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Sample records for allele specific polymerase

  1. Allele-specific distribution of RNA polymerase II on female X chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Katerina S; Reddy, Timothy E; Pauli, Florencia; Gertz, Jason; Logan, Jenae E; Myers, Richard M; Willard, Huntington F

    2011-10-15

    While the distribution of RNA polymerase II (PolII) in a variety of complex genomes is correlated with gene expression, the presence of PolII at a gene does not necessarily indicate active expression. Various patterns of PolII binding have been described genome wide; however, whether or not PolII binds at transcriptionally inactive sites remains uncertain. The two X chromosomes in female cells in mammals present an opportunity to examine each of the two alleles of a given locus in both active and inactive states, depending on which X chromosome is silenced by X chromosome inactivation. Here, we investigated PolII occupancy and expression of the associated genes across the active (Xa) and inactive (Xi) X chromosomes in human female cells to elucidate the relationship of gene expression and PolII binding. We find that, while PolII in the pseudoautosomal region occupies both chromosomes at similar levels, it is significantly biased toward the Xa throughout the rest of the chromosome. The general paucity of PolII on the Xi notwithstanding, detectable (albeit significantly reduced) binding can be observed, especially on the evolutionarily younger short arm of the X. PolII levels at genes that escape inactivation correlate with the levels of their expression; however, additional PolII sites can be found at apparently silenced regions, suggesting the possibility of a subset of genes on the Xi that are poised for expression. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that a high proportion of genes associated with PolII-accessible sites, while silenced in GM12878, are expressed in other female cell lines. PMID:21791549

  2. Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Burnouf, Thierry; Chen, Jen-Wei; Lin, Liang-In

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphism of human platelet antigens (HPAs) leads to alloimmunizations and immune-mediated platelet disorders including fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), posttransfusion purpura (PTP), and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR). HPA typing and knowledge of antigen frequency in a population are important in particular for the provision of HPA-matched blood components for patients with PTR. We have performed allele genotyping for HPA-1 through -6 and -15 among 998 platelet donors from 6 blood centers in Taiwan using sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. The HPA allele frequency was 99.55, and 0.45% for HPA-1a and -1b; 96.49, and 3.51% for HPA-2a and -2b; 55.81, and 44.19% for HPA-3a and -3b; 99.75, and 0.25% for HPA-4a and -4b; 98.50, and 1.50% for HPA-5a and -5b; 97.75 and 2.25% for HPA-6a and -6b; 53.71 and 46.29% for HPA-15a and -15b. HPA-15b and HPA-3a, may be considered the most important, followed by HPA-2, -6, -1, -5, and -4 systems, as a cause of FNAIT, PTP, and PTR based on allele frequency. HPA-4b and HPA-5b role cannot be excluded based on their immunogenicity. A larger-scale study will now be conducted to confirm these hypotheses and to establish an apheresis donor database for the procurement of HPA-matched apheresis platelets for patients with PTR. PMID:23865077

  3. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease-related single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly in developing countries, is expected to increase exponentially as the population ages. Continuing research in this area is essential in order to better understand this disease and develop strategies for treatment and prevention. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci as genetic risk factors of AD aside from apolipoprotein E such as bridging integrator (BIN1), clusterin (CLU), ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 7 (ABCA7), complement receptor 1 (CR1) and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM). However genetic research in developing countries is often limited by lack of funding and expertise. This study therefore developed and validated a simple, cost effective polymerase chain reaction based technique to determine these single nucleotide polymorphisms. Methods An allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of BIN1 rs744373, CLU rs11136000, ABCA7 rs3764650, CR1 rs3818361 and PICALM rs3851179 in human DNA samples. Allele-specific primers were designed by using appropriate software to permit the PCR amplification only if the nucleotide at the 3’-end of the primer complemented the base at the wild-type or variant-type DNA sample. The primers were then searched for uniqueness using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search engine. Results The assay was tested on a hundred samples and accurately detected the homozygous wild-type, homozygous variant-type and heterozygous of each SNP. Validation was by direct DNA sequencing. Conclusion This method will enable researchers to carry out genetic polymorphism studies for genetic risk factors associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (BIN1, CLU, ABCA7, CR1 and PICALM) without the use of expensive instrumentation and reagents. PMID:23419238

  4. Rapid deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for detection of mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.C.; Wei, J.Q.; Cheng, K.C.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid DNA analysis based on allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mutation site-specific primers was developed to detect mutations in the CYP21 gene known to cause steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In contrast to the previous method, in which PCR of genomic DNA was followed by dot blot analysis with radio active probes and multiple rounds of stripping and reprobing for each of the 8 most common mutation sites, the results using this new method were immediately visualized after the PCR run by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel electrophoresis. Using allele-specific PCR, mutation(s) were identified on 148 affected chromosomes out of 160 tested. Although mutation(s) were identified on only one chromosome of 11 of these patients, their parents showed a consistent pattern on DNA analysis. The only exception was that in one family, in which the parents each had a detectable mutation, a mutation was detected on only one allele of the patient. Most likely there is a mutation in the patient`s other allele that could have arisen de novo or was inherited from the parent and was not evident in the transmitting parent`s phenotype. When compared with the dot blot procedure, allele-specific PCR is more rapid, less labor-intensive, and avoids the use of radioactivity. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Rapid Origin Determination of the Northern Mauxia Shrimp (Acetes chinensis) Based on Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction of Partial Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Acetes chinensis is an economically important shrimp that belongs to the Sergestidae family; following fermentation, A. chinensis′ economic value, however, is low in China, and much of the catch in China is exported to Korea at a low price, thus leading to potential false labeling. For this reason, we developed a simple method to identify A. chinensis′ origin using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from partial (i.e., 570 bp) DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene in 96 Korean and 96 Chinese individual shrimp. Among 10 SNP sites, four sites were observed in populations from both countries, and two sites located in the middle with SNP sites at their 3′-ends were used to design allele-specific primers. Among the eight internal primers, the C220F primer specific to the Chinese A. chinensis population amplified a DNA fragment of 364 bp only from that population. We were able to identify the A. chinensis population origin with 100% accuracy using multiplex PCR performed with two external primers and C220F primers. These results show that the 16S rRNA gene that is generally used for the identification of species can be used for the identification of the origin within species of A. chinensis, which is an important finding for the fair trade of the species between Korea and China. PMID:25656197

  6. Rapid Origin Determination of the Northern Mauxia Shrimp (Acetes chinensis) Based on Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction of Partial Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2015-04-01

    Acetes chinensis is an economically important shrimp that belongs to the Sergestidae family; following fermentation, A. chinensis' economic value, however, is low in China, and much of the catch in China is exported to Korea at a low price, thus leading to potential false labeling. For this reason, we developed a simple method to identify A. chinensis' origin using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from partial (i.e., 570 bp) DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene in 96 Korean and 96 Chinese individual shrimp. Among 10 SNP sites, four sites were observed in populations from both countries, and two sites located in the middle with SNP sites at their 3'-ends were used to design allele-specific primers. Among the eight internal primers, the C220F primer specific to the Chinese A. chinensis population amplified a DNA fragment of 364 bp only from that population. We were able to identify the A. chinensis population origin with 100% accuracy using multiplex PCR performed with two external primers and C220F primers. These results show that the 16S rRNA gene that is generally used for the identification of species can be used for the identification of the origin within species of A. chinensis, which is an important finding for the fair trade of the species between Korea and China. PMID:25656197

  7. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers for individual IgH VDJ regions to evaluate tumor burden in myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Sata, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Maeda, Ikuhiro; Habuchi, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Fukushima, Kentaro; Fujita, Jiro; Ezoe, Sachiko; Tadokoro, Seiji; Maeda, Tetsuo; Mizuki, Masao; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Ueda, Shuji; Iida, Masato; Tokumine, Yukihiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko; Mitsui, Hideki; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with patient-specific, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) primers for individual immunoglobulin H VDJ region (ASO-PCR) amplification was performed using several sources of clinical material, including mRNA from peripheral blood cells (PBMNCs), whole bone marrow cells (BMMNCs), and the CD20+ CD38- B-cell population in bone marrow, as well as cell-free DNA from the sera of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed the ASO primers and produced sufficient PCR fragments to evaluate tumor burden in 20 of 30 bone marrow samples at diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency depended on primer sequences because the production of ASO-PCR fragments did not correlate with serum M-protein levels. However, the ASO-PCR levels in BMMNCs showed statistically significant correlations with those in PBMNCs and CD20+ CD38- B-cells. The good association between the BMMNC and PBMNC data indicated that PBMNCs could be a suitable source for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). In the case of cell-free DNA, ASO-PCR levels showed a unique pattern and remained high even after treatment. Because the sequence information for each ASO-PCR product was identical to the original, the cell-free DNA might also be useful for evaluating MRD. Moreover, the ASO-PCR products were clearly detected in 17 of 22 mRNA samples from CD20+ CD38- populations, suggesting that MM clones might exist in relatively earlier stages of B cells than in plasma cells. Thus, ASO-PCR analysis using various clinical materials is useful for detecting MRD in MM patients as well as for clarifying MM pathogenesis. PMID:25591497

  8. Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 3 by single-base extension method and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed allele specific (AS) SNP primers for rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) race 3. FOV_BT_SNP_R3 and FOV_BT_AS_R3 primers were designed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of partial sequence alignment of the ß-tubulin (BT) gene from several FOV races. These ...

  9. Delimiting Allelic Imbalance of TYMS by Allele-Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balboa-Beltrán, Emilia; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel; Barros, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allelic imbalance of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is attributed to polymorphisms in the 5′- and 3′-untranslated region (UTR). These polymorphisms have been related to the risk of suffering different cancers, for example leukemia, breast or gastric cancer, and response to different drugs, among which are methotrexate glutamates, stavudine, and specifically 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), as TYMS is its direct target. A vast literature has been published in relation to 5-FU, even suggesting the sole use of these polymorphisms to effectively manage 5-FU dosage. Estimates of the extent to which these polymorphisms influence in TYMS expression have in the past been based on functional analysis by luciferase assays and quantification of TYMS mRNA, but both these studies, as the association studies with cancer risk or with toxicity or response to 5-FU, are very contradictory. Regarding functional assays, the artificial genetic environment created in luciferase assay and the problems derived from quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs), for example the use of a reference gene, may have distorted the results. To avoid these sources of interference, we have analyzed the allelic imbalance of TYMS by allelic-specific analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients. Allelic imbalance in PBMCs, taken from 40 patients with suspected myeloproliferative haematological diseases, was determined by fluorescent fragment analysis (for the 3′-UTR polymorphism), Sanger sequencing and allelic-specific qPCR in multiplex (for the 5′-UTR polymorphisms). For neither the 3′- nor the 5′-UTR polymorphisms did the observed allelic imbalance exceed 1.5 fold. None of the TYMS polymorphisms is statistically associated with allelic imbalance. The results acquired allow us to deny the previously established assertion of an influence of 2 to 4 fold of the rs45445694 and rs2853542 polymorphisms in the expression of TYMS and narrow its allelic imbalance to 1.5 fold

  10. MYD88 L265P in Waldenström macroglobulinemia, immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy, and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders using conventional and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian; Hunter, Zachary R.; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Yangsheng; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xia; Morra, Enrica; Trojani, Alessandra; Greco, Antonino; Arcaini, Luca; Varettoni, Maria; Brown, Jennifer R.; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Patterson, Christopher J.; Manning, Robert J.; Tripsas, Christina K.; Lindeman, Neal I.

    2013-01-01

    By whole-genome and/or Sanger sequencing, we recently identified a somatic mutation (MYD88 L265P) that stimulates nuclear factor κB activity and is present in >90% of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) patients. MYD88 L265P was absent in 90% of immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients. We therefore developed conventional and real-time allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) assays for more sensitive detection and quantification of MYD88 L265P. Using either assay, MYD88 L265P was detected in 97 of 104 (93%) WM and 13 of 24 (54%) IgM MGUS patients and was either absent or rarely expressed in samples from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (2/20; 10%), CLL (1/26; 4%), multiple myeloma (including IgM cases, 0/14), and immunoglobulin G MGUS (0/9) patients as well as healthy donors (0/40; P < 1.5 × 10−5 for WM vs other cohorts). Real-time AS-PCR identified IgM MGUS patients progressing to WM and showed a high rate of concordance between MYD88 L265P ΔCT and BM disease involvement (r = 0.89, P = .008) in WM patients undergoing treatment. These studies identify MYD88 L265P as a widely present mutation in WM and IgM MGUS patients using highly sensitive and specific AS-PCR assays with potential use in diagnostic discrimination and/or response assessment. The finding of this mutation in many IgM MGUS patients suggests that MYD88 L265P may be an early oncogenic event in WM pathogenesis. PMID:23321251

  11. Allele-specific MMP-3 transcription under in vivo conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Chaoyong; Odeberg, Jacob; Hamsten, Anders; Eriksson, Per . E-mail: Per.Eriksson@ki.se

    2006-09-29

    A common matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) -1612 5A/6A promoter polymorphism is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. Here we used the haplotype chromatin immunoprecipitation method to study allele-specific MMP-3 expression under in vivo conditions in heterozygous THP-1 cells. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the ratio of 5A-allele to 6A-allele after chromatin immunoprecipitation using an antibody against phosphorylated active RNA polymerase II. There was no allele-specific difference in transcriptional activity during basal conditions, i.e., in unstimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. However, after stimulation of MMP-3 expression by monocyte differentiation or incubation with IL-1{beta}, the haplotype containing the 5A-allele was associated with higher transcriptional activity compared with the 6A-containing haplotype. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated increased binding of nuclear proteins to the 5A-allele after monocyte differentiation. In conclusion, the common MMP-3 5A/6A promoter polymorphism appears to be functional only during specific environmental conditions involving inflammation.

  12. Allele-specific enzymatic amplification of. beta. -globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.Y.; Ugozzoli, L.; Pal, B.K.; Wallace, B. )

    1989-04-01

    A rapid nonradioactive approach to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is described based on an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR). This method allows direct detection of the normal or the sickle cell {beta}-globin allele in genomic DNA without additional steps of probe hybridization, ligation, or restriction enzyme cleavage. Two allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, one specific for the sickle cell allele and one specific for the normal allele, together with another primer complementary to both alleles were used in the polymerase chain reaction with genomic DNA templates. The allele-specific primers differed from each other in their terminal 3{prime} nucleotide. Under the proper annealing temperature and polymerase chain reaction conditions, these primers only directed amplification on their complementary allele. In a single blind study of DNA samples from 12 individuals, this method correctly and unambiguously allowed for the determination of the genotypes with no false negatives or positives. If ASPCR is able to discriminate all allelic variation (both transition and transversion mutations), this method has the potential to be a powerful approach for genetic disease diagnosis, carrier screening, HLA typing, human gene mapping, forensics, and paternity testing.

  13. Allele-specific expression assays using Solexa

    PubMed Central

    Main, Bradley J; Bickel, Ryan D; McIntyre, Lauren M; Graze, Rita M; Calabrese, Peter P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2009-01-01

    Background Allele-specific expression (ASE) assays can be used to identify cis, trans, and cis-by-trans regulatory variation. Understanding the source of expression variation has important implications for disease susceptibility, phenotypic diversity, and adaptation. While ASE is commonly measured via relative fluorescence at a SNP, next generation sequencing provides an opportunity to measure ASE in an accurate and high-throughput manner using read counts. Results We introduce a Solexa-based method to perform large numbers of ASE assays using only a single lane of a Solexa flowcell. In brief, transcripts of interest, which contain a known SNP, are PCR enriched and barcoded to enable multiplexing. Then high-throughput sequencing is used to estimate allele-specific expression using sequencing counts. To validate this method, we measured the allelic bias in a dilution series and found high correlations between measured and expected values (r>0.9, p < 0.001). We applied this method to a set of 5 genes in a Drosophila simulans parental mix, F1 and introgression and found that for these genes the majority of expression divergence can be explained by cis-regulatory variation. Conclusion We present a new method with the capacity to measure ASE for large numbers of assays using as little as one lane of a Solexa flowcell. This will be a valuable technique for molecular and population genetic studies, as well as for verification of genome-wide data sets. PMID:19740431

  14. Allelic variation contributes to bacterial host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Min; Han, Xiangan; Masi, Leon De; Zhu, Chunhong; Ma, Xun; Zhang, Junjie; Wu, Renwei; Schmieder, Robert; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Fraser, George P.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Weill, François-Xavier; Mainil, Jacques G.; Arze, Cesar; Fricke, W. Florian; Edwards, Robert A.; Brisson, Dustin; Zhang, Nancy R.; Rankin, Shelley C.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2015-10-30

    Understanding the molecular parameters that regulate cross-species transmission and host adaptation of potential pathogens is crucial to control emerging infectious disease. Although microbial pathotype diversity is conventionally associated with gene gain or loss, the role of pathoadaptive nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) has not been systematically evaluated. Here, our genome-wide analysis of core genes within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genomes reveals a high degree of allelic variation in surface-exposed molecules, including adhesins that promote host colonization. Subsequent multinomial logistic regression, MultiPhen and Random Forest analyses of known/suspected adhesins from 580 independent Typhimurium isolates identifies distinct host-specific nsSNP signatures. Moreover, population and functional analyses of host-associated nsSNPs for FimH, the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, highlights the role of key allelic residues in host-specific adherence in vitro. In conclusion, together, our data provide the first concrete evidence that functional differences between allelic variants of bacterial proteins likely contribute to pathoadaption to diverse hosts.

  15. Allelic variation contributes to bacterial host specificity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Min; Han, Xiangan; Masi, Leon De; Zhu, Chunhong; Ma, Xun; Zhang, Junjie; Wu, Renwei; Schmieder, Robert; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Fraser, George P.; et al

    2015-10-30

    Understanding the molecular parameters that regulate cross-species transmission and host adaptation of potential pathogens is crucial to control emerging infectious disease. Although microbial pathotype diversity is conventionally associated with gene gain or loss, the role of pathoadaptive nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) has not been systematically evaluated. Here, our genome-wide analysis of core genes within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genomes reveals a high degree of allelic variation in surface-exposed molecules, including adhesins that promote host colonization. Subsequent multinomial logistic regression, MultiPhen and Random Forest analyses of known/suspected adhesins from 580 independent Typhimurium isolates identifies distinct host-specific nsSNP signatures. Moreover, population andmore » functional analyses of host-associated nsSNPs for FimH, the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, highlights the role of key allelic residues in host-specific adherence in vitro. In conclusion, together, our data provide the first concrete evidence that functional differences between allelic variants of bacterial proteins likely contribute to pathoadaption to diverse hosts.« less

  16. Allelic variation contributes to bacterial host specificity

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Min; Han, Xiangan; Masi, Leon De; Zhu, Chunhong; Ma, Xun; Zhang, Junjie; Wu, Renwei; Schmieder, Robert; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Fraser, George P.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Weill, François-Xavier; Mainil, Jacques G.; Arze, Cesar; Fricke, W. Florian; Edwards, Robert A.; Brisson, Dustin; Zhang, Nancy R.; Rankin, Shelley C.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular parameters that regulate cross-species transmission and host adaptation of potential pathogens is crucial to control emerging infectious disease. Although microbial pathotype diversity is conventionally associated with gene gain or loss, the role of pathoadaptive nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) has not been systematically evaluated. Here, our genome-wide analysis of core genes within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genomes reveals a high degree of allelic variation in surface-exposed molecules, including adhesins that promote host colonization. Subsequent multinomial logistic regression, MultiPhen and Random Forest analyses of known/suspected adhesins from 580 independent Typhimurium isolates identifies distinct host-specific nsSNP signatures. Moreover, population and functional analyses of host-associated nsSNPs for FimH, the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, highlights the role of key allelic residues in host-specific adherence in vitro. Together, our data provide the first concrete evidence that functional differences between allelic variants of bacterial proteins likely contribute to pathoadaption to diverse hosts. PMID:26515720

  17. Allelic variation contributes to bacterial host specificity.

    PubMed

    Yue, Min; Han, Xiangan; De Masi, Leon; Zhu, Chunhong; Ma, Xun; Zhang, Junjie; Wu, Renwei; Schmieder, Robert; Kaushik, Radhey S; Fraser, George P; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F; Weill, François-Xavier; Mainil, Jacques G; Arze, Cesar; Fricke, W Florian; Edwards, Robert A; Brisson, Dustin; Zhang, Nancy R; Rankin, Shelley C; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular parameters that regulate cross-species transmission and host adaptation of potential pathogens is crucial to control emerging infectious disease. Although microbial pathotype diversity is conventionally associated with gene gain or loss, the role of pathoadaptive nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) has not been systematically evaluated. Here, our genome-wide analysis of core genes within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genomes reveals a high degree of allelic variation in surface-exposed molecules, including adhesins that promote host colonization. Subsequent multinomial logistic regression, MultiPhen and Random Forest analyses of known/suspected adhesins from 580 independent Typhimurium isolates identifies distinct host-specific nsSNP signatures. Moreover, population and functional analyses of host-associated nsSNPs for FimH, the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, highlights the role of key allelic residues in host-specific adherence in vitro. Together, our data provide the first concrete evidence that functional differences between allelic variants of bacterial proteins likely contribute to pathoadaption to diverse hosts. PMID:26515720

  18. Validation of a Multiplex Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of KRAS Gene Mutations in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues from Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seekhuntod, Sirirat; Thavarungkul, Paninee; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with KRAS mutations do not respond to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and fail to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mutation analysis of KRAS is needed before starting treatment with monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The objective of this study is to develop a multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR) assay to detect KRAS mutations. Methods We developed a single-tube MAS-PCR assay for the detection of seven KRAS mutations (G12D, G12A, G12R, G12C, G12S, G12V, and G13D). We performed MAS-PCR assay analysis for KRAS on DNA isolated from 270 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal cancer tissues. Sequences of all 270 samples were determined by pyrosequencing. Seven known point-mutation DNA samples diluted with wild-type DNA were assayed to determine the limitation of detection and reproducibility of the MAS-PCR assay. Results Overall, the results of MAS-PCR assay were in good concordance with pyrosequencing, and only seven discordant samples were found. The MAS-PCR assay reproducibly detected 1 to 2% mutant alleles. The most common mutations were G13D in codon 13 (49.17%), G12D (25.83%) and G12V (12.50%) in codon 12. Conclusion The MAS-PCR assay provides a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tool for accurate detection of KRAS mutations in routine FFPE colorectal cancer tissues. PMID:26812617

  19. Allele Specific p53 Mutant Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Vazquez, Alexei; Levine, Arnold J.; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rescuing the function of mutant p53 protein is an attractive cancer therapeutic strategy. Using the NCI anticancer drug screen data, we identified two compounds from the thiosemicarbazone family that manifest increased growth inhibitory activity in mutant p53 cells, particularly for the p53R175 mutant. Mechanistic studies reveal that NSC319726 restores WT structure and function to the p53R175 mutant. This compound kills p53R172H knock-in mice with extensive apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in a 175-allele specific mutant p53 dependent manner. This activity depends upon the zinc ion chelating properties of the compound as well as redox changes. These data identify NSC319726 as a p53R175 mutant reactivator and as a lead compound for p53 targeted drug development. PMID:22624712

  20. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Soderlund, Carol A; Nelson, William M; Goff, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor), where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense), and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available from https://code.google.com/p/allele

  1. Allele Workbench: Transcriptome Pipeline and Interactive Graphics for Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Soderlund, Carol A.; Nelson, William M.; Goff, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor), where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense), and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available from https://code.google.com/p/allele

  2. Allele-Specific Quantitative PCR for Accurate, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han B; Schwab, Tanya L; Koleilat, Alaa; Ata, Hirotaka; Daby, Camden L; Cervera, Roberto Lopez; McNulty, Melissa S; Bostwick, Hannah S; Clark, Karl J

    2016-06-01

    Customizable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) enable rapid generation of mutant strains at genomic loci of interest in animal models and cell lines. With the accelerated pace of generating mutant alleles, genotyping has become a rate-limiting step to understanding the effects of genetic perturbation. Unless mutated alleles result in distinct morphological phenotypes, mutant strains need to be genotyped using standard methods in molecular biology. Classic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing is labor-intensive and expensive. Although simpler than RFLP, current versions of allele-specific PCR may still require post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) handling such as sequencing, or they are more expensive if allele-specific fluorescent probes are used. Commercial genotyping solutions can take weeks from assay design to result, and are often more expensive than assembling reactions in-house. Key components of commercial assay systems are often proprietary, which limits further customization. Therefore, we developed a one-step open-source genotyping method based on quantitative PCR. The allele-specific qPCR (ASQ) does not require post-PCR processing and can genotype germline mutants through either threshold cycle (Ct) or end-point fluorescence reading. ASQ utilizes allele-specific primers, a locus-specific reverse primer, universal fluorescent probes and quenchers, and hot start DNA polymerase. Individual laboratories can further optimize this open-source system as we completely disclose the sequences, reagents, and thermal cycling protocol. We have tested the ASQ protocol to genotype alleles in five different genes. ASQ showed a 98-100% concordance in genotype scoring with RFLP or Sanger sequencing outcomes. ASQ is time-saving because a single qPCR without post-PCR handling suffices to score

  3. Allele-Specific Quantitative PCR for Accurate, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han B.; Schwab, Tanya L.; Koleilat, Alaa; Ata, Hirotaka; Daby, Camden L.; Cervera, Roberto Lopez; McNulty, Melissa S.; Bostwick, Hannah S.; Clark, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Customizable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) enable rapid generation of mutant strains at genomic loci of interest in animal models and cell lines. With the accelerated pace of generating mutant alleles, genotyping has become a rate-limiting step to understanding the effects of genetic perturbation. Unless mutated alleles result in distinct morphological phenotypes, mutant strains need to be genotyped using standard methods in molecular biology. Classic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing is labor-intensive and expensive. Although simpler than RFLP, current versions of allele-specific PCR may still require post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) handling such as sequencing, or they are more expensive if allele-specific fluorescent probes are used. Commercial genotyping solutions can take weeks from assay design to result, and are often more expensive than assembling reactions in-house. Key components of commercial assay systems are often proprietary, which limits further customization. Therefore, we developed a one-step open-source genotyping method based on quantitative PCR. The allele-specific qPCR (ASQ) does not require post-PCR processing and can genotype germline mutants through either threshold cycle (Ct) or end-point fluorescence reading. ASQ utilizes allele-specific primers, a locus-specific reverse primer, universal fluorescent probes and quenchers, and hot start DNA polymerase. Individual laboratories can further optimize this open-source system as we completely disclose the sequences, reagents, and thermal cycling protocol. We have tested the ASQ protocol to genotype alleles in five different genes. ASQ showed a 98–100% concordance in genotype scoring with RFLP or Sanger sequencing outcomes. ASQ is time-saving because a single qPCR without post-PCR handling suffices to score

  4. Allele-specific disparity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a cancer cell the number of copies of a locus may vary due to amplification and deletion and these variations are denoted as copy number alterations (CNAs). We focus on the disparity of CNAs in tumour samples, which were compared to those in blood in order to identify the directional loss of heterozygosity. Methods We propose a numerical algorithm and apply it to data from the Illumina 109K-SNP array on 112 samples from breast cancer patients. B-allele frequency (BAF) and log R ratio (LRR) of Illumina were used to estimate Euclidian distances. For each locus, we compared genotypes in blood and tumour for subset of samples being heterozygous in blood. We identified loci showing preferential disparity from heterozygous toward either the A/B-allele homozygous (allelic disparity). The chi-squared and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used to examine whether there is an association between high levels of disparity in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and molecular, clinical and tumour-related parameters. To identify pathways and network functions over-represented within the resulting gene sets, we used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results To identify loci with a high level of disparity, we selected SNPs 1) with a substantial degree of disparity and 2) with substantial frequency (at least 50% of the samples heterozygous for the respective locus). We report the overall difference in disparity in high-grade tumours compared to low-grade tumours (p-value < 0.001) and significant associations between disparity in multiple single loci and clinical parameters. The most significantly associated network functions within the genes represented in the loci of disparity were identified, including lipid metabolism, small-molecule biochemistry, and nervous system development and function. No evidence for over-representation of directional disparity in a list of stem cell genes was obtained, however genes appeared to be more often altered by deletion than by

  5. Probe-free allele-specific copy number detection and analysis of tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ailin; Guan, Xiaowei; Gu, Xinbin; Xie, Guiqin

    2016-03-15

    Cancer development and progression frequently involve nucleotide mutations as well as amplifications and deletions of genomic segments. Quantification of allele-specific copy number is an important step in characterizing tumor genomes for precision medicine. Despite advances in approaches to high-throughput genomic DNA analysis, inexpensive and simple methods for analyzing complex nucleotide and copy number variants are still needed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for discovering and genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms are becoming increasingly important in genetic analysis. In this study, we describe a simple, single-tube, probe-free method that combines SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time PCR and quantitative melting curve analysis both to detect specific nucleotide variants and to quantify allele-specific copy number variants of tumors. The approach is based on the quantification of the targets of interest and the relative abundance of two alleles in a single tube. The specificity, sensitivity, and utility of the assay were demonstrated in detecting allele-specific copy number changes critical for carcinogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Our approach would be useful for allele-specific copy number analysis or precise genotyping. PMID:26743720

  6. Direct Fluorescence Detection of Allele-Specific PCR Products Using Novel Energy-Transfer Labeled Primers.

    PubMed

    Winn-Deen

    1998-12-01

    Background: Currently analysis of point mutations can be done by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by gel analysis or by gene-specific PCR followed by hybridization with an allele-specific probe. Both of these mutation detection methods require post-PCR laboratory time and run the risk of contaminating subsequent experiments with the PCR product liberated during the detection step. The author has combined the PCR amplification and detection steps into a single procedure suitable for closed-tube analysis. Methods and Results: Allele-specific PCR primers were designed as Sunrise energy-transfer primers and contained a 3' terminal mismatch to distinguish between normal and mutant DNA. Cloned normal (W64) and mutant (R64) templates of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene were tested to verify amplification specificity and yield. A no-target negative control was also run with each reaction. After PCR, each reaction was tested for fluorescence yield by measuring fluorescence on a spectrofluorimeter or fluorescent microtitreplate reader. The cloned controls and 24 patient samples were tested for the W64R mutation by two methods. The direct fluorescence results with the Sunrise allele-specific PCR method gave comparable genotypes to those obtained with the PCR/ restriction digest/gel electrophoresis control method. No PCR artifacts were observed in the negative controls or in the PCR reactions run with the mismatched target. Conclusions: The results of this pilot study indicate good PCR product and fluorescence yield from allele-specific energy-transfer labeled primers, and the capability of distinguishing between normal and mutant alleles based on fluorescence alone, without the need for restriction digestion, gel electrophoresis, or hybridization with an allele-specific probe. PMID:10089280

  7. Synthetic Nucleotides as Probes of DNA Polymerase Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jason M.; Beuning, Penny J.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic code is continuously expanding with new nucleobases designed to suit specific research needs. These synthetic nucleotides are used to study DNA polymerase dynamics and specificity and may even inhibit DNA polymerase activity. The availability of an increasing chemical diversity of nucleotides allows questions of utilization by different DNA polymerases to be addressed. Much of the work in this area deals with the A family DNA polymerases, for example, Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, which are DNA polymerases involved in replication and whose fidelity is relatively high, but more recent work includes other families of polymerases, including the Y family, whose members are known to be error prone. This paper focuses on the ability of DNA polymerases to utilize nonnatural nucleotides in DNA templates or as the incoming nucleoside triphosphates. Beyond the utility of nonnatural nucleotides as probes of DNA polymerase specificity, such entities can also provide insight into the functions of DNA polymerases when encountering DNA that is damaged by natural agents. Thus, synthetic nucleotides provide insight into how polymerases deal with nonnatural nucleotides as well as into the mutagenic potential of nonnatural nucleotides. PMID:22720133

  8. Multiplex Allele-Specific Amplification from Whole Blood for Detecting Multiple Polymorphisms Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianjie; Chen, Lanxin; Mao, Yong; Zhou, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Allele-specific amplification on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. However, the extraction of PCR-compatible genomic DNA from whole blood is usually required. This process is complicated and tedious, and is prone to cause cross-contamination between samples. To facilitate direct PCR amplification from whole blood without the extraction of genomic DNA, we optimized the pH value of PCR solution and the concentrations of magnesium ions and facilitator glycerol. Then, we developed multiplex allele-specific amplifications from whole blood and applied them to a case–control study. In this study, we successfully established triplex, five-plex, and eight-plex allele-specific amplifications from whole blood for determining the distribution of genotypes and alleles of 14 polymorphisms in 97 gastric cancer patients and 141 healthy controls. Statistical analysis results showed significant association of SNPs rs9344, rs1799931, and rs1800629 with the risk of gastric cancer. This method is accurate, time-saving, cost-effective, and easy-to-do, especially suitable for clinical prediction of disease susceptibility. PMID:23072573

  9. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  10. Specific HLA-DQB and HLA-DRB1 alleles confer susceptibility to pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, S J; Freidmann, A; Steinman, L; Brautbar, C; Erlich, H A

    1989-01-01

    The autoimmune dermatologic disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is associated with the serotypes HLA-DR4 and HLA-DRw6. Based on nucleotide sequence and oligonucleotide probe analysis of enzymatically amplified DNA encoding HLA-DR beta chain (HLA-DRB) and HLA-DQ beta chain (HLA-DQB; henceforth HLA is omitted from designations), we showed previously that the DR4 susceptibility was associated with the Dw10 DRB1 allele [encoding the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)-defined Dw10 specificity]. The DRw6 susceptibility similarly was shown to be associated with a rare DQB allele (DQB1.3), which differed from another nonsusceptible allele by only a valine-to-aspartic acid substitution at position 57. Given the linkage disequilibrium that characterizes HLA haplotypes, it is difficult to assign disease susceptibility to a specific locus rather than to a closely linked gene(s) on the same haplotype. To address this problem, we have analyzed all of the polymorphic loci of the class II HLA region (DRB1, DRB3, DQA, DQB, and DPB) on the DRw6 haplotypes in patients and controls. In 22 PV patients, 4 different DRw6 haplotypes were found that encode the same DQ beta chain (DQB1.3) but contained silent nucleotide differences at the DQB locus as well as coding sequence differences in the DQA and DRB loci. These results, obtained by using a method for allele-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification, strongly support the hypothesis that the allele DQB1.3 confers susceptibility. This DQB allele is correlated with the MLC-defined Dw9 specificity and is associated with two different DRB1 alleles (the common "6A" associated with DRw13 and the rare "6B" associated with DRw14). Since 86% (19 of 22) of DRw6+ patients contain the DQB1.3 allele (vs. 3% of controls), whereas 64% (14 of 22) contain the DRB1 allele 6B (vs. 6% of the controls), we conclude that most of the DRw6 susceptibility to PV can be accounted for by the DQ beta chain. Images PMID:2503828

  11. Tissue-specific patterns of allelically-skewed DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Sarah J.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Dempster, Emma L.; Lunnon, Katie; Paya-Cano, Jose L.; Smith, Rebecca G.; Volta, Manuela; Troakes, Claire; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Mill, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While DNA methylation is usually thought to be symmetrical across both alleles, there are some notable exceptions. Genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation are two well-studied sources of allele-specific methylation (ASM), but recent research has indicated a more complex pattern in which genotypic variation can be associated with allelically-skewed DNA methylation in cis. Given the known heterogeneity of DNA methylation across tissues and cell types we explored inter- and intra-individual variation in ASM across several regions of the human brain and whole blood from multiple individuals. Consistent with previous studies, we find widespread ASM with > 4% of the ∼220,000 loci interrogated showing evidence of allelically-skewed DNA methylation. We identify ASM flanking known imprinted regions, and show that ASM sites are enriched in DNase I hypersensitivity sites and often located in an extended genomic context of intermediate DNA methylation. We also detect examples of genotype-driven ASM, some of which are tissue-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of differential DNA methylation across tissues and have important implications for genetic studies of complex disease. As a resource to the community, ASM patterns across each of the tissues studied are available in a searchable online database: http://epigenetics.essex.ac.uk/ASMBrainBlood. PMID:26786711

  12. Allele-specific tumor spectrum in pten knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Karikomi, Matt; Naidu, Shan; Rajmohan, Ravi; Caserta, Enrico; Chen, Hui-Zi; Rawahneh, Maysoon; Moffitt, Julie; Stephens, Julie A; Fernandez, Soledad A; Weinstein, Michael; Wang, Danxin; Sadee, Wolfgang; La Perle, Krista; Stromberg, Paul; Rosol, Thomas J; Eng, Charis; Ostrowski, Michael C; Leone, Gustavo

    2010-03-16

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10) cause Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba (BRR) syndromes, two dominantly inherited disorders characterized by mental retardation, multiple hamartomas, and variable cancer risk. Here, we modeled three sentinel mutant alleles of PTEN identified in patients with Cowden syndrome and show that the nonsense Pten(4-5) and missense Pten(C124R) and Pten(G129E) alleles lacking lipid phosphatase activity cause similar developmental abnormalities but distinct tumor spectra with varying severity and age of onset. Allele-specific differences may be accounted for by loss of function for Pten(4-5), hypomorphic function for Pten(C124R), and gain of function for Pten(G129E). These data demonstrate that the variable tumor phenotypes observed in patients with Cowden and BRR syndromes can be attributed to specific mutations in PTEN that alter protein function through distinct mechanisms. PMID:20194734

  13. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electrophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each...

  14. Impriniting of human H19: Allele-specific CpG methylation, loss of the active allele in Wilms tumor, and potential for somatic allele switching

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Shields, T.; Crenshaw, T.; Hao, Y.; Moulton, T.; Tycko, B. )

    1993-07-01

    Genomic imprinting and monoallelic gene expression appear to play a role in human genetic disease and tumorigenesis. The human H19 gene, at chromosome 11p15, has previously been shown to be monoallelically expressed. Since CpG methylation has been implicated in imprinting, the authors analyzed methylation of H19 DNA. In fetal and adult organs the transcriptionally silent H19 allele was extensively hypermethylated through the entire gene and its promoter, and, consistent with a functional role for DNA methylation, expression of an H19 promoter-reporter construct was inhibited by in vitro methylation. Gynogenetic ovarian teratomas were found to contain only hypomethylated H19 DNA, suggesting that the expressed H19 allele might be maternal. This was confirmed by analysis of 11p15 polymorphisms in a patient with Wilms tumor. The tumor had lost the maternal 11p15, and H19 expression in the normal kidney was exclusively from this allele. Imprinting of human H19 appears to be susceptible to tissue-specific modulation in somatic development; in one individual, cerebellar cells were found to express only the otherwise silent allele. Implications of these findings for the role of DNA methylation in imprinting and for H19 as a candidate imprinted tumor-suppressor gene are discussed. 57 refs., 7 figs.

  15. MICB Allele Genotyping on Microarrays by Improving the Specificity of Extension Primers

    PubMed Central

    Baek, In-Cheol; Jang, Jung-Pil; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene B (MICB) encodes a ligand for activating NKG2D that expressed in natural killer cells, γδ T cells, and αβ CD8+ T cells, which is associated with autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases. Here, we have established a system for genotyping MICB alleles using allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) on microarrays. Thirty-six high quality, allele-specific extension primers were evaluated using strict and reliable cut-off values using mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), whereby an MFI >30,000 represented a positive signal and an MFI <10,000 represented a negative signal. Eight allele-specific extension primers were found to be false positives, five of which were improved by adjusting their length, and three of which were optimized by refractory modification. The MICB alleles (*002:01, *003, *005:02/*010, *005:03, *008, *009N, *018, and *024) present in the quality control panel could be exactly defined by 22 allele-specific extension primers. MICB genotypes that were identified by ASPE on microarrays were in full concordance with those identified by PCR-sequence-based typing. In conclusion, we have developed a method for genotyping MICB alleles using ASPE on microarrays; which can be applicable for large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism typing studies of population and disease associations. PMID:26569110

  16. Known unknowns for allele-specific expression and genomic imprinting effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for non-canonical imprinting effects that are associated with allele-specific expression biases at the tissue level in mice. These imprinting effects have features that are distinct from canonical imprinting effects that involve allele silencing. Here, I discuss some of the evidence for non-canonical imprinting effects in the context of random X-inactivation and epigenetic allele-specific expression effects on the autosomes. I propose several mechanisms that may underlie non-canonical imprinting effects and outline future directions and approaches to study these effects at the cellular level in vivo. The growing evidence for complex allele-specific expression effects that are cell- and developmental stage-specific has opened a new frontier for study. Currently, the function of these effects and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. PMID:25343032

  17. A uniform survey of allele-specific binding and expression over 1000-Genomes-Project individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieming; Rozowsky, Joel; Galeev, Timur R; Harmanci, Arif; Kitchen, Robert; Bedford, Jason; Abyzov, Alexej; Kong, Yong; Regan, Lynne; Gerstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale sequencing in the 1000 Genomes Project has revealed multitudes of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Here, we provide insights into the functional effect of these variants using allele-specific behaviour. This can be assessed for an individual by mapping ChIP-seq and RNA-seq reads to a personal genome, and then measuring 'allelic imbalances' between the numbers of reads mapped to the paternal and maternal chromosomes. We annotate variants associated with allele-specific binding and expression in 382 individuals by uniformly processing 1,263 functional genomics data sets, developing approaches to reduce the heterogeneity between data sets due to overdispersion and mapping bias. Since many allelic variants are rare, aggregation across multiple individuals is necessary to identify broadly applicable 'allelic elements'. We also found SNVs for which we can anticipate allelic imbalance from the disruption of a binding motif. Our results serve as an allele-specific annotation for the 1000 Genomes variant catalogue and are distributed as an online resource (alleledb.gersteinlab.org). PMID:27089393

  18. A uniform survey of allele-specific binding and expression over 1000-Genomes-Project individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieming; Rozowsky, Joel; Galeev, Timur R.; Harmanci, Arif; Kitchen, Robert; Bedford, Jason; Abyzov, Alexej; Kong, Yong; Regan, Lynne; Gerstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale sequencing in the 1000 Genomes Project has revealed multitudes of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Here, we provide insights into the functional effect of these variants using allele-specific behaviour. This can be assessed for an individual by mapping ChIP-seq and RNA-seq reads to a personal genome, and then measuring ‘allelic imbalances' between the numbers of reads mapped to the paternal and maternal chromosomes. We annotate variants associated with allele-specific binding and expression in 382 individuals by uniformly processing 1,263 functional genomics data sets, developing approaches to reduce the heterogeneity between data sets due to overdispersion and mapping bias. Since many allelic variants are rare, aggregation across multiple individuals is necessary to identify broadly applicable ‘allelic elements'. We also found SNVs for which we can anticipate allelic imbalance from the disruption of a binding motif. Our results serve as an allele-specific annotation for the 1000 Genomes variant catalogue and are distributed as an online resource (alleledb.gersteinlab.org). PMID:27089393

  19. Allele-Specific Deletions in Mouse Tumors Identify Fbxw7 as Germline Modifier of Tumor Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Losada, Jesus; Wu, Di; DelRosario, Reyno; Balmain, Allan; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5–10%). There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001), but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility. PMID:22348067

  20. Dynamic variation in allele-specific gene expression of Paraoxonase-1 in murine and human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Katiraee, Layla; Bousiaki, Eleni; Monk, David; Moore, Gudrun E.; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Differential allelic expression has been shown to be common in mice, humans and maize, and variability in the expression of polymorphic alleles has been associated with human disease. Here, we describe the differential expression pattern of Paraoxonase-1, a gene involved in lipid metabolism and implicated in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. We measured the expression of the murine Paraoxonase-1 gene (Pon1) in livers at different stages of embryonic development using F1 hybrid crosses and quantified the transcriptional level of both parental alleles. Using human foetal tissues, we analysed the expression of the human orthologue (PON1) and found monoallelic or preferential allelic expression in 6/7 and 4/4 samples from liver and pancreas, respectively. We observed that Pon1 does not show a parent-of-origin preference in its allelic expression, but has dramatic variations in allele-specific expression occurring throughout development. This study has important repercussions in the analysis of haplotypes at disease loci, since it implies that the expression of polymorphic alleles can be unequal and dynamic. PMID:18678600

  1. Allele-specific copy-number discovery from whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, WeiBo; Wang, Wei; Sun, Wei; Crowley, James J.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.

    2015-01-01

    Copy-number variants (CNVs) are a major form of genetic variation and a risk factor for various human diseases, so it is crucial to accurately detect and characterize them. It is conceivable that allele-specific reads from high-throughput sequencing data could be leveraged to both enhance CNV detection and produce allele-specific copy number (ASCN) calls. Although statistical methods have been developed to detect CNVs using whole-genome sequence (WGS) and/or whole-exome sequence (WES) data, information from allele-specific read counts has not yet been adequately exploited. In this paper, we develop an integrated method, called AS-GENSENG, which incorporates allele-specific read counts in CNV detection and estimates ASCN using either WGS or WES data. To evaluate the performance of AS-GENSENG, we conducted extensive simulations, generated empirical data using existing WGS and WES data sets and validated predicted CNVs using an independent methodology. We conclude that AS-GENSENG not only predicts accurate ASCN calls but also improves the accuracy of total copy number calls, owing to its unique ability to exploit information from both total and allele-specific read counts while accounting for various experimental biases in sequence data. Our novel, user-friendly and computationally efficient method and a complete analytic protocol is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/asgenseng/. PMID:25883151

  2. Allele-specific copy-number discovery from whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, WeiBo; Wang, Wei; Sun, Wei; Crowley, James J; Szatkiewicz, Jin P

    2015-08-18

    Copy-number variants (CNVs) are a major form of genetic variation and a risk factor for various human diseases, so it is crucial to accurately detect and characterize them. It is conceivable that allele-specific reads from high-throughput sequencing data could be leveraged to both enhance CNV detection and produce allele-specific copy number (ASCN) calls. Although statistical methods have been developed to detect CNVs using whole-genome sequence (WGS) and/or whole-exome sequence (WES) data, information from allele-specific read counts has not yet been adequately exploited. In this paper, we develop an integrated method, called AS-GENSENG, which incorporates allele-specific read counts in CNV detection and estimates ASCN using either WGS or WES data. To evaluate the performance of AS-GENSENG, we conducted extensive simulations, generated empirical data using existing WGS and WES data sets and validated predicted CNVs using an independent methodology. We conclude that AS-GENSENG not only predicts accurate ASCN calls but also improves the accuracy of total copy number calls, owing to its unique ability to exploit information from both total and allele-specific read counts while accounting for various experimental biases in sequence data. Our novel, user-friendly and computationally efficient method and a complete analytic protocol is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/asgenseng/. PMID:25883151

  3. Allele-specific copy number profiling by next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Bell, John M; Zavala, Nicolas A; Ji, Hanlee P; Zhang, Nancy R

    2015-02-27

    The progression and clonal development of tumors often involve amplifications and deletions of genomic DNA. Estimation of allele-specific copy number, which quantifies the number of copies of each allele at each variant loci rather than the total number of chromosome copies, is an important step in the characterization of tumor genomes and the inference of their clonal history. We describe a new method, falcon, for finding somatic allele-specific copy number changes by next generation sequencing of tumors with matched normals. falcon is based on a change-point model on a bivariate mixed Binomial process, which explicitly models the copy numbers of the two chromosome haplotypes and corrects for local allele-specific coverage biases. By using the Binomial distribution rather than a normal approximation, falcon more effectively pools evidence from sites with low coverage. A modified Bayesian information criterion is used to guide model selection for determining the number of copy number events. Falcon is evaluated on in silico spike-in data and applied to the analysis of a pre-malignant colon tumor sample and late-stage colorectal adenocarcinoma from the same individual. The allele-specific copy number estimates obtained by falcon allows us to draw detailed conclusions regarding the clonal history of the individual's colon cancer. PMID:25477383

  4. Genome Destabilizing Mutator Alleles Drive Specific Mutational Trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Peter C.; Shen, Yaoqing; Corbett, Richard; Jones, Steven J. M.; Hieter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In addition to environmental factors and intrinsic variations in base substitution rates, specific genome-destabilizing mutations can shape the mutational trajectory of genomes. How specific alleles influence the nature and position of accumulated mutations in a genomic context is largely unknown. Understanding the impact of genome-destabilizing alleles is particularly relevant to cancer genomes where biased mutational signatures are identifiable. We first created a more complete picture of cellular pathways that impact mutation rate using a primary screen to identify essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene mutations that cause mutator phenotypes. Drawing primarily on new alleles identified in this resource, we measure the impact of diverse mutator alleles on mutation patterns directly by whole-genome sequencing of 68 mutation-accumulation strains derived from wild-type and 11 parental mutator genotypes. The accumulated mutations differ across mutator strains, displaying base-substitution biases, allele-specific mutation hotspots, and break-associated mutation clustering. For example, in mutants of POLα and the Cdc13–Stn1–Ten1 complex, we find a distinct subtelomeric bias for mutations that we show is independent of the target sequence. Together our data suggest that specific genome-instability mutations are sufficient to drive discrete mutational signatures, some of which share properties with mutation patterns seen in tumors. Thus, in a population of cells, genome-instability mutations could influence clonal evolution by establishing discrete mutational trajectories for genomes. PMID:24336748

  5. SNPsplit: Allele-specific splitting of alignments between genomes with known SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing reads overlapping polymorphic sites in diploid mammalian genomes may be assigned to one allele or the other. This holds the potential to detect gene expression, chromatin modifications, DNA methylation or nuclear interactions in an allele-specific fashion. SNPsplit is an allele-specific alignment sorter designed to read files in SAM/BAM format and determine the allelic origin of reads or read-pairs that cover known single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) positions. For this to work libraries must have been aligned to a genome in which all known SNP positions were masked with the ambiguity base 'N' and aligned using a suitable mapping program such as Bowtie2, TopHat, STAR, HISAT2, HiCUP or Bismark. SNPsplit also provides an automated solution to generate N-masked reference genomes for hybrid mouse strains based on the variant call information provided by the Mouse Genomes Project. The unique ability of SNPsplit to work with various different kinds of sequencing data including RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq, Bisulfite-Seq or Hi-C opens new avenues for the integrative exploration of allele-specific data. PMID:27429743

  6. Detection of nucleotide-specific CRISPR/Cas9 modified alleles using multiplex ligation detection.

    PubMed

    Kc, R; Srivastava, A; Wilkowski, J M; Richter, C E; Shavit, J A; Burke, D T; Bielas, S L

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing has emerged as a powerful tool to create mutant alleles in model organisms. However, the precision with which these mutations are created has introduced a new set of complications for genotyping and colony management. Traditional gene-targeting approaches in many experimental organisms incorporated exogenous DNA and/or allele specific sequence that allow for genotyping strategies based on binary readout of PCR product amplification and size selection. In contrast, alleles created by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair of double-stranded DNA breaks generated by Cas9 are much less amenable to such strategies. Here we describe a novel genotyping strategy that is cost effective, sequence specific and allows for accurate and efficient multiplexing of small insertion-deletions and single-nucleotide variants characteristic of CRISPR/Cas9 edited alleles. We show that ligation detection reaction (LDR) can be used to generate products that are sequence specific and uniquely detected by product size and/or fluorescent tags. The method works independently of the model organism and will be useful for colony management as mutant alleles differing by a few nucleotides become more prevalent in experimental animal colonies. PMID:27557703

  7. Detection of nucleotide-specific CRISPR/Cas9 modified alleles using multiplex ligation detection

    PubMed Central

    KC, R.; Srivastava, A.; Wilkowski, J. M.; Richter, C. E.; Shavit, J. A.; Burke, D. T.; Bielas, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing has emerged as a powerful tool to create mutant alleles in model organisms. However, the precision with which these mutations are created has introduced a new set of complications for genotyping and colony management. Traditional gene-targeting approaches in many experimental organisms incorporated exogenous DNA and/or allele specific sequence that allow for genotyping strategies based on binary readout of PCR product amplification and size selection. In contrast, alleles created by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair of double-stranded DNA breaks generated by Cas9 are much less amenable to such strategies. Here we describe a novel genotyping strategy that is cost effective, sequence specific and allows for accurate and efficient multiplexing of small insertion-deletions and single-nucleotide variants characteristic of CRISPR/Cas9 edited alleles. We show that ligation detection reaction (LDR) can be used to generate products that are sequence specific and uniquely detected by product size and/or fluorescent tags. The method works independently of the model organism and will be useful for colony management as mutant alleles differing by a few nucleotides become more prevalent in experimental animal colonies. PMID:27557703

  8. SNPsplit: Allele-specific splitting of alignments between genomes with known SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing reads overlapping polymorphic sites in diploid mammalian genomes may be assigned to one allele or the other. This holds the potential to detect gene expression, chromatin modifications, DNA methylation or nuclear interactions in an allele-specific fashion. SNPsplit is an allele-specific alignment sorter designed to read files in SAM/BAM format and determine the allelic origin of reads or read-pairs that cover known single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) positions. For this to work libraries must have been aligned to a genome in which all known SNP positions were masked with the ambiguity base 'N' and aligned using a suitable mapping program such as Bowtie2, TopHat, STAR, HISAT2, HiCUP or Bismark. SNPsplit also provides an automated solution to generate N-masked reference genomes for hybrid mouse strains based on the variant call information provided by the Mouse Genomes Project. The unique ability of SNPsplit to work with various different kinds of sequencing data including RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq, Bisulfite-Seq or Hi-C opens new avenues for the integrative exploration of allele-specific data. PMID:27429743

  9. Allele-Specific Reprogramming of Cancer Metabolism by the Long Non-coding RNA CCAT2.

    PubMed

    Redis, Roxana S; Vela, Luz E; Lu, Weiqin; Ferreira de Oliveira, Juliana; Ivan, Cristina; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Adamoski, Douglas; Pasculli, Barbara; Taguchi, Ayumu; Chen, Yunyun; Fernandez, Agustin F; Valledor, Luis; Van Roosbroeck, Katrien; Chang, Samuel; Shah, Maitri; Kinnebrew, Garrett; Han, Leng; Atlasi, Yaser; Cheung, Lawrence H; Huang, Gilbert Y; Monroig, Paloma; Ramirez, Marc S; Catela Ivkovic, Tina; Van, Long; Ling, Hui; Gafà, Roberta; Kapitanovic, Sanja; Lanza, Giovanni; Bankson, James A; Huang, Peng; Lai, Stephen Y; Bast, Robert C; Rosenblum, Michael G; Radovich, Milan; Ivan, Mircea; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Liang, Han; Fraga, Mario F; Widger, William R; Hanash, Samir; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ambrosio, Andre L B; Gomes Dias, Sandra M; Calin, George A

    2016-02-18

    Altered energy metabolism is a cancer hallmark as malignant cells tailor their metabolic pathways to meet their energy requirements. Glucose and glutamine are the major nutrients that fuel cellular metabolism, and the pathways utilizing these nutrients are often altered in cancer. Here, we show that the long ncRNA CCAT2, located at the 8q24 amplicon on cancer risk-associated rs6983267 SNP, regulates cancer metabolism in vitro and in vivo in an allele-specific manner by binding the Cleavage Factor I (CFIm) complex with distinct affinities for the two subunits (CFIm25 and CFIm68). The CCAT2 interaction with the CFIm complex fine-tunes the alternative splicing of Glutaminase (GLS) by selecting the poly(A) site in intron 14 of the precursor mRNA. These findings uncover a complex, allele-specific regulatory mechanism of cancer metabolism orchestrated by the two alleles of a long ncRNA. PMID:26853146

  10. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOEpatents

    Belinsky, Steven A.; Palmisano, William A.

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  11. Specific initiation by RNA polymerase I in a whole-cell extract from yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, M C; Choe, S Y; Reeder, R H

    1991-01-01

    A protocol is described for making a soluble whole-cell extract from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that supports active and specific transcription initiation by RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Specific initiation by polymerase I decreases in high-density cultures, paralleling the decrease in abundance of the endogenous 35S rRNA precursor. This extract should be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms that regulate rRNA transcription in yeast. Images PMID:1992452

  12. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections. PMID:26407876

  13. Human-specific derived alleles of CD33 and other genes protect against postreproductive cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Flavio; Springer, Stevan A.; Altheide, Tasha K.; Varki, Nissi M.; Gagneux, Pascal; Varki, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    The individuals of most vertebrate species die when they can no longer reproduce. Humans are a rare exception, having evolved a prolonged postreproductive lifespan. Elders contribute to cooperative offspring care, assist in foraging, and communicate important ecological and cultural knowledge, increasing the survival of younger individuals. Age-related deterioration of cognitive capacity in humans compromises these benefits and also burdens the group with socially costly members. We investigated the contribution of the immunoregulatory receptor CD33 to a uniquely human postreproductive disease, Alzheimer’s dementia. Surprisingly, even though selection at advanced age is expected to be weak, a CD33 allele protective against Alzheimer’s disease is derived and unique to humans and favors a functional molecular state of CD33 resembling that of the chimpanzee. Thus, derived alleles may be compensatory and restore interactions altered as a consequence of human-specific brain evolution. We found several other examples of derived alleles at other human loci that protect against age-related cognitive deterioration arising from neurodegenerative disease or cerebrovascular insufficiency. Selection by inclusive fitness may be strong enough to favor alleles protecting specifically against cognitive decline in postreproductive humans. Such selection would operate by maximizing the contributions of postreproductive individuals to the fitness of younger kin. PMID:26621708

  14. Human-specific derived alleles of CD33 and other genes protect against postreproductive cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Flavio; Springer, Stevan A; Altheide, Tasha K; Varki, Nissi M; Gagneux, Pascal; Varki, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    The individuals of most vertebrate species die when they can no longer reproduce. Humans are a rare exception, having evolved a prolonged postreproductive lifespan. Elders contribute to cooperative offspring care, assist in foraging, and communicate important ecological and cultural knowledge, increasing the survival of younger individuals. Age-related deterioration of cognitive capacity in humans compromises these benefits and also burdens the group with socially costly members. We investigated the contribution of the immunoregulatory receptor CD33 to a uniquely human postreproductive disease, Alzheimer's dementia. Surprisingly, even though selection at advanced age is expected to be weak, a CD33 allele protective against Alzheimer's disease is derived and unique to humans and favors a functional molecular state of CD33 resembling that of the chimpanzee. Thus, derived alleles may be compensatory and restore interactions altered as a consequence of human-specific brain evolution. We found several other examples of derived alleles at other human loci that protect against age-related cognitive deterioration arising from neurodegenerative disease or cerebrovascular insufficiency. Selection by inclusive fitness may be strong enough to favor alleles protecting specifically against cognitive decline in postreproductive humans. Such selection would operate by maximizing the contributions of postreproductive individuals to the fitness of younger kin. PMID:26621708

  15. Site-specifically modified oligodeoxyribonucleotides as templates for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, D; Stöhrer, G

    1985-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides with site-specific modifications have been used as substrates for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I holoenzyme and Klenow fragment. Modifications included the bulky guanine-8-aminofluorene adduct and a guanine oxidation product resembling the product of photosensitized DNA oxidation. By a combination of primers and "nick-mers", conditions of single-strand-directed DNA synthesis and nick-translation could be created. Our results show that the polymerase can bypass both types of lesions. Bypass occurs on a single-stranded template but is facilitated on a nicked, double-stranded template. Only purines, with guanine more favored than adenine, are incorporated across both lesions. Hesitation during bypass could not be detected. The results indicate that site-specifically modified oligonucleotides can be sensitive probes for the action of polymerases on damaged templates. They also suggest a function for polymerase I, in its nick-translation capacity, during DNA repair and mutagenesis. Images PMID:3887400

  16. HLA-B allele dropout in PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe typing due to intronic polymorphism in the novel B*58:01:01:02 allele.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Wang, W; Han, Z; He, J; Chen, N; Dong, L; Tao, S; Zhang, W; He, J; Zhu, F; Lv, H

    2016-06-01

    Currently, Luminex technology based on the PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probe method has been widely used for HLA genotyping in the immunogenetics laboratories. Here, we reported a case with HLA-B allele dropout by Luminex technology. The initial HLA-B result of the Luminex method with a commercial agent kit was inconclusive, and then, the result of PCR-SBT technology indicated the dropout as a HLA-B*58 allele. Subsequently, the full-length sequence of HLA-B allele was determined by TOPO-TA cloning, and a novel allele B*58:01:01:02 was identified in the individual. Compared with HLA-B*58:01:01:01, the novel allele showed some nucleotides difference at 509 C>T, 521 T>G and CCC insertion in position 503 of intron 2. According to the full-length sequence, the new mutations of intron 2 were contributed to HLA-B locus allele dropout in the sample. Our results indicated multiplatform should be used to improve the HLA typing accuracy when a conclusive HLA genotype cannot be determined. PMID:27016176

  17. Correction of Hair Shaft Defects through Allele-Specific Silencing of Mutant Krt75.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Jones, Evan C; Zhang, Lianfeng; Clark, Richard A; Roop, Dennis R; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in keratin genes can cause a number of inheritable skin disorders characterized by intraepidermal blistering, epidermal hyperkeratosis, or abnormalities in skin appendages, such as nail plate dystrophy and structural defects in hair. Allele-specific silencing of mutant keratins through RNA interference is a promising therapeutic approach for suppressing the expression of mutant keratins and related phenotypes in the epidermis. However, its effectiveness on skin appendages remains to be confirmed in vivo. In this study, we developed allele-specific small interfering RNAs capable of selectively suppressing the expression of a mutant Krt75, which causes hair shaft structural defects characterized by the development of blebs along the hair shaft in mice. Hair regenerated from epidermal keratinocyte progenitor cells isolated from mutant Krt75 mouse models reproduced the blebbing phenotype when grafted in vivo. In contrast, mutant cells manipulated with a lentiviral vector expressing mutant Krt75-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) persistently suppressed this phenotype. The phenotypic correction was associated with a significant reduction of mutant Krt75 mRNA in the skin grafts. Thus, data obtained from this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing RNA interference to achieve durable correction of hair structural phenotypes through allele-specific silencing of mutant keratin genes. PMID:26763422

  18. Correction of hair shaft defects through allele-specific silencing of mutant Krt75

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R.; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yan-Feng; Huang, Lan; Jones, Evan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Clark, Richard A.; Roop, Dennis R.; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Dominant mutations in keratin genes can cause a number of inheritable skin disorders characterized by intraepidermal blistering, epidermal hyperkeratosis, or abnormalities in skin appendages, such as nail plate dystrophy and structural defects in hair. Allele-specific silencing of mutant keratins through RNA interference is a promising therapeutic approach for suppressing the expression of mutant keratins and related phenotypes in the epidermis. However, its effectiveness on skin appendages remains to be confirmed in vivo. In this study, we developed allele specific siRNAs capable of selectively suppressing the expression of a mutant Krt75, which causes hair shaft structural defects characterized by the development of blebs along the hair shaft in mice. Hair regenerated from epidermal keratinocyte progenitor cells isolated from mutant Krt75 mouse models reproduced the blebbing phenotype when grafted in vivo. In contrast, mutant cells manipulated with a lentiviral vector expressing mutant Krt75-specific shRNA persistently suppressed this phenotype. The phenotypic correction was associated with significant reduction of mutant Krt75 mRNA in the skin grafts. Thus, data obtained from this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing RNA interference to achieve durable correction of hair structural phenotypes through allele-specific silencing of the mutant keratin genes. PMID:26763422

  19. Allele-Specific Gene Expression Is Widespread Across the Genome and Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Goñi, Joaquín; Piedrafita, Gabriel; Fernando, Olga; Navarro, Arcadi; Villoslada, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) appears to be an important factor in human phenotypic variability and as a consequence, for the development of complex traits and diseases. In order to study ASGE across the human genome, we have performed a study in which genotyping was coupled with an analysis of ASGE by screening 11,500 SNPs using the Mapping 10 K Array to identify differential allelic expression. We found that from the 5,133 SNPs that were suitable for analysis (heterozygous in our sample and expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells), 2,934 (57%) SNPs had differential allelic expression. Such SNPs were equally distributed along human chromosomes and biological processes. We validated the presence or absence of ASGE in 18 out 20 SNPs (90%) randomly selected by real time PCR in 48 human subjects. In addition, we observed that SNPs close to -but not included in- segmental duplications had increased levels of ASGE. Finally, we found that transcripts of unknown function or non-coding RNAs, also display ASGE: from a total of 2,308 intronic SNPs, 1510 (65%) SNPs underwent differential allelic expression. In summary, ASGE is a widespread mechanism in the human genome whose regulation seems to be far more complex than expected. PMID:19127300

  20. Naturally occurring ERAP1 haplotypes encode functionally distinct alleles with fine substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Emma; Edwards, Christopher J; Elliott, Tim; James, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) trims peptides for MHC class I presentation, influencing the degree and specificity of CD8(+) T cell responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the exons encoding ERAP1 are associated with autoimmune diseases and cervical carcinoma, but it is not known whether they act independently or as disease-associated haplotypes. We sequenced ERAP1 from 20 individuals and show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms occur as distinct haplotypes in the human population and that these haplotypes encode functionally distinct ERAP1 alleles. Using a wide range of substrates, we are able to demonstrate that for any given substrate distinct ERAP1 alleles can be "normal," "hypofunctional," or "hyperfunctional" and that each allele has a trend bias toward one of these three activities. Thus, the repertoire of peptides presented at the cell surface for recognition by CTL is likely to depend on the precise combination of both MHC class I and ERAP1 alleles expressed within an individual, and has important implications for predisposition to disease. PMID:23733883

  1. Extensive allele-specific translational regulation in hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jingyi; Wang, Xi; McShane, Erik; Zauber, Henrik; Sun, Wei; Selbach, Matthias; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Translational regulation is mediated through the interaction between diffusible trans-factors and cis-elements residing within mRNA transcripts. In contrast to extensively studied transcriptional regulation, cis-regulation on translation remains underexplored. Using deep sequencing-based transcriptome and polysome profiling, we globally profiled allele-specific translational efficiency for the first time in an F1 hybrid mouse. Out of 7,156 genes with reliable quantification of both alleles, we found 1,008 (14.1%) exhibiting significant allelic divergence in translational efficiency. Systematic analysis of sequence features of the genes with biased allelic translation revealed that local RNA secondary structure surrounding the start codon and proximal out-of-frame upstream AUGs could affect translational efficiency. Finally, we observed that the cis-effect was quantitatively comparable between transcriptional and translational regulation. Such effects in the two regulatory processes were more frequently compensatory, suggesting that the regulation at the two levels could be coordinated in maintaining robustness of protein expression. PMID:26253569

  2. Detection of mutation by allele-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (AS-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Aonuma, Hiroka; Badolo, Athanase; Okado, Kiyoshi; Kanuka, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    For effective control of pathogen-transmitting mosquitoes, precise surveillance data of mosquito distribution are essential. Recently, an increase of insecticide resistance due to the kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits the malaria parasite, has been reported. With the aim of developing a simple and effective method for surveying resistant mosquitoes, LAMP was applied to the allele-specific detection of the kdr gene in An. gambiae. Allele-specific LAMP (AS-LAMP) method successfully distinguished the kdr homozygote from the heterozygote and the wild type. The robustness of AS-LAMP suggests its usefulness for routine identification of insects, not only mosquitoes but also other vectors and agricultural pests. Here we describe the method of AS-LAMP to detect mutation in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:24026691

  3. The Polymerase Activity of Mammalian DNA Pol ζ Is Specifically Required for Cell and Embryonic Viability

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sabine S.; Tomida, Junya; Boulware, Karen S.; Bhetawal, Sarita; Wood, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase ζ (pol ζ) is exceptionally important for maintaining genome stability. Inactivation of the Rev3l gene encoding the polymerase catalytic subunit causes a high frequency of chromosomal breaks, followed by lethality in mouse embryos and in primary cells. Yet it is not known whether the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ is specifically essential, as the large REV3L protein also serves as a multiprotein scaffold for translesion DNA synthesis via multiple conserved structural domains. We report that Rev3l cDNA rescues the genomic instability and DNA damage sensitivity of Rev3l-null immortalized mouse fibroblast cell lines. A cDNA harboring mutations of conserved catalytic aspartate residues in the polymerase domain of REV3L could not rescue these phenotypes. To investigate the role of REV3L DNA polymerase activity in vivo, a Rev3l knock-in mouse was constructed with this polymerase-inactivating alteration. No homozygous mutant mice were produced, with lethality occurring during embryogenesis. Primary fibroblasts from mutant embryos showed growth defects, elevated DNA double-strand breaks and cisplatin sensitivity similar to Rev3l-null fibroblasts. We tested whether the severe Rev3l-/- phenotypes could be rescued by deletion of DNA polymerase η, as has been reported with chicken DT40 cells. However, Rev3l-/- Polh-/- mice were inviable, and derived primary fibroblasts were as sensitive to DNA damage as Rev3l-/- Polh+/+ fibroblasts. Therefore, the functions of REV3L in maintaining cell viability, embryonic viability and genomic stability are directly dependent on its polymerase activity, and cannot be ameliorated by an additional deletion of pol η. These results validate and encourage the approach of targeting the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ to sensitize tumors to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26727495

  4. Allelic Specificity of Ube3a Expression in the Mouse Brain during Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    JUDSON, MATTHEW C.; SOSA-PAGAN, JASON O.; DEL CID, WILMER A.; HAN, JI EUN; PHILPOT, BENJAMIN D.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic alterations of the maternal UBE3A allele result in Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe developmental delay, lack of speech, and difficulty with movement and balance. The combined effects of maternal UBE3A mutation and cell type-specific epigenetic silencing of paternal UBE3A are hypothesized to result in a complete loss of functional UBE3A protein in neurons. However, the allelic specificity of UBE3A expression in neurons and other cell types in the brain has yet to be characterized throughout development, including the early postnatal period when AS phenotypes emerge. Here we define maternal and paternal allele-specific Ube3a protein expression throughout postnatal brain development in the mouse, a species which exhibits orthologous epigenetic silencing of paternal Ube3a in neurons and AS-like behavioral phenotypes subsequent to maternal Ube3a deletion. We find that neurons downregulate paternal Ube3a protein expression as they mature and, with the exception of neurons born from postnatal stem cell niches, do not express detectable paternal Ube3a beyond the first postnatal week. By contrast, neurons express maternal Ube3a throughout postnatal development, during which time localization of the protein becomes increasingly nuclear. Unlike neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrotyes biallelically express Ube3a. Notably, mature oligodendrocytes emerge as the predominant Ube3a-expressing glial cell type in the cortex and white matter tracts during postnatal development. These findings demonstrate the spatiotemporal characteristics of allele-specific Ube3a expression in key brain cell types, thereby improving our understanding of the developmental parameters of paternal Ube3a silencing and the cellular basis of AS. PMID:24254964

  5. Comparative Anatomy of Chromosomal Domains with Imprinted and Non-Imprinted Allele-Specific DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kerkel, Kristi; Yale, Alexander; Yotova, Iveta; Drost, Natalia; Lax, Simon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Powell, Charles; Borczuk, Alain; Aviv, Abraham; Wapner, Ronald; Chen, Xiaowei; Nagy, Peter L.; Schork, Nicholas; Do, Catherine; Torkamani, Ali; Tycko, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons), one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated) while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs), each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM. PMID:24009515

  6. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Anupam; Temkin, Alexis M; Kerkel, Kristi; Yale, Alexander; Yotova, Iveta; Drost, Natalia; Lax, Simon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Powell, Charles; Borczuk, Alain; Aviv, Abraham; Wapner, Ronald; Chen, Xiaowei; Nagy, Peter L; Schork, Nicholas; Do, Catherine; Torkamani, Ali; Tycko, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons), one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated) while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs), each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM. PMID:24009515

  7. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes. PMID:27465215

  8. Allelic Imbalance Is a Prevalent and Tissue-Specific Feature of the Mouse Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Stefan F.; Colognori, David; Beliveau, Brian J.; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Payer, Bernhard; Yildirim, Eda; Wu, Chao-ting; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, several classes of monoallelic genes have been identified, including those subject to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, and random monoallelic expression (RMAE). However, the extent to which these epigenetic phenomena are influenced by underlying genetic variation is unknown. Here we perform a systematic classification of allelic imbalance in mouse hybrids derived from reciprocal crosses of divergent strains. We observe that deviation from balanced biallelic expression is common, occurring in ∼20% of the mouse transcriptome in a given tissue. Allelic imbalance attributed to genotypic variation is by far the most prevalent class and typically is tissue-specific. However, some genotype-based imbalance is maintained across tissues and is associated with greater genetic variation, especially in 5′ and 3′ termini of transcripts. We further identify novel random monoallelic and imprinted genes and find that genotype can modify penetrance of parental origin even in the setting of large imprinted regions. Examination of nascent transcripts in single cells from inbred parental strains reveals that genes showing genotype-based imbalance in hybrids can also exhibit monoallelic expression in isogenic backgrounds. This surprising observation may suggest a competition between alleles and/or reflect the combined impact of cis- and trans-acting variation on expression of a given gene. Our findings provide novel insights into gene regulation and may be relevant to human genetic variation and disease. PMID:25858912

  9. Allele-specific deposition of macroH2A1 in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, J H; Kim, J D; Chung, J H; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-01-13

    In the current study, we analyzed the deposition patterns of macroH2A1 at a number of different genomic loci located in X chromosome and autosomes. MacroH2A1 is preferentially deposited at methylated CpG CpG-rich regions located close to promoters. The macroH2A1 deposition patterns at the methylated CpG islands of several imprinted domains, including the Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) of Xist, Peg3, H19/Igf2 Igf2, Gtl2/Dlk1, and Gnas domains, show consistent allele-specificity towards inactive, methylated alleles. The macroH2A1 deposition levels at the ICRs and other Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) of these domains are also either higher or comparable to those observed at the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Overall, our results indicate that besides DNA methylation macroH2A1 is another epigenetic component in the chromatin of ICRs displaying differential association with two parental alleles.

  10. Allele-Specific Amplification in Cancer Revealed by SNP Array Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Amplification, deletion, and loss of heterozygosity of genomic DNA are hallmarks of cancer. In recent years a variety of studies have emerged measuring total chromosomal copy number at increasingly high resolution. Similarly, loss-of-heterozygosity events have been finely mapped using high-throughput genotyping technologies. We have developed a probe-level allele-specific quantitation procedure that extracts both copy number and allelotype information from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data to arrive at allele-specific copy number across the genome. Our approach applies an expectation-maximization algorithm to a model derived from a novel classification of SNP array probes. This method is the first to our knowledge that is able to (a) determine the generalized genotype of aberrant samples at each SNP site (e.g., CCCCT at an amplified site), and (b) infer the copy number of each parental chromosome across the genome. With this method, we are able to determine not just where amplifications and deletions occur, but also the haplotype of the region being amplified or deleted. The merit of our model and general approach is demonstrated by very precise genotyping of normal samples, and our allele-specific copy number inferences are validated using PCR experiments. Applying our method to a collection of lung cancer samples, we are able to conclude that amplification is essentially monoallelic, as would be expected under the mechanisms currently believed responsible for gene amplification. This suggests that a specific parental chromosome may be targeted for amplification, whether because of germ line or somatic variation. An R software package containing the methods described in this paper is freely available at http://genome.dfci.harvard.edu/~tlaframb/PLASQ. PMID:16322765

  11. Rapid and Inexpensive Detection of α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency-Related Alleles S and Z by a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Suitable for a Large-Scale Population-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kaczor, Marcin P.; Sanak, Marek; Szczeklik, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders in Caucasians, leading to early onset pulmonary emphysema and/or liver disorders. Accumulating data suggest that AAT deficiency is commonly under-recognized or misdiagnosed by physicians. The need for a rapid, timesaving, and relatively inexpensive but reliable detection method for the two most common deficiency alleles was developed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. We designed and validated a 5′-nuclease assay for typing of the PI*S and PI*Z alleles using dual-labeled target-specific fluorescent probes. As a reference method, we used restriction fragment length polymorphism. The real-time PCR method was tested on a large, cross-sectional epidemiological trial. Overall, we genotyped about 1200 samples and found a very good concordance with AAT serum levels and restriction fragment length polymorphism results. In addition, external interlaboratory validation confirmed the accuracy of the real-time PCR method. In our experience, the real-time qualitative PCR using 5′-nuclease assay is suitable as a genetic test for AAT deficiency. This method offers an acceptable balance between reliability and expenses. It seems appropriate for both population-based screening and clinical diagnosis of the deficiency. PMID:17251342

  12. Molecular genetic mechanisms of allelic specific regulation of murine Comt expression.

    PubMed

    Segall, Samantha K; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Meloto, Carolina B; Wen, Xia; Cunningham, Danielle; Tarantino, Lisa M; Wiltshire, Tim; Gauthier, Josée; Tohyama, Sarasa; Martin, Loren J; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-10-01

    A functional allele of the mouse catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt) gene is defined by the insertion of a B2 short interspersed repeat element in its 3'-untranslated region (UTR). This allele has been associated with a number of phenotypes, such as pain and anxiety. In comparison with mice carrying the ancestral allele (Comt+), Comt B2i mice show higher Comt mRNA and enzymatic activity levels. Here, we investigated the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying this allelic specific regulation of Comt expression. Insertion of the B2 element introduces an early polyadenylation signal generating a shorter Comt transcript, in addition to the longer ancestral mRNA. Comparative analysis and in silico prediction of Comt mRNA potential targets within the transcript 3' to the B2 element was performed and allowed choosing microRNA (miRNA) candidates for experimental screening: mmu-miR-3470a, mmu-miR-3470b, and mmu-miR-667. Cell transfection with each miRNA downregulated the expression of the ancestral transcript and COMT enzymatic activity. Our in vivo experiments showed that mmu-miR-667-3p is strongly correlated with decreasing amounts of Comt mRNA in the brain, and lentiviral injections of mmu-miR-3470a, mmu-miR-3470b, and mmu-miR-667 increase hypersensitivity in the mouse formalin model, consistent with reduced COMT activity. In summary, our data demonstrate that the Comt+ transcript contains regulatory miRNA signals in its 3'-untranslated region leading to mRNA degradation; these signals, however, are absent in the shorter transcript, resulting in higher mRNA expression and activity levels. PMID:26067582

  13. Allele-specific extension allows base-pair neutral homozygotes to be discriminated by high-resolution melting of small amplicons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yanning; Yuan, Yanpeng; Lin, Qingling; Chan, Piu

    2010-11-01

    Not all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be determined using high-resolution melting (HRM) of small amplicons, especially class 3 and 4 SNPs. This is due mainly to the small shift in the melting temperature (Tm) between two types of homozygote. Choosing rs1869458 (a class 4 SNP) as a sample, we developed a modified small amplicon HRM assay. An allele-specific extension (ASE) primer, which ended at an SNP site and matched only one of the alleles, was added to the reaction as well as additional thermal steps for ASE. Following asymmetric polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis, heterozygotes were easily identified. Two types of homozygote were also distinguishable, indicating that extension primers 11 to 13 bases in length worked efficiently in an allele-specific way. Modification of the limiting amplification primer with locked nucleic acid increased the Tm difference between extension and amplification peaks and facilitated subsequent genotyping. In addition, 194 human genomic DNA samples were genotyped with the developed assay and by direct sequencing, with the different methods providing identical genotyping results. In conclusion, ASE-HRM is a simple, inexpensive, closed-tube genotyping method that can be used to examine all types of SNP. PMID:20599636

  14. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogagea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A qualitative method for detection of peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction was developed. A universal primer pair CP 03-5 /CP 03-3 was designed to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant-specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal pr...

  15. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a qualitative detection method for peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We designed a universal primer pair CP 03-5’/ CP 03-3’ to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal...

  16. Evaluation of a blood-specific DNA methylated region and trial for allele-specific blood identification from mixed body fluid DNA.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Takamura, Ayari; Sakurada, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains. We also demonstrated a test for allele-specific blood identification from a mixed DNA sample by bisulfite sequencing analysis of these CpG sites and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7359943 (A/G), which is of relevance in cases where mixed samples are obtained from crime scenes. The stability of DNA methylation in aged samples and the usefulness of neighboring genetic information shown in this study suggest that DNA-methylation-based body fluid identification will play a major role in future forensic investigations. PMID:27591539

  17. Allele-specific silencing of mutant Ataxin-7 in SCA7 patient-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Janine; Watson, Lauren; Smith, Danielle; Greenberg, Jacquie; Wood, Matthew J A

    2014-12-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders are inherited neurodegenerative conditions defined by a common pathogenic CAG repeat expansion leading to a toxic gain-of-function of the mutant protein. Consequences of this toxicity include activation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and transcriptional dysregulation. Several studies in animal models have shown that reducing levels of toxic protein using small RNAs would be an ideal therapeutic approach for such disorders, including spinocerebellar ataxia-7 (SCA7). However, testing such RNA interference (RNAi) effectors in genetically appropriate patient cell lines with a disease-relevant phenotype has yet to be explored. Here, we have used primary adult dermal fibroblasts from SCA7 patients and controls to assess the endogenous allele-specific silencing of ataxin-7 by two distinct siRNAs. We further identified altered expression of two disease-relevant transcripts in SCA7 patient cells: a twofold increase in levels of the HSP DNAJA1 and a twofold decrease in levels of the de-ubiquitinating enzyme, UCHL1. After siRNA treatment, the expression of both genes was restored towards normal levels. To our knowledge, this is the first time that allele-specific silencing of mutant ataxin-7, targeting a common SNP, has been demonstrated in patient cells. These findings highlight the advantage of an allele-specific RNAi-based therapeutic approach, and indicate the value of primary patient-derived cells as useful models for mechanistic studies and for measuring efficacy of RNAi effectors on a patient-to-patient basis in the polyQ diseases. PMID:24667781

  18. Molecular cytogenetics by polymerase catalyzed amplification or in situ labelling of specific nucleic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bolund, L.; Brandt, C.; Hindkjaer, J.; Koch, J.; Koelvraa, S.; Pedersen, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can be performed on isolated cells or chromosomes and the product can be analyzed by DNA technology or by FISH to test metaphases. The authors have good experiences analyzing aberrant chromosomes by FACS sorting, PCR with degenerated primers and painting of test metaphases with the PCR product. They also utilize polymerases for PRimed IN Situ labelling (PRINS) of specific nucleic acid sequences. In PRINS oligonucleotides are hybridized to their target sequences and labeled nucleotides are incorporated at the site of hybridization with the oligonucleotide as primer. PRINS may eventually allow the study of individual genes, gene expression and even somatic mutations (in mRNA) in single cells.

  19. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  20. Allele-specific gene expression in a wild nonhuman primate population

    PubMed Central

    Tung, J.; Akinyi, M. Y.; Mutura, S.; Altmann, J.; Wray, G. A.; Alberts, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations hold enormous potential for evolutionary genetic studies, especially when phenotypic, genetic and environmental data are all available on the same individuals. However, untangling the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations remains a major challenge. Here, we describe results of an investigation of one class of phenotype, allele-specific gene expression (ASGE), in the well-studied natural population of baboons of the Amboseli basin, Kenya. ASGE measurements identify cases in which one allele of a gene is overexpressed relative to the alternative allele of the same gene, within individuals, thus providing a control for background genetic and environmental effects. Here, we characterize the incidence of ASGE in the Amboseli baboon population, focusing on the genetic and environmental contributions to ASGE in a set of eleven genes involved in immunity and defence. Within this set, we identify evidence for common ASGE in four genes. We also present examples of two relationships between cis-regulatory genetic variants and the ASGE phenotype. Finally, we identify one case in which this relationship is influenced by a novel gene-environment interaction. Specifically, the dominance rank of an individual’s mother during its early life (an aspect of that individual’s social environment) influences the expression of the gene CCL5 via an interaction with cis-regulatory genetic variation. These results illustrate how environmental and ecological data can be integrated into evolutionary genetic studies of functional variation in natural populations. They also highlight the potential importance of early life environmental variation in shaping the genetic architecture of complex traits in wild mammals. PMID:21226779

  1. Allele-Specific Behavior of Molecular Networks: Understanding Small-Molecule Drug Response in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunquan; Hao, Dapeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhou, Meng; Su, Fei; Chen, Xi; Zhi, Hui; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    The study of systems genetics is changing the way the genetic and molecular basis of phenotypic variation, such as disease susceptibility and drug response, is being analyzed. Moreover, systems genetics aids in the translation of insights from systems biology into genetics. The use of systems genetics enables greater attention to be focused on the potential impact of genetic perturbations on the molecular states of networks that in turn affects complex traits. In this study, we developed models to detect allele-specific perturbations on interactions, in which a genetic locus with alternative alleles exerted a differing influence on an interaction. We utilized the models to investigate the dynamic behavior of an integrated molecular network undergoing genetic perturbations in yeast. Our results revealed the complexity of regulatory relationships between genetic loci and networks, in which different genetic loci perturb specific network modules. In addition, significant within-module functional coherence was found. We then used the network perturbation model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of individual differences in response to 100 diverse small molecule drugs. As a result, we identified sub-networks in the integrated network that responded to variations in DNA associated with response to diverse compounds and were significantly enriched for known drug targets. Literature mining results provided strong independent evidence for the effectiveness of these genetic perturbing networks in the elucidation of small-molecule responses in yeast. PMID:23308257

  2. In Vivo Evaluation of Candidate Allele-specific Mutant Huntingtin Gene Silencing Antisense Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Amber L; Skotte, Niels H; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; Østergaard, Michael E; Watt, Andrew T; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Doty, Crystal N; Villanueva, Erika B; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Xie, Yuanyun; Freier, Susan M; Swayze, Eric E; Seth, Punit P; Bennett, Clarence Frank; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant, genetic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of voluntary motor control, psychiatric disturbance, and cognitive decline, for which there is currently no disease-modifying therapy. HD is caused by the expansion of a CAG tract in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. The mutant HTT protein (muHTT) acquires toxic functions, and there is significant evidence that muHTT lowering would be therapeutically efficacious. However, the wild-type HTT protein (wtHTT) serves vital functions, making allele-specific muHTT lowering strategies potentially safer than nonselective strategies. CAG tract expansion is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be targeted by gene silencing reagents such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to accomplish allele-specific muHTT lowering. Here we evaluate ASOs targeted to HD-associated SNPs in acute in vivo studies including screening, distribution, duration of action and dosing, using a humanized mouse model of HD, Hu97/18, that is heterozygous for the targeted SNPs. We have identified four well-tolerated lead ASOs that potently and selectively silence muHTT at a broad range of doses throughout the central nervous system for 16 weeks or more after a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. With further validation, these ASOs could provide a therapeutic option for individuals afflicted with HD. PMID:25101598

  3. Germline Allele-Specific Expression of DAPK1 in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hielscher, Thomas; Mertens, Daniel; Raval, Aparna; Oakes, Christopher C.; Tanner, Stephan M.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Byrd, John C.; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Plass, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported a rare germline variant (c.1-6531) that resulted in allele–specific expression (ASE) of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) and predisposition to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We investigated a cohort of CLL patients lacking this mutation for the presence of ASE of DAPK1. We developed a novel strategy that combines single-nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and detected germline DAPK1 ASE in 17 out of 120 (14.2%) CLL patients associated with a trend towards younger age at diagnosis. ASE was absent in 63 healthy controls. Germline cells of CLL patients with ASE showed increased levels of DNA methylation in the promoter region, however, neither genetic nor further epigenetic aberrations could be identified in the DAPK1 5′ upstream regulatory region, within distinct exons or in the 3′-UTR. We identified B-lymphoid malignancy related cell line models harboring allelic imbalance and found that allele-specific methylation in DAPK1 is associated with ASE. Our data indicate that ASE at the DAPK1 gene locus is a recurrent event, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms and potentially predisposing to CLL. PMID:23383130

  4. A rapid and efficient strategy to generate allele-specific anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Nao; Saito, Tsuneyoshi; Ishii, Yumiko; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Nobukazu

    2009-03-31

    That generation of allele-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) monoclonal antibodies (ASHmAb) is very difficult is well known. This is thought to be due to the unique epitope structure, an assemblage of amino acid residues that lie separately in the amino acid sequence of human HLA, and to its low antigenicity compared with that of common epitopes recognized as xenogeneic determinants by mice. Here we report a rapid and efficient strategy to generate ASHmAb. Different from usual immunization methods is that we suppressed the production of non-allele-specific anti-HLA antibodies against xenogeneic determinants of HLA molecules by immunizing human HLA-B51 transgenic mice against non-HLA-B51 HLA tetramers. In addition, HLA-coated beads enabled rapid and efficient screening for ASHmAb. ASHmAb generated by this strategy will be useful for HLA typing and for clinical diagnosis, such as flow cytometry-based chimerism analysis for early detection of graft failure and relapse of leukemia after HLA-mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:19187783

  5. Hypervariable Domains of Self-Incompatibility RNases Mediate Allele-Specific Pollen Recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Matton, D. P.; Maes, O.; Laublin, G.; Xike, Q.; Bertrand, C.; Morse, D.; Cappadocia, M.

    1997-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in angiosperms is a genetic mechanism that promotes outcrossing through rejection of self-pollen. In the Solanaceae, SI is determined by a multiallelic S locus whose only known product is an S RNase. S RNases show a characteristic pattern of five conserved and two hypervariable regions. These are thought to be involved in the catalytic function and in allelic specificity, respectively. When the Solanum chacoense S12S14 genotype is transformed with an S11 RNase, the styles of plants expressing significant levels of the transgene reject S11 pollen. A previously characterized S RNase, S13, differs from the S11 RNase by only 10 amino acids, four of which are located in the hypervariable regions. When S12S14 plants were transformed with a chimeric S11 gene in which these four residues were substituted with those present in the S13 RNase, the transgenic plants acquired the S13 phenotype. This result demonstrates that the S RNase hypervariable regions control allelic specificity. PMID:12237346

  6. Allele-specific RNAi Mitigates Phenotypic Progression in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lebrón, Edgardo; Gouvion, Cynthia M; Moore, Steven A; Davidson, Beverly L; Paulson, Henry L

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances suggesting new therapeutic targets, Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains incurable. Aberrant production and accumulation of the Aβ peptide resulting from altered processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is central to the pathogenesis of disease, particularly in dominantly inherited forms of AD. Thus, modulating the production of APP is a potential route to effective AD therapy. Here, we describe the successful use of an allele-specific RNA interference (RNAi) approach targeting the Swedish variant of APP (APPsw) in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), we delivered an anti-APPsw short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) to the hippocampus of AD transgenic mice (APP/PS1). In short- and long-term transduction experiments, reduced levels of APPsw transprotein were observed throughout targeted regions of the hippocampus while levels of wild-type murine APP remained unaltered. Moreover, intracellular production of transfer RNA (tRNA)-valine promoter–driven shRNAs did not lead to detectable neuronal toxicity. Finally, long-term bilateral hippocampal expression of anti-APPsw shRNA mitigated abnormal behaviors in this mouse model of AD. The difference in phenotype progression was associated with reduced levels of soluble Aβ but not with a reduced number of amyloid plaques. Our results support the development of allele-specific RNAi strategies to treat familial AD and other dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19532137

  7. A simple and rapid method for HLA-DQA1 genotyping by digestion of PCR-amplified DNA with allele specific restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Murayama, N; Ishii, H; Uryu, N; Ota, M; Tsuji, K; Inoko, H

    1989-11-01

    The second exon of the HLA-DQA1 genes was selectively amplified from genomic DNAs of 72 HLA-homozygous B cell lines by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplified DNAs were digested with HaeIII, Ddel, ScrFI, FokI and RsaI, which recognize allelic sequence variations in the polymorphic segments of the DQA1 second exon, and then subjected to electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Eight different polymorphic patterns of restriction fragments were obtained, and seven were identical to patterns predicted from the known DNA sequences, correlating with each HLA-DQw type defined by serological typing. The remaining one pattern cannot be explained from the sequence data, suggesting the presence of a novel DQA1 allele at the nucleotide level. This PCR-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid technique for accurate definition of the HLA-DQ types at the nucleotide level, eliminating the need for radioisotope as well as allele specific oligonucleotide probes and can be extended and applied to HLA-DR, -Dw DP typing. PMID:2576477

  8. Characterization of PA-N terminal domain of Influenza A polymerase reveals sequence specific RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kausiki; Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Szolar, Oliver H J; Cusack, Stephen; Klumpp, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Influenza virus uses a unique cap-snatching mechanism characterized by hijacking and cleavage of host capped pre-mRNAs, resulting in short capped RNAs, which are used as primers for viral mRNA synthesis. The PA subunit of influenza polymerase carries the endonuclease activity that catalyzes the host mRNA cleavage reaction. Here, we show that PA is a sequence selective endonuclease with distinct preference to cleave at the 3' end of a guanine (G) base in RNA. The G specificity is exhibited by the native influenza polymerase complex associated with viral ribonucleoprotein particles and is conferred by an intrinsic G specificity of the isolated PA endonuclease domain PA-Nter. In addition, RNA cleavage site choice by the full polymerase is also guided by cap binding to the PB2 subunit, from which RNA cleavage preferentially occurs at the 12th nt downstream of the cap. However, if a G residue is present in the region of 10-13 nucleotides from the cap, cleavage preferentially occurs at G. This is the first biochemical evidence of influenza polymerase PA showing intrinsic sequence selective endonuclease activity. PMID:23847103

  9. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  10. Geographically Distinct and Domain-Specific Sequence Variations in the Alleles of Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pib

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Kumar; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, which is the most destructive fungal pathogen affecting rice growing regions worldwide. The rice blast resistance gene Pib confers broad-spectrum resistance against Southeast Asian M. oryzae races. We investigated the allelic diversity of Pib in rice germplasm originating from 12 major rice growing countries. Twenty-five new Pib alleles were identified that have unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions and/or deletions, in addition to the polymorphic nucleotides that are shared between the different alleles. These partially or completely shared polymorphic nucleotides indicate frequent sequence exchange events between the Pib alleles. In some of the new Pib alleles, nucleotide diversity is high in the LRR domain, whereas, in others it is distributed among the NB-ARC and LRR domains. Most of the polymorphic amino acids in LRR and NB-ARC2 domains are predicted as solvent-exposed. Several of the alleles and the unique SNPs are country specific, suggesting a diversifying selection of alleles in various geographical locations in response to the locally prevalent M. oryzae population. Together, the new Pib alleles are an important genetic resource for rice blast resistance breeding programs and provide new information on rice-M. oryzae interactions at the molecular level. PMID:27446145

  11. H pylori iceA alleles are disease-specific virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Caner, Vildan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Yonetci, Nadir; Zencir, Sevil; Karagenc, Nedim; Kaleli, Ilknur; Bagci, Huseyin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To characterize and compare genotype profiles of H pylori strains isolated from patients with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer in western part of Turkey. METHODS: A total of 46 patients [30 chronic gastritis (CG) and 16 duodenal ulcer (DU)] who had undergone endoscopy because of dyspeptic complaints were studied. The antral biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by rapid urease test and culture, and the genotype profiles were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The cagA gene was observed in 43 (93.5%) isolates. The vacA s1m2 genotype was the predominant subtype, found in 63.3% and 68.7% of isolates in patients with CG and DU, respectively. Twenty (66.6%) isolates from patients with CG were iceA2 positive while the iceA1 was predominant in those with DU (68.8%). In terms of the association of the iceA alleles to other genes, both alleles were significantly associated with the cagA vacA s1m2 genotype. CONCLUSION: The prevalent circulating genotypes in CG and DU were cagA vacA s1m2 iceA2 and cagA vacA s1m2 iceA1 genotype, respectively. It was found that cagA vacA s1m2 genotype seems to be common virulence factors in both CG and DU while iceA alleles show specificity for gastroduodenal pathologies in this study. PMID:17552005

  12. Site- and allele-specific polycomb dysregulation in T-cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jean-Marc; Touzart, Aurore; Pradel, Lydie C; Loosveld, Marie; Koubi, Myriam; Fenouil, Romain; Le Noir, Sandrine; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Morgado, Ester; Gregoire, Claude; Jaeger, Sebastien; Mamessier, Emilie; Pignon, Charles; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Malissen, Bernard; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo G; Dombret, Hervé; Macintyre, Elizabeth A; Howe, Steven J; Gaspar, H Bobby; Thrasher, Adrian J; Ifrah, Norbert; Payet-Bornet, Dominique; Duprez, Estelle; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Asnafi, Vahid; Nadel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (T-ALL) are aggressive malignant proliferations characterized by high relapse rates and great genetic heterogeneity. TAL1 is amongst the most frequently deregulated oncogenes. Yet, over half of the TAL1(+) cases lack TAL1 lesions, suggesting unrecognized (epi)genetic deregulation mechanisms. Here we show that TAL1 is normally silenced in the T-cell lineage, and that the polycomb H3K27me3-repressive mark is focally diminished in TAL1(+) T-ALLs. Sequencing reveals that >20% of monoallelic TAL1(+) patients without previously known alterations display microinsertions or RAG1/2-mediated episomal reintegration in a single site 5' to TAL1. Using 'allelic-ChIP' and CrispR assays, we demonstrate that such insertions induce a selective switch from H3K27me3 to H3K27ac at the inserted but not the germline allele. We also show that, despite a considerable mechanistic diversity, the mode of oncogenic TAL1 activation, rather than expression levels, impact on clinical outcome. Altogether, these studies establish site-specific epigenetic desilencing as a mechanism of oncogenic activation. PMID:25615415

  13. Sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction detection of Toxoplasma gondii for veterinary and medical diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, J M; Gajadhar, A A

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii. A universal- and a T. gondii-specific primer was used to amplify a region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. This approach allows for a theoretical detection limit of 0.01 zoite of T. gondii per sample assayed. Experiments showed that this PCR method could detect 0.1 pg of T. gondii DNA, which represents about one organism. Polymerase chain reaction tests using DNAs of cat, dog, swine, cattle, human, Sarcocystis cruzi, Eimeria ahsata, E. vermiformis, and Escherichia coli indicated no cross-reaction with nucleic acids of hosts, related coccidia, or bacteria. Data on the sensitivity and specificity suggest that this PCR assay could be extremely useful for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for food safety surveys. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:8431804

  14. Measurement of the sequence specificity of covalent DNA modification by antineoplastic agents using Taq DNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, M; Forrow, S M; Souhami, R L; D'Incalci, M; Hartley, J A

    1991-01-01

    A polymerase stop assay has been developed to determine the DNA nucleotide sequence specificity of covalent modification by antineoplastic agents using the thermostable DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus and synthetic labelled primers. The products of linear amplification are run on sequencing gels to reveal the sites of covalent drug binding. The method has been studied in detail for a number of agents including nitrogen mustards, platinum analogues and mitomycin C, and the sequence specificities obtained accord with those obtained by other procedures. The assay is advantageous in that it is not limited to a single type of DNA lesion (as in the piperidine cleavage assay for guanine-N7 alkylation), does not require a strand breakage step, and is more sensitive than other primer extension procedures which have only one cycle of polymerization. In particular the method has considerable potential for examining the sequence selectivity of damage and repair in single copy gene sequences in genomic DNA from cells. Images PMID:2057351

  15. Specific antigenic relationships between the RNA-dependent DNA polymerases of avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses and mammalian type C retroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, G; Temin, H M

    1980-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G directed against the DNA polymerase of Rauscher murine leukemia virus (R-MuLV) could bind to 125I-labeled DNA polymerase of spleen necrosis virus (SNV), a member of the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) species. Competition radioimmunoassays showed the specificity of this cross-reaction. The antigenic determinants common to SNV and R-MuLV DNA polymerases were shared completely by the DNA polymerases of Gross MuLV, Moloney MuLV, RD 114 virus, REV-T, and duck infectious anemia virus. Baboon endogenous virus and chicken syncytial virus competed partially for antibodies directed against the common antigenic determinants of SNV and R-MuLV DNA polymerases. DNA polymerases of avian leukosis viruses, pheasant viruses, and mammalian type B and D retroviruses and particles with RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity from the allantoic fluid of normal chicken eggs and from the medium of a goose cell culture did not compete for the antibodies directed against the common antigenic determinants of SNV and R-MuLV DNA polymerases. We also present data about a factor in normal mammalian immunoglobulin G that specifically inhibits the DNA polymerases of REV and mammalian type C retrovirus DNA polymerases. PMID:6154804

  16. [Study on identification of cistanche hebra and its adulterants by PCR amplification of specific alleles based on ITS sequences].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Hua; Long, Ping; Zou, De-Zhi; Li, Yue; Cui, Zhan-Hu; Li, Min-Hui

    2014-10-01

    To explore the new method of discriminating Cistanche deserticola, Cynomorium songaricum and Orobanche pycnostachya by using PCR amplification of specific alleles. 30 samples of the different C. deserticola, 21 samples of C. songaricum and O. pycnostachya were collected. The total DNA of the samples were extracted, the ITS sequences from C. deserticola, C. songaricum and O. pycnostachya were amplified by PCR and sequenced unidirectionally. These sequences were aligned by using ClustulW. Specific primer was designed according to the ITS sequences of specific alleles, and PCR reaction system was optimized. Additionally, compare with the identification of specific PCR method and DNA sequence analysis method. The result showed that the 331 bp identification band for C. deserticola and the adulterants not amplified bands by a single PCR reaction, which showed good identification ability to the three species. PCR amplification of specific alleles can be used to identify C. deserticola, C. songaricum and O. pycnostachya successfully. PMID:25612421

  17. PAP-LMPCR for improved, allele-specific footprinting and automated chromatin fine structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R.; Gao, C.; LeBon, J.; Liu, Q.; Mayoral, R. J.; Sommer, S. S.; Hoogenkamp, M.; Riggs, A. D.; Bonifer, C.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of chromatin fine structure and transcription factor occupancy of differentially expressed genes by in vivo footprinting and ligation-mediated-PCR (LMPCR) is a powerful tool to understand the impact of chromatin on gene expression. However, as with all PCR-based techniques, the accuracy of the experiments has often been reduced by sequence similarities and the presence of GC-rich or repeat sequences, and some sequences are completely refractory to analysis. Here we describe a novel method, pyrophosphorolysis activated polymerization LMPCR or PAP-LMPCR, which is capable of generating accurate and reproducible footprints specific for individual alleles and can read through sequences previously not accessible for analysis. In addition, we have adapted this technique for automation, thus enabling the simultaneous and rapid analysis of chromatin structure at many different genes. PMID:18208840

  18. Utilizing ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency to recategorize reported pathogenic deafness variants.

    PubMed

    Shearer, A Eliot; Eppsteiner, Robert W; Booth, Kevin T; Ephraim, Sean S; Gurrola, José; Simpson, Allen; Black-Ziegelbein, E Ann; Joshi, Swati; Ravi, Harini; Giuffre, Angelica C; Happe, Scott; Hildebrand, Michael S; Azaiez, Hela; Bayazit, Yildirim A; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Gazquez, Irene; Tamayo, Marta L; Gelvez, Nancy Y; Leal, Greizy Lopez; Jalas, Chaim; Ekstein, Josef; Yang, Tao; Usami, Shin-ichi; Kahrizi, Kimia; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Najmabadi, Hossein; Scheetz, Todd E; Braun, Terry A; Casavant, Thomas L; LeProust, Emily M; Smith, Richard J H

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency impact variant categorization for genetic screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) and other genetic disorders. We sought to evaluate all previously reported pathogenic NSHL variants in the context of a large number of controls from ethnically distinct populations sequenced with orthogonal massively parallel sequencing methods. We used HGMD, ClinVar, and dbSNP to generate a comprehensive list of reported pathogenic NSHL variants and re-evaluated these variants in the context of 8,595 individuals from 12 populations and 6 ethnically distinct major human evolutionary phylogenetic groups from three sources (Exome Variant Server, 1000 Genomes project, and a control set of individuals created for this study, the OtoDB). Of the 2,197 reported pathogenic deafness variants, 325 (14.8%) were present in at least one of the 8,595 controls, indicating a minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.00006. MAFs ranged as high as 0.72, a level incompatible with pathogenicity for a fully penetrant disease like NSHL. Based on these data, we established MAF thresholds of 0.005 for autosomal-recessive variants (excluding specific variants in GJB2) and 0.0005 for autosomal-dominant variants. Using these thresholds, we recategorized 93 (4.2%) of reported pathogenic variants as benign. Our data show that evaluation of reported pathogenic deafness variants using variant MAFs from multiple distinct ethnicities and sequenced by orthogonal methods provides a powerful filter for determining pathogenicity. The proposed MAF thresholds will facilitate clinical interpretation of variants identified in genetic testing for NSHL. All data are publicly available to facilitate interpretation of genetic variants causing deafness. PMID:25262649

  19. Utilizing Ethnic-Specific Differences in Minor Allele Frequency to Recategorize Reported Pathogenic Deafness Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, A. Eliot; Eppsteiner, Robert W.; Booth, Kevin T.; Ephraim, Sean S.; Gurrola, José; Simpson, Allen; Black-Ziegelbein, E. Ann; Joshi, Swati; Ravi, Harini; Giuffre, Angelica C.; Happe, Scott; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Azaiez, Hela; Bayazit, Yildirim A.; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.; Gazquez, Irene; Tamayo, Marta L.; Gelvez, Nancy Y.; Leal, Greizy Lopez; Jalas, Chaim; Ekstein, Josef; Yang, Tao; Usami, Shin-ichi; Kahrizi, Kimia; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Najmabadi, Hossein; Scheetz, Todd E.; Braun, Terry A.; Casavant, Thomas L.; LeProust, Emily M.; Smith, Richard J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency impact variant categorization for genetic screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) and other genetic disorders. We sought to evaluate all previously reported pathogenic NSHL variants in the context of a large number of controls from ethnically distinct populations sequenced with orthogonal massively parallel sequencing methods. We used HGMD, ClinVar, and dbSNP to generate a comprehensive list of reported pathogenic NSHL variants and re-evaluated these variants in the context of 8,595 individuals from 12 populations and 6 ethnically distinct major human evolutionary phylogenetic groups from three sources (Exome Variant Server, 1000 Genomes project, and a control set of individuals created for this study, the OtoDB). Of the 2,197 reported pathogenic deafness variants, 325 (14.8%) were present in at least one of the 8,595 controls, indicating a minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.00006. MAFs ranged as high as 0.72, a level incompatible with pathogenicity for a fully penetrant disease like NSHL. Based on these data, we established MAF thresholds of 0.005 for autosomal-recessive variants (excluding specific variants in GJB2) and 0.0005 for autosomal-dominant variants. Using these thresholds, we recategorized 93 (4.2%) of reported pathogenic variants as benign. Our data show that evaluation of reported pathogenic deafness variants using variant MAFs from multiple distinct ethnicities and sequenced by orthogonal methods provides a powerful filter for determining pathogenicity. The proposed MAF thresholds will facilitate clinical interpretation of variants identified in genetic testing for NSHL. All data are publicly available to facilitate interpretation of genetic variants causing deafness. PMID:25262649

  20. Mechanisms and Disease Associations of Haplotype-Dependent Allele-Specific DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Do, Catherine; Lang, Charles F; Lin, John; Darbary, Huferesh; Krupska, Izabela; Gaba, Aulona; Petukhova, Lynn; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Gallagher, Mary P; Goland, Robin S; Clynes, Raphael A; Dwork, Andrew; Kral, John G; Monk, Catherine; Christiano, Angela M; Tycko, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Haplotype-dependent allele-specific methylation (hap-ASM) can impact disease susceptibility, but maps of this phenomenon using stringent criteria in disease-relevant tissues remain sparse. Here we apply array-based and Methyl-Seq approaches to multiple human tissues and cell types, including brain, purified neurons and glia, T lymphocytes, and placenta, and identify 795 hap-ASM differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 3,082 strong methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs), most not previously reported. More than half of these DMRs have cell type-restricted ASM, and among them are 188 hap-ASM DMRs and 933 mQTLs located near GWAS signals for immune and neurological disorders. Targeted bis-seq confirmed hap-ASM in 12/13 loci tested, including CCDC155, CD69, FRMD1, IRF1, KBTBD11, and S100A(∗)-ILF2, associated with immune phenotypes, MYT1L, PTPRN2, CMTM8 and CELF2, associated with neurological disorders, NGFR and HLA-DRB6, associated with both immunological and brain disorders, and ZFP57, a trans-acting regulator of genomic imprinting. Polymorphic CTCF and transcription factor (TF) binding sites were over-represented among hap-ASM DMRs and mQTLs, and analysis of the human data, supplemented by cross-species comparisons to macaques, indicated that CTCF and TF binding likelihood predicts the strength and direction of the allelic methylation asymmetry. These results show that hap-ASM is highly tissue specific; an important trans-acting regulator of genomic imprinting is regulated by this phenomenon; and variation in CTCF and TF binding sites is an underlying mechanism, and maps of hap-ASM and mQTLs reveal regulatory sequences underlying supra- and sub-threshold GWAS peaks in immunological and neurological disorders. PMID:27153397

  1. Isolation of an RNA-directed RNA polymerase-specific cDNA clone from tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Schiebel, W; Pélissier, T; Riedel, L; Thalmeir, S; Schiebel, R; Kempe, D; Lottspeich, F; Sänger, H L; Wassenegger, M

    1998-01-01

    A 3600-bp RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP)-specific cDNA comprising an open reading frame (ORF) of 1114 amino acids was isolated from tomato. The putative protein encoded by this ORF does not share homology with any characterized proteins. Antibodies that were raised against synthetic peptides whose sequences have been deduced from the ORF were shown to specifically detect the 127-kD tomato RdRP protein. The immunoresponse to the antibodies correlated with the enzymatic activity profile of the RdRP after chromatography on Q-, poly(A)-, and poly(U)-Sepharose, hydroxyapatite, and Sephadex G-200 columns. DNA gel blot analysis revealed a single copy of the RdRP gene in tomato. RdRP homologs from petunia, Arabidopsis, tobacco, and wheat were identified by using polymerase chain reaction. A sequence comparison indicated that sequences homologous to RdRP are also present in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The previously described induction of RdRP activity upon viroid infection is shown to be correlated with an increased steady state level of the corresponding mRNA. The possible involvement of this heretofore functionally elusive plant RNA polymerase in homology-dependent gene silencing is discussed. PMID:9836747

  2. Adenovirus type 2 VAI RNA transcription by polymerase III is blocked by sequence-specific methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Jüttermann, R; Hosokawa, K; Kochanek, S; Doerfler, W

    1991-01-01

    Sequence-specific methylation of the promoter and adjacent regions in mammalian genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II leads to the inhibition of these genes. So far, RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes have not been investigated in depth. We therefore studied methylation effects on the RNA polymerase III-transcribed VAI gene of adenovirus type 2 DNA. The VAI gene contains 20 5'-CG-3' dinucleotides, of which 4 (20%) can be methylated by HpaII (5'-CCGG-3') and HhaI (5'-GCGC-3'). Three of these 5'-CG-3' sequences are located close to the internal regulatory region of the VAI segment. An unmethylated, a 5'-CCGG-3'- and 5'-GCGC-3'-methylated, and a 5'-CG-3'-methylated pUC18 construct containing the VAI and VAII regions were transfected into mammalian cells. In many experiments, an inactivating effect of 5'-CCGG-3' and 5'-GCGC-3' DNA methylation on the VAI region was not observed. In contrast, methylation of all 20 5'-CG-3' sequences in the VAI region by a CpG-specific DNA methyltransferase from Spiroplasma species did interfere with VAI transcription. Transcription of the VAI- and VAII- and of the VAI-containing constructs was also shown to be inhibited in an in vitro cell-free transcription system after the constructs had been methylated at the 5'-CCGG-3' and 5'-GCGC-3' sequences or at all 5'-CG-3' sequences. When an oligodeoxyribonucleotide which carried the internal control block A of the VAI region was methylated at three 5'-CG-3' sequences, the formation of a complex with HeLa nuclear proteins was abrogated. The results presented support the notion that the VAI gene transcribed by the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III is also inactivated by methylation of the decisive 5'-CG-3' sequences. Images PMID:2002541

  3. Nested Allele-Specific PCR Primers Distinguish Genetic Groups of Uncinula necator

    PubMed Central

    Délye, Christophe; Ronchi, Valérie; Laigret, Frédéric; Corio-Costet, Marie-France

    1999-01-01

    Isolates of the obligately biotrophic fungus Uncinula necator cluster in three distinct genetic groups (groups I, II, and III). We designed PCR primers specific for these groups in order to monitor field populations of U. necator. We used the nucleotide sequences of the gene that encodes eburicol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) and of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), ITS2, and 5.8S regions. We identified four point mutations (three in CYP51 and one in ITS1) that distinguished groups I and II from group III based on a sample of 132 single-spore isolates originating from Europe, Tunisia, Israel, India, and Australia. We developed a nested allele-specific PCR assay in which the CYP51 point mutations were used to detect and distinguish groups I and II from group III in crude mildewed samples from vineyards. In a preliminary study performed with samples from French vineyards in which isolates belonging to genetic groups I and III were present, we found that a shift from a population composed primarily of group I isolates to a population composed primarily of group III isolates occurred during the grapevine growing season. PMID:10473400

  4. Target specificity among canonical nuclear poly(A) polymerases in plants modulates organ growth and pathogen response

    PubMed Central

    Vi, Son Lang; Trost, Gerda; Lange, Peggy; Czesnick, Hjördis; Rao, Nishta; Lieber, Diana; Laux, Thomas; Gray, William M.; Manley, James L.; Groth, Detlef; Kappel, Christian; Lenhard, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs is critical for efficient nuclear export, stability, and translation of the mature mRNAs, and thus for gene expression. The bulk of pre-mRNAs are processed by canonical nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAPS). Both vertebrate and higher-plant genomes encode more than one isoform of this enzyme, and these are coexpressed in different tissues. However, in neither case is it known whether the isoforms fulfill different functions or polyadenylate distinct subsets of pre-mRNAs. Here we show that the three canonical nuclear PAPS isoforms in Arabidopsis are functionally specialized owing to their evolutionarily divergent C-terminal domains. A strong loss-of-function mutation in PAPS1 causes a male gametophytic defect, whereas a weak allele leads to reduced leaf growth that results in part from a constitutive pathogen response. By contrast, plants lacking both PAPS2 and PAPS4 function are viable with wild-type leaf growth. Polyadenylation of SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) mRNAs depends specifically on PAPS1 function. The resulting reduction in SAUR activity in paps1 mutants contributes to their reduced leaf growth, providing a causal link between polyadenylation of specific pre-mRNAs by a particular PAPS isoform and plant growth. This suggests the existence of an additional layer of regulation in plant and possibly vertebrate gene expression, whereby the relative activities of canonical nuclear PAPS isoforms control de novo synthesized poly(A) tail length and hence expression of specific subsets of mRNAs. PMID:23918356

  5. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in serous ovarian tumors: a comparative analysis of immunohistochemistry with a mutation-specific monoclonal antibody and allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Bösmüller, Hans; Fischer, Anna; Pham, Deborah L; Fehm, Tanja; Capper, David; von Deimling, Andreas; Bonzheim, Irina; Staebler, Annette; Fend, Falko

    2013-03-01

    Mutations of components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, mainly BRAF, are common in serous ovarian borderline tumors, whereas high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas rarely show this feature. With the advent of specific kinase inhibitors active against BRAF-mutated cancers, rapid and sensitive detection of the BRAF V600E, by far the most common mutation of this gene, is of great practical relevance. Currently, BRAF mutations are detected by DNA-based techniques. Recently, a monoclonal antibody (VE1) specific for the BRAF V600E protein suitable for archival tissues has been described. In this study, we compared detection of the V600E mutation in serous ovarian tumors by VE1 immunostaining and by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. All 141 cases of high-grade serous ovarian cancer showed negative or rarely weak, diffuse background VE1 immunostaining, and BRAF wild type was confirmed by molecular analysis in all tested cases. In contrast, 1 (14%) of 7 low-grade serous carcinomas and 22 (71%) of 31 serous borderline tumors revealed moderate to strong VE1 positivity. Immunostaining was clearly evaluable in all cases with sufficient tumor cells, and only rare cases with narrow cytoplasm were difficult to interpret. The V600E mutation was confirmed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in all VE1-positive cases. Two VE1-positive cases with low epithelial cell content required repeat microdissection to confirm the presence of the mutation. Immunohistochemistry with the VE1 antibody is a specific and sensitive tool for detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in serous ovarian tumors and may provide a practical screening test, especially in tumor samples with low epithelial content. PMID:23089489

  6. Allelic diversity of a beer haze active protein gene in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and development of allelic specific markers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingzhen; Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Sun, Dongfa; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-07-13

    The formation of haze is a serious quality problem in beer production. It has been shown that the use of silica elute (SE)-ve malt (absence of molecular weight (MW) ∼14000 Da) for brewing can improve haze stability in the resultant beer, and the protein was identified as a barley trypsin inhibitor of the chloroform/methanol type (BTI-CMe). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and (2) allele-specific (AS) markers for screening SE protein type. A survey of 172 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 71 cultivated barley genotypes was conducted, and 104 wild accessions and 35 cultivated genotypes were identified as SE+ve and 68 wild accessions and 36 cultivated genotypes as SE-ve. The allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe was investigated by cloning, alignment, and association analysis. It was found that there were significant differences between the SE+ve and SE-ve types in single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 234 (SNP(234)), SNP(313), and SNP(385.) Furthermore, two sets of AS markers were developed to screen SE protein type based on SNP(313). AS-PCR had results very similar to those obtained by immunoblot method. Mapping analysis showed that the gene controlling the MW∼14 kDa band was located on the short arm of chromosome 3H, at the position of marker BPB-0527 (33.302 cM) in the Franklin/Yerong DH population. PMID:21608526

  7. Molecular basis of RNA polymerase promoter specificity switch revealed through studies of Thermus bacteriophage transcription regulator

    PubMed Central

    Severinov, Konstantin; Minakhin, Leonid; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Lopatina, Anna; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Transcription initiation is the central point of gene expression regulation. Understanding of molecular mechanism of transcription regulation requires, ultimately, the structural understanding of consequences of transcription factors binding to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), the enzyme of transcription. We recently determined a structure of a complex between transcription factor gp39 encoded by a Thermus bacteriophage and Thermus RNAP holoenzyme. In this addendum to the original publication, we highlight structural insights that explain the ability of gp39 to act as an RNAP specificity switch which inhibits transcription initiation from a major class of bacterial promoters, while allowing transcription from a minor promoter class to continue. PMID:25105059

  8. Use of allele-specific FAIRE to determine functional regulatory polymorphism using large-scale genotyping arrays.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J P; Howard, Philip; Shah, Sonia; Eriksson, Per; Stender, Stefan; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Folkersen, Lasse; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Kumari, Meena; Palmen, Jutta; Hingorani, Aroon D; Talmud, Philippa J; Humphries, Steve E

    2012-01-01

    Following the widespread use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), focus is turning towards identification of causal variants rather than simply genetic markers of diseases and traits. As a step towards a high-throughput method to identify genome-wide, non-coding, functional regulatory variants, we describe the technique of allele-specific FAIRE, utilising large-scale genotyping technology (FAIRE-gen) to determine allelic effects on chromatin accessibility and regulatory potential. FAIRE-gen was explored using lymphoblastoid cells and the 50,000 SNP Illumina CVD BeadChip. The technique identified an allele-specific regulatory polymorphism within NR1H3 (coding for LXR-α), rs7120118, coinciding with a previously GWAS-identified SNP for HDL-C levels. This finding was confirmed using FAIRE-gen with the 200,000 SNP Illumina Metabochip and verified with the established method of TaqMan allelic discrimination. Examination of this SNP in two prospective Caucasian cohorts comprising 15,000 individuals confirmed the association with HDL-C levels (combined beta = 0.016; p = 0.0006), and analysis of gene expression identified an allelic association with LXR-α expression in heart tissue. Using increasingly comprehensive genotyping chips and distinct tissues for examination, FAIRE-gen has the potential to aid the identification of many causal SNPs associated with disease from GWAS. PMID:22916038

  9. Quantitative genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization on DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Andreas M; Ballvora, Agim; Matzner, Ulrich; Klemm, Manfred; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2005-08-01

    Genotyping of SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) has challenged the development of several novel techniques. Most of these methods have been introduced to discriminate binary SNPs in diploid species. In the present study, the quantitative genotyping of SNPs in natural DNA pools of a polyploid organism via DNA microarrays was analysed. Three randomly selected SNP loci were genotyped in the tetraploid species potato (Solanum tuberosum). For each SNP, 24 oligomers were designed, 12 with forward and 12 with reverse orientation. They contained the polymorphic site at one of the positions 11, 14 and 17. Several steps of optimizations were performed, including the 'materials' used and the establishment of hybridization conditions. Glass surfaces were either epoxy- or aldehyde-modified, and allele-specific oligonucleotides contained either SH or NH2 groups. Hybridization stringency conditions were established by varying the concentration of formamide in the hybridization buffer. For SNP BA213c14t7/403, the quantitative discrimination between all four different naturally occurring genotypes could be demonstrated. PMID:15847606

  10. Analysis of common mitochondrial DNA mutations by allele-specific oligonucleotide and Southern blot hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sha; Halberg, Michelle C; Floyd, Kristen C; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. There are a set of recurrent point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that are responsible for common mitochondrial diseases, including MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes), MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers), LHON (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy), NARP (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa), and Leigh syndrome. Most of the pathogenic mtDNA point mutations are present in the heteroplasmic state, meaning that the wild-type and mutant-containing mtDNA molecules are coexisting. Clinical heterogeneity may be due to the degree of mutant load (heteroplasmy) and distribution of heteroplasmic mutations in affected tissues. Additionally, Kearns-Sayre syndrome and Pearson syndrome are caused by large mtDNA deletions. In this chapter, we describe a multiplex PCR/allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization method for the screening of 13 common point mutations. This method allows the detection of low percentage of mutant heteroplasmy. In addition, a nonradioactive Southern blot hybridization protocol for the analysis of mtDNA large deletions is also described. PMID:22215554

  11. Allele-specific analysis of DNA replication origins in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Boris; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lajugie, Julien; Aladjem, Mirit I; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that control the location and timing of firing of replication origins are poorly understood. Using a novel functional genomic approach based on the analysis of SNPs and indels in phased human genomes, we observe that replication asynchrony is associated with small cumulative variations in the initiation efficiency of multiple origins between the chromosome homologues, rather than with the activation of dormant origins. Allele-specific measurements demonstrate that the presence of G-quadruplex-forming sequences does not correlate with the efficiency of initiation. Sequence analysis reveals that the origins are highly enriched in sequences with profoundly asymmetric G/C and A/T nucleotide distributions and are almost completely depleted of antiparallel triplex-forming sequences. We therefore propose that although G4-forming sequences are abundant in replication origins, an asymmetry in nucleotide distribution, which increases the propensity of origins to unwind and adopt non-B DNA structure, rather than the ability to form G4, is directly associated with origin activity. PMID:25987481

  12. Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene–childhood trauma interactions

    PubMed Central

    Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Anacker, Christoph; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Pruessner, Jens C; Pariante, Carmine M; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Mercer, Kristina B; Mayberg, Helen S; Bradley, Bekh; Nemeroff, Charles B; Holsboer, Florian; Heim, Christine M; Ressler, Kerry J; Rein, Theo; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2014-01-01

    Although the fact that genetic predisposition and environmental exposures interact to shape development and function of the human brain and, ultimately, the risk of psychiatric disorders has drawn wide interest, the corresponding molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We found that a functional polymorphism altering chromatin interaction between the transcription start site and long-range enhancers in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene, an important regulator of the stress hormone system, increased the risk of developing stress-related psychiatric disorders in adulthood by allele-specific, childhood trauma–dependent DNA demethylation in functional glucocorticoid response elements of FKBP5. This demethylation was linked to increased stress-dependent gene transcription followed by a long-term dysregulation of the stress hormone system and a global effect on the function of immune cells and brain areas associated with stress regulation. This identification of molecular mechanisms of genotype-directed long-term environmental reactivity will be useful for designing more effective treatment strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:23201972

  13. Allele-specific analysis of DNA replication origins in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Boris; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lajugie, Julien; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Bouhassira, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that control the location and timing of firing of replication origins are poorly understood. Using a novel functional genomic approach based on the analysis of SNPs and indels in phased human genomes, we observe that replication asynchrony is associated with small cumulative variations in the initiation efficiency of multiple origins between the chromosome homologues, rather than with the activation of dormant origins. Allele-specific measurements demonstrate that the presence of G-quadruplex-forming sequences does not correlate with the efficiency of initiation. Sequence analysis reveals that the origins are highly enriched in sequences with profoundly asymmetric G/C and A/T nucleotide distributions and are almost completely depleted of antiparallel triplex-forming sequences. We therefore propose that although G4-forming sequences are abundant in replication origins, an asymmetry in nucleotide distribution, which increases the propensity of origins to unwind and adopt non-B DNA structure, rather than the ability to form G4, is directly associated with origin activity. PMID:25987481

  14. Allele-Specific Network Reveals Combinatorial Interaction That Transcends Small Effects in Psoriasis GWAS

    PubMed Central

    Climer, Sharlee; Templeton, Alan R.; Zhang, Weixiong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of genetic markers have shown associations with various complex diseases, yet the “missing heritability” remains alarmingly elusive. Combinatorial interactions may account for a substantial portion of this missing heritability, but their discoveries have been impeded by computational complexity and genetic heterogeneity. We present BlocBuster, a novel systems-level approach that efficiently constructs genome-wide, allele-specific networks that accurately segregate homogenous combinations of genetic factors, tests the associations of these combinations with the given phenotype, and rigorously validates the results using a series of unbiased validation methods. BlocBuster employs a correlation measure that is customized for single nucleotide polymorphisms and returns a multi-faceted collection of values that captures genetic heterogeneity. We applied BlocBuster to analyze psoriasis, discovering a combinatorial pattern with an odds ratio of 3.64 and Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 5.01×10−16. This pattern was replicated in independent data, reflecting robustness of the method. In addition to improving prediction of disease susceptibility and broadening our understanding of the pathogenesis underlying psoriasis, these results demonstrate BlocBuster's potential for discovering combinatorial genetic associations within heterogeneous genome-wide data, thereby transcending the limiting “small effects” produced by individual markers examined in isolation. PMID:25233071

  15. Allele-Specific Methylation Occurs at Genetic Variants Associated with Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, John N.; Raj, Towfique; Fagerness, Jes; Stahl, Eli; Viloria, Fernando T.; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Seddon, Johanna; Daly, Mark; Chess, Andrew; Plenge, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesize that the phenomenon of allele-specific methylation (ASM) may underlie the phenotypic effects of multiple variants identified by Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS). We evaluate ASM in a human population and document its genome-wide patterns in an initial screen at up to 380,678 sites within the genome, or up to 5% of the total genomic CpGs. We show that while substantial inter-individual variation exists, 5% of assessed sites show evidence of ASM in at least six samples; the majority of these events (81%) are under genetic influence. Many of these cis-regulated ASM variants are also eQTLs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes and/or in high linkage-disequilibrium with variants linked to complex disease. Finally, focusing on autoimmune phenotypes, we extend this initial screen to confirm the association of cis-regulated ASM with multiple complex disease-associated variants in an independent population using next-generation bisulfite sequencing. These four variants are implicated in complex phenotypes such as ulcerative colitis and AIDS progression disease (rs10491434), Celiac disease (rs2762051), Crohn's disease, IgA nephropathy and early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (rs713875) and height (rs6569648). Our results suggest cis-regulated ASM may provide a mechanistic link between the non-coding genetic changes and phenotypic variation observed in these diseases and further suggests a route to integrating DNA methylation status with GWAS results. PMID:24911414

  16. Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions.

    PubMed

    Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Anacker, Christoph; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Pruessner, Jens C; Pariante, Carmine M; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Mercer, Kristina B; Mayberg, Helen S; Bradley, Bekh; Nemeroff, Charles B; Holsboer, Florian; Heim, Christine M; Ressler, Kerry J; Rein, Theo; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2013-01-01

    Although the fact that genetic predisposition and environmental exposures interact to shape development and function of the human brain and, ultimately, the risk of psychiatric disorders has drawn wide interest, the corresponding molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We found that a functional polymorphism altering chromatin interaction between the transcription start site and long-range enhancers in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene, an important regulator of the stress hormone system, increased the risk of developing stress-related psychiatric disorders in adulthood by allele-specific, childhood trauma-dependent DNA demethylation in functional glucocorticoid response elements of FKBP5. This demethylation was linked to increased stress-dependent gene transcription followed by a long-term dysregulation of the stress hormone system and a global effect on the function of immune cells and brain areas associated with stress regulation. This identification of molecular mechanisms of genotype-directed long-term environmental reactivity will be useful for designing more effective treatment strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:23201972

  17. Allele-specific transcription factor binding to common and rare variants associated with disease and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Marco; Pan, Gang; Nord, Helena; Wallerman, Ola; Wallén Arzt, Emelie; Berggren, Olof; Elvers, Ingegerd; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Rönnblom, Lars; Lindblad Toh, Kerstin; Wadelius, Claes

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of disease-associated SNPs, but in few cases the functional variant and the gene it controls have been identified. To systematically identify candidate regulatory variants, we sequenced ENCODE cell lines and used public ChIP-seq data to look for transcription factors binding preferentially to one allele. We found 9962 candidate regulatory SNPs, of which 16 % were rare and showed evidence of larger functional effect than common ones. Functionally rare variants may explain divergent GWAS results between populations and are candidates for a partial explanation of the missing heritability. The majority of allele-specific variants (96 %) were specific to a cell type. Furthermore, by examining GWAS loci we found >400 allele-specific candidate SNPs, 141 of which were highly relevant in our cell types. Functionally validated SNPs support identification of an SNP in SYNGR1 which may expose to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and primary biliary cirrhosis, as well as an SNP in the last intron of COG6 exposing to the risk of psoriasis. We propose that by repeating the ChIP-seq experiments of 20 selected transcription factors in three to ten people, the most common polymorphisms can be interrogated for allele-specific binding. Our strategy may help to remove the current bottleneck in functional annotation of the genome. PMID:26993500

  18. Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Tissue-Specific Dynamics of Differential, Nonadditive, and Allelic Expression Patterns in Maize Hybrids1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Distantly related maize (Zea mays) inbred lines display an exceptional degree of genomic diversity. F1 progeny of such inbred lines are often more vigorous than their parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In this study, we investigated how the genetic divergence of the maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 and their F1 hybrid progeny is reflected in differential, nonadditive, and allelic expression patterns in primary root tissues. In pairwise comparisons of the four genotypes, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two parental inbred lines significantly exceeded those of parent versus hybrid comparisons in all four tissues under analysis. No differentially expressed genes were detected between reciprocal hybrids, which share the same nuclear genome. Moreover, hundreds of nonadditive and allelic expression ratios that were different from the expression ratios of the parents were observed in the reciprocal hybrids. The overlap of both nonadditive and allelic expression patterns in the reciprocal hybrids significantly exceeded the expected values. For all studied types of expression - differential, nonadditive, and allelic - substantial tissue-specific plasticity was observed. Significantly, nonsyntenic genes that evolved after the last whole genome duplication of a maize progenitor from genes with synteny to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were highly overrepresented among differential, nonadditive, and allelic expression patterns compared with the fraction of these genes among all expressed genes. This observation underscores the role of nonsyntenic genes in shaping the transcriptomic landscape of maize hybrids during the early developmental manifestation of heterosis in root tissues of maize hybrids. PMID:27208302

  19. Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Hedhly, A; Wünsch, A; Kartal, Ö; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2016-03-01

    Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations are the results of gametophytic or sexual selection. Although these two forces are difficult to disentangle, testing S-alleles in the offspring of controlled crosses provides an opportunity to separate these two phenomena. In this work, segregation and transmission of S-alleles have been characterized in progenies of mixed donors and fully compatible pollinations under field conditions in Prunus avium. Seed set patterns and pollen performance have also been characterized. The results reveal paternal-specific distorted transmission of S-alleles in most of the crosses. Interestingly, S-allele segregation within any given paternal or maternal S-locus was random. Observations on pollen germination, pollen tube growth rate, pollen tube cohort size, seed set dynamics and transmission patterns strongly suggest post-pollination, prezygotic sexual selection, with male-male competition as the most likely mechanism. According to these results, post-pollination sexual selection takes precedence over frequency-dependent selection in explaining unequal S-haplotype frequencies. PMID:26559165

  20. Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Tissue-Specific Dynamics of Differential, Nonadditive, and Allelic Expression Patterns in Maize Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Jutta A; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Distantly related maize (Zea mays) inbred lines display an exceptional degree of genomic diversity. F1 progeny of such inbred lines are often more vigorous than their parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In this study, we investigated how the genetic divergence of the maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 and their F1 hybrid progeny is reflected in differential, nonadditive, and allelic expression patterns in primary root tissues. In pairwise comparisons of the four genotypes, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two parental inbred lines significantly exceeded those of parent versus hybrid comparisons in all four tissues under analysis. No differentially expressed genes were detected between reciprocal hybrids, which share the same nuclear genome. Moreover, hundreds of nonadditive and allelic expression ratios that were different from the expression ratios of the parents were observed in the reciprocal hybrids. The overlap of both nonadditive and allelic expression patterns in the reciprocal hybrids significantly exceeded the expected values. For all studied types of expression - differential, nonadditive, and allelic - substantial tissue-specific plasticity was observed. Significantly, nonsyntenic genes that evolved after the last whole genome duplication of a maize progenitor from genes with synteny to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were highly overrepresented among differential, nonadditive, and allelic expression patterns compared with the fraction of these genes among all expressed genes. This observation underscores the role of nonsyntenic genes in shaping the transcriptomic landscape of maize hybrids during the early developmental manifestation of heterosis in root tissues of maize hybrids. PMID:27208302

  1. Influence of sequence mismatches on the specificity of recombinase polymerase amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Daher, Rana K; Stewart, Gale; Boissinot, Maurice; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-04-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology relies on three major proteins, recombinase proteins, single-strand binding proteins, and polymerases, to specifically amplify nucleic acid sequences in an isothermal format. The performance of RPA with respect to sequence mismatches of closely-related non-target molecules is not well documented and the influence of the number and distribution of mismatches in DNA sequences on RPA amplification reaction is not well understood. We investigated the specificity of RPA by testing closely-related species bearing naturally occurring mismatches for the tuf gene sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for the cfb gene sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae. In addition, the impact of the number and distribution of mismatches on RPA efficiency was assessed by synthetically generating 14 types of mismatched forward primers for detecting five bacterial species of high diagnostic relevance such as Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, P. aeruginosa, and M. tuberculosis as well as Bacillus atropheus subsp. globigii for which we use the spores as internal control in diagnostic assays. A total of 87 mismatched primers were tested in this study. We observed that target specific RPA primers with mismatches (n > 1) at their 3'extrimity hampered RPA reaction. In addition, 3 mismatches covering both extremities and the center of the primer sequence negatively affected RPA yield. We demonstrated that the specificity of RPA was multifactorial. Therefore its application in clinical settings must be selected and validated a priori. We recommend that the selection of a target gene must consider the presence of closely-related non-target genes. It is advisable to choose target regions with a high number of mismatches (≥36%, relative to the size of amplicon) with respect to closely-related species and the best case scenario would be by choosing a unique target gene. PMID:25481659

  2. Tissue-specific imprinting of the mouse insulin-like growth factor II receptor gene correlates with differential allele-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Hu, J F; Oruganti, H; Vu, T H; Hoffman, A R

    1998-02-01

    Imprinted genes may be expressed uniparentally in a tissue- and development-specific manner. The insulin-like growth factor II receptor gene (Igf2r), one of the first imprinted genes to be identified, is an attractive candidate for studying the molecular mechanism of genomic imprinting because it is transcribed monoallelically in the mouse but biallelically in humans. To identify the factors that control genomic imprinting, we examined allelic expression of Igf2r at different ages in interspecific mice. We found that Igf2r is not always monoallelically expressed. Paternal imprinting of Igf2r is maintained in peripheral tissues, including liver, kidney, heart, spleen, intestine, bladder, skin, bone, and skeletal muscle. However, in central nervous system (CNS), Igf2r is expressed from both parental alleles. Southern analysis of the Igf2r promoter (region 1) revealed that, outside of the CNS where Igf2r is monoallelically expressed, the suppressed paternal allele is fully methylated while the expressed maternal allele is completely unmethylated. In CNS, however, both parental alleles are unmethylated in region 1. The importance of DNA methylation in the maintenance of the genomic imprint was also confirmed by the finding that Igf2r imprinting was relaxed by 5-azacytidine treatment. The correlation between genomic imprinting and allelic Igf2r methylation in CNS and other tissues thus suggests that the epigenetic modification in the promoter region may function as one of the major factors in maintaining the monoallelic expression of Igf2r. PMID:9482664

  3. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE) is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA) and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes) remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%). Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes in the human term

  4. Recognition and Activation Domains Contribute to Allele-Specific Responses of an Arabidopsis NLR Receptor to an Oomycete Effector Protein

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrenner, Adam D.; Goritschnig, Sandra; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, specific recognition of pathogen effector proteins by nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors leads to activation of immune responses. RPP1, an NLR from Arabidopsis thaliana, recognizes the effector ATR1, from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, by direct association via C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Two RPP1 alleles, RPP1-NdA and RPP1-WsB, have narrow and broad recognition spectra, respectively, with RPP1-NdA recognizing a subset of the ATR1 variants recognized by RPP1-WsB. In this work, we further characterized direct effector recognition through random mutagenesis of an unrecognized ATR1 allele, ATR1-Cala2, screening for gain-of-recognition phenotypes in a tobacco hypersensitive response assay. We identified ATR1 mutants that a) confirm surface-exposed residues contribute to recognition by RPP1, and b) are recognized by and activate the narrow-spectrum allele RPP1-NdA, but not RPP1-WsB, in co-immunoprecipitation and bacterial growth inhibition assays. Thus, RPP1 alleles have distinct recognition specificities, rather than simply different sensitivity to activation. Using chimeric RPP1 constructs, we showed that RPP1-NdA LRRs were sufficient for allele-specific recognition (association with ATR1), but insufficient for receptor activation in the form of HR. Additional inclusion of the RPP1-NdA ARC2 subdomain, from the central NB-ARC domain, was required for a full range of activation specificity. Thus, cooperation between recognition and activation domains seems to be essential for NLR function. PMID:25671309

  5. Rapid and specific detection of Yam mosaic virus by reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gonçalo; Bömer, Moritz; Nkere, Chukwuemeka; Kumar, P Lava; Seal, Susan E

    2015-09-15

    Yam mosaic virus (YMV; genus Potyvirus) is considered to cause the most economically important viral disease of yams (Dioscorea spp.) in West Africa which is the dominant region for yam production globally. Yams are a vegetatively propagated crop and the use of virus-free planting material forms an essential component of disease control. Current serological and PCR-based diagnostic methods for YMV are time consuming involving a succession of target detection steps. In this study, a novel assay for specific YMV detection is described that is based on isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-exoRPA). This test has been shown to be reproducible and able to detect as little as 14 pg/μl of purified RNA obtained from an YMV-infected plant, a sensitivity equivalent to that obtained with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in current general use. The RT-exoRPA assay has, however, several advantages over the RT-PCR; positive samples can be detected in less than 30 min, and amplification only requires a single incubation temperature (optimum 37°C). These features make the RT-exoRPA assay a promising candidate for adapting into a field test format to be used by yam breeding programmes or certification laboratories. PMID:26115609

  6. Identifying a Core RNA Polymerase Surface Critical for Interactions with a Sigma-Like Specificity Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cliften, Paul F.; Jang, Sei-Heon; Jaehning, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic interactions occurring between a core RNA polymerase (RNAP) and its initiation factors are critical for transcription initiation, but little is known about subunit interaction. In this work we have identified regions of the single-subunit yeast mitochondrial RNAP (Rpo41p) important for interaction with its sigma-like specificity factor (Mtf1p). Previously we found that the whole folded structure of both polypeptides as well as specific amino acids in at least three regions of Mtf1p are required for interaction. In this work we started with an interaction-defective point mutant in Mtf1p (V135A) and used a two-hybrid selection to isolate suppressing mutations in the core polymerase. We identified suppressors in three separate regions of the RNAP which, when modeled on the structure of the closely related phage T7 RNAP, appear to lie on one surface of the protein. Additional point mutations and biochemical assays were used to confirm the importance of each region for Rpo41p-Mtf1p interactions. Remarkably, two of the three suppressors are found in regions required by T7 RNAP for DNA sequence recognition and promoter melting. Although these essential regions of the phage RNAP are poorly conserved with the mitochondrial RNAPs, they are conserved among the mitochondrial enzymes. The organellar RNAPs appear to use this surface in an alternative way for interactions with their separate sigma-like specificity factor, which, like its bacterial counterpart, provides promoter recognition and DNA melting functions to the holoenzyme. PMID:10958696

  7. Specific detection of banana residue in processed foods using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yumiko; Ishihata, Kimie; Nakano, Shigeru; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yano, Takeo; Uchida, Kouji; Nakao, Yoshiki; Urisu, Atsuo; Adachi, Reiko; Teshima, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2010-07-28

    Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the detection of banana residue in processed foods. For high banana specificity, the primer set BAN-F/BAN-R was designed on the basis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) genes of chloroplasts and used to obtain amplified products specific to banana by both conventional and real-time PCR. To confirm the specificity of these methods, genomic DNA samples from 31 other species were examined; no amplification products were detected. Subsequently, eight kinds of processed foods containing banana were investigated using these methods to confirm the presence of banana DNA. Conventional PCR had a detection limit of 1 ppm (w/w) banana DNA spiked in 50 ng of salmon testis DNA, whereas SYBR Green I real-time semiquantitative PCR had a detection limit as low as 10 ppm banana DNA. Thus, both methods show high sensitivity and may be applicable as specific tools for the detection of trace amounts of banana in commercial food products. PMID:20604506

  8. Allele-Specific Transcriptome and Methylome Analysis Reveals Stable Inheritance and Cis-Regulation of DNA Methylation in Nasonia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Werren, John H; Clark, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints, which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids that are emerging as a model for studies of epigenetic processes in insects. In this study, we quantified allele-specific expression and methylation genome-wide in Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. No parent-of-origin effect in allelic expression was found for >8,000 covered genes, suggesting a lack of genomic imprinting in adult Nasonia. As we expected, both significant cis- and trans- effects are responsible for the expression divergence between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. Surprisingly, all 178 differentially methylated genes are also differentially methylated between the two alleles in F1 hybrid offspring, recapitulating the parental methylation status with nearly 100% fidelity, indicating the presence of strong cis-elements driving the target of gene body methylation. In addition, we discovered that total and allele-specific expression are positively correlated with allele-specific methylation in a subset of the differentially methylated genes. The 100% cis-regulation in F1 hybrids suggests the methylation machinery is conserved and DNA methylation is targeted by cis features in Nasonia. The lack of genomic imprinting and parent-of-origin differentially methylated regions in Nasonia, together with the stable inheritance of methylation status between generations, suggests either a cis-regulatory motif for methylation at the DNA level or highly stable inheritance of an epigenetic signal in Nasonia. PMID

  9. Allele-Specific Transcriptome and Methylome Analysis Reveals Stable Inheritance and Cis-Regulation of DNA Methylation in Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Clark, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints, which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids that are emerging as a model for studies of epigenetic processes in insects. In this study, we quantified allele-specific expression and methylation genome-wide in Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. No parent-of-origin effect in allelic expression was found for >8,000 covered genes, suggesting a lack of genomic imprinting in adult Nasonia. As we expected, both significant cis- and trans- effects are responsible for the expression divergence between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. Surprisingly, all 178 differentially methylated genes are also differentially methylated between the two alleles in F1 hybrid offspring, recapitulating the parental methylation status with nearly 100% fidelity, indicating the presence of strong cis-elements driving the target of gene body methylation. In addition, we discovered that total and allele-specific expression are positively correlated with allele-specific methylation in a subset of the differentially methylated genes. The 100% cis-regulation in F1 hybrids suggests the methylation machinery is conserved and DNA methylation is targeted by cis features in Nasonia. The lack of genomic imprinting and parent-of-origin differentially methylated regions in Nasonia, together with the stable inheritance of methylation status between generations, suggests either a cis-regulatory motif for methylation at the DNA level or highly stable inheritance of an epigenetic signal in Nasonia. PMID

  10. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bryś, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  11. Inhibition of Klenow DNA polymerase and poly(A)-specific ribonuclease by aminoglycosides.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yan-Guo; Martínez, Javier; Kirsebom, Leif A; Virtanen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are known to bind and perturb the function of catalytic RNA. Here we show that they also are potent inhibitors of protein-based catalysis using Escherichia coli Klenow polymerase (pol) and mammalian poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) as model enzymes. The inhibition was pH dependent and released in a competitive manner by Mg2+. Kinetic analysis showed that neomycin B behaved as a mixed noncompetitive inhibitor. Iron-mediated hydroxyl radical cleavage was used to show that neomycin B interfered with metal-ion binding in the active sites of both enzymes. Our analysis suggests a mechanism of inhibition where the aminoglycoside binds in the active site of the enzyme and thereby displaces catalytically important divalent metal ions. The potential causes of aminoglycoside toxicity and the usage of aminoglycosides to probe, characterize, and perturb metalloenzymes are discussed. PMID:12458793

  12. CK2 phosphorylation of Bdp1 executes cell cycle-specific RNA polymerase III transcription repression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Samudre, Kalpana; Wu, Si; Sun, Yuling; Hernandez, Nouria

    2004-10-01

    RNA polymerase III (pol III) transcription from the human U6 snRNA promoter can be reconstituted with the recombinant factors SNAPc and Brf2-TFIIIB combined with purified pol III. In this system, CK2 treatment of the pol III complex is required for transcription, whereas treatment of Brf2-TFIIIB is inhibitory. Here we show that CK2 inhibits Brf2-TFIIIB by specifically phosphorylating its Bdp1 component. Bdp1 is phosphorylated by CK2 during mitosis, and this is accompanied by Bdp1 dissociation from the U6 promoter and from chromatin in general and by transcription repression. Remarkably, whereas inhibition of CK2 in mitotic extracts restores pol III transcription, inhibition of CK2 in active S phase extracts debilitates transcription. Thus, CK2 is directed to phosphorylate different targets within the basal pol III transcription machinery at different times during the cell cycle, with opposite transcriptional effects. PMID:15469824

  13. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Vida R; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M; Inamine, Julia M; Belisle, John T; Maslow, Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA) gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt) rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH) resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis, biosynthesis, or drug

  14. Specific Residues of PB2 and PA Influenza Virus Polymerase Subunits Confer the Ability for RNA Polymerase II Degradation and Virus Pathogenicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Llompart, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus transcription requires functional coupling with cellular transcription for the cap-snatching process. Despite this fact, RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is degraded during infection in a process triggered by the viral polymerase. Reassortant viruses from the A/PR/8/34 (PR8) strain that induce (hvPR8) or do not induce (lvPR8) RNAP II degradation led to the identification of PA and PB2 subunits as responsible for the degradation process. Three changes in the PB2 sequence (I105M, N456D, and I504V) and two in PA (Q193H and I550L) differentiate PA and PB2 of lvPR8 from those of hvPR8. Using recombinant viruses, we observed that changes at position 504 of PB2, together with 550 of PA, confer the ability on lvPR8 for RNAP II degradation and, conversely, abolish hvPR8 degradation capacity. Since hvPR8 is more pathogenic than lvPR8 in mice, we tested the potential contribution of RNAP II degradation in a distant viral strain, the 2009 pandemic A/California/04/09 (CAL) virus, whose PA and PB2 subunits are of avian origin. As in the hvPR8 virus, mutations at positions 504 of PB2 and 550 of PA in CAL virus abolished its RNAP II degradation capacity. Moreover, in an in vivo model, the CAL-infected mice lost more body weight, and 75% lethality was observed in this situation compared with 100% survival in mutant-CAL- or mock-infected animals. These results confirm the involvement of specific PB2 and PA residues in RNAP II degradation, which correlates with pathogenicity in mice of viruses containing human or avian polymerase PB2 and PA subunits. IMPORTANCE The influenza virus polymerase induces the degradation of RNAP II, which probably cooperates to avoid the antiviral response. Here, we have characterized two specific residues located in the PA and PB2 polymerase subunits that mediate this degradation in different influenza viruses. Moreover, a clear correlation between RNAP II degradation and in vivo pathogenicity in mice was observed, indicating that the

  15. Development of a polymerase chain reaction test for specific identification of the urinary tract pathogen Aerococcus urinae.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, M; Collins, M D

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction test was developed for identification of the gram-positive urinary tract pathogen Aerococcus urinae. Oligonucleotide primers were based on highly specific sequences within the small-subunit rRNA gene. A confirmatory test based on hybridization of the amplified products to a highly specific internal probe was also developed. Images PMID:7684752

  16. GSH2 promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer analyzed by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    GAO, FEI; HUANG, HAO-JIE; GAO, JUN; LI, ZHAO-SHEN; MA, SHU-REN

    2015-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene silencing via promoter hypermethylation is an important event in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. Aberrant DNA hypermethylation events are highly tumor specific, and may provide a diagnostic tool for pancreatic cancer patients. The objective of the current study was to identify novel methylation-related genes that may potentially be used to establish novel therapeutic and diagnostic strategies against pancreatic cancer. The methylation status of the GS homeobox 2 (GSH2) gene was analyzed using the sodium bisulfite sequencing method. The GSH2 methylation ratio was examined in primary carcinomas and corresponding normal tissues derived from 47 patients with pancreatic cancer, using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Methylation ratios were found to be associated with the patient's clinicopathological features. GSH2 gene methylation was detected in 26 (55.3%) of the 47 pancreatic cancer patients, indicating that it occurs frequently in pancreatic cancer. A significant association with methylation was observed for tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=0.031). GSH2 may be a novel methylation-sensitive tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer and may be a tumor-specific biomarker of the disease. PMID:26171036

  17. Analysis by transposable element mutagenesis of tissue-specific R alleles in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Transposition of the mobile sequence Dissociation to an R allele which confers seed but not plant color (Sc) destabilizes expression giving spotted kernels. Removal of the corresponding regulator from the genome immobilizes Ds at R. The resulting (Sc)Ds derivatives are colorless or pale seeded and stable as homozygotes. Strong seed color is rescued through recombination in heterozygotes of (Sc)Ds with an allele which confers only plant color, (P). Such crossovers provide a means of (1) mapping the position of Ds insertions within (Sc) relative to the site which distinguishes (Sc) from (P) action, and (2) systematically mutagenizing (P) and other such R elements by transferring Ds from (Sc) to homologous sites by recombination.

  18. Allele-Specific Suppression of Mutant Huntingtin Using Antisense Oligonucleotides: Providing a Therapeutic Option for All Huntington Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Skotte, Niels H.; Southwell, Amber L.; Østergaard, Michael E.; Carroll, Jeffrey B.; Warby, Simon C.; Doty, Crystal N.; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Kordasiewicz, Holly; Watt, Andrew T.; Freier, Susan M.; Hung, Gene; Seth, Punit P.; Bennett, C. Frank; Swayze, Eric E.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The mutant protein causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration resulting in motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Currently, there is no disease altering treatment, and symptomatic therapy has limited benefit. The pathogenesis of HD is complicated and multiple pathways are compromised. Addressing the problem at its genetic root by suppressing mutant huntingtin expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for HD. We have developed and evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly enriched on HD alleles (HD-SNPs). We describe our structure-activity relationship studies for ASO design and find that adjusting the SNP position within the gap, chemical modifications of the wings, and shortening the unmodified gap are critical for potent, specific, and well tolerated silencing of mutant huntingtin. Finally, we show that using two distinct ASO drugs targeting the two allelic variants of an HD-SNP could provide a therapeutic option for all persons with HD; allele-specifically for roughly half, and non-specifically for the remainder. PMID:25207939

  19. Specific Silencing of L392V PSEN1 Mutant Allele by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Sierant, Malgorzata; Paduszynska, Alina; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Bagnoli, Silvia; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Nawrot, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology provides a powerful molecular tool to reduce an expression of selected genes in eukaryotic cells. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the effector molecules that trigger RNAi. Here, we describe siRNAs that discriminate between the wild type and mutant (1174 C→G) alleles of human Presenilin1 gene (PSEN1). This mutation, resulting in L392V PSEN1 variant, contributes to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Using the dual fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy we identified positions 8th–11th, within the central part of the antisense strand, as the most sensitive to mismatches. 2-Thiouridine chemical modification introduced at the 3′-end of the antisense strand improved the allele discrimination, but wobble base pairing adjacent to the mutation site abolished the siRNA activity. Our data indicate that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild type and mutant alleles of genes that differ by just a single nucleotide. PMID:21559198

  20. [Study on identification of "Digeda" raw materials in Mongolian patent medicine by PCR amplification of specific alleles].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-hu; Huang, Xian-zhang; Long, Ping; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Dong-dong; Wang, Ying-li; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    To explore a new method for identification of Mongolian patent medicine (MPM) by PCR amplification of specific alleles. Eight kinds of MPM were used to study the identification of "Digeda" raw materials. The total DNA of Lomatogonium rotatum and Corydalis bungeana samples were extracted through modified CTAB method, psbA-trnH sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced directionally. Specific primer was designed. The DNA of 8 kinds of MPM also was extracted and purified by the commercial DNA purification kits. The rbcL and two pair of specific primers sequences were amplified. The specific amplified products were sequenced in forward directions. All specific sequences were aligned and were analyzed. The results indicated that L rotatum can be identified by specific primers from Digeda-4 Tang, Digeda-8 San, Digeda-4 San, and C. bungeana medicinal materials can be identified by specific primers from Li Dan Ba Wei San, Yi He Ha Ri-12 and A Ga Ri-35. PCR amplification of specific alleles can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in MPM. PMID:26087535

  1. Polymerase chain reaction for the specific detection of Escherichia coli/Shigella.

    PubMed

    Spierings, G; Ockhuijsen, C; Hofstra, H; Tommassen, J

    1993-09-01

    The outer membrane protein PhoE of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae consists of conserved membrane-spanning segments and hypervariable surface-exposed regions. Two oligonucleotides based on DNA sequences encoding two different cell-surface-exposed regions of the Escherichia coli K12 PhoE protein were tested for their specificity in polymerase chain reactions. They reacted with all strains of the species E. coli/Shigella tested, except for strain S. boydii serovar 13, which is known to represent a different DNA-relatedness group. The probes did not react with any other Enterobacteriaceae tested, including strains of Escherichia blattae, Escherichia hermanii, Escherichia vulneris and Escherichia adecarboxylata, except for an Escherichia fergusonnii strain, which is most closely related to E. coli. Therefore, the primer couple showed a high degree of species-specificity. In addition, a second primer couple based on two conserved regions of the phoE genes was tested. This primer couple recognized a broad group of closely related enteric bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella. PMID:8310181

  2. Specific and Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Clinical Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anamika; Kashyap, Vijendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis, a global health problem and highly prevalent in India, has always been a serious problem with respect to definitive diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are now widely used for early detection and species differentiation of mycobacteria, but mostly with their own limitations. We aim to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections by choosing appropriate target sequences, ideally present in all mycobacterial species (MTB complex) and absent in others. Methods. Amplification of three target sequences from unrelated genes, namely, hsp 65 (165 bp), dnaJ (365 bp), and insertion element IS 6110 (541 bp) by PCR was carried out in clinical samples from suspected cases of tuberculosis/ mycobacterioses and healthy controls. Results. The sensitivity of this method ranged from 73.33% to 84.61%, and the specificity was 80%. The PCR method was significantly better (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009) than both smear and culture methods. Conclusion. Our trimarker-based PCR method could specifically detect M. tuberculosis and MTB complex infection from that of major pathogenic NTM and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. This method, by well distinguishing between MTB complex and NTM, presented a fast and accurate method to detect and diagnose mycobacterial infections more efficiently and could thereby help in better patient management particularly considering the increase in mycobacterial infections due to emergence of NTM over the past decades. PMID:23093958

  3. Specific threonine-4 phosphorylation and function of RNA polymerase II CTD during M phase progression

    PubMed Central

    Hintermair, Corinna; Voß, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic phosphorylation of Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 heptad-repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit coordinates progression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II through the transcription cycle. Here, we describe an M phase-specific form of Pol II phosphorylated at Thr4, but not at Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 residues. Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II binds to centrosomes and midbody and interacts with the Thr4-specific Polo-like kinase 1. Binding of Pol II to centrosomes does not require the CTD but may involve subunits of the non-canonical R2TP-Prefoldin-like complex, which bind to and co-localize with Pol II at centrosomes. CTD Thr4 mutants, but not Ser2 and Ser5 mutants, display severe mitosis and cytokinesis defects characterized by multipolar spindles and polyploid cells. We conclude that proper M phase progression of cells requires binding of Pol II to centrosomes to facilitate regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis in a CTD Thr4-P dependent manner. PMID:27264542

  4. Transcription of potato spindle tuber viroid by RNA polymerase II starts predominantly at two specific sites.

    PubMed

    Fels, A; Hu, K; Riesner, D

    2001-11-15

    Pospiviroidae, with their main representative potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), are replicated via a rolling circle mechanism by the host-encoded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (pol II). In the first step, the (+)-strand circular viroid is transcribed into a (-)-strand oligomer intermediate. As yet it is not known whether transcription is initiated by promotors at specific start sites or is distributed non-specifically over the whole circle. An in vitro transcription extract was prepared from a non-infected potato cell culture which exhibited transcriptional activity using added circular PSTVd (+)-strand RNA as template. In accordance with pol II activity, transcription could be inhibited by alpha-amanitin. RT-PCR revealed the existence of at least two different start sites and primer extension identified these as nucleotides A(111) and A(325). The sequences of the first 7 nt transcribed are very similar, (105)GGAGCGA(111) and (319)GGGGCGA(325). GC-boxes are located at a distance of 15 and 16 nt upstream, respectively, in the native viroid structure, which may act to facilitate initiation. The GC-boxes may have a similar function to the GC-rich hairpin II in the (-)-strand intermediate, as described previously. The results are compared with the corresponding features of avocado sunblotch viroid, which belongs to a different family of viroids and exhibits different transcription initiation properties. PMID:11713308

  5. Generation of Shox2-Cre allele for tissue specific manipulation of genes in the developing heart, palate, and limb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Chen, YiPing

    2013-07-01

    Shox2 is expressed in several developing organs in a tissue specific manner in both mice and humans, including the heart, palate, limb, and nervous system. To better understand the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Shox2 and to systematically dissect the genetic cascade regulated by Shox2, we created Shox2-LacZ and Shox2-Cre knock-in mouse lines. We show that the Shox2-LacZ allele expresses beta-galactosidase reporter gene in a fashion that recapitulates the endogenous Shox2 expression pattern in developing organs, including the sinoatrial node (SAN), the anterior portion of the palate, and the proximal region of the limb bud. Conditional deletion of Shox2 in mice carrying the Shox2-Cre allele yielded SAN phenotypes that resemble conventional Shox2 knockout mice. Our results indicate that the Shox2-Cre allele offer a useful tool for tissue specific manipulation of genes in a number of developing organs, particularly in the developing SAN. PMID:23620086

  6. Defining a personal, allele-specific, and single-molecule long-read transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Tilgner, Hagen; Grubert, Fabian; Sharon, Donald; Snyder, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Personal transcriptomes in which all of an individual's genetic variants (e.g., single nucleotide variants) and transcript isoforms (transcription start sites, splice sites, and polyA sites) are defined and quantified for full-length transcripts are expected to be important for understanding individual biology and disease, but have not been described previously. To obtain such transcriptomes, we sequenced the lymphoblastoid transcriptomes of three family members (GM12878 and the parents GM12891 and GM12892) by using a Pacific Biosciences long-read approach complemented with Illumina 101-bp sequencing and made the following observations. First, we found that reads representing all splice sites of a transcript are evident for most sufficiently expressed genes ≤3 kb and often for genes longer than that. Second, we added and quantified previously unidentified splicing isoforms to an existing annotation, thus creating the first personalized annotation to our knowledge. Third, we determined SNVs in a de novo manner and connected them to RNA haplotypes, including HLA haplotypes, thereby assigning single full-length RNA molecules to their transcribed allele, and demonstrated Mendelian inheritance of RNA molecules. Fourth, we show how RNA molecules can be linked to personal variants on a one-by-one basis, which allows us to assess differential allelic expression (DAE) and differential allelic isoforms (DAI) from the phased full-length isoform reads. The DAI method is largely independent of the distance between exon and SNV--in contrast to fragmentation-based methods. Overall, in addition to improving eukaryotic transcriptome annotation, these results describe, to our knowledge, the first large-scale and full-length personal transcriptome. PMID:24961374

  7. A novel type 2 diabetes risk allele increases the promoter activity of the muscle-specific small ankyrin 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rengna; Lai, Shanshan; Yang, Yang; Shi, Hongfei; Cai, Zhenming; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Du, Hong; Chen, Huimei

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified Ankyrin-1 (ANK1) as a common type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility locus. However, the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain unknown. We screened for 8 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ANK1 between 2 case-control studies. Genotype analysis revealed significant associations of 3 SNPs, rs508419 (first identified here), rs515071, and rs516946 with T2D (P < 0.001). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) > 0.80); subsequent analysis indicated that the CCC haplotype associated with increased T2D susceptibility (OR 1.447, P < 0.001). Further mapping showed that rs508419 resides in the muscle-specific ANK1 gene promoter. Allele-specific mRNA and protein level measurements confirmed association of the C allele with increased small ANK1 (sAnk1) expression in human skeletal muscle (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively). Luciferase assays showed increased rs508419-C allele transcriptional activity in murine skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated altered rs508419 DNA-protein complex formation. Glucose uptake was decreased with excess sAnk1 expression upon insulin stimulation. Thus, the ANK1 rs508419-C T2D-risk allele alters DNA-protein complex binding leading to increased promoter activity and sAnk1 expression; thus, increased sAnk1 expression in skeletal muscle might contribute to T2D susceptibility. PMID:27121283

  8. A novel type 2 diabetes risk allele increases the promoter activity of the muscle-specific small ankyrin 1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rengna; Lai, Shanshan; Yang, Yang; Shi, Hongfei; Cai, Zhenming; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Du, Hong; Chen, Huimei

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified Ankyrin-1 (ANK1) as a common type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility locus. However, the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain unknown. We screened for 8 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ANK1 between 2 case-control studies. Genotype analysis revealed significant associations of 3 SNPs, rs508419 (first identified here), rs515071, and rs516946 with T2D (P < 0.001). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.80); subsequent analysis indicated that the CCC haplotype associated with increased T2D susceptibility (OR 1.447, P < 0.001). Further mapping showed that rs508419 resides in the muscle-specific ANK1 gene promoter. Allele-specific mRNA and protein level measurements confirmed association of the C allele with increased small ANK1 (sAnk1) expression in human skeletal muscle (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively). Luciferase assays showed increased rs508419-C allele transcriptional activity in murine skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated altered rs508419 DNA-protein complex formation. Glucose uptake was decreased with excess sAnk1 expression upon insulin stimulation. Thus, the ANK1 rs508419-C T2D-risk allele alters DNA-protein complex binding leading to increased promoter activity and sAnk1 expression; thus, increased sAnk1 expression in skeletal muscle might contribute to T2D susceptibility. PMID:27121283

  9. Elongation factor SII-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase II through a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Reines, D; Mote, J

    1993-01-01

    In eukaryotes the genetic material is contained within a coiled, protein-coated structure known as chromatin. RNA polymerases must recognize specific nucleoprotein assemblies and maintain contact with the underlying DNA duplex for many thousands of base pairs. Template-bound lac operon repressor from Escherichia coli arrests RNA polymerase II in vitro and in vivo [Kuhn, A., Bartsch, I. & Grummt, I. (1990) Nature (London) 344, 559-562; Deuschele, U., Hipskind, R. A. & Bujard, H. (1990) Science 248, 480-483]. We show that in a reconstituted transcription system, elongation factor SII enables RNA polymerase II to proceed through this blockage at high efficiency. lac repressor-arrested elongation complexes display an SII-activated transcript cleavage reaction, an activity associated with transcriptional read-through of a previously characterized region of bent DNA. This demonstrates factor-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase II through a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Nascent transcript cleavage may be a general mechanism by which RNA polymerase II can bypass many transcriptional impediments. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8446609

  10. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Smith, Susan R.; Miyamoto, Amy; Shadduck, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 × 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  11. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Miyamoto, A.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 ?? 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  12. Comparison of immunohistochemistry, DNA sequencing and allele-specific PCR for the detection of IDH1 mutations in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Loussouarn, Delphine; Le Loupp, Anne-Gaëlle; Frenel, Jean-Sébastien; Leclair, François; Von Deimling, Andreas; Aumont, Maud; Martin, Stéphane; Campone, Mario; Denis, Marc G

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have identified mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene in more than 70% of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II and III gliomas. The most frequent mutation leads to a specific amino acid change from arginine to histidine at codon 132 (c.395G>A, p.R132H). IDH1 mutated tumors have a better prognosis than IDH1 non-mutated tumors. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the methods of mIDH1 R132H immunohistochemistry, allele-specific PCR and DNA sequencing for determination of IDH1 status. We performed a retrospective study of 91 patients with WHO grade II (n=43) and III (n=48) oligodendrogliomas. A fragment of exon 4 spanning the sequence encoding the catalytic domain of IDH1, including codon 132, was amplified and sequenced using standard conditions. Allele-specific amplification was performed using two forward primers with variations in their 3' nucleotides such that each was specific for the wild-type or the mutated variant, and one reverse primer. Immunohistochemistry was performed with mouse monoclonal mIDH1 R132H. DNA was extracted from FFPE sections following macrodissection. IDH1 mutations were found in 55/90 patients (61.1%) by direct sequencing. R132H mutations were found in 47/55 patients (85.4%). The results of the allele-specific PCR positively correlated with those from DNA sequencing. Other mutations (p.R132C, p.R132S and pR132G) were found by DNA sequencing in 3, 3 and 2 tumors, respectively (8/55 patients, 14.6%). mIDH1 R132H immunostaining was found in the 47 patients presenting the R132H mutation (sensitivity 47/47, 100% for this mutation). None of the tumors presenting a wild-type IDH1 gene were stained (specificity 35/35, 100%). Our results demonstrate that immunohistochemistry using the mIDH1 R132H antibody and allele-specific amplification are highly sensitive techniques to detect the most frequent mutation of the IDH1 gene. PMID:22447191

  13. THE MAIZE UNSTABLE FACTOR FOR ORANGE1 IS A DOMINANT EPIGENETIC MODIFIER OF A TISSUE SPECIFICALLY SILENT ALLELE OF PERICARP COLOR1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have characterized Ufo1 (unstable factor for orange1), a dominant, allele-specific modifier of expression of the maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene. The p1 gene encodes a Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments. The P1-wr allele speci...

  14. Organ-specific gene expression in maize: The P-wr allele. Final report, August 15, 1993--August 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The ultimate aim of our work is to understand how a regulatory gene produces a specific pattern of gene expression during plant development. Our model is the P-wr gene of maize, which produces a distinctive pattern of pigmentation of maize floral organs. We are investigating this system using a combination of classical genetic and molecular approaches. Mechanisms of organ-specific gene expression are a subject of intense research interest, as it is the operation of these mechanisms during eukaryotic development which determine the characteristics of each organism Allele-specific expression has been characterized in only a few other plant genes. In maize, organ-specific pigmentation regulated by the R, B, and Pl genes is achieved by differential transcription of functionally conserved protein coding sequences. Our studies point to a strikingly different mechanism of organ-specific gene expression, involving post-transcriptional regulation of the regulatory P gene. The novel pigmentation pattern of the P-wr allele is associated with differences in the encoded protein. Furthermore, the P-wr gene itself is present as a unique tandemly amplified structure, which may affect its transcriptional regulation.

  15. Anti-tumor effects of dehydroaltenusin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Naoki; Kokai, Yasuo; Ohtani, Seiji; Sahara, Hiroeki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takahashi, Shunya; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sato, Noriyuki; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki . E-mail: mizushin@nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp

    2007-01-12

    In the screening of selective inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases (pols), dehydroaltenusin was found to be an inhibitor of pol {alpha} from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We succeeded in chemically synthesizing dehydroaltenusin, and the compound inhibited only mammalian pol {alpha} with IC{sub 50} value of 0.5 {mu}M, and did not influence the activities of other replicative pols such as pols {delta} and {epsilon}, but also showed no effect on pol {alpha} activity from another vertebrate, fish, or from a plant species. Dehydroaltenusin also had no influence on the other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. The compound also inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells with LD{sub 50} values of 38.0-44.4 {mu}M. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HeLa cells, dehydroaltenusin was shown to be a promising suppressor of solid tumors. Histopathological examination revealed that increased tumor necrosis and decreased mitotic index were apparently detected by the compound in vivo. Therefore, dehydroaltenusin could be of interest as not only a mammalian pol {alpha}-specific inhibitor, but also as a candidate drug for anti-cancer treatment.

  16. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter cryaerophila, Campylobacter butzleri, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, Wolinella recta, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter freundii, or Aeromonas spp. By using a nonradioactively labeled probe internal to the PCR product, the assay could detect as little as 0.0062 pg of purified C. coli DNA, or the equivalent of four bacteria. In stools seeded with C. coli cells, the probe could detect between 30 and 60 bacteria per PCR assay. The assay was also successfully used to detect C. coli in rectal swab specimens from experimentally infected rabbits and C. jejuni in human stool samples. Images PMID:1400961

  17. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish. PMID:26747053

  18. Sequence-Specific Incorporation of Enzyme-Nucleotide Chimera by DNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Welter, Moritz; Verga, Daniela; Marx, Andreas

    2016-08-16

    DNA polymerases select the right nucleotide for the growing polynucleotide chain based on the shape and geometry of the nascent nucleotide pairs and thereby ensure high DNA replication selectivity. High-fidelity DNA polymerases are believed to possess tight active sites that allow little deviation from the canonical structures. However, DNA polymerases are known to use nucleotides with small modifications as substrates, which is key for numerous core biotechnology applications. We show that even high-fidelity DNA polymerases are capable of efficiently using nucleotide chimera modified with a large protein like horseradish peroxidase as substrates for template-dependent DNA synthesis, despite this "cargo" being more than 100-fold larger than the natural substrates. We exploited this capability for the development of systems that enable naked-eye detection of DNA and RNA at single nucleotide resolution. PMID:27392211

  19. Population-ethnic group specific genome variation allele frequency data: a querying and visualization journey.

    PubMed

    Viennas, Emmanouil; Gkantouna, Vassiliki; Ioannou, Marina; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Rigou, Maria; Poulas, Konstantinos; Patrinos, George P; Tzimas, Giannis

    2012-08-01

    National/ethnic mutation databases aim to document the genetic heterogeneity in various populations and ethnic groups worldwide. We have previously reported the development and upgrade of FINDbase (www.findbase.org), a database recording causative mutations and pharmacogenomic marker allele frequencies in various populations around the globe. Although this database has recently been upgraded, we continuously try to enhance its functionality by providing more advanced visualization tools that would further assist effective data querying and comparisons. We are currently experimenting in various visualization techniques on the existing FINDbase causative mutation data collection aiming to provide a dynamic research tool for the worldwide scientific community. We have developed an interactive web-based application for population-based mutation data retrieval. It supports sophisticated data exploration allowing users to apply advanced filtering criteria upon a set of multiple views of the underlying data collection and enables browsing the relationships between individual datasets in a novel and meaningful way. PMID:22659238

  20. Purification of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial RNA polymerase and identification of a dissociable factor required for specific transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Bogenhagen, D.F.; Insdorf, N.F.

    1988-07-01

    The Xenopus laevis mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) polymerase was purified to near homogeneity with an overall yield approaching 50%. The major polypeptides in the final fraction were a doublet of proteins of approximately 140 kilodaltons that copurified with the mtRNA polymerase activity. It appeared likely that the smaller polypeptide is a breakdown product of the larger one. The highly purified polymerase was active in nonspecific transcription but required a dissociable factor for specific transcription of X. laevis mtDNA. The factor could be resolved from mtRNA polymerase by hydrophobic chromatography and had a sedimentation coefficient of 3.0 S. The transcription factor eluted from both the hydrophobic column and a Mono Q anion-exchange column as a single symmetrical peak. The mtRNA polymerase and this factor together are necessary and sufficient for active transcription from four promoters located in a noncoding region of the mtDNA genome between the gene for tRNA/sup Phe/ and the displacement loop.

  1. Purification of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial RNA polymerase and identification of a dissociable factor required for specific transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bogenhagen, D F; Insdorf, N F

    1988-01-01

    The Xenopus laevis mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) polymerase was purified to near homogeneity with an overall yield approaching 50%. The major polypeptides in the final fraction were a doublet of proteins of approximately 140 kilodaltons that copurified with the mtRNA polymerase activity. It appeared likely that the smaller polypeptide is a breakdown product of the larger one. The highly purified polymerase was active in nonspecific transcription but required a dissociable factor for specific transcription of X. laevis mtDNA. The factor could be resolved from mtRNA polymerase by hydrophobic chromatography and had a sedimentation coefficient of 3.0 S. The transcription factor eluted from both the hydrophobic column and a Mono Q anion-exchange column as a single symmetrical peak. The mtRNA polymerase and this factor together are necessary and sufficient for active transcription from four promoters located in a noncoding region of the mtDNA genome between the gene for tRNA(Phe) and the displacement loop. Images PMID:2457154

  2. Allele-specific silencing of mutant p53 attenuates dominant-negative and gain-of-function activities

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Swathi V.; Parrales, Alejandro; Begani, Priya; Narkar, Akshay; Adhikari, Amit S.; Martinez, Luis A.; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Many p53 hotspot mutants not only lose the transcriptional activity, but also show dominant-negative (DN) and oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Increasing evidence indicates that knockdown of mutant p53 (mutp53) in cancer cells reduces their aggressive properties, suggesting that survival and proliferation of cancer cells are, at least partially, dependent on the presence of mutp53. However, these p53 siRNAs can downregulate both wild-type p53 (wtp53) and mutp53, which limits their therapeutic applications. In order to specifically deplete mutp53, we have developed allele-specific siRNAs against p53 hotspot mutants and validated their biological effects in the absence or presence of wtp53. First, the mutp53-specific siRNAs selectively reduced protein levels of matched p53 mutants with minimal reduction in wtp53 levels. Second, downregulation of mutp53 in cancer cells expressing a mutp53 alone (p53mut) resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration. Third, transfection of mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53 also reduced cell proliferation and migration with increased transcripts of p53 downstream target genes, which became further profound when cells were treated with an MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a or a chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. These results indicate that depletion of mutp53 by its specific siRNA restored endogenous wtp53 activity in cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53. This is the first study demonstrating biological effects and therapeutic potential of allele-specific silencing of mutp53 by mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53, thus providing a novel strategy towards targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26700961

  3. Specific Nucleotide Binding and Rebinding to Individual DNA Polymerase Complexes Captured on a Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Nicholas; Wang, Hongyun; Akeson, Mark; Lieberman, Kate R.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale pores are a tool for single molecule analysis of DNA or RNA processing enzymes. Monitoring catalytic activity in real time using this technique requires that these enzymes retain function while held atop a nanopore in an applied electric field. Using an α-hemolysin nanopore, we measured the dwell time for complexes of DNA with the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (KF) as a function of the concentration of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrate. We analyzed these dwell time measurements in the framework of a two-state model for captured complexes (DNA-KF binary and DNA-KF-dNTP ternary states). Average nanopore dwell time increased without saturating as a function of correct dNTP concentration across four orders of magnitude. This arises from two factors that are proportional to dNTP concentration: 1) The fraction of complexes that are in the ternary state when initially captured predominantly affects dwell time at low dNTP concentrations; 2) The rate of binding and rebinding of dNTP to captured complexes affects dwell time at higher dNTP concentrations. Thus there are two regimes that display a linear relationship between average dwell time and dNTP concentration. The transition from one linear regime to the other occurs near the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for dNTP binding to KF-DNA complexes in solution. We conclude from the combination of titration experiments and modeling that DNA-KF complexes captured atop the nanopore retain iterative, sequence-specific dNTP binding, as required for catalysis and fidelity in DNA synthesis. PMID:19275265

  4. Inhibition of host cell RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription by poliovirus: Inactivation of specific transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, L.G.; Yoshinaga, S.K.; Berk, A.J.; Dasgupta, A.

    1987-11-01

    The inhibition of transcription by RNA polymerase III in poliovirus-infected cells was studied. Experiments utilizing two different cell lines showed that the initiation step of transcription by RNA polymerase III was impaired by infection of these cells with the virus. The observed inhibition of transcription was not due to shut-off of host cell protein synthesis by poliovirus. Among four distinct components required for accurate transcription in vitro from cloned DNA templates, activities of RNA polymerase III and transcription factor TFIIIA were not significantly affected by virus infection. The activity of transcription factor TFIIIC, the limiting component required for transcription of RNA polymerase III genes, was severely inhibited in infected cells, whereas that of transcription factor TFIIIB was inhibited to a lesser extent. The sequence-specific DNA-binding of TFIIIC to the adenovirus VA1 gene internal promoted, however, was not altered by infection of cells with the virus. The authors conclude that (i) at least two transcription factors, TFIIIB and TFIIIC, are inhibited by infection of cells with poliovirtus, (ii) inactivation of TFIIIC does not involve destruction of its DNA-binding domain, and (iii) sequence-specific DNA binding by TFIIIC may be necessary but is not sufficient for the formation of productive transcription complexes.

  5. New primer for specific amplification of the CAG repeat in Huntington disease alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, C.E.; Hodes, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat near the 5{prime} end of the gene for Huntington disease (IT15). The CAG repeat is flanked by a variable-length CCG repeat that is included in the amplification product obtained with most currently used primer sets and PCR protocols. Inclusion of this adjacent CCG repeat complicates the accurate assessment of CAG repeat length and interferes with the genotype determination of those individuals carrying alleles in the intermediate range between normal and expanded sized. Due to the GC-rich nature of this region, attempts at designing a protocol for amplification of only the CAG repeat have proved unreliable and difficult to execute. We report here the development of a compatible primer set and PCR protocol that yields consistent amplification of the CAG-repeat region. PCR products can be visualized in ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels for rapid screening or in 6% polyacrylamide gels for determination of exact repeat length. This assay produces bands that can be sized accurately, while eliminating most nonspecific products. Fifty-five specimens examined showed consistency with another well-known method, but one that amplifies the CCG repeats as well. The results we obtained also matched the known carrier status of the donors.

  6. Allele-specific silencing of EEC p63 mutant R304W restores p63 transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Novelli, F; Lena, A M; Panatta, E; Nasser, W; Shalom-Feuerstein, R; Candi, E; Melino, G

    2016-01-01

    EEC (ectrodactily-ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate) syndrome is a rare genetic disease, autosomal dominant inherited. It is part of the ectodermal dysplasia disorders caused by heterozygous mutations in TP63 gene. EEC patients present limb malformations, orofacial clefting, skin and skin's appendages defects, ocular abnormalities. The transcription factor p63, encoded by TP63, is a master gene for the commitment of ectodermal-derived tissues, being expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge is critical for vertebrate limb formation and, at a later stage, for skin and skin's appendages development. The ΔNp63α isoform is predominantly expressed in epithelial cells and it is indispensable for preserving the self-renewal capacity of adult stem cells and to engage specific epithelial differentiation programs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a potential therapy approach for EEC patients by selectively silencing the mutant allele. Here, using a systemic screening based on a dual-luciferase reported gene assay, we have successfully identified specific siRNAs for repressing the EEC-causing p63 mutant, R304W. Upon siRNA treatment, we were able to restore ΔNp63-WT allele transcriptional function in induced pluripotent stem cells that were derived from EEC patient biopsy. This study demonstrates that siRNAs approach is promising and, may pave the way for curing/delaying major symptoms, such as cornea degeneration and skin erosions in young EEC patients. PMID:27195674

  7. A new mib allele with a chromosomal deletion covering foxc1a exhibits anterior somite specification defect

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Hao; Lin, Ji-Sheng; Po Lai, Keng; Li, Jing-Woei; Chan, Ting-Fung; You, May-Su; Tse, William Ka Fai; Jiang, Yun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    mibnn2002, found from an allele screen, showed early segmentation defect and severe cell death phenotypes, which are different from previously known mib mutants. Despite distinct morphological phenotypes, the typical mib molecular phenotypes: her4 down-regulation, neurogenic phenotype and cold sensitive dlc expression pattern, still remained. The linkage analysis also indicated that mibnn2002 is a new mib allele. Failure of specification in anterior 7-10 somites is likely due to lack of foxc1a expression in mibnn2002 homozygotes. Somites and somite markers gradually appeared after 7-10 somite stage, suggesting that foxc1a is only essential for the formation of anterior 7-10 somites. Apoptosis began around 16-somite stage with p53 up-regulation. To find the possible links of mib, foxc1a and apoptosis, transcriptome analysis was employed. About 140 genes, including wnt3a, foxc1a and mib, were not detected in the homozygotes. Overexpression of foxc1a mRNA in mibnn2002 homozygotes partially rescued the anterior somite specification. In the process of characterizing mibnn2002 mutation, we integrated the scaffolds containing mib locus into chromosome 2 (or linkage group 2, LG2) based on synteny comparison and transcriptome results. Genomic PCR analysis further supported the conclusion and showed that mibnn2002 has a chromosomal deletion with the size of about 9.6 Mbp. PMID:26039894

  8. Recommendations for Accurate Resolution of Gene and Isoform Allele-Specific Expression in RNA-Seq Data.

    PubMed

    Wood, David L A; Nones, Katia; Steptoe, Anita; Christ, Angelika; Harliwong, Ivon; Newell, Felicity; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Miller, David; Cloonan, Nicole; Grimmond, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation modulates gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally, and can profoundly alter an individual's phenotype. Measuring allelic differential expression at heterozygous loci within an individual, a phenomenon called allele-specific expression (ASE), can assist in identifying such factors. Massively parallel DNA and RNA sequencing and advances in bioinformatic methodologies provide an outstanding opportunity to measure ASE genome-wide. In this study, matched DNA and RNA sequencing, genotyping arrays and computationally phased haplotypes were integrated to comprehensively and conservatively quantify ASE in a single human brain and liver tissue sample. We describe a methodological evaluation and assessment of common bioinformatic steps for ASE quantification, and recommend a robust approach to accurately measure SNP, gene and isoform ASE through the use of personalized haplotype genome alignment, strict alignment quality control and intragenic SNP aggregation. Our results indicate that accurate ASE quantification requires careful bioinformatic analyses and is adversely affected by sample specific alignment confounders and random sampling even at moderate sequence depths. We identified multiple known and several novel ASE genes in liver, including WDR72, DSP and UBD, as well as genes that contained ASE SNPs with imbalance direction discordant with haplotype phase, explainable by annotated transcript structure, suggesting isoform derived ASE. The methods evaluated in this study will be of use to researchers performing highly conservative quantification of ASE, and the genes and isoforms identified as ASE of interest to researchers studying those loci. PMID:25965996

  9. Allele-specific silencing of EEC p63 mutant R304W restores p63 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Novelli, F; Lena, A M; Panatta, E; Nasser, W; Shalom-Feuerstein, R; Candi, E; Melino, G

    2016-01-01

    EEC (ectrodactily-ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate) syndrome is a rare genetic disease, autosomal dominant inherited. It is part of the ectodermal dysplasia disorders caused by heterozygous mutations in TP63 gene. EEC patients present limb malformations, orofacial clefting, skin and skin's appendages defects, ocular abnormalities. The transcription factor p63, encoded by TP63, is a master gene for the commitment of ectodermal-derived tissues, being expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge is critical for vertebrate limb formation and, at a later stage, for skin and skin's appendages development. The ΔNp63α isoform is predominantly expressed in epithelial cells and it is indispensable for preserving the self-renewal capacity of adult stem cells and to engage specific epithelial differentiation programs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a potential therapy approach for EEC patients by selectively silencing the mutant allele. Here, using a systemic screening based on a dual-luciferase reported gene assay, we have successfully identified specific siRNAs for repressing the EEC-causing p63 mutant, R304W. Upon siRNA treatment, we were able to restore ΔNp63-WT allele transcriptional function in induced pluripotent stem cells that were derived from EEC patient biopsy. This study demonstrates that siRNAs approach is promising and, may pave the way for curing/delaying major symptoms, such as cornea degeneration and skin erosions in young EEC patients. PMID:27195674

  10. Recommendations for Accurate Resolution of Gene and Isoform Allele-Specific Expression in RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Wood, David L. A.; Nones, Katia; Steptoe, Anita; Christ, Angelika; Harliwong, Ivon; Newell, Felicity; Bruxner, Timothy J. C.; Miller, David; Cloonan, Nicole; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation modulates gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally, and can profoundly alter an individual’s phenotype. Measuring allelic differential expression at heterozygous loci within an individual, a phenomenon called allele-specific expression (ASE), can assist in identifying such factors. Massively parallel DNA and RNA sequencing and advances in bioinformatic methodologies provide an outstanding opportunity to measure ASE genome-wide. In this study, matched DNA and RNA sequencing, genotyping arrays and computationally phased haplotypes were integrated to comprehensively and conservatively quantify ASE in a single human brain and liver tissue sample. We describe a methodological evaluation and assessment of common bioinformatic steps for ASE quantification, and recommend a robust approach to accurately measure SNP, gene and isoform ASE through the use of personalized haplotype genome alignment, strict alignment quality control and intragenic SNP aggregation. Our results indicate that accurate ASE quantification requires careful bioinformatic analyses and is adversely affected by sample specific alignment confounders and random sampling even at moderate sequence depths. We identified multiple known and several novel ASE genes in liver, including WDR72, DSP and UBD, as well as genes that contained ASE SNPs with imbalance direction discordant with haplotype phase, explainable by annotated transcript structure, suggesting isoform derived ASE. The methods evaluated in this study will be of use to researchers performing highly conservative quantification of ASE, and the genes and isoforms identified as ASE of interest to researchers studying those loci. PMID:25965996

  11. Molecular and classical genetic analyses of his-3 mutants of Neurospora crassa. I. Tests for allelic complementation and specific revertibility.

    PubMed

    Overton, L K; Dubins, J S; de Serres, F J

    1989-10-01

    A collection of 81 his-3 mutants of Neurospora crassa was analyzed in assays for allelic complementation and specific revertibility. In these studies, the linearity of the complementation map of the his-3 cistron (Webber, 1965) was confirmed and mutants were classified as complementing with non-polarized or polarized complementation patterns, or non-complementing. In the assays for spontaneous or induced revertibility, 89% (71/80) of the mutants reverted either spontaneously or after treatment with the chemical mutagens N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-[ethyl-2-chloroethyl]aminopropylamino) acridine dihydrochloride, nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. The frequency of revertible mutants among the non-polarized complementing mutants was 96% (45/47), and 79% (15/19) for the polarized complementing and 79% (11/14) for the non-complementing mutants. The results of these classical genetic assays for allelic complementation and specific revertibility suggest a correlation between complementation pattern and presumptive genetic alterations at the molecular level among his-3 mutants similar to that found with ad-3B mutants induced by nitrous acid (Malling and de Serres, 1967), ethyl methanesulfonate (Malling and de Serres, 1968), or ultraviolet (Kilbey et al., 1971). PMID:2529437

  12. Analysis of novel sph (spherocytosis) alleles in mice reveals allele-specific loss of band 3 and adducin in α-spectrin–deficient red cells

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Raymond F.; Lambert, Amy J.; Birkenmeier, Connie S.; Cirlan, Marius V.; Cirlan, Andreea Flavia M.; Campagna, Dean R.; Lux, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Five spontaneous, allelic mutations in the α-spectrin gene, Spna1, have been identified in mice (spherocytosis [sph], sph1J, sph2J, sph2BC, sphDem). All cause severe hemolytic anemia. Here, analysis of 3 new alleles reveals previously unknown consequences of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin deficiency. In sph3J, a missense mutation (H2012Y) in repeat 19 introduces a cryptic splice site resulting in premature termination of translation. In sphIhj, a premature stop codon occurs (Q1853Stop) in repeat 18. Both mutations result in markedly reduced RBC membrane spectrin content, decreased band 3, and absent β-adducin. Reevaluation of available, previously described sph alleles reveals band 3 and adducin deficiency as well. In sph4J, a missense mutation occurs in the C-terminal EF hand domain (C2384Y). Notably, an equally severe hemolytic anemia occurs despite minimally decreased membrane spectrin with normal band 3 levels and present, although reduced, β-adducin. The severity of anemia in sph4J indicates that the highly conserved cysteine residue at the C-terminus of α-spectrin participates in interactions critical to membrane stability. The data reinforce the notion that a membrane bridge in addition to the classic protein 4.1-p55-glycophorin C linkage exists at the RBC junctional complex that involves interactions between spectrin, adducin, and band 3. PMID:20056793

  13. Competitive allele-specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) is a sensitive, specific and fast method for BRAF V600 mutation detection in Melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Barbano, Raffaela; Pasculli, Barbara; Coco, Michelina; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Rendina, Michelina; Valori, Vanna Maria; Graziano, Paolo; Maiello, Evaristo; Fazio, Vito Michele; Parrella, Paola

    2015-01-01

    BRAF codon 600 mutation testing of melanoma patients is mandatory for the choice of the most appropriate therapy in the clinical setting. Competitive allele specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) technology allows not only the selective amplification of minor alleles, but it also blocks the amplification of non-mutant allele. We genotyped codon 600 of the BRAF gene in 54 patients’ samples by Cast-PCR and bidirectional direct sequence analysis. All the mutations detected by sequencing were also identified by Cast-PCR. In addition, Cast-PCR assay detected four samples carrying mutations and was able to clearly identify two mutations of uncertain interpretation by Sanger sequencing. The limit of detection of Cast-PCR was evaluated by constructing dilution curves of BRAFV600E and BRAFV600K mutated clinical samples mixed with a not-mutated specimens. Both mutations could be detected until a 1:100 mutated/not mutated ratio. Cloning and sequencing of the clones was used to confirm mutations on representative discrepant cases. Cast PCR performances were not affected by intratumour heterogeneity, and less affected by melanin content. Our results indicate that Cast-PCR is a reliable diagnostic tool for the identification of melanoma patients as eligible to be treated with TKIs and might be implemented in the clinical setting as elective screening method. PMID:26690267

  14. Development of an allele-specific PCR assay for simultaneous sero-typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli predominant O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohui; Meng, Qingmei; Dai, Jianjun; Han, Xiangan; Han, Yue; Ding, Chan; Liu, Haiwen; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-01-01

    Systemic infections by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. E. coli strains belonging to serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 are preferentially associated with avian colibacillosis. The rfb gene cluster controlling O antigen synthesis is usually various among different E. coli serotypes. In present study, the rfb gene clusters of E. coli serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 were characterized and compared. Based on the serotype-specific genes in rfb gene cluster, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed. This PCR assay was highly specific and reliable for sero-typing of APEC O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 10 pg DNA or 10 colony forming units (CFUs) bacteria for serotypes O2 and O18 strains, and 500 pg DNA or 1,000 CFUs bacteria for serotypes O1 and O78 strains. Using this PCR system, APEC isolates and the infected tissue samples were categorized successfully. Furthermore, it was able to differentiate the serotypes for the samples with multi-agglutination in the traditional serum agglutination assay. Therefore, the allele-specific PCR is more simple, rapid and accurate assay for APEC diagnosis, epidemiologic study and vaccine development. PMID:24805368

  15. In vitro substrate specificities of 3'-5' polymerases correlate with biological outcomes of tRNA 5'-editing reactions

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Protozoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) are repaired by a process known as 5'-editing. Mt-tRNA sequencing revealed organism-specific patterns of editing G-U base pairs, wherein some species remove G-U base pairs during 5'-editing, while others retain G-U pairs in the edited tRNA. We tested whether 3'-5' polymerases that catalyze the repair step of 5'-editing exhibit organism-specific preferences that explain the treatment of G-U base pairs. Biochemical and kinetic approaches revealed that a 3'-5' polymerase from A. castellanii tolerates G-U wobble pairs in editing substrates much more readily than several other enzymes, consistent with its biological pattern of editing. PMID:26143376

  16. In vitro substrate specificities of 3'-5' polymerases correlate with biological outcomes of tRNA 5'-editing reactions.

    PubMed

    Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E

    2015-07-22

    Protozoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) are repaired by a process known as 5'-editing. Mt-tRNA sequencing revealed organism-specific patterns of editing G-U base pairs, wherein some species remove G-U base pairs during 5'-editing, while others retain G-U pairs in the edited tRNA. We tested whether 3'-5' polymerases that catalyze the repair step of 5'-editing exhibit organism-specific preferences that explain the treatment of G-U base pairs. Biochemical and kinetic approaches revealed that a 3'-5' polymerase from Acanthamoeba castellanii tolerates G-U wobble pairs in editing substrates much more readily than several other enzymes, consistent with its biological pattern of editing. PMID:26143376

  17. Genome-wide allelic methylation analysis reveals disease-specific susceptibility to multiple methylation defects in imprinting syndromes.

    PubMed

    Court, Franck; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Romanelli, Valeria; Garin, Intza; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Salafsky, Ira; Guitart, Miriam; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Lapunzina, Pablo; Monk, David

    2013-04-01

    Genomic imprinting is the parent-of-origin-specific allelic transcriptional silencing observed in mammals, which is governed by DNA methylation established in the gametes and maintained throughout the development. The frequency and extent of epimutations associated with the nine reported imprinting syndromes varies because it is evident that aberrant preimplantation maintenance of imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) may affect multiple loci. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate array targeting 27 imprinted DMRs, we profiled allelic methylation in 65 imprinting defect patients. We identify multilocus hypomethylation in numerous Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B patients, and an individual with Silver-Russell syndrome. Our data reveal a broad range of epimutations exist in certain imprinting syndromes, with the exception of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome patients that are associated with solitary SNRPN-DMR defects. A mutation analysis identified a 1 bp deletion in the ZFP57 gene in a TNDM patient with methylation defects at multiple maternal DMRs. In addition, we observe missense variants in ZFP57, NLRP2, and NLRP7 that are not consistent with maternal effect and aberrant establishment or methylation maintenance, and are likely benign. This work illustrates that further extensive molecular characterization of these rare patients is required to fully understand the mechanism underlying the etiology of imprint establishment and maintenance. PMID:23335487

  18. Analysis of LMNB1 Duplications in Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy Provides Insights into Duplication Mechanisms and Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giorgio, Elisa; Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Kropp, Laura; Chakka, Anish Baswanth; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Gregorio, Eleonora Di; Lacerenza, Daniela; Vaula, Giovanna; Talarico, Flavia; Mandich, Paola; Toro, Camilo; Pierre, Eleonore Eymard; Labauge, Pierre; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Vairo, Filippo Pinto; Miguel, Diego; Stubbolo, Danielle; Marques, Lourenco Charles; Gahl, William; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Melberg, Atle; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Cohen, Oren S; Pjontek, Rastislav; Grau, Armin; Klopstock, Thomas; Fogel, Brent; Meijer, Inge; Rouleau, Guy; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre L; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi; Vanderver, Adeline; Dahl, Niklas; Hobson, Grace; Brusco, Alfredo; Brussino, Alessandro; Padiath, Quasar Saleem

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is an adult onset demyelinating disorder that is caused by duplications of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene. However, as only a few cases have been analyzed in detail, the mechanisms underlying LMNB1 duplications are unclear. We report the detailed molecular analysis of the largest collection of ADLD families studied, to date. We have identified the minimal duplicated region necessary for the disease, defined all the duplication junctions at the nucleotide level and identified the first inverted LMNB1 duplication. We have demonstrated that the duplications are not recurrent; patients with identical duplications share the same haplotype, likely inherited from a common founder and that the duplications originated from intrachromosomal events. The duplication junction sequences indicated that nonhomologous end joining or replication-based mechanisms such fork stalling and template switching or microhomology-mediated break induced repair are likely to be involved. LMNB1 expression was increased in patients’ fibroblasts both at mRNA and protein levels and the three LMNB1 alleles in ADLD patients show equal expression, suggesting that regulatory regions are maintained within the rearranged segment. These results have allowed us to elucidate duplication mechanisms and provide insights into allele-specific LMNB1 expression levels. PMID:23649844

  19. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  20. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  1. Bivariate segmentation of SNP-array data for allele-specific copy number analysis in tumour samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background SNP arrays output two signals that reflect the total genomic copy number (LRR) and the allelic ratio (BAF), which in combination allow the characterisation of allele-specific copy numbers (ASCNs). While methods based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been extended from array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) to jointly handle the two signals, only one method based on change-point detection, ASCAT, performs bivariate segmentation. Results In the present work, we introduce a generic framework for bivariate segmentation of SNP array data for ASCN analysis. For the matter, we discuss the characteristics of the typically applied BAF transformation and how they affect segmentation, introduce concepts of multivariate time series analysis that are of concern in this field and discuss the appropriate formulation of the problem. The framework is implemented in a method named CnaStruct, the bivariate form of the structural change model (SCM), which has been successfully applied to transcriptome mapping and aCGH. Conclusions On a comprehensive synthetic dataset, we show that CnaStruct outperforms the segmentation of existing ASCN analysis methods. Furthermore, CnaStruct can be integrated into the workflows of several ASCN analysis tools in order to improve their performance, specially on tumour samples highly contaminated by normal cells. PMID:23497144

  2. DNMT1 and AIM1 Imprinting in human placenta revealed through a genome-wide screen for allele-specific DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic imprinting is an epigenetically regulated process wherein genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Many imprinted genes were initially identified in mice; some of these were subsequently shown not to be imprinted in humans. Such discrepancy reflects developmental, morphological and physiological differences between mouse and human tissues. This is particularly relevant for the placenta. Study of genomic imprinting thus needs to be carried out in a species and developmental stage-specific manner. We describe here a new strategy to study allele-specific DNA methylation in the human placenta for the discovery of novel imprinted genes. Results Using this methodology, we confirmed 16 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with known imprinted genes. We chose 28 genomic regions for further testing and identified two imprinted genes (DNMT1 and AIM1). Both genes showed maternal allele-specific methylation and paternal allele-specific transcription. Imprinted expression for AIM1 was conserved in the cynomolgus macaque placenta, but not in other macaque tissues or in the mouse. Conclusions Our study indicates that while there are many genomic regions with allele-specific methylation in tissues like the placenta, only a small sub-set of them are associated with allele-specific transcription, suggesting alternative functions for such genomic regions. Nonetheless, novel tissue-specific imprinted genes remain to be discovered in humans. Their identification may help us better understand embryonic and fetal development. PMID:24094292

  3. Enhanced specificity of TPMT*2 genotyping using unidirectional wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single tube.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Yang, Zhao; Xia, Han; Huang, Jun-Fu; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Tian-Nun; Wang, Gui-Yu; Chuai, Zheng-Ran; Fu, Wei-Ling; Huang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR) was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques. PMID:24705376

  4. Enhanced Specificity of TPMT*2 Genotyping Using Unidirectional Wild-Type and Mutant Allele-Specific Scorpion Primers in a Single Tube

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Yang, Zhao; Xia, Han; Huang, Jun-Fu; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Tian-Nun; Wang, Gui-Yu; Chuai, Zheng-Ran; Fu, Wei-Ling; Huang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR) was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques. PMID:24705376

  5. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination. PMID:25457547

  6. Citrus (Rutaceae) SNP markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR; transferability across the Aurantioideae subfamily1

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lor, Andres; Ancillo, Gema; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASPar) were developed from sequences of three Citrus species. Their transferability was tested in 63 Citrus genotypes and 19 relative genera of the subfamily Aurantioideae to estimate the potential of SNP markers, selected from a limited intrageneric discovery panel, for ongoing broader diversity analysis at the intra- and intergeneric levels and systematic germplasm bank characterization. • Methods and Results: Forty-two SNP markers were developed using KASPar technology. Forty-one were successfully genotyped in all of the Citrus germplasm, where intra- and interspecific polymorphisms were observed. The transferability and diversity decreased with increasing taxonomic distance. • Conclusions: SNP markers based on the KASPar method developed from sequence data of a limited intrageneric discovery panel provide a valuable molecular resource for genetic diversity analysis of germplasm within a genus and should be useful for germplasm fingerprinting at a much broader diversity level. PMID:25202535

  7. Genotyping by Sequencing Using Specific Allelic Capture to Build a High-Density Genetic Map of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Yan; Ardisson, Morgane; Ranwez, Vincent; Besnard, Alban; Leroy, Philippe; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Viader, Véronique; Santoni, Sylvain; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequence capture is a promising technology which helps reduce costs for sequencing and genotyping numerous genomic regions in large sets of individuals. Bait sequences are designed to capture specific alleles previously discovered in parents or reference populations. We studied a set of 135 RILs originating from a cross between an emmer cultivar (Dic2) and a recent durum elite cultivar (Silur). Six thousand sequence baits were designed to target Dic2 vs. Silur polymorphisms discovered in a previous RNAseq study. These baits were exposed to genomic DNA of the RIL population. Eighty percent of the targeted SNPs were recovered, 65% of which were of high quality and coverage. The final high density genetic map consisted of more than 3,000 markers, whose genetic and physical mapping were consistent with those obtained with large arrays. PMID:27171472

  8. Allelic Diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Entails Variant-Specific Red Cell Surface Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Juillerat, Alexandre; Vallieres, Cindy; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 adhesin is a virulence factor and a prime target of humoral immunity. It is encoded by a repertoire of functionally differentiated var genes, which display architectural diversity and allelic polymorphism. Their serological relationship is key to understanding the evolutionary constraints on this gene family and rational vaccine design. Here, we investigated the Palo Alto/VarO and IT4/R29 and 3D7/PF13_003 parasites lines. VarO and R29 form rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes, a phenotype associated with severe malaria. They express an allelic Cys2/group A NTS-DBL1α1 PfEMP1 domain implicated in rosetting, whose 3D7 ortholog is encoded by PF13_0003. Using these three recombinant NTS-DBL1α1 domains, we elicited antibodies in mice that were used to develop monovariant cultures by panning selection. The 3D7/PF13_0003 parasites formed rosettes, revealing a correlation between sequence identity and virulence phenotype. The antibodies cross-reacted with the allelic domains in ELISA but only minimally with the Cys4/group B/C PFL1955w NTS-DBL1α. By contrast, they were variant-specific in surface seroreactivity of the monovariant-infected red cells by FACS analysis and in rosette-disruption assays. Thus, while ELISA can differentiate serogroups, surface reactivity assays define the more restrictive serotypes. Irrespective of cumulated exposure to infection, antibodies acquired by humans living in a malaria-endemic area also displayed a variant-specific surface reactivity. Although seroprevalence exceeded 90% for each rosetting line, the kinetics of acquistion of surface-reactive antibodies differed in the younger age groups. These data indicate that humans acquire an antibody repertoire to non-overlapping serotypes within a serogroup, consistent with an antibody-driven diversification pressure at the population level. In addition, the data provide important information for vaccine design, as production of a vaccine

  9. SNP Detection in mRNA in Living Cells Using Allele Specific FRET Probes

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Liya; Huang, Lingyan; Kedmi, Ranit; Behlke, Mark A.; Peer, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Live mRNA detection allows real time monitoring of specific transcripts and genetic alterations. The main challenge of live genetic detection is overcoming the high background generated by unbound probes and reaching high level of specificity with minimal off target effects. The use of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) probes allows differentiation between bound and unbound probes thus decreasing background. Probe specificity can be optimized by adjusting the length and through use of chemical modifications that alter binding affinity. Herein, we report the use of two oligonucleotide FRET probe system to detect a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in murine Hras mRNA, which is associated with malignant transformations. The FRET oligonucleotides were modified with phosphorothioate (PS) bonds, 2′OMe RNA and LNA residues to enhance nuclease stability and improve SNP discrimination. Our results show that a point mutation in Hras can be detected in endogenous RNA of living cells. As determined by an Acceptor Photobleaching method, FRET levels were higher in cells transfected with perfect match FRET probes whereas a single mismatch showed decreased FRET signal. This approach promotes in vivo molecular imaging methods and could further be applied in cancer diagnosis and theranostic strategies. PMID:24039756

  10. Inactive allele-specific methylation and chromatin structure of the imprinted gene U2af1-rs1 on mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Hideo; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kamiya, Mamoru

    1996-07-01

    The imprinted U2Af1-rs1 gene that maps to mouse chromosome 11 is predominately expressed from the paternal allele. We examined the methylation of genomic sequences in and around the U2af1-rs1 locus to establish the extent of sequence modifications that accompanied the silencing of the maternal allele. The analysis of HapII or HhaI sites showed that the silent maternal allele was hypermethylated in a block of CpG sequences that covered more than 10 kb. By comparison, the expressed paternal allele was unmethylated from a CpG island upstream of the transcribed region through 2 kb. An analysis of DNaseI hypersensitivity of a putative promoter of U2af1-rs1 showed an open chromatin conformation only on the unmethylated, expressed paternal allele. These results suggest that allele-specific hypermethylation covering the gene and its upstream CpG island plays a role in maternal allele repression of U2af1-rs1, which is reflected in altered chromatin conformation of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Textpresso Site-Specific Recombinases: a text-mining server for the recombinase literature including Cre mice and conditional alleles

    PubMed Central

    Urbanski, William M.; Condie, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases (http://ssrc.genetics.uga.edu/) is a text-mining web server for searching a database of over 9000 full-text publications. The papers and abstracts in this database represent a wide range of topics related to site-specific recombinase (SSR) research tools. Included in the database are most of the papers that report the characterization or use of mouse strains that express Cre recombinase as well as papers that describe or analyze mouse lines that carry conditional (floxed) alleles or SSR-activated transgenes/knockins. The database also includes reports describing SSR-based cloning methods such as the Gateway or the Creator systems, papers reporting the development or use of SSR-based tools in systems such as Drosophila, bacteria, parasites, stem cells, yeast, plants, zebrafish and Xenopus as well as publications that describe the biochemistry, genetics or molecular structure of the SSRs themselves. Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases is the only comprehensive text-mining resource available for the literature describing the biology and technical applications of site-specific recombinases. PMID:19882667

  12. Selective alleviation of Mitomycin C sensitivity in lexA3 strains of Escherichia coli demands allele specificity of rif-nal mutations: a pivotal role for rpoB87-gyrA87 mutations.

    PubMed

    Shanmughapriya, Vinod; Meenakshi, Shanmugaraja; Munavar, M Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Very recently, we have reported about an unconventional mode of elicitation of Mitomycin C (MMC) specific resistance in lexA3 (SOS repair deficient) mutants due to a combination of Rif-Nal mutations (rpoB87-gyrA87). We have clearly shown that UvrB is mandatory for this unconventional MMC resistance in rpoB87-gyrA87-lexA3 strains and uvrB is expressed more even without DNA damage induction from its LexA dependent promoter despite the uncleavable LexA3 repressor. The rpoB87 allele is same as the rpoB3595 which is known to give rise to a fast moving RNA Polymerase and gyrA87 is a hitherto unreported Nal(R) allele. Thus, it is proposed that the RNA Polymerase with higher elongation rate with the mutant DNA Gyrase is able to overcome the repressional hurdle posed by LexA3 to express uvrB. In this study we have systematically analysed the effect of three other rpoB (rif) mutations-two known to give rise to fast moving RNAP (rpoB2 and rpoB111) and one to a slow moving RNAP (rpoB8) and four different alleles of gyrA Nal(R) mutations (gyrA199, gyrA247, gyrA250, gyrA259) isolated spontaneously, on elicitation of MMC resistance in lexA3 strains. Our results indicate that in order to acquire resistance to 0.5 µg/ml MMC cells require both rpoB87 and gyrA87 but resistance to 0.25 µg/ml of MMC can be brought about by either rpoB87, gyrA87, fast moving rpoB mutations or other nal mutations also. We have also depicted increased constitutive uvrB expression in strains carrying fast moving RNAP (rpoB2 and rpoB111) with gyrA87 and another nal mutation with rpoB87 and expression level in these strains is lesser than rpoB87-gyrA87 strain. These results evidently suggest an allele specific role for the rif-nal mutations to acquire MMC resistance in lexA3 strains via increased constitutive uvrB expression and a pivotal role for rpoB87-gyrA87 combination to elicit higher levels of resistance. PMID:24498357

  13. Allele Mining in Barley Genetic Resources Reveals Genes of Race-Non-Specific Powdery Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Spies, Annika; Korzun, Viktor; Bayles, Rosemary; Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Himmelbach, Axel; Hedley, Pete E.; Schweizer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Race-non-specific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-non-specific resistance (NR) would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worldwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-NR to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) and combined data with results from QTL mapping as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the identification of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-NR in the presence of the Mlo gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches can accelerate the discovery of genes underlying race-NR in barley and other crop plants. PMID:22629270

  14. Improvement of polymerase chain reaction-based Bt11 maize detection method by reduction of non-specific amplification.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Yanaka, Yuka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The Bt11 maize-specific qualitative detection method based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the JAS analytical test handbook has been widely used for administrative monitoring of GM crops and quality control of commercially distributed grains. In the present investigation, some apparently false-positive detections were observed in assays using the Bt11 maize-specific method, and these erroneous results were proved to have been caused by non-specific DNA amplification. We improved the detection method to reduce non-specific amplification by decreasing the concentration of magnesium ions in the PCR mixture. The subsequent evaluation of analytical performance demonstrated no marked difference between the currently used and the improved methods, except for the reduced non-specific amplification. We conclude that the currently used standard method should be replaced with the improved method for the reliable detection of Bt11 maize. PMID:20208407

  15. Identification and Evolution of Functional Alleles of the Previously Described Pollen Specific Myrosinase Pseudogene AtTGG6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lili; Han, Bingying; Tan, Deguan; Wang, Meng; Ding, Mei; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Myrosinases are β-thioglucoside glucohydrolases and serve as defense mechanisms against insect pests and pathogens by producing toxic compounds. AtTGG6 in Arabidopsis thaliana was previously reported to be a myrosinase pseudogene but specifically expressed in pollen. However, we found that AlTGG6, an ortholog to AtTGG6 in A. lyrata (an outcrossing relative of A. thaliana) was functional, suggesting that functional AtTGG6 alleles may still exist in A. thaliana. AtTGG6 alleles in 29 A. thaliana ecotypes were cloned and sequenced. Results indicate that ten alleles were functional and encoded Myr II type myrosinase of 512 amino acids, and myrosinase activity was confirmed by overexpressing AtTGG6 in Pichia pastoris. However, the 19 other ecotypes had disabled alleles with highly polymorphic frame-shift mutations and diversified sequences. Thirteen frame-shift mutation types were identified, which occurred independently many times in the evolutionary history within a few thousand years. The functional allele was expressed specifically in pollen similar to the disabled alleles but at a higher expression level, suggesting its role in defense of pollen against insect pests such as pollen beetles. However, the defense function may have become less critical after A. thaliana evolved to self-fertilization, and thus resulted in loss of function in most ecotypes. PMID:26907263

  16. A GWAS SNP for Schizophrenia Is Linked to the Internal MIR137 Promoter and Supports Differential Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Alix; Breen, Gerome; Bubb, Vivien J.; Quinn, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MIR137 gene locus have been shown to confer risk for schizophrenia through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The expression levels of microRNA-137 (miR-137) and its validated gene targets have also been shown to be disrupted in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Regulation of miR-137 expression is thus imperative for normal neuronal functioning. We previously characterized an internal promoter domain within the MIR137 gene that contained a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and could alter the in vitro levels of miR-137 in a stimulus-induced and allele-specific manner. We now demonstrate that haplotype tagging-SNP analysis linked the rs1625579 GWAS SNP for schizophrenia to this internal MIR137 promoter through a proxy SNP rs2660304 located at this domain. We postulated that the rs2660304 promoter SNP may act as predisposing factor for schizophrenia through altering the levels of miR-137 expression in a genotype-dependent manner. Reporter gene analysis of the internal MIR137 promoter containing the common VNTR variant demonstrated genotype-dependent differences in promoter activity with respect to rs2660304. In line with previous reports, the major allele of the rs2660304 proxy SNP, which has previously been linked with schizophrenia risk through genetic association, resulted in downregulation of reporter gene expression in a tissue culture model. The genetic influence of the rs2660304 proxy SNP on the transcriptional activity of the internal MIR137 promoter, and thus the levels of miR-137 expression, therefore offers a distinct regulatory mechanism to explain the functional significance of the rs1625579 GWAS SNP for schizophrenia risk. PMID:26429811

  17. A GWAS SNP for Schizophrenia Is Linked to the Internal MIR137 Promoter and Supports Differential Allele-Specific Expression.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Alix; Breen, Gerome; Bubb, Vivien J; Quinn, John P

    2016-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MIR137 gene locus have been shown to confer risk for schizophrenia through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The expression levels of microRNA-137 (miR-137) and its validated gene targets have also been shown to be disrupted in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Regulation of miR-137 expression is thus imperative for normal neuronal functioning. We previously characterized an internal promoter domain within the MIR137 gene that contained a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and could alter the in vitro levels of miR-137 in a stimulus-induced and allele-specific manner. We now demonstrate that haplotype tagging-SNP analysis linked the rs1625579 GWAS SNP for schizophrenia to this internal MIR137 promoter through a proxy SNP rs2660304 located at this domain. We postulated that the rs2660304 promoter SNP may act as predisposing factor for schizophrenia through altering the levels of miR-137 expression in a genotype-dependent manner. Reporter gene analysis of the internal MIR137 promoter containing the common VNTR variant demonstrated genotype-dependent differences in promoter activity with respect to rs2660304. In line with previous reports, the major allele of the rs2660304 proxy SNP, which has previously been linked with schizophrenia risk through genetic association, resulted in downregulation of reporter gene expression in a tissue culture model. The genetic influence of the rs2660304 proxy SNP on the transcriptional activity of the internal MIR137 promoter, and thus the levels of miR-137 expression, therefore offers a distinct regulatory mechanism to explain the functional significance of the rs1625579 GWAS SNP for schizophrenia risk. PMID:26429811

  18. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10−8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  19. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  20. Molecular interactions and trafficking of influenza A virus polymerase proteins analyzed by specific monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Leslie A.; Aggarwal, Shilpa; Bussey, Kendra A.; Desmet, Emily A.; Kim, Baek; Takimoto, Toru

    2012-04-25

    The influenza polymerase complex composed of PA, PB1 and PB2, plays a key role in viral replication and pathogenicity. Newly synthesized components must be translocated to the nucleus, where replication and transcription of viral genomes take place. Previous studies suggest that while PB2 is translocated to the nucleus independently, PA and PB1 subunits could not localize to the nucleus unless in a PA-PB1 complex. To further determine the molecular interactions between the components, we created a panel of 16 hybridoma cell lines, which produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against each polymerase component. We showed that, although PB1 interacts with both PA and PB2 individually, nuclear localization of PB1 is enhanced only when co-expressed with PA. Interestingly, one of the anti-PA mAbs reacted much more strongly with PA when co-expressed with PB1. These results suggest that PA-PB1 interactions induce a conformational change in PA, which could be required for its nuclear translocation.

  1. Allelic family-specific humoral responses to merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) in Gabonese residents with Plasmodium falciparum infections

    PubMed Central

    EKALA, M-T; JOUIN, H; LEKOULOU, F; MERCEREAU-PUIJALON, O; NTOUMI, F

    2002-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) expressed by Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages has been identified as a promising vaccine candidate. In order to explore allelic family-specific humoral responses which may be responsible for parasite neutralization during natural infections, isolates from individuals with either asymptomatic infections or uncomplicated malaria and residing in a Central African area where Plasmodium transmission is high and perennial, were analysed using MSP2 as polymorphic marker. The family-specific antibody responses were assessed by ELISA using MSP2 synthetic peptides. We observed an age-dependence of P. falciparum infection complexity. The decrease of infection complexity around 15 years of age was observed simultaneously with an increase in the mean number of MSP2 variants recognized. No significant difference in the P. falciparum genetic diversity and infection complexity was found in isolates from asymptomatic subjects and patients with uncomplicated malaria. The longitudinal follow-up showed a rapid development of immune responses to various regions of MSP2 variants within one week. Comparing humoral responses obtained with the other major antigen on the merozoite surface, MSP1, our findings suggest that different pathways of responsiveness are involved in antibody production to merozoite surface antigens. PMID:12165090

  2. Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis: A Species-Specific Approach.

    PubMed

    González-Marcano, Eglys; Kato, Hirotomo; Concepción, Juan Luis; Márquez, María Elizabeth; Mondolfi, Alberto Paniz

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania which are transmitted to humans through bites of infected sand flies. The variable clinical manifestations and the evolution of the disease are determined by the infecting species. Recognition at a species level is of utmost importance since this greatly impacts therapy decision making as well as predicts outcome for the disease. This chapter describes the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of Leishmania parasites across the disease spectrum, including protocols for sample collection and transportation, genomic material extraction, and target amplification methods with special emphasis on PCR amplification of the cytochrome b gene for Leishmania spp. species identification. PMID:26843051

  3. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs. PMID:25366802

  4. Site-specific incorporation of probes into RNA polymerase by unnatural-amino-acid mutagenesis and Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Mazumder, Abhishek; Lin, Miaoxin; Hasemeyer, Adam; Xu, Qumiao; Wang, Dongye; Ebright, Yon W.; Ebright, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A three-step procedure comprising (i) unnatural-amino-acid mutagenesis with 4-azido-phenylalanine, (ii) Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation with a probe-phosphine derivative, and (iii) in vitro reconstitution of RNA polymerase (RNAP) enables the efficient site-specific incorporation of a fluorescent probe, a spin label, a crosslinking agent, a cleaving agent, an affinity tag, or any other biochemical or biophysical probe, at any site of interest in RNAP. Straightforward extensions of the procedure enable the efficient site-specific incorporation of two or more different probes in two or more different subunits of RNAP. We present protocols for synthesis of probe-phosphine derivatives, preparation of RNAP subunits and the transcription initiation factor σ, unnatural amino acid mutagenesis of RNAP subunits and σ, Staudinger ligation with unnatural-amino-acid-containing RNAP subunits and σ, quantitation of labelling efficiency and labelling specificity, and reconstitution of RNAP. PMID:25665560

  5. Plasmid replication initiator interactions with origin 13-mers and polymerase subunits contribute to strand-specific replisome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wawrzycka, Aleksandra; Gross, Marta; Wasaznik, Anna; Konieczny, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Although the molecular basis for replisome activity has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the exact mechanism for de novo assembly of the replication complex at the replication origin is, or how the directionality of replication is determined. Here, using the plasmid RK2 replicon, we analyze the protein interactions required for Escherichia coli polymerase III (Pol III) holoenzyme association at the replication origin. Our investigations revealed that in E. coli, replisome formation at the plasmid origin involves interactions of the RK2 plasmid replication initiation protein (TrfA) with both the polymerase β- and α-subunits. In the presence of other replication proteins, including DnaA, helicase, primase and the clamp loader, TrfA interaction with the β-clamp contributes to the formation of the β-clamp nucleoprotein complex on origin DNA. By reconstituting in vitro the replication reaction on ssDNA templates, we demonstrate that TrfA interaction with the β-clamp and sequence-specific TrfA interaction with one strand of the plasmid origin DNA unwinding element (DUE) contribute to strand-specific replisome assembly. Wild-type TrfA, but not the TrfA QLSLF mutant (which does not interact with the β-clamp), in the presence of primase, helicase, Pol III core, clamp loader, and β-clamp initiates DNA synthesis on ssDNA template containing 13-mers of the bottom strand, but not the top strand, of DUE. Results presented in this work uncovered requirements for anchoring polymerase at the plasmid replication origin and bring insights of how the directionality of DNA replication is determined. PMID:26195759

  6. Allele-specific expression of mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) gene and alternative susceptibility to colorectal cancer in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Yanfei; Huang, Xiaoye; Yu, Tao; Wei, Zhiyun; McGrath, John; Xu, Fei; Bi, Yan; Li, Xingwang; Yang, Fengping; Li, Weidong; Zou, Xia; Peng, Zhihai; Xiao, Yanzeng; Zhang, Yan; He, Lin; He, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among schizophrenia is lower than normal. To explore this potential protective effect, we employed an innovative strategy combining association study with allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis in MCC gene. We first genotyped four polymorphisms within MCC in 312 CRC patients, 270 schizophrenia patients and 270 controls. Using the MassArray technique, we performed ASE measurements in a second sample series consisting of 50 sporadic CRC patients, 50 schizophrenia patients and 52 controls. Rs2227947 showed significant differences between schizophrenia cases and controls, and haplotype analysis reported some significant discrepancies among these three subject groups. ASE values of rs2227948 and rs2227947 presented consistently differences between CRC (or schizophrenia) patients and controls. Of the three groups, highest frequencies of ASE in MCC were concordantly found in CRC group, whereas lowest frequencies of ASE were observed in schizophrenia group. Similar trends were confirmed in both haplotype frequencies and ASE frequencies (i.e. CRC > control > schizophrenia). We provide a first indication that MCC might confer alterative genetic susceptibility to CRC in individuals with schizophrenia promising to shed more light on the relationship between schizophrenia and cancer progression. PMID:27226254

  7. Allele-specific expression of mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) gene and alternative susceptibility to colorectal cancer in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Yanfei; Huang, Xiaoye; Yu, Tao; Wei, Zhiyun; McGrath, John; Xu, Fei; Bi, Yan; Li, Xingwang; Yang, Fengping; Li, Weidong; Zou, Xia; Peng, Zhihai; Xiao, Yanzeng; Zhang, Yan; He, Lin; He, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among schizophrenia is lower than normal. To explore this potential protective effect, we employed an innovative strategy combining association study with allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis in MCC gene. We first genotyped four polymorphisms within MCC in 312 CRC patients, 270 schizophrenia patients and 270 controls. Using the MassArray technique, we performed ASE measurements in a second sample series consisting of 50 sporadic CRC patients, 50 schizophrenia patients and 52 controls. Rs2227947 showed significant differences between schizophrenia cases and controls, and haplotype analysis reported some significant discrepancies among these three subject groups. ASE values of rs2227948 and rs2227947 presented consistently differences between CRC (or schizophrenia) patients and controls. Of the three groups, highest frequencies of ASE in MCC were concordantly found in CRC group, whereas lowest frequencies of ASE were observed in schizophrenia group. Similar trends were confirmed in both haplotype frequencies and ASE frequencies (i.e. CRC > control > schizophrenia). We provide a first indication that MCC might confer alterative genetic susceptibility to CRC in individuals with schizophrenia promising to shed more light on the relationship between schizophrenia and cancer progression. PMID:27226254

  8. Trans-species polymorphism and allele-specific expression in the CBF gene family of wild tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Mboup, Mamadou; Fischer, Iris; Lainer, Hilde; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, extreme temperatures, and salinity have a strong impact on plant adaptation. They act as selective forces on plant physiology and morphology. These selective pressures leave characteristic footprints that can be detected at the DNA sequence level using population genetic tools. On the basis of a candidate gene approach, we investigated signatures of adaptation in two wild tomato species, Solanum peruvianum and S. chilense. These species are native to western South America and constitute a model system for studying adaptation, due to their ability to colonize diverse habitats and the available genetic resources. We have determined the selective forces acting on the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene family, which consists of three genes, and is known to be involved in tolerance to abiotic stresses, in particular in cold tolerance. We also analyzed the expression pattern of these genes after drought and cold stresses. We found that CBF3 evolves under very strong purifying selection, CBF2 is under balancing selection in some populations of both species (S. peruvianum/Quicacha and S. chilense/Nazca) maintaining a trans-species polymorphism, and CBF1 is a pseudogene. In contrast to previous studies of cultivated tomatoes showing that only CBF1 was cold induced, we found that all three CBF genes are cold induced in wild tomatoes. All three genes are also drought induced. CBF2 exhibits an allele-specific expression pattern associated with the trans-species polymorphism. PMID:22787283

  9. Lineage-specific variations in the trigger loop modulate RNA proofreading by bacterial RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Esyunina, Daria; Turtola, Matti; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Klimašauskas, Saulius; Belogurov, Georgiy; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    RNA cleavage by bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) has been implicated in transcriptional proofreading and reactivation of arrested transcription elongation complexes but its molecular mechanism is less understood than the mechanism of nucleotide addition, despite both reactions taking place in the same active site. RNAP from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is characterized by highly efficient intrinsic RNA cleavage in comparison with Escherichia coli RNAP. We find that the enhanced RNA cleavage activity largely derives from amino acid substitutions in the trigger loop (TL), a mobile element of the active site involved in various RNAP activities. The differences in RNA cleavage between these RNAPs disappear when the TL is deleted, or in the presence of GreA cleavage factors, which replace the TL in the active site. We propose that the TL substitutions modulate the RNA cleavage activity by altering the TL folding and its contacts with substrate RNA and that the resulting differences in transcriptional proofreading may play a role in bacterial stress adaptation. PMID:26733581

  10. Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Horie, Sho; Okuda, Chiaki; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kuramochi, Kouji; Hosokawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Kakuda, Makiko; Miyashita, Kazuo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2010-08-01

    In the screening of DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitor, we isolated lutein, a carotenoid, from the crude (unrefined) pressed oil of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed, Brassica napus L.). Commercially prepared carotenoids such as lutein (1), zeaxanthin (2), beta-cryptoxanthin (3), astaxanthin (4), canthaxanthin (5), beta-carotene (6), lycopene (7), capsanthin (8), fucoxanthin (9) and fucoxanthinol (10), were investigated for the inhibitory activities of pols. Compounds 1, 2 and 8 exhibited strong inhibition of the activities of mammalian pols beta and lambda, which are DNA repair- and/or recombination-related pols. On the other hand, all carotenoids tested had no influence on the activity of a mammalian pol alpha, which is a DNA replicative pol. Lutein (1) was the strongest pol inhibitor of mammalian pols beta and lambda in the prepared ten carotenoids tested, but did not influence of the activities of mammalian pols alpha, gamma, delta and epsilon. The tendency for pols beta and lambda inhibition by these carotenoids showed a positive correlation with the suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation. These results suggest that cold pressed unrefined canola/rapeseed oil, or other oils with high levels of lutein and other carotenoids, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20669052

  11. Interference of HCV replication by cell penetrable human monoclonal scFv specific to NS5B polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Jittavisutthikul, Surasak; Seesuay, Watee; Chulanetra, Monrat; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-01-01

    A new class of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-targeted therapeutics that is safe, broadly effective and can cope with virus mutations is needed. The HCV's NS5B is highly conserved and different from human protein, and thus it is an attractive target for anti-HCV therapeutics development. In this study, NS5B bound-phage clones selected from a human single chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) phage display library were used to transform appropriate E. coli bacteria. Two scFv inhibiting HCV polymerase activity were selected. The scFvs were linked to a cell penetrating peptide to make cell penetrable scFvs. The transbodies reduced the HCV RNA and infectious virus particles released into the culture medium and inside hepatic cells transfected with a heterologous HCV replicon. They also rescued the innate immune response of the transfected cells. Phage mimotope search and homology modeling/molecular docking revealed the NS5B subdomains and residues bound by the scFvs. The scFv mimotopes matched residues of the NS5B, which are important for nucleolin binding during HCV replication, as well as residues that interconnect the fingers and thumb domains for forming a polymerase active groove. Both scFvs docked on several residues at the thumb armadillo-like fold that could be the polymerase interactive sites of other viral/host proteins for the formation of the replication complex and replication initiation. In conclusion, human transbodies that inhibited HCV RdRp activity and HCV replication and restored the host innate immune response were produced. They are potentially future interferon-free anti-HCV candidates, particularly in combination with other cognates that are specific to NS5B epitopes and other HCV enzymes. PMID:25517317

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Major Drug Resistance Mutations of HIV-1 Subtype B Viruses from Dried Blood Spot Specimens by Multiplex Allele-Specific Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Fangping; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jing; Nkengasong, John; Gao, Feng; Yang, Chunfu

    2016-01-01

    A multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay has been developed for the detection of HIV-1 subtype C drug resistance mutations (DRMs). We have optimized the MAS assay to determine subtype B DRMs in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from patients on antiretroviral therapy. The new assay accurately detected DRMs, including low-abundance mutations that were often missed by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26560533

  13. Genome-wide identification and quantification of cis- and trans-regulated genes responding to Marek's disease virus infection via analysis of allele-specific expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Marek’s disease (MD) is a commercially important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a naturally-occurring oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. We attempted to identify genes conferring MD resistance, by completing a genome-wide screen for allele-specific expr...

  14. Simultaneous Detection of Major Drug Resistance Mutations of HIV-1 Subtype B Viruses from Dried Blood Spot Specimens by Multiplex Allele-Specific Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Fangping; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jing; Nkengasong, John

    2015-01-01

    A multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay has been developed for the detection of HIV-1 subtype C drug resistance mutations (DRMs). We have optimized the MAS assay to determine subtype B DRMs in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from patients on antiretroviral therapy. The new assay accurately detected DRMs, including low-abundance mutations that were often missed by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26560533

  15. Improved allele-specific PCR assays for detection of clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistant of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies: identification of N87I mutation in GyrA.

    PubMed

    Trespalacios, Alba A; Rimbara, Emiko; Otero, William; Reddy, Rita; Graham, David Y

    2015-04-01

    Molecular testing can rapidly detect Helicobacter pylori susceptibility using gastric biopsies. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR) was used to identify H. pylori 23S rRNA and gyrA mutation using gastric biopsies from Colombian patients and confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes. The sensitivity and specificity of ASP-PCR were compared with susceptibilities measured by agar dilution. Samples included gastric biopsies from 107 biopsies with H. pylori infections and 20 H. pylori negative. The sensitivity and specificity of ASP-PCR for the 23S rRNA gene were both 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of ASP-PCR for the gyrA gene, published in 2007 by Nishizawa et al., were 52% and 92.7%, respectively; the lower sensitivity was due to the presence of mutation N87I in our samples, which were not detected by the test. In this study, we designed new primers to detect the mutation N87I in GyrA. The ASP-PCR was performed with the original primers plus the new primers. The molecular test with the new primers improved the sensitivity to 100%. In conclusion, ASP-PCR provides a specific and rapid means of predicting resistance to clarithromycin and levofloxacin in gastric biopsies. PMID:25600075

  16. Specific detection and identification of mulberry-infecting strains of Xylella fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X. fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular land...

  17. The Length Distribution of Class I-Restricted T Cell Epitopes Is Determined by Both Peptide Supply and MHC Allele-Specific Binding Preference.

    PubMed

    Trolle, Thomas; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Sidney, John; Bardet, Wilfried; Osborn, Sean C; Kaever, Thomas; Sette, Alessandro; Hildebrand, William H; Nielsen, Morten; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-02-15

    HLA class I-binding predictions are widely used to identify candidate peptide targets of human CD8(+) T cell responses. Many such approaches focus exclusively on a limited range of peptide lengths, typically 9 aa and sometimes 9-10 aa, despite multiple examples of dominant epitopes of other lengths. In this study, we examined whether epitope predictions can be improved by incorporating the natural length distribution of HLA class I ligands. We found that, although different HLA alleles have diverse length-binding preferences, the length profiles of ligands that are naturally presented by these alleles are much more homogeneous. We hypothesized that this is due to a defined length profile of peptides available for HLA binding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Based on this, we created a model of HLA allele-specific ligand length profiles and demonstrate how this model, in combination with HLA-binding predictions, greatly improves comprehensive identification of CD8(+) T cell epitopes. PMID:26783342

  18. DNA polymerases and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sabine S.; Takata, Kei-ichi; Wood, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    There are fifteen different DNA polymerases encoded in mammalian genomes, which are specialized for replication, repair or the tolerance of DNA damage. New evidence is emerging for lesion-specific and tissue-specific functions of DNA polymerases. Many point mutations that occur in cancer cells arise from the error-generating activities of DNA polymerases. However, the ability of some of these enzymes to bypass DNA damage may actually defend against chromosome instability in cells and at least one DNA polymerase, POLζ, is a suppressor of spontaneous tumorigenesis. Because DNA polymerases can help cancer cells tolerate DNA damage, some of these enzymes may be viable targets for therapeutic strategies. PMID:21258395

  19. RNA polymerase III-specific general transcription factor IIIC contains a heterodimer resembling TFIIF Rap30/Rap74

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Baudin, Florence; von Scheven, Gudrun; Müller, Christoph W.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of tRNA-encoding genes by RNA polymerase (Pol) III requires the six-subunit general transcription factor IIIC that uses subcomplexes τA and τB to recognize two gene-internal promoter elements named A- and B-box. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe τA subcomplex comprises subunits Sfc1, Sfc4 and Sfc7. The crystal structure of the Sfc1/Sfc7 heterodimer reveals similar domains and overall domain architecture to the Pol II-specific general transcription factor TFIIF Rap30/Rap74. The N-terminal Sfc1/Sfc7 dimerization module consists of a triple β-barrel similar to the N-terminal TFIIF Rap30/Rap74 dimerization module, whereas the C-terminal Sfc1 DNA-binding domain contains a winged-helix domain most similar to the TFIIF Rap30 C-terminal winged-helix domain. Sfc1 DNA-binding domain recognizes single and double-stranded DNA by an unknown mechanism. Several features observed for A-box recognition by τA resemble the recognition of promoters by bacterial RNA polymerase, where σ factor unfolds double-stranded DNA and stabilizes the non-coding DNA strand in an open conformation. Such a function has also been proposed for TFIIF, suggesting that the observed structural similarity between Sfc1/Sfc7 and TFIIF Rap30/Rap74 might also reflect similar functions. PMID:23921640

  20. siRNA-mediated Allele-specific Silencing of a COL6A3 Mutation in a Cellular Model of Dominant Ullrich Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Véronique; Zou, Yaqun; Ko, Dayoung; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2014-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD) is a severe disorder of early childhood onset for which currently there is no effective treatment. UCMD commonly is caused by dominant-negative mutations in the genes coding for collagen type VI, a major microfibrillar component of the extracellular matrix surrounding the muscle fibers. To explore RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential therapy for UCMD, we designed a series of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligos that specifically target the most common mutations resulting in skipping of exon 16 in the COL6A3 gene and tested them in UCMD-derived dermal fibroblasts. Transcript analysis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that two of these siRNAs were the most allele-specific, i.e., they efficiently knocked down the expression from the mutant allele, without affecting the normal allele. In HEK293T cells, these siRNAs selectively suppressed protein expression from a reporter construct carrying the mutation, with no or minimal suppression of the wild-type (WT) construct, suggesting that collagen VI protein levels are as also reduced in an allele-specific manner. Furthermore, we found that treating UCMD fibroblasts with these siRNAs considerably improved the quantity and quality of the collagen VI matrix, as assessed by confocal microscopy. Our current study establishes RNAi as a promising molecular approach for treating dominant COL6-related dystrophies. PMID:24518369

  1. Comprehensively Evaluating cis-Regulatory Variation in the Human Prostate Transcriptome by Using Gene-Level Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicholas B.; McDonnell, Shannon; French, Amy J.; Fogarty, Zach; Cheville, John; Middha, Sumit; Riska, Shaun; Baheti, Saurabh; Nair, Asha A.; Wang, Liang; Schaid, Daniel J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cis-acting regulatory variation in primary tissues has the potential to elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits and further our understanding of transcriptomic diversity across cell types. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data can improve upon the detection of cis-acting regulatory variation by leveraging allele-specific expression (ASE) patterns in association analysis. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of cis-acting eQTLs by analyzing RNA-seq gene-expression data and genome-wide high-density genotypes from 471 samples of normal primary prostate tissue. Using statistical models that integrate ASE information, we identified extensive cis-eQTLs across the prostate transcriptome and found that approximately 70% of expressed genes corresponded to a significant eQTL at a gene-level false-discovery rate of 0.05. Overall, cis-eQTLs were heavily concentrated near the transcription start and stop sites of affected genes, and effects were negatively correlated with distance. We identified multiple instances of cis-acting co-regulation by using phased genotype data and discovered 233 SNPs as the most strongly associated eQTLs for more than one gene. We also noted significant enrichment (25/50, p = 2E−5) of previously reported prostate cancer risk SNPs in prostate eQTLs. Our results illustrate the benefit of assessing ASE data in cis-eQTL analyses by showing better reproducibility of prior eQTL findings than of eQTL mapping based on total expression alone. Altogether, our analysis provides extensive functional context of thousands of SNPs in prostate tissue, and these results will be of critical value in guiding studies examining disease of the human prostate. PMID:25983244

  2. Genome-wide Association Study of Subtype-Specific Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk Alleles Using Pooled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Swenerton, Kenneth D.; Chenevix–Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Friel, Grace; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T.; Carney, Michael E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Ness, Roberta B.; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K.; Høgdall, Claus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Sellers, Thomas A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C.; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H.; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bjorge, Line; Halle, Mari K.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T.; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia–Closas, Montserrat; Dicks, Ed; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian G.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Flanagan, James M.; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Phelan, Catherine M.; Risch, Harvey A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Narod, Steven A.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Szafron, Lukasz M; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks–Wilson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS (56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC), selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging 6 loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P<0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR=1.17, P=0.029, n=1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P=0.014, n=2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR=0.86, P=0.0043, n=892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR=0.84, P=0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P<0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes. PMID:24190013

  3. Identification of transcriptome SNPs between Xiphophorus lines and species for assessing allele specific gene expression within F1 interspecies hybrids☆

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldroth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathon R; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, X. maculatus and X. couchianus, and their F1 interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ≈ 70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ≈ 5–10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6,524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F1 interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the insilico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F1 interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression. PMID:21466860

  4. Hybrid sterility and evolution in Hawaiian Drosophila: differential gene and allele-specific expression analysis of backcross males.

    PubMed

    Brill, E; Kang, L; Michalak, K; Michalak, P; Price, D K

    2016-08-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila are an iconic example of sequential colonization, adaptive radiation and speciation on islands. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of closely related species pairs that exhibit incomplete reproductive isolation can provide insights into the mechanisms of speciation. Drosophila silvestris from Hawai'i Island and Drosophila planitibia from Maui are two closely related allopatric Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila that produce sterile F1 males but fertile F1 females, a pattern consistent with Haldane's rule. Backcrossing F1 hybrid females between these two species to parental species gives rise to recombinant males with three distinct sperm phenotypes despite a similar genomic background: motile sperm, no sperm (sterile), and immotile sperm. We found that these three reproductive morphologies of backcross hybrid males produce divergent gene expression profiles in testes, as measured with RNA sequencing. There were a total of 71 genes significantly differentially expressed between backcross males with no sperm compared with those backcross males with motile sperm and immotile sperm, but no significant differential gene expression between backcross males with motile sperm and backcross males with immotile sperm. All of these genes were underexpressed in males with no sperm, including a number of genes with previously known activities in adult testis. An allele-specific expression analysis showed overwhelmingly more cis-divergent than trans-divergent genes, with no significant difference in the ratio of cis- and trans-divergent genes among the sperm phenotypes. Overall, the results indicate that the regulation of gene expression involved in sperm production likely diverged relatively rapidly between these two closely related species. PMID:27220308

  5. Detection of Nesopora caninum-specific DNA from cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction in a dog with confirmed neosporosis.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Kyohei; Noya, Masahiko; Kagawa, Yumiko; Ike, Kazunori; Orima, Hiromitsu; Imai, Soichi

    2012-08-01

    A one-month male Greyhound dog presented with a swinging gait of the hindlimbs, and later developed muscular atrophy of the femoral region and hyperextension of hindlimbs. The dog had positive serum IFAT titers to Neospora caninum, but a negative titer in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the CSF using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Clusters of protozoa in biopsied muscle fibers were subsequently confirmed as N. caninum tachyzoites by immunohistochemical examination. Early recognition and treatment are necessary for effective recovery of clinical canine neosporosis, but antemortem diagnosis is difficult. We suggest that the detection of parasite deoxyribonucleic acid in the CSF is a useful antemortem diagnostic method in facilitating treatment of this disease. PMID:22446406

  6. Specific detection and identification of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing oleander leaf scorch by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pair of PCR primers, QH-OLS05/QH-OLS08, was developed that is specific for strains of Xylella fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The primers were designed based on DNA sequence of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR product unique to oleander strains. The PCR assay using primer p...

  7. Amplification and analysis of specific DNA and RNA sequences of bovine leukemia virus from infected cows by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, M P; Ehrlich, G D; Ferrer, J F; Sninsky, J J; Zandomeni, R; Dock, N L; Poiesz, B

    1992-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiologic agent of leukemia in cattle and is believed to cause decreases in milk productivity, fertility, and life span in infected cows. BLV is a type C retrovirus in the Oncovirinae subfamily. It is most closely related to human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II). Since the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides rapid and efficient amplification of DNA sequences, primers were designed to amplify regions of the polymerase (pol) and pX genes specific for BLV targets. These sets of primers consistently amplified as few as 10 copies of BLV DNA contained in a plasmid in the background of 1 microgram of either human or bovine chromosomal DNA. In addition, no amplification products were detected from cell lines infected with HTLV-I, HTLV-II, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or 2 by the BLV PCR systems. Samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 18 cows, previously determined to be serologically positive or negative, were correctly identified in a blind study as containing proviral DNA by use of the BLV primers and probes. Cloning and sequencing of amplified products revealed finite sequence variations among a previously cloned BLV isolate, the wild-type virus, and the published genome. Reverse transcriptase-directed PCR with the primers for both BLV pol and BLV pX was performed on plasma from a BLV-infected cow and detected in vivo BLV RNA expression. In summary, we have developed a specific and sensitive assay using PCR for the detection and identification of BLV infections; this assay can now be applied to clinical and basic research questions in veterinary medicine. Images PMID:1370847

  8. Overall and allele-specific expression of the SMC1A gene in female Cornelia de Lange syndrome patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Parenti, Ilaria; Rovina, Davide; Masciadri, Maura; Cereda, Anna; Azzollini, Jacopo; Picinelli, Chiara; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Finelli, Palma; Selicorni, Angelo; Russo, Silvia; Gervasini, Cristina; Larizza, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by facial dysmorphisms, limb anomalies, and growth and cognitive deficits. Mutations in genes encoding subunits (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or regulators (NIPBL, HDAC8) of the cohesin complex account for approximately 65% of clinically diagnosed CdLS cases. The SMC1A gene (Xp11.22), responsible for 5% of CdLS cases, partially escapes X chromosome inactivation in humans and the allele on the inactive X chromosome is variably expressed. In this study, we evaluated overall and allele-specific SMC1A expression. Real-time PCR analysis conducted on 17 controls showed that SMC1A expression in females is 50% higher than in males. Immunoblotting experiments confirmed a 44% higher protein level in healthy females than in males, and showed no significant differences in SMC1A protein levels between controls and patients. Pyrosequencing was used to assess the reciprocal level of allelic expression in six female carriers of different SMC1A mutations and 15 controls who were heterozygous at a polymorphic transcribed SMC1A locus. The two alleles were expressed at a 1:1 ratio in the control group and at a 2:1 ratio in favor of the wild type allele in the test group. Since a dominant negative effect is considered the pathogenic mechanism in SMC1A-defective female patients, the level of allelic preferential expression might be one of the factors contributing to the wide phenotypic variability observed in these patients. An extension of this study to a larger cohort containing mild to borderline cases could enhance our understanding of the clinical spectrum of SMC1A-linked CdLS. PMID:24756084

  9. The genetic association of RUNX3 with ankylosing spondylitis can be explained by allele-specific effects on IRF4 recruitment that alter gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Vecellio, Matteo; Roberts, Amity R; Cohen, Carla J; Cortes, Adrian; Knight, Julian C; Bowness, Paul; Wordsworth, B Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the functional basis for the genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), upstream of the RUNX3 promoter, with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods We performed conditional analysis of genetic association data and used ENCODE data on chromatin remodelling and transcription factor (TF) binding sites to identify the primary AS-associated regulatory SNP in the RUNX3 region. The functional effects of this SNP were tested in luciferase reporter assays. Its effects on TF binding were investigated by electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. RUNX3 mRNA levels were compared in primary CD8+ T cells of AS risk and protective genotypes by real-time PCR. Results The association of the RUNX3 SNP rs4648889 with AS (p<7.6×10−14) was robust to conditioning on all other SNPs in this region. We identified a 2 kb putative regulatory element, upstream of RUNX3, containing rs4648889. In reporter gene constructs, the protective rs4648889 ‘G’ allele increased luciferase activity ninefold but significantly less activity (4.3-fold) was seen with the AS risk ‘A’ allele (p≤0.01). The binding of Jurkat or CD8+ T-cell nuclear extracts to the risk allele was decreased and IRF4 recruitment was reduced. The AS-risk allele also affected H3K4Me1 histone methylation and associated with an allele-specific reduction in RUNX3 mRNA (p<0.05). Conclusion We identified a regulatory region upstream of RUNX3 that is modulated by rs4648889. The risk allele decreases TF binding (including IRF4) and reduces reporter activity and RUNX3 expression. These findings may have important implications for understanding the role of T cells and other immune cells in AS. PMID:26452539

  10. Allele-specific chromatin remodeling in the ZPBP2/GSDMB/ORMDL3 locus associated with the risk of asthma and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Verlaan, Dominique J; Berlivet, Soizik; Hunninghake, Gary M; Madore, Anne-Marie; Larivière, Mathieu; Moussette, Sanny; Grundberg, Elin; Kwan, Tony; Ouimet, Manon; Ge, Bing; Hoberman, Rose; Swiatek, Marcin; Dias, Joana; Lam, Kevin C L; Koka, Vonda; Harmsen, Eef; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Avila, Lydiana; Celedón, Juan C; Weiss, Scott T; Dewar, Ken; Sinnett, Daniel; Laprise, Catherine; Raby, Benjamin A; Pastinen, Tomi; Naumova, Anna K

    2009-09-01

    Common SNPs in the chromosome 17q12-q21 region alter the risk for asthma, type 1 diabetes, primary biliary cirrhosis, and Crohn disease. Previous reports by us and others have linked the disease-associated genetic variants with changes in expression of GSDMB and ORMDL3 transcripts in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). The variants also alter regulation of other transcripts, and this domain-wide cis-regulatory effect suggests a mechanism involving long-range chromatin interactions. Here, we further dissect the disease-linked haplotype and identify putative causal DNA variants via a combination of genetic and functional analyses. First, high-throughput resequencing of the region and genotyping of potential candidate variants were performed. Next, additional mapping of allelic expression differences in Yoruba HapMap LCLs allowed us to fine-map the basis of the cis-regulatory differences to a handful of candidate functional variants. Functional assays identified allele-specific differences in nucleosome distribution, an allele-specific association with the insulator protein CTCF, as well as a weak promoter activity for rs12936231. Overall, this study shows a common disease allele linked to changes in CTCF binding and nucleosome occupancy leading to altered domain-wide cis-regulation. Finally, a strong association between asthma and cis-regulatory haplotypes was observed in three independent family-based cohorts (p = 1.78 x 10(-8)). This study demonstrates the requirement of multiple parallel allele-specific tools for the investigation of noncoding disease variants and functional fine-mapping of human disease-associated haplotypes. PMID:19732864

  11. Presence of specific MHC Class II expressed alleles associates with clinical disease in ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic tool hypothesized to predict which OPPV infected sheep will progress to debilitating clinical disease is MHC Class II Ovis aries (Ovar)-DRB1. Previously, fifteen Ovar-DRB1 beta 1 expressed alleles were identified in a ewe-lamb flock of 32 originating from an Idaho flock using RT-PCR, clon...

  12. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction primer sets for the diagnosis of Tenacibaculum maritimum infection.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Magariños, Beatriz; Toranzo, Alicia E; Beaz, Roxana; Romalde, Jesús L

    2004-11-23

    In this study the specificity and sensitivity of 2 primer pairs, MAR1-MAR2 and Mar1-Mar2, for the detection of Tenacibaculum maritimum were evaluated in parallel using 79 T. maritimum strains isolated from different fish species, as well as 53 representatives of related and unrelated bacterial species. Both primer pairs were species-specific for T. maritimum, since no amplification products were obtained from chromosomal DNA of the non-T. maritimum bacteria tested. However, whereas MAR1-MAR2 identified all the T. maritimum strains studied, producing a unique and clear PCR band of the expected 1088 bp length, the Marl-Mar2 primer pair failed to amplify the 400 bp specific band in 3 sole isolates. To verify if these strains belonged to T. maritimum species, 2 endonucleases (PvuI and SacII) were selected as the most adequate enzymes to confirm the specificity of the MAR1-MAR2 amplified fragment. The digestion patterns obtained with both endonucleases supported the assignation of all the strains to T. maritimum. The sensitivity of both PCR detection methods was also different, showing a reduction of sensitivity in at least one order of magnitude of the Marl-Mar2 primer pair in comparison with MAR1-MAR2. When the MAR-MAR2 PCR protocol was applied to different seeded turbot tissues, the detection limit was 10(2) to 10(4) T. maritimum cells per reaction. In addition, a nested PCR protocol for detection of this pathogens based on MAR1-MAR2 was developed, which increased the sensitivity by approximately 2 orders of magnitude, ranging from 1 to 250 T. maritimum cells per reaction depending on the tissue employed. The tissues that allowed the most easy detection of T. maritimum were the skin and mucus. Based on the findings reported here, we propose the nested PCR protocol as the most adequate for an accurate detection of T. maritimum in diagnostic pathology as well as in epidemiological studies of gliding bacterial disease of marine fish. PMID:15648833

  13. A species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Colletotrichum capsici.

    PubMed

    Torres-Calzada, C; Tapia-Tussell, R; Quijano-Ramayo, A; Martin-Mex, R; Rojas-Herrera, R; Higuera-Ciapara, I; Perez-Brito, D

    2011-09-01

    Colletotrichum capsici is an important fungal species that causes anthracnose in many genera of plants causing severe economic losses worldwide. A primer set was designed based on the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions for use in a conventional PCR assay. The primer set (CcapF/CcapR) amplified a single product of 394 bp with DNA extracted from 20 Mexican isolates of C. capsici. The specificity of primers was confirmed by the absence of amplified product with DNA of four other Colletotrichum species and eleven different fungal genera. This primer set is capable of amplifying only C. capsici from different contaminated tissues or fungal structures, thereby facilitating rapid diagnoses as there is no need to isolate and cultivate the fungus in order to identify it. The sensitivity of detection with this PCR method was 10 pg of genomic DNA from the pathogen. This is the first report of a C. capsici-specific primer set. It allows rapid pathogen detection and provides growers with a powerful tool for a rational selection of fungicides to control anthracnose in different crops and in the post-harvest stage. PMID:21253896

  14. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for constructing a linear vector with site-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Toshiya; Ohta, Tohru; Abiko, Yoshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Takuma, Taishin

    2011-09-15

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that leads to a wide variety of biological functions, including transcription, growth and development, and diseases associated with altered gene expression such as cancers. However, tools to insert site-specific methylation into DNA for analyzing epigenetic functions are limited. Here we describe a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to provide site-specific DNA methylation at any site, including CpG or CpNpG islands. This method is simple and versatile, and it consists of four steps to construct the DNA methylation vector: (I) design and synthesis of methylated primers, (II) PCR amplification, (III) isolation of single-stranded DNA, and (IV) annealing and ligation of isolated single-stranded DNAs. First we produced and validated a linear green fluorescence protein (GFP) vector by this method. Next we applied this method to introduce methyl groups into the promoter of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and found that site-specific DNA methylation at the CRE element significantly altered COX-2 gene expression. These results demonstrate that this PCR-based approach is useful for the analysis of biological functions that depend on DNA methylation. PMID:21669180

  15. Allele-specific PCR for detecting the deafness-associated mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Xia, Bo-Hou; Liu, Qi; Li, Mei-Ya; Huang, Shui-Xian; Zhuo, Guang-Chao

    2016-10-10

    Mutations in mitochondrial 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) are the important causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Of these mutations, the homoplasmic m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T mutation in the highly conserved A-site of MT-RNR1 gene has been found to be associated with both aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss in many families worldwide. Since the m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T mutations are sensitive to ototoxic drugs, therefore, screening for the presence of these mutations is important for early diagnosis and prevention of deafness. For this purpose, we recently developed a novel allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) which is able to simultaneously detect these mutations. To assess its accuracy, in this study, we employed this method to screen the frequency of m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T mutations in 200 deafness patients and 120 healthy subjects. Consequently, four m.1555A>G and four m.1494C>T mutations were identified; among these, only one patient with the m.1494C>T mutation had an obvious family history of hearing loss. Strikingly, clinical evaluation showed that this family exhibited a high penetrance of hearing loss. In particular, the penetrances of hearing loss were 80% with the aminoglycoside included and 20% when excluded. PCR-Sanger sequencing of the mitochondrial genomes confirmed the presence of the m.1494C>T mutation and identified a set of polymorphisms belonging to mitochondrial haplogroup A. However, the lack of functional variants in mitochondrial and nuclear modified genes (GJB2 and TRMU) in this family indicated that mitochondrial haplogroup and nuclear genes may not play important roles in the phenotypic expression of the m.1494C>T mutation. Thus, other modification factors, such as environmental factor, aminoglycosides or epigenetic modification may have contributed to the high penetrance of hearing loss in this family. Taken together, our data showed that this assay is an effective approach that could be used for detection the deafness-associated MT-RNR1

  16. Development of a specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Basidiobolus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, María Teresa; Fernández-Barredo, Salceda; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of chronic diarrhea is complex in humans and animals. It is always necessary to evaluate a list of differential diagnosis, including bacteria, protozoa and fungi. Basidiobolomycosis is a fungal disease reported sporadically worldwide, mainly caused by B. ranarum, a frequent organism found in soil or in the intestine and skin of lizards and frogs. It is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections characterized by granulomatous lesions in the subcutaneous tissues as well as in the intestinal wall in humans and animals. In this work we have developed a PCR technique to differentiate Basidiobolus from other causes of intestinal disease in dogs and humans. To test the specificity of the PCR assay we included closely related organisms, common intestinal microbiota and pathogenic organisms, such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia, Giardia, Mucor, Proteus, Rhizopus and Salmonella. Pythium insidiosum, which cause clinically similar disease in dogs but require a different treatment. Only Basidiobolus was positive to the PCR assay. PMID:22075784

  17. Strand-specific, high-resolution mapping of modified RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Laura; Huynh-Thu, Vân A; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Tuck, Alex; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Lombraña, Rodrigo; Sanguinetti, Guido; Kudla, Grzegorz; Tollervey, David

    2016-01-01

    Reversible modification of the RNAPII C-terminal domain links transcription with RNA processing and surveillance activities. To better understand this, we mapped the location of RNAPII carrying the five types of CTD phosphorylation on the RNA transcript, providing strand-specific, nucleotide-resolution information, and we used a machine learning-based approach to define RNAPII states. This revealed enrichment of Ser5P, and depletion of Tyr1P, Ser2P, Thr4P, and Ser7P in the transcription start site (TSS) proximal ~150 nt of most genes, with depletion of all modifications close to the poly(A) site. The TSS region also showed elevated RNAPII relative to regions further 3', with high recruitment of RNA surveillance and termination factors, and correlated with the previously mapped 3' ends of short, unstable ncRNA transcripts. A hidden Markov model identified distinct modification states associated with initiating, early elongating and later elongating RNAPII. The initiation state was enriched near the TSS of protein-coding genes and persisted throughout exon 1 of intron-containing genes. Notably, unstable ncRNAs apparently failed to transition into the elongation states seen on protein-coding genes. PMID:27288397

  18. Enhancing the specificity and efficiency of polymerase chain reaction using polyethyleneimine-based derivatives and hybrid nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Weiwei; Cao, Xueyan; Wen, Shihui; Guo, Rui; Shen, Mingwu; Wang, Jianhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    There is a general necessity to improve the specificity and efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and exploring the PCR-enhancing mechanism still remains a great challenge. In this paper we report the use of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based derivatives and hybrid nanocomposites as a novel class of enhancers to improve the specificity and efficiency of a nonspecific PCR system. We show that the surface-charge polarity of PEI and PEI derivatives plays a major role in their effectiveness to enhance the PCR. Positively charged amine-terminated pristine PEI, partially (50%) acetylated PEI (PEI-Ac50), and completely acetylated PEI (PEI-Ac) are able to improve PCR efficiency and specificity with an optimum concentration order of PEI < PEI-Ac50 < PEI-Ac, whereas negatively charged carboxyl-terminated PEI (PEI-SAH; SAH denotes succinamic acid groups) and neutralized PEI modified with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acetyl (Ac) groups (PEI-PEG-Ac) are unable to improve PCR specificity and efficiency even at concentrations three orders of magnitude higher than that of PEI. Our data clearly suggests that the PCR-enhancing effect is primarily based on the interaction between the PCR components and the PEI derivatives, where electrostatic interaction plays a major role in concentrating the PCR components locally on the backbones of the branched PEI. In addition, multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with PEI and PEI-stabilized gold nanoparticles are also able to improve the PCR specificity and efficiency with an optimum PEI concentration less than that of the PEI alone, indicating that the inorganic component of the nanocomposites may help improve the interaction between PEI and the PCR components. The developed PEI-based derivatives or nanocomposites may be used as efficient additives to enhance other PCR systems for different biomedical applications. PMID:22393296

  19. Effect of surface charge of PDDA-protected gold nanoparticles on the specificity and efficiency of DNA polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Longfei; He, Yujian

    2013-01-21

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become an indispensable technique in molecular biology, however, it suffers from low efficiency and specificity problems. Developing suitable additives to effectively avoid nonspecific PCR reactions and explore the mechanism for PCR enhancing is a significant challenge. In this paper, we report three different modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different surface charge polarities and poly (diallyl dimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) for use as novel PCR enhancers to improve the efficiency and specificity. These AuNPs included the positively charged PDDA protected AuNPs (PDDA-AuNPs), the neutral PDDA-AuNPs modified with excess chloride ion (PDDA.C-AuNPs), and the negatively charged sodium citrate (Na(3)Ct) protected AuNPs (Na(3)Ct-AuNPs). Our data clearly suggests that the positively charged PDDA-AuNPs with an optimum concentration as low as 1.54 pM could significantly enhance the specificity and efficiency of PCR, however, the optimum concentration of the negatively charged Na(3)Ct-AuNPs (2.02 nM) was more than 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of positively charged PDDA-AuNPs. The PCR specificity and efficiency are also improved by the neutral PDDA.C-AuNPs with an optimum concentration, much more than that of the PDDA-AuNPs. This suggests that there should be an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged PDDA-AuNPs and the negatively charged PCR components, and the surface charge polarities of PDDA-AuNPs may play an important role in improving the PCR specificity and efficiency. PMID:23170311

  20. Aphidicolin resistance in herpes simplex virus type 1 appears to alter substrate specificity in the DNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.D.; Woodward, S.

    1989-06-01

    The authors describe novel mutants of herpes simplex virus which are resistant to aphidicolin. Their mutant phenotypes suggest that they encode DNA polymerases with altered substrate recognition. This conclusion is based on their abnormal sensitivity to polymerase inhibitors and to the abnormal mutation rates exhibited by two of the mutants.

  1. The mRNA capping enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has dual specificity to interact with CTD of RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Akhilendra Pratap; Singh, Neha; Kumar, Vikash; Kashif, Md; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Tripathi, Timir; Akhtar, Md Sohail

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) uniquely possesses an extended carboxy terminal domain (CTD) on its largest subunit, Rpb1, comprising a repetitive Tyr1Ser2Pro3Thr4 Ser5Pro6Ser7 motif with potential phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of the CTD serves as a signal for the binding of various transcription regulators for mRNA biogenesis including the mRNA capping complex. In eukaryotes, the 5 prime capping of the nascent transcript is the first detectable mRNA processing event, and is crucial for the productive transcript elongation. The binding of capping enzyme, RNA guanylyltransferases to the transcribing RNAPII is known to be primarily facilitated by the CTD, phosphorylated at Ser5 (Ser5P). Here we report that the Saccharomyces cerevesiae RNA guanylyltransferase (Ceg1) has dual specificity and interacts not only with Ser5P but also with Ser7P of the CTD. The Ser7 of CTD is essential for the unconditional growth and efficient priming of the mRNA capping complex. The Arg159 and Arg185 of Ceg1 are the key residues that interact with the Ser5P, while the Lys175 with Ser7P of CTD. These interactions appear to be in a specific pattern of Ser5PSer7PSer5P in a tri-heptad CTD (YSPTSPPS YSPTSPSP YSPTSPPS) and provide molecular insights into the Ceg1-CTD interaction for mRNA transcription. PMID:27503426

  2. Mechanism of transcription termination by RNA polymerase III utilizes a nontemplate-strand sequence-specific signal element

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G.; Maraia, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mechanism of transcription termination by a eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) has been limited by lack of a characterizable intermediate that reflects transition from an elongation complex to a true termination event. While other multisubunit RNAPs require multipartite cis-signals and/or ancillary factors to mediate pausing and release of the nascent transcript from the clutches of these enzymes, RNAP III does so with precision and efficiency on a simple oligo(dT) tract, independent of other cis-elements or trans-factors. We report a RNAP III pre-termination complex that reveals termination mechanisms controlled by sequence-specific elements in the non-template strand. Furthermore, the TFIIF-like, RNAP III subunit, C37 is required for this function of the non-template strand signal. The results reveal the RNAP III terminator as an information-rich control element. While the template strand promotes destabilization via a weak oligo(rU:dA) hybrid, the non-template strand provides distinct sequence-specific destabilizing information through interactions with the C37 subunit. PMID:25959395

  3. The mRNA capping enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has dual specificity to interact with CTD of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Akhilendra Pratap; Singh, Neha; Kumar, Vikash; Kashif, Md.; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Tripathi, Timir; Akhtar, Md. Sohail

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) uniquely possesses an extended carboxy terminal domain (CTD) on its largest subunit, Rpb1, comprising a repetitive Tyr1Ser2Pro3Thr4 Ser5Pro6Ser7 motif with potential phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of the CTD serves as a signal for the binding of various transcription regulators for mRNA biogenesis including the mRNA capping complex. In eukaryotes, the 5 prime capping of the nascent transcript is the first detectable mRNA processing event, and is crucial for the productive transcript elongation. The binding of capping enzyme, RNA guanylyltransferases to the transcribing RNAPII is known to be primarily facilitated by the CTD, phosphorylated at Ser5 (Ser5P). Here we report that the Saccharomyces cerevesiae RNA guanylyltransferase (Ceg1) has dual specificity and interacts not only with Ser5P but also with Ser7P of the CTD. The Ser7 of CTD is essential for the unconditional growth and efficient priming of the mRNA capping complex. The Arg159 and Arg185 of Ceg1 are the key residues that interact with the Ser5P, while the Lys175 with Ser7P of CTD. These interactions appear to be in a specific pattern of Ser5PSer7PSer5P in a tri-heptad CTD (YSPTSPPS YSPTSPSP YSPTSPPS) and provide molecular insights into the Ceg1-CTD interaction for mRNA transcription. PMID:27503426

  4. Dissection of expression-quantitative trait locus and allele specificity using a haploid/diploid plant system - insights into compensatory evolution of transcriptional regulation within populations.

    PubMed

    Verta, Jukka-Pekka; Landry, Christian R; MacKay, John

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of gene expression plays a central role in translating genotypic variation into phenotypic variation. Dissection of the genetic basis of expression variation is key to understanding how expression regulation evolves. Such analyses remain challenging in contexts where organisms are outbreeding, highly heterozygous and long-lived such as in the case of conifer trees. We developed an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based approach for both expression-quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and the detection of cis-acting (allele-specific) vs trans-acting (non-allele-specific) eQTLs. This method can be potentially applied to many conifers. We used haploid and diploid meiotic seed tissues of a single self-fertilized white spruce (Picea glauca) individual to dissect eQTLs according to linkage and allele specificity. The genetic architecture of local eQTLs linked to the expressed genes was particularly complex, consisting of cis-acting, trans-acting and, surprisingly, compensatory cis-trans effects. These compensatory effects influence expression in opposite directions and are neutral when combined in homozygotes. Nearly half of local eQTLs were under compensation, indicating that close linkage between compensatory cis-trans factors is common in spruce. Compensated genes were overrepresented in developmental and cell organization functions. Our haploid-diploid eQTL analysis in spruce revealed that compensatory cis-trans eQTLs segregate within populations and evolve in close genetic linkage. PMID:26891783

  5. Ethylnitrosourea Mutagenesis and the Isolation of Mutant Alleles for Specific Genes Located in the t Region of Mouse Chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Vernon C.

    1984-01-01

    Ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis of spermatogonia in male mice is very efficient and makes it practical to isolate new desired mutant alleles by subsequent progeny screening. This is demonstrated for three genes in the t region of chromosome 17. The first, a mutation designated t-int, interacts with the dominant mutation, T (Brachyury), to produce a tailless mouse. Previously, mutant alleles of the t-int gene were available only in t haplotypes, where they are part of a t chromatin block within which recombination with wild-type chromosomes is inhibited. In addition to t-int, new mutations at the quaking and tufted loci were obtained, as well as at several loci not on chromosome 17, e.g., an X-linked lethal that causes a mottled phenotype in the heterozygote and four new mutant W alleles on chromosome 5. In the experiment, an average of one fertilizing spermatozoan in 1500 was mutant at a given locus and an average of one male in five was able to sire mutants at that locus. PMID:6500258

  6. Characterization of the peptide binding specificity of the HLA class I alleles B*38:01 and B*39:06.

    PubMed

    Sidney, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Moore, Carrie; Lindvall, Mikaela; Wriston, Amanda; Hunt, Donald F; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; DiLorenzo, Teresa P; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    B*38:01 and B*39:06 are present with phenotypic frequencies <2% in the general population, but are of interest as B*39:06 is the B allele most associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility and 38:01 is most protective. A previous study derived putative main anchor motifs for both alleles based on peptide elution data. The present study has utilized panels of single amino acid substitution peptide libraries to derive detailed quantitative motifs accounting for both primary and secondary influences on peptide binding. From these analyses, both alleles were confirmed to utilize the canonical position 2/C-terminus main anchor spacing. B*38:01 preferentially bound peptides with the positively charged or polar residues H, R, and Q in position 2 and the large hydrophobic residues I, F, L, W, and M at the C-terminus. B*39:06 had a similar preference for R in position 2, but also well-tolerated M, Q, and K. A more dramatic contrast between the two alleles was noted at the C-terminus, where the specificity of B*39:06 was clearly for small residues, with A as most preferred, followed by G, V, S, T, and I. Detailed position-by-position and residue-by-residue coefficient values were generated from the panels to provide detailed quantitative B*38:01 and B*39:06 motifs. It is hoped that these detailed motifs will facilitate the identification of T cell epitopes recognized in the context of two class I alleles associated with dramatically different dispositions towards type 1 diabetes, offering potential avenues for the investigation of the role of CD8 T cells in this disease. PMID:26754738

  7. Development of a Melting Curve-Based Allele-Specific PCR of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Genotyping Method for Genomic DNA, Guthrie Blood Spot, and Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (APOE) are associated with various health conditions and diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, etc. Hence, genotyping of APOE has broad applications in biomedical research and clinical settings, particularly in the era of precision medicine. The study aimed to develop a convenient and accurate method with flexible throughput to genotype the APOE polymorphisms. A melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method was developed to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOE, i.e. rs429358 at codon 112 and rs7412 at codon 158. These two SNPs determine the genotype of APOE2, E3, and E4. PCR-based Sanger sequencing was used as the reference method for APOE genotyping. A 100% concordance rate was obtained in 300 subjects between the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method and the Sanger sequencing method. This method was applied to a genetic association analysis of APOE and schizophrenia consisting of 711 patients with schizophrenia and 665 control subjects from Taiwan. However, no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were detected between these two groups. Further experiments showed that DNA dissolved from blood collected on Guthrie filter paper and total blood cell lysate without DNA extraction can be used in the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method. Thus, we suggest that this is a fast, accurate and robust APOE genotyping method with a flexible throughput and suitable for DNA template from different preparations. This convenient method shall meet the different needs of various research and clinical laboratories. PMID:27078154

  8. Development of a Melting Curve-Based Allele-Specific PCR of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Genotyping Method for Genomic DNA, Guthrie Blood Spot, and Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (APOE) are associated with various health conditions and diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, etc. Hence, genotyping of APOE has broad applications in biomedical research and clinical settings, particularly in the era of precision medicine. The study aimed to develop a convenient and accurate method with flexible throughput to genotype the APOE polymorphisms. A melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method was developed to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOE, i.e. rs429358 at codon 112 and rs7412 at codon 158. These two SNPs determine the genotype of APOE2, E3, and E4. PCR-based Sanger sequencing was used as the reference method for APOE genotyping. A 100% concordance rate was obtained in 300 subjects between the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method and the Sanger sequencing method. This method was applied to a genetic association analysis of APOE and schizophrenia consisting of 711 patients with schizophrenia and 665 control subjects from Taiwan. However, no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were detected between these two groups. Further experiments showed that DNA dissolved from blood collected on Guthrie filter paper and total blood cell lysate without DNA extraction can be used in the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method. Thus, we suggest that this is a fast, accurate and robust APOE genotyping method with a flexible throughput and suitable for DNA template from different preparations. This convenient method shall meet the different needs of various research and clinical laboratories. PMID:27078154

  9. The maize unstable factor for orange1 is a dominant epigenetic modifier of a tissue specifically silent allele of pericarp color1.

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Surinder; Cocciolone, Suzy M; Bushman, Shaun; Sangar, Vineet; McMullen, Michael D; Peterson, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized Unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1), a dominant, allele-specific modifier of expression of the maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene. The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments. The P1-wr allele specifies colorless kernel pericarp and red cobs, whereas Ufo1 modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of phlobaphene pigments. In the presence of Ufo1, P1-wr transcript levels and transcription rate are increased in kernel pericarp. The P1-wr allele contains approximately six p1 gene copies present in a hypermethylated and multicopy tandem array. In P1-wr Ufo1 plants, methylation of P1-wr DNA sequences is reduced, whereas the methylation state of other repetitive genomic sequences was not detectably affected. The phenotypes produced by the interaction of P1-wr and Ufo1 are unstable, exhibiting somatic mosaicism and variable penetrance. Moreover, the changes in P1-wr expression and methylation are not heritable: meiotic segregants that lack Ufo1 revert to the normal P1-wr expression and methylation patterns. These results demonstrate the existence of a class of modifiers of gene expression whose effects are associated with transient changes in DNA methylation of specific loci. PMID:12663550

  10. [The Use of Specific DNA Markers for the Identification of Alleles of the FAD3 Genes in Rape (Brassica napus L.)].

    PubMed

    Lemesh, V A; Mozgova, G V; Grushetskaya, Z E; Sidorenko, E V; Pilyuk, Ya E; Bakanovskaya, A V

    2015-08-01

    A search was conducted for the alleles responsible for the quality of food-grade rapeseed oil in a collection of 21 samples of spring and winter oilseed rape of Belarusian and Russian breeding. We also developed A- and C-gene-specific DNA markers to assess the genomic polymorphisms of rape for FAD3 genes and selected plants with a low content of linolenic acid for use in the selection process. The development of a method for identifying FAD3 alleles, which control the level of linolenic acid in rapeseed oil, as well as of the design for new dCAPS markers, enabled the identification of plants homozygous for individual FAD3A and/or FAD3C genes in the F2-generation. These plants are currently involved in the selection process of new varieties with a reduced content of linolenic acid in rapeseed oil. PMID:26601489

  11. Isolation of a Pseudomonas solanacearum-specific DNA probe by subtraction hybridization and construction of species-specific oligonucleotide primers for sensitive detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Seal, S E; Jackson, L A; Daniels, M J

    1992-01-01

    A subtraction hybridization technique was employed to make a library enriched for Pseudomonas solanacearum-specific sequences. One cloned fragment, PS2096, hybridized under stringent conditions to DNA of 82 P. solanacearum strains representing all subgroups of the species. Other plant-associated bacteria, including closely related species such as Pseudomonas capacia, Pseudomonas picketti, or Pseudomonas syzygii, did not hybridize to PS2096. A minimum number of between 4 x 10(5) and 4 x 10(6) P. solanacearum cells could routinely be detected with PS2096 labelled either with [32P]dCTP or with digoxigenin-11-dUTP. To improve the sensitivity of detection, PS2096 was sequenced to allow the construction of specific oligonucleotide primers to be used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. After 50 cycles of amplification, 5 to 116 cells, depending on the strain, could reproducibly be detected by visualization of a 148-bp PCR product on an agarose gel. A preliminary field trial in Burundi with the probe and PCR primers has confirmed that they are sensitive tools for specifically detecting low-level infections of P. solanacearum in potato tubers. Images PMID:1482193

  12. Synthesis of sigma 29, an RNA polymerase specificity determinant, is a developmentally regulated event in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Trempy, J E; Morrison-Plummer, J; Haldenwang, W G

    1985-01-01

    Using an immunological probe, we have determined that the synthesis of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase promoter specificity determinant sigma 29 is a developmentally regulated event. sigma 29 is absent from vegetatively growing cells but is abundant in sporulating cells for a restricted (2-h) period during differentiation (hour 2 to hour 4 into the sporeforming process). The narrowness of this period suggests that sigma 29 is a regulatory factor that directs the transcription of a subpopulation of genes at a precise, intermediate stage of spore formation. This view predicts that sigma 29 should be dispensable for early sporulation events. We verified this prediction by an analysis of sigma 29 accumulation in mutants that are blocked at different stages of sporulation in which we show that cells can advance to at least an intermediate point in development (stage III) in the absence of detectable sigma 29. Lastly, our anti-sigma 29 antibody probe detected a second, previously unrecognized protein in Bacillus cell extracts that may be a precursor to sigma 29. This protein, P31 (molecular weight, 31,000) is synthesized earlier in sporulation than is sigma 29. It has a peptide profile that is similar to sigma 29 and is present in all Bacillus subtilis Spo- mutants that were tested and found to still be able to accumulate sigma 29. Images PMID:3918005

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Radioiodinated Tracer with Specificity for Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zmuda, Filip; Malviya, Gaurav; Blair, Adele; Boyd, Marie; Chalmers, Anthony J; Sutherland, Andrew; Pimlott, Sally L

    2015-11-12

    Interest in nuclear imaging of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has grown in recent years due to the ability of PARP-1 to act as a biomarker for glioblastoma and increased clinical use of PARP-1 inhibitors. This study reports the identification of a lead iodinated analog 5 of the clinical PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib as a potential single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging agent. Compound 5 was shown to be a potent PARP-1 inhibitor in cell-free and cellular assays, and it exhibited mouse plasma stability but approximately 3-fold greater intrinsic clearance when compared to olaparib. An (123)I-labeled version of 5 was generated using solid state halogen exchange methodology. Ex vivo biodistribution studies of [(123)I]5 in mice bearing subcutaneous glioblastoma xenografts revealed that the tracer had the ability to be retained in tumor tissue and bind to PARP-1 with specificity. These findings support further investigations of [(123)I]5 as a noninvasive PARP-1 SPECT imaging agent. PMID:26469301

  14. Mouse models of DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Miriam R; Sweasy, Joann B

    2012-12-01

    In 1956, Arthur Kornberg discovered the mechanism of the biological synthesis of DNA and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959 for this contribution, which included the isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Now there are 15 known DNA polymerases in mammalian cells that belong to four different families. These DNA polymerases function in many different cellular processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and damage tolerance. Several biochemical and cell biological studies have provoked a further investigation of DNA polymerase function using mouse models in which polymerase genes have been altered using gene-targeting techniques. The phenotypes of mice harboring mutant alleles reveal the prominent role of DNA polymerases in embryogenesis, prevention of premature aging, and cancer suppression. PMID:23001998

  15. Human platelet antigen 1 (HPA 1) genotyping with 5' nuclease assay and sequence-specific primers reveals a single nucleotide deletion in intron 2 of the HPA 1a allele of platelet glycoprotein IIIa.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Killie Mette; Jaegtvik, Sissel; Husebekk, Anne; Skogen, Bjorn

    2002-05-01

    We have established a 5' nuclease assay (5' NA) for human platelet antigen (HPA) 1a/b allelic discrimination. The assay is based on the simultaneous amplification and detection of the two targets in a one-tube system. The results are read optically, immediately after termination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and no post-PCR processing is necessary. This genotyping procedure is less time-consuming and cheaper than our conventional sequence-specific primer PCR (SSP-PCR), which is run as a two-tube test, with verification of the results after electrophoresis in agarose gel. The reduction of analytical steps, simplification of the procedure and potential for automation were important advantages for our choice of system. This test system is more suitable for large-scale testing and fits better for our screening programme for HPA 1bb determination. DNA from 1093 individuals were tested in parallel with the SSP-PCR and the 5' NA. One thousand and ninety-one samples gave identical results in SSP-PCR and 5' NA. Upon repeated testing, two samples consistently came out as HPA 1bb in SSP-PCR and HPA 1ab in 5' NA. DNA sequencing revealed a defect located in an intronic area that corresponds to the consensus primer used for the SSP-PCR HPA 1a typing. PMID:11972525

  16. Step-wise and lineage-specific diversification of plant RNA polymerase genes and origin of the largest plant-specific subunits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiong; Ma, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Proteins often function as complexes, yet little is known about the evolution of dissimilar subunits of complexes. DNA-directed RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are multisubunit complexes, with distinct eukaryotic types for different classes of transcripts. In addition to Pol I-III, common in eukaryotes, plants have Pol IV and V for epigenetic regulation. Some RNAP subunits are specific to one type, whereas other subunits are shared by multiple types. We have conducted extensive phylogenetic and sequence analyses, and have placed RNAP gene duplication events in land plant history, thereby reconstructing the subunit compositions of the novel RNAPs during land plant evolution. We found that Pol IV/V have experienced step-wise duplication and diversification of various subunits, with increasingly distinctive subunit compositions. Also, lineage-specific duplications have further increased RNAP complexity with distinct copies in different plant families and varying divergence for subunits of different RNAPs. Further, the largest subunits of Pol IV/V probably originated from a gene fusion in the ancestral land plants. We propose a framework of plant RNAP evolution, providing an excellent model for protein complex evolution. PMID:25921392

  17. From genes to phenotypes - evaluation of two methods for the SNP analysis in archaeological remains: pyrosequencing and competitive allele specific PCR (KASPar).

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Melanie; Reissmann, Monika; Benecke, Norbert; Ludwig, Arne

    2012-01-20

    The amplification length of the DNA fragments is one major limitation of most paleogenetic analyses. Routinely, only fragments below 200 bp can be amplified, significantly reducing the content of genetic information. Although overlapping PCR strategies and next generation sequencing techniques have strongly improved data mining recently, these methods are still expensive and time consuming. In contrast, SNP analyses are easy to handle, fast and cheap. In this study, we compare two methods of SNP detection as to efficiency, cost and reliability for their use in ancient DNA applications: pyrosequencing and competitive allele specific PCR (KASPar). Our sample set consisted of 16 horse bones from two Scythian graves (600-800 BC). In conclusion, both approaches produced reliable results for most allelic patterns. But an indel of 11 bp (ASIP) could not be detected in the KASPar approach and produced problems in the pyrosequencing method (70% success rate). In such cases, we recommend checking allelic distribution using a gel approach or capillary sequencing. Overall, in comparison with the traditional mode of ancient DNA investigations (PCR, cloning, capillary sequencing), both approaches are superior for SNP analyses especially of large sample sets. PMID:22154270

  18. Allele-specific recognition by LILRB3 and LILRA6 of a cytokeratin 8 - associated ligand on necrotic glandular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    López-Álvarez, María R.; Jahnke, Martin; Russell, Alasdair I.; Radjabova, Valeria; Trowsdale, Alice R.Z.; Trowsdale, John

    2016-01-01

    The LILRs are a family of receptors that regulate the activities of myelomonocytic cells. We found that specific allelic variants of two related members of the LILR family, LILRB3 and LILRA6, interact with a ligand exposed on necrotic glandular epithelial cells. The extracellular domains of LILRB3 and LILRA6 are very similar and their genes are highly polymorphic. A commonly occurring allele, LILRB3*12, displayed particularly strong binding of these necrotic cells and further screening of the products of LILRB3 alleles identified motifs that correlated with binding. Immunoprecipitation of the ligand from epithelial cell lysates using recombinant LILRB3*12, identified cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19. Purified proteins obtained from epithelial cell lysates, using anti-cytokeratin 8 antibodies, were able to activate LILRB3*12 reporter cells. Knock-down of cytokeratin 8 in epithelial cells abrogated expression of the LILRB3 ligand, while staining with recombinant LILRB3*12 showed co-localisation with cytokeratin 8 and 18 in permeabilised breast cancer cells. Necrosis is a common feature of tumours. The finding of a necrosis-associated ligand for these two receptors raises the possibility of a novel interaction that alters immune responses within the tumour microenvironment. Since LILRB3 and LILRA6 genes are highly polymorphic the interaction may influence an individual's immune response to tumours. PMID:26769854

  19. Eukaryotic TLS polymerases.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Przemysław; Synowiec, Ewelina; Wysokiński, Daniel; Woźniak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    TLS polymerases are able to replicate damaged DNA (called translesion DNA synthesis, TLS). Their presence prevents cell death as a result of violating the integrity of the genome. In vitro, they are mutator, but in vivo are recruited by specific types of DNA damage and usually replicate them in a correct manner. The best-known TLS polymerases belong to the Y family, such as Rev1, κ, η, ι, and polymerase ζ from the B family. There are two mechanisms of TLS polymerases action: polymerase-switching model and the gap-filling model. Selection of the mechanism primarily depends on the phase of the cell cycle. The regulation of these polymerases may take place at the transcriptional level and at level of recruitment to the sites of DNA damage. In the latter case post-translational modification of proteins - ubiquitination and sumoylation, and protein-protein interactions are crucial. PMID:27333922

  20. Identification of the new HLA-DRB1{sup *}0812 allele detected by sequencing based typing

    SciTech Connect

    Versluis, L.F.; Zwan, A.W. van der; Tilanus, M.G.J.; Savelkoul, P.H.M.; Berg-Loonen, E.M. van den

    1996-12-31

    HLA-DRB typing by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing based typing (SBT) was studied within the framework of the Antigen and Haplotype Society 11 and the Sequencing Based Typing Component of the Twelfth International HLA workshop. Sequencing was performed as described by McGinnis and co-workers in 1995 on coded samples, including most DR2 subtypes, resulting in high resolution HLA-DR typing. Sequences were compared with a database containing 107 DRB1, four DRB3, and five DRB5 alleles in a similar way as described for HLA-DPB. One sample showed a new DR8 sequence, indicating the presence of a new allele. This individual (4390) is of Indonesian origin. The specific amplification of the DR8 allele and subsequent sequencing resulted in a sequence which did not match the database and new polymorphism was identified. The complementary strand was sequenced and confirmed the presence of a new DRB1 allele. Cloning and subsequent sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction fragment resulted in confirmation of the direct sequence data. Later this variant was officially named DRB1{sup *}0812. The complete nucleotide sequence of exon 2 of this new allele is shown. This allele differs from DRB1{sup *}0810 by one nucleotide at codon 85, resulting in an alanine (GTT), whereas DRB1{sup *}0810 carries a valine (GCT). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Specific contacts of the −35 region of the galP1 promoter by RNA polymerase inhibit GalR-mediated DNA looping repression

    PubMed Central

    Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lewis, Dale E. A.; Le, Phuoc; Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    The P1 promoter of the galactose operon in Escherichia coli is one of the best studied examples of ‘extended −10’ promoters. Recognition of the P1 promoter does not require specific contacts between RNA polymerase and its poor −35 element. To investigate whether specific recognition of the −35 element would affect the regulation of P1 by GalR, we mutagenized the −35 element of P1, isolated variants of the −35 element and studied the regulation of the mutant promoters by in vitro transcription assays and by mathematical modeling. The results show that the GalR-mediated DNA loop is less efficient in repressing P1 transcription when RNA polymerase binds to the −10 and −35 elements concomitantly. Our results suggest that promoters that lack specific −35 element recognition allow decoupling of local chromosome structure from transcription initiation. PMID:22941635

  2. Specific contacts of the -35 region of the galP1 promoter by RNA polymerase inhibit GalR-mediated DNA looping repression.

    PubMed

    Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lewis, Dale E A; Le, Phuoc; Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2012-11-01

    The P1 promoter of the galactose operon in Escherichia coli is one of the best studied examples of 'extended -10' promoters. Recognition of the P1 promoter does not require specific contacts between RNA polymerase and its poor -35 element. To investigate whether specific recognition of the -35 element would affect the regulation of P1 by GalR, we mutagenized the -35 element of P1, isolated variants of the -35 element and studied the regulation of the mutant promoters by in vitro transcription assays and by mathematical modeling. The results show that the GalR-mediated DNA loop is less efficient in repressing P1 transcription when RNA polymerase binds to the -10 and -35 elements concomitantly. Our results suggest that promoters that lack specific -35 element recognition allow decoupling of local chromosome structure from transcription initiation. PMID:22941635

  3. RNA Polymerase I-Specific Subunit CAST/hPAF49 Has a Role in the Activation of Transcription by Upstream Binding Factor

    PubMed Central

    Panov, Kostya I.; Panova, Tatiana B.; Gadal, Olivier; Nishiyama, Kaori; Saito, Takashi; Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are large complexes, 12 subunits of which are structurally or functionally homologous across the three polymerase classes. Each class has a set of specific subunits, likely targets of their cognate transcription factors. We have identified and characterized a human RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific subunit, previously identified as ASE-1 (antisense of ERCC1) and as CD3ɛ-associated signal transducer (CAST), and here termed CAST or human Pol I-associated factor of 49 kDa (hPAF49), after mouse orthologue PAF49. We provide evidence for growth-regulated Tyr phosphorylation of CAST/hPAF49, specifically in initiation-competent Pol Iβ complexes in HeLa cells, at a conserved residue also known to be important for signaling during T-cell activation. CAST/hPAF49 can interact with activator upstream binding factor (UBF) and, weakly, with selectivity factor 1 (SL1) at the rDNA (ribosomal DNA repeat sequence encoding the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes) promoter. CAST/hPAF49-specific antibodies and excess CAST/hPAF49 protein, which have no effect on basal Pol I transcription, inhibit UBF-activated transcription following functional SL1-Pol I-rDNA complex assembly and disrupt the interaction of UBF with CAST/hPAF49, suggesting that interaction of this Pol I-specific subunit with UBF is crucial for activation. Drawing on parallels between mammalian and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol I transcription machineries, we advance one model for CAST/hPAF49 function in which the network of interactions of Pol I-specific subunits with UBF facilitates conformational changes of the polymerase, leading to stabilization of the Pol I-template complex and, thereby, activation of transcription. PMID:16809778

  4. SAAS-CNV: A Joint Segmentation Approach on Aggregated and Allele Specific Signals for the Identification of Somatic Copy Number Alterations with Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity. PMID:26583378

  5. Ty1 Integrase Interacts with RNA Polymerase III-specific Subcomplexes to Promote Insertion of Ty1 Elements Upstream of Polymerase (Pol) III-transcribed Genes.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephanie; Ma, Lina; Chan, Patrick H W; Hu, Hui-Lan; Mayor, Thibault; Chen, Hung-Ta; Measday, Vivien

    2016-03-18

    Retrotransposons are eukaryotic mobile genetic elements that transpose by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate and are derived from retroviruses. The Ty1 retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the Ty1/Copia superfamily, which is present in every eukaryotic genome. Insertion of Ty1 elements into the S. cerevisiae genome, which occurs upstream of genes transcribed by RNA Pol III, requires the Ty1 element-encoded integrase (IN) protein. Here, we report that Ty1-IN interacts in vivo and in vitro with RNA Pol III-specific subunits to mediate insertion of Ty1 elements upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes. Purification of Ty1-IN from yeast cells followed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis identified an enrichment of peptides corresponding to the Rpc82/34/31 and Rpc53/37 Pol III-specific subcomplexes. GFP-Trap purification of multiple GFP-tagged RNA Pol III subunits from yeast extracts revealed that the majority of Pol III subunits co-purify with Ty1-IN but not two other complexes required for Pol III transcription, transcription initiation factors (TF) IIIB and IIIC. In vitro binding studies with bacterially purified RNA Pol III proteins demonstrate that Rpc31, Rpc34, and Rpc53 interact directly with Ty1-IN. Deletion of the N-terminal 280 amino acids of Rpc53 abrogates insertion of Ty1 elements upstream of the hot spot SUF16 tRNA locus and abolishes the interaction of Ty1-IN with Rpc37. The Rpc53/37 complex therefore has an important role in targeting Ty1-IN to insert Ty1 elements upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes. PMID:26797132

  6. Specific Arabidopsis HSP90.2 alleles recapitulate RAR1 cochaperone function in plant NB-LRR disease resistance protein regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, David A.; He, Yijian; McNulty, Brian C.; Tornero, Pablo; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2009-01-01

    Both plants and animals require the activity of proteins containing nucleotide binding (NB) domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains for proper immune system function. NB-LRR proteins in plants (NLR proteins in animals) also require conserved regulation via the proteins SGT1 and cytosolic HSP90. RAR1, a protein specifically required for plant innate immunity, interacts with SGT1 and HSP90 to maintain proper NB-LRR protein steady-state levels. Here, we present the identification and characterization of specific mutations in Arabidopsis HSP90.2 that suppress all known phenotypes of rar1. These mutations are unique with respect to the many mutant alleles of HSP90 identified in all systems in that they can bypass the requirement for a cochaperone and result in the recovery of client protein accumulation and function. Additionally, these mutations separate HSP90 ATP hydrolysis from HSP90 function in client protein folding and/or accumulation. By recapitulating the activity of RAR1, these novel hsp90 alleles allow us to propose that RAR1 regulates the physical open–close cycling of a known “lid structure” that is used as a dynamic regulatory HSP90 mechanism. Thus, in rar1, lid cycling is locked into a conformation favoring NB-LRR client degradation, likely via SGT1 and the proteasome. PMID:19487680

  7. Identification of Stmm3 locus Conferring Resistance to Late-stage Chemically Induced Skin Papillomas on Mouse Chromosome 4 by Congenic Mappingand Allele-specific Alteration Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Megumi; Okumura, Kazuhiro; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Kominami, Ryo; Wakabayashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed that many low-penetrance cancer susceptibility loci are located throughout the genome; however, a very limited number of genes have been identified so far. Using a forward genetics approach to map such loci in a mouse skin cancer model, we previously identified strong genetic loci conferring resistance to chemically induced skin papillomas on chromosome 4 and 7 with a large number of [(FVB/N × MSM/Ms) F1 × FVB/N] backcross mice. In this report, we describe a combination of congenic mapping and allele-specific alteration analysis of the loci on chromosome 4. We used linkage analysis and a congenic mouse strain, FVB.MSM-Stmm3 to refine the location of Stmm3 (Skin tumor modifier of MSM 3) locus within a physical interval of about 34 Mb on distal chromosome 4. In addition, we used patterns of allele-specific imbalances in tumors from N2 and N10 congenic mice to narrow down further the region of Stmm3 locus to a physical distance of about 25 Mb. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed papillomas from congenic mice had less proliferative activity. These results suggest that Stmm3 responsible genes may have an influence on papilloma formation in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis by regulating papilloma growth rather than development. PMID:25077764

  8. Antimutator Mutations in the α Subunit of Escherichia Coli DNA Polymerase III: Identification of the Responsible Mutations and Alignment with Other DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Fijalkowska, I. J.; Schaaper, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The dnaE gene of Escherichia coli encodes the DNA polymerase (α subunit) of the main replicative enzyme, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. We have previously identified this gene as the site of a series of seven antimutator mutations that specifically decrease the level of DNA replication errors. Here we report the nucleotide sequence changes in each of the different antimutator dnaE alleles. For each a single, but different, amino acid substitution was found among the 1,160 amino acids of the protein. The observed substitutions are generally nonconservative. All affected residues are located in the central one-third of the protein. Some insight into the function of the regions of polymerase III containing the affected residues was obtained by amino acid alignment with other DNA polymerases. We followed the principles developed in 1990 by M. Delarue et al. who have identified in DNA polymerases from a large number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources three highly conserved sequence motifs, which are suggested to contain components of the polymerase active site. We succeeded in finding these three conserved motifs in polymerase III as well. However, none of the amino acid substitutions responsible for the antimutator phenotype occurred at these sites. This and other observations suggest that the effect of these mutations may be exerted indirectly through effects on polymerase conformation and/or DNA/polymerase interactions. PMID:8375647

  9. Transcriptome and Allele Specificity Associated with a 3BL Locus for Fusarium Crown Rot Resistance in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Stiller, Jiri; Zhao, Qiang; Feng, Qi; Cavanagh, Colin; Wang, Penghao; Gardiner, Donald; Choulet, Frédéric; Feuillet, Catherine; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yuming; Yan, Guijun; Han, Bin; Manners, John M.; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium pathogens cause two major diseases in cereals, Fusarium crown rot (FCR) and head blight (FHB). A large-effect locus conferring resistance to FCR disease was previously located to chromosome arm 3BL (designated as Qcrs-3B) and several independent sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) have been developed for this locus. In this study, five sets of the NILs were used to examine transcriptional changes associated with the Qcrs-3B locus and to identify genes linked to the resistance locus as a step towards the isolation of the causative gene(s). Of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) detected between the NILs, 12.7% was located on the single chromosome 3B. Of the expressed genes containing SNP (SNP-EGs) detected, 23.5% was mapped to this chromosome. Several of the DEGs and SNP-EGs are known to be involved in host-pathogen interactions, and a large number of the DEGs were among those detected for FHB in previous studies. Of the DEGs detected, 22 were mapped in the Qcrs-3B interval and they included eight which were detected in the resistant isolines only. The enrichment of DEG, and not necessarily those containing SNPs between the resistant and susceptible isolines, around the Qcrs-3B locus is suggestive of local regulation of this region by the resistance allele. Functions for 13 of these DEGs are known. Of the SNP-EGs, 28 were mapped in the Qcrs-3B interval and biological functions for 16 of them are known. These results provide insights into responses regulated by the 3BL locus and identify a tractable number of target genes for fine mapping and functional testing to identify the causative gene(s) at this QTL. PMID:25405461

  10. Transcriptome and allele specificity associated with a 3BL locus for Fusarium crown rot resistance in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Stiller, Jiri; Zhao, Qiang; Feng, Qi; Cavanagh, Colin; Wang, Penghao; Gardiner, Donald; Choulet, Frédéric; Feuillet, Catherine; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yuming; Yan, Guijun; Han, Bin; Manners, John M; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium pathogens cause two major diseases in cereals, Fusarium crown rot (FCR) and head blight (FHB). A large-effect locus conferring resistance to FCR disease was previously located to chromosome arm 3BL (designated as Qcrs-3B) and several independent sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) have been developed for this locus. In this study, five sets of the NILs were used to examine transcriptional changes associated with the Qcrs-3B locus and to identify genes linked to the resistance locus as a step towards the isolation of the causative gene(s). Of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) detected between the NILs, 12.7% was located on the single chromosome 3B. Of the expressed genes containing SNP (SNP-EGs) detected, 23.5% was mapped to this chromosome. Several of the DEGs and SNP-EGs are known to be involved in host-pathogen interactions, and a large number of the DEGs were among those detected for FHB in previous studies. Of the DEGs detected, 22 were mapped in the Qcrs-3B interval and they included eight which were detected in the resistant isolines only. The enrichment of DEG, and not necessarily those containing SNPs between the resistant and susceptible isolines, around the Qcrs-3B locus is suggestive of local regulation of this region by the resistance allele. Functions for 13 of these DEGs are known. Of the SNP-EGs, 28 were mapped in the Qcrs-3B interval and biological functions for 16 of them are known. These results provide insights into responses regulated by the 3BL locus and identify a tractable number of target genes for fine mapping and functional testing to identify the causative gene(s) at this QTL. PMID:25405461

  11. Sex differences in the JAK2V617F allele burden in chronic myeloproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Brady L.; Williams, Donna M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Rogers, Ophelia; Isaacs, Mary Ann; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Spivak, Jerry L.; Moliterno, Alison R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The JAK2V617F allele burden is a variable measure, determined by the frequency of mitotic recombination events and the expansion of JAK2V617F clones. Since variability in the JAK2V617F allele burden is partly responsible for the distinct phenotypes seen in the myeloproliferative disorders, the objective of this study was to identify modifiers of the allele burden. Design and Methods Blood samples were obtained between May 2005 and January 2009 from 272 patients with essential thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis. The JAK2V617F allele burden was measured by an allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction using DNA from purified neutrophils. Repeated measures, on average 2 years apart, were available for 104 patients. Results Sex, age at diagnosis, and disease duration all independently influenced the JAK2V617F allele burden. When considering all patients with myeloproliferative disorders, women had significantly lower allele burdens than men (P=0.04). In those patients with repeated measures, the increase in allele burden per year between the first and second evaluations was significantly less in females than in males. Among those who experienced disease evolution, females were 4.5 times more likely to have evolution from essential thrombocytosis to polycythemia vera, but 0.23 times as likely to have evolution from essential thrombocytosis to myelofibrosis. Conclusions Sex is an independent factor accounting for variability in the JAK2V617F allele burden. We speculate that lower allele burdens in females reflect a lower frequency of mitotic recombination events in females than in males, and should be considered when evaluating the relationship of allele burden to disease phenotype and also in evaluating responses to JAK2V617F-inhibitors. Because sex may influence genotype and/or clonal expansion, underpinning the variability in JAK2V617F allele burden, it will be important to explore factors that determine susceptibility to

  12. Correction of Mutant p63 in EEC Syndrome Using siRNA Mediated Allele-Specific Silencing Restores Defective Stem Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Vanessa; Nasti, Annamaria A; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Ferrari, Stefano; Migliorati, Angelo; Raffa, Paolo; Lariccia, Vincenzo; Nespeca, Patrizia; Biasolo, Mariangela; Willoughby, Colin E; Ponzin, Diego; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal dysplasia-Clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by heterozygous mutations in the p63 gene and characterized by limb defects, orofacial clefting, ectodermal dysplasia, and ocular defects. Patients develop progressive total bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency, which eventually results in corneal blindness. Medical and surgical treatments are ineffective and of limited benefit. Oral mucosa epithelial stem cells (OMESCs) represent an alternative source of stem cells capable of regenerating the corneal epithelium and, combined with gene therapy, could provide an attractive therapeutic avenue. OMESCs from EEC patients carrying the most severe p63 mutations (p.R279H and p.R304Q) were characterized and the genetic defect of p.R279H silenced using allele-specific (AS) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Systematic screening of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-siRNAs against R279H-p63 allele in (i) stable WT-ΔNp63α-RFP and R279H-ΔNp63α-EGFP cell lines, (ii) transient doubly transfected cell lines, and (iii) p.R279H OMESCs, identified a number of potent siRNA inhibitors for the mutant allele, which had no effect on wild-type p63. In addition, siRNA treatment led to longer acquired life span of mutated stem cells compared to controls, less accelerated stem cell differentiation in vitro, reduced proliferation properties, and effective ability in correcting the epithelial hypoplasia, thus giving rise to full thickness stratified and differentiated epithelia. This study demonstrates the phenotypic correction of mutant stem cells (OMESCs) in EEC syndrome by means of siRNA mediated AS silencing with restoration of function. The application of siRNA, alone or in combination with cell-based therapies, offers a therapeutic strategy for corneal blindness in EEC syndrome. Stem Cells 2016;34:1588-1600. PMID:26891374

  13. Detection and molecular characterization of two FAD3 genes controlling linolenic acid content and development of allele-specific markers in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18∶3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18∶3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18∶3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

  14. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression Is Regulated by MicroRNAs miR-26a and miR-26b Allele-Specific Binding

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Viviana; Parisi, Chiara; Catalanotto, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto; Cogoni, Carlo; Pizzuti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays an essential role in neuronal development and plasticity. MicroRNA (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of about 22-nucleotides in length regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. In this study we explore the role of miRNAs as post-transcriptional inhibitors of BDNF and the effect of 3′UTR sequence variations on miRNAs binding capacity. Using an in silico approach we identified a group of miRNAs putatively regulating BDNF expression and binding to BDNF 3′UTR polymorphic sequences. Luciferase assays demonstrated that these miRNAs (miR-26a1/2 and miR-26b) downregulates BDNF expression and that the presence of the variant alleles of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11030100 and rs11030099) mapping in BDNF 3′UTR specifically abrogates miRNAs targeting. Furthermore we found a high linkage disequilibrium rate between rs11030100, rs11030099 and the non-synonymous coding variant rs6265 (Val66Met), which modulates BDNF mRNA localization and protein intracellular trafficking. Such observation led to hypothesize that miR-26s mediated regulation could extend to rs6265 leading to an allelic imbalance with potentially functional effects, such as peptide's localization and activity-dependent secretion. Since rs6265 has been previously implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, we evaluated the distribution of rs11030100, rs11030099 and rs6265 both in a control and schizophrenic group, but no significant difference in allele frequencies emerged. In conclusion, in the present study we identified two novel miRNAs regulating BDNF expression and the first BDNF 3′UTR functional variants altering miRNAs-BDNF binding. PMID:22194877

  15. Mechanism of polyoxometalate-mediated inactivation of DNA polymerases: an analysis with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase indicates specificity for the DNA-binding cleft.

    PubMed Central

    Sarafianos, S G; Kortz, U; Pope, M T; Modak, M J

    1996-01-01

    The anti-DNA polymerase activity of a structural family of polyoxometalates has been determined. Two representative compounds of this family, possessing a saddle-like structure [(O3POPO3)4W12O36]16- (polyoxometalate I) and [(O3PCH2PO3)4W12O36]16- (polyoxometalate II) were found to inhibit all the DNA polymerases tested, with IC50 values ranging from 2 to 10 microM. A comparative study with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and Klenow polymerase as representative DNA polymerases indicated that protection from inactivation was achieved by inclusion of DNA but not by deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). Kinetic analysis revealed that the mode of HIV-1 RT inhibition is competitive with respect to DNA, and non-competitive with respect to dNTP binding. Cross-linking experiments confirmed that the inhibitors interfere with the DNA-binding function of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Interestingly, a number of drug-resistant mutants of HIV-1 RT exhibit a sensitivity to polyoxometalate comparable to the wild-type HIV-1 RT, suggesting that these polyoxometalates interact at a novel site. Because different polymerases contain DNA-binding clefts of various dimensions, it should be possible to modify polyoxometalates or to add a link to an enzyme-specific drug so that more effective inhibitors could be developed. Using a computer model of HIV-1 RT we performed docking studies in a binary complex (enzyme-polyoxometalate I) to propose tentatively a possible interacting site in HIV-1 RT consistent with the available biochemical results as well as with the geometric and charge constraints of the two molecules. PMID:8912703

  16. A functional polymorphism in the Eta-1 promoter is associated with allele specific binding to the transcription factor Sp1 and elevated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hummelshoj, Tina; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O; Odum, Niels; Svejgaard, Arne

    2006-03-01

    Early T lymphocyte activator 1 (Eta-1), also known as Osteopontin, is a cytokine produced by macrophages and T lymphocytes. It is involved in the regulation of IL-12 and IL-10 expression in macrophages and stimulates the polarization of T cells to the Th1 subset. Three promoter polymorphisms of the human Eta-1 gene, -443T/C, -156delG/G, -66T/G, were investigated for possible influence on gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with nuclear extract from the human myeloid leukaemia premonocyte cell line, THP-1, revealed sequence specific binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to the -66T allele but not the -66G allele, and haplotype -443C/-156G/-66T showed a marked increase in promoter activity of a luciferase reporter gene. Thus, a substitution of the T-base with G at position -66 in the Eta-1 promoter modulates the promoter activity of the Eta-1 gene, which might influence the Th1 versus Th2 balance. These observations are discussed in relation to a recently reported related observation on the same gene, and it is argued that discrepancies between reporter gene assays in the two studies may be due to the use of different cell lines and may reflect requirements for different transcription factors in cells involved in immune responses compared with other cells. PMID:16009426

  17. Allele-specific malE mutations that restore interactions between maltose-binding protein and the inner-membrane components of the maltose transport system.

    PubMed

    Treptow, N A; Shuman, H A

    1988-08-20

    Active accumulation of maltose and maltodextrins by Escherichia coli depends on an outer-membrane protein. LamB, a periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MalE, MBP) and three inner-membrane proteins, MalF, MalG and MalK. MalF and MalG are integral transmembrane proteins, while MalK is associated with the inner aspect of the cytoplasmic membrane via an interaction with MalG. Previously we have shown that MBP is essential for movement of maltose across the inner membrane. We have taken advantage of malF and malG mutants in which MBP interacts improperly with the membrane proteins. We describe the properties of malE mutations in which a proper interaction between MBP and defective MalF and MalG proteins has been restored. We found that these malE suppressor mutations are able to restore transport activity in an allele-specific manner. That is, a given malE mutation restores transport activity to different extents in different malF and malG mutants. Since both malF and malG mutations could be suppressed by allele-specific malE suppressors, we propose that, in wild-type bacteria, MBP interacts with sites on both MalF and MalG during active transport. The locations of different malE suppressor mutations indicate specific regions on MBP that are important for interacting with MalF and MalG. PMID:3050132

  18. Recognition of AvrBs3-Like Proteins Is Mediated by Specific Binding to Promoters of Matching Pepper Bs3 Alleles1[W

    PubMed Central

    Römer, Patrick; Strauss, Tina; Hahn, Simone; Scholze, Heidi; Morbitzer, Robert; Grau, Jan; Bonas, Ulla; Lahaye, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The pepper (Capsicum annuum) bacterial spot (Bs) resistance gene Bs3 and its allelic variant Bs3-E mediate recognition of the Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria type III effector protein AvrBs3 and its deletion derivative AvrBs3Δrep16. Recognition specificity resides in the Bs3 and Bs3-E promoters and is determined by a defined promoter region, the UPA (for up-regulated by AvrBs3) box. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we defined the exact boundaries of the UPAAvrBs3 box of the Bs3 promoter and the UPAAvrBs3Δrep16 box of the Bs3-E promoter and show that both boxes overlap by at least 11 nucleotides. Despite partial sequence identity, the UPAAvrBs3 box and the UPAAvrBs3Δrep16 box were bound specifically by the corresponding AvrBs3 and AvrBs3Δrep16 proteins, respectively, suggesting that selective promoter binding of AvrBs3-like proteins is the basis for promoter activation specificity. We also demonstrate that the UPAAvrBs3 box retains its functionality at different positions within the pepper Bs3 promoter and confers AvrBs3 inducibility in a novel promoter context. Notably, the transfer of the UPAAvrBs3 box to different promoter locations is always correlated with a new transcriptional start site. The analysis of naturally occurring Bs3 alleles revealed many pepper accessions that encode a nonfunctional Bs3 variant. These accessions showed no apparent abnormalities, supporting the supposition that Bs3 functions only in disease resistance and not in other developmental or physiological processes. PMID:19448036

  19. RAPID DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF REVERTANTS OF THE HISD3052 ALLELE OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM TA98 USING THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND DIRECT SEQUENCING: APPLICATION TO 1-NITROPYRENE-INDUCED REVERTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to speed the processing of revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 for DNA sequence analysis. riefly, a crude DNA extract from a single colony was prepared and used in an asymmetric PCR to amplify a 228-bp fragment containing the...

  20. incurvata13, a Novel Allele of AUXIN RESISTANT6, Reveals a Specific Role for Auxin and the SCF Complex in Arabidopsis Embryogenesis, Vascular Specification, and Leaf Flatness1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Bruna, David; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in plant development by modulating the activity of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. Here, we positionally cloned Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) incurvata13 (icu13), a mutation that causes leaf hyponasty and reduces leaf venation pattern complexity and auxin responsiveness. We found that icu13 is a novel recessive allele of AUXIN RESISTANT6 (AXR6), which encodes CULLIN1, an invariable component of the SCF complex. Consistent with a role for auxin in vascular specification, the vascular defects in the icu13 mutant were accompanied by reduced expression of auxin transport and auxin perception markers in provascular cells. This observation is consistent with the expression pattern of AXR6, which we found to be restricted to vascular precursors and hydathodes in wild-type leaf primordia. AXR1, RELATED TO UBIQUITIN1-CONJUGATING ENZYME1, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC9 SIGNALOSOME5A, and CULLIN-ASSOCIATED NEDD8-DISSOCIATED1 participate in the covalent modification of CULLIN1 by RELATED TO UBIQUITIN. Hypomorphic alleles of these genes also display simple venation patterns, and their double mutant combinations with icu13 exhibited a synergistic, rootless phenotype reminiscent of that caused by loss of function of MONOPTEROS (MP), which forms an auxin-signaling module with BODENLOS (BDL). The phenotypes of double mutant combinations of icu13 with either a gain-of-function allele of BDL or a loss-of-function allele of MP were synergistic. In addition, a BDL:green fluorescent protein fusion protein accumulated in icu13, and BDL loss of function or MP overexpression suppressed the phenotype of icu13. Our results demonstrate that the MP-BDL module is required not only for root specification in embryogenesis and vascular postembryonic development but also for leaf flatness. PMID:23319550

  1. Sequence variation at the rice blast resistance gene Pi-km locus: Implications for the development of allele specific markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recently cloned blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice crops against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene-for-gene manner. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method for an integrated disease management strategy. To facilitate rice breed...

  2. Mutant Allele-Specific Uncoupling of PENETRATION3 Functions Reveals Engagement of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter in Distinct Tryptophan Metabolic Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xunli; Dittgen, Jan; Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Molina, Antonio; Schneider, Bernd; Doubský, Jan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PENETRATION (PEN) genes quantitatively contribute to the execution of different forms of plant immunity upon challenge with diverse leaf pathogens. PEN3 encodes a plasma membrane-resident pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter and is thought to act in a pathogen-inducible and PEN2 myrosinase-dependent metabolic pathway in extracellular defense. This metabolic pathway directs the intracellular biosynthesis and activation of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates for subsequent PEN3-mediated efflux across the plasma membrane at pathogen contact sites. However, PEN3 also functions in abiotic stress responses to cadmium and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-mediated auxin homeostasis in roots, raising the possibility that PEN3 exports multiple functionally unrelated substrates. Here, we describe the isolation of a pen3 allele, designated pen3-5, that encodes a dysfunctional protein that accumulates in planta like wild-type PEN3. The specific mutation in pen3-5 uncouples PEN3 functions in IBA-stimulated root growth modulation, callose deposition induced with a conserved peptide epitope of bacterial flagellin (flg22), and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation from PEN3 activity in extracellular defense, indicating the engagement of multiple PEN3 substrates in different PEN3-dependent biological processes. We identified 4-O-β-d-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide (4OGlcI3F) as a pathogen-inducible, tryptophan-derived compound that overaccumulates in pen3 leaf tissue and has biosynthesis that is dependent on an intact PEN2 metabolic pathway. We propose that a precursor of 4OGlcI3F is the PEN3 substrate in extracellular pathogen defense. These precursors, the shared indole core present in IBA and 4OGlcI3F, and allele-specific uncoupling of a subset of PEN3 functions suggest that PEN3 transports distinct indole-type metabolites in distinct biological processes. PMID:26023163

  3. Detection of EGFR Mutations by TaqMan Mutation Detection Assays Powered by Competitive Allele-Specific TaqMan PCR Technology

    PubMed Central

    Roma, Cristin; Esposito, Claudia; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Pasquale, Raffaella; Chicchinelli, Nicoletta; Mancini, Rita; Pisconti, Salvatore; Botti, Gerardo; Morabito, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are predictive of response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Competitive Allele-Specific TaqMan PCR (castPCR) is a highly sensitive and specific technology. EGFR mutations were assessed by TaqMan Mutation Detection Assays (TMDA) based on castPCR technology in 64 tumor samples: a training set of 30 NSCLC and 6 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) samples and a validation set of 28 NSCLC cases. The sensitivity and specificity of this method were compared with routine diagnostic techniques including direct sequencing and the EGFR Therascreen RGQ kit. Analysis of the training set allowed the identification of the threshold value for data analysis (0.2); the maximum cycle threshold (Ct = 37); and the cut-off ΔCt value (7) for the EGFR TMDA. By using these parameters, castPCR technology identified both training and validation set EGFR mutations with similar frequency as compared with the Therascreen kit. Sequencing detected rare mutations that are not identified by either castPCR or Therascreen, but in samples with low tumor cell content it failed to detect common mutations that were revealed by real-time PCR based methods. In conclusion, our data suggest that castPCR is highly sensitive and specific to detect EGFR mutations in NSCLC clinical samples. PMID:24364033

  4. Specific binding of the adenovirus terminal protein precursor-DNA polymerase complex to the origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Rijnders, A W; van Bergen, B G; van der Vliet, P C; Sussenbach, J S

    1983-01-01

    Initiation of adenovirus DNA replication is dependent on a complex of the precursor of the terminal protein and the adenovirus-coded DNA polymerase (pTP-pol complex). This complex catalyzes the formation of a covalent linkage between dCMP and pTP in the presence of a functional origin of DNA replication residing in the terminal nucleotide sequence of adenovirus DNA. We have purified the pTP-pol complex of adenovirus type 5 and studied its binding to double-stranded DNA. Using DNA-cellulose chromatography it could be shown that the pTP-pol complex has a higher affinity for adenovirus DNA than for calf thymus or pBR322 DNA. From the differential binding of the pTP-pol complex to plasmids containing adenovirus terminal sequences with different deletions, it has been concluded that a sequence of 14 nucleotide pairs at positions 9-22 plays a crucial role in the binding of pTP-pol to adenovirus DNA. This region is conserved in the DNA's of all human adenovirus serotypes and is obviously an important structural element of the adenovirus origin of DNA replication. Comparative binding studies with adenovirus DNA polymerase and pTP-pol indicated that pTP is responsible for the binding. The nature of the binding of pTP-pol to the conserved sequence will be discussed. Images PMID:6672772

  5. Deletion endpoint allele-specificity in the developmentally regulated elimination of an internal sequence (IES) in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Dubrana, K; Le Mouël, A; Amar, L

    1997-06-15

    Ciliated protozoa undergo thousands of site-specific DNA deletion events during the programmed development of micronuclear genomes to macronuclear genomes. Two deletion elements, W1 and W2, were identified in the Paramecium primaurelia wild-type 156 strain. Here, we report the characterization of both elements in wild-type strain 168 and show that they display variant deletion patterns when compared with those of strain 156. The W1 ( 168 ) element is defective for deletion. The W2 ( 168 ) element is excised utilizing two alternative boundaries on one side, both are different from the boundary utilized to excise the W2156 element. By crossing the 156 and 168 strains, we demonstrate that the definition of all deletion endpoints are each controlled by cis -acting determinant(s) rather than by strain-specific trans-acting factor(s). Sequence comparison of all deleted DNA segments indicates that the 5'-TA-3'terminal sequence is strictly required at their ends. Furthermore the identity of the first eight base pairs of these ends to a previously established consensus sequence correlates with the frequency of the corresponding deletion events. Our data implies the existence of an adaptive convergent evolution of these Paramecium deleted DNA segment end sequences. PMID:9171098

  6. Structural Analysis of Specific Metal Chelating Inhibitor Binding to the Endonuclease Domain of Influenza pH1N1 (2009) Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Kowalinski, Eva; Zubieta, Chloe; Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Szolar, Oliver H. J.; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.; Cusack, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    It is generally recognised that novel antiviral drugs, less prone to resistance, would be a desirable alternative to current drug options in order to be able to treat potentially serious influenza infections. The viral polymerase, which performs transcription and replication of the RNA genome, is an attractive target for antiviral drugs since potent polymerase inhibitors could directly stop viral replication at an early stage. Recent structural studies on functional domains of the heterotrimeric polymerase, which comprises subunits PA, PB1 and PB2, open the way to a structure based approach to optimise inhibitors of viral replication. In particular, the unique cap-snatching mechanism of viral transcription can be inhibited by targeting either the PB2 cap-binding or PA endonuclease domains. Here we describe high resolution X-ray co-crystal structures of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) PA endonuclease domain with a series of specific inhibitors, including four diketo compounds and a green tea catechin, all of which chelate the two critical manganese ions in the active site of the enzyme. Comparison of the binding mode of the different compounds and that of a mononucleotide phosphate highlights, firstly, how different substituent groups on the basic metal binding scaffold can be orientated to bind in distinct sub-pockets within the active site cavity, and secondly, the plasticity of certain structural elements of the active site cavity, which result in induced fit binding. These results will be important in optimising the design of more potent inhibitors targeting the cap-snatching endonuclease activity of influenza virus polymerase. PMID:22876177

  7. Design of an F1 hybrid breeding strategy for ryegrasses based on selection of self-incompatibility locus-specific alleles

    PubMed Central

    Pembleton, Luke W.; Shinozuka, Hiroshi; Wang, Junping; Spangenberg, German C.; Forster, John W.; Cogan, Noel O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Relatively modest levels of genetic gain have been achieved in conventional ryegrass breeding when compared to cereal crops such as maize, current estimates indicating an annual improvement of 0.25–0.6% in dry matter production. This property is partially due to an inability to effectively exploit heterosis through the formation of F1 hybrids. Controlled crossing of ryegrass lines from geographically distant origins has demonstrated the occurrence of heterosis, which can result in increases of dry matter production in the order of 25%. Although capture of hybrid vigor offers obvious advantages for ryegrass cultivar production, to date there have been no effective and commercially suitable methods for obtaining high proportions of F1 hybrid seed. Continued advances in fine-scale genetic and physical mapping of the gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) loci (S and Z) of ryegrasses are likely in the near future to permit the identification of closely linked genetic markers that define locus-specific haplotypes, allowing prediction of allelic variants and hence compatibility between different plant genotypes. Given the availability of such information, a strategy for efficient generation of ryegrass cultivars with a high proportion of F1 hybrid individuals has been simulated, which is suitable for commercial implementation. Through development of two parental pools with restricted diversity at the SI loci, relative crossing compatibility between pools is increased. Based on simulation of various levels of SI allele diversity restriction, the most effective scheme will generate 83.33% F1 hybrids. Results from the study, including the impact of varying flowering time, are discussed along with a proposed breeding design for commercial application. PMID:26442077

  8. Electromobility Shift Assay Reveals Evidence in Favor of Allele-Specific Binding of RUNX1 to the 5' Hypersensitive Site 4-Locus Control Region.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hossein; Ghobakhloo, Sepideh; Neishabury, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    In our previous studies on the Iranian β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients, we identified an association between the severity of the β-thal phenotype and the polymorphic palindromic site at the 5' hypersensitive site 4-locus control region (5'HS4-LCR) of the β-globin gene cluster. Furthermore, a linkage disequilibrium was observed between this region and XmnI-HBG2 in the patient population. Based on this data, it was suggested that the well-recognized phenotype-ameliorating role assigned to positive XmnI could be associated with its linked elements in the LCR. To investigate the functional significance of polymorphisms at the 5'HS4-LCR, we studied its influence on binding of transcription factors. Web-based predictions of transcription factor binding revealed a binding site for runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), when the allele at the center of the palindrome (TGGGG(A/G)CCCCA) was A but not when it was G. Furthermore, electromobility shift assay (EMSA) presented evidence in support of allele-specific binding of RUNX1 to 5'HS4. Considering that RUNX1 is a well-known regulator of hematopoiesis, these preliminary data suggest the importance of further studies to confirm this interaction and consequently investigate its functional and phenotypical relevance. These studies could help us to understand the molecular mechanism behind the phenotype modifying role of the 5'HS4-LCR polymorphic palindromic region (rs16912979), which has been observed in previous studies. PMID:27492765

  9. Detection of steroid 21-hydroxylase alleles using gene-specific PCR and a multiplexed ligation detection reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.J.; Barany, F.; Speiser, P.W.

    1995-09-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an inherited inability to synthesize cortisol that occurs in 1 in 10,000-15,000 births. Affected females are born with ambiguous genitalia, a condition that can be ameliorated by administering dexamethasone to the mother for most of gestation. Prenatal diagnosis is required for accurate treatment of affected females as well as for genetic counseling purposes. Approximately 95% of mutations causing this disorder result from recombinations between the gene encoding the 21-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP21) and a linked, highly homologous pseudogene (CYP21P). Approximately 20% of these mutations are gene deletions, and the remainder are gene conversions that transfer any of nine deleterious mutations from the CYP21P pseudogene to CYP21. We describe a methodology for genetic diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency that utilizes gene-specific PCR amplification in conjunction with thermostable DNA ligase to discriminate single nucleotide variations in a multiplexed ligation detection assay. The assay has been designed to be used with either fluorescent or radioactive detection of ligation products by electrophoresis on denaturing acrylamide gels and is readily adaptable for use in other disease systems. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Direct and site-specific quantification of RNA 2'-O-methylation by PCR with an engineered DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Marx, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Methylation of the 2'-hydroxyl-group of ribonucleotides is found in all major classes of RNA in eukaryotes and is one of the most abundant posttranscriptional modifications of stable RNAs. In spite of intense studies, the multiple functions of RNA 2'-O-methylation are still not understood. One major obstacle in the field are the technical demanding detection methods, which are typically laborious and do not always deliver unambiguous results. We present a thermostable KlenTaq DNA polymerase variant with significant reverse transcription activity that is able to discriminate 2'-O-methylated from unmethylated RNAs. The engineered enzyme catalyzes DNA synthesis from DNA as well as RNA templates and enables expeditious quantification of 2'-O-methylation of individual nucleotides directly from total RNA extracts by a simple qRT-PCR. PMID:27016740

  11. Direct and site-specific quantification of RNA 2′-O-methylation by PCR with an engineered DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Marx, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of the 2′-hydroxyl-group of ribonucleotides is found in all major classes of RNA in eukaryotes and is one of the most abundant posttranscriptional modifications of stable RNAs. In spite of intense studies, the multiple functions of RNA 2′-O-methylation are still not understood. One major obstacle in the field are the technical demanding detection methods, which are typically laborious and do not always deliver unambiguous results. We present a thermostable KlenTaq DNA polymerase variant with significant reverse transcription activity that is able to discriminate 2′-O-methylated from unmethylated RNAs. The engineered enzyme catalyzes DNA synthesis from DNA as well as RNA templates and enables expeditious quantification of 2′-O-methylation of individual nucleotides directly from total RNA extracts by a simple qRT-PCR. PMID:27016740

  12. A gene-specific effect of an internal deletion in the Bdp1 subunit of the RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor TFIIIB.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Akira; Kassavetis, George A

    2003-07-31

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPR1 gene encodes the RNA subunit of its RNase P, which processes RNA polymerase (pol) III primary transcripts. RPR1, which is transcribed by pol III, has been isolated as a multicopy suppressor of a specific small internal deletion (amino acids 253-269) in the Bdp1 subunit of transcription factor TFIIIB, the core pol III transcription factor. The selective effect of this Bdp1 deletion on RPR1 transcription has been analyzed in vitro. It is shown that TFIIIC-dependent assembly of TFIIIB on the RPR1 promoter is specifically sensitive to this Bdp1 deletion, leading to gene-specifically defective single-round and multiple-round transcription. PMID:12885403

  13. NusG Is a Sequence-specific RNA Polymerase Pause Factor That Binds to the Non-template DNA within the Paused Transcription Bubble.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Murakami, Katsuhiko S; Babitzke, Paul

    2016-03-01

    NusG, referred to as Spt5 in archaeal and eukaryotic organisms, is the only transcription factor conserved in all three domains of life. This general transcription elongation factor binds to RNA polymerase (RNAP) soon after transcription initiation and dissociation of the RNA polymerase σ factor. Escherichia coli NusG increases transcription processivity by suppressing RNAP pausing, whereas Bacillus subtilis NusG dramatically stimulates pausing at two sites in the untranslated leader of the trpEDCFBA operon. These two regulatory pause sites participate in transcription attenuation and translational control mechanisms, respectively. Here we report that B. subtilis NusG makes sequence-specific contacts with a T-rich sequence in the non-template DNA (ntDNA) strand within the paused transcription bubble. NusG protects T residues of the recognition sequence from permanganate oxidation, and these T residues increase the affinity of NusG to the elongation complex. Binding of NusG to RNAP does not require interaction with RNA. These results indicate that bound NusG prevents forward movement of RNA polymerase by simultaneously contacting RNAP and the ntDNA strand. Mutational studies indicate that amino acid residues of two short regions within the NusG N-terminal domain are primarily responsible for recognition of the trp operon pause signals. Structural modeling indicates that these two regions are adjacent to each another in the protein. We propose that recognition of specific sequences in the ntDNA and stimulation of RNAP pausing is a conserved function of NusG-like transcription factors. PMID:26742846

  14. Real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Bagaza virus.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Dolores; Rocha, Ana; Tena-Tomás, Cristina; Vigo, Marta; Agüero, Montserrat; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2012-09-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of disease in 2 wild bird species (red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) occurred in southern Spain. Bagaza virus (BAGV) was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak. BAGV had only been reported before in Western Africa (Central African Republic, Senegal) and in India. The first occurrence of BAGV in Spain stimulated a demand for rapid, reliable, and efficacious diagnostic methods to facilitate the surveillance of this disease in the field. This report describes a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method based on a commercial 5'-Taq nuclease-3' minor groove binder DNA probe and primers targeting the Bagaza NS5 gene. The method allowed the detection of BAGV with a high sensitivity, whereas other closely related flaviviruses (Usutu virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus) were not detected. The assay was evaluated using field samples of red-legged partridges dead during the outbreak (n = 11), as well as samples collected from partridges during surveillance programs (n = 81). The results were compared to those obtained with a pan-flaviviral hemi-nested RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, which was employed originally to identify the virus involved in the outbreak. The results obtained with both techniques were 100% matching, indicating that the newly developed real-time RT-PCR is a valid technique for BAGV genome detection, useful in both diagnosis and surveillance studies. PMID:22807508

  15. Analysis of T cell receptor-gamma gene rearrangements by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of GC-clamped polymerase chain reaction products. Correlation with tumor-specific sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, T. C.; Raffeld, M.; Lutz, C.; Dick, F.; Jaffe, E. S.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a modified denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) procedure with a 40-nucleotide GC clamp in the polymerase chain reaction to improve resolution in amplifying T cell receptor-gamma (TCR-gamma) rearrangements. DNA from 46 cases of lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, 5T cell lines, 2 B cell lines, 7 normal lymphocytes, and 3 cases of Hodgkin's disease was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, 20 cases of paraffin-embedded T cell lymphomas and 5 cases of reactive hyperplasia were also studied. Clonal TCR-gamma rearrangements were identified on DGGE by the presence of a predominant band. Results obtained from 5 T cell lines and 12 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomas containing known TCR-gamma gene rearrangements revealed 100% concordance in detecting clonal rearrangements between DGGE and traditional Southern blot analysis. Of the remaining 34 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cases studied by DGGE alone, 30 were positive. DGGE analysis of 10 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cases with known group IV gamma to J gamma 1 or J gamma 2 rearrangement sequences confirmed that the electrophoretic migration was dependent on the tumor-specific rearranged TCR-gamma sequence. In addition, 17 of 20 cases of paraffin-embedded T cell lymphomas were positive by DGGE, 6 of which had the clonal population also identified in fresh tissue DNA. DGGE analysis of GC-clamped polymerase chain reaction products can provide a way to more accurately detect TCR-gamma clonality of lymphoid tumors and can be applied to archival tissues. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7856738

  16. High-throughput, low-cost, and event-specific polymerase chain reaction detection of herbicide tolerance in genetically modified soybean A2704-12.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Li, H; Li, J; Wang, X F; Wei, P C; Li, L; Yang, J B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an event-specific qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of herbicide-tolerance genetically modified (GM) soybean A2704-12. The event-specific PCR primers were designed, based on the 5'-flanking integration sequence in the soybean genome, to amplify the 239-bp target fragment. Employing the same event-specific primers, qualitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR detection methods were successfully developed. The results showed that the A2704-12 event could be specifically distinguished from other GM soybean events. In the qualitative PCR assay, the limit of detection was 0.05%, and in the real-time quantitative PCR assay, the limit of detection was less than 0.01%. Moreover, our genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction protocol is high-throughput, safe, and low-cost. The event-specific PCR assay system is cost-efficient by using SYBR Green I in real-time PCR, and by using the same primers in both the qualitative and quantitative PCR assays. We therefore developed a high-throughput, low-cost, and event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection method for GM soybean A2704-12. The method would be useful for market supervision and management of GM soybean A2704-12 due to its high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:24615034

  17. International ring trial for the validation of an event-specific Golden Rice 2 quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Jacchia, Sara; Nardini, Elena; Bassani, Niccolò; Savini, Christian; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan; Kreysa, Joachim; Mazzara, Marco

    2015-05-27

    This article describes the international validation of the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for Golden Rice 2. The method consists of a taxon-specific assay amplifying a fragment of rice Phospholipase D α2 gene, and an event-specific assay designed on the 3' junction between transgenic insert and plant DNA. We validated the two assays independently, with absolute quantification, and in combination, with relative quantification, on DNA samples prepared in haploid genome equivalents. We assessed trueness, precision, efficiency, and linearity of the two assays, and the results demonstrate that both the assays independently assessed and the entire method fulfill European and international requirements for methods for genetically modified organism (GMO) testing, within the dynamic range tested. The homogeneity of the results of the collaborative trial between Europe and Asia is a good indicator of the robustness of the method. PMID:25946377

  18. A sensitive, specific and reproducible real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection in field-collected anophelines.

    PubMed

    Bickersmith, Sara A; Lainhart, William; Moreno, Marta; Chu, Virginia M; Vinetz, Joseph M; Conn, Jan E

    2015-06-01

    We describe a simple method for detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection in anophelines using a triplex TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (18S rRNA). We tested the assay on Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles stephensi colony mosquitoes fed with Plasmodium-infected blood meals and in duplicate on field collected An. darlingi. We compared the real-time PCR results of colony-infected and field collected An. darlingi, separately, to a conventional PCR method. We determined that a cytochrome b-PCR method was only 3.33% as sensitive and 93.38% as specific as our real-time PCR assay with field-collected samples. We demonstrate that this assay is sensitive, specific and reproducible. PMID:26061150

  19. A fast one-step reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification procedure providing highly specific complementary DNA from plant virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sambade, A; Martín, S; Olmos, A; García, M L; Cambra, M; Grau, O; Guerri, J; Moreno, P

    2000-06-01

    Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are being used increasingly for detection and typing RNA viruses. For this purpose, metal block thermal cyclers (MBTC) are considered to provide higher DNA yield, whereas air thermal cyclers (ATC) allow PCR amplification in a much shorter time. A fast ATC protocol (0 s denaturation, 0 s annealing, and 4-8 s elongation) was developed to amplify genomic segments from two RNA viruses, which allowed increasing the number of cycles without a parallel increase of non-specific DNA fragments. Under these conditions, 80-90 cycles with the ATC provided a DNA yield close to that of a standard 40-cycles MBTC protocol in about half the time. The DNA synthesised by the new procedure was highly specific and could be cloned readily. PMID:10856749

  20. Junctional and allele-specific residues are critical for MERS-CoV neutralization by an exceptionally potent germline-like antibody

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ying, Tianlei; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Du, Lanying; Shi, Wei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Lingshu; Li, Wei; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; et al

    2015-09-15

    The MERS-CoV is an emerging virus, which already infected more than 1,300 humans with high (~36%) mortality. Here, we show that m336, an exceptionally potent human anti-MERS-CoV antibody, is almost germline with only one somatic mutation in the heavy chain. The structure of Fab m336 in complex with the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain reveals that its IGHV1-69-derived heavy chain provides more than 85% binding surface and that its epitope almost completely overlaps with the receptor-binding site. Analysis of antibodies from 69 healthy humans suggests an important role of the V(D)J recombination-generated junctional and allele-specific residues for achieving high affinity of bindingmore » at such low levels of somatic hypermutation. Our results also have important implications for development of vaccine immunogens based on the newly identified m336 epitope as well as for elucidation of mechanisms of neutralization by m336-like antibodies and their elicitation in vivo.« less

  1. Junctional and allele-specific residues are critical for MERS-CoV neutralization by an exceptionally potent germline-like antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Tianlei; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Du, Lanying; Shi, Wei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Lingshu; Li, Wei; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Zhou, Tongqing

    2015-09-15

    The MERS-CoV is an emerging virus, which already infected more than 1,300 humans with high (~36%) mortality. Here, we show that m336, an exceptionally potent human anti-MERS-CoV antibody, is almost germline with only one somatic mutation in the heavy chain. The structure of Fab m336 in complex with the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain reveals that its IGHV1-69-derived heavy chain provides more than 85% binding surface and that its epitope almost completely overlaps with the receptor-binding site. Analysis of antibodies from 69 healthy humans suggests an important role of the V(D)J recombination-generated junctional and allele-specific residues for achieving high affinity of binding at such low levels of somatic hypermutation. Our results also have important implications for development of vaccine immunogens based on the newly identified m336 epitope as well as for elucidation of mechanisms of neutralization by m336-like antibodies and their elicitation in vivo.

  2. Bulk segregant RNA-seq reveals expression and positional candidate genes and allele-specific expression for disease resistance against enteric septicemia of catfish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The application of RNA-seq has accelerated gene expression profiling and identification of gene-associated SNPs in many species. However, the integrated studies of gene expression along with SNP mapping have been lacking. Coupling of RNA-seq with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) should allow correlation of expression patterns and associated SNPs with the phenotypes. Results In this study, we demonstrated the use of bulked segregant RNA-seq (BSR-Seq) for the analysis of differentially expressed genes and associated SNPs with disease resistance against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). A total of 1,255 differentially expressed genes were found between resistant and susceptible fish. In addition, 56,419 SNPs residing on 4,304 unique genes were identified as significant SNPs between susceptible and resistant fish. Detailed analysis of these significant SNPs allowed differentiation of significant SNPs caused by genetic segregation and those caused by allele-specific expression. Mapping of the significant SNPs, along with analysis of differentially expressed genes, allowed identification of candidate genes underlining disease resistance against ESC disease. Conclusions This study demonstrated the use of BSR-Seq for the identification of genes involved in disease resistance against ESC through expression profiling and mapping of significantly associated SNPs. BSR-Seq is applicable to analysis of genes underlining various performance and production traits without significant investment in the development of large genotyping platforms such as SNP arrays. PMID:24373586

  3. Detection of disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms in pemphigus vulgaris linked to the DQwl and DQw3 alleles of the HLA-D region

    SciTech Connect

    Szafer, F.; Brautbar, C.; Tzfoni, E.; Frankel, G.; Sherman, L.; Cohen, I.; Hacham-Zadeh, S.; Aberer, W.; Tappeiner, G.; Holubar, K.; Steinman, L.

    1987-09-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris in Israeli Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews and in Austrian non-Jewish patients is strongly associated with the DR4 and DRw6 alleles of the HLA-D region class II genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was undertaken with DQ..beta.., DQ..cap alpha.., and DR..beta.. cDNA probes. Hybridization with the DQ..beta.. probe identifies Pvu II, BamHI, and EcoRV fragments that absolutely discriminate pemphigus vulgaris patients from healthy DR-, DQ-, and ethnic-matched controls. In contrast the DQ..cap alpha.. and DR..beta.. probes failed to identify disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism fragments. These studies indicate that DQw1 and DQw3 polymorphisms carried by pemphigus vulgaris patients may be directly involved in predisposition to the disease or may be tightly linked to the susceptibility gene itself. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an HLA restriction fragment length polymorphism that is highly associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

  4. Rapid KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA Mutation Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirates from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Melanie; Talebian Yazdi, Mehrdad; Ruano, Dina; Forte, Giusi I.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Veselic, Maud; Rabe, Klaus F.; Annema, Jouke T.; Smit, Vincent; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients. PMID:21408138

  5. Junctional and allele-specific residues are critical for MERS-CoV neutralization by an exceptionally potent germline-like antibody

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tianlei; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Du, Lanying; Shi, Wei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Lingshu; Li, Wei; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Zhou, Tongqing

    2015-01-01

    The MERS-CoV is an emerging virus, which already infected more than 1,300 humans with high (∼36%) mortality. Here, we show that m336, an exceptionally potent human anti-MERS-CoV antibody, is almost germline with only one somatic mutation in the heavy chain. The structure of Fab m336 in complex with the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain reveals that its IGHV1-69-derived heavy chain provides more than 85% binding surface and that its epitope almost completely overlaps with the receptor-binding site. Analysis of antibodies from 69 healthy humans suggests an important role of the V(D)J recombination-generated junctional and allele-specific residues for achieving high affinity of binding at such low levels of somatic hypermutation. Our results also have important implications for development of vaccine immunogens based on the newly identified m336 epitope as well as for elucidation of mechanisms of neutralization by m336-like antibodies and their elicitation in vivo. PMID:26370782

  6. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples

    PubMed Central

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D’Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues. PMID

  7. Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Allele Interacts with Sex and Cognitive Status to Influence All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among US Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Kaufman, Jay S.; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M.; O'Brien, Richard; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E ε4 (ApoE4 carrier) status, sex and cognitive impairment may interact to affect all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Objectives To confirm associations of ApoE4 carrier status, sex and time-dependent cognitive status with mortality risk, and investigate these associations' joint effects in a cohort of community-dwelling US adults. Design & Setting Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were used. Participants Of n=3,047 (First-visit Age:17–98y, 60.1% men), we selected a sample with complete genetic data and with ≥1 visit at age≥50y (n=1,461). Measurements Time-to-death from all, cardiovascular or non-cardiovascular causes. Results Survival probability was lower for ApoE4 carriers, particularly at oldest ages. Cox proportional hazards model for all-cause mortality yielded a hazard ratio (HR) for ApoE4 carrier vs. non-carriers of 1.31,95%CI:1.02–1.68. This association was also found for cardiovascular mortality. Time-dependent all-cause dementia (HR=1.73, 95%CI:1.33–2.26) and mild cognitive impairment (HR=1.95,95%CI:1.42–2.67) increased all-cause mortality risk, associations also detected for non-cardiovascular mortality. When individuals were free of cognitive impairment, a dose-response relationship with ε4 alleles was found for all-cause mortality (HR=1.40,95%CI:0.94–2.07 for 1 ε4, and HR=2.61; 95%CI:1.12–6.07 for 2 ε4). After Alzheimer's Disease-type (AD) dementia onset, carrying only 1 ε4 allele increased all-cause mortality risk by ~77% compared to non-carriers. ApoE4 carrier status increased all-cause mortality risk in men and interacted with time-dependent AD to increase the risk of this outcome (RERI=2.15; 95% CI:1.22–3.07). Conclusion We found that ApoE4 carrier status increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks, while interacting with sex and time-dependent AD status to affect all-cause mortality. PMID:23581910

  8. Allele-Specific Virulence Attenuation of the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ1a Type III Effector via the Arabidopsis ZAR1 Resistance Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer D.; Wu, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Plant resistance (R) proteins provide a robust surveillance system to defend against potential pathogens. Despite their importance in plant innate immunity, relatively few of the ∼170 R proteins in Arabidopsis have well-characterized resistance specificity. In order to identify the R protein responsible for recognition of the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector (T3SE) HopZ1a, we assembled an Arabidopsis R gene T–DNA Insertion Collection (ARTIC) from publicly available Arabidopsis thaliana insertion lines and screened it for plants lacking HopZ1a-induced immunity. This reverse genetic screen revealed that the Arabidopsis R protein HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1 (ZAR1; At3g50950) is required for recognition of HopZ1a in Arabidopsis. ZAR1 belongs to the coiled-coil (CC) class of nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS–LRR) containing R proteins; however, the ZAR1 CC domain phylogenetically clusters in a clade distinct from other related Arabidopsis R proteins. ZAR1–mediated immunity is independent of several genes required by other R protein signaling pathways, including NDR1 and RAR1, suggesting that ZAR1 possesses distinct signaling requirements. The closely-related T3SE protein, HopZ1b, is still recognized by zar1 Arabidopsis plants indicating that Arabidopsis has evolved at least two independent R proteins to recognize the HopZ T3SE family. Also, in Arabidopsis zar1 plants HopZ1a promotes P. syringae growth indicative of an ancestral virulence function for this T3SE prior to the evolution of recognition by the host resistance protein ZAR1. Our results demonstrate that the Arabidopsis resistance protein ZAR1 confers allele-specific recognition and virulence attenuation of the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE protein HopZ1a. PMID:20368970

  9. Human rotavirus strains bearing VP4 gene P[6] allele recovered from asymptomatic or symptomatic infections share similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Jones, Ronald W; Ross, Jerri; Santos, Norma; Kapikian, Albert Z

    2003-11-10

    A rotavirus VP4 gene P[6] allele has been documented in a number of countries to be characteristically associated with an endemic predominantly asymptomatic infection in neonates in maternity hospital nurseries. The mechanisms underlying the endemicity and asymptomatic nature of such neonatal infections remain unknown. Rotavirus strains sharing this same P genotype, however, have more recently been recovered from an increasing number of symptomatic diarrheal episodes in infants and young children in various parts of the world. Previously, we have shown that an asymptomatic P[6] rotavirus neonatal infection is not associated with a unique VP7 (G) serotype but may occur in conjunction with various G types. Although amino acid sequence comparisons of the VP4 gene between selected "asymptomatic" and "symptomatic" P[6] rotavirus strains have been reported and yielded information concerning their VP4 genotypes, serotypic comparisons of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 of such viruses have not been studied systematically by two-way cross-neutralizations. We determined the VP4 neutralization specificities of four asymptomatic and four symptomatic P[6] strains: two each of asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by two-way tests, and two each of additional asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by one-way tests. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic P[6] strains were shown to bear similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities. Thus, P[6] rotavirus strains causing asymptomatic or symptomatic infections did not appear to belong to unique P (VP4) serotypes. In addition, a close VP4 serotypic relationship between human P[6] rotavirus strains and the porcine P[6] rotavirus Gottfried strain was confirmed. PMID:14599785

  10. Fine mapping of QTL and genomic prediction using allele-specific expression SNPs demonstrates that the complex trait of genetic resistance to Marek’s disease is predominantly determined by transcriptional regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypothesis that polymorphisms associated with transcriptional regulation are critical for viral disease resistance was tested by selecting birds using SNPs exhibiting allele-specific expression (ASE) in response to viral challenge. Analysis indicates ASE markers account for 83% of the disease re...

  11. Identification of beta-subunit of bacterial RNA-polymerase--a non-species-specific bacterial protein--as target of antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Kai-Wolfgang; Schmider, Wolfgang; Kist, Manfred; Batsford, Stephen; Schiltz, Emile; Oelke, Mathias; Tuczek, Anja; Dettenborn, Therese; Behringer, Dirk; Kreisel, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    Several observations suggest that bacteria induce autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Since no PBC-specific bacterial species could be identified, it can be speculated that the triggers are non-species-specific bacterial proteins. This hypothesis would imply that several or even all bacterial species can trigger PBC. Therefore, we investigated whether PBC exhibits immune reactions to non-species-specific bacterial antigens. Yersinia enterocolitica O3 was screened for the presence of proteins that were labeled by immunoblotting using PBC sera. We focused our investigations on a 160-kDa protein, which was further enriched and characterized by partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The prevalence of antibodies to this protein was determined by immunoblotting in a variety of diseases. The 160-kDa protein was identified as the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA-polymerase, a highly conserved bacterial protein with a very high degree of sequence identity among all bacterial species. Antibodies to the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase were specific for this protein. Until now no mammalian protein could be found that cross-reacts with these antibodies. The prevalence of antibodies to the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (ARPA) using the protein from Yersinia enterocolitica O3 (serum dilution 1:1000) was: healthy controls (HC, N = 101) 7.9%, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, N = 61) 32.8%, autoimmune hepatitis type 1 (AIH, N = 46) 26.1%, alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC, N = 44) 9.1%, Crohn's disease (CD, N = 38) 7.9%, ulcerative colitis (UC, N = 24) 8.3%, primary sclerosing cholangitis + UC (PSC/UC, N = 11) 0%, acute yersiniosis (Yers, N = 36) 19.4%, acute infection with Campylobacter jejuni (Camp, N = 10) 0%, acute Q-fever (QF, N = 16) 6.25%, chronic hepatitis C (HCV, N = 39) 7.7%, c-ANCA-positive vasculitis (Vasc, N = 40) 15%, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, N = 28) 10.7%, and malaria tropica (MT, N = 24) 16.7%. There was no significant

  12. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1. PMID:25437743

  13. Effect of the Concentration Difference between Magnesium Ions and Total Ribonucleotide Triphosphates in Governing the Specificity of T7 RNA Polymerase-Based Rolling Circle Transcription for Quantitative Detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyan; Lau, Choiwan; Lu, Jianzhong

    2016-06-01

    T7 RNA polymerase-based rolling circle transcription (RCT) is a more powerful tool than universal runoff transcription and traditional DNA polymerase-based rolling circle amplification (RCA). However, RCT is rarely employed in quantitative detection due to its poor specificity for small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which can be transcribed efficiently by T7 RNA polymerase even without a promoter. Herein we show that the concentration difference between Mg(2+) and total ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTPs) radically governs the specificity of T7 RNA polymerase. Only when the total rNTP concentration is 9 mM greater than the Mg(2+) concentration can T7 RNA polymerase transcribe ssDNA specifically and efficiently. This knowledge improves our traditional understanding of T7 RNA polymerase and makes convenient application of RCT in quantitative detection possible. Subsequently, an RCT-based label-free chemiluminescence method for microRNA detection was designed to test the capability of this sensing platform. Using this simple method, microRNA as low as 20 amol could be quantitatively detected. The results reveal that the developed sensing platform holds great potential for further applications in the quantitative detection of a variety of targets. PMID:27167591

  14. A new DRB1 allele (DRB1*0811) identified in Native Americans

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, J.D.; Williams, T.M.; Wu, J.; Foutz, T.; Troup, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    A novel DRB1 allele was identified in a potential bone marrow transplantation recipient and her father. Both are Native Americans of Navajo descent. Class II serologic typing of the patient demonstrated the presence of DR8, DR14, DR52, and DQ3. Sequence specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genomic DNA was consistent with the DRB1 alleles *08 and *14. Direct DNA sequencing of PCR products prepared from genomic DNA demonstrated that the patient`s class II alleles included the novel allele, DRB1*1402, DRB3*0101, DQB1*0301, and DQB1*0402. Analysis of the siblings and the father of this individual revealed that the new allele was transmitted on the haplotype A2, Cw7, B39, DQB1*0402, while the DRB1*1402 allele was transmitted on the haplotype A24, Cw4, B35, DRB3*0101, DQB1*0301. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Silk gland-specific tRNA(Ala) genes interact more weakly than constitutive tRNA(Ala) genes with silkworm TFIIIB and polymerase III fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, H S; Young, L S; White, C N; Sprague, K U

    1994-01-01

    Constitutive and silk gland-specific tRNA(Ala) genes from silkworms have very different transcriptional properties in vitro. Typically, the constitutive type, which encodes tRNA(AlaC), directs transcription much more efficiently than does the silk gland-specific type, which encodes tRNA(AlaSG). We think that the inefficiency of the tRNA(AlaCG) gene underlies its capacity to be turned off in non-silk gland cells. An economical model is that the tRNA(AlaSG) promoter interacts poorly, relative to the tRNA(AlaC) promoter, with one or more components of the basal transcription machinery. As a consequence, the tRNA(AlaSG) gene directs the formation of fewer transcription complexes or of complexes with reduced cycling ability. Here we show that the difference in the number of active transcription complexes accounts for the difference in tRNA(AlaC) and tRNA(AlaSG) transcription rates. To determine whether a particular component of the silkworm transcription machinery is responsible for reduced complex formation on the tRNA(AlaSG) gene, we measured competition by templates for defined fractions of this machinery. We find that the tRNA(AlaSG) gene is greatly impaired, in comparison with the tRNA(AlaC) gene, in competition for either TFIIIB or RNA polymerase III. Competition for each of these fractions is also strongly influenced by the nature of the 5' flanking sequence, the promoter element responsible for the distinctive transcriptional properties of tRNA(AlaSG) and tRNA(AlaC) genes. These results suggest that differential interaction with TFIIIB or RNA polymerase III is a critical functional distinction between these genes. Images PMID:8114713

  16. Contribution of allelic variability in prostate specific antigen (PSA) & androgen receptor (AR) genes to serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Sushant V.; Maitra, Anurupa; Roy, Nobhojit; Chavan, Padma R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR) genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer. Methods: Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG) repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques. Results: A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (P<0.001) in the proximal promoter region and -3845G/A (P<0.001) in enhancer region showed significant association with serum PSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (P<0.001) at both of these polymorphic sites showed higher expression of PSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (P<0.001) carriers demonstrated lower PSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short) was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression. PMID:24820830

  17. A Limousin specific myostatin allele affects longissimus muscle area and fatty acid profiles in a Wagyu-Limousin F2 population.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L J; Kuehn, L A; Smith, T P L; Matukumalli, L K; Mote, B; Koltes, J E; Reecy, J; Geary, T W; Rule, D C; Macneil, M D

    2009-05-01

    A microsatellite-based genome scan of a Wagyu x Limousin F(2) cross population previously demonstrated QTL affecting LM area and fatty acid composition were present in regions near the centromere of BTA2. In this study, we used 70 SNP markers to examine the centromeric 24 megabases (Mb) of BTA2, including the Limousin-specific F94L myostatin allele (AB076403.1; 415C > A) located at approximately 6 Mb on the draft genome sequence of BTA2. A significant effect of the F94L marker was observed (F = 60.17) for LM area, which indicated that myostatin is most likely responsible for the effect. This is consistent with previous reports that the substitution of Leu for Phe at AA 94 of myostatin (caused by the 415C > A transversion) is associated with increased muscle growth. Surprisingly, several fatty acid trait QTL, which affected the amount of unsaturated fats, also mapped to or very near the myostatin marker, including the ratio of C16:1 MUFA to C16:0 saturated fat (F = 16.72), C18:1 to C18:0 (F = 18.88), and total content of MUFA (F = 17.12). In addition, QTL for extent of marbling (F = 14.73) approached significance (P = 0.05), and CLA concentration (F = 9.22) was marginally significant (P = 0.18). We also observed associations of SNP located at 16.3 Mb with KPH (F = 15.00) and for the amount of SFA (F = 12.01). These results provide insight into genetic differences between the Wagyu and Limousin breeds and may lead to a better tasting and healthier product for consumers through improved selection for lipid content of beef. PMID:19213716

  18. Proper Use of Allele-Specific Expression Improves Statistical Power for cis-eQTL Mapping with RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    HU, Yi-Juan; SUN, Wei; TZENG, Jung-Ying; PEROU, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) offer insight into the molecular mechanisms of loci that were found to be associated with complex diseases and the mechanisms can be classified into cis- and trans-acting regulation. At present, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is rapidly replacing expression microarrays to assess gene expression abundance. Unlike microarrays that only measure the total expression of each gene, RNA-seq also provides information on allele-specific expression (ASE), which can be used to distinguish cis-eQTLs from trans-eQTLs and, more importantly, enhance cis-eQTL mapping. However, assessing the cis-effect of a candidate eQTL on a gene requires knowledge of the haplotypes connecting the candidate eQTL and the gene, which cannot be inferred with certainty. The existing two-stage approach that first phases the candidate eQTL against the gene and then treats the inferred phase as observed in the association analysis tends to attenuate the estimated cis-effect and reduce the power for detecting a cis-eQTL. In this article, we provide a maximum-likelihood framework for cis-eQTL mapping with RNA-seq data. Our approach integrates the inference of haplotypes and the association analysis into a single stage, and is thus unbiased and statistically powerful. We also develop a pipeline for performing a comprehensive scan of all local eQTLs for all genes in the genome by controlling for false discovery rate, and implement the methods in a computationally efficient software program. The advantages of the proposed methods over the existing ones are demonstrated through realistic simulation studies and an application to empirical breast cancer data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. PMID:26568645

  19. Inter- and Intra-Individual Variation in Allele-Specific DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Children Conceived using Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Nahid; Katari, Sunita; Gerson, Leigh F.; Chalian, Raffi; Foster, Michael W.; Gaughan, John P.; Coutifaris, Christos; Sapienza, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported a higher incidence of rare disorders involving imprinted genes among children conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART), suggesting that ART procedures may be disruptive to imprinted gene methylation patterns. We examined intra- and inter-individual variation in DNA methylation at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the IGF2/H19 and IGF2R loci in a population of children conceived in vitro or in vivo. We found substantial variation in allele-specific methylation at both loci in both groups. Aberrant methylation of the maternal IGF2/H19 DMR was more common in the in vitro group, and the overall variance was also significantly greater in the in vitro group. We estimated the number of trophoblast stem cells in each group based on approximation of the variance of the binomial distribution of IGF2/H19 methylation ratios, as well as the distribution of X chromosome inactivation scores in placenta. Both of these independent measures indicated that placentas of the in vitro group were derived from fewer stem cells than the in vivo conceived group. Both IGF2 and H19 mRNAs were significantly lower in placenta from the in vitro group. Although average birth weight was lower in the in vitro group, we found no correlation between birth weight and IGF2 or IGF2R transcript levels or the ratio of IGF2/IGF2R transcript levels. Our results show that in vitro conception is associated with aberrant methylation patterns at the IGF2/H19 locus. However, very little of the inter- or intra-individual variation in H19 or IGF2 mRNA levels can be explained by differences in maternal DMR DNA methylation, in contrast to the expectations of current transcriptional imprinting models. Extraembryonic tissues of embryos cultured in vitro appear to be derived from fewer trophoblast stem cells. It is possible that this developmental difference has an effect on placental and fetal growth. PMID:20661447

  20. Event specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified MON863 maize based on the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Litao; Xu, Songci; Pan, Aihu; Yin, Changsong; Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhenying; Zhou, Zhigang; Zhang, Dabing

    2005-11-30

    Because of the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) labeling policies issued in many countries and areas, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the execution of GMO labeling policies, such as screening, gene specific, construct specific, and event specific PCR detection methods, which have become a mainstay of GMOs detection. The event specific PCR detection method is the primary trend in GMOs detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of the exogenous integrant. This genetically modified maize, MON863, contains a Cry3Bb1 coding sequence that produces a protein with enhanced insecticidal activity against the coleopteran pest, corn rootworm. In this study, the 5'-integration junction sequence between the host plant DNA and the integrated gene construct of the genetically modified maize MON863 was revealed by means of thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR, and the specific PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed based upon the revealed 5'-integration junction sequence; the conventional qualitative PCR and quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR detection methods employing these primers and probes were successfully developed. In conventional qualitative PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1% for MON863 in 100 ng of maize genomic DNA for one reaction. In the quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR assay, the LOD and the limit of quantification were eight and 80 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed maize samples with known MON863 contents were detected using the established real-time PCR systems, and the ideal results indicated that the established event specific real-time PCR detection systems were reliable, sensitive, and accurate. PMID:16302741

  1. Brief communication: Evolution of a specific O allele (O1vG542A) supports unique ancestry of Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Villanea, Fernando A; Bolnick, Deborah A; Monroe, Cara; Worl, Rosita; Cambra, Rosemary; Leventhal, Alan; Kemp, Brian M

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explore the geographic and temporal distribution of a unique variant of the O blood group allele called O1v(G542A) , which has been shown to be shared among Native Americans but is rare in other populations. O1v(G542A) was previously reported in Native American populations in Mesoamerica and South America, and has been proposed as an ancestry informative marker. We investigated whether this allele is also found in the Tlingit and Haida, two contemporary indigenous populations from Alaska, and a pre-Columbian population from California. If O1v(G542A) is present in Na-Dene speakers (i.e., Tlingits), it would indicate that Na-Dene speaking groups share close ancestry with other Native American groups and support a Beringian origin of the allele, consistent with the Beringian Incubation Model. If O1v(G542A) is found in pre-Columbian populations, it would further support a Beringian origin of the allele, rather than a more recent introduction of the allele into the Americas via gene flow from one or more populations which have admixed with Native Americans over the past five centuries. We identified this allele in one Na-Dene population at a frequency of 0.11, and one ancient California population at a frequency of 0.20. Our results support a Beringian origin of O1v(G542A) , which is distributed today among all Native American groups that have been genotyped in appreciable numbers at this locus. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that Na-Dene and other Native American populations primarily derive their ancestry from a single source population. PMID:23868176

  2. Lineage-specific detection of influenza B virus using real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Chansaenroj, Jira; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Influenza B viruses comprise two lineages, Victoria (B/Vic) and Yamagata (B/Yam), which co-circulate globally. The surveillance data on influenza B virus lineages in many countries often underestimate the true prevalence due to the lack of a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method for virus detection. We have developed a real-time PCR with melting curve analysis for lineage-specific differential detection of influenza B virus. By amplifying a region of the hemagglutinin gene using real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye, B/Vic and B/Yam could be differentiated based on their melting temperature peaks. This method was efficient (B/Vic = 93.2 %; B/Yam 97.7 %), sensitive (B/Vic, 94.6 %; B/Yam, 96.3 %), and specific (B/Vic, 97.7 %; B/Yam, 97.1 %). The lower detection limit was 10(2) copies per microliter. The assay was evaluated using 756 respiratory specimens that were positive for influenza B virus, obtained between 2010 and 2015. The incidence of influenza B virus was approximately 18.9 % of all influenza cases, and the percentage was highest among children aged 6-17 years (7.57 %). The overall percentage of mismatched influenza B vaccine was 21.1 %. Our findings suggest that real-time PCR with melting curve analysis can provide a rapid, simple, and sensitive lineage-specific influenza B virus screening method to facilitate influenza surveillance. PMID:26923928

  3. Repair of rDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: RAD4-independent strand-specific nucleotide excision repair of RNA polymerase I transcribed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Verhage, R A; Van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1996-01-01

    Removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the individual strands of the rDNA locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. Yeast rDNA, that is transcribed by RNA polymerase I(RNA pol I), is repaired efficiently, slightly strand-specific and independently of RAD26, which has been implicated in transcription-coupled repair of the RNA pol II transcribed RPB2 gene. No repair of rDNA is observed in rad1,2,3 and 14 mutants, demonstrating that dimer removal from this highly repetitive DNA is accomplished by nucleotide excision repair (NER). In rad7 and rad16 mutants, which are specifically deficient in repair of non-transcribed DNA, there is a clear preferential repair of the transcribed strand of rDNA, indicating that strand-specific and therefore probably transcription-coupled repair of RNA pol I transcribed genes does exist in yeast. Unexpectedly, the transcribed but not the non-transcribed strand of rDNA can be repaired in rad4 mutants, which seem otherwise completely NER-deficient. PMID:8604332

  4. Different domains of the murine RNA polymerase I-specific termination factor mTTF-I serve distinct functions in transcription termination.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, R; Smid, A; Rudloff, U; Lottspeich, F; Grummt, I

    1995-01-01

    Termination of mouse ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the specific interaction of a DNA binding protein, mTTF-I, with an 18 bp sequence element located downstream of the rRNA coding region. Here we describe the molecular cloning and functional characterization of the cDNA encoding this transcription termination factor. Recombinant mTTF-I binds specifically to the murine terminator elements and terminates Pol I transcription in a reconstituted in vitro system. Deletion analysis has defined a modular structure of mTTF-I comprising a dispensable N-terminal half, a large C-terminal DNA binding region and an internal domain which is required for transcription termination. Significantly, the C-terminal region of mTTF-I reveals striking homology to the DNA binding domains of the proto-oncogene c-Myb and the yeast transcription factor Reb1p. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of the tryptophan residues that is conserved in the homology region of c-Myb, Reb1p and mTTF-I abolishes specific DNA binding, a finding which underscores the functional relevance of these residues in DNA-protein interactions. Images PMID:7720715

  5. Interlaboratory trial validation of an event-specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction-based detection method for genetically modified RT73 rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Shuya; Yang, Litao; Broll, Hermann; Tian, Fenghua; Zhang, Dabing

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative event-specific polymerase chain reaction detection method of genetically modified (GM) RT73 rapeseed was developed based on the cloned 3' end flanking sequence of RT73 rapeseed integration. The specificity of the method for GM RT73 rapeseed was validated using several different GM rapeseed lines, GM maize lines, GM soybean line, non-GM rapeseed, and other non-GM crops. In this study, the developed method was validated through an interlaboratory study by 12 laboratories from 6 countries. The sensitivity of this method was evaluated using several mixed rapeseed meals with different GM RT73 rapeseed contents from 5.0 to 0.01% prepared by our laboratory. The evaluated results showed that all of the rapeseed endogenous reference high mobility group protein gene (HMG I/Y), figwort mosaic virus 35S (FMV 35S) promoter, and RT73 event-specific fragment could be detected from rapeseed samples at 0.1% (w/w) with a confidence level of more than 95%. All results from the 12 laboratories indicated that the developed method could be considered fit for the detection and identification of GM RT73 rapeseed. PMID:18193742

  6. Dominant CD4-dependent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-specific T-cell responses in children acutely infected with human enterovirus 71 and healthy adult controls

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shuangsuo; Gao, Ning; Li, Yaping; Li, Mei; Wang, Xiufang; Jia, Xiaoli; Zhai, Song; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Jingkun; Deng, Huiling; Dong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causes of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to significant mortality in infected children. A prophylactic vaccine is urgently needed. However, little is known about the protective T-cell immunity in individuals infected with the EV71 virus. In this study, we performed a comprehensive ex vivo interferon-γ ELISPOT analysis in 31 children infected with EV71 as well as in 40 healthy adult controls of the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to overlapping peptides spanning the VP1 structural protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) non-structural protein. EV71-specific CD4 T-cell responses were detected in most of the acute patients and were mostly CD4-dependent RdRp-specific responses. CD8-dependent VP1 and RdRp-specific responses were also detected in a small proportion of recently infected children. There was no significant association between the strength of the T-cell responses and disease severity observed during the acute EV71 infection phase. Interestingly, an RdRp-specific, but no VP1-specific, CD4-dependent T-cell response was detected in 30% of the adult controls, and no T-cell responses were detected in healthy children. In addition, 24 individual peptides containing potential T-cell epitope regions were identified. The data suggest that CD4-dependent RdRp-specific T-cell responses may play an important role in protective immunity, and the epitopes identified in this study should provide valuable information for future therapeutic and prophylactic vaccine design as well as basic research. PMID:24329688

  7. Characterization and evaluation of an arbitrary primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) product for the specific detection of Brucella species

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jafar A.; AlMomin, Sabah; Al-Mouqati, Salwa A.; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory detection of Brucella is based largely on bacterial isolation and phenotypic characterization. These methods are lengthy and labor-intensive and have been associated with a heightened risk of laboratory-acquired infection. Antibody based indirect detection methods also suffer from limitations in proper diagnosis of the organism. To overcome these problems, nucleic acid amplification has been explored for rapid detection and confirmation of the presence of Brucella spp. PCR-based diagnostics is useful for screening large populations of livestock to identify infected individuals and confirms the presence of the pathogen. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed and identified a 1.3 kb PCR fragment specifically amplifiable from DNA isolated from Brucella. A BLAST search revealed no significant homology with the reported sequences from species other than the members of Brucella. The isolated fragment seems to be a part of d-alanine–d-alanine ligase gene in Brucella sp. Translational BLAST revealed certain degree of homology of this sequence with orthologs of this gene reported from other microbial species at the deduced amino acid level. The sequence information was used to develop PCR based assays to detect Brucella sp. from various samples. The minimum detection limit of Brucella from blood and milk samples spiked with Brucella DNA was found to be 1 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the PCR based detection protocol was successfully used for the detection of Brucella from various organs and spiked samples of diseased sheep. Diagnosis of Brucellosis by PCR based method reported in this study is relatively rapid, specific and simple. PMID:25737656

  8. Strand-Specific Quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Measurement of Arenavirus Genomic and Antigenomic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Haist, Kelsey; Ziegler, Christopher; Botten, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses are bi-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses that cause significant human disease. The manner in which they regulate the replication of their genome is not well-understood. This is partly due to the absence of a highly sensitive assay to measure individual species of arenavirus replicative RNAs. To overcome this obstacle, we designed a quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for selective quantitation of each of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) genomic or antigenomic RNAs. During the course of assay design, we identified a nonspecific priming phenomenon whereby, in the absence of an RT primer, cDNAs complementary to each of the LCMV replicative RNA species are generated during RT. We successfully circumvented this nonspecific priming event through the use of biotinylated primers in the RT reaction, which permitted affinity purification of primer-specific cDNAs using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. As proof of principle, we used the assay to map the dynamics of LCMV replication at acute and persistent time points and to determine the quantities of genomic and antigenomic RNAs that are incorporated into LCMV particles. This assay can be adapted to measure total S or L segment-derived viral RNAs and therefore represents a highly sensitive diagnostic platform to screen for LCMV infection in rodent and human tissue samples and can also be used to quantify virus-cell attachment. PMID:25978311

  9. Genotype-specific mutations in the polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus potentially associated with resistance to oral antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Silvia; Sebastiani, Giada; Rossi, Cristina; Velo, Emanuela; Erne, Elke Maria; Vario, Alessandro; Tempesta, Diego; Romualdi, Chiara; Campagnolo, Davide; Alberti, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    The evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the role of different variants during antiviral therapy may be influenced by HBV genotype. We have therefore analysed substitutions potentially related to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) resistance at 42 positions within RT-region in a cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis B in relation to HBV-genotype. RT mutations analysis was performed by direct sequencing in 200 NAs-naïve patients and in 64 LAM or LAM+ADV experienced patients with NAs resistance, infected mainly by HBV-genotypes D and A. 27 polymorphic-sites were identified among the 42 positions analysed and 64 novel mutations were detected in 23 positions. Genotype-D displayed the highest mutation frequency (6.4%) among all HBV-genotypes analysed. Single or multiple mutations were detected in 80% of naïve patients. Overall, the most frequent single mutations were at residues rt54, rt53 and rt91 which may associate with significantly lower HBV-DNA levels (p=0.001). Comparison with sequencing data of patients failing LMV or LAM+ADV therapy revealed an higher frequency of novel genotype-specific mutations if compared with naïve patients: 3 mutations under LAM monotherapy in HBV-D (rtS85F; rtL91I; rtC256G) and 3 mutations under ADV therapy in HBV-A (rtI53V; rtW153R; rtF221Y). In HBV-D treated patients the dominant resistance mutation was rtL80V (31.4%) and rtM204I (60%) in LAM+ADV group while LAM-treated patients showed a preference of rtM204V (51.9%). Interestingly, none of HBV-A patients had mutation rtM204I under ADV add-on treatment but all of them had the "V" AA substitution. These results suggested that in patients with CHB, HBV-genotype might be relevant in the evolution and development of drug resistance showing also different mutation patterns in the YMDD motif between HBV genotype D and A. PMID:23026293

  10. Multiplex isothermal solid-phase recombinase polymerase amplification for the specific and fast DNA-based detection of three bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Sebastian; Rausch, Valentina; Bier, Frank F; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an on-chip RPA (recombinase polymerase amplification) with simultaneous multiplex isothermal amplification and detection on a solid surface. The isothermal RPA was applied to amplify specific target sequences from the pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Salmonella enterica and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using genomic DNA. Additionally, a positive plasmid control was established as an internal control. The four targets were amplified simultaneously in a quadruplex reaction. The amplicon is labeled during on-chip RPA by reverse oligonucleotide primers coupled to a fluorophore. Both amplification and spatially resolved signal generation take place on immobilized forward primers bount to expoxy-silanized glass surfaces in a pump-driven hybridization chamber. The combination of microarray technology and sensitive isothermal nucleic acid amplification at 38 °C allows for a multiparameter analysis on a rather small area. The on-chip RPA was characterized in terms of reaction time, sensitivity and inhibitory conditions. A successful enzymatic reaction is completed in <20 min and results in detection limits of 10 colony-forming units for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica and 100 colony-forming units for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The results show this method to be useful with respect to point-of-care testing and to enable simplified and miniaturized nucleic acid-based diagnostics. FigureThe combination of multiplex isothermal nucleic acid amplification with RPA and spatially-resolved signal generation on specific immobilized oligonucleotides. PMID:25253912

  11. Isolation and characterization of new alleles of the cyclin-dependent kinase gene CDC28 with cyclin-specific functional and biochemical defects.

    PubMed

    Levine, K; Oehlen, L J; Cross, F R

    1998-01-01

    The G1 cyclin Cln2 negatively regulates the mating-factor pathway. In a genetic screen to identify factors required for this regulation, we identified an allele of CDC28 (cdc28-csr1) that blocked this function of Cln2. Cln2 immunoprecipitated from cdc28-csr1 cells was completely defective in histone H1 kinase activity, due to defects in Cdc28 binding and activation by Cln2. In contrast, Clb2-associated H1 kinase and Cdc28 binding was normal in immunoprecipitates from these cells. cdc28-csr1 was significantly deficient in other aspects of genetic interaction with Cln2. The cdc28-csr1 mutation was determined to be Q188P, in the T loop distal to most of the probable Cdk-cyclin interaction regions. We performed random mutagenesis of CDC28 to identify additional alleles incapable of causing CLN2-dependent mating-factor resistance but capable of complementing cdc28 temperature-sensitive and null alleles. Two such mutants had highly defective Cln2-associated kinase, but, surprisingly, two other mutants had levels of Cln2-associated kinase near to wild-type levels. We performed a complementary screen for CDC28 mutants that could cause efficient Cln2-dependent mating-factor resistance but not complement a cdc28 null allele. Most such mutants were found to alter residues essential for kinase activity; the proteins had little or no associated kinase activity in bulk or in association with Cln2. Several of these mutants also functioned in another assay for CLN2-dependent function not involving the mating-factor pathway, complementing the temperature sensitivity of a cln1 cln3 cdc28-csr1 strain. These results could indicate that Cln2-Cdc28 kinase activity is not directly relevant to some CLN2-mediated functions. Mutants of this sort should be useful in differentiating the function of Cdc28 complexed with different cyclin regulatory subunits. PMID:9418876

  12. Allele-specific germ cell epimutation in the spacer promoter of the 45S ribosomal RNA gene after Cr(III) exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Shiao, Y.-H. . E-mail: shiao@mail.ncifrcf.gov; Crawford, Erik B.; Anderson, Lucy M.; Patel, Pritesh; Ko, Kinarm

    2005-06-15

    Paternal exposure of mice to Cr(III) causes increased tumor risk in offspring; an epigenetic mechanism has been hypothesized. Representational difference analysis of gene methylation in sperm revealed hypomethylation in the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene after Cr(III) exposure, compared with controls. The most striking effects were seen in the rRNA spacer promoter, a region in the intergenic region of rRNA gene clusters that can influence transcription. Methylation of the rRNA spacer promoter has not been studied heretofore. Sperm DNAs from Cr(III)-treated and control mice were modified by the bisulfite method followed by PCR amplification of the spacer promoter, including 27 CpG sites. Cloning and dideoxy sequencing identified sequence variants (T or G at base -2214) in the spacer promoter. The T allele had less DNA methylation than the G allele in control mice (17 of 17 clones vs. 42 of 72 clones, P = 0.0004). In spite of diversity of sperm DNA methylation patterns, the DNA clones from Cr(III)-exposed mice had fewer methylated CpG sites, by an average of 19% (P < 0.0001). This difference was limited to the G allele. The pyrosequencing technique was applied to quantify the percentage of methylation directly from amplified PCR products. Strikingly, for nine CpG sites including the spacer promoter core region, hypomethylation was highly significant in the Cr(III)-treated group (paired T test, P < 0.0001). Thus, one allele of the 45S rRNA spacer promoter is hypomethylated in sperm germ cells after Cr(III) exposure. This epimutation may lead to increase of tumor risk in the offspring.

  13. Specificity of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays designed for the detection of circulating cancer cells is influenced by cytokines in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, R.; Krüger, W.; Hosch, S.; Holweg, M.; Kröger, N.; Gutensohn, K.; Wagener, C.; Neumaier, M.; Zander, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Several reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays have been described for the detection of circulating tumour cells in blood and bone marrow. Target mRNA sequences for this purpose are the cytokeratins (CK) 19 and 20, the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the prostate-specific antigen messages. In this study, we investigated biological factors influencing the specificity of the CK19 and CEA RT-PCR assays. Bone marrow, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized blood stem cells and peripheral blood samples obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 15; CEA n = 7), from patients with epithelial (n = 29) and haematological (n = 23) cancer and from patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (n = 16) were examined. Neither CEA nor cytokeratin 19 messages could be amplified from bone marrow samples from healthy subjects and from patients with haematological malignancies. In contrast, specimens from patients with inflammatory diseases scored positive up to 60%. To investigate the influence of inflammation on target mRNA expression, haemopoietic cells were cultured with and without cytokine stimulation in vitro. CK19 messages could be easily detected in cultured marrow cells without further stimulation, CEA messages only after gamma-interferon (gamma-INF) stimulation. In contrast, G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells were positive for CK19 messages only after stem cell factor (SCF) or interleukin stimulation. We conclude that transcription of so-called tissue-specific genes is inductible in haemopoietic tissues under certain conditions. These factors have to be considered in future applications of RT-PCR for the detection of minimal residual disease. PMID:9820179

  14. Establishment and application of event-specific polymerase chain reaction methods for two genetically modified soybean events, A2704-12 and A5547-127.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Pan, Liangwen; Li, Junyi; Zhang, Qigang; Zhang, Shuya; Lv, Rong; Yang, Litao

    2011-12-28

    For implementation of the issued regulations and labeling policies for genetically modified organism (GMO) supervision, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been widely used due to its high specificity and sensitivity. In particular, use of the event-specific PCR method based on the flanking sequence of transgenes has become the primary trend. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative PCR methods were established on the basis of the 5' flanking sequence of transgenic soybean A2704-12 and the 3' flanking sequence of transgenic soybean A5547-127, respectively. In qualitative PCR assays, the limits of detection (LODs) were 10 copies of haploid soybean genomic DNA for both A2704-12 and A5547-127. In quantitative real-time PCR assays, the LODs were 5 copies of haploid soybean genomic DNA for both A2704-12 and A5547-127, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 10 copies for both. Low bias and acceptable SD and RSD values were also achieved in quantification of four blind samples using the developed real-time PCR assays. In addition, the developed PCR assays for the two transgenic soybean events were used for routine analysis of soybean samples imported to Shanghai in a 6 month period from October 2010 to March 2011. A total of 27 lots of soybean from the United States and Argentina were analyzed: 8 lots from the Unites States were found to have the GM soybean A2704-12 event, and the GM contents were <1.5% in all eight analyzed lots. On the contrary, no GM soybean A5547-127 content was found in any of the eight lots. These results demonstrated that the established event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR methods could be used effectively in routine identification and quantification of GM soybeans A2704-12 and A5547-127 and their derived products. PMID:22087473

  15. Genotyping of Trypanosoma cruzi Sublineage in Human Samples from a North-East Argentina Area by Hybridization with DNA Probes and Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Cristina; Lorenz, Virginia; Ortiz, Silvia; Gonzalez, Verónica; Racca, Andrea; Bontempi, Iván; Manattini, Silvia; Solari, Aldo; Marcipar, Iván

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated blood samples of chronic and congenital Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients from the city of Reconquista located in the northeast of Argentina where no information was previously obtained about the genotype of infecting parasites. Fourteen samples of congenital and 19 chronical patients were analyzed by hybridization with DNA probes of minicircle hypervariable regions (mHVR). In congenital patients, 50% had single infections with TcIId, 7% single infections with TcIIe, 29% mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 7% had mixed infections with TcIId/b and 7% TcIId/b, respectively. In Chronical patients, 52% had single infections with TcIId, 11% single infections with TcIIe, 26% had mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 11% had non-identified genotypes. With these samples, we evaluated the minicircle lineage-specific polymerase chain reaction assay (MLS-PCR), which involves a nested PCR to HVR minicircle sequences and we found a correlation with hybridization probes of 96.4% for TcIId and 54.8% for TcIIe. PMID:20064998

  16. Multiple forms of poly(A) polymerases purified from HeLa cells function in specific mRNA 3'-end formation.

    PubMed Central

    Ryner, L C; Takagaki, Y; Manley, J L

    1989-01-01

    Poly(A) polymerases (PAPs) from HeLa cell cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions were extensively purified by using a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography and standard chromatographic methods. Several forms of the enzyme were identified, two from the nuclear fraction (NE PAPs I and II) and one from the cytoplasmic fraction (S100 PAP). NE PAP I had chromatographic properties similar to those of S100 PAP, and both enzymes displayed higher activities in the presence of Mn2+ than in the presence of Mg2+, whereas NE PAP II was chromatographically distinct and had approximately equal levels of activity in the presence of Mn2+ and Mg2+. Each of the enzymes, when mixed with other nuclear fractions containing cleavage or specificity factors, was able to reconstitute efficient cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs containing an AAUAAA sequence element. The PAPs alone, however, showed no preference for precursors containing an intact AAUAAA sequence over a mutated one, providing further evidence that the PAPs have no intrinsic ability to recognize poly(A) addition sites. Two additional properties of the three enzymes suggest that they are related: sedimentation in glycerol density gradients indicated that the native size of each enzyme is approximately 50 to 60 kilodaltons, and antibodies against a rat hepatoma PAP inhibited the ability of each enzyme to function in AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation. Images PMID:2555686

  17. Nascent transcription affected by RNA polymerase IV in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Talbot, Joy-El R B; Deans, Natalie C; McClish, Allison E; Hollick, Jay B

    2015-04-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3'-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  18. Nascent Transcription Affected by RNA Polymerase IV in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Erhard, Karl F.; Talbot, Joy-El R. B.; Deans, Natalie C.; McClish, Allison E.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3ʹ-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  19. Susceptibility allele-specific loss of miR-1324-mediated silencing of the INO80B chromatin-assembly complex gene in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Cees B M; Michel, Omar J; Janssen, Rob; Habets, Rob; Poutsma, Ankie; Sistermans, Erik A; Weiss, Marjan M; Incarnato, Danny; Oliviero, Salvatore; Kleiverda, Gunilla; Van Dijk, Marie; Arngrímsson, Reynir

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the elucidation of the genetics underlying multifactorial diseases such as pre-eclampsia remains complex. Given the current day availability of genome-wide linkage- and expression data pools, we applied pathway-guided genome-wide meta-analysis guided by the premise that the functional network underlying these multifactorial syndromes is under selective genetic pressure. This approach drastically reduced the genomic region of interest, i.e. 2p13 linked with pre-eclampsia in Icelandic families, from 8 679 641 bp (region with linkage) to 45 264 bp (coding exons of prioritized genes) (0.83%). Mutation screening of the candidate genes (n = 13) rapidly reduced the minimal critical region and showed the INO80B gene, encoding a novel winged helix domain (pfam14465) and part of the chromatin-remodeling complex, to be linked to pre-eclampsia. The functional defect in placental cells involved a susceptibility allele-dependent loss-of-gene silencing due to increased INO80B RNA stability as a consequence of differential binding of miR-1324 to the susceptibility allele of rs34174194. This risk allele is located at position 1 in an absolutely conserved 7-mer (UUGUCUG) in the 3-UTR of INO80B immediately downstream of a variant Pumillio Recognition Element (UGUANAAG). These data support that pre-eclampsia genes affect a conserved fundamental mechanism that evolved as a consequence of hemochorial placentation. Functionally, this involves founder-dependent, placentally expressed paralogous genes that regulate an essential trophoblast differentiation pathway but act at different entry points. PMID:25143393

  20. Isolated 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency: Evidence for an Allele-Specific Dominant Negative Effect and Responsiveness to Biotin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Dantas, M. Fernanda; Suormala, Terttu; Almashanu, Shlomo; Giunta, Cecilia; Friebel, Dolores; Gebhardt, Boris; Fowler, Brian; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Baumgartner, E. Regula; Valle, David

    2004-01-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) results in elevated excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3-MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA). MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme comprising biotin-containing α subunits and smaller β subunits, encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. Mutations in these genes cause isolated MCC deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder with a variable phenotype that ranges from severe neonatal to asymptomatic adult forms. No reported patients have responded to biotin therapy. Here, we describe two patients with a biochemical and, in one case, clinical phenotype of MCC deficiency, both of whom were responsive to biotin. The first patient presented at 3 months with seizures and progressive psychomotor retardation. Metabolic investigation at 2 years revealed elevated excretion of 3-MCG and 3-HIVA, suggesting MCC deficiency. High-dose biotin therapy was associated with a dramatic reduction in seizures, normalization of the electroencephalogram, and correction of the organic aciduria, within 4 weeks. MCC activity in fibroblasts was 25% of normal levels. The second patient, a newborn detected by tandem-mass-spectrometry newborn screening, displayed the same biochemical phenotype and remained asymptomatic with biotin up to the age of 18 months. In both patients, sequence analysis of the complete open reading frames of MCCA and MCCB revealed heterozygosity for MCCA-R385S and for the known polymorphic variant MCCA-P464H but revealed no other coding alterations. MCCA-R385S is unusual, in that it has a normal amount of MCCα protein but confers no MCC activity. We show that MCCA-R385S, but not other MCCA missense alleles, reduces the MCC activity of cotransfected MCCA–wild-type allele. Our results suggest that MCCA-R385S is a dominant negative allele and is biotin responsive in vivo. PMID:15359379

  1. Polymerase chain displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire L; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma J; Olson, Ken E; Alphey, Luke; Fu, Guoliang

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative PCR assays are now the standard method for viral diagnostics. These assays must be specific, as well as sensitive, to detect the potentially low starting copy number of viral genomic material. We describe a new technique, polymerase chain displacement reaction (PCDR), which uses multiple nested primers in a rapid, capped, one-tube reaction that increases the sensitivity of normal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Sensitivity was increased by approximately 10-fold in a proof-of-principle test on dengue virus sequence. In PCDR, when extension occurs from the outer primer, it displaces the extension strand produced from the inner primer by utilizing a polymerase that has strand displacement activity. This allows a greater than 2-fold increase of amplification product for each amplification cycle and therefore increased sensitivity and speed over conventional PCR. Increased sensitivity in PCDR would be useful in nucleic acid detection for viral diagnostics. PMID:23384180

  2. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, M. Mansoor; Salahuddin, Mir; Mantoo, Imtiyaz A.; Adil, Sheikh; Jalal, Henna; Pal, M. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating) and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level. PMID:27057103

  3. The Exosome Component Rrp6 Is Required for RNA Polymerase II Termination at Specific Targets of the Nrd1-Nab3 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Melanie J.; Gao, Hongyu; Smith-Kinnaman, Whitney R.; Liu, Yunlong; Mosley, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    The exosome and its nuclear specific subunit Rrp6 form a 3’-5’ exonuclease complex that regulates diverse aspects of RNA biology including 3’ end processing and degradation of a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and unstable transcripts. Known targets of the nuclear exosome include short (<1000 bp) RNAPII transcripts such as small noncoding RNAs (snRNAs), cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs), and some stable unannotated transcripts (SUTs) that are terminated by an Nrd1, Nab3, and Sen1 (NNS) dependent mechanism. NNS-dependent termination is coupled to RNA 3’ end processing and/or degradation by the Rrp6/exosome in yeast. Recent work suggests Nrd1 is necessary for transcriptome surveillance, regulating promoter directionality and suppressing antisense transcription independently of, or prior to, Rrp6 activity. It remains unclear whether Rrp6 is directly involved in termination; however, Rrp6 has been implicated in the 3’ end processing and degradation of ncRNA transcripts including CUTs. To determine the role of Rrp6 in NNS termination globally, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on total RNA and perform ChIP-exo analysis of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) localization. Deletion of RRP6 promotes hyper-elongation of multiple NNS-dependent transcripts resulting from both improperly processed 3’ RNA ends and faulty transcript termination at specific target genes. The defects in RNAPII termination cause transcriptome-wide changes in mRNA expression through transcription interference and/or antisense repression, similar to previously reported effects of depleting Nrd1 from the nucleus. Elongated transcripts were identified within all classes of known NNS targets with the largest changes in transcription termination occurring at CUTs. Interestingly, the extended transcripts that we have detected in our studies show remarkable similarity to Nrd1-unterminated transcripts at many locations, suggesting that Rrp6 acts with the NNS complex globally to promote

  4. Characterization of elongating T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases and their response to a roadblock generated by a site-specific DNA binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Pavco, P A; Steege, D A

    1991-01-01

    As a means of generating homogeneous populations of elongation complexes with the RNA polymerases encoded by phages T7 and SP6, transcription has been carried out in vitro on templates associated with the Gln-111 mutant of EcoRI endonuclease. The Gln-111 protein, as a result of a single amino acid substitution at position 111, lacks cleavage function yet shows higher than wild-type affinity for the EcoRI recognition sequence GAATTC. On a series of linear and circular templates associated with Gln-111 protein, blockage of the phage RNA polymerase elongation complex is observed. The 3' endpoint of the major blocked-length RNA species, just 3 bp upstream from the GAATTC, reveals an extremely close approach of polymerase's leading edge to essential contacts between Gln-111 protein and its binding site. In contrast to E. coli RNA polymerase, which is blocked stably and quantitatively by Gln-111 protein (Pavco, P.A. and Steege, D. A. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 9960-9969), the phage polymerases show substantial levels of readthrough transcription beyond the protein block. Images PMID:1891355

  5. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Hayano, Takahide; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Omer, Waleed H; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Akihito; Kurose, Keisuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Akira, Shigeo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2016-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human complex disorders. However, functional characterization of the disease-associated SNPs remains a formidable challenge. Here we explored regulatory mechanism of a SNP on chromosome 9p21 associated with endometriosis by leveraging "allele-specific" functional genomic approaches. By re-sequencing 1.29 Mb of 9p21 region and scrutinizing DNase-seq data from the ENCODE project, we prioritized rs17761446 as a candidate functional variant that was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the original GWAS SNP (rs10965235) and located on DNase I hypersensitive site. Chromosome conformation capture followed by high-throughput sequencing revealed that the protective G allele of rs17761446 exerted stronger chromatin interaction with ANRIL promoter. We demonstrated that the protective allele exhibited preferential binding affinities to TCF7L2 and EP300 by bioinformatics and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. ChIP assays for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and RNA polymerase II reinforced the enhancer activity of the SNP site. The allele specific expression analysis for eutopic endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cell lines showed that rs17761446 was a cis-regulatory variant where G allele was associated with increased ANRIL expression. Our work illuminates the allelic imbalances in a series of transcriptional regulation from factor binding to gene expression mediated by chromatin interaction underlie the molecular mechanism of 9p21 endometriosis risk locus. Functional genomics on common disease will unlock functional aspect of genotype-phenotype correlations in the post-GWAS stage. PMID:27055116

  6. Generation of single-stranded DNA by the polymerase chain reaction and its application to direct sequencing of the HLA-DQA locus.

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, U B; Erlich, H A

    1988-01-01

    Single-copy sequences can be enzymatically amplified from genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. By using unequal molar amounts of the two amplification primers, it is possible in a single step to amplify a single-copy gene and produce an excess of single-stranded DNA of a chosen strand for direct sequencing or for use as a hybridization probe. Further, individual alleles in a heterozygote can be sequenced directly by using allele-specific oligonucleotides either in the amplification reaction or as sequencing primers. By using these methods, we have studied the allelic diversity at the HLA-DQA locus and its association with the serologically defined HLA-DR and -DQ types. This analysis has revealed a total of eight alleles and three additional haplotypes. This procedure has wide applications in screening for mutations in human genes and facilitates the linking of enzymatic amplification of genes to automated sequencing. Images PMID:3174659

  7. Polymerase ε (POLE) ultra-mutated tumors induce robust tumor-specific CD4+ T cell responses in endometrial cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bellone, Stefania; Centritto, Floriana; Black, Jonathan; Schwab, Carlton; English, Diana; Cocco, Emiliano; Lopez, Salvatore; Bonazzoli, Elena; Predolini, Federica; Ferrari, Francesca; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Ratner, Elena; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E.; Santin, Alessandro D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Around 7–10% of endometrial carcinomas are characterized by Polymerase-ε-(POLE) exonuclease-domain-mutations, an ultra-mutated-phenotype and a favorable prognosis. It is currently unknown whether POLE ultra-mutated-tumors are more immunogenic when compared to the other groups of endometrial cancers. Methods We used autologous-dendritic-cells (DC) pulsed with whole-tumor-extracts to assess the level of CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell-activation induced by POLE-ultramutated (+) and POLE wild-type (−) endometrial cancer cells in vitro. T-lymphocyte-proliferations were evaluated using CFSE and/or [3H]thymidine-incorporation-assays while the ability to specifically kill autologous-tumor-cells by cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) was tested in standard 4-hr-51Cr-cytotoxicity-assays. In order to correlate cytotoxic activity and proliferation by CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, respectively, with a particular lymphoid subset, two-color-flow-cytometric analysis of intracellular-cytokine-expression (IFN-γ vs IL-4) at the single cell level, was also performed. Results DC-pulsed with tumor extracts were able to induce CTL-responses against autologous-tumor-cells in both POLE (+) and POLE (−) cancer patients (P=0.305). These CD8+ T-cell-populations were cytotoxic against tumor-cells but they did not lyse PHA-stimulated-autologous-lymphocytes or autologous-EBV-transformed-lymphoblastoid-control-cell-lines. In contrast, only POLE (+) tumor-lysate-pulsed-DC were able to induce significant proliferation and high IFN-γ expression (i.e., Th1-cytokine-bias) in autologous in vitro DC-stimulated CD4+ T-cells as well as naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells from patients-peripheral-blood (P < 0.05). Conclusions POLE ultra-mutated-tumors are significantly more immunogenic when compared to POLE (−) tumors, in particular to the helper arm of the immune system. These data lend support to the hypothesis that the better prognosis of patients with POLE (+) tumors may at least in part be linked to their

  8. Relationship between HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms and familial aggregations of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, S.; Wu, J.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, L.; Ning, Q.; Hu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms and familial aggregation of hepatocellular carcinoma (fhcc). Methods Polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers were used to determine HLA-DRB1 genotypes for 130 members of families with 2 or more liver cancer patients and for 130 members of families without any diagnosed cancers. The genotype profiles were then compared to explore the relationship between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and fhcc. Result Of 11 selected alleles, the frequencies of DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 were significantly lower in the fhcc group than in no-cancer group (p < 0.05; odds ratio: 0.286; 95% confidence interval: 0.091 to 0.901; and odds ratio: 0.493; 95% confidence interval: 0.292 to 0.893). Differences in the frequencies of the other 9 alleles were not statistically significant in the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Our research suggests that if genetic factors play a role in fhcc, the deficiency in the DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles might be the risk factor at work in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, P.R.C. PMID:26966407

  9. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starska, Katarzyna; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina; Aleksandrowicz, Paweł; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; and others

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.

  10. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Hayano, Takahide; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Omer, Waleed H; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Akihito; Kurose, Keisuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Akira, Shigeo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human complex disorders. However, functional characterization of the disease-associated SNPs remains a formidable challenge. Here we explored regulatory mechanism of a SNP on chromosome 9p21 associated with endometriosis by leveraging “allele-specific” functional genomic approaches. By re-sequencing 1.29 Mb of 9p21 region and scrutinizing DNase-seq data from the ENCODE project, we prioritized rs17761446 as a candidate functional variant that was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the original GWAS SNP (rs10965235) and located on DNase I hypersensitive site. Chromosome conformation capture followed by high-throughput sequencing revealed that the protective G allele of rs17761446 exerted stronger chromatin interaction with ANRIL promoter. We demonstrated that the protective allele exhibited preferential binding affinities to TCF7L2 and EP300 by bioinformatics and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. ChIP assays for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and RNA polymerase II reinforced the enhancer activity of the SNP site. The allele specific expression analysis for eutopic endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cell lines showed that rs17761446 was a cis-regulatory variant where G allele was associated with increased ANRIL expression. Our work illuminates the allelic imbalances in a series of transcriptional regulation from factor binding to gene expression mediated by chromatin interaction underlie the molecular mechanism of 9p21 endometriosis risk locus. Functional genomics on common disease will unlock functional aspect of genotype-phenotype correlations in the post-GWAS stage. PMID:27055116

  11. Susceptible and protective associations of HLA DRB1*/DQB1* alleles and haplotypes with ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Murali, V; Rathika, C; Ramgopal, S; Padma Malini, R; Arun Kumar, M J; Neethi Arasu, V; Jeyaram Illiayaraja, K; Balakrishnan, K

    2016-06-01

    Stroke has emerged as the second commonest cause of mortality worldwide and is a major public health problem. For the first time, we present here the association of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*/DQB1* alleles and haplotypes with ischaemic stroke in South Indian patients. Ischaemic stroke (IS) cases and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*/DQB1* alleles by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method. The frequencies of HLA class II alleles such as DRB1*04, DRB1*07, DRB1*11, DRB1*12, DRB1*13, DQB1*02 and DQB1*07 were high in IS patients than in the age- and gender-matched controls, suggesting that the individuals with these alleles are susceptible to ischaemic stroke in South India. The frequencies of alleles such as DRB1*03, DRB1*10, DRB1*14, DQB1*04 and DQB1*05 were less in IS cases than in the controls, suggesting a protective association. Haplotypes DRB1*04-DQB1*0301, DRB1*07-DQB1*02, DRB1*07-DQB1*0301, DRB1*11-DQB1*0301 and DRB1*13-DQB1*06 were found to be high in IS patients conferring susceptibility. The frequency of haplotype DRB1*10-DQB1*05 was high in controls conferring protection. IS-LVD and gender-stratified analysis too confirmed these susceptible and protective associations. Thus, HLA-DRB1*/DQB1* alleles and haplotypes strongly predispose South Indian population to ischaemic stroke. Further studies in different populations with large sample size or the meta-analysis are needed to explain the exact mechanism of associations of HLA gene(s) with IS. PMID:27105925

  12. Genetic exploration of interactive domains in RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Okamura, S; Young, R

    1990-01-01

    The two large subunits of RNA polymerase II, RPB1 and RPB2, contain regions of extensive homology to the two large subunits of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These homologous regions may represent separate protein domains with unique functions. We investigated whether suppressor genetics could provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of RPB1 and RPB2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A plasmid shuffle method was used to screen thoroughly for mutations in RPB2 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb1-1, which is located in region H of RPB1. All six RPB2 mutations that suppress rpb1-1 were clustered in region I of RPB2. The location of these mutations and the observation that they were allele specific for suppression of rpb1-1 suggests an interaction between region H of RPB1 and region I of RPB2. A similar experiment was done to isolate and map mutations in RPB1 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb2-2, which occurs in region I of RPB2. These suppressor mutations were not clustered in a particular region. Thus, fine structure suppressor genetics can provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of two proteins, but the results of this type of analysis can depend on the conditional mutation to be suppressed. Images PMID:2183012

  13. Clonal Ordering of 17p and 5q Allelic Losses in Barrett Dysplasia and Adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, Patricia L.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Yin, Jing; Huang, Ying; Krasna, Mark J.; Reid, Brian J.

    1993-04-01

    Both 17p and 5q allelic losses appear to be involved in the pathogenesis or progression of many human solid tumors. In colon carcinogenesis, there is strong evidence that the targets of the 17p and 5q allelic losses are TP53, the gene encoding p53, and APC, respectively. It is widely accepted that 5q allelic losses precede 17p allelic losses in the progression to colonic carcinoma. The data, however, supporting this proposed order are largely based on the prevalence of 17p and 5q allelic losses in adenomas and unrelated adenocarcinomas from different patients. We investigated the order in which 17p and 5q allelic losses developed during neoplastic progression in Barrett esophagus by evaluating multiple aneuploid cell populations from the same patient. Using DNA content flow cytometric cell sorting and polymerase chain reaction, 38 aneuploid cell populations from 14 patients with Barrett esophagus who had high grade dysplasia, cancer or both were evaluated for 17p and 5q allelic losses. 17p allelic losses preceded 5q allelic losses in 7 patients, both 17p and 5q allelic losses were present in all aneuploid populations of 4 patients, and only 17p (without 5q) allelic losses were present in the aneuploid populations of 3 patients. In no patient did we find that a 5q allelic loss preceded a 17p allelic loss. Our data suggest that 17p allelic losses typically occur before 5q allelic losses during neoplastic progression in Barrett esophagus.

  14. JAK2V617F allele burden in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Alshemmari, Salem H; Rajaan, Reshmi; Ameen, Reem; Al-Drees, Mohammad A; Almosailleakh, Marwa R

    2014-05-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal malignant diseases that represent a group of conditions including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF). The JAK2-V617F mutation is prevalent in almost all patients with MPNs and has become a valuable biomarker for diagnosis of MPNs. A different allele burden in these entities has long been noticed. The aim of our study was to assess the JAK2 allele burden in our JAK2V617F positive cases and its association with phenotype if any and to select a simple, sensitive assay for use in our clinical molecular diagnostic laboratory. Methodologies reported in this literature include amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). We analyzed 174 cases by RQ-PCR for the quantification of JAK2V617F were initially screened by ARMS-PCR. We found that V617F allele burden in the entire population of patients was 73 % ranging from 0.97 to 95 %. The median V617F allele burden in PV patients was 40 %, MF was 95 %, and ET was 25 %. ARMS-PCR and RQ-PCR were proven to be sensitive since ARMS-PCR is a qualitative method; it can be used to screen JAK2V617F mutation and RQ-PCR was used to quantify the V617F cells. Our study suggests that JAK2V617F positivity is associated with MPNs, and its allele burden is an excellent diagnostic marker for disease subtypes, prognosis, disease phenotype and complication, and evolution. The data indicates that ARMS-PCR is simple and can be easily performed for the primary screening of JAK2V617F mutation, and RQ-PCR is sensitive enough to detect low mutant allele levels (>10 %), specific enough not to produce false positive results, and can be performed for the JAK2V617F allele burden quantification. PMID:24362471

  15. Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2011-08-01

    In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

  16. A Screen for Modifiers of Cilia Phenotypes Reveals Novel MKS Alleles and Uncovers a Specific Genetic Interaction between osm-3 and nphp-4.

    PubMed

    Masyukova, Svetlana V; Landis, Dawn E; Henke, Scott J; Williams, Corey L; Pieczynski, Jay N; Roszczynialski, Kelly N; Covington, Jannese E; Malarkey, Erik B; Yoder, Bradley K

    2016-02-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is a ciliopathy in which genetic modifiers may underlie the variable penetrance of clinical features. To identify modifiers, a screen was conducted on C. elegans nphp-4(tm925) mutants. Mutations in ten loci exacerbating nphp-4(tm925) ciliary defects were obtained. Four loci have been identified, three of which are established ciliopathy genes mks-1, mks-2, and mks-5. The fourth allele (yhw66) is a missense mutation (S316F) in OSM-3, a kinesin required for cilia distal segment assembly. While osm-3(yhw66) mutants alone have no overt cilia phenotype, nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants lack distal segments and are dye-filling (Dyf) and osmotic avoidance (Osm) defective, similar to osm-3(mn357) null mutants. In osm-3(yhw66) mutants anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) velocity is reduced. Furthermore, expression of OSM-3(S316F)::GFP reduced IFT velocities in nphp-4(tm925) mutants, but not in wild type animals. In silico analysis indicates the S316F mutation may affect a phosphorylation site. Putative phospho-null OSM-3(S316F) and phospho-mimetic OSM-3(S316D) proteins accumulate at the cilia base and tip respectively. FRAP analysis indicates that the cilia entry rate of OSM-3(S316F) is slower than OSM-3 and that in the presence of OSM-3(S316F), OSM-3 and OSM-3(S316D) rates decrease. In the presence OSM-3::GFP or OSM-3(S316D)::GFP, OSM-3(S316F)::tdTomato redistributes along the cilium and accumulates in the cilia tip. OSM-3(S316F) and OSM-3(S316D) are functional as they restore cilia distal segment formation in osm-3(mn357) null mutants; however, only OSM-3(S316F) rescues the osm-3(mn357) null Dyf phenotype. Despite rescue of cilia length in osm-3(mn357) null mutants, neither OSM-3(S316F) nor OSM-3(S316D) restores ciliary defects in nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants. Thus, these OSM-3 mutations cause NPHP-4 dependent and independent phenotypes. These data indicate that in addition to regulating cilia protein entry or exit

  17. A Screen for Modifiers of Cilia Phenotypes Reveals Novel MKS Alleles and Uncovers a Specific Genetic Interaction between osm-3 and nphp-4

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Corey L.; Pieczynski, Jay N.; Roszczynialski, Kelly N.; Covington, Jannese E.; Malarkey, Erik B.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is a ciliopathy in which genetic modifiers may underlie the variable penetrance of clinical features. To identify modifiers, a screen was conducted on C. elegans nphp-4(tm925) mutants. Mutations in ten loci exacerbating nphp-4(tm925) ciliary defects were obtained. Four loci have been identified, three of which are established ciliopathy genes mks-1, mks-2, and mks-5. The fourth allele (yhw66) is a missense mutation (S316F) in OSM-3, a kinesin required for cilia distal segment assembly. While osm-3(yhw66) mutants alone have no overt cilia phenotype, nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants lack distal segments and are dye-filling (Dyf) and osmotic avoidance (Osm) defective, similar to osm-3(mn357) null mutants. In osm-3(yhw66) mutants anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) velocity is reduced. Furthermore, expression of OSM-3(S316F)::GFP reduced IFT velocities in nphp-4(tm925) mutants, but not in wild type animals. In silico analysis indicates the S316F mutation may affect a phosphorylation site. Putative phospho-null OSM-3(S316F) and phospho-mimetic OSM-3(S316D) proteins accumulate at the cilia base and tip respectively. FRAP analysis indicates that the cilia entry rate of OSM-3(S316F) is slower than OSM-3 and that in the presence of OSM-3(S316F), OSM-3 and OSM-3(S316D) rates decrease. In the presence OSM-3::GFP or OSM-3(S316D)::GFP, OSM-3(S316F)::tdTomato redistributes along the cilium and accumulates in the cilia tip. OSM-3(S316F) and OSM-3(S316D) are functional as they restore cilia distal segment formation in osm-3(mn357) null mutants; however, only OSM-3(S316F) rescues the osm-3(mn357) null Dyf phenotype. Despite rescue of cilia length in osm-3(mn357) null mutants, neither OSM-3(S316F) nor OSM-3(S316D) restores ciliary defects in nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants. Thus, these OSM-3 mutations cause NPHP-4 dependent and independent phenotypes. These data indicate that in addition to regulating cilia protein entry or exit

  18. Using Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction to Detect Single-Nucleotide Substitutions Induced by Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Chan, Amanda H; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    This protocol is designed to detect single-nucleotide substitutions generated by genome editing in a highly sensitive and quantitative manner. It uses a combination of allele-specific hydrolysis probes and a new digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) technology called droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). ddPCR partitions a reaction into more than 10,000 nanoliter-scale water-in-oil droplets. As a result, each droplet contains only a few copies of the genome so that ddPCR is able to detect rare genome-editing events without missing them. PMID:27250210

  19. T7-RNA Polymerase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    T7-RNA Polymerase grown on STS-81. Structure-Function Relationships of RNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of RNA, a process known as transcription. Principal Investigator's include Dr. Dan Carter, Dr. B.C. Wang, and Dr. John Rose of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  20. Analysis of BRCA2 loss of heterozygosity in tumor tissue using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Rory L; Cravero, Karen; Chu, David; Erlanger, Bracha; Toro, Patricia Valda; Beaver, Julia A; Zabransky, Daniel J; Wong, Hong Yuen; Cidado, Justin; Croessmann, Sarah; Parsons, Heather A; Kim, Minsoo; Wheelan, Sarah J; Argani, Pedram; Park, Ben Ho

    2014-07-01

    Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of archival tumor tissue can aid in determining the clinical significance of BRCA variants. Here we describe an approach for assessing LOH in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues using variant-specific probes and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). We evaluated LOH in 2 related breast cancer patients harboring a rare missense BRCA2 variant of unknown clinical significance (c.6966G>T; M2322I). Conventional PCR followed by Sanger sequencing suggested a change in allelic abundance in the FFPE specimens. However, we found no evidence of LOH as determined by the allelic ratio (wild type-variant) for BRCA2 in both patients' archival tumor specimens and adjacent normal control tissues using ddPCR. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the utility of ddPCR to quickly and accurately assess LOH in archival FFPE tumor tissue. PMID:24824029

  1. PrimerSNP: a web tool for whole-genome selection of allele-specific and common primers of phylogenetically-related bacterial genomic sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing number of genomic sequences of bacteria makes it possible to select unique SNPs of a particular strain/species at the whole genome level and thus design specific primers based on the SNPs. The high similarity of genomic sequences among phylogenetically-related bacteria requires the id...

  2. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J.; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP. PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (−)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (−)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  3. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-05-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (-)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (-)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  4. Molecular analysis of human leukocyte antigen class I and class II allele frequencies and haplotype distribution in Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Moatter, T.; Aban, M.; Tabassum, S.; Shaikh, U.; Pervez, S.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: Distribution of HLA class I and II alleles and haplotype was studied in Pakistani population and compared with the data reported for Caucasoid, Africans, Orientals and Arab populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HLA class I and II polymorphisms in 1000 unrelated Pakistani individuals was studied using sequence-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction and assay. RESULTS: The most frequent class I alleles observed were A*02, B*35 and CW*07, with frequencies of 19.2, 13.7 and 20%, respectively. Fifteen distinct HLA-DRB1 alleles and eight HLA-DQB1 alleles were recognized. The most frequently observed DRB1 alleles which represented more than 60% of the subjects were DRB1 *03, *07, *11 and *15. The rare DRB1 alleles detected in this study were HLADRB1 *08 and *09, having frequencies of 0.9 and 1.7%, respectively. In addition, at DRB1-DQB1 loci there were 179 different haplotypes and 285 unique genotypes and the most common haplotype was DRB1*15-DQB1*06 which represented 17% of the total DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes. In our population, haplotype A*33-B*58-Cw*03 comprised 2.8% of the total class I haplotypes observed. This haplotype was seen only in the oriental populations and has not been reported in the African or European Caucasoid. CONCLUSION: Our study showed a close similarity of HLA class I and II alleles with that of European Caucasoid and Orientals. In Pakistani population, two rare loci and three haplotypes were identified, whereas haplotypes characteristic of Caucasians, Africans and Orientals were also found, suggesting an admixture of different races due to migration to and from this region. PMID:21206703

  5. The different positioning of the proximal sequence element in the Xenopus RNA polymerase II and III snRNA promoters is a key determinant which confers RNA polymerase III specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Lescure, A; Carbon, P; Krol, A

    1991-01-01

    We and others have previously described the TATA motif as a major determinant for Pol III specificity of the U6 promoter. Surprisingly, however, the data documented here show that the sole introduction of a TATA sequence into a U1 Pol II snRNA gene is not sufficient to confer Pol III transcription. Rather, this promoter element can mediate optimal Pol III transcription only if the PSE, the second promoter element, is shifted 4 bp upstream of the position it occupies in Pol II snRNA genes. As a result, the PSE-TATA-start site spacing introduced into the U1 Pol II gene is identical to that of the U6 gene and is strictly required to produce properly initiated Pol III transcripts. Thus, Pol II and Pol III PSEs, although similar in sequence, are not positionally equivalent. Competitive experiments raise the possibility that vertebrate U6 genes contain other, as yet unidentified, promoter elements. Images PMID:2011518

  6. Phosphorylation of the group A Streptococcal CovR response regulator causes dimerization and promoter-specific recruitment by RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Gusa, Asiya A; Gao, Jinxin; Stringer, Virginia; Churchward, Gordon; Scott, June R

    2006-07-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS), Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen that causes infections ranging in severity from self-limiting pharyngitis to severe invasive diseases that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenic effects of GAS are mediated by the expression of virulence factors, one of which is the hyaluronic acid capsule (encoded by genes in the has operon). The expression of these virulence factors is controlled by the CovR/S (CsrR/S) two-component regulatory system of GAS which regulates, directly or indirectly, the expression of about 15% of the genome. CovR is a member of the OmpR/PhoB family of transcriptional regulators. Here we show that phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate results in dimerization of CovR. Dimerization was not observed using a D53A mutant of CovR, indicating that D53 is the site of phosphorylation in CovR. Phosphorylation stimulated binding of CovR to a DNA fragment containing the promoter of the has operon (Phas) approximately twofold. Binding of CovR D53A mutant protein to Phas was indistinguishable from the binding of wild-type unphosphorylated CovR. In vitro transcription, using purified GAS RNA polymerase, showed that wild-type CovR repressed transcription, and repression was stimulated more than sixfold by phosphorylation. In the presence of RNA polymerase, binding at Phas of phosphorylated, but not unphosphorylated, CovR was stimulated about fourfold, which accounts for the difference in the effect of phosphorylation on repression versus DNA binding. Thus, regulation of Phas by CovR is direct, and the degree of repression of Phas is controlled by the phosphorylation of CovR. PMID:16788170

  7. The Non-coding Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility Locus, Mcs5c, Regulates Pappa Expression via Age-Specific Chromatin Folding and Allele-Dependent DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Amanda N.; Haag, Jill D.; Smits, Bart M. G.; Gould, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    In understanding the etiology of breast cancer, the contributions of both genetic and environmental risk factors are further complicated by the impact of breast developmental stage. Specifically, the time period ranging from childhood to young adulthood represents a critical developmental window in a woman’s life when she is more susceptible to environmental hazards that may affect future breast cancer risk. Although the effects of environmental exposures during particular developmental Windows of Susceptibility (WOS) are well documented, the genetic mechanisms governing these interactions are largely unknown. Functional characterization of the Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility 5c, Mcs5c, congenic rat model of breast cancer at various stages of mammary gland development was conducted to gain insight into the interplay between genetic risk factors and WOS. Using quantitative real-time PCR, chromosome conformation capture, and bisulfite pyrosequencing we have found that Mcs5c acts within the mammary gland to regulate expression of the neighboring gene Pappa during a critical mammary developmental time period in the rat, corresponding to the human young adult WOS. Pappa has been shown to positively regulate the IGF signaling pathway, which is required for proper mammary gland/breast development and is of increasing interest in breast cancer pathogenesis. Mcs5c-mediated regulation of Pappa appears to occur through age-dependent and mammary gland-specific chromatin looping, as well as genotype-dependent CpG island shore methylation. This represents, to our knowledge, the first insight into cellular mechanisms underlying the WOS phenomenon and demonstrates the influence developmental stage can have on risk locus functionality. Additionally, this work represents a novel model for further investigation into how environmental factors, together with genetic factors, modulate breast cancer risk in the context of breast developmental stage. PMID:27537370

  8. The Non-coding Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility Locus, Mcs5c, Regulates Pappa Expression via Age-Specific Chromatin Folding and Allele-Dependent DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Henning, Amanda N; Haag, Jill D; Smits, Bart M G; Gould, Michael N

    2016-08-01

    In understanding the etiology of breast cancer, the contributions of both genetic and environmental risk factors are further complicated by the impact of breast developmental stage. Specifically, the time period ranging from childhood to young adulthood represents a critical developmental window in a woman's life when she is more susceptible to environmental hazards that may affect future breast cancer risk. Although the effects of environmental exposures during particular developmental Windows of Susceptibility (WOS) are well documented, the genetic mechanisms governing these interactions are largely unknown. Functional characterization of the Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility 5c, Mcs5c, congenic rat model of breast cancer at various stages of mammary gland development was conducted to gain insight into the interplay between genetic risk factors and WOS. Using quantitative real-time PCR, chromosome conformation capture, and bisulfite pyrosequencing we have found that Mcs5c acts within the mammary gland to regulate expression of the neighboring gene Pappa during a critical mammary developmental time period in the rat, corresponding to the human young adult WOS. Pappa has been shown to positively regulate the IGF signaling pathway, which is required for proper mammary gland/breast development and is of increasing interest in breast cancer pathogenesis. Mcs5c-mediated regulation of Pappa appears to occur through age-dependent and mammary gland-specific chromatin looping, as well as genotype-dependent CpG island shore methylation. This represents, to our knowledge, the first insight into cellular mechanisms underlying the WOS phenomenon and demonstrates the influence developmental stage can have on risk locus functionality. Additionally, this work represents a novel model for further investigation into how environmental factors, together with genetic factors, modulate breast cancer risk in the context of breast developmental stage. PMID:27537370

  9. Allele-Specific Induction of IL-1β Expression by C/EBPβ and PU.1 Contributes to Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoliang; Zhou, Boping; Li, Shaoyuan; Yue, Jun; Yang, Hui; Wen, Yuxin; Zhan, Senlin; Wang, Wenfei; Liao, Mingfeng; Zhang, Mingxia; Zeng, Gucheng; Feng, Carl G.; Sassetti, Christopher M.; Chen, Xinchun

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is associated with a spectrum of clinical outcomes, from long-term latent infection to different manifestations of progressive disease. Pro-inflammatory pathways, such as those controlled by IL-1β, have the contrasting potential both to prevent disease by restricting bacterial replication, and to promote disease by inflicting tissue damage. Thus, the ultimate contribution of individual inflammatory pathways to the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection remains ambiguous. In this study, we identified a naturally-occurring polymorphism in the human IL1B promoter region, which alters the association of the C/EBPβ and PU.1 transcription factors and controls Mtb-induced IL-1β production. The high-IL-1β expressing genotype was associated with the development of active tuberculosis, the severity of pulmonary disease and poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Higher IL-1β expression did not suppress the activity of IFN-γ-producing T cells, but instead correlated with neutrophil accumulation in the lung. These observations support a specific role for IL-1β and granulocytic inflammation as a driver of TB disease progression in humans, and suggest novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:25329476

  10. DNA Polymerase δ Is Preferentially Recruited during Homologous Recombination To Promote Heteroduplex DNA Extension▿

    PubMed Central

    Maloisel, Laurent; Fabre, Francis; Gangloff, Serge

    2008-01-01

    DNA polymerases play a central role during homologous recombination (HR), but the identity of the enzyme(s) implicated remains elusive. The pol3-ct allele of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase δ (Polδ) has highlighted a role for this polymerase in meiotic HR. We now address the ubiquitous role of Polδ during HR in somatic cells. We find that pol3-ct affects gene conversion tract length during mitotic recombination whether the event is initiated by single-strand gaps following UV irradiation or by site-specific double-strand breaks. We show that the pol3-ct effects on gene conversion are completely independent of mismatch repair, indicating that shorter gene conversion tracts in pol3-ct correspond to shorter extensions of primed DNA synthesis. Interestingly, we find that shorter repair tracts do not favor synthesis-dependent strand annealing at the expense of double-strand-break repair. Finally, we show that the DNA polymerases that have been previously suspected to mediate HR repair synthesis (Polɛ and Polη) do not affect gene conversion during induced HR, including in the pol3-ct background. Our results argue strongly for the preferential recruitment of Polδ during HR. PMID:18086882

  11. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction in an Undergraduate Laboratory to Produce "DNA Fingerprints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Tara L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that demonstrates the sensitivity of the Polymerase Chain Reaction as well as its potential application to forensic analysis during a criminal investigation. Can also be used to introduce, review, and integrate population and molecular genetics topics such as genotypes, multiple alleles, allelic and genotypic…

  12. Interactions between the Werner syndrome helicase and DNA polymerase delta specifically facilitate copying of tetraplex and hairpin structures of the d(CGG)n trinucleotide repeat sequence.

    PubMed

    Kamath-Loeb, A S; Loeb, L A; Johansson, E; Burgers, P M; Fry, M

    2001-05-11

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an inherited disorder characterized by premature aging and genomic instability. The protein encoded by the WS gene, WRN, possesses intrinsic 3' --> 5' DNA helicase and 3' --> 5' DNA exonuclease activities. WRN helicase resolves alternate DNA structures including tetraplex and triplex DNA, and Holliday junctions. Thus, one function of WRN may be to unwind secondary structures that impede cellular DNA transactions. We report here that hairpin and G'2 bimolecular tetraplex structures of the fragile X expanded sequence, d(CGG)(n), effectively impede synthesis by three eukaryotic replicative DNA polymerases (pol): pol alpha, pol delta, and pol epsilon. The constraints imposed on pol delta-catalyzed synthesis are relieved, however, by WRN; WRN facilitates pol delta to traverse these template secondary structures to synthesize full-length DNA products. The alleviatory effect of WRN is limited to pol delta; neither pol alpha nor pol epsilon can traverse template d(CGG)(n) hairpin and tetraplex structures in the presence of WRN. Alleviation of pausing by pol delta is observed with Escherichia coli RecQ but not with UvrD helicase, suggesting a concerted action of RecQ helicases and pol delta. Our findings suggest a possible role of WRN in rescuing pol delta-mediated replication at forks stalled by unusual DNA secondary structures. PMID:11279038

  13. Identification of latent neosporosis in sheep in Tehran, Iran by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the Nc-5 gene.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Mohsen; Abdoli, Amir; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Pirestani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about latent infection and molecular characterisation of Neospora caninum in sheep (Ovis aries). In this study, 330 sheep samples (180 hearts and 150 brains) were analysed for N. caninum DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Nc-5 gene. Neospora caninum DNA was detected in 3.9% (13/330) of sheep samples. The parasite's DNA was detected in 6.7% of heart samples (12/180) and 0.7% (1/150) of brain samples. No clinical signs were recorded from infected or uninfected animals. Sequencing of the genomic DNA revealed 96% - 99% similarity with each other and 95.15% - 100% similarity with N. caninum sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of PCR to identify latent neosporosis in sheep in Iran. The results of this study have the potential to contribute to our understanding of the role of N. caninum-infected sheep in the epidemiology of neosporosis. PMID:27543149

  14. Gynecological Manifestations, Histopathological Findings, and Schistosoma-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Results Among Women With Schistosoma haematobium Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ravaoalimalala, Vololomboahangy Elisabeth; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Feldmeier, Hermann; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; van Lieshout, Lisette; Roald, Borghild; Leutscher, Peter; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    Background. The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Methods. Women aged 15–35 years living in an S. haematobium-endemic area in Madagascar underwent pelvic and colposcopic examinations. Small biopsy specimens were obtained from lesions and examined histopathologically. Schistosoma PCR was done on urine, biopsy, cervicovaginal lavage, and genital mucosal surface specimens. Results. Sandy patches and rubbery papules were found in 41 of 118 women (35%). Rubbery papules reflected an intense cellular immune reaction dominated by eosinophils, epithelial erosion, and viable ova. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of rubbery papules with age, even after adjustment for urinary ova excretion. The sandy patches with grains showed moderate cellular immune reaction and ova (viable and/or calcified). They were most prevalent in cases with low-intensity urinary S. haematobium infection. Forty-two percent of women with Schistosoma-negative urine specimens had at least 1 genital specimen test positive for Schistosoma by PCR. Conclusions. The results indicate a diversity of lesions caused by S. haematobium and a dynamic evolution of the genital lesions. Schistosoma PCR may give an indication of the diagnosis. PMID:25725656

  15. A Sequence-Specific Interaction between the Saccharomyces cerevisiae rRNA Gene Repeats and a Locus Encoding an RNA Polymerase I Subunit Affects Ribosomal DNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Cahyani, Inswasti; Cridge, Andrew G.; Engelke, David R.; Ganley, Austen R. D.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes is linked to their functions. However, how individual features of the global spatial structure contribute to nuclear function remains largely unknown. We previously identified a high-frequency interchromosomal interaction within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome that occurs between the intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats and the intergenic sequence between the locus encoding the second largest RNA polymerase I subunit and a lysine tRNA gene [i.e., RPA135-tK(CUU)P]. Here, we used quantitative chromosome conformation capture in combination with replacement mapping to identify a 75-bp sequence within the RPA135-tK(CUU)P intergenic region that is involved in the interaction. We demonstrate that the RPA135-IGS1 interaction is dependent on the rDNA copy number and the Msn2 protein. Surprisingly, we found that the interaction does not govern RPA135 transcription. Instead, replacement of a 605-bp region within the RPA135-tK(CUU)P intergenic region results in a reduction in the RPA135-IGS1 interaction level and fluctuations in rDNA copy number. We conclude that the chromosomal interaction that occurs between the RPA135-tK(CUU)P and rDNA IGS1 loci stabilizes rDNA repeat number and contributes to the maintenance of nucleolar stability. Our results provide evidence that the DNA loci involved in chromosomal interactions are composite elements, sections of which function in stabilizing the interaction or mediating a functional outcome. PMID:25421713

  16. Analysis of HLA-DQB and HLA-DPB alleles in Graves' disease by oligonucleotide probing of enzymatically amplified DNA.

    PubMed

    Weetman, A P; Zhang, L; Webb, S; Shine, B

    1990-07-01

    We have tested the possible association of HLA-DQB and HLA-DPB alleles with Graves' thyrotoxicosis, with or without severe ophthalmopathy, by polymerase chain amplification of genomic DNA and allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. There was no significantly abnormal distribution of DQB alleles compared to 50 control subjects except for a reduced prevalence of DQw 3.1 in the Graves' patients with severe ophthalmopathy (X2 = 6.23, P less than 0.02). HLA-DPB 2.1/8 was found in only 1 of 40 of these patients compared with 15 of the controls (X2 = 11.49, P less than 0.001). Ten of 48 patients with Graves' disease but without clinically significant eye involvement were HLA-DPB 2.1/8 positive, not significantly different from controls, but significantly different from the ophthalmopathy group (X2 = 6.70, P less than 0.01). The other DPB alleles in both groups of Graves' disease patients were the same as controls. These results suggest that HLA-DPB 2.1/8 may confer a protective effect in Graves' disease with respect to ophthalmopathy. PMID:2401099

  17. Selection of dinB Alleles Suppressing Survival Loss upon dinB Overexpression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Ryan W.; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Rands, Thomas J.; Lin, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains overproducing DinB undergo survival loss; however, the mechanisms regulating this phenotype are poorly understood. Here we report a genetic selection revealing DinB residues essential to effect this loss-of-survival phenotype. The selection uses strains carrying both an antimutator allele of DNA polymerase III (Pol III) α-subunit (dnaE915) and either chromosomal or plasmid-borne dinB alleles. We hypothesized that dnaE915 cells would respond to DinB overproduction differently from dnaE+ cells because the dnaE915 allele is known to have an altered genetic interaction with dinB+ compared to its interaction with dnaE+. Notably, we observe a loss-of-survival phenotype in dnaE915 strains with either a chromosomal catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele or a low-copy-number plasmid-borne dinB+ upon DNA damage treatment. Furthermore, we find that the loss-of-survival phenotype occurs independently of DNA damage treatment in a dnaE915 strain expressing the catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele from a low-copy-number plasmid. The selective pressure imposed resulted in suppressor mutations that eliminated growth defects. The dinB intragenic mutations examined were either base pair substitutions or those that we inferred to be loss of function (i.e., deletions and insertions). Further analyses of selected novel dinB alleles, generated by single-base-pair substitutions in the dnaE915 strain, indicated that these no longer effect loss of survival upon overproduction in dnaE+ strains. These mutations are mapped to specific areas of DinB; this permits us to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the DinB-mediated overproduction loss-of-survival phenotype. PMID:24914188

  18. Quantifying the transcriptional output of single alleles in single living mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Yunger, Sharon; Rosenfeld, Liat; Garini, Yuval; Shav-Tal, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    Transcription kinetics of actively transcribing genes in vivo have generally been measured using tandem gene arrays. However, tandem arrays do not reflect the endogenous state of genome organization where genes appear as single alleles. We present here a robust technique for the quantification of mRNA synthesis from a single allele in real-time, in single living mammalian cells. The protocol describes how to generate cell clones harboring a tagged allele and how to detect in vivo transcription from this tagged allele at high spatial and temporal resolution throughout the cell cycle. Quantification of nascent mRNAs produced from the single tagged allele is performed using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and live-cell imaging. Subsequent analyses and data modeling detailed in the protocol include measurements of: transcription rates of RNA polymerase II; determining the number of polymerases recruited to the tagged allele; and measuring the spacing between polymerases. Generating the cells containing the single tagged alleles should take up to a month; RNA FISH or live-cell imaging will require an additional week. PMID:23424748

  19. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  20. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E.; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  1. Detection of BRAF Mutations Using a Fully Automated Platform and Comparison with High Resolution Melting, Real-Time Allele Specific Amplification, Immunohistochemistry and Next Generation Sequencing Assays, for Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Harlé, Alexandre; Salleron, Julia; Franczak, Claire; Dubois, Cindy; Filhine-Tressarieu, Pierre; Leroux, Agnès; Merlin, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease with one of the highest mortality rate in skin diseases. Overall survival has significantly improved with immunotherapy and targeted therapies. Kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF V600 showed promising results. BRAF genotyping is mandatory for the prescription of anti-BRAF therapies. Methods Fifty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma samples were assessed using High-Resolution-Melting (HRM) PCR, Real-time allele-specific amplification (RT-ASA) PCR, Next generation sequencing (NGS), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the fully-automated molecular diagnostics platform IdyllaTM. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated using NGS as the reference standard to compare the different assays. Results BRAF mutations were found in 28(47.5%), 29(49.2%), 31(52.5%), 29(49.2%) and 27(45.8%) samples with HRM, RT-ASA, NGS, IdyllaTM and IHC respectively. Twenty-six (81.2%) samples were found bearing a c.1799T>A (p.Val600Glu) mutation, three (9.4%) with a c.1798_1799delinsAA (p.Val600Lys) mutation and one with c.1789_1790delinsTC (p.Leu597Ser) mutation. Two samples were found bearing complex mutations. Conclusions HRM appears the less sensitive assay for the detection of BRAF V600 mutations. The RT-ASA, IdyllaTM and IHC assays are suitable for routine molecular diagnostics aiming at the prescription of anti-BRAF therapies. IdyllaTM assay is fully-automated and requires less than 2 minutes for samples preparation and is the fastest of the tested assays. PMID:27111917

  2. Apolipoprotein E alleles in women with severe pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, B; Rigó, J; Fintor, L; Karádi, I; Tóth, T

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency of apolipoprotein E (apoE) alleles among women with severe pre-eclampsia. The presence of the three most common apoE alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, epsilon 4) was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in three groups of white women: non-pregnant healthy (n = 101), pregnant healthy (n = 52), and pregnant with a diagnosis of severe pre-eclampsia (n = 54). The frequency of apo epsilon 2 was highest among women with severe pre-eclampsia (16.6%) followed by non-pregnant women (12.9%), and those experiencing a healthy pregnancy (10.6%). The higher frequency of the apo epsilon 2 allele detected among women with severe pre-eclampsia suggests that apoE may play a role in the development of pre-eclampsia. PMID:9659248

  3. Suppressor analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a suppressor gene encodes the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Nomura, M

    1991-01-01

    The SRP3-1 mutation is an allele-specific suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two mutations known to be suppressed by SRP3-1 are in the putative zinc-binding domain of A190. We have cloned the SRP3 gene by using its suppressor activity and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. We conclude from the following evidence that the SRP3 gene encodes the second-largest subunit (A135) of RNA polymerase I. First, the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product contains several regions with high homology to the corresponding regions of the second-largest subunits of RNA polymerases of various origins, including those of RNA polymerase II and III from S. cerevisiae. Second, the deduced amino acid sequence contains known amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides from the A135 subunit of RNA polymerase I purified from S. cerevisiae. Finally, a strain was constructed in which transcription of the SRP3 gene was controlled by the inducible GAL7 promoter. When this strain, which can grow on galactose but not on glucose, was shifted from galactose medium to glucose medium, a large decrease in the cellular concentration of A135 was observed by Western blot analysis. We have also identified the specific amino acid alteration responsible for suppression by SRP3-1 and found that it is located within the putative zinc-binding domain conserved among the second-largest subunits of eucaryotic RNA polymerases. From these results, it is suggested that this putative zinc-binding domain is in physical proximity to and interacts with the putative zinc-binding domain of the A190 subunit. Images PMID:1990281

  4. In Silico Analysis of the cadF Gene and Development of a Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Species-Specific Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Saeed; Bakhshi, Bita; Tohidi Moghadam, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The cadF gene is considered as a genus-specific gene while other genes are mainly used for discrimination at the species level. Objectives This study aimed to analyze the cadF gene and to develop a duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of C. coli and C. jejuni, the two commonly encountered species. Materials and Methods In silico analysis of the cadF gene was carried out by several software and available online tools. A duplex PCR optimized with specific primers was used for detection and differentiation of both species. To evaluate specificity and sensitivity of the test, a panel of different Campylobacter spp. together with several intestinal bacterial pathogens was tested. The limit of detection (LOD) of method was determined using serial dilutions of standard genomes. Results The analysis of the full size cadF gene indicated variations in this gene, which can be used to differentiate C. jejuni and C. coli. The duplex PCR designed in this study showed that it could simultaneously detect and differentiate both C. jejuni and C. coli with product sizes of 737 bp and 461 bp, respectively. This assay, with 100% specificity and sensitivity, had a limit of detection (LOD) of about 14 and 0.7 µg/mL for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Conclusions In silico analysis of the cadF full-gene showed variations between the two species that can be used as a molecular target for differentiating C. jejuni and C. coli in a single-step duplex-PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:27127589

  5. An improved assay for the determination of Huntington`s disease allele size

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, C.; Klinger, K.; Miller, G.

    1994-09-01

    The hallmark of Huntington`s disease (HD) is the expansion of a polymorphic (CAG)n repeat. Several methods have been published describing PCR amplification of this region. Most of these assays require a complex PCR reaction mixture to amplify this GC-rich region. A consistent problem with trinucleotide repeat PCR amplification is the presence of a number of {open_quotes}stutter bands{close_quotes} which may be caused by primer or amplicon slippage during amplification or insufficient polymerase processivity. Most assays for HD arbitrarily select a particular band for diagnostic purposes. Without a clear choice for band selection such an arbitrary selection may result in inconsistent intra- or inter-laboratory findings. We present an improved protocol for the amplification of the HD trinucleotide repeat region. This method simplifies the PCR reaction buffer and results in a set of easily identifiable bands from which to determine allele size. HD alleles were identified by selecting bands of clearly greater signal intensity. Stutter banding was much reduced thus permitting easy identification of the most relevant PCR product. A second set of primers internal to the CCG polymorphism was used in selected samples to confirm allele size. The mechanism of action of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction is not clear. It may be possible that the minimal isostabilizing effect of N,N,N trimethylglycine at 2.5 M is significant enough to affect primer specificity. The use of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction facilitated identification of HD alleles and may be appropriate for use in other assays of this type.

  6. Development and in-house validation of the event-specific polymerase chain reaction detection methods for genetically modified soybean MON89788 based on the cloned integration flanking sequence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Guo, Jinchao; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Ning; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-11-25

    Various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the execution of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling policies, of which an event-specific PCR detection method based on the flanking sequence of exogenous integration is the primary trend in GMO detection due to its high specificity. In this study, the 5' and 3' flanking sequences of the exogenous integration of MON89788 soybean were revealed by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. The event-specific PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed based upon the revealed 5' flanking sequence, and the qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were established employing these designed primers and probes. In qualitative PCR, the limit of detection (LOD) was about 0.01 ng of genomic DNA corresponding to 10 copies of haploid soybean genomic DNA. In the quantitative PCR assay, the LOD was as low as two haploid genome copies, and the limit of quantification was five haploid genome copies. Furthermore, the developed PCR methods were in-house validated by five researchers, and the validated results indicated that the developed event-specific PCR methods can be used for identification and quantification of MON89788 soybean and its derivates. PMID:19860467

  7. Polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M A; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2010-05-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the identification of meats and commercial meat products from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), partridge (Alectoris spp.), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), pigeon (Columba spp.), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 96, 100, 104, 106, 147, 127, and 154 bp in length for quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock, and song thrush tissues, respectively. The specificity of each primer pair was tested against DNA from various game and domestic species. In this work, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of experimentally pasteurized (72 degrees C for 30 min) and sterilized (121 degrees C for 20 min) meats, as well as in commercial meat products from the target species. The technique was also applied to raw and sterilized muscular binary mixtures, with a detection limit of 0.1% (wt/wt) for each of the targeted species. The proposed PCR assay represents a rapid and straightforward method for the detection of possible mislabeling in game bird meat products. PMID:20371856

  8. Exquisite allele discrimination by toehold hairpin primers

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, Michelle; Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biological samples is an enabling research and clinical tool. We have developed a surprising, inexpensive primer design method that provides exquisite discrimination between SNPs. The field of DNA computation is largely reliant on using so-called toeholds to initiate strand displacement reactions, leading to the execution of kinetically trapped circuits. We have now similarly found that the short toehold sequence to a target of interest can initiate both strand displacement within the hairpin and extension of the primer by a polymerase, both of which will further stabilize the primer:template complex. However, if the short toehold does not bind, neither of these events can readily occur and thus amplification should not occur. Toehold hairpin primers were used to detect drug resistance alleles in two genes, rpoB and katG, in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and ten alleles in the Escherichia coli genome. During real-time PCR, the primers discriminate between mismatched templates with Cq delays that are frequently so large that the presence or absence of mismatches is essentially a ‘yes/no’ answer. PMID:24990378

  9. Segregation of relaxed replicated dimers when DNA ligase and DNA polymerase I are limited during oriC-specific DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, B R; Maier, P G; Greene, R S

    1989-01-01

    An in vitro Escherichia coli oriC-specific DNA replication system was used to investigate the DNA replication pathways of oriC plasmids. When this system was perturbed by the DNA ligase inhibitor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), alterations occurred in the initiation of DNA synthesis and processing of intermediates and DNA products. Addition of high concentrations of NMN soon after initiation resulted in the accumulation of open circular dimers (OC-OC). These dimers were decatenated to open circular monomers (form II or OC), which were then processed to closed circular supercoiled monomers (form I or CC) products. After a delay, limited ligation of the interlinked dimers (OC-OC to CC-OC and CC-CC) also occurred. Similar results were obtained with replication protein extracts from polA mutants. The presence of NMN before any initiation events took place prolonged the existence of nicked template DNA and promoted, without a lag period, limited incorporation into form II molecules. This DNA synthesis was nonspecific with respect to oriC, as judged by DnaA protein dependence, and presumably occurred at nicks in the template DNA. These results are consistent with oriC-specific initiation requiring closed supercoiled molecules dependent on DNA ligase activity. The results also show that decatenation of dimers occurs readily on nicked dimer and represents an efficient pathway for processing replication intermediates in vitro. Images PMID:2544556

  10. Mutated tumor alleles are expressed according to their DNA frequency

    PubMed Central

    Castle, John C.; Loewer, Martin; Boegel, Sebastian; Tadmor, Arbel D.; Boisguerin, Valesca; de Graaf, Jos; Paret, Claudia; Diken, Mustafa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The transcription of tumor mutations from DNA into RNA has implications for biology, epigenetics and clinical practice. It is not clear if mutations are in general transcribed and, if so, at what proportion to the wild-type allele. Here, we examined the correlation between DNA mutation allele frequency and RNA mutation allele frequency. We sequenced the exome and transcriptome of tumor cell lines with large copy number variations, identified heterozygous single nucleotide mutations and absolute DNA copy number, and determined the corresponding DNA and RNA mutation allele fraction. We found that 99% of the DNA mutations in expressed genes are expressed as RNA. Moreover, we found a high correlation between the DNA and RNA mutation allele frequency. Exceptions are mutations that cause premature termination codons and therefore activate nonsense-mediated decay. Beyond this, we did not find evidence of any wide-scale mechanism, such as allele-specific epigenetic silencing, preferentially promoting mutated or wild-type alleles. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that genes are equally transcribed from all alleles, mutated and wild-type, and thus transcribed in proportion to their DNA allele frequency. PMID:24752137

  11. Mutated tumor alleles are expressed according to their DNA frequency.

    PubMed

    Castle, John C; Loewer, Martin; Boegel, Sebastian; Tadmor, Arbel D; Boisguerin, Valesca; de Graaf, Jos; Paret, Claudia; Diken, Mustafa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The transcription of tumor mutations from DNA into RNA has implications for biology, epigenetics and clinical practice. It is not clear if mutations are in general transcribed and, if so, at what proportion to the wild-type allele. Here, we examined the correlation between DNA mutation allele frequency and RNA mutation allele frequency. We sequenced the exome and transcriptome of tumor cell lines with large copy number variations, identified heterozygous single nucleotide mutations and absolute DNA copy number, and determined the corresponding DNA and RNA mutation allele fraction. We found that 99% of the DNA mutations in expressed genes are expressed as RNA. Moreover, we found a high correlation between the DNA and RNA mutation allele frequency. Exceptions are mutations that cause premature termination codons and therefore activate nonsense-mediated decay. Beyond this, we did not find evidence of any wide-scale mechanism, such as allele-specific epigenetic silencing, preferentially promoting mutated or wild-type alleles. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that genes are equally transcribed from all alleles, mutated and wild-type, and thus transcribed in proportion to their DNA allele frequency. PMID:24752137

  12. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles and haplotypes in 951 Southeast Asia Malays from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lay-Kim; Mohd-Farid, Baharin; Salsabil, Sulaiman; Heselynn, Hussein; Wahinuddin, Sulaiman; Lau, Ing-Soo; Gun, Suk-Chyn; Nor-Suhaila, Sharil; Eashwary, M; Mohd-Shahrir, Mohamed Said; Ainon, Mohd-Mokhtar; Azmillah, Rosman; Muhaini, Othman; Shahnaz, Murad; Too, Chun-Lai

    2016-10-01

    A total of 951 Southeast Asia Malays from Peninsular Malaysia were genotyped for HLA-A, -B, -C -DRB1, and -DQB1 loci using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe hybridization methods. In this report, there were significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions for the HLA-A (p<0.0001), -B (p<0.0001), -DRB1 (p<0.0001) and -DQB1 (p<0.01) loci. Minor deviations from HWEP were detected for HLA-C (p=0.01). This genotype data was available in Allele Frequencies Network Database (AFND) Gonzalez-Galarza et al. (2015). PMID:27370684

  13. Allelic Variation in Developmental Genes and Effects on Winter Wheat Heading Date in the U.S. Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Sarah M; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Haley, Scott D; McMaster, Gregory S; Reid, Scott D; Smith, Jared; Byrne, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Heading date in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other small grain cereals is affected by the vernalization and photoperiod pathways. The reduced-height loci also have an effect on growth and development. Heading date, which occurs just prior to anthesis, was evaluated in a population of 299 hard winter wheat entries representative of the U.S. Great Plains region, grown in nine environments during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The germplasm was evaluated for candidate genes at vernalization (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1), photoperiod (Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1), and reduced-height (Rht-B1 and Rht-D1) loci using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays. Our objectives were to determine allelic variants known to affect flowering time, assess the effect of allelic variants on heading date, and investigate changes in the geographic and temporal distribution of alleles and haplotypes. Our analyses enhanced understanding of the roles developmental genes have on the timing of heading date in wheat under varying environmental conditions, which could be used by breeding programs to improve breeding strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The significant main effects and two-way interactions between the candidate genes explained an average of 44% of variability in heading date at each environment. Among the loci we evaluated, most of the variation in heading date was explained by Ppd-D1, Ppd-B1, and their interaction. The prevalence of the photoperiod sensitive alleles Ppd-A1b, Ppd-B1b, and Ppd-D1b has gradually decreased in U.S. Great Plains germplasm over the past century. There is also geographic variation for photoperiod sensitive and reduced-height alleles, with germplasm from breeding programs in the northern Great Plains having greater incidences of the photoperiod sensitive alleles and lower incidence of the semi-dwarf alleles than germplasm from breeding programs in the central or southern plains. PMID:27058239

  14. Allelic Variation in Developmental Genes and Effects on Winter Wheat Heading Date in the U.S. Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Guedira, Gina; Haley, Scott D.; McMaster, Gregory S.; Reid, Scott D.; Smith, Jared; Byrne, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Heading date in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other small grain cereals is affected by the vernalization and photoperiod pathways. The reduced-height loci also have an effect on growth and development. Heading date, which occurs just prior to anthesis, was evaluated in a population of 299 hard winter wheat entries representative of the U.S. Great Plains region, grown in nine environments during 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. The germplasm was evaluated for candidate genes at vernalization (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1), photoperiod (Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1), and reduced-height (Rht-B1 and Rht-D1) loci using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays. Our objectives were to determine allelic variants known to affect flowering time, assess the effect of allelic variants on heading date, and investigate changes in the geographic and temporal distribution of alleles and haplotypes. Our analyses enhanced understanding of the roles developmental genes have on the timing of heading date in wheat under varying environmental conditions, which could be used by breeding programs to improve breeding strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The significant main effects and two-way interactions between the candidate genes explained an average of 44% of variability in heading date at each environment. Among the loci we evaluated, most of the variation in heading date was explained by Ppd-D1, Ppd-B1, and their interaction. The prevalence of the photoperiod sensitive alleles Ppd-A1b, Ppd-B1b, and Ppd-D1b has gradually decreased in U.S. Great Plains germplasm over the past century. There is also geographic variation for photoperiod sensitive and reduced-height alleles, with germplasm from breeding programs in the northern Great Plains having greater incidences of the photoperiod sensitive alleles and lower incidence of the semi-dwarf alleles than germplasm from breeding programs in the central or southern plains. PMID:27058239

  15. Biased Allelic Expression in Human Primary Fibroblast Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Christelle; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Santoni, Federico; Delaneau, Olivier; Fort, Alexandre; Popadin, Konstantin Y.; Garieri, Marco; Falconnet, Emilie; Ribaux, Pascale; Guipponi, Michel; Padioleau, Ismael; Carninci, Piero; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.

    2015-01-01

    The study of gene expression in mammalian single cells via genomic technologies now provides the possibility to investigate the patterns of allelic gene expression. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to detect the allele-specific mRNA level in 203 single human primary fibroblasts over 133,633 unique heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (hetSNVs). We observed that at the snapshot of analyses, each cell contained mostly transcripts from one allele from the majority of genes; indeed, 76.4% of the hetSNVs displayed stochastic monoallelic expression in single cells. Remarkably, adjacent hetSNVs exhibited a haplotype-consistent allelic ratio; in contrast, distant sites located in two different genes were independent of the haplotype structure. Moreover, the allele-specific expression in single cells correlated with the abundance of the cellular transcript. We observed that genes expressing both alleles in the majority of the single cells at a given time point were rare and enriched with highly expressed genes. The relative abundance of each allele in a cell was controlled by some regulatory mechanisms given that we observed related single-cell allelic profiles according to genes. Overall, these results have direct implications in cellular phenotypic variability. PMID:25557783

  16. The Gcn4p Activation Domain Interacts Specifically In Vitro with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme, TFIID, and the Adap-Gcn5p Coactivator Complex

    PubMed Central

    Drysdale, Connie M.; Jackson, Belinda M.; McVeigh, Richard; Klebanow, Edward R.; Bai, Yu; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Swanson, Mark; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Weil, P. Anthony; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    1998-01-01

    The Gcn4p activation domain contains seven clusters of hydrophobic residues that make additive contributions to transcriptional activation in vivo. We observed efficient binding of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)–Gcn4p fusion protein to components of three different coactivator complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell extracts, including subunits of transcription factor IID (TFIID) (yeast TAFII20 [yTAFII20], yTAFII60, and yTAFII90), the holoenzyme mediator (Srb2p, Srb4p, and Srb7p), and the Adap-Gcn5p complex (Ada2p and Ada3p). The binding to these coactivator subunits was completely dependent on the hydrophobic clusters in the Gcn4p activation domain. Alanine substitutions in single clusters led to moderate reductions in binding, double-cluster substitutions generally led to greater reductions in binding than the corresponding single-cluster mutations, and mutations in four or more clusters reduced binding to all of the coactivator proteins to background levels. The additive effects of these mutations on binding of coactivator proteins correlated with their cumulative effects on transcriptional activation by Gcn4p in vivo, particularly with Ada3p, suggesting that recruitment of these coactivator complexes to the promoter is a cardinal function of the Gcn4p activation domain. As judged by immunoprecipitation analysis, components of the mediator were not associated with constituents of TFIID and Adap-Gcn5p in the extracts, implying that GST-Gcn4p interacted with the mediator independently of these other coactivators. Unexpectedly, a proportion of Ada2p coimmunoprecipitated with yTAFII90, and the yTAFII20, -60, and -90 proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with Ada3p, revealing a stable interaction between components of TFIID and the Adap-Gcn5p complex. Because GST-Gcn4p did not bind specifically to highly purified TFIID, Gcn4p may interact with TFIID via the Adap-Gcn5p complex or some other adapter proteins. The ability of Gcn4p to interact with several distinct

  17. Characterization of the O-antigen Polymerase (Wzy) of Francisella tularensis*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Sebastian, Shite; Pinkham, Jessica T.; Ross, Robin A.; Blalock, LeeAnn T.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    The O-antigen polymerase of Gram-negative bacteria has been difficult to characterize. Herein we report the biochemical and functional characterization of the protein product (Wzy) of the gene annotated as the putative O-antigen polymerase, which is located in the O-antigen biosynthetic locus of Francisella tularensis. In silico analysis (homology searching, hydropathy plotting, and codon usage assessment) strongly suggested that Wzy is an O-antigen polymerase whose function is to catalyze the addition of newly synthesized O-antigen repeating units to a glycolipid consisting of lipid A, inner core polysaccharide, and one repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide (O-PS). To characterize the function of the Wzy protein, a non-polar deletion mutant of wzy was generated by allelic replacement, and the banding pattern of O-PS was observed by immunoblot analysis of whole-cell lysates obtained by SDS-PAGE and stained with an O-PS-specific monoclonal antibody. These immunoblot analyses showed that O-PS of the wzy mutant expresses only one repeating unit of O-antigen. Further biochemical characterization of the subcellular fractions of the wzy mutant demonstrated that (as is characteristic of O-antigen polymerase mutants) the low molecular weight O-antigen accumulates in the periplasm of the mutant. Site-directed mutagenesis based on protein homology and topology, which was carried out to locate a catalytic residue of the protein, showed that modification of specific residues (Gly176, Asp177, Gly323, and Tyr324) leads to a loss of O-PS polymerization. Topology models indicate that these amino acids most likely lie in close proximity on the bacterial surface. PMID:20605777

  18. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in a population of 432 healthy unrelated individuals from Albania.

    PubMed

    Sulcebe, Genc; Shyti, Erkena

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype polymorphism in a population of 432 healthy individuals from Albania. First-field HLA genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming and/or oligonucleotide methods. The data were analyzed statistically using gene counting and Arlequin software packages. No deviation from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium was detected at any of the loci studied. The HLA genotypic data of the population sample reported here are available publicly in the Allele Frequencies Net Database and they can serve as a reference database for further HLA-based population genetics studies including the Albanian population. PMID:27262454

  19. Directed evolution of DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase activity in a single polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jennifer L; Loakes, David; Jaroslawski, Szymon; Too, Kathleen; Holliger, Philipp

    2006-08-18

    DNA polymerases enable key technologies in modern biology but for many applications, native polymerases are limited by their stringent substrate recognition. Here we describe short-patch compartmentalized self-replication (spCSR), a novel strategy to expand the substrate spectrum of polymerases in a targeted way. spCSR is based on the previously described CSR, but unlike CSR only a short region (a "patch") of the gene under investigation is diversified and replicated. This allows the selection of polymerases under conditions where catalytic activity and processivity are compromised to the extent that full self-replication is inefficient. We targeted two specific motifs involved in substrate recognition in the active site of DNA polymerase I from Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and selected for incorporation of both ribonucleotide- (NTP) and deoxyribonucleotide-triphosphates (dNTPs) using spCSR. This allowed the isolation of multiple variants of Taq with apparent dual substrate specificity. They were able to synthesize RNA, while still retaining essentially wild-type (wt) DNA polymerase activity as judged by PCR. One such mutant (AA40: E602V, A608V, I614M, E615G) was able to incorporate both NTPs and dNTPs with the same catalytic efficiency as the wt enzyme incorporates dNTPs. AA40 allowed the generation of mixed RNA-DNA amplification products in PCR demonstrating DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase as well as reverse transcriptase activity within the same polypeptide. Furthermore, AA40 displayed an expanded substrate spectrum towards other 2'-substituted nucleotides and was able to synthesize nucleic acid polymers in which each base bore a different 2'-substituent. Our results suggest that spCSR will be a powerful strategy for the generation of polymerases with altered substrate specificity for applications in nano- and biotechnology and in the enzymatic synthesis of antisense and RNAi probes. PMID:16859707

  20. Serotype specific polymerase chain reaction identifies a higher prevalence of streptococcus mutans serotype k and e in a random group of children with dental caries from the Southern region of India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Arun Prasad; Austin, Ravi David

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of dental caries has been associated with the oral prevalence of Streptococcus mutans. Four serotypes of S. mutans have been reported, namely serotype c, e, f, and k that are classified based on the composition and linkages of cell wall polysaccharides, response to physiological reactions, sero-specificity and 16s rRNA homology. Although the oral prevalence of S. mutans serotype c in Indian subjects with or without caries is known, the prevalence of the other three serotypes, e, f, and k are not known. Hence in this study, we have investigated the occurrence of the e, f, and k serotypes in children with or without caries within the age group of 6-12 years. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA isolated from whole saliva of caries active (CA) and caries free (CF) groups were first screened for the presence of S. mutans by strain specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Those samples that tested positive for the presence of S. mutans were further analyzed by serotype specific PCR to identify the prevalence of the serotypes. Results: Strain specific PCR indicated a higher prevalence of S. mutans in CA group (80%) relative to CF group (43%). Further analysis of the S. mutans positive samples in both groups indicated a higher prevalence of serotype k and e, followed by serotype f in CA group. Conclusion: The present data clearly establishes a novel S. mutans serotype prevalence hierarchy in children from this region, compared with those that have been reported elsewhere. Besides, the data are also clinically significant as the occurrence of serotype k has been associated with infective endocarditis. PMID:25191062

  1. O Serogroup-Specific Touchdown-Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Identification of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and Non-O1/Non-O139

    PubMed Central

    Siriphap, Achiraya; Khamsuwan, Nutsarin; Borthong, Jednipit; Chonsin, Kaknokrat

    2014-01-01

    A novel, sensitive locus-specific touchdown-multiplex polymerase chain reaction (TMPCR), which is based on two-stage amplification pertaining to multiplex PCR and conditional touchdown strategy, was used in detecting and differentiating Vibrio cholerae serogroups. A panel of molecular marker-based TMPCR method generates reproducible profiles of V. cholerae-specific (588 bp) amplicons derived from ompW gene encoding the outer membrane protein and serogroup-specific amplicons, 364 bp for the O1 and 256 bp for the O139, authentically copied from rfb genes responsible for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The TMPCR amplification efficiency yields either equally or unequally detectable duplex DNA bands of the O1 (588 and 364 bp) and O139 (588 and 256 bp) or a DNA fragment of non-O1/non-O139 (588 bp) while providing no false positive identifications using the genomic DNA templates of the other vibrios and Enterobacteriaceae. The reciprocal analysis of two-template combinations demonstrated that, using V. cholerae O1, O139, or equally mixed O1 and O139, the TMPCR had a detection limit of as low as 100 pg of the O1, O139, or non-O1/non-O139 in reactions containing unequally or equally mixed gDNAs. In addition, the O serogroup-specific TMPCR method had 100% agreement with the serotyping method when examined for the serotyped V. cholerae reference strains and those recovered from clinical samples. The potential benefit of using this TMPCR tool would augment the serotyping method used in epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of V. cholerae serogroups, O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 present in clinical and environmental samples. PMID:25614837

  2. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  3. Comparison of 454 Ultra-Deep Sequencing and Allele-Specific Real-Time PCR with Regard to the Detection of Emerging Drug-Resistant Minor HIV-1 Variants after Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Vertical Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Kunz, Andrea; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Theuring, Stefanie; Bannert, Norbert; Sewangi, Julius; Mbezi, Paulina; Dugange, Festo; Harms, Gundel; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnant HIV-infected women were screened for the development of HIV-1 drug resistance after implementation of a triple-antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis as recommended by the WHO in 2006. The study offered the opportunity to compare amplicon-based 454 ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) and allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR) for the detection of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Methods Plasma samples from 34 Tanzanian women were previously analysed by ASPCR for key resistance mutations in the viral RT selected by AZT, 3TC, and NVP (K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, T215Y/F). In this study, the RT region of the same samples was investigated by amplicon-based UDS for resistance mutations using the 454 GS FLX System. Results Drug-resistant HIV-variants were identified in 69% (20/29) of women by UDS and in 45% (13/29) by ASPCR. The absolute number of resistance mutations identified by UDS was twice that identified by ASPCR (45 vs 24). By UDS 14 of 24 ASPCR-detected resistance mutations were identified at the same position. The overall concordance between UDS and ASPCR was 61.0% (25/41). The proportions of variants quantified by UDS were approximately 2–3 times lower than by ASPCR. Amplicon generation from samples with viral loads below 20,000 copies/ml failed more frequently by UDS compared to ASPCR (limit of detection = 650 copies/ml), resulting in missing or insufficient sequence coverage. Conclusions Both methods can provide useful information about drug-resistant minor HIV-1 variants. ASPCR has a higher sensitivity than UDS, but is restricted to single resistance mutations. In contrast, UDS is limited by its requirement for high viral loads to achieve sufficient sequence coverage, but the sequence information reveals the complete resistance patterns within the genomic region analysed. Improvements to the UDS limit of detection are in progress, and UDS could then facilitate monitoring of drug-resistant minor variants in

  4. Comparison and contrast of genes and biological pathways responding to Marek’s disease virus infection using allele-specific expression and differential expression in broiler and layer chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marek’s disease (MD) is a commercially important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a naturally occurring oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. Enhancing MD genetic resistance is desirable to augment current vaccines and other MD control measures. High throughput sequencing was used to profile splenic transcriptomes from individual F1 progeny infected with MDV at 4 days of age from both outbred broilers (meat-type) and inbred layer (egg-type) chicken lines that differed in MD genetic resistance. The resulting information was used to identify SNPs, genes, and biological pathways exhibiting allele-specific expression (ASE) in response to MDV infection in each type of chicken. In addition, we compared and contrasted the results of pathway analyses (ASE and differential expression (DE)) between chicken types to help inform on the biological response to MDV infection. Results With 7 individuals per line and treatment group providing high power, we identified 6,132 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4,768 genes and 4,528 SNPs in 3,718 genes in broilers and layers, respectively, that exhibited ASE in response to MDV infection. Furthermore, 548 and 434 genes in broilers and layers, respectively, were found to show DE following MDV infection. Comparing the datasets, only 72 SNPs and 850 genes for ASE and 20 genes for DE were common between the two bird types. Although the chicken types used in this study were genetically different, at the pathway level, both TLR receptor and JAK/STAT signaling pathways were enriched as well as exhibiting a high proportion of ASE genes, especially at the beginning of both above mentioned regulatory pathways. Conclusions RNA sequencing with adequate biological replicates is a powerful approach to identify high confidence SNPs, genes, and pathways that are associated with transcriptional response to MDV infection. In addition, the SNPs exhibiting ASE in response to MDV infection provide a

  5. Replicative DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Erik; Dixon, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    In 1959, Arthur Kornberg was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the principles by which DNA is duplicated by DNA polymerases. Since then, it has been confirmed in all branches of life that replicative DNA polymerases require a single-stranded template to build a complementary strand, but they cannot start a new DNA strand de novo. Thus, they also depend on a primase, which generally assembles a short RNA primer to provide a 3'-OH that can be extended by the replicative DNA polymerase. The general principles that (1) a helicase unwinds the double-stranded DNA, (2) single-stranded DNA-binding proteins stabilize the single-stranded DNA, (3) a primase builds a short RNA primer, and (4) a clamp loader loads a clamp to (5) facilitate the loading and processivity of the replicative polymerase, are well conserved among all species. Replication of the genome is remarkably robust and is performed with high fidelity even in extreme environments. Work over the last decade or so has confirmed (6) that a common two-metal ion-promoted mechanism exists for the nucleotidyltransferase reaction that builds DNA strands, and (7) that the replicative DNA polymerases always act as a key component of larger multiprotein assemblies, termed replisomes. Furthermore (8), the integrity of replisomes is maintained by multiple protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, many of which are inherently weak. This enables large conformational changes to occur without dissociation of replisome components, and also means that in general replisomes cannot be isolated intact. PMID:23732474

  6. DNA detection on transistor arrays following mutation-specific enzymatic amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouthas, F.; Gentil, C.; Côte, D.; Bockelmann, U.

    2004-03-01

    An integrated array of silicon field-effect transistor structures is used for electronic detection of label-free DNA. Measurements of the dc current-voltage characteristics of the transistors gives us access to reproducible detection of single- and double-stranded DNA, locally adsorbed on the surface of the device. We combine this approach with allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, to test for the 35delG mutation, a frequent mutation related to prelingual nonsyndromic deafness.

  7. Interference Between D and M Types of Plum pox virus in Japanese Plum Assessed by Specific Monoclonal Antibodies and Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Capote, Nieves; Gorris, M Teresa; Martínez, M Carmen; Asensio, Margarita; Olmos, Antonio; Cambra, Mariano

    2006-03-01

    ABSTRACT The dynamics of virus interference between two isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV) belonging to the main PPV types, D and M, were analyzed in Japanese plum (Prunus salicina) by challenge inoculations. To assess the consequences of a PPV-M infection on plum already infected with PPV-D, and vice versa (predominance of one of the strains, recombination, synergism, symptoms aggravation, and so on), 30 Japanese plum trees were graft inoculated with PPV-D or PPV-M isolates in quarantine conditions. One year postinoculation, in the event that the inoculated isolates were detected in the whole plant, a second challenge inoculation (PPV-M or PPV-D, respectively) was performed by grafting. The presence of PPV-D, PPV-M, or both was monitored for 7 years by double-antibody sandwich indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using specific monoclonal antibodies. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with D- and M-specific primers confirmed the serological typing. Real-time RT-PCR assays were performed using D- and M-specific fluorescent 3' minor groove binder-DNA probes, which were able to detect and quantify PPV populations in the inoculated plants with greater precision. The presence of PPV-D in Japanese plum did not cross-protect the trees against PPV-M infection. In PPV-D-infected plants, the PPV-M strain used as challenge inoculum behaved differently depending on the plum cultivar assayed. In cv. Black Diamond, PPV-M invaded the plant progressively, displacing the previous PPV-D population; whereas, in cv. Sun Gold, both PPV isolates coexisted in the plant. In contrast, the PPV-D isolate used was unable to infect plants of both cultivars in which a PPV-M population already was established. After 7 years, no synergism was observed and no recombination event between PPV-D and PPV-M genomes was detected. PMID:18944448

  8. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Pol III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.

  9. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Polmore » III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.« less

  10. Evaluation of p16 hypermethylation in oral submucous fibrosis: A quantitative and comparative analysis in buccal cells and saliva using real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyaperumal, Subadra; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the hypermethylation of p16 gene in buccal cells and saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients using real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare the values of two methods. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 samples were taken from 60 subjects selected for this study, of which 30 were controls and 30 patients were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with OSMF. In both groups, two sets of samples were collected, one directly from the buccal cells through cytobrush technique and the other through salivary rinse. We analyzed the samples for the presence of p16 hypermethylation using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In OSMF, the hypermethylation status of p16 in buccal cells was very high (93.3%) and in salivary samples, it was partially methylated (50%). However, no hypermethylation was found in controls suggesting that significant quantity of p16 hypermethylation was present in buccal cells and saliva in OSMF. Conclusions: This study indicates that buccal cell sampling may be a better method for evaluation than the salivary samples. It signifies that hypermethylation of p16 is an important factor to be considered in epigenetic alterations of normal cells to oral precancer, i.e. OSMF. PMID:27275454

  11. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), the first analysis of their physical compositions in plants. In all eukaryotes examined to date, AC40 and AC19 subunits are common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes. Surprisingly, A. thaliana and related species express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Pol III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with the functional divergence of Pol I- and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit and either protein can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the 12 subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers. PMID:25813043

  12. What Is a Recessive Allele?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents four misconceptions students have concerning the concepts of recessive and dominant alleles. Discusses the spectrum of dominant-recessive relationships, different levels of analysis between phenotype and genotype, possible causes of dominance, and an example involving wrinkled peas. (MDH)

  13. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of escherichia coli RNA polymerase and polymerase-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Heyduk, T; Niedziela-Majka, A

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a technique allowing measurements of atomic-scale distances in diluted solutions of macromolecules under native conditions. This feature makes FRET a powerful tool to study complicated biological assemblies. In this report we review the applications of FRET to studies of transcription initiation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. The versatility of FRET for studies of a large macromolecular assembly such as RNA polymerase is illustrated by examples of using FRET to address several different aspects of transcription initiation by polymerase. FRET has been used to determine the architecture of polymerase, its complex with single-stranded DNA, and the conformation of promoter fragment bound to polymerase. FRET has been also used as a binding assay to determine the thermodynamics of promoter DNA fragment binding to the polymerase. Functional conformational changes in the specificity subunit of polymerase responsible for the modulation of the promoter binding activity of the enzyme and the mechanistic aspects of the transition from the initiation to the elongation complex were also investigated. PMID:11987181

  14. G-quadruplex-generating polymerase chain reaction for visual colorimetric detection of amplicons.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Sanchita; Codrea, Vlad; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-01-15

    We have developed a self-reporting polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for visual colorimetric gene detection and distinction of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Amplification is performed using target-specific primers modified with a 5'-end tail that is complementary to a G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme-forming sequence. At end-point, G-quadruplexes are forced to fold from PCR-generated duplex DNA and then are used to colorimetrically report the successful occurrence of PCR by assaying their peroxidase activity using a chromogenic substrate. Furthermore, primer design considerations for the G-quadruplex-generating PCR system have allowed us to visually distinguish SNPs associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance alleles. PMID:24135653

  15. Association of HLA class II alleles with hepatitis C virus clearance and persistence in thalassemia patients from Iran.

    PubMed

    Samimi-Rad, Katayoun; Sadeghi, Farzin; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Eshraghian, Mohamad Reza; Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Rahimnia, Ramin

    2015-09-01

    There is no published data on association of HLA class II alleles with clearance or persistence after acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients from Iran. HLA DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 alleles were determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) on a total of 117 thalassemia patients (63 with chronic infection, and 54 with viral clearance) and 120 healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*0301 and DQA1*0501 alleles were found significantly present in patients with HCV clearance compared to those with chronic infection (P = 0.03 and P = 0.0007, respectively). By contrast, DRB1*0701, DQA1*0201, and DQB1*0602 alleles occurred significantly in those with chronic infection compared to those with viral clearance (P = 0.004, P = 0.007, and P = 0.02, respectively). As compared to the controls, DRB1*0301, DRB1*11, DQA1*0501, and DQB1*0301 alleles showed a significant decrease in chronic patients (P = 0.002, P = 0.001, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0004, respectively). Furthermore, the haplotype frequencies of DRB1*0301, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201, and DRB1*1101, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0301 were found significantly higher (P = 0.004 and P = 0.04, respectively) in patients with HCV clearance than those with chronic infection. By contrast, the haplotype DRB1*0701, DQA1*0201, DQB1*0201 occurred more frequently (P = 0.02) in those with chronic infection compared with those with viral clearance. These findings suggest that particular HLA alleles and related haplotypes may have an influence on the outcome of HCV infection among the Iranian patients. Some of the HLA alleles found in the Iranian patients are different from those reported elsewhere, suggesting that the immunogenetic makeup for HCV clearance or persistence may vary based on the ethnicity. PMID:25970464

  16. Target-triggered three-way junction structure and polymerase/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal quadratic DNA machine for highly specific, one-step, and rapid microRNA detection at attomolar level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Yongxi; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-08-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in many biological processes and are regarded as promising cancer biomarkers. Herein, a highly specific, one-step, and rapid miRNAs detection strategy with attomolar sensitivity has been developed on the basis of a target-triggered three-way junction (3-WJ) structure and polymerase/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal quadratic DNA machine (ESQM). To this end, 3-WJ probes (primer and template) are designed to selectively recognize target miRNA and form the stable 3-WJ structure to trigger ESQM, resulting in a high quadratic amplified signal. A high specificity is demonstrated by the excellent discrimination of even single-base mismatched homologous sequences with mismatched bases in varied locations (close to the 3'-end, the 5'-end, and the middle). In addition, a low detection limit down to 2 amol was achieved within 30 min. This sensitivity is much higher than those of most linear amplification-based approaches and is even comparable to those of some exponential amplification-based methods. Furthermore, the applicability of this method in complex samples was demonstrated by the analysis of cancer cell small RNA extracts, results of which were in good agreement with those obtained by a commercial miRNA kit and previously published data. The miRNA with a 3' end modification (2'-O-methylation), such as plant miRNA, was also successfully detected, confirming the good universality of the proposed strategy. It is worthwhile to point out that several well-established methods using miRNA as primer for polymerization reaction are of relatively poor performance in the analysis of these modified miRNA. Therefore, these merits endow the developed strategy with powerful implications for biological research and an effective diagnostic assay. PMID:25072308

  17. Complementation between polymerase- and exonuclease-deficient mitochondrial DNA polymerase mutants in genomically engineered flies

    PubMed Central

    Macao, Bertil; Grönke, Sebastian; Siibak, Triinu; Stewart, James B; Baggio, Francesca; Dols, Jacqueline; Partridge, Linda; Falkenberg, Maria; Wredenberg, Anna; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Replication errors are the main cause of mtDNA mutations and a compelling approach to decrease mutation levels would therefore be to increase the fidelity of the catalytic subunit (POLγA) of the mtDNA polymerase. Here we genomically engineered the tamas locus, encoding fly POLγA, and introduced alleles expressing exonuclease- (exo-) and polymerase-deficient (pol-) POLγA versions. The exo- mutant leads to accumulation of point mutations and linear deletions of mtDNA, whereas pol- mutants cause mtDNA depletion. The mutant tamas alleles are developmentally lethal but can complement each other in trans resulting in viable flies with clonally expanded mtDNA mutations. Reconstitution of human mtDNA replication in vitro confirms that replication is a highly dynamic process where POLγA goes on and off the template to allow complementation during proofreading and elongation. The created fly models are valuable tools to study germ line transmission of mtDNA and the pathophysiology of POLγA mutation disease. PMID:26554610

  18. RNA polymerase and the regulation of transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Reznikoff, W.S.; Gross, C.A.; Burgess, R.R.; Record, M.T.; Dahlberg, J.E.; Wickens, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of eight sections, each containing several papers. The section titles are: RNA Polymerases; Transcription Initiation - Bacterial; Regulation of Bacterial Transcription Initiation; Stable RNA Synthesis in Eukaryotes: Chromatin Structure; Promoters; Enhancers; and the Global Control of Eukaryotic Transcription; Specific Eukaryotic Transcription Factors; Termination of Transcription; and Short Communications.

  19. Modified pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 nucleic acids encoding bispecific polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Srienc, Friedrich; Jackson, John K.; Somers, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A genetically engineered Pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase having tailored substrate specificity is provided. The modified PHA polymerase is preferably a "bispecific" PHA polymerase capable of copolymerizing a short chain length monomer and a medium chain length monomer is provided. Methods for making the modified PHA polymerase and for making nucleic acids encoding the modified PHA polymerase are also disclosed, as are methods of producing PHA using the modified PHA polymerase. The invention further includes methods to assay for altered substrate specificity.

  20. Differential regulation of RNA polymerases I, II, and III by the TBP-binding repressor Dr1.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Khoo, B C; Inostroza, J A; Reinberg, D; Jackson, S P

    1994-10-21

    RNA polymerases I, II, and III each use the TATA-binding protein (TBP). Regulators that target this shared factor may therefore provide a means to coordinate the activities of the three nuclear RNA polymerases. The repressor Dr1 binds to TBP and blocks the interaction of TBP with polymerase II- and polymerase III-specific factors. This enables Dr1 to coordinately regulate transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. Under the same conditions, Dr1 does not inhibit polymerase I transcription. By selectively repressing polymerases II and III, Dr1 may shift the physiological balance of transcriptional output in favor of polymerase I. PMID:7939686

  1. Common alleles contribute to schizophrenia in CNV carriers

    PubMed Central

    Tansey, K E; Rees, E; Linden, D E; Ripke, S; Chambert, K D; Moran, J L; McCarroll, S A; Holmans, P; Kirov, G; Walters, J; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of schizophrenia is complex, involving risk alleles ranging from common alleles of weak effect to rare alleles of large effect, the best exemplar of the latter being large copy number variants (CNVs). It is currently unknown whether pathophysiology in those with defined rare mutations overlaps with that in other individuals with the disorder who do not share the same rare mutation. Under an extreme heterogeneity model, carriers of specific high-penetrance mutations form distinct subgroups. In contrast, under a polygenic threshold model, high-penetrance rare allele carriers possess many risk factors, of which the rare allele is the only one, albeit an important, factor. Under the latter model, cases with rare mutations can be expected to share some common risk alleles, and therefore pathophysiological mechanisms, with cases without the same mutation. Here we show that, compared with controls, individuals with schizophrenia who have known pathogenic CNVs carry an excess burden of common risk alleles (P=2.25 × 10−17) defined from a genome-wide association study largely based on individuals without known CNVs. Our finding is not consistent with an extreme heterogeneity model for CNV carriers, but does offer support for the polygenic threshold model of schizophrenia. That this is so provides support for the notion that studies aiming to model the effects of rare variation may uncover pathophysiological mechanisms of relevance to those with the disorder more widely. PMID:26390827

  2. Common alleles contribute to schizophrenia in CNV carriers.

    PubMed

    Tansey, K E; Rees, E; Linden, D E; Ripke, S; Chambert, K D; Moran, J L; McCarroll, S A; Holmans, P; Kirov, G; Walters, J; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-08-01

    The genetic architecture of schizophrenia is complex, involving risk alleles ranging from common alleles of weak effect to rare alleles of large effect, the best exemplar of the latter being large copy number variants (CNVs). It is currently unknown whether pathophysiology in those with defined rare mutations overlaps with that in other individuals with the disorder who do not share the same rare mutation. Under an extreme heterogeneity model, carriers of specific high-penetrance mutations form distinct subgroups. In contrast, under a polygenic threshold model, high-penetrance rare allele carriers possess many risk factors, of which the rare allele is the only one, albeit an important, factor. Under the latter model, cases with rare mutations can be expected to share some common risk alleles, and therefore pathophysiological mechanisms, with cases without the same mutation. Here we show that, compared with controls, individuals with schizophrenia who have known pathogenic CNVs carry an excess burden of common risk alleles (P=2.25 × 10(-17)) defined from a genome-wide association study largely based on individuals without known CNVs. Our finding is not consistent with an extreme heterogeneity model for CNV carriers, but does offer support for the polygenic threshold model of schizophrenia. That this is so provides support for the notion that studies aiming to model the effects of rare variation may uncover pathophysiological mechanisms of relevance to those with the disorder more widely. PMID:26390827

  3. O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression by immunohistochemistry in brain and non-brain systemic tumours: systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The DNA repair protein O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance to alkylating agents. Several methods have been applied to its analysis, with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) the most commonly used for promoter methylation study, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become the most frequently used for the detection of MGMT protein expression. Agreement on the best and most reliable technique for evaluating MGMT status remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between IHC and MSP. Methods A computer-aided search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2009), EBSCO (1966-October 2009) and EMBASE (1974-October 2009) was performed for relevant publications. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were those comparing MGMT protein expression by IHC with MGMT promoter methylation by MSP in the same cohort of patients. Methodological quality was assessed by using the QUADAS and STARD instruments. Previously published guidelines were followed for meta-analysis performance. Results Of 254 studies identified as eligible for full-text review, 52 (20.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that results of MGMT protein expression by IHC are not in close agreement with those obtained with MSP. Moreover, type of tumour (primary brain tumour vs others) was an independent covariate of accuracy estimates in the meta-regression analysis beyond the cut-off value. Conclusions Protein expression assessed by IHC alone fails to reflect the promoter methylation status of MGMT. Thus, in attempts at clinical diagnosis the two methods seem to select different groups of patients and should not be used interchangeably. PMID:21269507

  4. Schizophrenia susceptibility alleles are enriched for alleles that affect gene expression in adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Alexander L; Jones, Lesley; Moskvina, Valentina; Kirov, George; Gejman, Pablo V; Levinson, Douglas F; Sanders, Alan R; Purcell, Shaun; Visscher, Peter M; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O’Donovan, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    It is widely thought that alleles that influence susceptibility to common diseases, including schizophrenia, will frequently do so through effects on gene expression. Since only a small proportion of the genetic variance for schizophrenia has been attributed to specific loci, this remains an unproven hypothesis. The International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC) recently reported a substantial polygenic contribution to that disorder, and that schizophrenia risk alleles are enriched among SNPs selected for marginal evidence for association (p<0.5) from genome wide association studies (GWAS). It follows that if schizophrenia susceptibility alleles are enriched for those that affect gene expression, those marginally associated SNPs which are also eQTLs should carry more true association signals compared with SNPs which are not. To test this, we identified marginally associated (p<0.5) SNPs from two of the largest available schizophrenia GWAS datasets. We assigned eQTL status to those SNPs based upon an eQTL dataset derived from adult human brain. Using the polygenic score method of analysis reported by the ISC, we observed and replicated the observation that higher probability cis-eQTLs predicted schizophrenia better than those with a lower probability for being a cis-eQTL. Our data support the hypothesis that alleles conferring risk of schizophrenia are enriched among those that affect gene expression. Moreover, our data show that notwithstanding the likely developmental origin of schizophrenia, studies of adult brain tissue can in principle allow relevant susceptibility eQTLs to be identified. PMID:21339752

  5. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population. PMID:27420983

  6. Polarisation of equine pregnancy outcome associated with a maternal MHC class I allele: Preliminary evidence.

    PubMed

    Kydd, J H; Case, R; Winton, C; MacRae, S; Sharp, E; Ricketts, S L; Rash, N; Newton, J R

    2016-05-30

    Identification of risk factors which are associated with severe clinical signs can assist in the management of disease outbreaks and indicate future research areas. Pregnancy loss during late gestation in the mare compromises welfare, reduces fecundity and has financial implications for horse owners. This retrospective study focussed on the identification of risk factors associated with pregnancy loss among 46 Thoroughbred mares on a single British stud farm, with some but not all losses involving equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection. In a sub-group of 30 mares, association between pregnancy loss and the presence of five common Thoroughbred horse haplotypes of the equine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) was assessed. This involved development of sequence specific, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions and in several mares, measurement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. Of the 46 mares, 10 suffered late gestation pregnancy loss or neonatal foal death, five of which were EHV-1 positive. Maternal factors including age, parity, number of EHV-1 specific vaccinations and the number of days between final vaccination and foaling or abortion were not significantly associated with pregnancy loss. In contrast, a statistically significant association between the presence of the MHC class I B2 allele and pregnancy loss was identified, regardless of the fetus/foal's EHV-1 status (p=0.002). In conclusion, this study demonstrated a significantly positive association between pregnancy loss in Thoroughbred mares and a specific MHC class I allele in the mother. This association requires independent validation and further investigation of the mechanism by which the mare's genetic background contributes to pregnancy outcome. PMID:27139027

  7. Differential and limited expression of mutant alleles in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Naim U.; Sperling, Adam S.; Bolli, Niccolo; Wedge, David C.; Van Loo, Peter; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Shammas, Masood A.; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Samur, Mehmet K.; Richardson, Paul G.; Magrangeas, Florence; Minvielle, Stephane; Futreal, P. Andrew; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has delineated mutational profiles in multiple myeloma and reported a median of 52 mutations per patient, as well as a set of commonly mutated genes across multiple patients. In this study, we have used deep sequencing of RNA from a subset of these patients to evaluate the proportion of expressed mutations. We find that the majority of previously identified mutations occur within genes with very low or no detectable expression. On average, 27% (range, 11% to 47%) of mutated alleles are found to be expressed, and among mutated genes that are expressed, there often is allele-specific expression where either the mutant or wild-type allele is suppressed. Even in the absence of an overall change in gene expression, the presence of differential allelic expression within malignant cells highlights the important contribution of RNA-sequencing in identifying clinically significant mutational changes relevant to our understanding of myeloma biology and also for therapeutic applications. PMID:25237203

  8. Differential and limited expression of mutant alleles in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Naim U; Sperling, Adam S; Bolli, Niccolo; Wedge, David C; Van Loo, Peter; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Shammas, Masood A; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Samur, Mehmet K; Richardson, Paul G; Magrangeas, Florence; Minvielle, Stephane; Futreal, P Andrew; Anderson, Kenneth C; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Campbell, Peter J; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Munshi, Nikhil C

    2014-11-13

    Recent work has delineated mutational profiles in multiple myeloma and reported a median of 52 mutations per patient, as well as a set of commonly mutated genes across multiple patients. In this study, we have used deep sequencing of RNA from a subset of these patients to evaluate the proportion of expressed mutations. We find that the majority of previously identified mutations occur within genes with very low or no detectable expression. On average, 27% (range, 11% to 47%) of mutated alleles are found to be expressed, and among mutated genes that are expressed, there often is allele-specific expression where either the mutant or wild-type allele is suppressed. Even in the absence of an overall change in gene expression, the presence of differential allelic expression within malignant cells highlights the important contribution of RNA-sequencing in identifying clinically significant mutational changes relevant to our understanding of myeloma biology and also for therapeutic applications. PMID:25237203

  9. Error Rate Comparison during Polymerase Chain Reaction by DNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Peter; Adams, Paul; Hadi, Masood Z

    2014-01-01

    As larger-scale cloning projects become more prevalent, there is an increasing need for comparisons among high fidelity DNA polymerases used for PCR amplification. All polymerases marketed for PCR applications are tested for fidelity properties (i.e., error rate determination) by vendors, and numerous literature reports have addressed PCR enzyme fidelity. Nonetheless, it is often difficult to make direct comparisons among different enzymes due to numerous methodological and analytical differences from study to study. We have measured the error rates for 6 DNA polymerases commonly used in PCR applications, including 3 polymerases typically used for cloning applications requiring high fidelity. Error rate measurement values reported here were obtained by direct sequencing of cloned PCR products. The strategy employed here allows interrogation of error rate across a very large DNA sequence space, since 94 unique DNA targets were used as templates for PCR cloning. The six enzymes included in the study, Taq polymerase, AccuPrime-Taq High Fidelity, KOD Hot Start, cloned Pfu polymerase, Phusion Hot Start, and Pwo polymerase, we find the lowest error rates with Pfu, Phusion, and Pwo polymerases. Error rates are comparable for these 3 enzymes and are >10x lower than the error rate observed with Taq polymerase. Mutation spectra are reported, with the 3 high fidelity enzymes displaying broadly similar types of mutations. For these enzymes, transition mutations predominate, with little bias observed for type of transition. PMID:25197572

  10. Error Rate Comparison during Polymerase Chain Reaction by DNA Polymerase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McInerney, Peter; Adams, Paul; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2014-01-01

    As larger-scale cloning projects become more prevalent, there is an increasing need for comparisons among high fidelity DNA polymerases used for PCR amplification. All polymerases marketed for PCR applications are tested for fidelity properties (i.e., error rate determination) by vendors, and numerous literature reports have addressed PCR enzyme fidelity. Nonetheless, it is often difficult to make direct comparisons among different enzymes due to numerous methodological and analytical differences from study to study. We have measured the error rates for 6 DNA polymerases commonly used in PCR applications, including 3 polymerases typically used for cloning applications requiring high fidelity. Errormore » rate measurement values reported here were obtained by direct sequencing of cloned PCR products. The strategy employed here allows interrogation of error rate across a very large DNA sequence space, since 94 unique DNA targets were used as templates for PCR cloning. The six enzymes included in the study, Taq polymerase, AccuPrime-Taq High Fidelity, KOD Hot Start, cloned Pfu polymerase, Phusion Hot Start, and Pwo polymerase, we find the lowest error rates with Pfu , Phusion, and Pwo polymerases. Error rates are comparable for these 3 enzymes and are >10x lower than the error rate observed with Taq polymerase. Mutation spectra are reported, with the 3 high fidelity enzymes displaying broadly similar types of mutations. For these enzymes, transition mutations predominate, with little bias observed for type of transition.« less

  11. Error Rate Comparison during Polymerase Chain Reaction by DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Peter; Adams, Paul; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2014-01-01

    As larger-scale cloning projects become more prevalent, there is an increasing need for comparisons among high fidelity DNA polymerases used for PCR amplification. All polymerases marketed for PCR applications are tested for fidelity properties (i.e., error rate determination) by vendors, and numerous literature reports have addressed PCR enzyme fidelity. Nonetheless, it is often difficult to make direct comparisons among different enzymes due to numerous methodological and analytical differences from study to study. We have measured the error rates for 6 DNA polymerases commonly used in PCR applications, including 3 polymerases typically used for cloning applications requiring high fidelity. Error rate measurement values reported here were obtained by direct sequencing of cloned PCR products. The strategy employed here allows interrogation of error rate across a very large DNA sequence space, since 94 unique DNA targets were used as templates for PCR cloning. The six enzymes included in the study, Taq polymerase, AccuPrime-Taq High Fidelity, KOD Hot Start, cloned Pfu polymerase, Phusion Hot Start, and Pwo polymerase, we find the lowest error rates with Pfu, Phusion, and Pwo polymerases. Error rates are comparable for these 3 enzymes and are >10x lower than the error rate observed with Taq polymerase. Mutation spectra are reported, with the 3 high fidelity enzymes displaying broadly similar types of mutations. For these enzymes, transition mutations predominate, with little bias observed for type of transition. PMID:25197572

  12. Allele-specific loss or imbalance of chromosomes 9, 15, and 16 in B-cell tumors from interspecific F1 hybrid mice carrying Emu-c-myc or N-myc transgenes.

    PubMed

    Linardopoulos, S; Silva, S; Klein, G; Balmain, A

    2000-12-15

    Mice carrying an immunoglobulin enhancer (Emu-) linked c- or N-myc transgene develop fatal monoclonal or oligoclonal pre-B or B-cell lymphomas. This indicates that, beside the Emu-activated myc gene, additional genetic changes are required for tumor development. To trace these additional changes, we carried out a genome-wide search for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and allelic imbalance (AI). This was done at 53 microsatellite markers in a panel of 34 lymphomas and four plasmacytomas from c- or N-myc transgene carrying (BALB/c x Mus spretus)F1 hybrids. An additional 43 lymphomas and three plasmacytomas from non-transgenic F1 mice were also investigated. Losses of one or more spretus-derived chromosome 9 markers were detected in 19 of 23 (83%) of the lymphomas, but in none of the four plasmacytomas that developed in N-myc F1 mice. No LOH-9 was found in any of the 11 lymphomas from Emu-c-myc F1 mice and only in 1 of 46 (2%) tumors derived from non-transgenic (BALB/c x spretus)F1 hybrid controls. These results suggest that a gene on spretus chromosome 9 confers resistance to the development of N-myc but not c-myc-induced lymphomas. AI of chromosome 15 markers (AI-15) was detected in 57 of 77 (74%) lymphomas and in 5 of 7 (72%) plasmacytomas, independently of the transgenic status and the mode of induction. All of the lymphomas and plasmacytomas with AI-15 revealed a relative gain of the spretus-derived D15Mit6 allele (located at 13.7 cM from the centromere), together with a gain of the BALB/c allele of the more distal (29.6 cM) D15Mit64 marker, suggesting somatic recombination. LOH in the region close to c-myc was detected in a proportion of tumors with AI-15. The observation of complex genetic alterations includes somatic recombination, AI and LOH involving chromosome 15 in tumors induced by a myc transgene. This indicates that at least two genes in addition to c-myc on this chromosome can be involved in lymphoma development. PMID:11093815

  13. Molecular analysis of HLA-DQ A alleles in coeliac disease lack of a unique disease-associated sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Mantovani, V; Corazza, G R; Angelini, G; Delfino, L; Frisoni, M; Mirri, P; Valentini, R A; Barboni, P; Gasbarrini, G; Ferrara, G B

    1991-01-01

    Susceptibility to coeliac disease is strongly associated with some HLA class II antigens, encoded by the HLA-D region. Since the HLA-DQ locus seems to be primarily involved, we have analysed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization the most polymorphic region of the HLA-DQ A1 gene. No difference was observed between the 20 coeliac patients and 20 HLA-D-matched healthy controls who took part in the study. Furthermore, in patients and controls, the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the HLA-DQ A gene using the restriction enzyme BglII did not disclose any specific disease-associated fragment. Our results are not consistent with a unique DQ A coeliac disease-associated sequence, but rather with the hypothesis that some polymorphic residues or allelic hypervariable regions, although found also in the normal population, can predispose to coeliac disease due to their higher frequency in this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1671007

  14. Polymerase Activity of Pichinde Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michael F.; Biswal, Nilambar; Rawls, William E.

    1974-01-01

    Pichinde virus, a member of the arenavirus group, was examined for polymerase activity. Purified virus was found to contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase but not RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. Since RNase but neither DNase nor actinomycin D inhibited the endogenous polymerase reaction, RNA of the virus appeared to be used as the template. The divalent cations Mg2+ and Mn2+ were required for optimal reactivity. The RNA product was partially resistant to RNase and the resistant portion had a sedimentation coefficient of 22 to 26S in sucrose gradients. PMID:4132669

  15. HLA-DQB1 and -DPB1 allele profile in HIV infected patients with and without pulmonary tuberculosis of south India.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, P; Raghavan, S; Swaminathan, S; Alagarasu, K; Narendran, G; Narayanan, P R

    2008-09-01

    We made an attempt to find out whether Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQB1 and -DPB1 alleles are associated with susceptibility or resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV infected patients. The allelic profile of HLA-DQB1 and -DPB1 was studied among HIV patients without pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV+PTB-) (n = 115), HIV patients with pulmonary TB (HIV+PTB+) (n = 59), HIV negative PTB patients (HIV-PTB+) (n = 110) and healthy controls (n=112) by polymerase chain reaction and sequence specific oligonucleotide probe method. Increased frequency of HLA-DQB1*050301 was observed in HIV+PTB- [p = 0.024, Odds Ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.11-4.90] and HIV+PTB+ patients (p = 0.044, OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.01-5.73) compared to healthy controls, suggesting that DQB1*050301 may be associated with susceptibility to HIV infection as well as development of PTB in HIV patients. Underrepresentation of HLA-DPB1*1501 was observed in HIV-PTB+ (p = 0.002, Pc = 0.034) and HIV+PTB+ (p = 0.036) patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting that DPB1*1501 may be associated with protection against PTB development both in HIV positive and negative subjects. Analysis on the amino acid variation in the peptide binding pocket at beta69 position of HLA-DPB1 molecules revealed that the beta69 arginine containing HLA-DPB1 alleles and the genotype lysine/arginine were underrepresented in HIV-PTB+ (allele: p = 0.003, Pc = 0.009; genotype: p = 0.0002, Pc = 0.001) and HIV+PTB+ (allele: p = 0.016, Pc = 0.048; genotype: p = 0.026). This suggests that HLA-DPB1 alleles with arginine may be associated with protection against development of PTB in both HIV infected as well as uninfected individuals. Further, the haplotypes HLA-DRB1*1502-DPB1*0201 and HLA-DQB1*0601-DPB1*0201 (Pc < 0.001) and HLA-DRB1*1502-DQB1*0601-DPB1*0201 (p = 0.006, OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.42-22.66) were significantly overrepresented in HIV+PTB+ patients

  16. Mutability of DNA polymerase I: implications for the creation of mutant DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ern; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2005-12-01

    DNA polymerases of the Family A catalyze the addition of deoxynucleotides to a primer with high efficiency, processivity, and selectivity-properties that are critical to their function both in nature and in the laboratory. These polymerases tolerate many amino acid substitutions, even in regions that are evolutionarily conserved. This tolerance can be exploited to create DNA polymerases with novel properties and altered substrate specificities, using rational design and molecular evolution. These efforts have focused mainly on the Family A DNA polymerises -Taq, E. coli Pol I, and T7 - because they are widely utilized in biotechnology today. The redesign of polymerases often requires knowledge of the function of specific residues in the protein, including those located in six evolutionarily conserved regions. The most well characterized of these are motifs A and B, which regulate the fidelity of replication and the incorporation of nucleotide analogs such as dideoxynucleotides. Regions that remain to be more thoroughly characterized are motif C, which is critical for catalysis, and motifs 1, 2 and 6, all of which bind to DNA primer or template. Several recently identified mutants with abilities to incorporate nucleotides with bulky adducts have mutations that are not located within conserved regions and warrant further study. Analysis of these mutants will help advance our understanding of how DNA polymerases select bases with high fidelity. PMID:16230053

  17. Wheat gene bank accessions as a source of new alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3: a large scale allele mining project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the last hundred years, the development of improved wheat cultivars has led to the replacement of landraces and traditional varieties by modern cultivars. This has resulted in a decline in the genetic diversity of agriculturally used wheat. However, the diversity lost in the elite material is somewhat preserved in crop gene banks. Therefore, the gene bank accessions provide the basis for genetic improvement of crops for specific traits and and represent rich sources of novel allelic variation. Results We have undertaken large scale molecular allele mining to isolate new alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3 from wheat gene bank accessions. The search for new Pm3 alleles was carried out on a geographically diverse set of 733 wheat accessions originating from 20 countries. Pm3 specific molecular tools as well as classical pathogenicity tests were used to characterize the accessions. Two new functional Pm3 alleles were identified out of the eight newly cloned Pm3 sequences. These new resistance alleles were isolated from accessions from China and Nepal. Thus, the repertoire of functional Pm3 alleles now includes 17 genes, making it one of the largest allelic series of plant resistance genes. The combined information on resistant and susceptible Pm3 sequences will allow to study molecular function and specificity of functional Pm3 alleles. Conclusions This study demonstrates that molecular allele mining on geographically defined accessions is a useful strategy to rapidly characterize the diversity of gene bank accessions at a specific genetic locus of agronomical importance. The identified wheat accessions with new resistance specificities can be used for marker-assisted transfer of the Pm3 alleles to modern wheat lines. PMID:20470444

  18. Biogenesis of RNA Polymerases II and III Requires the Conserved GPN Small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Sean W.; Filiatrault, Megan C.; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport. PMID:23267056

  19. In vivo dynamics of RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Darzacq, Xavier; Shav-Tal, Yaron; de Turris, Valeria; Brody, Yehuda; Shenoy, Shailesh M; Phair, Robert D; Singer, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    We imaged transcription in living cells using a locus-specific reporter system, which allowed precise, single-cell kinetic measurements of promoter binding, initiation and elongation. Photobleaching of fluorescent RNA polymerase II revealed several kinetically distinct populations of the enzyme interacting with a specific gene. Photobleaching and photoactivation of fluorescent MS2 proteins used to label nascent messenger RNAs provided sensitive elongation measurements. A mechanistic kinetic model that fits our data was validated using specific inhibitors. Polymerases elongated at 4.3 kilobases min−1, much faster than previously documented, and entered a paused state for unexpectedly long times. Transcription onset was inefficient, with only 1% of polymerase-gene interactions leading to completion of an mRNA. Our systems approach, quantifying both polymerase and mRNA kinetics on a defined DNA template in vivo with high temporal resolution, opens new avenues for studying regulation of transcriptional processes in vivo. PMID:17676063

  20. Characterization of a novel MICA allele, MICA*012:05, by cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Tian, W; Wang, F; Zhu, F M; Li, L X

    2016-08-01

    A new MICA allelic variant, MICA*012:05, has been identified in a Chinese Mongolian population. Following polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT), this new allele was further confirmed by cloning and sequencing. MICA*012:05 was linked to an HLA-A*24-C*01-B*55:02-DRB1*09 haplotype. MICA*012:05 differs from MICA*012:01 by a single synonymous C to T substitution at nucleotide position 269 in exon 3. PMID:27273902

  1. Invasive Allele Spread under Preemptive Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasi, J. A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, T.

    We study a discrete spatial model for invasive allele spread in which two alleles compete preemptively, initially only the "residents" (weaker competitors) being present. We find that the spread of the advantageous mutation is well described by homogeneous nucleation; in particular, in large systems the time-dependent global density of the resident allele is well approximated by Avrami's law.

  2. DNA replication defect in Salmonella typhimurium mutants lacking the editing (epsilon) subunit of DNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Lifsics, M R; Lancy, E D; Maurer, R

    1992-01-01

    In Salmonella typhimurium, dnaQ null mutants (encoding the epsilon editing subunit of DNA polymerase III [Pol III]) exhibit a severe growth defect when the genetic background is otherwise wild type. Suppression of the growth defect requires both a mutation affecting the alpha (polymerase) subunit of DNA polymerase III and adequate levels of DNA polymerase I. In the present paper, we report on studies that clarify the nature of the physiological defect imposed by the loss of epsilon and the mechanism of its suppression. Unsuppressed dnaQ mutants exhibited chronic SOS induction, indicating exposure of single-stranded DNA in vivo, most likely as gaps in double-stranded DNA. Suppression of the growth defect was associated with suppression of SOS induction. Thus, Pol I and the mutant Pol III combined to reduce the formation of single-stranded DNA or accelerate its maturation to double-stranded DNA. Studies with mutants in major DNA repair pathways supported the view that the defect in DNA metabolism in dnaQ mutants was at the level of DNA replication rather than of repair. The requirement for Pol I was satisfied by alleles of the gene for Pol I encoding polymerase activity or by rat DNA polymerase beta (which exhibits polymerase activity only). Consequently, normal growth is restored to dnaQ mutants when sufficient polymerase activity is provided and this compensatory polymerase activity can function independently of Pol III. The high level of Pol I polymerase activity may be required to satisfy the increased demand for residual DNA synthesis at regions of single-stranded DNA generated by epsilon-minus pol III. The emphasis on adequate polymerase activity in dnaQ mutants is also observed in the purified alpha subunit containing the suppressor mutation, which exhibits a modestly elevated intrinsic polymerase activity relative to that of wild-type alpha. Images PMID:1400246

  3. Antimutator Variants of DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Alan J.; Williams, Lindsey N.; Preston, Bradley D.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution balances DNA replication speed and accuracy to optimize replicative fitness and genetic stability. There is no selective pressure to improve DNA replication fidelity beyond the background mutation rate from other sources, such as DNA damage. However, DNA polymerases remain amenable to amino-acid substitutions that lower intrinsic error rates. Here, we review these ‘antimutagenic’ changes in DNA polymerases and discuss what they reveal about mechanisms of replication fidelity. Pioneering studies with bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase (T4 Pol) established the paradigm that antimutator amino-acid substitutions reduce replication errors by increasing proofreading efficiency at the expense of polymerase processivity. The discoveries of antimutator substitutions in proofreading-deficient ‘mutator’ derivatives of bacterial Pols I and III and yeast Pol δ suggest there must be additional antimutagenic mechanisms. Remarkably, many of the affected amino-acid positions from Pol I, Pol III, and Pol δ are similar to the original T4 Pol substitutions. The locations of antimutator substitutions within DNA polymerase structures suggest that they may increase nucleotide selectivity and/or promote dissociation of primer termini from polymerases poised for misincorporation, leading to expulsion of incorrect nucleotides. If misincorporation occurs, enhanced primer dissociation from polymerase domains may improve proofreading in cis by an intrinsic exonuclease or in trans by alternate cellular proofreading activities. Together, these studies reveal that natural selection can readily restore replication error rates to sustainable levels following an adaptive mutator phenotype. PMID:21977975

  4. DNA Polymerase β Ribonucleotide Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Nisha A.; Beard, William A.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    DNA polymerases must select nucleotides that preserve Watson-Crick base pairing rules and choose substrates with the correct (deoxyribose) sugar. Sugar discrimination represents a great challenge because ribonucleotide triphosphates are present at much higher cellular concentrations than their deoxy-counterparts. Although DNA polymerases discriminate against ribonucleotides, many therapeutic nucleotide analogs that target polymerases have sugar modifications, and their efficacy depends on their ability to be incorporated into DNA. Here, we investigate the ability of DNA polymerase β to utilize nucleotides with modified sugars. DNA polymerase β readily inserts dideoxynucleoside triphosphates but inserts ribonucleotides nearly 4 orders of magnitude less efficiently than natural deoxynucleotides. The efficiency of ribonucleotide insertion is similar to that reported for other DNA polymerases. The poor polymerase-dependent insertion represents a key step in discriminating against ribonucleotides because, once inserted, a ribonucleotide is easily extended. Likewise, a templating ribonucleotide has little effect on insertion efficiency or fidelity. In contrast to insertion and extension of a ribonucleotide, the chemotherapeutic drug arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate is efficiently inserted but poorly extended. These results suggest that the sugar pucker at the primer terminus plays a crucial role in DNA synthesis; a 3′-endo sugar pucker facilitates nucleotide insertion, whereas a 2′-endo conformation inhibits insertion. PMID:20519499

  5. Allele Name Translation Tool and Update NomenCLature: software tools for the automated translation of HLA allele names between successive nomenclatures.

    PubMed

    Mack, S J; Hollenbach, J A

    2010-05-01

    In this brief communication, we describe the Allele Name Translation Tool (antt) and Update NomenCLature (uncl), free programs developed to facilitate the translation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele names recorded using the December 2002 version of the HLA allele nomenclature (e.g. A*01010101) to those recorded using the colon-delimited version of the HLA allele nomenclature (e.g. A*01:01:01:01) that was adopted in April 2010. In addition, the antt and uncl translate specific HLA allele-name changes (e.g. DPB1*0502 is translated to DPB1*104:01), as well as changes to the locus prefix for HLA-C (i.e. Cw* is translated to C*). The antt and uncl will also translate allele names that have been truncated to two, four, or six digits, as well as ambiguous allele strings. The antt is a locally installed and run application, while uncl is a web-based tool that requires only an Internet connection and a modern browser. The antt accepts a variety of HLA data-presentation and allele-name formats. In addition, the antt can translate using user-defined conversion settings (e.g. the names of alleles that encode identical peptide binding domains can be translated to a common 'P-code'), and can serve as a preliminary data-sanity tool. The antt is available for download, and uncl for use, at www.igdawg.org/software. PMID:20412076

  6. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, Christopher R.; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Holst, Gregory L.; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L.; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously—each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  7. Susceptible and Protective HLA Class 1 Alleles against Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients in a Malaysian Population

    PubMed Central

    Appanna, Ramapraba; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Lum Chai See, Lucy; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2010-01-01

    Background The human leukocyte antigen alleles have been implicated as probable genetic markers in predicting the susceptibility and/or protection to severe manifestations of dengue virus (DENV) infection. In this present study, we aimed to investigate for the first time, the genotype variants of HLA Class 1(-A and -B) of DENV infected patients against healthy individuals in Malaysia. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was carried out with 92 dengue disease patients and 95 healthy controls from three different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) in Malaysia. All patients with clinical and laboratory confirmation of DENV infection were typed for the HLA-A and B loci, using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer techniques. In our total population, a significant increase for HLA-B*53 (P = 0.042, Pc = 1.008) allele and a significant decrease for A*03 (P = 0.015, Pc = 0.18, OR = 5.23, 95% CI = 1.19–23.02) and B*18 (P = 0.017, Pc = 0.408) alleles were noted in DHF patients as compared to healthy donors. We also observed that in the Malay DHF patients, allele B*13 (P = 0.049, Pc = 1.176, OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03–0.90) was present at a significantly higher frequency in this population while allele HLA-B*18 (P = 0.024, Pc = 0.576) was seen to be negatively associated with DHF. Conclusions/Significance These are the first findings on genetic polymorphisms in our population and we conclude that: (1) In our total population, HLA-B*53 probably involve in disease susceptibility, while the HLA-A*03 and HLA-B*18 may confer protection from progression to severe disease; (2) In the Malay population, HLA-B*13 and B*18 are probably associated in disease susceptibility and protection, respectively. These results could furnish as a valuable predictive tool to identify ethnically different individuals at risk and/or protection from severe forms of DENV infection and would provide valuable informations

  8. Rare allelic forms of PRDM9 associated with childhood leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hussin, Julie; Sinnett, Daniel; Casals, Ferran; Idaghdour, Youssef; Bruat, Vanessa; Saillour, Virginie; Healy, Jasmine; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; de Malliard, Thibault; Busche, Stephan; Spinella, Jean-François; Larivière, Mathieu; Gibson, Greg; Andersson, Anna; Holmfeldt, Linda; Ma, Jing; Wei, Lei; Zhang, Jinghui; Andelfinger, Gregor; Downing, James R.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Awadalla, Philip

    2013-01-01

    One of the most rapidly evolving genes in humans, PRDM9, is a key determinant of the distribution of meiotic recombination events. Mutations in this meiotic-specific gene have previously been associated with male infertility in humans and recent studies suggest that PRDM9 may be involved in pathological genomic rearrangements. In studying genomes from families with children affected by B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), we characterized meiotic recombination patterns within a family with two siblings having hyperdiploid childhood B-ALL and observed unusual localization of maternal recombination events. The mother of the family carries a rare PRDM9 allele, potentially explaining the unusual patterns found. From exomes sequenced in 44 additional parents of children affected with B-ALL, we discovered a substantial and significant excess of rare allelic forms of PRDM9. The rare PRDM9 alleles are transmitted to the affected children in half the cases; nonetheless there remains a significant excess of rare alleles among patients relative to controls. We successfully replicated this latter observation in an independent cohort of 50 children with B-ALL, where we found an excess of rare PRDM9 alleles in aneuploid and infant B-ALL patients. PRDM9 variability in humans is thought to influence genomic instability, and these data support a potential role for PRDM9 variation in risk of acquiring aneuploidies or genomic rearrangements associated with childhood leukemogenesis. PMID:23222848

  9. Directed evolution of novel polymerase activities: Mutation of a DNA polymerase into an efficient RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Gang; Chen, Liangjing; Sera, Takashi; Fa, Ming; Schultz, Peter G.; Romesberg, Floyd E.

    2002-01-01

    The creation of novel enzymatic function is of great interest, but remains a challenge because of the large sequence space of proteins. We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. The Stoffel fragment (SF) of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. Phage particles displaying SF polymerases, which are able to extend the attached oligonucleotide primer by incorporating ribonucleoside triphosphates and biotinylated UTP, are immobilized to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and subsequently recovered. After four rounds of screening an SF library, three SF mutants were isolated and shown to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates virtually as efficiently as the wild-type enzyme incorporates dNTP substrates. PMID:12011423

  10. Comparison of Prion Allele Frequency found in Suffolk and Targhee Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a class of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to compare genotypic and allelic frequencies among USSES Targhee and Suffolk sheep. A total of 122 sheep were genotyped for codon 171 with allele specific primers in 2 separate...

  11. Molecular detection and identification of intimin alleles in pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Reid, S D; Betting, D J; Whittam, T S

    1999-08-01

    A multiplex PCR was designed to detect the eae gene and simultaneously identify specific alleles in pathogenic Escherichia coli. The method was tested on 87 strains representing the diarrheagenic E. coli clones. The results show that the PCR assay accurately detects eae and resolves alleles encoding the alpha, beta, and gamma intimin variants. PMID:10405431

  12. Molecular Detection and Identification of Intimin Alleles in Pathogenic Escherichia coli by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Sean D.; Betting, David J.; Whittam, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    A multiplex PCR was designed to detect the eae gene and simultaneously identify specific alleles in pathogenic Escherichia coli. The method was tested on 87 strains representing the diarrheagenic E. coli clones. The results show that the PCR assay accurately detects eae and resolves alleles encoding the α, β, and γ intimin variants. PMID:10405431

  13. [A Detection of Allelic Variants at Microsatellite Markers by Using Capillary and Traditional Electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, G A; Ponomareva, E V; Afanasiev, K I; Shaikhaev, E G; Kholodova, M V; Pavlov, S D; Zhivotovsky, L A

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellite alleles are detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) that provides a manifold increase in the number of copies (amplification) of a given DNA fragment. The fragment visualization can be reached by two different methods. These are fragment analysis by capillary electrophoresis in denaturing gel and frag- ment separation in non-denaturing gel with subsequent gel staining. The first method is more accurate and automated, but expensive. The second method is much cheaper but less convenient. It requires manual pro- cessing and is presumably less accurate. In this study, we present the results of comparison of the allele typing at nine microsatellite loci using these two methods for one of the species of Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum. In most cases, both methods give identical fragment sizes or a constant differ- ence if the alleles are relatively small (not larger than 200-220 bp). PMID:27529983

  14. Clinical characteristics and HLA alleles of a family with simultaneously occurring alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Emre, Selma; Metin, Ahmet; Caykoylu, Ali; Akoglu, Gulsen; Ceylan, Gülay G; Oztekin, Aynure; Col, Esra S

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease resulting in partial or total noncicatricial hair loss. HLA class II antigens are the most important markers that constitute genetic predisposition to AA. Various life events and intense psychological stress may play an important role in triggering AA attacks. We report an unusual case series of 4 family members who had simultaneously occurring active AA lesions. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and psychiatric features of 4 cases of active AA lesions occurring simultaneously in a family and determine HLA alleles. The clinical and psychological features of all patients were examined. HLA antigen DNA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. All patients had typical AA lesions over the scalp and/or beard area. Psychological examinations revealed obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the proband's parents as well as anxiety and lack of self-confidence in both the proband and his sister. HLA antigen types were not commonly shared with family members. These findings suggest that AA presenting concurrently in members of the same family was not associated with genetic predisposition. Shared psychological disorders and stressful life events might be the major key points in the concurrent presentation of these familial AA cases and development of resistance against treatments. PMID:27416096

  15. Helicobacter pylori hopQ alleles (type I and II) in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEYLABADLO, HAMED EBRAHIMZADEH; YEKANI, MINA; GHOTASLOU, REZA

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) outer membrane protein (HopQ) of is one of the proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to have a role in the virulence of H. pylori. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between H. pylori virulence types I and II hopQ genotypes and patients with different gastrointestinal diseases. A polymerase chain reaction-based assay was used to determine the presence of type I and type II hopQ genes in 88 H. pylori strains isolated from H. pylori-infected patients. Of the total 88 H. pylori isolates, type I and type II hopQ alleles were detected in 52 (59.1%) and 36 (40.9%), respectively. A significant association was found between type I hopQ gene and gastric cancer [odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–4.1] and gastric ulcers (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4–4.3). A significant association was also identified between the type II hopQ gene and gastric cancer (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–3.0). The association between hopQ type I and hopQ type II genotypes and clinical status suggest that these genes may be helpful in the universal prediction of specific disease risks. PMID:27123254

  16. Allelic frequencies for the HLA-DQA1, D1S80, HUMTHO1, HUMTPOX, HUMCSF1PO and HUMVWA loci in Cantabria (middle north Spain).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Molina, I; Calvet, R

    2000-01-01

    Allele frequencies for six DNA polymorphisms have been studied in a population sample from Cantabria (middle north Spain) using the polymerase chain reaction. The HLA-DQA1 locus was analyzed by the reverse dot-blot technique and the other five by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. Six alleles were found for HLA-DQA1. 15 alleles for D1S80, 6 alleles for HUMTHO1 and HUMCSF1PO, 7 for HUMTPOX and 8 alleles for HUMVWA. The 21 repeat allele in HUMVWA had not previously been reported in a Spanish population. The genotype distributions met Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all the systems and some statistical parameters of forensic interest were calculated. Comparisons with other populations revealed significant differences for HLA-DQA1, HUMVWA and HUMTHO1, with interracial differences being more pronounced than between Spanish populations. The HUMVWA system showed the highest forensic efficiency of the six polymorphisms studied. PMID:10641932

  17. The origin and early evolution of nucleic acid polymerases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, A.; Cappello, R.; Valverde, V.; Llaca, V.; Oro, J.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that vestiges of the ancestral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase involved in the replication of RNA genomes of Archean cells are present in the eubacterial RNA-polymerase beta-prime subunit and its homologues is discussed. It is shown that, in the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from three cellular lineages, a very conserved sequence of eight amino acids, also found in a small RNA-binding site previously described for the E. coli polynucleotide phosphorylase and the S1 ribosomal protein, is present. The optimal conditions for the replicase activity of the avian-myeloblastosis-virus reverse transcriptase are presented. The evolutionary significance of the in vitro modifications of substrate and template specificities of RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases is discussed.

  18. Demonstration of human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-specific T cell responses from seronegative and polymerase chain reaction-negative persons exposed to HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, M; Kermode, A G; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M; Berzofsky, J A; Uchiyama, T; Wiktor, S Z; Pate, E; Maloney, B; Manns, A

    1994-08-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a human retrovirus etiologically linked to adult T cell leukemia and the progressive chronic neurologic disease HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Described is a method that measures the production of interleukin-2 from HTLV-I synthetic peptide-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of HTLV-I-infected persons. The peptides correspond to immunogenic regions of the HTLV-I Env and Tax proteins. Significantly, this assay demonstrated T cell responses to these HTLV-I peptides from coded PBL samples in 7 of 19 HTLV-I-seronegative polymerase chain reaction-negative persons known to have been exposed to HTLV-I but in none of 16 matched controls without risk factors for exposure (P = .007). The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:8035019

  19. Mechanisms of allele-selective down-regulation of HLA class I in Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Imreh, M P; Zhang, Q J; de Campos-Lima, P O; Imreh, S; Krausa, P; Browning, M; Klein, G; Masucci, M G

    1995-07-01

    Burkitt lymphomas (BL) that arise in HLA-AII-positive individuals are characterized by selective loss/down-regulation of the HLA AII polypeptide. We have investigated the molecular basis of such down-regulation by comparing 5 pairs of BL lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) derived from the normal B cells of the same individuals. The presence of apparently intact HLA AII genes was confirmed in all 5 BL/LCL pairs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing and by Southern-blot hybridization with HLA A locus-specific probes. Northern-blot analysis with locus- and allele-specific probes revealed a significantly lower expression or absence of AII-specific mRNA in all 5 BL lines compared to the corresponding LCLs. Up-regulation of AII-specific mRNA was achieved by IFN alpha treatment of 2 BL lines with low HLA AII expression (BL-28 and BL-72) while the treatment had no effect in 3 BL lines (WWI-BL, WW2-BL and BL41) that did not express the endogenous gene. HLA AII expression was restored by transfection of the gene in WWI-BL whereas transfectants of