

    Fields, Scott

    2004-10-01

    Since the 1920s, American farmers have received various forms of federal support in an effort to keep farmers farming and provide Americans with an affordable, stable food supply. Wheat, soybeans, and especially corn are currently the most highly subsidized crops; products made from these crops, including high-fructose corn syrup and hydrogenated fats, have flooded the market as cheap means for making foods tastier, though not healthier. Now critics are asking whether subsidies for these crops are actually driving the U.S. epidemic of obesity.

  20. Effect of carbon taxes and subsidies on optimal forest rotation age and supply of carbon services

    SciTech Connect

    Kooten, G.C. van; Binkley, C.S.; Delcourt, G.

    1995-05-01

    Carbon taxes and subsidies will affect the optimal forest rotation and, consequently, the carbon stored in forests. Unlike the Hartman rotation, where externality benefits are a function of the volume of timber growing on a site at any time, carbon benefits are a function of the change in biomass. Theoretical and empirical results (for coastal British Columbia and northern Alberta) indicate that, under some tax regimes, it may be socially optimal never to harvest the trees. In general, inclusion of the external benefits from carbon uptake results in rotation ages only a bit longer than the financial (Faustmann) rotation age. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Inspection of alleged design and construction deficiencies in the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    On June 8, 1994, the Office of Inspections, Office of Inspector General (OIG), Department of Energy (DOE), received a letter dated May 31, 1994, from a complainant concerning the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The complainant alleged that the NMSF, completed in 1987, was so poorly designed and constructed that it was never usable and that DOE proposed to gut the entire facility and sandblast the walls. According to the complainant, ``these errors are so gross as to constitute professional malpractice in a commercial design setting.`` The complainant further stated that ``DOE proposes to renovate this facility to store large amounts of plutonium (as much as 30 metric tons, by some accounts), and it is imperative that the public receive some assurance that this waste will not recur and that the facility will be made safe.`` The purpose of our inspection was to determine if the allegations regarding the design and construction of the NMSF were accurate, and if so, to determine if the Government could recover damages from the Architect/Engineer and/or the construction contractor. We also reviewed the Department`s proposed actions to renovate the NMSF.

  2. Biological mercury measurements before and after administration of a chelator (DMPS) and subjective symptoms allegedly due to amalgam.

    PubMed

    Schuurs, A; Exterkate, R; ten Cate, J M; ten Cate, B

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore multivariately the relationship between subjective symptoms allegedly due to amalgam and mercury measurements before and after administration of a chelator. Of 120 participants, the mercury concentrations in urine (U-Hg) and plasma (P-Hg) before and after a chelating agent or placebo were determined as were the numbers of fillings and symptoms allegedly due to subjective symptoms. The dental status was charted. Blood was analysed on 13 parameters. The analysis revealed neither the parameters in blood nor the subjective symptoms to be associated with a dimension dominated by 'mercury indicators'. The final analysis was therefore performed with 'number of subjective symptoms' and enabled to distinguish two subsamples. One subsample was characterised by > 2 subjective "symptoms", highest scores for U-Hg, P-Hg and filled surfaces, and chewing gum for > 1 h a day. The other subsample comprised the subjects with few filled surfaces and low U-Hg and P-Hg, but was not characterised by "no subjective symptoms". The chelator was considered neither to invalidate nor to improve these findings and was concluded not to be helpful in diagnosing "symptoms". The chelator caused side effects in 42% of the subjects and the placebo in 27%. A relationship between amalgam fillings and subjective symptoms could not be shown. Therefore, the mere fact of knowing to have amalgam fillings was assumed to be the reason why subjective symptoms were attributed to amalgam and side effects were ascribed to the treatment.

  3. Land-to-sea connectivity: linking human-derived terrestrial subsidies to subtidal habitat change on open rocky coasts.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Daniel; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

    2009-07-01

    Spatial subsidies are considered strong where differences in resource availability between donor and recipient systems are greatest. We tested whether human activities on land can increase subsidies of terrigenous nitrogen to open rocky coasts and whether these differences can predict apparent deforestation of kelp forests. We first identified landscape-scale variation in the human-mediated transfer of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from natural, agricultural, and urban catchments to temperate coasts after episodes of rainfall. Compared to natural catchments, subsidies of DIN were on average 8-407 times greater in urban catchments, and 1-63 times greater in agricultural catchments. Urban derived nitrogen was attributed to the release of sewage effluent, as delineated by delta15N isotopic values of transplanted algae. Having made this link, we then assessed whether this catchment-scale variation may account for variation in structure of subtidal habitats, particularly as related to theory of nutrient-driven shifts of habitat from perennial (i.e., canopy-forming algae) to opportunistic species (i.e., turf-forming algae). We not only detected patterns consistent with this theory, but also established that the size and total proportion of patches of turf-forming algae were greater where the ratio of donor: recipient nitrogen loads was greater (i.e., size of subsidy). An important realization was that deforestation may be more strongly related to variation in the size of subsidy rather than size of human populations, particularly among urban catchments. These data directly link the type of human activity within catchments to the modification of land-to-sea subsidies and indirectly support theory that predicts terrestrial inputs to have greater ecological effects where the disparity in resource availability between donor and recipient is exacerbated. Our evidence has been used by coastal managers to reconsider their management of coastal systems and has subsequently

  4. Terrestrial carbon is a resource, but not a subsidy, for lake zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick T; Solomon, Christopher T; Weidel, Brian C; Jones, Stuart E

    2014-05-01

    Inputs of terrestrial organic carbon (t-OC) into lakes are often considered a resource subsidy for aquatic consumer production. Although there is evidence that terrestrial carbon can be incorporated into the tissues of aquatic consumers, its ability to enhance consumer production has been debated. Our research aims to evaluate the net effect of t-OC input on zooplankton. We used a survey of zooplankton production and resource use in ten lakes along a naturally occurring gradient of t-OC concentration to address these questions. Total and group-specific zooplankton production was negatively related to t-OC. Residual variation in zooplankton production that was not explained by t-OC was negatively related to terrestrial resource use (allochthony) by zooplankton. These results challenge the designation of terrestrial carbon as a resource subsidy; rather, the negative effect of reduced light penetration on the amount of suitable habitat and the low resource quality of t-OC appear to diminish zooplankton production. Our findings suggest that ongoing continental-scale increases in t-OC concentrations of lakes will likely have negative impacts on the productivity of aquatic food webs.

  5. Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial consumer reliance on a stream resource subsidy.

    PubMed

    Davis, John M; Rosemond, Amy D; Small, Gaston E

    2011-11-01

    Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem boundaries and subsidize predators in recipient ecosystems. Here, we quantified the biomass and abundance of aquatic emergence and terrestrial spiders in a reference and treatment stream that had been continuously enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus for 5 years. Because we previously showed that enrichment increased secondary production of stream consumers, we predicted that aquatic emergence flux would be higher in the treatment stream, subsequently increasing the biomass and abundance of terrestrial spiders. Those increases were predicted to be greatest for spiders specializing on aquatic emergence subsidies (e.g., Tetragnathidae). By adding a (15)N stable isotope tracer to both streams, we also quantified nitrogen flow from the stream into the riparian community. Emergence biomass, but not abundance, was higher in the treatment stream. The average body size of emerging adult insects and the relative dominance of Trichoptera adults were also greater in the treatment stream. However, spider biomass did not differ between streams. Spiders also exhibited substantially lower reliance on aquatic emergence nitrogen in the treatment stream. This reduced reliance likely resulted from shifts in the body size distributions and community composition of insect emergence that may have altered predator consumption efficiency in the treatment stream. Despite nutrient enrichment approximately doubling stream productivity and associated cross-ecosystem resource flows, the response of terrestrial predators depended more on the resource subsidy's characteristics that affected the predator's ability to capitalize on such increases.

  6. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  7. Determination of Optimal Subsidy for Materials Saving Investment through Recycle/Recovery at Industrial Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2009-08-01

    This work deals with a methodological framework under the form of a simple/short algorithmic procedure (including 11 activity steps and 3 decision nodes) designed/developed for the determination of optimal subsidy for materials saving investment through recycle/recovery (RR) at industrial level. Two case examples are presented, covering both aspects, without and with recycling. The expected Relative Cost Decrease (RCD) because of recycling, which forms a critical index for decision making on subsidizing, is estimated. The developed procedure can be extended outside the industrial unit to include collection/transportation/processing of recyclable wasted products. Since, in such a case, transportation cost and processing cost are conflict depended variables (when the quantity collected/processed Q is the independent/explanatory variable), the determination of Qopt is examined under energy crises conditions, when corresponding subsidies might be granted to re-set the original equilibrium and avoid putting the recycling enterprise in jeopardize due to dangerous lowering of the first break-even point.

  8. Terrestrial carbon is a resource, but not a subsidy, for lake zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2014-01-01

    Inputs of terrestrial organic carbon (t-OC) into lakes are often considered a resource subsidy for aquatic consumer production. Although there is evidence that terrestrial carbon can be incorporated into the tissues of aquatic consumers, its ability to enhance consumer production has been debated. Our research aims to evaluate the net effect of t-OC input on zooplankton. We used a survey of zooplankton production and resource use in ten lakes along a naturally occurring gradient of t-OC concentration to address these questions. Total and group-specific zooplankton production was negatively related to t-OC. Residual variation in zooplankton production that was not explained by t-OC was negatively related to terrestrial resource use (allochthony) by zooplankton. These results challenge the designation of terrestrial carbon as a resource subsidy; rather, the negative effect of reduced light penetration on the amount of suitable habitat and the low resource quality of t-OC appear to diminish zooplankton production. Our findings suggest that ongoing continental-scale increases in t-OC concentrations of lakes will likely have negative impacts on the productivity of aquatic food webs.

  9. Landscape heterogeneity and marine subsidy generate extensive intrapopulation niche diversity in a large terrestrial vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    1. Inquiries into niche variation within populations typically focus on proximate ecological causes such as competition. Here we examine how landscape heterogeneity and allochthonous (marine) subsidy might ultimately generate intrapopulation niche diversity. 2. Using stable isotope analysis, we detected extensive terrestrial-marine isotopic niche variation among subpopulations, social groups, and individual grey wolves (Canis lupus) that occupy a spatially heterogeneous landscape in coastal British Columbia comprising a mainland area and adjacent archipelago. 3. The inner island subpopulation exhibited the widest isotopic niche in the population, consuming extensive terrestrial and marine resources. Mainland and outer island subpopulations occupied comparatively narrow and primarily terrestrial, and primarily marine, niches respectively. Within these biogeographical subpopulations, social groups also diverged in niche. 4. To support examination at the individual level, we used an isotopic approach to test Van Valen's (1965) niche variation hypothesis. Consistent with the hypothesis, we observed that among-individual variation increased with subpopulation niche width. 5. Patterns at all levels related to how a spatially heterogeneous coastal landscape structured the competitive environment, which in turn mediated the availability and use of terrestrial and marine resources. Broadly, our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity and allochthonous subsidy--both widespread but commonly subject to contemporary anthropogenic change--might provide novel opportunities for examination and conservation of ecological variation within populations.

  10. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  11. Components of Quality Community College Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, William J.; Kyle, Marybeth

    Community colleges are uniquely positioned and well suited to assist in meeting the increasing demand for child care programs. Although a number of colleges have been reluctant to institute these programs due to the problems of liability, operating expenses, and allegations of child abuse, there are a number of advantages to having on-campus child…

  12. 13 CFR 142.7 - Who investigates program fraud?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who investigates program fraud? 142.7 Section 142.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL... fraud? The Inspector General, or his designee, is responsible for investigating allegations that a...

  13. 13 CFR 142.7 - Who investigates program fraud?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who investigates program fraud? 142.7 Section 142.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL... fraud? The Inspector General, or his designee, is responsible for investigating allegations that a...

  14. 13 CFR 142.7 - Who investigates program fraud?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who investigates program fraud? 142.7 Section 142.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL... fraud? The Inspector General, or his designee, is responsible for investigating allegations that a...

  15. 13 CFR 142.7 - Who investigates program fraud?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who investigates program fraud? 142.7 Section 142.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL... fraud? The Inspector General, or his designee, is responsible for investigating allegations that a...

  16. 13 CFR 142.7 - Who investigates program fraud?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who investigates program fraud? 142.7 Section 142.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL... fraud? The Inspector General, or his designee, is responsible for investigating allegations that a...

  17. The “Cadillac Tax” on Health Benefits in the United States Will Hit the Middle Class Hardest: Refuting the Myth That Health Benefit Tax Subsidies Are Regressive.

    PubMed

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2016-01-01

    U.S. employment-based health benefits are exempt from income and payroll taxes, an exemption that provided tax subsidies of $326.2 billion in 2015. Both liberal and conservative economists have denounced these subsidies as “regressive” and lauded a provision of the Affordable Care Act—the Cadillac Tax—that would curtail them. The claim that the subsidies are regressive rests on estimates showing that the affluent receive the largest subsidies in absolute dollars. But this claim ignores the standard definition of regressivity, which is based on the share of income paid by the wealthy versus the poor, rather than on dollar amounts. In this study, we calculate the value of tax subsidies in 2009 as a share of income for each income quintile and for the wealthiest Americans. In absolute dollars, tax subsidies were highest for families between the 80th and 95th percentiles of family income and lowest for the poorest 20%. However, as shares of income, subsidies were largest for the middle and fourth income quintiles and smallest for the wealthiest 0.5% of Americans. We conclude that the tax subsidy to employment-based insurance is neither markedly regressive, nor progressive. The Cadillac Tax will disproportionately harm families with (2009) incomes between $38,550 and $100,000, while sparing the wealthy.

  18. The Impact of Child-Care Subsidies on Child Development: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of U.S. child-care subsidies on the cognitive and behavioral development of children in low-income female-headed families. We identify the effect of subsidy receipt by exploiting geographic variation in the distance that families must travel from home to reach the nearest social service agency that administers…

  19. Child Care: Multiple Factors Could Have Contributed to the Recent Decline in the Number of Children Whose Families Receive Subsidies. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-344

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kay E.

    2010-01-01

    As Congress considers reauthorization of the laws which provide funding for the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), there is interest in understanding what accounts for recent trends in child care subsidy receipt among eligible families and what research says about subsidies' effects on parents' ability to obtain and maintain employment. The…

  20. Afghanistan’s National Power Utility: Commercialization Efforts Challenged by Expiring Subsidy and Poor USFOR-A and USAID Project Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    3  USAID Assistance Led to Improvements to DABS-Kabul but Expiring Subsidy Makes Self-sufficiency...funds. USAID ASSISTANCE LED TO IMPROVEMENTS TO DABS-KABUL BUT EXPIRING SUBSIDY MAKES SELF- SUFFICIENCY UNCERTAIN USAID assistance to DABS-Kabul... led by the United Kingdom and is supported by the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Estonia in helping the Afghan government deliver