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Sample records for allele-specific pcr amplification

  1. Determination of DQB1 alleles using PCR amplification and allele-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Lepage, V; Ivanova, R; Loste, M N; Mallet, C; Douay, C; Naoumova, E; Charron, D

    1995-10-01

    Molecular genotyping of HLA class II genes is commonly carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with sequence-specific oligotyping (PCR-SSO) or a combination of the PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods (PCR-RFLP). However, the identification of the DQB1 type by PCR-SSO and PCR-RFLP is very time-consuming which is disadvantageous for the typing of cadaveric organ donors. We have developed a DQB1 typing method using PCR in combination with allele-specific amplification (PCR-ASA), which allows the identification of the 17 most frequent alleles in one step using seven amplification mixtures. PCR allele-specific amplification HLA-DQB1 typing is easy to perform, and the results are easy to interpret in routine clinical practice. The PCR-ASA method is therefore better suited to DQB1 typing for organ transplantation than other methods.

  2. The allele-specific probe and primer amplification assay, a new real-time PCR method for fine quantification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in pooled DNA.

    PubMed

    Billard, A; Laval, V; Fillinger, S; Leroux, P; Lachaise, H; Beffa, R; Debieu, D

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of fungicide resistance within populations of plant pathogens must be monitored to develop management strategies. Such monitoring often is based on microbiological tests, such as microtiter plate assays. Molecular monitoring methods can be considered if the mutations responsible for resistance have been identified. Allele-specific real-time PCR approaches, such as amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR, are, despite their moderate efficacy, among the most precise methods for refining SNP quantification. We describe here a new real-time PCR method, the allele-specific probe and primer amplification assay (ASPPAA PCR). This method makes use of mixtures of allele-specific minor groove binder (MGB) TaqMan probes and allele-specific primers for the fine quantification of SNPs from a pool of DNA extracted from a mixture of conidia. It was developed for a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is responsible for resistance to the sterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicide fenhexamid, resulting in the replacement of the phenylalanine residue (encoded by the TTC codon) in position 412 of the enzymatic target (3-ketoreductase) by a serine (TCC), valine (GTC), or isoleucine (ATC) residue. The levels of nonspecific amplification with the ASPPAA PCR were reduced at least four times below the level of currently available allele-specific real-time PCR approaches due to strong allele specificity in amplification cycles, including two allele selectors. This new method can be used to quantify a complex quadriallelic SNP in a DNA pool with a false discovery rate of less than 1%.

  3. [Detection of JAK2V617F mutation rate by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR using allele specific primer and TaqMan-MGB probe for dual inhibiting amplification of wild type alleles].

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo-Wei; Shao, Dong-Hua; He, Mei-Ling; Cao, Qing-Yun

    2012-12-01

    This study was purposed to develop a real-time PCR assay for sensitive quantification of JAK2V617F allele burden in peripheral blood and to evaluate the clinical value of this method. Both allele-specific mutant reverse primer and wild-type TaqMan-MGB probe were used for dual-inhibiting amplification of wild-type alleles in a real-time PCR, and then the JAK2V617F mutant alleles were amplified specially. The standard curve for quantification of JAK2V617F was established by percentages of JAK2V617F alleles with threshold cycle (Ct) values in a real-time PCR. Furthermore, 89 apparent healthy donors were tested by this method. The results showed that the quantitative lower limit of this method for JAK2V617F was 0.1%, and the intra- and inter-assay average variability for quantifying percentage of JAK2V617F in total DNA was 4.1% and 6.1%, respectively. Two JAK2V617F-positive individuals were identified (the percentage of JAK2V617F alleles were 0.64% and 0.98%, respectively) using this method in blood from 89 apparently healthy donors. It is concluded that the developed method with highly sensitive and reproducible quantification of JAK2V617F mutant burden can be used clinically for diagnosis and evaluation of disease prognosis and efficacy of therapy in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Moreover, this technique can be also used for quantitative detection of variety of single nucleotide mutation.

  4. Kinetic characterisation of primer mismatches in allele-specific PCR: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Christy M; Eisenthal, Robert; Cobb, Benjamin D

    2002-12-20

    A novel method of estimating the kinetic parameters of Taq DNA polymerase during rapid cycle PCR is presented. A model was constructed using a simplified sigmoid function to represent substrate accumulation during PCR in combination with the general equation describing high substrate inhibition for Michaelis-Menten enzymes. The PCR progress curve was viewed as a series of independent reactions where initial rates were accurately measured for each cycle. Kinetic parameters were obtained for allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) amplification to examine the effect of mismatches on amplification. A high degree of correlation was obtained providing evidence of substrate inhibition as a major cause of the plateau phase that occurs in the later cycles of PCR. PMID:12470637

  5. Kinetic characterisation of primer mismatches in allele-specific PCR: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Christy M; Eisenthal, Robert; Cobb, Benjamin D

    2002-12-20

    A novel method of estimating the kinetic parameters of Taq DNA polymerase during rapid cycle PCR is presented. A model was constructed using a simplified sigmoid function to represent substrate accumulation during PCR in combination with the general equation describing high substrate inhibition for Michaelis-Menten enzymes. The PCR progress curve was viewed as a series of independent reactions where initial rates were accurately measured for each cycle. Kinetic parameters were obtained for allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) amplification to examine the effect of mismatches on amplification. A high degree of correlation was obtained providing evidence of substrate inhibition as a major cause of the plateau phase that occurs in the later cycles of PCR.

  6. Enhancing allele-specific PCR for specifically detecting short deletion and insertion DNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiran; Rollin, Joseph A; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2010-02-01

    Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) has been widely used for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism. But there are some challenges in using AS-PCR for specifically detecting DNA variations with short deletions or insertions. The challenges are associated with designing selective allele-specific primers as well as the specificity of AS-PCR in distinguishing some types of single base-pair mismatches. In order to address such problems and enhance the applicability of AS-PCR, a general primer design method was developed to create a multiple base-pair mismatch between the primer 3'-terminus and the template DNA. This approach can destabilize the primer-template complex more efficiently than does a single base-pair mismatch, and can dramatically increase the specificity of AS-PCR. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, the method of primer design was applied in colony PCR for identifying plasmid DNA deletion or insertion mutants after site-directed mutagenesis. As anticipated, multiple base-pair mismatches achieved much more specific PCR amplification than single base-pair mismatches. Therefore, with the proposed primer design method, the detection of short nucleotide deletion and insertion mutations becomes simple, accurate and more reliable.

  7. Optimized Multiplex Detection of 7 KRAS Mutations by Taqman Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Andrea; Rieber, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the KRAS mutational status of tumor samples is essential to manage patients with colorectal or lung cancer, since these mutations preclude treatment with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. We report an inexpensive, rapid multiplex allele-specific qPCR method detecting the 7 most clinically relevant KRAS somatic mutations with concomitant amplification of non-mutated KRAS in tumor cells and tissues from CRC patients. Positive samples evidenced in the multiplex assay were further subjected to individual allele-specific analysis, to define the specific mutation. Reference human cancer DNA harbouring either G12A, G12C, G12D, G12R, G12S, G12V and G13D confirmed assay specificity with ≤1% sensitivity of mutant alleles. KRAS multiplex mutation analysis usefulness was also demonstrated with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) from CRC biopsies. Conclusion. Co-amplification of non-mutated DNA avoided false negatives from degraded samples. Moreover, this cost effective assay is compatible with mutation detection by DNA sequencing in FFPE tissues, but with a greater sensitivity when mutant DNA concentrations are limiting. PMID:27632281

  8. Allele-specific rpoB PCR assays for detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smears.

    PubMed

    Mokrousov, Igor; Otten, Tatiana; Vyshnevskiy, Boris; Narvskaya, Olga

    2003-07-01

    We describe an allele-specific PCR assay to detect mutations in three codons of the rpoB gene (516, 526, and 531) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains; mutations in these codons are reported to account for majority of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates resistant to rifampin (RIF), a marker of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Three different allele-specific PCRs are carried out either directly with purified DNA (single-step multiplex allele-specific PCR), or with preamplified rpoB fragment (nested allele-specific PCR [NAS-PCR]). The method was optimized and validated following analysis of 36 strains with known rpoB sequence. A retrospective analysis of the 287 DNA preparations from epidemiologically unlinked RIF-resistant clinical strains from Russia, collected from 1996 to 2002, revealed that 247 (86.1%) of them harbored a mutation in one of the targeted rpoB codons. A prospective study of microscopy-positive consecutive sputum samples from new and chronic TB patients validated the method for direct analysis of DNA extracted from sputum smears. The potential of the NAS-PCR to control for false-negative results due to lack of amplification was proven especially useful in the study of these samples. The developed rpoB-PCR assay can be used in clinical laboratories to detect RIF-resistant and hence MDR M. tuberculosis in the regions with high burdens of the MDR-TB. PMID:12821473

  9. Epidemiological survey of Theileria parasite infection of cattle in Northeast China by allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Yu, Longzheng; Zhang, Shoufa; Liang, Wanfeng; Jin, Chunmei; Jia, Lijun; Luo, Yuzi; Li, Yan; Cao, Shinuo; Yamagishi, Junya; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Kawano, Suguru; Fujisaki, Kozo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2011-11-01

    An epidemiological survey on a Theileria parasite infection of cattle in Northeast China was carried out using allele-specific PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. The results showed that 14 of 104 blood samples were positive for Theileria by PCR. Among the positive cases, co-infection with various combinations of C- and I-type parasites was detected in 12 samples; no B- and Thai-type parasites were detected by allele-specific PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on the MPSP gene sequences revealed that Theileria parasites with the MPSP types 1, 2, and 4 were distributed in Northeast China.

  10. [Microchip electrophoresis coupled with multiplex allele-specific am-plification for typing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Guo-Hua

    2009-02-01

    A new method of DNA adapter ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification (ALM-ASA) was developed for typing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the platform of microchip electrophoresis. Using seven SNPs of 794C>T, 1274C>T, 2143T>C, 2766T>del, 3298G>A, 5200G>A, and 5277C>T in the interleukin 1B (IL1B) gene as a target object, a long DNA fragment containing the seven SNPs of interest was pre-amplified to enhance the specificity. The pre-amplified DNA fragment was digested by a restriction endonuclease to form sticky ends; and then the adapter was ligated to either end of the digested fragment. Using the adapter-ligated fragments as templates, a 7-plex allele-specific amplification was performed by 7 allele-specific primers and a universal primer in one tube. The allele-specific products amplified were separated by chip electrophoresis and the types of SNPs were easily discriminated by the product sizes. The seven SNPs in IL1B gene in 48 healthy Chinese were successfully typed by microchip electrophoresis and the results coincided with those by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing method. The method established was accurate and can be used to type multiple SNPs simultaneously. In combination with microchip electrophoresis for readout, ALM-ASA assay can be used for fast SNP detection with a small amount of sample. Using self-prepared gel matrix and reused chips for analysis, the SNP can be typed at an ultra low cost.

  11. Allele-specific enzymatic amplification of. beta. -globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.Y.; Ugozzoli, L.; Pal, B.K.; Wallace, B. )

    1989-04-01

    A rapid nonradioactive approach to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is described based on an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR). This method allows direct detection of the normal or the sickle cell {beta}-globin allele in genomic DNA without additional steps of probe hybridization, ligation, or restriction enzyme cleavage. Two allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, one specific for the sickle cell allele and one specific for the normal allele, together with another primer complementary to both alleles were used in the polymerase chain reaction with genomic DNA templates. The allele-specific primers differed from each other in their terminal 3{prime} nucleotide. Under the proper annealing temperature and polymerase chain reaction conditions, these primers only directed amplification on their complementary allele. In a single blind study of DNA samples from 12 individuals, this method correctly and unambiguously allowed for the determination of the genotypes with no false negatives or positives. If ASPCR is able to discriminate all allelic variation (both transition and transversion mutations), this method has the potential to be a powerful approach for genetic disease diagnosis, carrier screening, HLA typing, human gene mapping, forensics, and paternity testing.

  12. Allele-Specific Quantitative PCR for Accurate, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han B; Schwab, Tanya L; Koleilat, Alaa; Ata, Hirotaka; Daby, Camden L; Cervera, Roberto Lopez; McNulty, Melissa S; Bostwick, Hannah S; Clark, Karl J

    2016-06-01

    Customizable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) enable rapid generation of mutant strains at genomic loci of interest in animal models and cell lines. With the accelerated pace of generating mutant alleles, genotyping has become a rate-limiting step to understanding the effects of genetic perturbation. Unless mutated alleles result in distinct morphological phenotypes, mutant strains need to be genotyped using standard methods in molecular biology. Classic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing is labor-intensive and expensive. Although simpler than RFLP, current versions of allele-specific PCR may still require post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) handling such as sequencing, or they are more expensive if allele-specific fluorescent probes are used. Commercial genotyping solutions can take weeks from assay design to result, and are often more expensive than assembling reactions in-house. Key components of commercial assay systems are often proprietary, which limits further customization. Therefore, we developed a one-step open-source genotyping method based on quantitative PCR. The allele-specific qPCR (ASQ) does not require post-PCR processing and can genotype germline mutants through either threshold cycle (Ct) or end-point fluorescence reading. ASQ utilizes allele-specific primers, a locus-specific reverse primer, universal fluorescent probes and quenchers, and hot start DNA polymerase. Individual laboratories can further optimize this open-source system as we completely disclose the sequences, reagents, and thermal cycling protocol. We have tested the ASQ protocol to genotype alleles in five different genes. ASQ showed a 98-100% concordance in genotype scoring with RFLP or Sanger sequencing outcomes. ASQ is time-saving because a single qPCR without post-PCR handling suffices to score

  13. Allele-Specific Quantitative PCR for Accurate, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han B; Schwab, Tanya L; Koleilat, Alaa; Ata, Hirotaka; Daby, Camden L; Cervera, Roberto Lopez; McNulty, Melissa S; Bostwick, Hannah S; Clark, Karl J

    2016-06-01

    Customizable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) enable rapid generation of mutant strains at genomic loci of interest in animal models and cell lines. With the accelerated pace of generating mutant alleles, genotyping has become a rate-limiting step to understanding the effects of genetic perturbation. Unless mutated alleles result in distinct morphological phenotypes, mutant strains need to be genotyped using standard methods in molecular biology. Classic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing is labor-intensive and expensive. Although simpler than RFLP, current versions of allele-specific PCR may still require post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) handling such as sequencing, or they are more expensive if allele-specific fluorescent probes are used. Commercial genotyping solutions can take weeks from assay design to result, and are often more expensive than assembling reactions in-house. Key components of commercial assay systems are often proprietary, which limits further customization. Therefore, we developed a one-step open-source genotyping method based on quantitative PCR. The allele-specific qPCR (ASQ) does not require post-PCR processing and can genotype germline mutants through either threshold cycle (Ct) or end-point fluorescence reading. ASQ utilizes allele-specific primers, a locus-specific reverse primer, universal fluorescent probes and quenchers, and hot start DNA polymerase. Individual laboratories can further optimize this open-source system as we completely disclose the sequences, reagents, and thermal cycling protocol. We have tested the ASQ protocol to genotype alleles in five different genes. ASQ showed a 98-100% concordance in genotype scoring with RFLP or Sanger sequencing outcomes. ASQ is time-saving because a single qPCR without post-PCR handling suffices to score

  14. Allele-Specific Quantitative PCR for Accurate, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han B.; Schwab, Tanya L.; Koleilat, Alaa; Ata, Hirotaka; Daby, Camden L.; Cervera, Roberto Lopez; McNulty, Melissa S.; Bostwick, Hannah S.; Clark, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Customizable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) enable rapid generation of mutant strains at genomic loci of interest in animal models and cell lines. With the accelerated pace of generating mutant alleles, genotyping has become a rate-limiting step to understanding the effects of genetic perturbation. Unless mutated alleles result in distinct morphological phenotypes, mutant strains need to be genotyped using standard methods in molecular biology. Classic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing is labor-intensive and expensive. Although simpler than RFLP, current versions of allele-specific PCR may still require post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) handling such as sequencing, or they are more expensive if allele-specific fluorescent probes are used. Commercial genotyping solutions can take weeks from assay design to result, and are often more expensive than assembling reactions in-house. Key components of commercial assay systems are often proprietary, which limits further customization. Therefore, we developed a one-step open-source genotyping method based on quantitative PCR. The allele-specific qPCR (ASQ) does not require post-PCR processing and can genotype germline mutants through either threshold cycle (Ct) or end-point fluorescence reading. ASQ utilizes allele-specific primers, a locus-specific reverse primer, universal fluorescent probes and quenchers, and hot start DNA polymerase. Individual laboratories can further optimize this open-source system as we completely disclose the sequences, reagents, and thermal cycling protocol. We have tested the ASQ protocol to genotype alleles in five different genes. ASQ showed a 98–100% concordance in genotype scoring with RFLP or Sanger sequencing outcomes. ASQ is time-saving because a single qPCR without post-PCR handling suffices to score

  15. Linear allele-specific long-range amplification: a novel method of long-range molecular haplotyping.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Hsiang-Ju; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Hong, Hong-Shang; Lee, Yun-Shien

    2005-10-01

    Haplotypes have been repeatedly shown to be more powerful than collections of single-locus markers in gene-mapping studies. Various haplotyping methods including statistical estimation are employed but molecular haplotyping, the acquisition of information directly on physical DNA sequences, has been in demand for its accuracy and independence from family pedigrees. We investigated the allelic specificity of long-range PCR, which was successful for long-range haplotyping in recent reports, and found problems of initial mispriming and crossover amplification significantly confounded its application. Based on these observations, we designed a novel method based on linear amplification of a hemizygous DNA segment with a single phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotide. Our results revealed, with a single nucleotide polymorphism as the discriminative marker, downstream haplotypes of 14-15 kb DNA segment could be confidently scored. With two rounds of the method and five single nucleotide polymorphisms, molecular haplotypes of 29.3 kb spanning the HCR and CDSN genes, two genes associated with the susceptibility of psoriasis, of 11 members, belonging to a CEPH family, were revealed. Clear Mendelian segregation of 35 highly heterozygous SNPs confirmed the accuracy of the method. Problems of low specificity associated with long-range PCR were not observed. The simplicity, along with long-sequence accessibility and feasibility of a single nucleotide difference as the discriminative marker indicated our method holds promise for future gene-mapping studies.

  16. S-genotype identification based on allele-specific PCR in Japanese pear

    PubMed Central

    Nashima, Kenji; Terakami, Shingo; Nishio, Sogo; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is controlled by the single, multi-allelic S-locus. Information about the S-genotypes is important for breeding and the selection of pollen donors for fruit production. Rapid and reliable S-genotype identification system is necessary for efficient breeding of new cultivars in Japanese pear. We designed S allele-specific PCR primer pairs for ten previously reported S-RNase alleles (S1–S9 and Sk) as simple and reliable method. Specific nucleotide sequences were chosen to design the primers to amplify fragments of only the corresponding S alleles. The developed primer pairs were evaluated by using homozygous S-genotypes (S1/S1–S9/S9 and S4sm/S4sm) and 14 major Japanese pear cultivars, and found that S allele-specific primer pairs can identify S-genotypes effectively. The S allele-specific primer pairs developed in this study will be useful for efficient S-genotyping and for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:26175617

  17. Competitive allele-specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) is a sensitive, specific and fast method for BRAF V600 mutation detection in Melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Barbano, Raffaela; Pasculli, Barbara; Coco, Michelina; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Rendina, Michelina; Valori, Vanna Maria; Graziano, Paolo; Maiello, Evaristo; Fazio, Vito Michele; Parrella, Paola

    2015-12-22

    BRAF codon 600 mutation testing of melanoma patients is mandatory for the choice of the most appropriate therapy in the clinical setting. Competitive allele specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) technology allows not only the selective amplification of minor alleles, but it also blocks the amplification of non-mutant allele. We genotyped codon 600 of the BRAF gene in 54 patients' samples by Cast-PCR and bidirectional direct sequence analysis. All the mutations detected by sequencing were also identified by Cast-PCR. In addition, Cast-PCR assay detected four samples carrying mutations and was able to clearly identify two mutations of uncertain interpretation by Sanger sequencing. The limit of detection of Cast-PCR was evaluated by constructing dilution curves of BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutated clinical samples mixed with a not-mutated specimens. Both mutations could be detected until a 1:100 mutated/not mutated ratio. Cloning and sequencing of the clones was used to confirm mutations on representative discrepant cases. Cast PCR performances were not affected by intratumour heterogeneity, and less affected by melanin content. Our results indicate that Cast-PCR is a reliable diagnostic tool for the identification of melanoma patients as eligible to be treated with TKIs and might be implemented in the clinical setting as elective screening method.

  18. Competitive allele-specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) is a sensitive, specific and fast method for BRAF V600 mutation detection in Melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Barbano, Raffaela; Pasculli, Barbara; Coco, Michelina; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Rendina, Michelina; Valori, Vanna Maria; Graziano, Paolo; Maiello, Evaristo; Fazio, Vito Michele; Parrella, Paola

    2015-01-01

    BRAF codon 600 mutation testing of melanoma patients is mandatory for the choice of the most appropriate therapy in the clinical setting. Competitive allele specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) technology allows not only the selective amplification of minor alleles, but it also blocks the amplification of non-mutant allele. We genotyped codon 600 of the BRAF gene in 54 patients’ samples by Cast-PCR and bidirectional direct sequence analysis. All the mutations detected by sequencing were also identified by Cast-PCR. In addition, Cast-PCR assay detected four samples carrying mutations and was able to clearly identify two mutations of uncertain interpretation by Sanger sequencing. The limit of detection of Cast-PCR was evaluated by constructing dilution curves of BRAFV600E and BRAFV600K mutated clinical samples mixed with a not-mutated specimens. Both mutations could be detected until a 1:100 mutated/not mutated ratio. Cloning and sequencing of the clones was used to confirm mutations on representative discrepant cases. Cast PCR performances were not affected by intratumour heterogeneity, and less affected by melanin content. Our results indicate that Cast-PCR is a reliable diagnostic tool for the identification of melanoma patients as eligible to be treated with TKIs and might be implemented in the clinical setting as elective screening method. PMID:26690267

  19. Detection of mutation by allele-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (AS-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Aonuma, Hiroka; Badolo, Athanase; Okado, Kiyoshi; Kanuka, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    For effective control of pathogen-transmitting mosquitoes, precise surveillance data of mosquito distribution are essential. Recently, an increase of insecticide resistance due to the kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits the malaria parasite, has been reported. With the aim of developing a simple and effective method for surveying resistant mosquitoes, LAMP was applied to the allele-specific detection of the kdr gene in An. gambiae. Allele-specific LAMP (AS-LAMP) method successfully distinguished the kdr homozygote from the heterozygote and the wild type. The robustness of AS-LAMP suggests its usefulness for routine identification of insects, not only mosquitoes but also other vectors and agricultural pests. Here we describe the method of AS-LAMP to detect mutation in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:24026691

  20. Development of allele-specific PCR and RT-PCR assays for clustered resistance genes using a potato late blight resistance transgene as a model.

    PubMed

    Millett, B P; Bradeen, J M

    2007-02-01

    Members of the NBS-LRR gene family impart resistance to a wide variety of pathogens and are often found clustered within a plant genome. This clustering of homologous sequences can complicate PCR-based characterizations, especially the study of transgenes. We have developed allele-specific PCR and RT-PCR assays for the potato late blight resistance gene RB. Our assay utilizes two approaches toward primer design, allowing discrimination between the RB transgene and both the endogenous RB gene and numerous RB homeologs. First, a reverse primer was designed to take advantage of an indel present in the RB transgene but absent in rb susceptibility alleles, enhancing specificity for the transgene, though not fully discriminating against RB homeologs. Second, a forward primer was designed according to the principles of mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR, targeting SNPs introduced during the cloning of RB. Together, the indel reverse primer and the MAMA forward primer provide an assay that is highly specific for the RB transgene, being capable of distinguishing the transgene from all RB endogenous gene copies and from all RB paralogs in a diverse collection of wild and cultivated potato genotypes. These primers have been successfully multiplexed with primers of an internal control. The multiplexed assay is useful for both PCR and RT-PCR applications. Double MAMA-PCR, in which both PCR primers target separate transgene-specific SNPs, was also tested and shown to be equally specific for the RB transgene. We propose extending the use of MAMA for the characterization of resistance transgenes. PMID:17177064

  1. Allele-specific PCR for the beta-tubulin codon 200 TTC/TAC polymorphism using single adult and larval small strongyle (Cyathostominae) stages.

    PubMed

    von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Pape, M; von Witzendorff, C; Schnieder, T

    2002-04-01

    It has been shown that benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes is linked with an increase in beta-tubulin codon 200 tyrosine-expressing alleles in the resistant parasite populations. Here, an allele-specific PCR has been developed for the discrimination of the TAC/TTC polymorphism in the beta-tubulin 200 codon of small strongyles. One reverse primer was used in 2 separate amplifications with 1 of 2 forward primers that differed only in their final 3' nucleotide. The primers flank a facultative intron/exon. Therefore, the amplified fragments are either 251 or 308 bp in size, depending on the presence or absence of the intron in individual worms. Amplification of genomic DNA isolated from single adult small strongyles from a set of 7 species consistently generated allele-specific products. Three worms each of the following species were used: Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicocyclus elongatus, Cylicocyclus radiatus, Cyathostomum pateratum, Cyathostomum catinatum, and Cyathostomum coronatum. PCR with DNA isolated from single larvae also reproducibly generated specific fragments. This method might be applied for the future assessment of allele frequencies in susceptible and resistant populations to further investigate the mechanism of BZ-resistance in small strongyles. PMID:12053994

  2. Identification of self-incompatibility genotypes of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) by S-allele-specific PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Jie, Qi; Shupeng, Gai; Jixiang, Zhang; Manru, Gu; Huairui, Shu

    2005-08-01

    A cDNA of 417 bp encoding an S-RNase gene, named PA S3, was isolated from apricot, Prunus aremeniaca. Nine S-alleles, S1-S9, were recognized by S-allele-specific PCR and confirmed by Southern blot analysis using PA S3 as probe. The S-genotypes of the six cultivars were determined and the results of self- and cross-pollination tests among the six cultivars were consistent with the predicted S-haplotypes by PCR analysis.

  3. Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid Quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR): An Accurate and Cost-Effective Assay to Diagnose and Quantify KRAS and BRAF Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Luca; de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Cesari, Valentina; De Maglio, Giovanna; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) requires the testing for hot spot mutations of the molecular effectors downstream the membrane-bound tyrosine kinases since their wild type status is expected for response to TKI therapy. We report a novel assay that we have called Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR). The assay uses LNA-modified allele specific primers and LNA-modified beacon probes to increase sensitivity, specificity and to accurately quantify mutations. We designed primers specific for codon 12/13 KRAS mutations and BRAF V600E, and validated the assay with 300 routine samples from a variety of sources, including cytology specimens. All were analyzed by ASLNAqPCR and Sanger sequencing. Discordant cases were pyrosequenced. ASLNAqPCR correctly identified BRAF and KRAS mutations in all discordant cases and all had a mutated/wild type DNA ratio below the analytical sensitivity of the Sanger method. ASLNAqPCR was 100% specific with greater accuracy, positive and negative predictive values compared with Sanger sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of ASLNAqPCR is 0.1%, allowing quantification of mutated DNA in small neoplastic cell clones. ASLNAqPCR can be performed in any laboratory with real-time PCR equipment, is very cost-effective and can easily be adapted to detect hot spot mutations in other oncogenes. PMID:22558339

  4. Allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR): an accurate and cost-effective assay to diagnose and quantify KRAS and BRAF mutation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Luca; de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Cesari, Valentina; De Maglio, Giovanna; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) requires the testing for hot spot mutations of the molecular effectors downstream the membrane-bound tyrosine kinases since their wild type status is expected for response to TKI therapy. We report a novel assay that we have called Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR). The assay uses LNA-modified allele specific primers and LNA-modified beacon probes to increase sensitivity, specificity and to accurately quantify mutations. We designed primers specific for codon 12/13 KRAS mutations and BRAF V600E, and validated the assay with 300 routine samples from a variety of sources, including cytology specimens. All were analyzed by ASLNAqPCR and Sanger sequencing. Discordant cases were pyrosequenced. ASLNAqPCR correctly identified BRAF and KRAS mutations in all discordant cases and all had a mutated/wild type DNA ratio below the analytical sensitivity of the Sanger method. ASLNAqPCR was 100% specific with greater accuracy, positive and negative predictive values compared with Sanger sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of ASLNAqPCR is 0.1%, allowing quantification of mutated DNA in small neoplastic cell clones. ASLNAqPCR can be performed in any laboratory with real-time PCR equipment, is very cost-effective and can easily be adapted to detect hot spot mutations in other oncogenes.

  5. From genes to phenotypes - evaluation of two methods for the SNP analysis in archaeological remains: pyrosequencing and competitive allele specific PCR (KASPar).

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Melanie; Reissmann, Monika; Benecke, Norbert; Ludwig, Arne

    2012-01-20

    The amplification length of the DNA fragments is one major limitation of most paleogenetic analyses. Routinely, only fragments below 200 bp can be amplified, significantly reducing the content of genetic information. Although overlapping PCR strategies and next generation sequencing techniques have strongly improved data mining recently, these methods are still expensive and time consuming. In contrast, SNP analyses are easy to handle, fast and cheap. In this study, we compare two methods of SNP detection as to efficiency, cost and reliability for their use in ancient DNA applications: pyrosequencing and competitive allele specific PCR (KASPar). Our sample set consisted of 16 horse bones from two Scythian graves (600-800 BC). In conclusion, both approaches produced reliable results for most allelic patterns. But an indel of 11 bp (ASIP) could not be detected in the KASPar approach and produced problems in the pyrosequencing method (70% success rate). In such cases, we recommend checking allelic distribution using a gel approach or capillary sequencing. Overall, in comparison with the traditional mode of ancient DNA investigations (PCR, cloning, capillary sequencing), both approaches are superior for SNP analyses especially of large sample sets.

  6. Assignment of SNP allelic configuration in polyploids using competitive allele-specific PCR: application to citrus triploid progeny

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyploidy is a major component of eukaryote evolution. Estimation of allele copy numbers for molecular markers has long been considered a challenge for polyploid species, while this process is essential for most genetic research. With the increasing availability and whole-genome coverage of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, it is essential to implement a versatile SNP genotyping method to assign allelic configuration efficiently in polyploids. Scope This work evaluates the usefulness of the KASPar method, based on competitive allele-specific PCR, for the assignment of SNP allelic configuration. Citrus was chosen as a model because of its economic importance, the ongoing worldwide polyploidy manipulation projects for cultivar and rootstock breeding, and the increasing availability of SNP markers. Conclusions Fifteen SNP markers were successfully designed that produced clear allele signals that were in agreement with previous genotyping results at the diploid level. The analysis of DNA mixes between two haploid lines (Clementine and pummelo) at 13 different ratios revealed a very high correlation (average = 0·9796; s.d. = 0·0094) between the allele ratio and two parameters [θ angle = tan−1 (y/x) and y′ = y/(x + y)] derived from the two normalized allele signals (x and y) provided by KASPar. Separated cluster analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) from mixed DNA simulating triploid and tetraploid hybrids provided 99·71 % correct allelic configuration. Moreover, triploid populations arising from 2n gametes and interploid crosses were easily genotyped and provided useful genetic information. This work demonstrates that the KASPar SNP genotyping technique is an efficient way to assign heterozygous allelic configurations within polyploid populations. This method is accurate, simple and cost-effective. Moreover, it may be useful for quantitative studies, such as relative allele-specific expression analysis and bulk segregant analysis

  7. Development of a Novel Allele-Specific PCR Method for Rapid Assessment of Nervous Necrosis Virus Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Margaroni, Maritsa; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2015-11-01

    Viral nervous necrosis infections are causing severe problems on aquaculture industry due to ecological and economic impacts. Their causal agent is nervous necrosis virus or nodavirus, which has been classified into four genotypes. Different genotypes correlate with differences in viral pathogenicity. Therefore, rational development of effective vaccines and diagnostic reagents requires analysis of the genetic variation. The development and validation of a polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR)-based methodology for nodavirus genotype assessment in a simple and robust format is described. Degenerate external primers and two genotype-specific internal primers were utilized for simultaneous amplification of nodavirus products in a single PCR. A first set of cycles produced a long PCR product, defined by the outer primers, and the internal primers amplified short DNA fragments specific for each genotype in lower annealing temperature. Detection was based on the size of the short products. Nodavirus infected and healthy samples were analyzed and none of the non-infected samples showed any bands, while all infected samples were positive. The proposed method can be performed within 4 h and consumes standard PCR and electrophoresis reagents, with costs lower than 2€ per sample. Tetra-primer PCR is a suitable alternative for virus sequencing in medium scale research laboratories and farming facilities. PMID:26210900

  8. Development of a Novel Allele-Specific PCR Method for Rapid Assessment of Nervous Necrosis Virus Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Margaroni, Maritsa; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2015-11-01

    Viral nervous necrosis infections are causing severe problems on aquaculture industry due to ecological and economic impacts. Their causal agent is nervous necrosis virus or nodavirus, which has been classified into four genotypes. Different genotypes correlate with differences in viral pathogenicity. Therefore, rational development of effective vaccines and diagnostic reagents requires analysis of the genetic variation. The development and validation of a polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR)-based methodology for nodavirus genotype assessment in a simple and robust format is described. Degenerate external primers and two genotype-specific internal primers were utilized for simultaneous amplification of nodavirus products in a single PCR. A first set of cycles produced a long PCR product, defined by the outer primers, and the internal primers amplified short DNA fragments specific for each genotype in lower annealing temperature. Detection was based on the size of the short products. Nodavirus infected and healthy samples were analyzed and none of the non-infected samples showed any bands, while all infected samples were positive. The proposed method can be performed within 4 h and consumes standard PCR and electrophoresis reagents, with costs lower than 2€ per sample. Tetra-primer PCR is a suitable alternative for virus sequencing in medium scale research laboratories and farming facilities.

  9. Authentication of official Da-huang by sequencing and multiplex allele-specific PCR of a short maturase K gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guojie; Wang, Xueyong; Liu, Chunsheng; Li, Weidong; Wei, Shengli; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Rhubarb (official Da-huang) is an important medicinal herb in Asia. Many adulterants of official Da-huang have been discovered in Chinese markets in recent years, which has resulted in adverse effects in medicinal treatment. Here, novel molecular markers based on a short maturase K (matK) gene were developed for authenticating official Da-huang. This study showed that all the species from official Da-huang were clustered together in one clade in the polygenetic trees based on short matK. Two highly conserved single nucleotide polymorphisms of short matK were mined in the species from official Da-huang. Based on these polymophisms, four improved specific primers of official Da-huang were successfully developed that generated reproducible specific bands. These results suggest that the short matK sequence can be considered as a favorable candidate for distinguishing official Da-huang from its adulterants. The established multiplex allele-specific PCR was determined to be simple and accurate and may serve as a preferable tool for authentication of official Da-huang. In addition, we suggest that short-sized specific bands be developed to authenticate materials used in traditional Chinese medicine.

  10. Allele-specific PCR for detecting the deafness-associated mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Xia, Bo-Hou; Liu, Qi; Li, Mei-Ya; Huang, Shui-Xian; Zhuo, Guang-Chao

    2016-10-10

    Mutations in mitochondrial 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) are the important causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Of these mutations, the homoplasmic m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T mutation in the highly conserved A-site of MT-RNR1 gene has been found to be associated with both aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss in many families worldwide. Since the m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T mutations are sensitive to ototoxic drugs, therefore, screening for the presence of these mutations is important for early diagnosis and prevention of deafness. For this purpose, we recently developed a novel allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) which is able to simultaneously detect these mutations. To assess its accuracy, in this study, we employed this method to screen the frequency of m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T mutations in 200 deafness patients and 120 healthy subjects. Consequently, four m.1555A>G and four m.1494C>T mutations were identified; among these, only one patient with the m.1494C>T mutation had an obvious family history of hearing loss. Strikingly, clinical evaluation showed that this family exhibited a high penetrance of hearing loss. In particular, the penetrances of hearing loss were 80% with the aminoglycoside included and 20% when excluded. PCR-Sanger sequencing of the mitochondrial genomes confirmed the presence of the m.1494C>T mutation and identified a set of polymorphisms belonging to mitochondrial haplogroup A. However, the lack of functional variants in mitochondrial and nuclear modified genes (GJB2 and TRMU) in this family indicated that mitochondrial haplogroup and nuclear genes may not play important roles in the phenotypic expression of the m.1494C>T mutation. Thus, other modification factors, such as environmental factor, aminoglycosides or epigenetic modification may have contributed to the high penetrance of hearing loss in this family. Taken together, our data showed that this assay is an effective approach that could be used for detection the deafness-associated MT-RNR1

  11. Requisite analytic and diagnostic performance characteristics for the clinical detection of BRAF V600E in hairy cell leukemia: a comparison of 2 allele-specific PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Noah A; Weigelin, Helmut C; Bailey, Nathanael; Laliberte, Julie; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Lim, Megan S; Betz, Bryan L

    2015-09-01

    Detection of high-frequency BRAF V600E mutations in hairy cell leukemia (HCL) has important diagnostic utility. However, the requisite analytic performance for a clinical assay to routinely detect BRAF V600E mutations in HCL has not been clearly defined. In this study, we sought to determine the level of analytic sensitivity needed for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and frozen samples and to compare the performance of 2 allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Twenty-nine cases of classic HCL, including 22 FFPE bone marrow aspirates and 7 frozen specimens from blood or bone marrow were evaluated using a laboratory-developed allele-specific PCR assay and a commercially available allele-specific quantitative PCR assay-myT BRAF Ultra. Also included were 6 HCL variant and 40 non-HCL B-cell lymphomas. Two cases of classic HCL, 1 showing CD5 expression, were truly BRAF V600E-negative based on negative results by PCR and sequencing despite high-level leukemic involvement. Among the remaining 27 specimens, V600E mutations were detected in 88.9% (17/20 FFPE; 7/7 frozen) and 81.5% (15/20 FFPE; 7/7 frozen), for the laboratory-developed and commercial assays, respectively. No mutations were detected among the 46 non-HCL lymphomas. Both assays showed an analytic sensitivity of 0.3% involvement in frozen specimens and 5% in FFPE tissue. On the basis of these results, an assay with high analytic sensitivity is required for the clinical detection of V600E mutations in HCL specimens. Two allele-specific PCR assays performed well in both frozen and FFPE bone marrow aspirates, although detection in FFPE tissue required 5% or more involvement.

  12. Allele-Specific PCR Method Based on pncA and oxyR Sequences for Distinguishing Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Intraspecific M. bovis pncA Sequence Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    de los Monteros, Luz Elena Espinosa; Galán, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez, Montserrat; Samper, Sofía; García Marín, Juan F.; Martín, Carlos; Domínguez, Lucas; de Rafael, Luis; Baquero, Fernando; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique; Blázquez, Jesús

    1998-01-01

    An allele-specific amplification method based on two genetic polymorphisms to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Mycobacterium bovis was tested. Based on the differences found at position 169 in the pncA genes from M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, a PCR system which was able to differentiate most of the 237 M. tuberculosis complex isolates tested in one of the two species was developed. All 121 M. tuberculosis strains showed the expected base (cytosine) at position 169. Most of the M. bovis isolates had a guanine at the cited position. Nevertheless, 18 of the 116 M. bovis isolates, all of them goat isolates, showed the pncA polymorphism specific to M. tuberculosis. These results suggest that goat M. bovis may be the nicotinamidase-missing link at the origin of the M. tuberculosis species. Based on the polymorphism found at position 285 in the oxyR gene, the same system was used to differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. In this case, DNAs from all 121 M. tuberculosis isolates had the expected base (guanine) at this position. In addition, all 116 M. bovis isolates, including those from goats, showed the identical polymorphism (adenine). The oxyR allele-specific amplification method can differentiate M. bovis from M. tuberculosis, is rapid (results can be obtained in less than 3 h), and is easy to perform. PMID:9431955

  13. Development of a Melting Curve-Based Allele-Specific PCR of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Genotyping Method for Genomic DNA, Guthrie Blood Spot, and Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (APOE) are associated with various health conditions and diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, etc. Hence, genotyping of APOE has broad applications in biomedical research and clinical settings, particularly in the era of precision medicine. The study aimed to develop a convenient and accurate method with flexible throughput to genotype the APOE polymorphisms. A melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method was developed to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOE, i.e. rs429358 at codon 112 and rs7412 at codon 158. These two SNPs determine the genotype of APOE2, E3, and E4. PCR-based Sanger sequencing was used as the reference method for APOE genotyping. A 100% concordance rate was obtained in 300 subjects between the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method and the Sanger sequencing method. This method was applied to a genetic association analysis of APOE and schizophrenia consisting of 711 patients with schizophrenia and 665 control subjects from Taiwan. However, no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were detected between these two groups. Further experiments showed that DNA dissolved from blood collected on Guthrie filter paper and total blood cell lysate without DNA extraction can be used in the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method. Thus, we suggest that this is a fast, accurate and robust APOE genotyping method with a flexible throughput and suitable for DNA template from different preparations. This convenient method shall meet the different needs of various research and clinical laboratories. PMID:27078154

  14. A new PCR method: one primer amplification of PCR-CTPP products.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guang; Mitsuda, Yoko; Ezaki, Takayuki; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2012-10-01

    Polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP) is a convenient method for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms, saving time, and costs. It uses four primers for PCR; F1 and R1 for one allele, and F2 and R2 for the other allele, by which three different sizes of DNA are amplified; between F1 and R1, between F2 and R2, and between F1 and R2. To date, we have applied PCR-CTPP successfully for genotyping more than 60 polymorphisms. However, it is not rare that PCR does not produce balanced amplification of allele specific bands. Accordingly, the method was modified by attaching a common sequence at the 5' end of two-pair primers and adding another primer with the common sequence in PCR, in total five different primers in a tube for PCR. The modification allowed one primer amplification for the products of initial PCR with confronting two-pair primers, named as one primer amplification of PCR-CTPP products (OPA-CTPP). This article demonstrates an example for an A/G polymorphism of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Gln192Arg (rs662). PCR-CTPP failed clear genotyping for the polymorphism, while OPA-CTPP successfully produced PCR products corresponding to the allele. The present example indicated that the OPA-CTPP would be useful in the case that PCR-CTPP failed to produce balanced PCR products specific to each allele.

  15. Concordance between allele-specific PCR and ultra-deep pyrosequencing for the detection of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Gillian M; Morris, Lynn; Moorthy, Anitha; Coovadia, Ashraf; Abrams, Elaine J; Strehlau, Renate; Kuhn, Louise; Persaud, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genotyping technologies have allowed for detection of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations present at low levels. The presence and percentage of Y181C and K103N drug-resistant variants in the blood of 105 subtype C HIV-infected infants who failed single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis for HIV transmission were compared using two highly sensitive genotyping methods, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Significant correlations in detection between both methods were found for both Y181C (correlation coefficients of 0.94 [95% CI 0.91-0.96]) and K103N (0.89 [95% CI 0.84 – 0.92]) mutations. The majority of discordant specimens (3/5 Y181C and 8/11 K103N) had wild-type variants when population sequencing was used, but mutant variants were detectable at very low levels (≤5%) with either assay. This difference is most likely due to stochastic variations in the appearance of mutant variants. Overall, both AS-PCR and ultra-deep pyrosequencing methods have proven to be sensitive and accurate, and may confidently be used where feasible. PMID:25034127

  16. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections.

  17. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections. PMID:26407876

  18. A simple and rapid method for HLA-DQA1 genotyping by digestion of PCR-amplified DNA with allele specific restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Murayama, N; Ishii, H; Uryu, N; Ota, M; Tsuji, K; Inoko, H

    1989-11-01

    The second exon of the HLA-DQA1 genes was selectively amplified from genomic DNAs of 72 HLA-homozygous B cell lines by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplified DNAs were digested with HaeIII, Ddel, ScrFI, FokI and RsaI, which recognize allelic sequence variations in the polymorphic segments of the DQA1 second exon, and then subjected to electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Eight different polymorphic patterns of restriction fragments were obtained, and seven were identical to patterns predicted from the known DNA sequences, correlating with each HLA-DQw type defined by serological typing. The remaining one pattern cannot be explained from the sequence data, suggesting the presence of a novel DQA1 allele at the nucleotide level. This PCR-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid technique for accurate definition of the HLA-DQ types at the nucleotide level, eliminating the need for radioisotope as well as allele specific oligonucleotide probes and can be extended and applied to HLA-DR, -Dw DP typing. PMID:2576477

  19. A Multiplex Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MAS-PCR) for the Detection of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Morteza; Rad, Isa Abdi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In order to determine the frequencies of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A point mutations in the Iranian population with Azeri Turkish origin. Material and methods: 120 unrelated individuals from general population randomly selected and were examined for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations using a multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) assay Outcomes: The frequency of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 2.08%, which means 5 chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes had prothrombin G20210A mutation. The distribution of prothrombin 20210 GG, GA, AA genotypes and prothrombin 20210A allele were 37(92.5%), 3(7.5%), 0(0%) and 3(3.75%) in males and 78(97.5%), 2(2.5%), 0(0%) and 2(1.25%) in females, respectively. Factor V Leiden was not found in our tested group (zero chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes). Analysis of the observed frequencies in the studied groups indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between females and males, regarding prothrombin G20210A mutation (p value>0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study in its own kind in this population and implies that the frequency of Factor V Leiden G1691A (R506Q, FV-Leiden) allele is extremely low but the prothrombin G20210A mutation is more frequent in the tested group. PMID:21977183

  20. Rapid KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA Mutation Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirates from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Melanie; Talebian Yazdi, Mehrdad; Ruano, Dina; Forte, Giusi I.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Veselic, Maud; Rabe, Klaus F.; Annema, Jouke T.; Smit, Vincent; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients. PMID:21408138

  1. Identification of new primer binding site mutations at TH01 and D13S317 loci and determination of their corresponding STR alleles by allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengrui; Xuan, Jinfeng; Xing, Jiaxin; Ding, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Pang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Several commercial multiplex PCR kits for the amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) loci have been extensively applied in forensic genetics. Consequently, large numbers of samples have been genotyped, and the number of discordant genotypes observed has also increased. We observed allele dropout with two novel alleles at the STR loci TH01 and D13S317 during paternity testing using the AmpFℓSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit. The lost alleles reappeared when alternative PCR primer pairs were used. A sequence analysis revealed a G-to-A substitution 82 bases downstream of the last TCAT motif of the repeat region at the TH01 locus (GenBank accession: D00269) and a G-to-T substitution 90 bases upstream of the first TATC motif of the repeat region at the D13S317 locus (GenBank accession: G09017). The frequencies of these two point mutations were subsequently investigated in the Chinese population using sequence-specific primer PCR (SSP-PCR), but neither of these mutations was detected in any of the samples tested. In addition, the DNA samples in which the mutations were identified were amplified to type the point mutations by SSP-PCR to determine the corresponding STR alleles at the two loci. Subsequently, the amplified PCR products with different point mutations and STR repeat numbers were directly sequenced because this strategy overcomes the appearance overlapping peaks generated by different STR alleles and accurately characterizes genotypes. Thus, our findings not only provide useful information for DNA databases and forensic identification but also establish an effective strategy for typing STR alleles with primer binding site mutations.

  2. SNP-Based Quantification of Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Patterns by Pyrosequencing®.

    PubMed

    Busato, Florence; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of allele-specific DNA methylation patterns has recently attracted much interest as loci of allele-specific DNA methylation overlap with known risk loci for complex diseases and the analysis might contribute to the fine-mapping and interpretation of non-coding genetic variants associated with complex diseases and improve the understanding between genotype and phenotype. In the presented protocol, we present a method for the analysis of DNA methylation patterns on both alleles separately using heterozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as anchor for allele-specific PCR amplification followed by analysis of the allele-specific DNA methylation patterns by Pyrosequencing(®). Pyrosequencing is an easy-to-handle, quantitative real-time sequencing method that is frequently used for genotyping as well as for the analysis of DNA methylation patterns. The protocol consists of three major steps: (1) identification of individuals heterozygous for a SNP in a region of interest using Pyrosequencing; (2) analysis of the DNA methylation patterns surrounding the SNP on bisulfite-treated DNA to identify regions of potential allele-specific DNA methylation; and (3) the analysis of the DNA methylation patterns associated with each of the two alleles, which are individually amplified using allele-specific PCR. The enrichment of the targeted allele is re-enforced by modification of the allele-specific primers at the allele-discriminating base with Locked Nucleic Acids (LNA). For the proof-of-principle of the developed approach, we provide assay details for three imprinted genes (IGF2, IGF2R, and PEG3) within this chapter. The mean of the DNA methylation patterns derived from the individual alleles corresponds well to the overall DNA methylation patterns and the developed approach proved more reliable compared to other protocols for allele-specific DNA methylation analysis.

  3. An allele-specific PCR system for rapid detection and discrimination of the CYP2C19∗4A, ∗4B, and ∗17 alleles: implications for clopidogrel response testing.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stuart A; Tan, Qian; Baber, Usman; Yang, Yao; Martis, Suparna; Bander, Jeffrey; Kornreich, Ruth; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Desnick, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    CYP2C19 is involved in the metabolism of clinically relevant drugs, including the antiplatelet prodrug clopidogrel, which has prompted interest in clinical CYP2C19 genotyping. The CYP2C19∗4B allele is defined by both gain-of-function [c.-806C>T (∗17)] and loss-of-function [c.1A>G (∗4)] variants on the same haplotype; however, current genotyping and sequencing assays are unable to determine the phase of these variants. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an assay that could rapidly detect and discriminate the related ∗4A, ∗4B, and ∗17 alleles. An allele-specific PCR assay, composed of four unique primer mixes that specifically interrogate the defining ∗17 and ∗4 variants, was developed by using samples (n = 20) with known genotypes, including the ∗4A, ∗4B, and/or ∗17 alleles. The assay was validated by testing 135 blinded samples, and the results were correlated with CYP2C19 genotyping and allele-specific cloning/sequencing. Importantly, among the six ∗4 carriers in the validation cohort, after allele-specific PCR testing both samples with a ∗1/∗4 genotype were reclassified to ∗1/∗4A, all three samples with a ∗4/∗17 genotype were reclassified to ∗1/∗4B, and a sample with a ∗4/∗17/∗17 genotype was reclassified to ∗4B/∗17. In conclusion, this rapid and robust allele-specific PCR assay can refine CYP2C19 genotyping and metabolizer phenotype classification by determining the phase of the defining ∗17 and ∗4 variants, which may have utility when testing CYP2C19 for clopidogrel response.

  4. Comparison of a multiplexed MassARRAY system with real-time allele-specific PCR technology for genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Syrmis, M W; Moser, R J; Whiley, D M; Vaska, V; Coombs, G W; Nissen, M D; Sloots, T P; Nimmo, G R

    2011-12-01

    The Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing platform uses matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled with single-base extension PCR for high-throughput multiplex SNP detection. In this study, we investigated the use of iPLEX MassARRAY technology for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genotyping. A 16-plex MassARRAY iPLEX GOLD assay (MRSA-iPLEX) was developed that targets a set of informative SNPs and binary genes for MRSA characterization. The method was evaluated with 147 MRSA isolates, and the results were compared with those of an established SYBR Green-based real-time PCR system utilizing the same SNP-binary markers. A total of 2352 markers belonging to 44 SNP-binary profiles were analysed by both real-time PCR and MRSA-iPLEX. With real-time PCR as the reference standard, MRSA-iPLEX correctly assigned 2298 of the 2352 (97.7%) markers. Sequence variation in the MRSA-iPLEX primer targets accounted for the majority of MRSA-iPLEX erroneous results, highlighting the importance of primer target selection. MRSA-iPLEX provided optimal throughput for MRSA genotyping, and was, on a reagent basis, more cost-effective than the real-time PCR methods. The 16-plex MRSA-iPLEX is a suitable alternative to SYBR Green-based real-time PCR typing of major sequence types and clonal complexes of MRSA.

  5. A PCR amplification method without DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwei; Xu, Haiyue; Zhao, Chunjiang; Sulaiman, Yiming; Wu, Changxin

    2011-02-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method for direct PCR amplification of animal DNA from tissues, we optimized different components and their concentration in lysis buffer systems. Finally, we acquired the optimized buffer system composed of 10 mmol tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-Cl (pH 8.0), 2 mmol ethylene diamine tetraacetic (EDTA) (pH 8.0), 0.2 mol NaCl and 200 μg/mL Proteinase K. Interestingly, the optimized buffer is also very effective when working with common human sample types, including blood, buccal cells and hair. The direct PCR method requires fewer reagents (Tris-Cl, EDTA, Protease K and NaCl) and less incubation time (only 35 min). The cost of treating every sample is less than $0.02, and all steps can be completed on a thermal cycler in a 96-well format. So, the proposed method will significantly improve high-throughput PCR-based molecular assays in animal systems and in common human sample types.

  6. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D'Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues.

  7. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples

    PubMed Central

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D’Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues. PMID

  8. Direct micro-haplotyping by multiple double PCR amplifications of specific alleles (MD-PASA)

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Yuval; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of haplotypes is an important tool in population genetics, familial heredity and gene mapping. Determination of haplotypes of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or other simple mutations is time consuming and expensive when analyzing large populations, and often requires the help of computational and statistical procedures. Based on double PCR amplification of specific alleles, described previously, we have developed a simple, rapid and low-cost method for direct haplotyping of multiple SNPs and simple mutations found within relatively short specific regions or genes (micro-haplotypes). Using this method, it is possible to directly determine the physical linkage of multiple heterozygous alleles, by conducting a series of double allele-specific PCR amplification sets with simple analysis by gel electrophoresis. Application of the method requires prior information as to the sequence of the segment to be haplotyped, including the polymorphic sites. We applied the method to haplotyping of nine sites in the chicken HSP108 gene. One of the haplotypes in the population apparently arose by recombination between two existing haplotypes, and we were able to locate the point of recombination within a segment of 19 bp. We anticipate rapidly growing needs for SNP haplotyping in human (medical and pharmacogenetics), animal and plant genetics; in this context, the multiple double PCR amplifications of specific alleles (MD-PASA) method offers a useful haplotyping tool. PMID:12060700

  9. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates

    PubMed Central

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10–90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content. PMID:27271574

  10. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates.

    PubMed

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  11. Preparation of DNA-containing extract for PCR amplification

    DOEpatents

    Dunbar, John M.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2006-07-11

    Environmental samples typically include impurities that interfere with PCR amplification and DNA quantitation. Samples of soil, river water, and aerosol were taken from the environment and added to an aqueous buffer (with or without detergent). Cells from the sample are lysed, releasing their DNA into the buffer. After removing insoluble cell components, the remaining soluble DNA-containing extract is treated with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide, which causes rapid precipitation of impurities. Centrifugation provides a supernatant that can be used or diluted for PCR amplification of DNA, or further purified. The method may provide a DNA-containing extract sufficiently pure for PCR amplification within 5–10 minutes.

  12. PCR amplification on microarrays of gel immobilized oligonucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Strizhkov, Boris; Tillib, Sergei; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Mirzabekov, Andrei

    2003-11-04

    The invention relates two general methods for performing PCR amplification, combined with the detection and analysis of the PCR products on a microchip. In the first method, the amplification occurs both outside and within a plurality of gel pads on a microchip, with at least one oligonucleotide primer immobilized in a gel pad. In the second method, PCR amplification also takes place within gel pads on a microchip, but the pads are surrounded by a hydrophobic liquid such as that which separates the individual gel pads into environments which resemble micro-miniaturized test tubes.

  13. Gene amplification and qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cerith; Filloux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    This chapter includes methods for the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with Pseudomonas, and several specific tips for their successful application in this organism. The first part of the chapter includes methods for purifying genomic DNA from, and amplifying genes from, Pseudomonas, in addition to methods which describe how to prepare a cell lysate from Pseudomonas species for colony PCR reactions. The chapter continues with a switch in focus from DNA to RNA, describing methods for RNA isolation from Pseudomonas, cDNA generation, and finally q-RT-PCR to investigate relative changes in gene expression. PMID:24818925

  14. [DNA amplification using PCR with abutting primers].

    PubMed

    Garafutdinov, R R; Galimova, A A; Sakhabutdinova, A R; Vakhitov, V A; Chemeris, A V

    2015-01-01

    DNA analysis of ñîmplex biological objects (wastewater, soil, archaeological and forensic samples, etc.) is currently of great interest. DNA of these objects is characterized by low suitability for research due to the violation of its integrity and chemical structure; thus, the detection of specific nucleic acid fragments can be achieved by PCR with contiguous primers. In this paper, we present the results that clarify the specific characteristics of PCR with abutting primers. The 3'-ends of these primers are annealed at adjacent nucleotides of complementary chains of DNA target. It has been shown that the proximity of primers enables the formation of specific reaction products with a higher sensitivity and less reaction time. Using artificially damaged DNA and DNA from the soil we demonstrated that the abutting primers provide assured detection of specific DNA fragments. The results of this work may be taken into account in PCR with degraded (fragmented) DNA.

  15. Comparison of 454 Ultra-Deep Sequencing and Allele-Specific Real-Time PCR with Regard to the Detection of Emerging Drug-Resistant Minor HIV-1 Variants after Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Vertical Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Kunz, Andrea; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Theuring, Stefanie; Bannert, Norbert; Sewangi, Julius; Mbezi, Paulina; Dugange, Festo; Harms, Gundel; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnant HIV-infected women were screened for the development of HIV-1 drug resistance after implementation of a triple-antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis as recommended by the WHO in 2006. The study offered the opportunity to compare amplicon-based 454 ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) and allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR) for the detection of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Methods Plasma samples from 34 Tanzanian women were previously analysed by ASPCR for key resistance mutations in the viral RT selected by AZT, 3TC, and NVP (K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, T215Y/F). In this study, the RT region of the same samples was investigated by amplicon-based UDS for resistance mutations using the 454 GS FLX System. Results Drug-resistant HIV-variants were identified in 69% (20/29) of women by UDS and in 45% (13/29) by ASPCR. The absolute number of resistance mutations identified by UDS was twice that identified by ASPCR (45 vs 24). By UDS 14 of 24 ASPCR-detected resistance mutations were identified at the same position. The overall concordance between UDS and ASPCR was 61.0% (25/41). The proportions of variants quantified by UDS were approximately 2–3 times lower than by ASPCR. Amplicon generation from samples with viral loads below 20,000 copies/ml failed more frequently by UDS compared to ASPCR (limit of detection = 650 copies/ml), resulting in missing or insufficient sequence coverage. Conclusions Both methods can provide useful information about drug-resistant minor HIV-1 variants. ASPCR has a higher sensitivity than UDS, but is restricted to single resistance mutations. In contrast, UDS is limited by its requirement for high viral loads to achieve sufficient sequence coverage, but the sequence information reveals the complete resistance patterns within the genomic region analysed. Improvements to the UDS limit of detection are in progress, and UDS could then facilitate monitoring of drug-resistant minor variants in

  16. Rapid micro-PCR system for hepatitis C virus amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Young, Kung-Chia; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Wu, Ching-Yi

    2000-08-01

    A rapid micro-polymerase chain reaction ((mu) -PCR) system was integrated to amplify the complementary DNA (cDNA) molecules of hepatitis C virus (HCV). This system consists of a rapid thermal cycling system and a (mu) PCR chip fabricated by MEMS fabrication techniques. This rapid (mu) PCR system is verified by using serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis C. The HCV amplicon of the rapid (mu) PCR system was analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with separation of DNA marker in parallel. The (mu) PCR chip was fabricated on silicon wafer and Pyrex glass using photolithography, wet etching, and anodic bonding methods. Using silicon material to fabricate the raction well improves the temperature uniformity of sample and helps to reach the desired temperature faster. The rapid close loop thermal cycling system comprises power supplies, a thermal generator, a computer control PID controller, and a data acquisition subsystem. The thermoelectric (T.E.) cooler is used to work as the thermal generator and a heat sink by controlling the polarity of supplied power. The (mu) PCR system was verified with traditional PCR equipment by loading the same PCR mixture with HCV cDNA and running the same cycle numbers, then comparing both HCV amplicon slab gel electrophoresis. The HCV amplicon from the (mu) PCR system shows a DNA fragment with an expected size of 145 base pairs. The background is lower with the (mu) PCR system than that with the tradional PCR equipment. Comparing the traditional PCR equipment which spends 5.5 hours for 30 cycles to gain the detectable amount of HCV amplicon in slab gel separation, this (mu) PCR system takes 30 minutes to finish the 30 thermal cycles. This work has demonstrated that this rapid (mu) PCR system can provide rapid heat generation and dissipation, improved temperature uniformity in DNA amplification.

  17. Rapid PCR amplification of DNA utilizing Coriolis effects.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Gustaf; Skote, Martin; Malmqvist, Mats; Falk, Mats; Asp, Allan; Svanvik, Nicke; Johansson, Arne

    2006-08-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented that utilizes Coriolis and centrifugal effects, produced by rotation of the sample disc, in order to increase internal circulatory rates, and with them temperature homogenization and mixing speeds. A proof of concept has been presented by testing a rapid 45-cycle PCR DNA amplification protocol. During the repeated heating and cooling that constitutes a PCR process, the 100 microL samples were rotated at a speed equivalent to an effective acceleration of gravity of 7,000 g. A cycle time of 20.5 s gave a total process time of 15 min to complete the 45 cycles. A theoretical and numerical analysis of the resulting flow, which describes the increased mixing and temperature homogenization, is presented. The device gives excellent reaction speed efficiency, which is beneficial for rapid PCR.

  18. A method for amplification of unknown flanking sequences based on touchdown PCR and suppression-PCR.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; He, Dan; Li, Guangquan; Zhang, Yanhua; Lv, Huiying; Wang, Li

    2016-09-15

    Thermal asymmetric staggered PCR is the most widely used technique to obtain the flanking sequences. However, it has some limitations, including a low rate of positivity, and complex operation. In this study, a improved method of it was made based on suppression-PCR and touchdown PCR. The PCR fragment obtained by the amplification was used directly for sequencing after gel purification. Using this improved method, the positive rate of amplified flanking sequences of the ATMT mutants reached 99%. In addition, the time from DNA extraction to flanking sequence analysis was shortened to 2 days with about 6 dollars each sample. PMID:27393656

  19. A method for amplification of unknown flanking sequences based on touchdown PCR and suppression-PCR.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; He, Dan; Li, Guangquan; Zhang, Yanhua; Lv, Huiying; Wang, Li

    2016-09-15

    Thermal asymmetric staggered PCR is the most widely used technique to obtain the flanking sequences. However, it has some limitations, including a low rate of positivity, and complex operation. In this study, a improved method of it was made based on suppression-PCR and touchdown PCR. The PCR fragment obtained by the amplification was used directly for sequencing after gel purification. Using this improved method, the positive rate of amplified flanking sequences of the ATMT mutants reached 99%. In addition, the time from DNA extraction to flanking sequence analysis was shortened to 2 days with about 6 dollars each sample.

  20. Microfluidic gradient PCR (MG-PCR): a new method for microfluidic DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2010-02-01

    This study develops a new microfluidic DNA amplification strategy for executing parallel DNA amplification in the microfluidic gradient polymerase chain reaction (MG-PCR) device. The developed temperature gradient microfluidic system is generated by using an innovative fin design. The device mainly consists of modular thermally conductive copper flake which is attached onto a finned aluminum heat sink with a small fan. In our microfluidic temperature gradient prototype, a non-linear temperature gradient is produced along the gradient direction. On the copper flake of length 45 mm, width 40 mm and thickness 4 mm, the temperature gradient easily spans the range from 97 to 52 degrees Celsius. By making full use of the hot (90-97 degrees Celsius) and cold (60-70 degrees Celsius) regions on the temperature gradient device, the parallel, two-temperature MG-PCR amplification is feasible. As a demonstration, the MG-PCR from three parallel reactions of 112-bp Escherichia coli DNA fragment is performed in a continuous-flow format, in which the flow of the PCR reagent in the closed loop is induced by the buoyancy-driven nature convection. Although the prototype is not optimized, the MG-PCR amplification can be completed in less than 45 min. However, the MG-PCR thermocycler presented herein can be further scaled-down, and thus the amplification times and reagent consumption can be further reduced. In addition, the currently developed temperature gradient technology can be applied onto other continuous-flow MG-PCR systems or used for other analytical purposes such as parallel and combination measurements, and fluorescent melting curve analysis.

  1. Microdroplet-based PCR amplification for large scale targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tewhey, Ryan; Warner, Jason; Nakano, Masakazu; Libby, Brian; Medkova, Martina; David, Patricia; Kotsopoulos, Steve; Samuels, Michael; Hutchison, J. Brian; Larson, Jonathan W.; Topol, Eric J.; Weiner, Michael P.; Harismendy, Olivier; Olson, Jeff; Link, Darren R.; Frazer, Kelly A.

    2009-01-01

    Targeted sequencing of specific loci of the human genome is a promising approach for maximizing the efficiency of second-generation sequencing technologies for population-based studies of genetic variation. Here we describe microdroplet PCR, which performs 1.5 million separate amplifications in parallel, as an approach for enriching targeted sequences in the human genome. We initially designed primers to 435 exons of 47 genes that were selected for having a broad spectrum of sequence characteristics. Using this primer set we amplified the same six samples by both microdroplet and traditional singleplex PCR and sequenced the products using the Illumina GAII demonstrating that both methods generate similarly high quality data; 84% of the uniquely mapping reads fell within the targeted sequences, uniform coverage of ~90% of the targeted bases, greater than 99% accuracy in sequence variant calls, and high reproducibility between different samples (r2=0.9). We next scaled the microdroplet PCR to 3976 amplicons totaling 1.49 Mb of sequence, sequenced the resulting sample on both the Illumina GAII and Roche 454 platforms, and obtained data with equally high specificity and sensitivity quality. Our results demonstrate that microdroplet technology is well suited for processing DNA for massively parallel amplification of specific subsets of the human genome for targeted sequencing. PMID:19881494

  2. A PCR amplification strategy for unrestricted generation of chimeric genes.

    PubMed

    Vos, Michel J; Kampinga, Harm H

    2008-09-15

    For analyzing protein function, protein dynamics, or protein-protein interactions, the use of chimeric proteins has become an indispensable tool. The generation of DNA constructs coding for such fused proteins can, however, be a tedious process. Currently used strategies often make use of available endonuclease sites, leading to limitations in the choice of the site of fusion between two genes and problems in maintaining protein secondary structure. We have developed a cloning strategy to get around these disadvantages that is based on a single round of PCR amplification followed by antibiotic-resistant gene complementation. PMID:18555003

  3. A PCR amplification strategy for unrestricted generation of chimeric genes.

    PubMed

    Vos, Michel J; Kampinga, Harm H

    2008-09-15

    For analyzing protein function, protein dynamics, or protein-protein interactions, the use of chimeric proteins has become an indispensable tool. The generation of DNA constructs coding for such fused proteins can, however, be a tedious process. Currently used strategies often make use of available endonuclease sites, leading to limitations in the choice of the site of fusion between two genes and problems in maintaining protein secondary structure. We have developed a cloning strategy to get around these disadvantages that is based on a single round of PCR amplification followed by antibiotic-resistant gene complementation.

  4. Direct amplification of casework bloodstains using the Promega PowerPlex(®) 21 PCR amplification system.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kerryn; Crowle, Damian; Scott, Pam

    2014-09-01

    A significant number of evidence items submitted to Forensic Science Service Tasmania (FSST) are blood swabs or bloodstained items. Samples from these items routinely undergo phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol organic extraction and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) testing prior to PowerPlex(®) 21 amplification. This multi-step process has significant cost and timeframe implications in a fiscal climate of tightening government budgets, pressure towards improved operating efficiencies, and an increasing emphasis on rapid techniques better supporting intelligence-led policing. Direct amplification of blood and buccal cells on cloth and Whatman FTA™ card with PowerPlex(®) 21 has already been successfully implemented for reference samples, eliminating the requirement for sample pre-treatment. Scope for expanding this method to include less pristine casework blood swabs and samples from bloodstained items was explored in an endeavour to eliminate lengthy DNA extraction, purification and qPCR steps for a wider subset of samples. Blood was deposited onto a range of substrates including those historically found to inhibit STR amplification. Samples were collected with micro-punch, micro-swab, or both. The potential for further fiscal savings via reduced volume amplifications was assessed by amplifying all samples at full and reduced volume (25 and 13μL). Overall success rate data showed 80% of samples yielded a complete profile at reduced volume, compared to 78% at full volume. Particularly high success rates were observed for the blood on fabric/textile category with 100% of micro-punch samples yielding complete profiles at reduced volume and 85% at full volume. Following the success of this trial, direct amplification of suitable casework blood samples has been implemented at reduced volume. Significant benefits have been experienced, most noticeably where results from crucial items have been provided to police investigators prior to interview of

  5. Enhanced specificity of TPMT*2 genotyping using unidirectional wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single tube.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Yang, Zhao; Xia, Han; Huang, Jun-Fu; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Tian-Nun; Wang, Gui-Yu; Chuai, Zheng-Ran; Fu, Wei-Ling; Huang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR) was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques. PMID:24705376

  6. Enhanced Specificity of TPMT*2 Genotyping Using Unidirectional Wild-Type and Mutant Allele-Specific Scorpion Primers in a Single Tube

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Yang, Zhao; Xia, Han; Huang, Jun-Fu; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Tian-Nun; Wang, Gui-Yu; Chuai, Zheng-Ran; Fu, Wei-Ling; Huang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR) was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques. PMID:24705376

  7. Allele-specific qRT-PCR demonstrates superior detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms as genetic markers for West Nile virus compared to Luminex® and quantitative sequencing.

    PubMed

    Worwa, Gabriella; Andrade, Christy C; Thiemann, Tara C; Park, Bborie; Maharaj, Payal D; Anishchenko, Michael; Brault, Aaron C; Reisen, William K

    2014-01-01

    To enable in vivo and in vitro competitive fitness comparisons among West Nile viruses (WNV), three reference viruses were marked genetically by site-directed mutagenesis with five synonymous nucleotide substitutions in the envelope gene region of the genome. Phenotypic neutrality of the mutants was assessed experimentally by competitive replication in cell culture and genetic stability of the substituted nucleotides was confirmed by direct sequencing. Luminex(®) technology, quantitative sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) were compared in regard to specificity, sensitivity and accuracy for quantitation of wildtype and genetically marked viruses in mixed samples based on RNA obtained from samples of known viral titers. Although Luminex(®) technology and quantitative sequencing provided semi-quantitative or qualitative measurements, a sequence-specific primer extension approach using a specific reverse primer set in singleplex qRT-PCR demonstrated the best quantitation and specificity in the detection of RNA from wildtype and mutant viruses.

  8. One-step PCR amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, U W; Park, C J; Yong, T S; Kim, W

    2001-06-01

    A new PCR primer set which enables one-step amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes was designed from two conserved 16S rDNA regions for the long PCR technique. For this purpose, partial 16S rDNAs amplified with universal primers 16SA and 16SB were newly sequenced from six representative arthropods: Armadillidium vulgare and Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea), Anopheles sinensis (Insecta), Lithobius forficatus and Megaphyllum sp. (Myriapoda), and Limulus polyphemus (Chelicerata). The genomic locations of two new primers, HPK16Saa and HPK16Sbb, correspond to positions 13314-13345 and 12951-12984, respectively, in the Drosophila yakuba mitochondrial genome. The usefulness of the primer set was experimentally examined and confirmed with five of the representative arthropods, except for A. vulgare, which has a linearized mitochondrial genome. With this set, therefore, we could easily and rapidly amplify complete mitochondrial genomes with small amounts of arthropod DNA. Although the primers suggested here were examined only with arthropod groups, a possibility of successful application to other invertebrates is very high, since the high degree of sequence conservation is shown on the primer sites in other invertebrates. Thus, this primer set can serve various research fields, such as molecular evolution, population genetics, and molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences, RFLP, and gene rearrangement of mitochondrial genomes in arthropods and other invertebrates. PMID:11399145

  9. Polymorphism analysis of Chinese Theileria sergenti using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction of the major piroplasm surface protein gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai Hong; Guan, Gui Quan; Liu, Jun Long; Liu, Zhi Jie; Leblanc, Neil; Li, You Quan; Gao, Jin Liang; Ma, Mi Ling; Niu, Qing Li; Ren, Qiao Yun; Bai, Qi; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian Xun

    2011-02-01

    Theileria sergenti is a tick-borne parasite found in many parts of the world. The major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP), a conserved protein in all Theileria species, has been used as a marker for epidemiological and phylogenetic studies of benign Theileria species. In this study, Chinese species of T. sergenti were characterized by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis of the MPSP gene. Using universal or allele-specific primer sets for PCR amplification of the MPSP gene, 98 of 288 cattle blood samples, collected from 6 provinces in China, were found to be positive. Among the positive samples, only 3 allelic MPSP gene types (Chitose [C]-, Ikeda [I]-, and buffeli [B]-type) were successfully amplified. Moreover, the results revealed that the majority of the parasites sampled in this study were C- and I-type (prevalence of 84 and 69%, respectively), whereas the B-type was less common (prevalence of 36%). Co-infections with C-, I-, and B-type T. sergenti also were found. An additional known allele, Thai-type, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on the MPSP gene sequences, including 3 standard stocks generated in the laboratory ( T. sergenti Wenchuan, T. sergenti Ningxian, and T. sergenti Liaoyang), revealed that the isolates of Chinese sergenti were comprised of at least 4 allelic MPSP gene types, i.e., C-, I-, B1-, and B2-type, and these parasites with 6 MPSP types 1-5 and 7 were present in China.

  10. Integration of multiple PCR amplification and DNA mutation analyses by using oligonucleotide microchip.

    SciTech Connect

    Tillib, S. V.; Strizhkov, B. N.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

    2001-05-01

    We have developed a method for parallel independent on-chip amplification and the following sequence variation analysis of multiple DNA regions directly using microchip with an array of nanoliter gel pads containing specific sets of tethered primers. The method has three key features. First, DNA to be amplified is enriched at gel pads by its hybridization with immobilized primers. Second, different sets of specific primers are immobilized within various gel pads, and primers are detached within gel pads just before polymerase chain reaction to enhance the amplification. A gel pad may contain an additional permanently immobilized dormant primer that is activated to carry out the allele-specific primer extension reaction to detect mutations. Third, multiple polymerase chain reactions are confined within nanoliter gel pads covered and separated from each other with mineral oil. The method was applied to simultaneously identify several abundant drug-resistant mutations in three genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  11. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Detection by Pyrosequencing®.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays important roles in healthy as well as diseased cells, by influencing the transcription of genes. In spite the fact that human somatic cells are diploid, most of the currently available methods for the study of DNA methylation do not provide information on the methylation status of individual alleles of genes. This information may be of importance in many situations. In particular, in cancer both alleles of tumour suppressor genes generally need to be inactivated for a phenotypic effect to be observed. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective protocol for allele-specific DNA methylation detection based on Pyrosequencing(®) of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) products including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the amplicon. PMID:26103906

  12. An investigation of PCR inhibition using Plexor(®) -based quantitative PCR and short tandem repeat amplification.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robyn E; Duncan, George; McCord, Bruce R

    2014-11-01

    A common problem in forensic DNA typing is PCR inhibition resulting in allele dropout and peak imbalance. In this paper, we have utilized the Plexor(®) real-time PCR quantification kit to evaluate PCR inhibition. This is performed by adding increasing concentrations of various inhibitors and evaluating changes in melt curves and PCR amplification efficiencies. Inhibitors examined included calcium, humic acid, collagen, phenol, tannic acid, hematin, melanin, urea, bile salts, EDTA, and guanidinium thiocyanate. Results were plotted and modeled using mathematical simulations. In general, we found that PCR inhibitors that bind DNA affect melt curves and CT takeoff points while those that affect the Taq polymerase tend to affect the slope of the amplification curve. Mixed mode effects were also visible. Quantitative PCR results were then compared with subsequent STR amplification using the PowerPlex(®) 16 HS System. The overall results demonstrate that real-time PCR can be an effective method to evaluate PCR inhibition and predict its effects on subsequent STR amplifications.

  13. High-speed droplet-allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide alternations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or single nucleotide mutations are useful genetic markers for molecular diagnosis, prognosis, drug response, and predisposition to diseases. Rapid identification of SNPs or mutations is clinically important, especially for determining drug responses and selection of molecular-targeted therapy. Here, we describe a rapid genotyping assay based on the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) by using our droplet-PCR machine (droplet-AS-PCR).

  14. Quantitative evaluation of bias in PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing derived from metabarcoding samples.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Marta; Weiss, Julia; Links, Matthew G; Egaña Aranguren, Mikel; Wilkinson, Mark D; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2015-03-01

    Unbiased identification of organisms by PCR reactions using universal primers followed by DNA sequencing assumes positive amplification. We used six universal loci spanning 48 plant species and quantified the bias at each step of the identification process from end point PCR to next-generation sequencing. End point amplification was significantly different for single loci and between species. Quantitative PCR revealed that Cq threshold for various loci, even within a single DNA extraction, showed 2,000-fold differences in DNA quantity after amplification. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments in nine species showed significant biases towards species and specific loci using adaptor-specific primers. NGS sequencing bias may be predicted to some extent by the Cq values of qPCR amplification.

  15. Enhancement of PCR amplification of moderate GC-containing and highly GC-rich DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Strien, Juliane; Sanft, Juliane; Mall, Gita

    2013-07-01

    PCR is a commonly used and highly efficient technique in biomolecular laboratories for specific amplification of DNA. However, successful DNA amplification can be very time consuming and troublesome because many factors influence PCR efficiency. Especially GC-rich DNA complicates amplification because of generation of secondary structures that hinder denaturation and primer annealing. We investigated the impact of previously recommended additives such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), bovine serum albumin (BSA), or formamide. Furthermore, we tested company-specific substances as Q-Solution, High GC Enhancer, and Hi-Spec; various actively promoted polymerases as well as different PCR conditions for their positive effects on DNA amplification of templates with moderate and extremely high CG-content. We found considerable differences of specificity and quantity of product between different terms. In this article, we introduce conditions for optimized PCR to help resolve problems amplifying moderate to high GC-rich templates.

  16. A PCR-free fluorescence strategy for detecting telomerase activity via double amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiafei; Cheng, Rui; Shi, Zhilu; Jin, Yan

    2016-01-15

    As a universal tumor biomarker, research on the activity and inhibition of telomerase is of great importance for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Although the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) has served as a powerful assay for detecting telomerase activity, its application has been significantly limited by amplification related errors and time-consuming procedure. To address the limitations of PCR-based protocol, a dual amplification fluorescence assay was developed for PCR-free detecting telomerase activity. Briefly, we designed an arch-structure DNA probe to specifically control strand displacement reaction and subsequent enzyme-aided amplification. Telomerase substrate (TS) primer was extended by telomerase to form long elongation products which contain several TTAGGG repeat units. So, one elongation product can release more than one trigger DNA (t-DNA) via strand displacement reaction to realize first amplification. Subsequently, t-DNA specifically opened molecular beacon (MB) to restore the fluorescence of MB. Meanwhile, t-DNA was recycled by the aid of nicking endonuclease to continuously open more and more MBs, leading to a second amplification. Owing to the double amplification strategy, the proposed method allowed the measurement of telomerase activity in crude cell extracts equivalent to 5 HeLa cells and 10 CCRF-CEM cells without PCR amplification. Besides, the influence of telomere-binding ligands on the telomerase activity demonstrated that the proposed method holds the potential to evaluate the inhibition efficiency of telomerase inhibitors.

  17. Oligoribonucleotide (ORN) interference-PCR (ORNi-PCR): a simple method for suppressing PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences using ORNs.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Naoki; Fujita, Toshitsugu; Fujii, Hodaka

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of multiple templates using common primers is used in a wide variety of molecular biological techniques. However, abundant templates sometimes obscure the amplification of minor species containing the same primer sequences. To overcome this challenge, we used oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) to inhibit amplification of undesired template sequences without affecting amplification of control sequences lacking complementarity to the ORNs. ORNs were effective at very low concentrations, with IC50 values for ORN-mediated suppression on the order of 10 nM. DNA polymerases that retain 3'-5' exonuclease activity, such as KOD and Pfu polymerases, but not those that retain 5'-3' exonuclease activity, such as Taq polymerase, could be used for ORN-mediated suppression. ORN interference-PCR (ORNi-PCR) technology should be a useful tool for both molecular biology research and clinical diagnosis.

  18. PCR amplification of repetitive sequences as a possible approach in relative species quantification.

    PubMed

    Ballin, N Z; Vogensen, F K; Karlsson, A H

    2012-02-01

    Both relative and absolute quantifications are possible in species quantification when single copy genomic DNA is used. However, amplification of single copy genomic DNA does not allow a limit of detection as low as one obtained from amplification of repetitive sequences. Amplification of repetitive sequences is therefore frequently used in absolute quantification but problems occur in relative quantification as the number of repetitive sequences is unknown. A promising approach was developed where data from amplification of repetitive sequences were used in relative quantification of species in binary mixtures. PCR LUX primers were designed that amplify repetitive and single copy sequences to establish the species dependent number (constants) (SDC) of amplified repetitive sequences per genome. The SDCs and data from amplification of repetitive sequences were tested for their applicability to relatively quantify the amount of chicken DNA in a binary mixture of chicken DNA and pig DNA. However, the designed PCR primers lack the specificity required for regulatory species control.

  19. Self-(in)compatibility inheritance and allele-specific marker development in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) has a sporophytic self-incompatibility reproduction system. Genetically stable self-incompatible (SI) and self-compatible (SC) inbred lines have recently been developed in this crop. Understanding the S haplotype of different inbred lines and the inheritance of the self-(in)compatibility (SI/SC) trait is very important for breeding purposes. In this study, we used the S-locus gene-specific primers in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea to clone yellow mustard S-locus genes of SI lines Y514 and Y1130 and SC lines Y1499 and Y1501. The PCR amplification results and DNA sequences of the S-locus genes revealed that Y514 carried the class I S haplotype, while Y1130, Y1499, and Y1501 had the class II S haplotype. The results of our genetic studies indicated that self-incompatibility was dominant over self-compatibility and controlled by a one-gene locus in the two crosses of Y514 × Y1499 and Y1130 × Y1501. Of the five S-locus gene polymorphic primer pairs, Sal-SLGI and Sal-SRKI each generated one dominant marker for the SI phenotype of Y514; Sal-SLGII and Sal-SRKII produced dominant marker(s) for the SC phenotype of Y1501 and Y1499; Sal-SP11II generated one dominant marker for Y1130. These markers co-segregated with the SI/SC phenotype in the F2 populations of the two crosses. In addition, co-dominant markers were developed by mixing the two polymorphic primer pairs specific for each parent in the multiplex PCR, which allowed zygosity to be determined in the F2 populations. The SI/SC allele-specific markers have proven to be very useful for the selection of the desirable SC genotypes in our yellow mustard breeding program.

  20. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    In a mixed template, the presence of homologous target DNA sequences creates environments that almost inevitably give rise to artifacts and biases during PCR. Heteroduplexes, chimeras, and skewed template-to-product ratios are the exclusive attributes of mixed template PCR and never occur in a single template assay. Yet, multi-template PCR has been used without appropriate attention to quality control and assay validation, in spite of the fact that such practice diminishes the reliability of results. External and internal amplification controls became obligatory elements of good laboratory practice in different PCR assays. We propose the inclusion of an analogous approach as a quality control system for multi-template PCR applications. The amplification controls must take into account the characteristics of multi-template PCR and be able to effectively monitor particular assay performance. This study demonstrated the efficiency of a model mixed template as an adequate external amplification control for a particular PCR application. The conditions of multi-template PCR do not allow implementation of a classic internal control; therefore we developed a convenient semi-internal control as an acceptable alternative. In order to evaluate the effects of inhibitors, a model multi-template mix was amplified in a mixture with DNAse-treated sample. Semi-internal control allowed establishment of intervals for robust PCR performance for different samples, thus enabling correct comparison of the samples. The complexity of the external and semi-internal amplification controls must be comparable with the assumed complexity of the samples. We also emphasize that amplification controls should be applied in multi-template PCR regardless of the post-assay method used to analyze products.

  1. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    In a mixed template, the presence of homologous target DNA sequences creates environments that almost inevitably give rise to artifacts and biases during PCR. Heteroduplexes, chimeras, and skewed template-to-product ratios are the exclusive attributes of mixed template PCR and never occur in a single template assay. Yet, multi-template PCR has been used without appropriate attention to quality control and assay validation, in spite of the fact that such practice diminishes the reliability of results. External and internal amplification controls became obligatory elements of good laboratory practice in different PCR assays. We propose the inclusion of an analogous approach as a quality control system for multi-template PCR applications. The amplification controls must take into account the characteristics of multi-template PCR and be able to effectively monitor particular assay performance. This study demonstrated the efficiency of a model mixed template as an adequate external amplification control for a particular PCR application. The conditions of multi-template PCR do not allow implementation of a classic internal control; therefore we developed a convenient semi-internal control as an acceptable alternative. In order to evaluate the effects of inhibitors, a model multi-template mix was amplified in a mixture with DNAse-treated sample. Semi-internal control allowed establishment of intervals for robust PCR performance for different samples, thus enabling correct comparison of the samples. The complexity of the external and semi-internal amplification controls must be comparable with the assumed complexity of the samples. We also emphasize that amplification controls should be applied in multi-template PCR regardless of the post-assay method used to analyze products. PMID:24076226

  2. Delimiting Allelic Imbalance of TYMS by Allele-Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balboa-Beltrán, Emilia; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel; Barros, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allelic imbalance of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is attributed to polymorphisms in the 5′- and 3′-untranslated region (UTR). These polymorphisms have been related to the risk of suffering different cancers, for example leukemia, breast or gastric cancer, and response to different drugs, among which are methotrexate glutamates, stavudine, and specifically 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), as TYMS is its direct target. A vast literature has been published in relation to 5-FU, even suggesting the sole use of these polymorphisms to effectively manage 5-FU dosage. Estimates of the extent to which these polymorphisms influence in TYMS expression have in the past been based on functional analysis by luciferase assays and quantification of TYMS mRNA, but both these studies, as the association studies with cancer risk or with toxicity or response to 5-FU, are very contradictory. Regarding functional assays, the artificial genetic environment created in luciferase assay and the problems derived from quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs), for example the use of a reference gene, may have distorted the results. To avoid these sources of interference, we have analyzed the allelic imbalance of TYMS by allelic-specific analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients. Allelic imbalance in PBMCs, taken from 40 patients with suspected myeloproliferative haematological diseases, was determined by fluorescent fragment analysis (for the 3′-UTR polymorphism), Sanger sequencing and allelic-specific qPCR in multiplex (for the 5′-UTR polymorphisms). For neither the 3′- nor the 5′-UTR polymorphisms did the observed allelic imbalance exceed 1.5 fold. None of the TYMS polymorphisms is statistically associated with allelic imbalance. The results acquired allow us to deny the previously established assertion of an influence of 2 to 4 fold of the rs45445694 and rs2853542 polymorphisms in the expression of TYMS and narrow its allelic imbalance to 1.5 fold

  3. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs.

  4. Molecular analysis of single oocyst of Eimeria by whole genome amplification (WGA) based nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunzhou; Tao, Geru; Cui, Yujuan; Lv, Qiyao; Xie, Li; Li, Yuan; Suo, Xun; Qin, Yinghe; Xiao, Lihua; Liu, Xianyong

    2014-09-01

    PCR-based molecular tools are widely used for the identification and characterization of protozoa. Here we report the molecular analysis of Eimeria species using combined methods of whole genome amplification (WGA) and nested PCR. Single oocyst of Eimeria stiedai or Eimeriamedia was directly used for random amplification of the genomic DNA with either primer extension preamplification (PEP) or multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and then the WGA product was used as template in nested PCR with species-specific primers for ITS-1, 18S rDNA and 23S rDNA of E. stiedai and E. media. WGA-based PCR was successful for the amplification of these genes from single oocyst. For the species identification of single oocyst isolated from mixed E. stiedai or E. media, the results from WGA-based PCR were exactly in accordance with those from morphological identification, suggesting the availability of this method in molecular analysis of eimerian parasites at the single oocyst level. WGA-based PCR method can also be applied for the identification and genetic characterization of other protists.

  5. Optimization of direct whole blood PCR amplification with applications on a static thermostat chip.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bai-Yan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Tian, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Kun; Fang, Fang

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, direct whole blood PCR amplifications on a static chip thermostat without sample purifications are demonstrated; in these amplifications, problems such as cross-interferences and contaminations could be avoided. The amplification conditions, such as the compositions of reagents and thermal programs, were investigated systematically by a GeneAmp PCR system with a native p53 gene segment (about 543 bp) of human genome and an exterior lambda DNA segment (about 500 bp) as targets. Direct amplifications of p53 and K-ras (about 157 bp) gene segments from 0.5 microL blood samples were successfully demonstrated by a static PCR chip with an indium tin oxide glass substrate. The chip thermostat has a typical size of 25 mm x 25 mm, and a polyethylene tube was used as the PCR vial on the glass surface of the chip. Fuzzy proportional integration-differentiation algorithms were adopted in temperature controls of the chip with an aid of a micro-Pt100 sensor. In the direct PCR with the thermostat chip, the whole process only involves automatic thermal programs. This work demonstrated that a chip PCR for field test without desktop facilities is possible either for a point of care test or for forensic analysis.

  6. Leader of the pack: faecal pellet deposition order impacts PCR amplification in wombats.

    PubMed

    Walker, F M; Horsup, A; Taylor, A C

    2009-05-01

    DNA sourced from faeces is notoriously less reliable than that from tissue. Hence, understanding whether faecal pellet quality varies within faecal piles may be important for sample selection. We hypothesized that the order in which faecal pellets are deposited may influence microsatellite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification success from sampled faeces, more specifically, that first pellets deposited will have signatures of greater success than later ones. In a first test of the hypothesis, first and later-deposited pellets, as determined from the direction of footprints, were collected from fresh (overnight) faecal piles of northern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus krefftii). DNA extracts were typed for seven microsatellite loci. We found that faecal deposition order significantly affected optical density of bands on autoradiographs (a measure of PCR amplification success) when the first faecal pellet was compared with the last one, but not when the first pellet was only distinguishable from later ones. The absence of a difference in amplification rate between first and later pellets is likely a reflection of the overall high amplification success in this study. That first pellets deposited yield more product suggests they contain more intestinal cells. Although further comparisons are needed, these results may inform sample selection in species for which success of microsatellite PCR amplification of faecal DNA is low. Deposition order may have more of an impact on amplification success and genotyping errors as faecal age increases. PMID:21564730

  7. Leader of the pack: faecal pellet deposition order impacts PCR amplification in wombats.

    PubMed

    Walker, F M; Horsup, A; Taylor, A C

    2009-05-01

    DNA sourced from faeces is notoriously less reliable than that from tissue. Hence, understanding whether faecal pellet quality varies within faecal piles may be important for sample selection. We hypothesized that the order in which faecal pellets are deposited may influence microsatellite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification success from sampled faeces, more specifically, that first pellets deposited will have signatures of greater success than later ones. In a first test of the hypothesis, first and later-deposited pellets, as determined from the direction of footprints, were collected from fresh (overnight) faecal piles of northern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus krefftii). DNA extracts were typed for seven microsatellite loci. We found that faecal deposition order significantly affected optical density of bands on autoradiographs (a measure of PCR amplification success) when the first faecal pellet was compared with the last one, but not when the first pellet was only distinguishable from later ones. The absence of a difference in amplification rate between first and later pellets is likely a reflection of the overall high amplification success in this study. That first pellets deposited yield more product suggests they contain more intestinal cells. Although further comparisons are needed, these results may inform sample selection in species for which success of microsatellite PCR amplification of faecal DNA is low. Deposition order may have more of an impact on amplification success and genotyping errors as faecal age increases.

  8. The enhancement of PCR amplification by low molecular-weight sulfones.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, R; Schutt, C E

    2001-08-22

    DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is frequently complicated by the problems of low yield and specificity, especially when the GC content of the target sequence is high. A common approach to the optimization of such reactions is the addition of small quantities of certain organic chemicals, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), betaine, polyethylene glycol and formamide, to the reaction mixture. Even in the presence of such additives, however, the amplification of GC-rich templates is often ineffective. In this paper, we introduce a novel class of PCR-enhancing compounds, the low molecular-weight sulfones, that are effective in the optimization of high GC template amplification. We describe here the results of an extensive structure-activity investigation in which we studied the effects of a series of six different sulfones on PCR amplification. We identify two sulfones, sulfolane and methyl sulfone, that are especially potent enhancers of high GC template amplification, and show that these compounds often outperform DMSO and betaine, two of the most effective PCR enhancers currently used. We conclude with a brief discussion of the role that the sulfone functional group may play in such enhancement.

  9. Amplification by PCR Artificially Reduces the Proportion of the Rare Biosphere in Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan M.; Portillo, Maria C.; Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Mira, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The microbial world has been shown to hold an unimaginable diversity. The use of rRNA genes and PCR amplification to assess microbial community structure and diversity present biases that need to be analyzed in order to understand the risks involved in those estimates. Herein, we show that PCR amplification of specific sequence targets within a community depends on the fractions that those sequences represent to the total DNA template. Using quantitative, real-time, multiplex PCR and specific Taqman probes, the amplification of 16S rRNA genes from four bacterial species within a laboratory community were monitored. Results indicate that the relative amplification efficiency for each bacterial species is a nonlinear function of the fraction that each of those taxa represent within a community or multispecies DNA template. Consequently, the low-proportion taxa in a community are under-represented during PCR-based surveys and a large number of sequences might need to be processed to detect some of the bacterial taxa within the ‘rare biosphere’. The structure of microbial communities from PCR-based surveys is clearly biased against low abundant taxa which are required to decipher the complete extent of microbial diversity in nature. PMID:22253843

  10. TqPCR: A Touchdown qPCR Assay with Significantly Improved Detection Sensitivity and Amplification Efficiency of SYBR Green qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited. PMID:26172450

  11. Linear amplification mediated PCR--localization of genetic elements and characterization of unknown flanking DNA.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Richard; Kutschera, Ina; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-06-25

    Linear-amplification mediated PCR (LAM-PCR) has been developed to study hematopoiesis in gene corrected cells of patients treated by gene therapy with integrating vector systems. Due to the stable integration of retroviral vectors, integration sites can be used to study the clonal fate of individual cells and their progeny. LAM- PCR for the first time provided evidence that leukemia in gene therapy treated patients originated from provirus induced overexpression of a neighboring proto-oncogene. The high sensitivity and specificity of LAM-PCR compared to existing methods like inverse PCR and ligation mediated (LM)-PCR is achieved by an initial preamplification step (linear PCR of 100 cycles) using biotinylated vector specific primers which allow subsequent reaction steps to be carried out on solid phase (magnetic beads). LAM-PCR is currently the most sensitive method available to identify unknown DNA which is located in the proximity of known DNA. Recently, a variant of LAM-PCR has been developed that circumvents restriction digest thus abrogating retrieval bias of integration sites and enables a comprehensive analysis of provirus locations in host genomes. The following protocol explains step-by-step the amplification of both 3'- and 5'- sequences adjacent to the integrated lentiviral vector.

  12. Whole genome amplification using single-primer PCR.

    PubMed

    Lao, Kaiqin; Xu, Nan Lan; Straus, Neil A

    2008-03-01

    Comprehensive genomic molecular analyses require relatively large DNA amounts that are often not available from forensic, clinical and other crucial biological samples. Numerous methods to amplify the whole genome have been proposed for cancer, forensic and taxonomic research. Unfortunately, when using truly random primers for the initial priming step, all of these procedures suffer from high background problems for sub-nanogram quantities of input DNA. Here we report an approach to eliminate this problem for PCR-based methods even at levels of DNA approaching that of a single cell.

  13. Ultrafast capillary electrophoresis isolation of DNA aptamer for the PCR amplification-based small analyte sensing

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Emmanuelle; Dausse, Eric; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization) of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s) was developed by designing a CE input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 μM. PMID:26322305

  14. Ultrafast capillary electrophoresis isolation of DNA aptamer for the PCR amplification-based small analyte sensing.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Emmanuelle; Dausse, Eric; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization) of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s) was developed by designing a CE input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 μM.

  15. Ultrafast Capillary Electrophoresis Isolation of DNA Aptamer for the PCR Amplification-Based Small Analyte Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Emmanuelle; Dausse, Eric; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization) of capillary electrophoresis and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s) was developed by designing a capillary electrophoresis input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 µM.

  16. [Detection of fish DNA in ruminant feed by PCR amplification].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kusama, Toyoko; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi

    2006-10-01

    The Japanese Government has prohibited the use of seafood protein, as well as mammalian protein, in ruminant feed. There is an official method to detect meat and bone meal, but no method is yet available to detect fishmeal in ruminant feed. We tried to develop a suitable method to detect fishmeal in ruminant feed, similar to the official method "PCR detection of animal-derived DNA in feed". Our previously reported primers (fishcon5 and fishcon3-1) showed low sensitivity, so we designed new primers based on a DNA sequence from yellowfin tuna mitchondrial DNA. Among the primers, FM5 and FM3 specifically detected fish DNA (sardine, yellowfin tuna, skipjack tuna, chub mackerel, Pacific saury, salmon, rainbow trout, Japanese anchovy, codfish and Japanese horse mackerel) from fish meat, and did not amplify DNA from animals and plants. The sensitivity for detection of the presence of fishmeal in ruminant feed was 0.01-0.001%. PMID:17128872

  17. Computational analysis of stochastic heterogeneity in PCR amplification efficiency revealed by single molecule barcoding.

    PubMed

    Best, Katharine; Oakes, Theres; Heather, James M; Shawe-Taylor, John; Chain, Benny

    2015-10-13

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most widely used techniques in molecular biology. In combination with High Throughput Sequencing (HTS), PCR is widely used to quantify transcript abundance for RNA-seq, and in the context of analysis of T and B cell receptor repertoires. In this study, we combine DNA barcoding with HTS to quantify PCR output from individual target molecules. We develop computational tools that simulate both the PCR branching process itself, and the subsequent subsampling which typically occurs during HTS sequencing. We explore the influence of different types of heterogeneity on sequencing output, and compare them to experimental results where the efficiency of amplification is measured by barcodes uniquely identifying each molecule of starting template. Our results demonstrate that the PCR process introduces substantial amplification heterogeneity, independent of primer sequence and bulk experimental conditions. This heterogeneity can be attributed both to inherited differences between different template DNA molecules, and the inherent stochasticity of the PCR process. The results demonstrate that PCR heterogeneity arises even when reaction and substrate conditions are kept as constant as possible, and therefore single molecule barcoding is essential in order to derive reproducible quantitative results from any protocol combining PCR with HTS.

  18. Computational analysis of stochastic heterogeneity in PCR amplification efficiency revealed by single molecule barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Best, Katharine; Oakes, Theres; Heather, James M.; Shawe-Taylor, John; Chain, Benny

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most widely used techniques in molecular biology. In combination with High Throughput Sequencing (HTS), PCR is widely used to quantify transcript abundance for RNA-seq, and in the context of analysis of T and B cell receptor repertoires. In this study, we combine DNA barcoding with HTS to quantify PCR output from individual target molecules. We develop computational tools that simulate both the PCR branching process itself, and the subsequent subsampling which typically occurs during HTS sequencing. We explore the influence of different types of heterogeneity on sequencing output, and compare them to experimental results where the efficiency of amplification is measured by barcodes uniquely identifying each molecule of starting template. Our results demonstrate that the PCR process introduces substantial amplification heterogeneity, independent of primer sequence and bulk experimental conditions. This heterogeneity can be attributed both to inherited differences between different template DNA molecules, and the inherent stochasticity of the PCR process. The results demonstrate that PCR heterogeneity arises even when reaction and substrate conditions are kept as constant as possible, and therefore single molecule barcoding is essential in order to derive reproducible quantitative results from any protocol combining PCR with HTS. PMID:26459131

  19. Ethidium monoazide does not inhibit RT-PCR amplification of nonviable avian influenza RNA.

    PubMed

    Graiver, David A; Saunders, Samuel E; Topliff, Christina L; Kelling, Clayton L; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2010-03-01

    A critical obstacle to using PCR to quantify viral titers is the distinguishment of viable and nonviable genomic material. Pretreatments of ethidium monoazide (EMA) have been effective in preventing PCR amplification of DNA from nonviable bacteria. To test whether an EMA pretreatment could be used with RT-PCR to quantify viable RNA virions, avian influenza virus (AIV) survival was measured in water through 28d using cell culture titration and real-time RT-PCR with or without EMA pretreatment. Cell culture titration yielded significantly lower titers than both RT-PCR procedures, and there was no significant difference between RT-PCR results with or without EMA. Ineffective binding of EMA to AIV RNA may have allowed nonviable AIV RNA to amplify. Furthermore, since AIV inactivation may take place by means other than membrane disruption, any pretreatment distinguishing viable and nonviable AIV virions by membrane integrity may not be practical.

  20. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers for individual IgH VDJ regions to evaluate tumor burden in myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Sata, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Maeda, Ikuhiro; Habuchi, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Fukushima, Kentaro; Fujita, Jiro; Ezoe, Sachiko; Tadokoro, Seiji; Maeda, Tetsuo; Mizuki, Masao; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Ueda, Shuji; Iida, Masato; Tokumine, Yukihiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko; Mitsui, Hideki; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with patient-specific, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) primers for individual immunoglobulin H VDJ region (ASO-PCR) amplification was performed using several sources of clinical material, including mRNA from peripheral blood cells (PBMNCs), whole bone marrow cells (BMMNCs), and the CD20+ CD38- B-cell population in bone marrow, as well as cell-free DNA from the sera of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed the ASO primers and produced sufficient PCR fragments to evaluate tumor burden in 20 of 30 bone marrow samples at diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency depended on primer sequences because the production of ASO-PCR fragments did not correlate with serum M-protein levels. However, the ASO-PCR levels in BMMNCs showed statistically significant correlations with those in PBMNCs and CD20+ CD38- B-cells. The good association between the BMMNC and PBMNC data indicated that PBMNCs could be a suitable source for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). In the case of cell-free DNA, ASO-PCR levels showed a unique pattern and remained high even after treatment. Because the sequence information for each ASO-PCR product was identical to the original, the cell-free DNA might also be useful for evaluating MRD. Moreover, the ASO-PCR products were clearly detected in 17 of 22 mRNA samples from CD20+ CD38- populations, suggesting that MM clones might exist in relatively earlier stages of B cells than in plasma cells. Thus, ASO-PCR analysis using various clinical materials is useful for detecting MRD in MM patients as well as for clarifying MM pathogenesis. PMID:25591497

  1. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers for individual IgH VDJ regions to evaluate tumor burden in myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Sata, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Maeda, Ikuhiro; Habuchi, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Fukushima, Kentaro; Fujita, Jiro; Ezoe, Sachiko; Tadokoro, Seiji; Maeda, Tetsuo; Mizuki, Masao; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Ueda, Shuji; Iida, Masato; Tokumine, Yukihiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko; Mitsui, Hideki; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with patient-specific, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) primers for individual immunoglobulin H VDJ region (ASO-PCR) amplification was performed using several sources of clinical material, including mRNA from peripheral blood cells (PBMNCs), whole bone marrow cells (BMMNCs), and the CD20+ CD38- B-cell population in bone marrow, as well as cell-free DNA from the sera of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed the ASO primers and produced sufficient PCR fragments to evaluate tumor burden in 20 of 30 bone marrow samples at diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency depended on primer sequences because the production of ASO-PCR fragments did not correlate with serum M-protein levels. However, the ASO-PCR levels in BMMNCs showed statistically significant correlations with those in PBMNCs and CD20+ CD38- B-cells. The good association between the BMMNC and PBMNC data indicated that PBMNCs could be a suitable source for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). In the case of cell-free DNA, ASO-PCR levels showed a unique pattern and remained high even after treatment. Because the sequence information for each ASO-PCR product was identical to the original, the cell-free DNA might also be useful for evaluating MRD. Moreover, the ASO-PCR products were clearly detected in 17 of 22 mRNA samples from CD20+ CD38- populations, suggesting that MM clones might exist in relatively earlier stages of B cells than in plasma cells. Thus, ASO-PCR analysis using various clinical materials is useful for detecting MRD in MM patients as well as for clarifying MM pathogenesis.

  2. Balanced-PCR amplification allows unbiased identification of genomic copy changes in minute cell and tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Brennan, Cameron; Rook, Martha; Wolfe, Jia Liu; Leo, Christopher; Chin, Lynda; Pan, Hongjie; Liu, Wei-Hua; Price, Brendan; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2004-05-21

    Analysis of genomic DNA derived from cells and fresh or fixed tissues often requires whole genome amplification prior to microarray screening. Technical hurdles to this process are the introduction of amplification bias and/or the inhibitory effects of formalin fixation on DNA amplification. Here we demonstrate a balanced-PCR procedure that allows unbiased amplification of genomic DNA from fresh or modestly degraded paraffin-embedded DNA samples. Following digestion and ligation of a target and a control genome with distinct linkers, the two are mixed and amplified in a single PCR, thereby avoiding biases associated with PCR saturation and impurities. We demonstrate genome-wide retention of allelic differences following balanced-PCR amplification of DNA from breast cancer and normal human cells and genomic profiling by array-CGH (cDNA arrays, 100 kb resolution) and by real-time PCR (single gene resolution). Comparison of balanced-PCR with multiple displacement amplification (MDA) demonstrates equivalent performance between the two when intact genomic DNA is used. When DNA from paraffin-embedded samples is used, balanced PCR overcomes problems associated with modest DNA degradation and produces unbiased amplification whereas MDA does not. Balanced-PCR allows amplification and recovery of modestly degraded genomic DNA for subsequent retrospective analysis of human tumors with known outcomes.

  3. An unnatural base pair system for efficient PCR amplification and functionalization of DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kimoto, Michiko; Kawai, Rie; Mitsui, Tsuneo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hirao, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet, we present an unnatural base pair system for efficient PCR amplification, enabling the site-specific incorporation of extra functional components into DNA. This system can be applied to conventional PCR protocols employing DNA templates containing unnatural bases, natural and unnatural base triphosphates, and a 3′→5′ exonuclease-proficient DNA polymerase. For highly faithful and efficient PCR amplification involving the unnatural base pairing, we identified the natural-base sequences surrounding the unnatural bases in DNA templates by an in vitro selection technique, using a DNA library containing the unnatural base. The system facilitates the site-specific incorporation of a variety of modified unnatural bases, linked with functional groups of interest, into amplified DNA. DNA fragments (0.15 amol) containing the unnatural base pair can be amplified 107-fold by 30 cycles of PCR, with <1% total mutation rate of the unnatural base pair site. Using the system, we demonstrated efficient PCR amplification and functionalization of DNA fragments for the extremely sensitive detection of zeptomol-scale target DNA molecules from mixtures with excess amounts (pmol scale) of foreign DNA species. This unnatural base pair system will be applicable to a wide range of DNA/RNA-based technologies. PMID:19073696

  4. Identification and characterization of dermatophyte species and strains with PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guofang; He, Chenghua; Zhang, Haibin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to use two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, with (GACA)4 and non-transcribed spacer (NTS) as primers, to identify and characterize dermatophyte isolates from dogs and cats to a species and strain level. A total of 45 isolates from nine dermatophyte species were collected from pet dogs and cats and subjected to PCR amplification with the microsatellite primer (GACA)4. Dermatophyte strains of three of the same species collected from four cities were subjected to PCR amplification with the NTS primer set. These two PCR methods were applied to identify and characterize the dermatophyte isolates to a species and strain level. Regional differences among the strain specificities were also examined. The results from PCR with (GACA)4 demonstrated that strains from the same species produced similar PCR product band patterns. In addition, these patterns differed among species, indicating that (GACA)4 primer-based PCR was able to distinguish between the various dermatophyte species. By contrast, dermatophyte isolates and/or strains within the same species revealed various band patterns with NTS-based PCR. In addition, the results indicated that regional differences contributed to the variations in PCR product band patterns. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that the NTS-based PCR method is efficient in distinguishing dermatophytes to the strain level, while a combination of (GACA)4 and NTS primer-based PCR methods is able to clarify dermatophyte isolates to a species and strain level. The present study provides information concerning the identification of pathogenic fungi and the epidemiological characteristics of fungal skin diseases.

  5. A universal multiplex PCR strategy for 100-plex amplification using a hydrophobically patterned microarray.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Guo, Shu-Juan; Shao, Ning; Tu, Shun; Xu, Miao; Ren, Zhao-Rui; Ling, Xing; Wang, Guo-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Xin; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2011-11-01

    Both basic research and clinical medicine have urgent demands for highly efficient strategies to simultaneously identify many different DNA sequences within a single tube. Effective and simultaneous amplification of multiple target sequences is a prerequisite for any successful multiple nucleic acid detection method. Multiplex PCR is one of the best choices for this purpose. However, due to the intrinsic interference and competition among primer pairs in the same tube, multiple rounds of highly empirical optimization procedures are usually required to establish a successful multiplex PCR reaction. To address this challenge, we report here a universal multiplex PCR strategy that is capable of over 100-plex amplification using a specially designed microarray in which hydrophilic microwells are patterned on a hydrophobic chip. On such an array, primer pairs tagged with a universal sequence are physically separated in individual hydrophilic microwells on an otherwise hydrophobic chip, enabling many unique PCR reactions to be proceeded simultaneously during the first step of the procedure. The PCR products are then isolated and further amplified from the universal sequences, producing a sufficient amount of material for analysis by conventional gel electrophoresis or DNA microarray technology. This strategy is abbreviated as "MPH&HPM" for "Multiplex PCR on a Hydrophobically and Hydrophilically Patterned Microarray". The feasibility of this method is first demonstrated by a multiplex PCR reaction for the simultaneous detection of eleven pneumonia-causing pathogens. Further, we demonstrate the power of this strategy with a highly successful 116-plex PCR reaction that required only little prior optimization. The effectiveness of the MPH&HPM strategy with clinical samples is then illustrated with the detection of deleted exons of the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) gene, the results are in excellent agreement with the clinical records. Because of its generality

  6. Capture and Direct Amplification of DNA on Chitosan Microparticles in a Single PCR-Optimal Solution.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Kunal R; Nanayakkara, Imaly A; Cao, Weidong; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; White, Ian M

    2015-11-01

    While nucleic acid amplification tests have great potential as tools for rapid diagnostics, complicated sample preparation requirements inhibit their use in near-patient diagnostics and low-resource-setting applications. Recent advancements in nucleic acid purification have leveraged pH-modulated charge switching polymers to reduce the number of steps required for sample preparation. The polycation chitosan (pKa 6.4) has been used to efficiently purify DNA by binding nucleic acids in acidic buffers and then eluting them at a pH higher than 8.0. Though it is an improvement over conventional methods, this multistep procedure has not transformed the application of nucleic acid amplification assays. Here we describe a simpler approach using magnetic chitosan microparticles that interact with DNA in a manner that has not been reported before. The microparticles capture DNA at a pH optimal for PCR (8.5) just as efficiently as at low pH. Importantly, the captured DNA is still accessible by polymerase, enabling direct amplification from the microparticles. We demonstrate quantitative PCR from DNA captured on the microparticles, thus eliminating nearly all of the sample preparation steps. We anticipate that this new streamlined method for preparing DNA for amplification will greatly expand the diagnostic applications of nucleic acid amplification tests.

  7. A survey of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification studies of unicellular protists using single-cell PCR.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Denis H; Pinheiro, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed a variety of studies that have used single-cell polymerase chain reaction (SC-PCR) to examine the gene sequences of a diversity of unicellular protists. Representatives of all the Super-Groups of eukaryotes have been subjected to SC-PCR with ciliates and dinoflagellates being most commonly examined. The SC-PCR was carried out either by directly amplifying a single lysed cell or by first extracting DNA and following this with amplification of the DNA extract. Cell lysis methods included heating, freezing, mechanical rupture, and enzyme digestion. Cells fixed or preserved with ethanol, methanol, and Lugol's have also been used successfully. Heminested or seminested PCR might follow the initial PCR, whose products were then directly sequenced or cloned and then sequenced. The methods are not complicated. This should encourage protistologists to use SC-PCR in the description of new or revised taxa, especially rare and unculturable forms, and it should also enable the probing of gene expression in relation to life history stages.

  8. Absolute quantification of the alleles in somatic point mutations by bioluminometric methods based on competitive polymerase chain reaction in the presence of a locked nucleic acid blocker or an allele-specific primer.

    PubMed

    Iliadi, Alexandra; Petropoulou, Margarita; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Anagnostopoulos, Nikolaos I; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Traeger-Synodinos, Jan

    2011-09-01

    In somatic (acquired) point mutations, the challenge is to quantify minute amounts of the mutant allele in the presence of a large excess of the normal allele that differs only in a single base pair. We report two bioluminometric methods that enable absolute quantification of the alleles. The first method exploits the ability of a locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotide to bind to and inhibit effectively the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the normal allele while the amplification of the mutant allele remains unaffected. The second method employs allele-specific PCR primers, thereby allowing the amplification of the corresponding allele only. DNA internal standards (competitors) are added to the PCR mixture to compensate for any sample-to-sample variation in the amplification efficiency. The amplification products from the two alleles and the internal standards are quantified by a microtiter well-based bioluminometric hybridization assay using the photoprotein aequorin as a reporter. The methods allow absolute quantification of less than 300 copies of the mutant allele even in samples containing less than 1% of the mutant allele.

  9. PCR primers for the amplification of four insect mitochondrial gene fragments.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, S; Smith, P T

    1995-11-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) analysis is a powerful tool for the study of population genetics and phylogenetics. In the past few years primer sequences for the PCR amplification of various insect mtDNA genes have been published. The objectives of this study were (1) present new primer sequences for six insect mitochondrial genes and (2) test primers designed in our laboratory and some previously published primers on a wide range of insects to determine if amplification of the target fragment could be obtained. The primers for the amplification of the two ribosomal RNA gene (16S and 12S rRNA) fragments are universal for insects and related groups; the primers for NADH5 and NADH4 dehydrogenase gene fragments and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment are applicable broadly.

  10. Analysis of real time PCR amplification efficiencies from three genomic region of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Odreman-Macchioli, María; Vielma, Silvana; Atchley, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Ramirez, Alvaro; Pérez, Saberio; Téllez, Luis; Quintero, Beatriz; Hernández, Erick; Muñoz, Maritza; Mendoza, José

    2013-03-01

    Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infection represents a key factor in preventing clinical complications attributed to the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of an in-house quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) assay of DENV, using the non-structural conserved genomic region protein-5 (NS5) versus two genomic regions usually employed for virus detection, the capsid/pre-membrane region (C-prM) and the 3'-noncoding region (3'NC). One-hundred sixty seven acute phase serum samples from febrile patients were used for validation purposes. Results showed that the three genomic regions had similar amplification profiles and correlation coefficients (0.987-0.999). When isolated viruses were used, the NS5 region had the highest qPCR efficiencies for the four serotypes (98-100%). Amplification from acute serum samples showed that 41.1% (67/167) were positive for the universal assay by at least two of the selected genomic regions. The agreement rates between NS5/C-prM and NS5/3'NC regions were 56.7% and 97%, respectively. Amplification concordance values between C-prM/NS5 and NS5/3'NC regions showed a weak (kappa = 0.109; CI 95%) and a moderate (kappa = 0.489; CI 95%) efficiencies in amplification, respectively. Serotyping assay using a singleplex NS5-TaqMan format was much more sensitive than the C-prM/SYBR Green I protocol (76%). External evaluation showed a high sensitivity (100%), specificity (78%) and high agreement between the assays. According to the results, the NS5 genomic region provides the best genomic region for optimal detection and typification of DENV in clinical samples. PMID:23781709

  11. Enzymological description of multitemplate PCR-Shrinking amplification bias by optimizing the polymerase-template ratio.

    PubMed

    Ingr, Marek; Dostál, Jiří; Majerová, Taťána

    2015-10-01

    Multitemplate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used for preparative and analytical applications in diagnostics and research. Classical PCR and qPCR are two basic setups with many possible experimental modifications. Classical PCR is a method of choice to obtain enough material for subsequent sophisticated applications such as construction of libraries for next-generation sequencing or high-throughput screening. Sequencing and Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNuPE) employ one-strand synthesis and represent a distinct variant of analytical DNA synthesis. In all these applications, maintaining the initial ratio of templates and avoiding underestimation of minority templates is desired. Here, we demonstrate that different templates can amplify independently at low template concentrations (typical in qPCR setups, in which the polymerase concentration is usually several orders of magnitude higher than the template concentration). However, rare templates can be diluted in an effort to keep DNA amplification in the exponential phase, or template concentration can be biased by differences in amplification efficiency. Moreover, amplification of templates present in low concentrations is more vulnerable to stochastic events that lead to proportional changes in the product ratio, as well as by incomplete amplification leading to chimera formation. These undesired effects can be compensated for by using highly processive polymerases with high and equal affinity to different primer-template complexes. Novel enhanced polymerases are desired. With increasing concentration of a primer-template of interest, the system becomes more deterministic. Nevertheless, marked deviation from independent exponential amplification occurs when the total template concentration starts to approach the polymerase concentration. The primer-template complexes compete for enzyme molecules, and the amount of products grows arithmetically-the system starts to obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics

  12. Virus testing by PCR and RT-PCR amplification in berry fruit.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Stuart; McGavin, Wendy; Tzanetakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit crops are prone to infection by a wide range of viruses, with the list expanding every year, primarily because of the expansion of the crops to new geographic regions. Although some methods allow for virus detection in a nonspecific manner, the advent of cheap and effective nucleic acid sequencing technologies has allowed for the development of species-specific tests. This chapter describes methods for extraction of nucleic acids for molecular testing from a range of different berry fruit crops and lists oligonucleotide primers that have been developed for amplification of a large number of berry fruit viruses.

  13. Rapid PCR amplification using a microfluidic device with integrated microwave heating and air impingement cooling.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Docker, Peter T; Yelland, John V; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2010-07-01

    A microwave heating system is described for performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a microfluidic device. The heating system, in combination with air impingement cooling, provided rapid thermal cycling with heating and cooling rates of up to 65 degrees C s(-1) and minimal over- or under-shoot (+/-0.1 degrees C) when reaching target temperatures. In addition, once the required temperature was reached it could be maintained with an accuracy of +/-0.1 degrees C. To demonstrate the functionality of the system, PCR was successfully performed for the amplification of the Amelogenin locus using heating rates and quantities an order of magnitude faster and smaller than current commercial instruments.

  14. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs. PMID:19399482

  15. Rapid PCR amplification protocols decrease the turn-around time for detection of antibiotic resistance genes in Gram-negative pathogens.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Chelsie N; Hanson, Nancy D

    2013-10-01

    A previously designed end-point multiplex PCR assay and singleplex assays used to detect β-lactamase genes were evaluated using rapid PCR amplification methodology. Amplification times were 16-18 minutes with an overall detection time of 1.5 hours. Rapid PCR amplifications could decrease the time required to identify resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative organisms.

  16. Direct DNA amplification from crude clinical samples using a PCR enhancer cocktail and novel mutants of Taq.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhian; Kermekchiev, Milko B; Barnes, Wayne M

    2010-03-01

    PCR-based clinical and forensic tests often have low sensitivity or even false-negative results caused by potent PCR inhibitors found in blood and soil. It is widely accepted that purification of target DNA before PCR is necessary for successful amplification. In an attempt to overcome PCR inhibition, enhance PCR amplification, and simplify the PCR protocol, we demonstrate improved PCR-enhancing cocktails containing nonionic detergent, l-carnitine, d-(+)-trehalose, and heparin. These cocktails, in combination with two inhibitor-resistant Taq mutants, OmniTaq and Omni Klentaq, enabled efficient amplification of exogenous, endogenous, and high-GC content DNA targets directly from crude samples containing human plasma, serum, and whole blood without DNA purification. In the presence of these enhancer cocktails, the mutant enzymes were able to tolerate at least 25% plasma, serum, or whole blood and as high as 80% GC content templates in PCR reactions. These enhancer cocktails also improved the performance of the novel Taq mutants in real-time PCR amplification using crude samples, both in SYBR Green fluorescence detection and TaqMan assays. The novel enhancer mixes also facilitated DNA amplification from crude samples with various commercial Taq DNA polymerases.

  17. Amplification efficiency and thermal stability of qPCR instrumentation: Current landscape and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS-BROADWAY, KARLY-RAI; KARTERIS, EMMANOUIL

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a method of amplifying and detecting small samples of genetic material in real time and is in routine use across many laboratories. Speed and thermal uniformity, two important factors in a qPCR test, are in direct conflict with one another in conventional peltier-driven thermal cyclers. To overcome this, companies are developing novel thermal systems for qPCR testing. More recently, qPCR technology has developed to enable its use in point-of-care testing (POCT), where the test is administered and results are obtained in a single visit to a health provider, particularly in developing countries. For a system to be suitable for POCT it must be rapid and reliable. In the present study, the speed and thermal uniformity of four qPCR thermal cyclers currently available were compared, two of which use the conventional peltier/block heating method and two of which use novel heating and cooling methods. The time required to complete 40 cycles varied between 12 and 58 min, and the Ct values were comparable, ranging between 13.6 and 16.8. Therefore, the novel technologies investigated in the present study for qPCR instrumentation performed equally well compared with conventional qPCR instruments, in terms of amplification efficiency and thermal uniformity. PMID:26622475

  18. Preservation of gene expression ratios among multiple complex cDNAs after PCR amplification: application to differential gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, W; Cai, L; Wright, M B; Walker, G; Salgam, P; Vater, A; Lindpaintner, K

    2000-01-01

    Comparative gene expression studies are often limited by low availability of tissue and poor quality of extractable mRNA. Collective PCR amplification of minute quantities of mRNA has great potential for overcoming these limitations. However, there remains significant concern about the effects of amplification on the absolute and relative abundance of individual mRNAs that could complicate subsequent gene expression studies. To address this problem, we systematically compared the relative abundance of many specific mRNAs from complex cDNA preparations (from tissue and cultured cells) both before and after amplification by PCR. Our results demonstrated that, as expected, the absolute abundance of different mRNAs in a cDNA library is altered in an unpredictable manner by PCR amplification. However, we found that the concentration ratios of specific mRNAs among different cDNA preparations were routinely well conserved after PCR amplification. Thus, for the purpose of comparative expression studies for specific mRNAs in two (or more) complex cDNAs, PCR-amplified cDNA is equally useful as unamplified cDNA. These results provide a rigorous experimental validation and offer a theoretical treatment to support the utility of PCR amplified cDNA for differential gene expression studies. We conclude that the inherent difficulties in performing differential screening studies such as gene chip and array analyses on limited amounts of biological materials can be overcome by a PCR amplification step without compromising data quality.

  19. DNA analysis using an integrated microchip for multiplex PCR amplification and electrophoresis for reference samples.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Delphine; Root, Brian E; Reedy, Carmen R; Hickey, Jeffrey A; Scott, Orion N; Bienvenue, Joan M; Landers, James P; Chassagne, Luc; de Mazancourt, Philippe

    2014-08-19

    A system that automatically performs the PCR amplification and microchip electrophoretic (ME) separation for rapid forensic short tandem repeat (STR) forensic profiling in a single disposable plastic chip is demonstrated. The microchip subassays were optimized to deliver results comparable to conventional benchtop methods. The microchip process was accomplished in sub-90 min compared with >2.5 h for the conventional approach. An infrared laser with a noncontact temperature sensing system was optimized for a 45 min PCR compared with the conventional 90 min amplification time. The separation conditions were optimized using LPA-co-dihexylacrylamide block copolymers specifically designed for microchip separations to achieve accurate DNA size calling in an effective length of 7 cm in a plastic microchip. This effective separation length is less than half of other reports for integrated STR analysis and allows a compact, inexpensive microchip design. This separation quality was maintained when integrated with microchip PCR. Thirty samples were analyzed conventionally and then compared with data generated by the microfluidic chip system. The microfluidic system allele calling was 100% concordant with the conventional process. This study also investigated allelic ladder consistency over time. The PCR-ME genetic profiles were analyzed using binning palettes generated from two sets of allelic ladders run three and six months apart. Using these binning palettes, no allele calling errors were detected in the 30 samples demonstrating that a microfluidic platform can be highly consistent over long periods of time.

  20. Detection of acute toxoplasmosis in pigs using loop-mediated isothermal amplification and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-10-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay allows rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection. In the present study, the LAMP assay was evaluated using blood from both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was compared with that of Q-PCR. Both assays detected T. gondii in the blood of experimentally infected pigs, with 100% agreement. In infected blood samples, the parasite was detected as early as 2 days post-infection and reached a peak in 3-5 days. In 216 field serum samples, the detection rates of LAMP and Q-PCR assays were 6.9% and 7.8%, respectively. This result indicates that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was slightly lower than that of the Q-PCR assay. However, the LAMP may be an attractive diagnostic method in conditions where sophisticated and expensive equipment is unavailable. This assay could be a powerful supplement to current diagnostic methods.

  1. Direct Assessment of Viral Diversity in Soils by Random PCR Amplification of Polymorphic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasiah, Sharath; Lovett, Jacqueline; Polson, Shawn; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Ghosh, Dhritiman; Roy, Krishnakali; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J.; Radosevich, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant and diverse biological entities within soils, yet their ecological impact is largely unknown. Defining how soil viral communities change with perturbation or across environments will contribute to understanding the larger ecological significance of soil viruses. A new approach to examining the composition of soil viral communities based on random PCR amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was developed. A key methodological improvement was the use of viral metagenomic sequence data for the design of RAPD-PCR primers. This metagenomically informed approach to primer design enabled the optimization of RAPD-PCR sensitivity for examining changes in soil viral communities. Initial application of RAPD-PCR viral fingerprinting to soil viral communities demonstrated that the composition of autochthonous soil viral assemblages noticeably changed over a distance of meters along a transect of Antarctic soils and across soils subjected to different land uses. For Antarctic soils, viral assemblages segregated upslope from the edge of dry valley lakes. In the case of temperate soils at the Kellogg Biological Station, viral communities clustered according to land use treatment. In both environments, soil viral communities changed along with environmental factors known to shape the composition of bacterial host communities. Overall, this work demonstrates that RAPD-PCR fingerprinting is an inexpensive, high-throughput means for addressing first-order questions of viral community dynamics within environmental samples and thus fills a methodological gap between narrow single-gene approaches and comprehensive shotgun metagenomic sequencing for the analysis of viral community diversity. PMID:23793630

  2. Single cell PCR amplification of diatoms using fresh and preserved samples

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Paul B.; Lefebvre, Keely E.; Bull, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Single cell Chelex® DNA extraction and nested PCR amplification were used to examine partial gene sequences from natural diatom populations for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at and above the level of species. DNA was extracted from cells that were either fresh collected or stored in RNAlater. Extractions from Lugol's fixation were also attempted with limited success. Three partial gene sequences (rbcL, 18S, and psbA) were recovered using existing and new primers with a nested or double nested PCR approach with amplification and success rates between 70 and 96%. An rbcL consensus tree grouped morphologically similar specimens and was consistent across the two primary sample treatments: fresh and RNAlater. This tool will greatly enhance the number of microscopic diatom taxa (and potentially other microbes) available for barcoding and phylogenetic studies. The near-term increase in sequence data for diatoms generated via routine single cell extractions and PCR will act as a multiproxy validation of longer-term next generation genomics. PMID:26528252

  3. Integrated biochip for PCR-based DNA amplification and detection on capacitive biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschou, D.; Vourdas, N.; Filippidou, M. K.; Tsouti, V.; Kokkoris, G.; Tsekenis, G.; Zergioti, I.; Chatzandroulis, S.; Tserepi, A.

    2013-05-01

    Responding to an increasing demand for LoC devices to perform bioanalytical protocols for disease diagnostics, the development of an integrated LoC device consisting of a μPCR module integrated with resistive microheaters and a biosensor array for disease diagnostics is presented. The LoC is built on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) platform, implementing both the amplification of DNA samples and DNA detection/identification on-chip. The resistive microheaters for PCR and the wirings for the sensor read-out are fabricated by means of standard PCB technology. The microfluidic network is continuous-flow, designed to perform 30 PCR cycles with heated zones at constant temperatures, and is built onto the PCB utilizing commercial photopatternable polyimide layers. Following DNA amplification, the product is driven in a chamber where a Si-based biosensor array is placed for DNA detection through hybridization. The sensor array is tested for the detection of mutations of the KRAS gene, responsible for colon cancer.

  4. Internal Amplification Control for a Cryptosporidium Diagnostic PCR: Construction and Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hawash, Yousry; Ghonaim, M M; Al-Hazmi, Ayman S

    2015-04-01

    Various constituents in clinical specimens, particularly feces, can inhibit the PCR assay and lead to false-negative results. To ensure that negative results of a diagnostic PCR assay are true, it should be properly monitored by an inhibition control. In this study, a cloning vector harboring a modified target DNA sequence (≈375 bp) was constructed to be used as a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) for a conventional PCR assay that detects ≈550 bp of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene sequence in human feces. Modification of the native PCR target was carried out using a new approach comprising inverse PCR and restriction digestion techniques. IAC was included in the assay, with the estimated optimum concentration of 1 fg per reaction, as duplex PCR. When applied on fecal samples spiked with variable oocysts counts, ≈2 oocysts were theoretically enough for detection. When applied on 25 Cryptosporidium-positive fecal samples of various infection intensities, both targets were clearly detected with minimal competition noticed in 2-3 samples. Importantly, both the analytical and the diagnostic sensitivities of the PCR assay were not altered with integration of IAC into the reactions. When tried on 180 randomly collected fecal samples, 159 were Cryptosporidium-negatives. Although the native target DNA was absent, the IAC amplicon was obviously detected on gel of all the Cryptosporidium-negative samples. These results imply that running of the diagnostic PCR, inspired with the previously developed DNA extraction protocol and the constructed IAC, represents a useful tool for Cryptosporidium detection in human feces.

  5. RT-PCR amplification of the complete NF1 coding sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ming Hong Shen; Meena Upadhyaya

    1994-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder. The NF1 gene is a large gene, 350kb in size, with at least 51 exons. It has proved hard to detect mutations in the gene by examining genomic DNA due to the high mutation rate and the large size of the gene. Since the cloning of the gene, only 45 causative mutations have been reported from over 500 unrelated NF1 patients screened. The coding sequence of the NF1 gene is approximately 3% of the genomic sequence; it will therefore be easier to search for unknown mutations by the study of mRNA. We describe a simple RT-PCR-based strategy to amplify the total coding sequence of the NF1 transcript from peripheral blood lymphocyte RNA. This strategy involves an initial cDNA synthesis step utilizing a set of random hexamers, followed by two consecutive rounds of PCR amplifications. The first round of amplification was performed using four NF1-specific nested primer pairs. This amplification allows the construction of overlapping fragments which span a 8694 bp cDNA sequence of the gene. For mutation analysis, the amplified products or their digests were subjected to electrophoresis on Hydrolink gels. Two disease-causing mutations, a 3 bp deletion in exon 17 and a 10 bp deletion in exon 44, originally detected in the genomic DNA from two unrelated NF1 patients, have been confirmed at the RNA level. The combination of this strategy with other established techniques such as SSCP, chemical cleavage of mismatch, protein truncation test (PTT) and quantitative PCR should greatly facilitate mutation and expression analyses in the NF1 gene.

  6. Detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen by Real-time PCR method with internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Ju; Cai, Qin; Guan, Xiao; Chen, Qin

    2015-05-01

    Specific primer sets were designed based on the DNA sequence of Ara h 1, one of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens, and a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was designed by compound primer technology. By choosing 314 copies/PCR as the IAC dosage, a Real-time PCR method with IAC was established for detecting peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA. The method showed high specificity with a detection limit of 0.005% peanut. A series of commercial food products with/without peanut components were tested. Among these products, the peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA could be detected in 12 products labelled containing peanut ingredients, in two without a declaration of peanut and one labelled that was produced in a facility that produced peanut-containing foods. This indicates that the method is highly sensitive for the detection of peanut ingredients in foods.

  7. Miniaturized PCR chips for nucleic acid amplification and analysis: latest advances and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of performing fast and small-volume nucleic acid amplification and analysis on a single chip has attracted great interest. Devices based on this idea, referred to as micro total analysis, microfluidic analysis, or simply ‘Lab on a chip’ systems, have witnessed steady advances over the last several years. Here, we summarize recent research on chip substrates, surface treatments, PCR reaction volume and speed, architecture, approaches to eliminating cross-contamination and control and measurement of temperature and liquid flow. We also discuss product-detection methods, integration of functional components, biological samples used in PCR chips, potential applications and other practical issues related to implementation of lab-on-a-chip technologies. PMID:17576684

  8. Sensitive, microliter PCR with consensus degenerate primers for Epstein Barr virus amplification

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyudam; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Conrardy, Christina; Landers, James P.; Tong, Suxiang; Forest, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive identification of the etiology of viral diseases is key to implementing appropriate prevention and treatment. The gold standard for virus identification is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique that allows for highly specific and sensitive detection of pathogens by exponentially amplifying a specific region of DNA from as little as a single copy through thermocycling a biochemical cocktail. Today, molecular biology laboratories use commercial instruments that operate in 0.5–2 h/analysis using reaction volumes of 5–50 μL contained within polymer tubes or chambers. Towards reducing this volume and maintaining performance, we present a semi-quantitative, systematic experimental study of how PCR yield is affected by tube/chamber substrate, surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA:V), and passivation methods. We perform PCR experiments using traditional PCR tubes as well as using disposable polymer microchips with 1 μL reaction volumes thermocycled using water baths. We report the first oil encapsulation microfluidic PCR method without fluid flow and its application to the first microfluidic amplification of Epstein Barr virus using consensus degenerate primers, a powerful and broad PCR method to screen for both known and novel members of a viral family. The limit of detection is measured as 140 starting copies of DNA from a starting concentration of 3×105 copies/mL, regarded as an accepted sensitivity threshold for diagnostic purposes, and reaction specificity was improved as compared to conventional methods. Also notable, these experiments were conducted with conventional reagent concentrations, rather than commonly spiked enzyme and/or template mixtures. This experimental study of the effects of substrate, SA:V, and passivation, together with sensitive and specific microfluidic PCR with consensus degenerate primers represent advances towards lower cost and higher throughput pathogen screening. PMID:23080522

  9. Allele-specific MMP-3 transcription under in vivo conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Chaoyong; Odeberg, Jacob; Hamsten, Anders; Eriksson, Per . E-mail: Per.Eriksson@ki.se

    2006-09-29

    A common matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) -1612 5A/6A promoter polymorphism is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. Here we used the haplotype chromatin immunoprecipitation method to study allele-specific MMP-3 expression under in vivo conditions in heterozygous THP-1 cells. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the ratio of 5A-allele to 6A-allele after chromatin immunoprecipitation using an antibody against phosphorylated active RNA polymerase II. There was no allele-specific difference in transcriptional activity during basal conditions, i.e., in unstimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. However, after stimulation of MMP-3 expression by monocyte differentiation or incubation with IL-1{beta}, the haplotype containing the 5A-allele was associated with higher transcriptional activity compared with the 6A-containing haplotype. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated increased binding of nuclear proteins to the 5A-allele after monocyte differentiation. In conclusion, the common MMP-3 5A/6A promoter polymorphism appears to be functional only during specific environmental conditions involving inflammation.

  10. [Study on identification of cistanche hebra and its adulterants by PCR amplification of specific alleles based on ITS sequences].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Hua; Long, Ping; Zou, De-Zhi; Li, Yue; Cui, Zhan-Hu; Li, Min-Hui

    2014-10-01

    To explore the new method of discriminating Cistanche deserticola, Cynomorium songaricum and Orobanche pycnostachya by using PCR amplification of specific alleles. 30 samples of the different C. deserticola, 21 samples of C. songaricum and O. pycnostachya were collected. The total DNA of the samples were extracted, the ITS sequences from C. deserticola, C. songaricum and O. pycnostachya were amplified by PCR and sequenced unidirectionally. These sequences were aligned by using ClustulW. Specific primer was designed according to the ITS sequences of specific alleles, and PCR reaction system was optimized. Additionally, compare with the identification of specific PCR method and DNA sequence analysis method. The result showed that the 331 bp identification band for C. deserticola and the adulterants not amplified bands by a single PCR reaction, which showed good identification ability to the three species. PCR amplification of specific alleles can be used to identify C. deserticola, C. songaricum and O. pycnostachya successfully.

  11. PCR amplification of species-specific DNA sequences can distinguish among Phytophthora species.

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, T; Schoelz, J E; English, J T

    1994-01-01

    We used PCR to differentiate species in the genus Phytophthora, which contains a group of devastating plant pathogenic fungi. We focused on Phytophthora parasitica, a species that can infect solanaceous plants such as tomato, and on Phytophthora citrophthora, which is primarily a citrus pathogen. Oligonucleotide primers were derived from sequences of a 1,300-bp P. parasitica-specific DNA segment and of an 800-bp P. citrophthora-specific segment. Under optimal conditions, the primers developed for P. parasitica specifically amplified a 1,000-bp sequence of DNA from isolates of P. parasitica. Primers for P. citrophthora similarly and specifically amplified a 650-bp sequence of DNA from isolates of P. citrophthora. Detectable amplification of these specific DNA sequences required picogram quantities of chromosomal DNA. Neither pair of primers amplified these sequences with DNAs from other species of Phytophthora or from the related genus Pythium. DNAs from P. parasitica and P. citrophthora growing in infected tomato stem tissue were amplified as distinctly as DNAs from axenic cultures of each fungal species. This is the first report on PCR-driven amplification with Phytophthora species-specific primers. Images PMID:8074533

  12. Real-time PCR with internal amplification control for detecting tuberculosis: method design and validation.

    PubMed

    Flores, E; Rodríguez, J C; Garcia-Pachón, E; Soto, J L; Ruiz, M; Escribano, I; Royo, G

    2009-08-01

    Real-time PCR has been a major development in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, most tests do not include an internal amplification control (IAC), which therefore limits it clinical application. In this study a new, easy to perform real-time PCR test with IAC was designed and validated in clinical samples. The primers amplified a 163-bp fragment of IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the IAC was designed with a fragment of a different microorganism (Chlamydia trachomatis). The interassay and intraassay variation of this test were very low (0.45-1.65% and 0.18-1.80%, respectively). The detection accuracy was validated in 50 samples (25 urine, 25 sputum) with different concentrations of M. tuberculosis, 18 clinical isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria and 148 samples with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis. The specificity was 100%. The detection limit of this PCR test without IAC was approximately 15 bacteria and with IAC approximately 32 bacteria. This real-time PCR with IAC assay can improve the detection of M. tuberculosis and contribute to standardization of this diagnostic technique.

  13. Detection of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 in eels and oysters by PCR amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, S S; Melanson, D M; Biosca, E G; Oliver, J D

    1996-01-01

    DNA extraction procedures and PCR conditions to detect Vibrio vulnificus cells naturally occurring in oysters were developed. In addition, PCR amplification of V. vulnificus from oysters seeded with biotype 1 cells was demonstrated. By the methods described, V. vulnificus cells on a medium (colistin-polymyxin B-cellobiose agar) selective for this pathogen were detectable in oysters harvested in January and March, containing no culturable cells (< 67 CFU/g), as well as in oysters harvested in May and June, containing culturable cells. It was possible to complete DNA extraction, PCR, and gel electrophoresis within 10 h by using the protocol described for oysters. V. vulnificus biotype 2 cells were also detected in eel tissues that had been infected with this strain and subsequently preserved in formalin. The protocol used for detection of V. vulnificus cells in eels required less than 5 h to complete. Optimum MgCl2 concentrations for the PCR of V. vulnificus from oysters and eels were different, although the same primer pair was used for both. This is the first report on the detection of cells of V. vulnificus naturally present in shellfish and represents a potentially powerful method for monitoring this important human and eel pathogen. PMID:8919800

  14. PCR-sequencing is a complementary method to amplification refractory mutation system for EGFR gene mutation analysis in FFPE samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junchang; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Xiaoli; Sheng, Danli; Zuo, Chen; Ren, Minpu; Wu, Yaqin; Shen, Jie; Jin, Mei; Xu, Songxiao

    2015-12-01

    Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) is the most popular technology for EGFR gene mutation analysis in China. Cutoff Ct or ΔCt values were used to differentiate low mutation abundance cases from no mutation cases. In this study, all of 359 NSCLC samples were tested by ARMS. Seventeen samples with larger Ct or ΔCt than cutoff values were retested by PCR-sequencing. TKI treatment responses were monitored on the cases with ARMS negative and PCR-sequencing positive results. One exon 18 G719X case, 67 exon 19 deletion cases, 2 exon 20 insertion cases, 1 exon 20 T790M case, 60 exon 21 L858R cases, 5 exon 21 L861Q cases and 201 wild type cases were identified by ARMS. Another 22 cases were evaluated as wild type but had later amplification fluorescent curves. Seventeen out of these 22 cases were retested by PCR-sequencing. It turns out that 3 out of 3 cases with exon 19 deletion later amplifications, 2 out of 2 cases with L858R later amplifications and 4 out of 12 cases with T790M later amplifications were identified as mutation positive. Two cases with exon 19 deletion and L858R respectively were treated by TKI and got responses. Our study indicated that PCR-sequencing might be a complementary way to confirm ARMS results with later amplifications.

  15. PCR-sequencing is a complementary method to amplification refractory mutation system for EGFR gene mutation analysis in FFPE samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junchang; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Xiaoli; Sheng, Danli; Zuo, Chen; Ren, Minpu; Wu, Yaqin; Shen, Jie; Jin, Mei; Xu, Songxiao

    2015-12-01

    Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) is the most popular technology for EGFR gene mutation analysis in China. Cutoff Ct or ΔCt values were used to differentiate low mutation abundance cases from no mutation cases. In this study, all of 359 NSCLC samples were tested by ARMS. Seventeen samples with larger Ct or ΔCt than cutoff values were retested by PCR-sequencing. TKI treatment responses were monitored on the cases with ARMS negative and PCR-sequencing positive results. One exon 18 G719X case, 67 exon 19 deletion cases, 2 exon 20 insertion cases, 1 exon 20 T790M case, 60 exon 21 L858R cases, 5 exon 21 L861Q cases and 201 wild type cases were identified by ARMS. Another 22 cases were evaluated as wild type but had later amplification fluorescent curves. Seventeen out of these 22 cases were retested by PCR-sequencing. It turns out that 3 out of 3 cases with exon 19 deletion later amplifications, 2 out of 2 cases with L858R later amplifications and 4 out of 12 cases with T790M later amplifications were identified as mutation positive. Two cases with exon 19 deletion and L858R respectively were treated by TKI and got responses. Our study indicated that PCR-sequencing might be a complementary way to confirm ARMS results with later amplifications. PMID:26477713

  16. Development of Nested PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu-Jiang; Han, Shan; Zhu, Tian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium. The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products. PMID:27721691

  17. Effects of a novel cell stabilizing reagent on DNA amplification by PCR as compared to traditional stabilizing reagents.

    PubMed

    Das, Kausik; Fernando, M Rohan; Basiaga, Sara; Wigginton, Stephanie M; Williams, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Stabilization of nucleated blood cells by cell stabilizing reagent (BCT reagent) present in the Cell-Free DNA BCT blood collection device and consequent prevention of cell-free DNA contamination by cellular DNA during sample storage and shipping have previously been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of this novel cell stabilizing reagent on DNA amplification by PCR as compared to traditional cell stabilizing reagents, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. A 787 bp long DNA fragment from human glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was amplified by PCR and used as model system. DNA samples and blood samples were treated with BCT reagent, 0.1% formaldehyde or 0.1% glutaraldehyde at room temperature. DNA amplification was studied using conventional and real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicate that exposure of DNA to the BCT reagent for up to 14 days had no effect on DNA amplification by PCR as compared to the untreated control DNA. However, there was statistically significant decrease in DNA amplification in the DNA samples treated with formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. We conclude that the BCT reagent used in Cell-Free DNA BCT blood collection device to prevent cell-free DNA contamination by cellular DNA had no effect on DNA amplification by PCR.

  18. Preferential PCR amplification of parasitic protistan small subunit rDNA from metazoan tissues.

    PubMed

    Bower, Susan M; Carnegie, Ryan B; Goh, Benjamin; Jones, Simon R; Lowe, Geoffrey J; Mak, Michelle W

    2004-01-01

    A "universal non-metazoan" polymerase chain reaction (UNonMet-PCR) that selectively amplifies a segment of nonmetazoan Small Subunit (SSU) rDNA gene was validated. The primers used were: 18S-EUK581-F (5'-GTGCCAGCAGCCGCG-3') and 18S-EUK1134-R (5'-TTTAAGTTTCAGCCTTGCG-3') with specificity provided by the 19-base reverse primer. Its target site is highly conserved across the Archaea, Bacteria, and eukaryotes (including fungi), but not most Metazoa (except Porifera, Ctenophora, and Myxozoa) which have mismatches at bases 14 and 19 resulting in poor or failed amplification. During validation, UNonMet-PCR amplified SSU rDNA gene fragments from all assayed protists (n = 16 from 7 higher taxa, including two species of marine phytoplankton) and Fungi (n = 3) but amplified very poorly or not at all most assayed Metazoa (n = 13 from 8 higher taxa). When a nonmetazoan parasite was present in a metazoan host, the parasite DNA was preferentially amplified. For example, DNA from the parasite Trypanosoma danilewskyi was preferentially amplified in mixtures containing up to 1,000 x more goldfish Carassius auratus (host) DNA. Also, the weak amplification of uninfected host (Chionoecetes tanneri) SSU rDNA did not occur in the presence of a natural infection with a parasite (Hematodinium sp.). Only Hematodinium sp. SSU rDNA was amplified in samples from infected C. tanneri. This UNonMet-PCR is a powerful tool for amplifying SSU rDNA from non-metazoan pathogens or symbionts that have not been isolated from metazoan hosts.

  19. A modified approach to identification of the sickle cell anemia mutation by means of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Birikh, K R; Plutalov, O V; Schwartz, E I; Devi, P S; Berlin, Y A

    1992-01-01

    The allele-specific PCR approach has been modified by introducing a second mismatch at the 3'-penultimate link of the primer and used to identify the sickle cell anemia mutation (A-->T transversion in the sixth codon of the human beta-globin gene causing Glu-->Val substitution in the protein), thus obviating the problem of an interpretationally ambiguous 3'-terminal mismatch including T residue. PMID:1301951

  20. A modified approach to identification of the sickle cell anemia mutation by means of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Birikh, K R; Plutalov, O V; Schwartz, E I; Devi, P S; Berlin, Y A

    1992-01-01

    The allele-specific PCR approach has been modified by introducing a second mismatch at the 3'-penultimate link of the primer and used to identify the sickle cell anemia mutation (A-->T transversion in the sixth codon of the human beta-globin gene causing Glu-->Val substitution in the protein), thus obviating the problem of an interpretationally ambiguous 3'-terminal mismatch including T residue.

  1. [Identification and diagnosis of Taylorella equigenitalis by a DNA amplification method (PCR)].

    PubMed

    Miserez, R; Frey, J; Krawinkler, M; Nicolet, J

    1996-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of Taylorella equigenitalis was developed. The oligonucleotide primers are based on the DNA sequence of the rrs gene of T. equigenitalis, encoding for the 16S ribosomal RNA. Analysis of 21 strains of T. equigenitalis from England, USA and Switzerland showed an amplification product of 410 bp with identical Sau3A restriction profile. The sensitivity of the PCR-Assay was estimated to detect 50 to 500 bacteria of T. equigenitalis in a mixture with frequently found contaminants. Further analysis of culture from 60 genital swabs, taken in the course of the control of the contagious equine metritis in horses and donkeys, of experimental assays as well as of two positive cases from the diagnostic showed that this PCR-assay can be used to identify and to detect strains of T. equigenitalis. In addition, preliminary results indicate that the method is also applicable for direct in vitro establishment of the presence of T. equigenitalis in clinical samples.

  2. Amplification refractory mutation system PCR assays for the detection of variola and Orthopoxvirus.

    PubMed

    Pulford, David; Meyer, Hermann; Brightwell, Gale; Damon, Inger; Kline, Richard; Ulaeto, David

    2004-04-01

    PCR assays that can identify the presence of variola virus (VARV) sequences in an unknown DNA sample were developed using principles established for the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). The assay's specificity utilised unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified among Orthopoxvirus (OPV) orthologs of the vaccinia virus Copenhagen strain A13L and A36R genes. When a variola virus specific primer was used with a consensus primer in an ARMS assay with different Orthopoxvirus genomes, a PCR product was only amplified from variola virus DNA. Incorporating a second consensus primer into the assay produced a multiplex PCR that provided Orthopoxvirus generic and variola-specific products with variola virus DNA. We tested two single nucleotide polymorphisms with a panel of 43 variola virus strains, collected over 40 years from countries across the world, and have shown that they provide reliable markers for variola virus identification. The variola virus specific primers did not produce amplicons with either assay format when tested with 50 other Orthopoxvirus DNA samples. Our analysis shows that these two polymorphisms were conserved in variola virus genomes and provide a reliable signature of Orthopoxvirus species identification.

  3. Specific amplification by PCR of rearranged genomic variable regions of immunoglobulin genes from mouse hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Berdoz, J; Monath, T P; Kraehenbuhl, J P

    1995-04-01

    We have designed a novel strategy for the isolation of the rearranged genomic fragments encoding the L-VH-D-JH and L-V kappa/lambda-J kappa/lambda regions of mouse immunoglobulin genes. This strategy is based on the PCR amplification of genomic DNA from mouse hybridomas using multiple specific primers chosen in the 5'-untranslated region and in the intron downstream of the rearranged JH/J kappa/lambda sequences. Variable regions with intact coding sequences, including full-length leader peptides (L) can be obtained without previous DNA sequencing. Our strategy is based on a genomic template that produces fragments that do not need to be adapted for recombinant antibody expression, thus facilitating the generation of chimeric and isotype-switched immunoglobulins.

  4. A method for selective PCR-amplification of genomic DNA fragments (SAGF method)

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.A.; Menzenyuk, O.Y.; Matvienko, N.N.; Matvienko, N.I.

    1995-09-01

    A method is suggested for dividing into individual sets of the complex mixtures of fragments obtained by DNA cleavage with type IIS and IIN restriction endonucleases producing single-stranded termini with different sequences at the DNA fragment ends. The method is based on the ligation of short double-stranded adapters with single-stranded ends complementary to termini of the selected set of fragments followed by PCR-amplification with the primer representing one of the adapter chains. Using endonucleases BcoKI and Bli736I, recognizing sequences CTCTTC and GGTCTC and producing three- and four nucleotide 5{prime}-termini, respectively, it has been shown that amplification of a set of fragments occurs only upon attachment of the adapters to the DNA fragments with DNA-ligase. Several possible applications of the SAGF method are suggested: obtaining individual bands in DNA fingerprinting; reducing the kinetic complexity of DNA in representative difference analysis (RDA method) of complex genomes; cataloging of DNA fragments; construction of physical genome maps. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification.

    PubMed

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-06

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF.

  6. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  7. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification.

    PubMed

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  8. Detection of bovine trichomoniasis with a specific DNA probe and PCR amplification system.

    PubMed

    Ho, M S; Conrad, P A; Conrad, P J; LeFebvre, R B; Perez, E; BonDurant, R H

    1994-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a widespread, economically important venereal disease of cattle which causes infertility and abortion. Effective control of trichomoniasis has been impeded by the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic procedures, which require the isolation and cultivation of the parasite, Tritrichomonas foetus, from infected cattle. We developed a 0.85-kb T. foetus DNA probe by identifying conserved sequences in DNAs from T. foetus that were isolated from cattle in California, Idaho, Nevada, and Costa Rica. The probe hybridized specifically to DNAs of T. foetus isolates from different geographic areas but not to DNA preparations of Trichomonas vaginalis, bovine cells, or a variety of bacteria from cattle. The probe detected DNA from a minimum of 10(5) T. foetus organisms. To improve sensitivity, a partial sequence of the probe was used to identify oligonucleotide primers (TF1 and TF2) which could be used to amplify a 162-bp product from T. foetus DNAs by PCR. A chemiluminescent internal T. foetus sequence probe was hybridized to Southern blots of the amplification product. This system detected as few as one T. foetus organism in culture media or 10 parasites in samples containing bovine preputial smegma. Analysis of 52 clinical samples showed that 47 (90.4%) of the 52 samples were correctly identified, with no false-positive reactions. In comparison, the traditional cultivation method detected 44 (84.6%) of the 52 samples from T. foetus-infected and uninfected bulls. These results indicate that the PCR-based amplification system could be a useful alternative method for the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis.

  9. Identification of some ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by PCR amplification of their gpd (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genes.

    PubMed

    Kreuzinger, N; Podeu, R; Gruber, F; Göbl, F; Kubicek, C P

    1996-09-01

    Degenerated oligonucleotide primers designed to flank an approximately 1.2-kb fragment of the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were used to amplify the corresponding gpd fragments from several species of the ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa Boletus, Amanita, and Lactarius. Those from B. edulis, A. muscaria, and L. deterrimus were cloned and sequenced. The respective nucleotide sequences of these gene fragments showed a moderate degree of similarity (72 to 76%) in the protein-encoding regions and only a low degree of similarity in the introns (56 to 66%). Introns, where present, occurred at conserved positions, but the respective positions and numbers of introns in a given taxon varied. The amplified fragment from a given taxon could be distinguished from that of others by both restriction nuclease cleavage analysis and Southern hybridization. A procedure for labeling DNA probes with fluorescein-12-dUTP by PCR was developed. These probes were used in a nonradioactive hybridization assay, with which the gene could be detected in 2 ng of chromosomal DNA of L. deterrimus on slot blots. Taxon-specific amplification was achieved by the design of specific oligonucleotide primers. The application of the gpd gene for the identification of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions was demonstrated, with Picea abies (spruce) mycorrhizal roots harvested from a northern alpine forest area as well as from a plant-breeding nursery. The interference by inhibitory substances, which sometimes occurred in the DNA extracted from the root-fungus mixture, could be overcome by using very diluted concentrations of template DNA for a first round of PCR amplification followed by a second round with nested oligonucleotide primers. We conclude that gpd can be used to detect ectomycorrhizal fungi during symbiotic interaction. PMID:8795234

  10. Single genome amplification and standard bulk PCR yield HIV-1 envelope products with similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Behzad; Ghulam-Smith, Melissa; Gonzalez, Oscar; White, Laura F; Sagar, Manish

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that single genome amplification (SGA) as compared to standard bulk PCR and virus stocks from 293T transfection versus short term passage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yield a less biased representation of HIV-1 envelope characteristics. In 9 different subjects, genetic diversity, divergence, and population structure were not significantly different among SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelope V1-V3 segments. In these subjects, 293T transfection derived virus stocks with SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelopes have similar infectivity, replication kinetics, co-receptor usage, and neutralization susceptibility. While PBMC passage as compared to the 293T derived virus stocks had similar co-receptor usage, PBMC viruses were less neutralization susceptible to some specific antibodies. Our results suggest that the method of envelope sequence amplification, either SGA or bulk PCR, does not have a significant impact on the genotypic and phenotypic properties of the virus envelope quasispecies.

  11. Single genome amplification and standard bulk PCR yield HIV-1 envelope products with similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Behzad; Smith, Melissa Ghulam; Gonzalez, Oscar; White, Laura F; Sagar, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that single genome amplification (SGA) as compared to standard bulk PCR and virus stocks from 293T transfection versus short term passage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yield a less biased representation of HIV-1 envelope characteristics. In 9 different subjects, genetic diversity, divergence, and population structure was not significantly different among SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelope V1–V3 segments. In these subjects, 293T transfection derived virus stocks with SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelopes had similar infectivity, replication kinetics, co-receptor usage, and neutralization susceptibility. While PBMC passage as compared to the 293T derived virus stocks had similar co-receptor usage, PBMC viruses were less neutralization susceptible to some specific antibodies. Our results suggest that the method of envelope sequence amplification, either SGA or bulk PCR, does not have a significant impact on the genotypic and phenotypic properties of the virus envelope quasispecies. PMID:25681527

  12. Single genome amplification and standard bulk PCR yield HIV-1 envelope products with similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Behzad; Ghulam-Smith, Melissa; Gonzalez, Oscar; White, Laura F; Sagar, Manish

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that single genome amplification (SGA) as compared to standard bulk PCR and virus stocks from 293T transfection versus short term passage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yield a less biased representation of HIV-1 envelope characteristics. In 9 different subjects, genetic diversity, divergence, and population structure were not significantly different among SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelope V1-V3 segments. In these subjects, 293T transfection derived virus stocks with SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelopes have similar infectivity, replication kinetics, co-receptor usage, and neutralization susceptibility. While PBMC passage as compared to the 293T derived virus stocks had similar co-receptor usage, PBMC viruses were less neutralization susceptible to some specific antibodies. Our results suggest that the method of envelope sequence amplification, either SGA or bulk PCR, does not have a significant impact on the genotypic and phenotypic properties of the virus envelope quasispecies. PMID:25681527

  13. Simple and rapid preparation of infected plant tissue extracts for PCR amplification of virus, viroid, and MLO nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Levy, L; Lee, I M; Hadidi, A

    1994-10-01

    A rapid, simple method for preparing plant tissues infected with viruses, viroids, or MLOs using a commercial product known as Gene Releaser is described. The Gene Releaser polymeric matrix method produced plant extracts suitable for PCR amplification without the use of organic solvents, ethanol precipitation, or additional nucleic acid purification techniques. Modification of maceration methods and/or extraction buffers resulted in the PCR amplification of potato spindle tuber, apple scar skin, and dapple apple viroids, as well as, genomic segments of plum pox potyvirus, grapevine virus B, grapevine leafroll-associated virus III, and elm yellows MLO. These pathogens were amplified from tissue of woody and herbaceous hosts such as peach, apricot, apple, grapevine, elm, periwinkle and potato. The application of this product for use with intractable tissue avoids lengthy and laborious extraction procedures. In our hands, about 20 samples could be prepared for PCR or RT-PCR in 1-2 h versus 1-3 days. PMID:7868647

  14. Genomic landscape of human allele-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Hodges, Emily; Molaro, Antoine; Dean, Matthew; Hannon, Gregory J; Smith, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    DNA methylation mediates imprinted gene expression by passing an epigenomic state across generations and differentially marking specific regulatory regions on maternal and paternal alleles. Imprinting has been tied to the evolution of the placenta in mammals and defects of imprinting have been associated with human diseases. Although recent advances in genome sequencing have revolutionized the study of DNA methylation, existing methylome data remain largely untapped in the study of imprinting. We present a statistical model to describe allele-specific methylation (ASM) in data from high-throughput short-read bisulfite sequencing. Simulation results indicate technical specifications of existing methylome data, such as read length and coverage, are sufficient for full-genome ASM profiling based on our model. We used our model to analyze methylomes for a diverse set of human cell types, including cultured and uncultured differentiated cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Regions of ASM identified most consistently across methylomes are tightly connected with known imprinted genes and precisely delineate the boundaries of several known imprinting control regions. Predicted regions of ASM common to multiple cell types frequently mark noncoding RNA promoters and represent promising starting points for targeted validation. More generally, our model provides the analytical complement to cutting-edge experimental technologies for surveying ASM in specific cell types and across species. PMID:22523239

  15. Allele-specific chemical genetics: concept, strategies, and applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kabirul

    2015-02-20

    The relationship between DNA and protein sequences is well understood, yet because the members of a protein family/subfamily often carry out the same biochemical reaction, elucidating their individual role in cellular processes presents a challenge. Forward and reverse genetics have traditionally been employed to understand protein functions with considerable success. A fundamentally different approach that has gained widespread application is the use of small organic molecules, known as chemical genetics. However, the slow time-scale of genetics and inherent lack of specificity of small molecules used in chemical genetics have limited the applicability of these methods in deconvoluting the role of individual proteins involved in fast, dynamic biological events. Combining the advantages of both the techniques, the specificity achieved with genetics along with the reversibility and tunability of chemical genetics, has led to the development of a powerful approach to uncover protein functions in complex biological processes. This technique is known as allele-specific chemical genetics and is rapidly becoming an essential toolkit to shed light on proteins and their mechanism of action. The current review attempts to provide a comprehensive description of this approach by discussing the underlying principles, strategies, and successful case studies. Potential future implications of this technology in expanding the frontiers of modern biology are discussed.

  16. Extensive allele-specific translational regulation in hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingyi; Wang, Xi; McShane, Erik; Zauber, Henrik; Sun, Wei; Selbach, Matthias; Chen, Wei

    2015-08-07

    Translational regulation is mediated through the interaction between diffusible trans-factors and cis-elements residing within mRNA transcripts. In contrast to extensively studied transcriptional regulation, cis-regulation on translation remains underexplored. Using deep sequencing-based transcriptome and polysome profiling, we globally profiled allele-specific translational efficiency for the first time in an F1 hybrid mouse. Out of 7,156 genes with reliable quantification of both alleles, we found 1,008 (14.1%) exhibiting significant allelic divergence in translational efficiency. Systematic analysis of sequence features of the genes with biased allelic translation revealed that local RNA secondary structure surrounding the start codon and proximal out-of-frame upstream AUGs could affect translational efficiency. Finally, we observed that the cis-effect was quantitatively comparable between transcriptional and translational regulation. Such effects in the two regulatory processes were more frequently compensatory, suggesting that the regulation at the two levels could be coordinated in maintaining robustness of protein expression.

  17. Genomic landscape of human allele-specific DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Hodges, Emily; Molaro, Antoine; Dean, Matthew; Hannon, Gregory J.; Smith, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation mediates imprinted gene expression by passing an epigenomic state across generations and differentially marking specific regulatory regions on maternal and paternal alleles. Imprinting has been tied to the evolution of the placenta in mammals and defects of imprinting have been associated with human diseases. Although recent advances in genome sequencing have revolutionized the study of DNA methylation, existing methylome data remain largely untapped in the study of imprinting. We present a statistical model to describe allele-specific methylation (ASM) in data from high-throughput short-read bisulfite sequencing. Simulation results indicate technical specifications of existing methylome data, such as read length and coverage, are sufficient for full-genome ASM profiling based on our model. We used our model to analyze methylomes for a diverse set of human cell types, including cultured and uncultured differentiated cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Regions of ASM identified most consistently across methylomes are tightly connected with known imprinted genes and precisely delineate the boundaries of several known imprinting control regions. Predicted regions of ASM common to multiple cell types frequently mark noncoding RNA promoters and represent promising starting points for targeted validation. More generally, our model provides the analytical complement to cutting-edge experimental technologies for surveying ASM in specific cell types and across species. PMID:22523239

  18. FACETS: allele-specific copy number and clonal heterogeneity analysis tool for high-throughput DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ronglai; Seshan, Venkatraman E

    2016-09-19

    Allele-specific copy number analysis (ASCN) from next generation sequencing (NGS) data can greatly extend the utility of NGS beyond the identification of mutations to precisely annotate the genome for the detection of homozygous/heterozygous deletions, copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), allele-specific gains/amplifications. In addition, as targeted gene panels are increasingly used in clinical sequencing studies for the detection of 'actionable' mutations and copy number alterations to guide treatment decisions, accurate, tumor purity-, ploidy- and clonal heterogeneity-adjusted integer copy number calls are greatly needed to more reliably interpret NGS-based cancer gene copy number data in the context of clinical sequencing. We developed FACETS, an ASCN tool and open-source software with a broad application to whole genome, whole-exome, as well as targeted panel sequencing platforms. It is a fully integrated stand-alone pipeline that includes sequencing BAM file post-processing, joint segmentation of total- and allele-specific read counts, and integer copy number calls corrected for tumor purity, ploidy and clonal heterogeneity, with comprehensive output and integrated visualization. We demonstrate the application of FACETS using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) whole-exome sequencing of lung adenocarcinoma samples. We also demonstrate its application to a clinical sequencing platform based on a targeted gene panel.

  19. FACETS: allele-specific copy number and clonal heterogeneity analysis tool for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ronglai; Seshan, Venkatraman E.

    2016-01-01

    Allele-specific copy number analysis (ASCN) from next generation sequencing (NGS) data can greatly extend the utility of NGS beyond the identification of mutations to precisely annotate the genome for the detection of homozygous/heterozygous deletions, copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), allele-specific gains/amplifications. In addition, as targeted gene panels are increasingly used in clinical sequencing studies for the detection of ‘actionable’ mutations and copy number alterations to guide treatment decisions, accurate, tumor purity-, ploidy- and clonal heterogeneity-adjusted integer copy number calls are greatly needed to more reliably interpret NGS-based cancer gene copy number data in the context of clinical sequencing. We developed FACETS, an ASCN tool and open-source software with a broad application to whole genome, whole-exome, as well as targeted panel sequencing platforms. It is a fully integrated stand-alone pipeline that includes sequencing BAM file post-processing, joint segmentation of total- and allele-specific read counts, and integer copy number calls corrected for tumor purity, ploidy and clonal heterogeneity, with comprehensive output and integrated visualization. We demonstrate the application of FACETS using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) whole-exome sequencing of lung adenocarcinoma samples. We also demonstrate its application to a clinical sequencing platform based on a targeted gene panel. PMID:27270079

  20. FACETS: allele-specific copy number and clonal heterogeneity analysis tool for high-throughput DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ronglai; Seshan, Venkatraman E

    2016-09-19

    Allele-specific copy number analysis (ASCN) from next generation sequencing (NGS) data can greatly extend the utility of NGS beyond the identification of mutations to precisely annotate the genome for the detection of homozygous/heterozygous deletions, copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), allele-specific gains/amplifications. In addition, as targeted gene panels are increasingly used in clinical sequencing studies for the detection of 'actionable' mutations and copy number alterations to guide treatment decisions, accurate, tumor purity-, ploidy- and clonal heterogeneity-adjusted integer copy number calls are greatly needed to more reliably interpret NGS-based cancer gene copy number data in the context of clinical sequencing. We developed FACETS, an ASCN tool and open-source software with a broad application to whole genome, whole-exome, as well as targeted panel sequencing platforms. It is a fully integrated stand-alone pipeline that includes sequencing BAM file post-processing, joint segmentation of total- and allele-specific read counts, and integer copy number calls corrected for tumor purity, ploidy and clonal heterogeneity, with comprehensive output and integrated visualization. We demonstrate the application of FACETS using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) whole-exome sequencing of lung adenocarcinoma samples. We also demonstrate its application to a clinical sequencing platform based on a targeted gene panel. PMID:27270079

  1. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  2. Internal validation of the GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit for the direct amplification of reference DNA samples on a high-throughput automated workflow.

    PubMed

    Flores, Shahida; Sun, Jie; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit uses 6-dye fluorescent chemistry to enable multiplexing of 21 autosomal STRs, 1 Y-STR, 1 Y-indel and the sex-determining marker amelogenin. The kit is specifically designed for processing reference DNA samples in a high throughput manner. Validation studies were conducted to assess the performance and define the limitations of this direct amplification kit for typing blood and buccal reference DNA samples on various punchable collection media. Studies included thermal cycling sensitivity, reproducibility, precision, sensitivity of detection, minimum detection threshold, system contamination, stochastic threshold and concordance. Results showed that optimal amplification and injection parameters for a 1.2mm punch from blood and buccal samples were 27 and 28 cycles, respectively, combined with a 12s injection on an ABI 3500xL Genetic Analyzer. Minimum detection thresholds were set at 100 and 120RFUs for 27 and 28 cycles, respectively, and it was suggested that data from positive amplification controls provided a better threshold representation. Stochastic thresholds were set at 250 and 400RFUs for 27 and 28 cycles, respectively, as stochastic effects increased with cycle number. The minimum amount of input DNA resulting in a full profile was 0.5ng, however, the optimum range determined was 2.5-10ng. Profile quality from the GlobalFiler™ Express Kit and the previously validated AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Direct Kit was comparable. The validation data support that reliable DNA typing results from reference DNA samples can be obtained using the GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit.

  3. An efficient full-length cDNA amplification strategy based on bioinformatics technology and multiplexed PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Wang, Wei-Min; Wang, Huan-Ling

    2016-01-13

    A novel strategy for amplification full-length cDNA and promoter sequences has been developed using bioinformatics technology and multiplexed PCR methods in this study. The amplification of 3' ends of cDNA is performed according to the modified classic 3' RACE techniques, therein the more efficient and effective oligo(dT)-anchor primer with hairpin structure is specially designed. For the amplification of 5' ends of cDNA, two or three-round TAIL-PCR or touch-down PCR using arbitrary degenerate (AD) and sequence-specific reverse (SPR) primers is performed until the 5' sequence of multi-assembled fragment reaches the exon1 region identified by aligning this fragment to reference genome database. Then another TAIL-PCR or touch-down PCR using genomic DNA as template is conducted to obtain the remaining 5' and promoter sequences. The 5' end sites of cDNA are predicted by aligning finally assembled fragment to homologous reference genes of other species, and screening the relative locations of common characteristic cis-elements in silico on promoter. The putative 5' ends are further validated by primers corresponding to these predicted sites in cDNAs. This method is suitable for researchers to isolate limited full-length cDNA sequences due to its operability, inexpensiveness, efficiency and speediness.

  4. PCR amplification from paraffin-embedded tissues: recommendations on fixatives for long-term storage and prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Greer, C E; Lund, J K; Manos, M M

    1991-08-01

    The development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification methods has afforded molecular studies of fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples and other archival material. Some fixation methods damage DNA, and thus deleteriously affect subsequent PCR analysis. This study addressed the effect of short- and long-term storage (2 hr to 30 days) in a variety of fixatives (10% buffered-neutral formalin [BNF], 95% ethanol, acetone, and OmniFix) before paraffin embedding. We tested the ability of prepared tissue sections to yield DNA amplification products ranging from 268 to 1327 bp. Results indicated that tissues fixed for 8 days in BNF were able to amplify 536-bp but very little 989-bp DNA fragments; after 30 days of BNF fixation only a 268-bp fragment was amplifiable. Samples fixed in OmniFix and acetone yielded products of 989 and 1327 bp, respectively, after 8 days of fixation; both fixatives yielded 989-bp amplification products after 30 days of fixation. Tissues fixed in 95% ethanol for up to 30 days efficiently produced DNA amplification fragments of up to 1327 bp in length. The results provide important information for prospective studies that involve PCR analysis from archival material. Furthermore, fixation and long-term storage in ethanol should prove particularly useful in remote areas where refrigeration or immediate sample-processing is unavailable.

  5. Survey of benign Theileria parasites of cattle and buffaloes in Thailand using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction of major piroplasm surface protein gene.

    PubMed

    Sarataphan, Nopporn; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Chansiri, Kosum; Onuma, Misao

    2003-01-01

    During a year from 1999 to 2000, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from 214 cattle and 33 water buffaloes in 16 distinct geographical locations of Thailand and analyzed by allele-specific PCR amplification of major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes of benign Theileria parasites. Four allelic MPSP gene types were determined namely C-type, I-type, B-type and Thai-type, which were originally designated from Japanese Theileria orientalis (Chitose, Ikeda), Australian T. buffeli (Warwick) and Thai T. sp. (Kamphaeng Saen), respectively. Only two allelic MPSP gene types were successively amplified from 204 (82.6%) blood samples. Among positive cases, 138 (67.6%) and 17 (8.3%) samples contained either Thai-type or C-type parasites, respectively, while 49 (24%) samples contained both types. However, nucleotide sequences of MPSP genes of Thai T. sp. amplified by C-type specific primers revealed higher (96.3%) similarity to Indonesian T. sp. rather than (87.8% similarity) to Japanese T. orientalis (Chitose) designated as C-type.

  6. Allele specific expression in worker reproduction genes in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Harindra E; Toghill, Bradley J; Nathanael, Despina; Mallon, Eamonn B

    2015-01-01

    Methylation has previously been associated with allele specific expression in ants. Recently, we found methylation is important in worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here we searched for allele specific expression in twelve genes associated with worker reproduction in bees. We found allele specific expression in Ecdysone 20 monooxygenase and IMP-L2-like. Although we were unable to confirm a genetic or epigenetic cause for this allele specific expression, the expression patterns of the two genes match those predicted for imprinted genes.

  7. Novel Degenerate PCR Method for Whole-Genome Amplification Applied to Peru Margin (ODP Leg 201) Subsurface Samples.

    PubMed

    Martino, Amanda J; Rhodes, Matthew E; Biddle, Jennifer F; Brandt, Leah D; Tomsho, Lynn P; House, Christopher H

    2012-01-01

    A degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method of whole-genome amplification, designed to work fluidly with 454 sequencing technology, was developed and tested for use on deep marine subsurface DNA samples. While optimized here for use with Roche 454 technology, the general framework presented may be applicable to other next generation sequencing systems as well (e.g., Illumina, Ion Torrent). The method, which we have called random amplification metagenomic PCR (RAMP), involves the use of specific primers from Roche 454 amplicon sequencing, modified by the addition of a degenerate region at the 3' end. It utilizes a PCR reaction, which resulted in no amplification from blanks, even after 50 cycles of PCR. After efforts to optimize experimental conditions, the method was tested with DNA extracted from cultured E. coli cells, and genome coverage was estimated after sequencing on three different occasions. Coverage did not vary greatly with the different experimental conditions tested, and was around 62% with a sequencing effort equivalent to a theoretical genome coverage of 14.10×. The GC content of the sequenced amplification product was within 2% of the predicted values for this strain of E. coli. The method was also applied to DNA extracted from marine subsurface samples from ODP Leg 201 site 1229 (Peru Margin), and results of a taxonomic analysis revealed microbial communities dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota, among others. These results were similar to those obtained previously for those samples; however, variations in the proportions of taxa identified illustrates well the generally accepted view that community analysis is sensitive to both the amplification technique used and the method of assigning sequences to taxonomic groups. Overall, we find that RAMP represents a valid methodology for amplifying metagenomes from low-biomass samples.

  8. An integrated closed-tube 2-plex PCR amplification and hybridization assay with switchable lanthanide luminescence based spatial detection.

    PubMed

    Lahdenperä, Susanne; Spangar, Anni; Lempainen, Anna-Maija; Joki, Laura; Soukka, Tero

    2015-06-21

    Switchable lanthanide luminescence is a binary probe technology that inherently enables a high signal modulation in separation-free detection of DNA targets. A luminescent lanthanide complex is formed only when the two probes hybridize adjacently to their target DNA. We have now further adapted this technology for the first time in the integration of a 2-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and hybridization-based solid-phase detection of the amplification products of the Staphylococcus aureus gyrB gene and an internal amplification control (IAC). The assay was performed in a sealed polypropylene PCR chip containing a flat-bottom reaction chamber with two immobilized capture probe spots. The surface of the reaction chamber was functionalized with NHS-PEG-azide and alkyne-modified capture probes for each amplicon, labeled with a light harvesting antenna ligand, and covalently attached as spots to the azide-modified reaction chamber using a copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Asymmetric duplex-PCR was then performed with no template, one template or both templates present and with a europium ion carrier chelate labeled probe for each amplicon in the reaction. After amplification europium fluorescence was measured by scanning the reaction chamber as a 10 × 10 raster with 0.6 mm resolution in time-resolved mode. With this assay we were able to co-amplify and detect the amplification products of the gyrB target from 100, 1000 and 10,000 copies of isolated S. aureus DNA together with the amplification products from the initial 5000 copies of the synthetic IAC template in the same sealed reaction chamber. The addition of 10,000 copies of isolated non-target Escherichia coli DNA in the same reaction with 5000 copies of the synthetic IAC template did not interfere with the amplification or detection of the IAC. The dynamic range of the assay for the synthetic S. aureus gyrB target was three orders of magnitude and the limit of detection of 8 p

  9. Long-Range PCR Amplification of DNA by DNA Polymerase III Holoenzyme from Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Shawn D.; Bullard, James M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication in bacteria is accomplished by a multicomponent replicase, the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (pol III HE). The three essential components of the pol III HE are the α polymerase, the β sliding clamp processivity factor, and the DnaX clamp-loader complex. We report here the assembly of the functional holoenzyme from Thermus thermophilus (Tth), an extreme thermophile. The minimal holoenzyme capable of DNA synthesis consists of α, β and DnaX (τ and γ), δ and δ′ components of the clamp-loader complex. The proteins were each cloned and expressed in a native form. Each component of the system was purified extensively. The minimum holoenzyme from these five purified subunits reassembled is sufficient for rapid and processive DNA synthesis. In an isolated form the α polymerase was found to be unstable at temperatures above 65°C. We were able to increase the thermostability of the pol III HE to 98°C by addition and optimization of various buffers and cosolvents. In the optimized buffer system we show that a replicative polymerase apparatus, Tth pol III HE, is capable of rapid amplification of regions of DNA up to 15,000 base pairs in PCR reactions. PMID:25688300

  10. Quantification of mature microRNAs using pincer probes and real-time PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tinghua; Yang, Jun; Liu, Guopin; Jin, Wei; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Shuhong; Yao, Min

    2015-01-01

    The robust and reliable detection of small microRNAs (miRNAs) is important to understand the functional significance of miRNAs. Several methods can be used to quantify miRNAs. Selectively quantifying mature miRNAs among miRNA precursors, pri-miRNAs, and other miRNA-like sequences is challenging because of the short length of miRNAs. In this study, we developed a two-step miRNA quantification system based on pincer probe capture and real-time PCR amplification. The performance of the method was tested using synthetic mature miRNAs and clinical RNA samples. Results showed that the method demonstrated dynamic range of seven orders of magnitude and sensitivity of detection of hundreds of copies of miRNA molecules. The use of pincer probes allowed excellent discrimination of mature miRNAs from their precursors with five Cq (quantification cycle) values difference. The developed method also showed good discrimination of highly homologous family members with cross reaction less than 5%. The pincer probe-based approach is a potential alternative to currently used methods for mature miRNA quantification. PMID:25768430

  11. A protocol for direct and rapid multiplex PCR amplification on forensically relevant samples.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Saskia; Harteveld, Joyce; Sijen, Titia

    2012-03-01

    Forensic DNA typing involves a multi-step workflow. Steps include DNA isolation, quantification, amplification of a set of short tandem repeat (STR) markers, separation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and DNA profile analysis and interpretation. With that, the process takes around 10-12h. For several scenarios it may be very valuable to speed up this process and obtain an interpretable DNA profile, suited to search a DNA database, within a few hours. For instance in cases of national security, abduction with danger of life, risk of repetition by a serial perpetrator or when custody time of suspects is limited. By a direct and rapid PCR approach we reduced the total DNA profiling time to 2-3h after which genotyping information for the 10 STR markers plus the amelogenin (AMEL) marker present in the commercially available AmpFℓSTR(®) SGM Plus™ (SGM+) profiling kit is obtained. This reduction in time is achieved by using the following elements: (1) the inhibitor tolerant, highly processive Phusion(®) Flash DNA polymerase; (2) a modified, non-adenylated allelic ladder; (3) the quick PIKO(®) thermal cycler system with ultra-thin walled reaction tubes; (4) profile interpretation guidelines with an increased allele calling threshold, modified stutter ratios and marked low-level artefact peaks and (5) regulation of sample input by the use of mini-tapes that lift a limited amount of cell material from swabs or fabrics. The procedure is specifically effective for high level DNA, single source samples such as samples containing saliva, blood, semen and hair roots. Success rates, defined as a complete DNA profile, depend on stain type and surface. Due to the use of tape lifting as the sampling technique, the swab or fabric remains dry and intact and can be analyzed at a later stage using regular procedures. Validation experiments were performed which showed that the protocol effectively instructs researchers unfamiliar with

  12. A simple method for encapsulating single cells in alginate microspheres allows for direct PCR and whole genome amplification.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Saharnaz; Dettloff, Roger O; Frank, Curtis W; Davis, Ronald W; Crosby, Laurel D

    2015-01-01

    Microdroplets are an effective platform for segregating individual cells and amplifying DNA. However, a key challenge is to recover the contents of individual droplets for downstream analysis. This paper offers a method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing multiple serial operations on the isolated cells. Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells were diluted in alginate polymer and sprayed into microdroplets using a fingertip aerosol sprayer. The encapsulated cells were lysed and subjected either to conventional PCR, or whole genome amplification using either multiple displacement amplification (MDA) or a two-step PCR protocol. Microscopic examination after PCR showed that the lumen of the occupied microspheres contained fluorescently stained DNA product, but multiple displacement amplification with phi29 produced only a small number of polymerase colonies. The 2-step WGA protocol was successful in generating fluorescent material, and quantitative PCR from DNA extracted from aliquots of microspheres suggested that the copy number inside the microspheres was amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. Microspheres containing fluorescent material were sorted by a dilution series and screened with a fluorescent plate reader to identify single microspheres. The DNA was extracted from individual isolates, re-amplified with full-length sequencing adapters, and then a single isolate was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. After filtering the reads, the only sequences that collectively matched a genome in the NCBI nucleotide database belonged to R. sphaeroides. This demonstrated that sequencing-ready DNA could be generated from the contents of a single microsphere without culturing. However, the 2-step WGA strategy showed limitations in terms of low genome coverage and an uneven frequency distribution of reads across the genome. This paper offers a simple method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing PCR on isolated cells in common bulk

  13. A simple method for encapsulating single cells in alginate microspheres allows for direct PCR and whole genome amplification.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Saharnaz; Dettloff, Roger O; Frank, Curtis W; Davis, Ronald W; Crosby, Laurel D

    2015-01-01

    Microdroplets are an effective platform for segregating individual cells and amplifying DNA. However, a key challenge is to recover the contents of individual droplets for downstream analysis. This paper offers a method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing multiple serial operations on the isolated cells. Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells were diluted in alginate polymer and sprayed into microdroplets using a fingertip aerosol sprayer. The encapsulated cells were lysed and subjected either to conventional PCR, or whole genome amplification using either multiple displacement amplification (MDA) or a two-step PCR protocol. Microscopic examination after PCR showed that the lumen of the occupied microspheres contained fluorescently stained DNA product, but multiple displacement amplification with phi29 produced only a small number of polymerase colonies. The 2-step WGA protocol was successful in generating fluorescent material, and quantitative PCR from DNA extracted from aliquots of microspheres suggested that the copy number inside the microspheres was amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. Microspheres containing fluorescent material were sorted by a dilution series and screened with a fluorescent plate reader to identify single microspheres. The DNA was extracted from individual isolates, re-amplified with full-length sequencing adapters, and then a single isolate was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. After filtering the reads, the only sequences that collectively matched a genome in the NCBI nucleotide database belonged to R. sphaeroides. This demonstrated that sequencing-ready DNA could be generated from the contents of a single microsphere without culturing. However, the 2-step WGA strategy showed limitations in terms of low genome coverage and an uneven frequency distribution of reads across the genome. This paper offers a simple method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing PCR on isolated cells in common bulk

  14. A Simple Method for Encapsulating Single Cells in Alginate Microspheres Allows for Direct PCR and Whole Genome Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Saharnaz; Dettloff, Roger O.; Frank, Curtis W.; Davis, Ronald W.; Crosby, Laurel D.

    2015-01-01

    Microdroplets are an effective platform for segregating individual cells and amplifying DNA. However, a key challenge is to recover the contents of individual droplets for downstream analysis. This paper offers a method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing multiple serial operations on the isolated cells. Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells were diluted in alginate polymer and sprayed into microdroplets using a fingertip aerosol sprayer. The encapsulated cells were lysed and subjected either to conventional PCR, or whole genome amplification using either multiple displacement amplification (MDA) or a two-step PCR protocol. Microscopic examination after PCR showed that the lumen of the occupied microspheres contained fluorescently stained DNA product, but multiple displacement amplification with phi29 produced only a small number of polymerase colonies. The 2-step WGA protocol was successful in generating fluorescent material, and quantitative PCR from DNA extracted from aliquots of microspheres suggested that the copy number inside the microspheres was amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. Microspheres containing fluorescent material were sorted by a dilution series and screened with a fluorescent plate reader to identify single microspheres. The DNA was extracted from individual isolates, re-amplified with full-length sequencing adapters, and then a single isolate was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. After filtering the reads, the only sequences that collectively matched a genome in the NCBI nucleotide database belonged to R. sphaeroides. This demonstrated that sequencing-ready DNA could be generated from the contents of a single microsphere without culturing. However, the 2-step WGA strategy showed limitations in terms of low genome coverage and an uneven frequency distribution of reads across the genome. This paper offers a simple method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing PCR on isolated cells in common bulk

  15. Synthesis, dynamic combinatorial chemistry, and PCR amplification of 3'-5' and 3'-6' disulfide-linked oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dennis Jul; Manuguerra, Ilenia; Kjelstrup, Michael Brøndum; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2014-12-22

    Disulfide dithymidines linked 3'-5' or 3'-6' were synthesized and incorporated into oligonucleotides through a combined phosphotriester and phosphoramidite solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis approach. The disulfide links are cleaved and formed reversibly in the presence of thiols and oligonucleotides. This link was shown to be sequence-adaptive in response to given templates in the presence of mercaptoethanol. The artificial 3'-5' and 3'-6' disulfide link was tolerated by polymerases in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By using sequencing analysis, we show that single mutations frequently occurred randomly in the amplification products of the PCR.

  16. A universal DNA extraction and PCR amplification method for fungal rDNA sequence-based identification.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, A M; Fu, J; Herrera, M L; Wickes, B L

    2014-10-01

    Accurate identification of fungal pathogens using a sequence-based approach requires an extraction method that yields template DNA pure enough for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other types of amplification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and standardise a rapid, inexpensive DNA extraction protocol applicable to the major fungal phyla, which would yield sufficient template DNA pure enough for PCR and sequencing. A total of 519 clinical and culture collection strains, comprised of both yeast and filamentous fungi, were prepared using our extraction method to determine its applicability for PCR, which targeted the ITS and D1/D2 regions in a single PCR amplicon. All templates were successfully amplified and found to yield the correct strain identification when sequenced. This protocol could be completed in approximately 30 min and utilised a combination of physical and chemical extraction methods but did not require organic solvents nor ethanol precipitation. The method reduces the number of tube manipulations and yielded suitable template DNA for PCR amplification from all phyla that were tested.

  17. A Label-Free, Sensitive, Real-Time, Semiquantitative Electrochemical Measurement Method for DNA Polymerase Amplification (ePCR).

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Nihan; McArdle, Hazel; Patel, Selina; Whitford, Whitney; Evans, Clive W; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Williams, David E

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide hybridization to a complementary sequence that is covalently attached to an electrochemically active conducting polymer (ECP) coating the working electrode of an electrochemical cell causes an increase in reaction impedance for the ferro-ferricyanide redox couple. We demonstrate the use of this effect to measure, in real time, the progress of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a minor component of a DNA extract. The forward primer is attached to the ECP. The solution contains other PCR components and the redox couple. Each cycle of amplification gives an easily measurable impedance increase. Target concentration can be estimated by cycle count to reach a threshold impedance. As proof of principle, we demonstrate an electrochemical real-time quantitative PCR (e-PCR) measurement in the total DNA extracted from chicken blood of an 844 base pair region of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase gene, present at ∼1 ppm of total DNA. We show that the detection and semiquantitation of as few as 2 copies/μL of target can be achieved within less than 10 PCR cycles.

  18. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Yersinia pestis Using Amplification of Plague Diagnostic Bacteriophages Monitored by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Sergueev, Kirill V.; He, Yunxiu; Borschel, Richard H.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.; Filippov, Andrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, has caused many millions of human deaths and still poses a serious threat to global public health. Timely and reliable detection of such a dangerous pathogen is of critical importance. Lysis by specific bacteriophages remains an essential method of Y. pestis detection and plague diagnostics. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this work was to develop an alternative to conventional phage lysis tests – a rapid and highly sensitive method of indirect detection of live Y. pestis cells based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) monitoring of amplification of reporter Y. pestis-specific bacteriophages. Plague diagnostic phages ϕA1122 and L-413C were shown to be highly effective diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of Y. pestis by using qPCR with primers specific for phage DNA. The template DNA extraction step that usually precedes qPCR was omitted. ϕA1122-specific qPCR enabled the detection of an initial bacterial concentration of 103 CFU/ml (equivalent to as few as one Y. pestis cell per 1-µl sample) in four hours. L-413C-mediated detection of Y. pestis was less sensitive (up to 100 bacteria per sample) but more specific, and thus we propose parallel qPCR for the two phages as a rapid and reliable method of Y. pestis identification. Importantly, ϕA1122 propagated in simulated clinical blood specimens containing EDTA and its titer rise was detected by both a standard plating test and qPCR. Conclusions/Significance Thus, we developed a novel assay for detection and identification of Y. pestis using amplification of specific phages monitored by qPCR. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific and allows the detection of only live bacteria. PMID:20596528

  19. Whole blood Nested PCR and Real-time PCR amplification of Talaromyces marneffei specific DNA for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Li, Xiqing; Calderone, Richard; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jianchi; Cai, Wenying; Xi, Liyan

    2016-02-01

    Talaromyces marneffei is a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, which is a life-threatening invasive mycosis in the immunocompromised host. Prompt diagnosis of T. marneffei infection remains difficult although there has been progress in attempts to expedite the diagnosis of this infection. We previously demonstrated the value of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect T. marneffei in paraffin embedded tissue samples with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, this assay was used to detect the DNA of T. marneffei in whole blood samples. Real-time PCR assay was also evaluated to identify T. marneffei in the same samples. Twenty out of 30 whole blood samples (67%) collected from 23 patients were found positive by using the nested PCR assay, while 23/30 (77%) samples were found positive by using the real-time PCR assay. In order to express accurately the fungal loads, we used a normalized linearized plasmid as an internal control for real-time PCR. The assay results were correlated as the initial quantity (copies/μl) with fungal burden. These data indicate that combination of nested PCR and real-time PCR assay provides an attractive alternative for identification of T. marneffei DNA in whole blood samples of HIV-infected patients.

  20. Direct Detection of Erythromycin-Resistant Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Specimens by PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zengguo; Han, Ruijun; Liu, Ying; Du, Quanli; Liu, Jifeng; Ma, Chaofeng; Li, Hengxin; He, Qiushui; Yan, Yongping

    2015-11-01

    Resistance of Bordetella pertussis to erythromycin has been increasingly reported. We developed an allele-specific PCR method for rapid detection of erythromycin-resistant B. pertussis directly from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. Based on the proven association of erythromycin resistance with the A2047G mutation in the 23S rRNA of B. pertussis, four primers, two of which were designed to be specific for either the wild-type or the mutant allele, were used in two different versions of the allele-specific PCR assay. The methods were verified with results obtained by PCR-based sequencing of 16 recent B. pertussis isolates and 100 NP swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. The detection limits of the two PCR assays ranged from 10 to 100 fg per reaction for both erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant B. pertussis. Two amplified fragments of each PCR, of 286 and 112 bp, respectively, were obtained from a mutant allele of the isolates and/or NP swab samples containing B. pertussis DNAs. For the wild-type allele, only a 286-bp fragment was visible when the allele-specific PCR assay 1 was performed. No amplification was found when a number of non-Bordetella bacterial pathogens and NP swab samples that did not contain the DNAs of B. pertussis were examined. This assay can serve as an alternative for PCR-based sequencing, especially for local laboratories in resource-poor countries.

  1. Direct Detection of Erythromycin-Resistant Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Specimens by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengguo; Han, Ruijun; Liu, Ying; Du, Quanli; Liu, Jifeng; Ma, Chaofeng; Li, Hengxin

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of Bordetella pertussis to erythromycin has been increasingly reported. We developed an allele-specific PCR method for rapid detection of erythromycin-resistant B. pertussis directly from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. Based on the proven association of erythromycin resistance with the A2047G mutation in the 23S rRNA of B. pertussis, four primers, two of which were designed to be specific for either the wild-type or the mutant allele, were used in two different versions of the allele-specific PCR assay. The methods were verified with results obtained by PCR-based sequencing of 16 recent B. pertussis isolates and 100 NP swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. The detection limits of the two PCR assays ranged from 10 to 100 fg per reaction for both erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant B. pertussis. Two amplified fragments of each PCR, of 286 and 112 bp, respectively, were obtained from a mutant allele of the isolates and/or NP swab samples containing B. pertussis DNAs. For the wild-type allele, only a 286-bp fragment was visible when the allele-specific PCR assay 1 was performed. No amplification was found when a number of non-Bordetella bacterial pathogens and NP swab samples that did not contain the DNAs of B. pertussis were examined. This assay can serve as an alternative for PCR-based sequencing, especially for local laboratories in resource-poor countries. PMID:26224847

  2. Absolute quantification of olive oil DNA by droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR): Comparison of isolation and amplification methodologies.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Francesco; Egea, Leticia A; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2016-12-15

    Olive oil is considered a premium product for its nutritional value and health benefits, and the ability to define its origin and varietal composition is a key step towards ensuring the traceability of the product. However, isolating the DNA from such a matrix is a difficult task. In this study, the quality and quantity of olive oil DNA, isolated using four different DNA isolation protocols, was evaluated using the qRT-PCR and ddPCR techniques. The results indicate that CTAB-based extraction methods were the best for unfiltered oil, while Nucleo Spin-based extraction protocols showed greater overall reproducibility. The use of both qRT-PCR and ddPCR led to the absolute quantification of the DNA copy number. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the choice of DNA-isolation protocol, which should take into consideration the qualitative aspects of DNA and the evaluation of the amplified DNA copy number. PMID:27451195

  3. Absolute quantification of olive oil DNA by droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR): Comparison of isolation and amplification methodologies.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Francesco; Egea, Leticia A; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2016-12-15

    Olive oil is considered a premium product for its nutritional value and health benefits, and the ability to define its origin and varietal composition is a key step towards ensuring the traceability of the product. However, isolating the DNA from such a matrix is a difficult task. In this study, the quality and quantity of olive oil DNA, isolated using four different DNA isolation protocols, was evaluated using the qRT-PCR and ddPCR techniques. The results indicate that CTAB-based extraction methods were the best for unfiltered oil, while Nucleo Spin-based extraction protocols showed greater overall reproducibility. The use of both qRT-PCR and ddPCR led to the absolute quantification of the DNA copy number. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the choice of DNA-isolation protocol, which should take into consideration the qualitative aspects of DNA and the evaluation of the amplified DNA copy number.

  4. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-01

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  5. Evaluation of IFN-γ polymorphism+874 T/A in patients with recurrent tonsillitis by PCR real time mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA real time PCR).

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Gambarino, Stefano; Loiacono, Elisa; Vergano, Luca; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Astegiano, Sara; Tavormina, Paolo; Tovo, Pier-Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important cytokine that plays a crucial role in the balance between normal and pathological immune response. Defect of IFN-γ can give a predisposition to infectious disease, autoimmune pathologies and tumours. Different polymorphisms in this gene have been described, in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)+874∗T/A that may affect IFN-γ gene expression. Several techniques can be used for the detection of SNPs. In this work two PCR Real Time assays were developed, an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and a Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (MAMA). Twenty-seven samples from patients (tonsillectomy) and 85 from donor's blood bank were considered. As a result, 78/85 controls (91.7%) and 25/27 patients (92.6%) were heterozygosis, considering the ARMS-PCR; 55/85 (64.7%) and 14/27 (51.9%) were heterozygosis using MAMA-PCR assay. Fourteen of 85 (16.5%) and 8/27 (29.6%) were homozygosis A, 16/85 (18.8%) and 5/27 (18.5%) presented homozygosis T, taking into account the MAMA-PCR. There are statistically difference between the two assay with p<0.0001 at Chi-square test. Our preliminary data suggest that tonsillectomy patients had a statistical trend to possess the low IFN-γ polymorphism when compared with control subject (p=0.3) but is not statistically significant. In conclusion the Real time MAMA-PCR assay has several advantages over other SNP identification techniques such as rapidity, reliability, easily to perform in one working day and applicable in clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories, although sequencing remains the gold standard.

  6. Identification of bovine Neospora parasites by PCR amplification and specific small-subunit rRNA sequence probe hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Marsh, A E; Anderson, M L; Rowe, J D; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G; Sverlow, K; Dubey, J P; Conrad, P A

    1996-05-01

    Neospora is a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in size. A Neospora-specific chemiluminescent probe hybridized to Southern blots of amplification products from Neospora DNA but not to Southern blots with amplified DNA from the other coccidian parasites tested. A Toxoplasma-specific probe whose sequence differed from that of the probe for Neospora spp. by a single base pair was used to distinguish these parasites by specific Southern blot hybridization. The PCR system detected as few as one Neospora tachyzoite in the culture medium or five tachyzoites in samples of whole blood or amniotic fluid spiked with Neospora parasites. In addition, Neospora PCR products were successfully amplified from whole blood and amniotic fluid samples of experimentally infected bovine and rhesus macaque fetuses. These results indicate that this PCR and probe hybridization system could be a valuable adjunct to serology and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Neospora infections in bovine or primate fetuses.

  7. Comparative detection of rotavirus RNA by conventional RT-PCR, TaqMan RT-PCR and real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qiu-Hua; Wang, Hai-Bo; Tan, Hua; Wu, Bi-Mei; Feng, Zi-Li; Wang, Qi; Lin, Ji-Can; Yang, Ze

    2015-03-01

    Rotavirus is one of the major viral pathogens leading to diarrhea. Diagnosis has been conducted by either traditional cultural, serological methods or molecular biology techniques, which include RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). However, their differences regarding accuracy and sensitivity remain unknown. In this study, an in-house conventional RT-PCR assay and more importantly, an in-house real-time NASBA (RT-NASBA) were established, and compared with a commercial TaqMan RT-PCR assay. The results showed that all of these methods were able to detect and distinguish rotavirus from other diarrhea viruses with a 100% concordance rate during the course of an evaluation on 20 clinical stool samples. However, RT-NASBA was much quicker than the other two methods. More importantly, the limit of detection of RT-NASBA could reach seven copies per reaction and was one to two logs lower than that of conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-PCR. These results indicate that this in-house assay was more sensitive, and thus could be used as an efficient diagnosis tool for rotavirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct comparison among three different assays for the detection of rotavirus. These findings would provide implication for the rational selection of diagnosis tool for rotavirus.

  8. Analysis of common mitochondrial DNA mutations by allele-specific oligonucleotide and Southern blot hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sha; Halberg, Michelle C; Floyd, Kristen C; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. There are a set of recurrent point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that are responsible for common mitochondrial diseases, including MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes), MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers), LHON (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy), NARP (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa), and Leigh syndrome. Most of the pathogenic mtDNA point mutations are present in the heteroplasmic state, meaning that the wild-type and mutant-containing mtDNA molecules are coexisting. Clinical heterogeneity may be due to the degree of mutant load (heteroplasmy) and distribution of heteroplasmic mutations in affected tissues. Additionally, Kearns-Sayre syndrome and Pearson syndrome are caused by large mtDNA deletions. In this chapter, we describe a multiplex PCR/allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization method for the screening of 13 common point mutations. This method allows the detection of low percentage of mutant heteroplasmy. In addition, a nonradioactive Southern blot hybridization protocol for the analysis of mtDNA large deletions is also described. PMID:22215554

  9. Developmental validation of the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit: an established multiplex assay with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis Y; Chang, Chien-Wei; Lagacé, Robert E; Calandro, Lisa M; Hennessy, Lori K

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of length polymorphism at short tandem repeat (STR) loci utilizing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the primary method for genotyping forensic samples. The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit is an improved version of the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) PCR Amplification Kit and amplifies the core CODIS loci: D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, and vWA. Additional loci amplified in the multiplex reaction are the sex-determinant, amelogenin, and two internationally accepted loci, D2S1338 and D19S433. While the primer sequences and dye configurations were unchanged, the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit features an enhanced buffer formulation and an optimized PCR cycling protocol that increases sensitivity, provides better tolerance to PCR inhibitors, and improves performance on mixture samples. The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit has been validated according to the FBI/National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines. The validation results support the use of the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit for human identity and parentage testing.

  10. Glucosylation Mediated Rolling Circle Amplification Combined with a qPCR Assay for the Detection of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    The detection of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a newly recognized epigenetic mark, is essential to its functional study. Here, an efficient and simple two-step-amplification method to detect 5hmC mediated by glucosylation is reported, which combines rolling circle amplification (RCA) and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In the first step RCA, the glucosylated 5hmC (5ghmC), but not 5hmC, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or cytosine (C) bases, could directly and specifically inhibit the activity of phi29 DNA polymerase, resulting in less RCA product compared to that using C-/5mC-/5hmC-containing templates. Then, the second step qPCR is adopted to test and verify the difference of the product quantity of 5ghmC-related RCA. The results show that the delta cycle threshold, ΔCt, obtained by subtracting the cycle threshold value (Ct) of C-related qPCR from that of each qPCR, of 5ghmC-related qPCR reaches 1.59 ± 0.03, significantly different from that of C-/5mC-/5hmC-related qPCR (-0.00 ± 0.09, 0.06 ± 0.08 and -0.02 ± 0.03, respectively). Meanwhile, a linear relationship is observed between the 5ghmC levels and the ΔCt values. This suggests that the strategy has a potential application for 5hmC detection and quantification. PMID:27682401

  11. Rapid deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for detection of mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.C.; Wei, J.Q.; Cheng, K.C.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid DNA analysis based on allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mutation site-specific primers was developed to detect mutations in the CYP21 gene known to cause steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In contrast to the previous method, in which PCR of genomic DNA was followed by dot blot analysis with radio active probes and multiple rounds of stripping and reprobing for each of the 8 most common mutation sites, the results using this new method were immediately visualized after the PCR run by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel electrophoresis. Using allele-specific PCR, mutation(s) were identified on 148 affected chromosomes out of 160 tested. Although mutation(s) were identified on only one chromosome of 11 of these patients, their parents showed a consistent pattern on DNA analysis. The only exception was that in one family, in which the parents each had a detectable mutation, a mutation was detected on only one allele of the patient. Most likely there is a mutation in the patient`s other allele that could have arisen de novo or was inherited from the parent and was not evident in the transmitting parent`s phenotype. When compared with the dot blot procedure, allele-specific PCR is more rapid, less labor-intensive, and avoids the use of radioactivity. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Detection of DNA Sequences Refractory to PCR Amplification Using a Biophysical SERRS Assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy)

    PubMed Central

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M.; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction – based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage. PMID:25502338

  13. Assessment of primer/template mismatch effects on real-time PCR amplification of target taxa for GMO quantification.

    PubMed

    Ghedira, Rim; Papazova, Nina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Ruttink, Tom; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2009-10-28

    GMO quantification, based on real-time PCR, relies on the amplification of an event-specific transgene assay and a species-specific reference assay. The uniformity of the nucleotide sequences targeted by both assays across various transgenic varieties is an important prerequisite for correct quantification. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) frequently occur in the maize genome and might lead to nucleotide variation in regions used to design primers and probes for reference assays. Further, they may affect the annealing of the primer to the template and reduce the efficiency of DNA amplification. We assessed the effect of a minor DNA template modification, such as a single base pair mismatch in the primer attachment site, on real-time PCR quantification. A model system was used based on the introduction of artificial mismatches between the forward primer and the DNA template in the reference assay targeting the maize starch synthase (SSIIb) gene. The results show that the presence of a mismatch between the primer and the DNA template causes partial to complete failure of the amplification of the initial DNA template depending on the type and location of the nucleotide mismatch. With this study, we show that the presence of a primer/template mismatch affects the estimated total DNA quantity to a varying degree.

  14. Assessment of primer/template mismatch effects on real-time PCR amplification of target taxa for GMO quantification.

    PubMed

    Ghedira, Rim; Papazova, Nina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Ruttink, Tom; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2009-10-28

    GMO quantification, based on real-time PCR, relies on the amplification of an event-specific transgene assay and a species-specific reference assay. The uniformity of the nucleotide sequences targeted by both assays across various transgenic varieties is an important prerequisite for correct quantification. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) frequently occur in the maize genome and might lead to nucleotide variation in regions used to design primers and probes for reference assays. Further, they may affect the annealing of the primer to the template and reduce the efficiency of DNA amplification. We assessed the effect of a minor DNA template modification, such as a single base pair mismatch in the primer attachment site, on real-time PCR quantification. A model system was used based on the introduction of artificial mismatches between the forward primer and the DNA template in the reference assay targeting the maize starch synthase (SSIIb) gene. The results show that the presence of a mismatch between the primer and the DNA template causes partial to complete failure of the amplification of the initial DNA template depending on the type and location of the nucleotide mismatch. With this study, we show that the presence of a primer/template mismatch affects the estimated total DNA quantity to a varying degree. PMID:19778057

  15. Feasibility of archival non-buffered formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues for PCR amplification: an analysis of resected gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Nabeshima, K; Kataoka, H; Koono, M

    1996-12-01

    Although several factors affecting the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from formalin-fixed tissues have been investigated mostly by experiments, the feasibility of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples stored in pathology departments for PCR amplification has rarely been examined directly. Thus, the feasibility of 74 archival unbuffered 10% formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for PCR amplification with primers producing a 190 b.p. DNA segment of p53 exon 5 was investigated. Fixation time was the critical factor influencing the sensitivity of PCR amplification. All (6/6) of the samples fixed for only 1 day, 44% (7/16) of the samples fixed for 2-3 days and 14% (4/28) of the samples fixed for 4-6 days showed successful amplification, while no amplification was obtained for the samples fixed for 7 days or more. The peak size of DNA extracted from the archival tissues decreased as the fixation time became longer. Experiments using xenografted tumor tissues fixed for various times showed longer permissible fixation time; up to 9 days of fixation, decreasing amounts of PCR products were obtained while no amplification was obtained for the samples fixed for 12 days or more. The time in paraffin seemed to be a minor factor for PCR amplification since all of the 1 day fixation samples, including those that had been embedded for up to 5 years, resulted in efficient amplification. The size of the amplified DNA segments, however, could be another factor influencing the sensitivity of amplification because even the 1 day fixation samples showed less amplification of 345 b.p. DNA compared with those of 167 and 262 b.p. DNA. Additionally, a point mutation was detected in the amplified p53 products from archival tissues using a non-isotopic method, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, archival tissue samples that had been fixed immediately for only up to 1 day were constantly available for PCR amplification

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with PCR and immunohistochemistry for detecting Porphyromonas gingivalis in periapical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Taiichi; Mikami, Yoshikazu; Iwase, Takashi; Asano, Masatake; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is important in the development of marginal periodontitis. However, the precise role and localization of P. gingivalis in chronic periapical periodontitis remain unclear. Thus, methods that can detect P. gingivalis in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are needed. We assessed a technique combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with PCR (PCR-LAMP) for detection of P. gingivalis, using 110 FFPE tissue samples of chronic apical periodontitis. PCR-LAMP specifically detected P. gingivalis with high sensitivity in FFPE tissue samples, and the sensitivity of the technique was higher than that of PCR or LAMP alone. The results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the specificity of PCR-LAMP. IHC showed that P. gingivalis was localized in a granular layer of chronic apical periodontitis, a region that correlated with the localization of macrophages. This is the first study to describe the localization of P. gingivalis in human periapical periodontitis. In conclusion, PCR-LAMP was an effective tool for detecting P. gingivalis in periapical periodontitis. In addition, IHC results improve our understanding of the role of P. gingivalis in the progression of periapical periodontitis. (J Oral Sci 58, 163-169, 2016).

  17. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) rapidly identified a critical missense mutation (P236T) of bovine ACADVL gene affecting growth traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sihuan; Dang, Yonglong; Zhang, Qingfeng; Qin, Qiaomei; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

    2015-04-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL), encoding ACADVL protein, targets the inner mitochondrial membrane where it catalyzes the first step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway and plays an important role in body metabolism and oxidation of long chain fatty acid releasing energy. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) is an easy-to-operate, rapid, inexpensive, and exact method for SNP genotyping. Herein, T-ARMS-PCR was carried out to detect a critical missense mutation (AC_000176:g.2885C>A; Pro236Thr) within the ACADVL gene in 644 individuals from two cattle breeds. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the T-ARMS-PCR at this locus, the genotype of the sampled individuals was also identified by PCR-RFLP. The concordance between these two methods was 98.76%. Statistical analysis showed that the bovine ACADVL gene had a significant effect on chest width (P<0.05), chest depth (P<0.05), and hip width (P<0.05) in the Qinchuan breed. The cattle with AA genotype had superior growth traits compared to cattle with AC and/or CC genotypes. The "A" allele had positive effects on growth traits. Therefore, T-ARMS-PCR can replace PCR-RFLP for rapid genotyping of this mutation, which could be used as a DNA marker for selecting individuals with superior growth traits in the Qinchuan breed. These findings contribute to breeding and genetics in beef cattle industry.

  18. [Diagnostics of phytopathogen fungi Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum by fluorescent amplification-based specific hybridization (FLASH) PCR].

    PubMed

    Abramova, S L; Riazantsev, D Iu; Voinova, T M; Zavriev, S K

    2008-01-01

    A PCR system in the fluorescent amplification-based specific hybridization (FLASH) format was developed for the detection and identification of two important wheat pathogenic fungi Septoria tritici (teleomorph of Mycosphaerella graminicola and Stagonospora nodorum (teleomorph of Phaeosphaeria nodorum), which cause spots on leaves and glumes, respectively. The pathogen detection system is based on the amplification of a genome fragment in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1) region and a site encoding the 5.8S ribosomal RNA. The forward primers to ITS1 and a universal reverse primer and a Beacon type probe to the 5.8S ribosomal RNA region were chosen to provide the detection of the products in the FLASH format. This system was tested on different isolates of the pathogens, and on infected soil, leaf, and seed samples.

  19. Development and validation of the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Direct PCR Amplification Kit: a multiplex assay for the direct amplification of single-source samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis Y; Chang, Chien-Wei; Lagacé, Robert E; Oldroyd, Nicola J; Hennessy, Lori K

    2011-07-01

    The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Direct PCR Amplification Kit is a new short tandem repeat multiplex assay optimized to allow the direct amplification of single-source blood and buccal samples on FTA(®) card without the need for sample purification and quantification. This multiplex assay has been validated according to the FBI/National Standards and SWGDAM guidelines. Validation results revealed that slight variations in primer concentration, master mix component concentration, and thermal cycling parameters did not affect the performance of the chemistry. The assay's sensitivity was demonstrated by amplifying known amounts of white blood cells spotted onto FTA(®) cards, and the assay's specificity was verified by establishing minimal cross-reactivity with nonhuman DNA. No effect on the age of the sample stored on the FTA(®) substrate was observed and full concordance was established in the population study. These findings of the validation study support the use of the Identifiler(®) Direct Kit for forensic standards and database samples genotyping.

  20. Development and validation of the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Direct PCR Amplification Kit: a multiplex assay for the direct amplification of single-source samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis Y; Chang, Chien-Wei; Lagacé, Robert E; Oldroyd, Nicola J; Hennessy, Lori K

    2011-07-01

    The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Direct PCR Amplification Kit is a new short tandem repeat multiplex assay optimized to allow the direct amplification of single-source blood and buccal samples on FTA(®) card without the need for sample purification and quantification. This multiplex assay has been validated according to the FBI/National Standards and SWGDAM guidelines. Validation results revealed that slight variations in primer concentration, master mix component concentration, and thermal cycling parameters did not affect the performance of the chemistry. The assay's sensitivity was demonstrated by amplifying known amounts of white blood cells spotted onto FTA(®) cards, and the assay's specificity was verified by establishing minimal cross-reactivity with nonhuman DNA. No effect on the age of the sample stored on the FTA(®) substrate was observed and full concordance was established in the population study. These findings of the validation study support the use of the Identifiler(®) Direct Kit for forensic standards and database samples genotyping. PMID:21418220

  1. Developmental validation of the GlobalFiler(®) Express PCR Amplification Kit: A 6-dye multiplex assay for the direct amplification of reference samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis Y; Gopinath, Siddhita; Lagacé, Robert E; Norona, Wilma; Hennessy, Lori K; Short, Marc L; Mulero, Julio J

    2015-11-01

    In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group made a recommendation to expand the CODIS core loci from the "required" 13 loci to 20 plus three additional "highly recommended" loci. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit was designed to incorporate all 20 required and 3 highly recommended loci along with a novel male-specific Y insertion/deletion marker. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit allows simultaneous amplification of the following loci: D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, CSF1PO, TPOX, Yindel, AMEL, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, DYS391, D2S441, D19S433, TH01, FGA, D22S1045, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, SE33, D10S1248, D1S1656, D12S391, and D2S1338. The kit enables direct amplification from blood and buccal samples stored on paper or swab and the chemistry features an optimized PCR protocol that yields time to results in less than an hour. Developmental validation testing followed SWGDAM guidelines and demonstrated the quality and robustness of the GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit over a number of variables. The validation results demonstrate that the 24-locus multiplex kit is a robust and reliable identification assay as required for forensic DNA typing and databasing.

  2. Ultra-deep sequencing enables high-fidelity recovery of biodiversity for bulk arthropod samples without PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Next-generation-sequencing (NGS) technologies combined with a classic DNA barcoding approach have enabled fast and credible measurement for biodiversity of mixed environmental samples. However, the PCR amplification involved in nearly all existing NGS protocols inevitably introduces taxonomic biases. In the present study, we developed new Illumina pipelines without PCR amplifications to analyze terrestrial arthropod communities. Results Mitochondrial enrichment directly followed by Illumina shotgun sequencing, at an ultra-high sequence volume, enabled the recovery of Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit 1 (COI) barcode sequences, which allowed for the estimation of species composition at high fidelity for a terrestrial insect community. With 15.5 Gbp Illumina data, approximately 97% and 92% were detected out of the 37 input Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), whether the reference barcode library was used or not, respectively, while only 1 novel OTU was found for the latter. Additionally, relatively strong correlation between the sequencing volume and the total biomass was observed for species from the bulk sample, suggesting a potential solution to reveal relative abundance. Conclusions The ability of the new Illumina PCR-free pipeline for DNA metabarcoding to detect small arthropod specimens and its tendency to avoid most, if not all, false positives suggests its great potential in biodiversity-related surveillance, such as in biomonitoring programs. However, further improvement for mitochondrial enrichment is likely needed for the application of the new pipeline in analyzing arthropod communities at higher diversity. PMID:23587339

  3. Influence of primer & probe chemistry and amplification target on reverse transcription digital PCR quantification of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Van Heuverswyn, Fran; Karczmarczyk, Maria; Schimmel, Heinz; Trapmann, Stefanie; Emons, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other PCR technologies, digital PCR is a potentially highly accurate approach for the quantification of nucleic acid fragments. This study describes the impact of four experimental factors, namely primer and probe chemistry, PCR amplification target, duplexing, and template type, on the measurement results obtained by reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) of viral RNA using influenza A virus as a model. Along conventional dual labelled probes (DLP), alternative primer and probe chemistries, including Zip Nucleic Acids (ZNAs), Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), and Scorpions(®), were compared with two RNA template types: i) total genomic RNA extracted from cell cultured influenza A and ii) a synthetically prepared RNA transcript (In vitro transcribed RNA). While apparently duplexing or a different PCR target choice did not have a significant influence on the estimated RNA copy numbers, the impact of the choice of primer and probe chemistry and template type differed significantly for some methods. The combined standard uncertainty of the dPCR analysis results has been assessed, taking into account both the repeatability and the intermediate precision of the procedure. Our data highlight the importance of dPCR method optimisation and the advantage of using a more sophisticated primer and probe chemistry, which turned out to be dependent on the template type. Considerations are provided with respect to the molecular diagnostics of viral RNA pathogens, and more specifically, for precise quantification of RNA, which is of tremendous importance for the development of RNA calibration materials and the qualification of these calibrants as certified reference materials. PMID:27617229

  4. Influence of primer & probe chemistry and amplification target on reverse transcription digital PCR quantification of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Van Heuverswyn, Fran; Karczmarczyk, Maria; Schimmel, Heinz; Trapmann, Stefanie; Emons, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other PCR technologies, digital PCR is a potentially highly accurate approach for the quantification of nucleic acid fragments. This study describes the impact of four experimental factors, namely primer and probe chemistry, PCR amplification target, duplexing, and template type, on the measurement results obtained by reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) of viral RNA using influenza A virus as a model. Along conventional dual labelled probes (DLP), alternative primer and probe chemistries, including Zip Nucleic Acids (ZNAs), Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), and Scorpions(®), were compared with two RNA template types: i) total genomic RNA extracted from cell cultured influenza A and ii) a synthetically prepared RNA transcript (In vitro transcribed RNA). While apparently duplexing or a different PCR target choice did not have a significant influence on the estimated RNA copy numbers, the impact of the choice of primer and probe chemistry and template type differed significantly for some methods. The combined standard uncertainty of the dPCR analysis results has been assessed, taking into account both the repeatability and the intermediate precision of the procedure. Our data highlight the importance of dPCR method optimisation and the advantage of using a more sophisticated primer and probe chemistry, which turned out to be dependent on the template type. Considerations are provided with respect to the molecular diagnostics of viral RNA pathogens, and more specifically, for precise quantification of RNA, which is of tremendous importance for the development of RNA calibration materials and the qualification of these calibrants as certified reference materials.

  5. A computational workflow to identify allele-specific expression and epigenetic modification in maize.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoxing; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-08-01

    Allele-specific expression refers to the preferential expression of one of the two alleles in a diploid genome, which has been thought largely attributable to the associated cis-element variation and allele-specific epigenetic modification patterns. Allele-specific expression may contribute to the heterosis (or hybrid vigor) effect in hybrid plants that are produced from crosses of closely-related species, subspecies and/or inbred lines. In this study, using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of maize transcriptomics, chromatic H3K27me3 histone modification and DNA methylation data, we developed a new computational framework to identify allele-specifically expressed genes by simultaneously tracking allele-specific gene expression patterns and the epigenetic modification landscape in the seedling tissues of hybrid maize. This approach relies on detecting nucleotide polymorphisms and any genomic structural variation between two parental genomes in order to distinguish paternally or maternally derived sequencing reads. This computational pipeline also incorporates a modified Chi-square test to statistically identify allele-specific gene expression and epigenetic modification based on the Poisson distribution.

  6. Method to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification using an ionically labeled probe and measuring impedance change

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Belgrader, Phillip; Fuller, Christopher D.

    2007-01-02

    Impedance measurements are used to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification. A pair of spaced electrodes are located on a surface of a microfluidic channel and an AC or DC voltage is applied across the electrodes to produce an electric field. An ionically labeled probe will attach to a complementary DNA segment, and a polymerase enzyme will release the ionic label. This causes the conductivity of the solution in the area of the electrode to change. This change in conductivity is measured as a change in the impedance been the two electrodes.

  7. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA from lyophilized cell cultures facilitates studies in molecular systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The sequence of the major portion of a Bacillus cycloheptanicus strain SCH(T) 16S rRNA gene is reported. This sequence suggests that B. cycloheptanicus is genetically quite distinct from traditional Bacillus strains (e.g., B. subtilis) and may be properly regarded as belonging to a different genus. The sequence was determined from DNA that was produced by direct amplification of ribosomal DNA from a lyophilized cell pellet with straightforward polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures. By obviating the need to revive cell cultures from the lyophile pellet, this approach facilitates rapid 16S rDNA sequencing and thereby advances studies in molecular systematics.

  8. Evaluation of Direct PCR Amplification Using Various Swabs and Washing Reagents.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Hallie; Roy, Reena

    2015-11-01

    DNA profiles were generated via direct amplification from blood and saliva samples deposited on various types of swab substrates. Each of the six non-FTA substrates used in this research was punched with a Harris 1.2 mm puncher. After 0.1 μL of blood or 0.5 μL saliva, samples were deposited on each of these punches, samples were pretreated with one of four buffers and washing reagents. Amplification was performed using direct and nondirect autosomal and Y-STR kits. Autosomal and Y-STR profiles were successfully generated from most of these substrates when pretreated with buffer or washing reagents. Concordant profiles were obtained within and between the six substrates, the six amplification kits, and all four reagents. The direct amplification of substrates which do not contain lysing agent would be beneficial to the forensic community as the procedure can be used on evidence samples commonly found at crime scenes.

  9. [Evaluation of 3 methods of DNA extraction from paraffin-embedded material for the amplification of genomic DNA using PCR].

    PubMed

    Mesquita, R A; Anzai, E K; Oliveira, R N; Nunes, F D

    2001-01-01

    There are several protocols reported in the literature for the extraction of genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Genomic DNA is utilized in molecular analyses, including PCR. This study compares three different methods for the extraction of genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia) and non-formalin-fixed (normal oral mucosa) samples: phenol with enzymatic digestion, and silica with and without enzymatic digestion. The amplification of DNA by means of the PCR technique was carried out with primers for the exon 7 of human keratin type 14. Amplicons were analyzed by means of electrophoresis in an 8% polyacrylamide gel with 5% glycerol, followed by silver-staining visualization. The phenol/enzymatic digestion and the silica/enzymatic digestion methods provided amplicons from both tissue samples. The method described is a potential aid in the establishment of the histopathologic diagnosis and in retrospective studies with archival paraffin-embedded samples.

  10. Forensic and population genetic analyses of Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis typed with the Yfiler® Plus PCR amplification kit.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the Yfiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit (Yfiler® Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) was introduced. Yfiler® Plus amplifies 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci (Y-STRs) and adds ten new Y-STRs to those analysed with the commonly used AmpFlSTR® Yfiler® PCR Amplification Kit (Yfiler®, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). Seven of the new Y-STRs are rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs). In this study, 551 male individuals from Denmark, Greenland and Somalia were typed with Yfiler® Plus. The results were compared to those obtained with Yfiler® in the same individuals. Forensic and population genetic parameters were estimated for Yfiler® Plus. Yfiler® Plus had a higher power of discrimination than Yfiler® in all three populations. Compared to Yfiler®, Yfiler® Plus offers increased power of discrimination, which is obviously an advantage in crime case investigations. However, the inclusion of seven RM Y-STRs in Yfiler® Plus makes it less attractive for relationship testing because of the relatively high combined mutation rate, approximately 15%.

  11. Haplotyping using a combination of polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and haplotype-specific PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huitong; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Xiu; Wang, Jiqing; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2014-12-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may have an impact on phenotype, but it may also be influenced by multiple SNPs within a gene; hence, the haplotype or phase of multiple SNPs needs to be known. Various methods for haplotyping SNPs have been proposed, but a simple and cost-effective method is currently unavailable. Here we describe a haplotyping approach using two simple techniques: polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and haplotype-specific PCR. In this approach, individual regions of a gene are analyzed by PCR-SSCP to identify variation that defines sub-haplotypes, and then extended haplotypes are assembled from the sub-haplotypes either directly or with the additional use of haplotype-specific PCR amplification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by haplotyping ovine FABP4 across two variable regions that contain seven SNPs and one indel. The simplicity of this approach makes it suitable for large-scale studies and/or diagnostic screening.

  12. Development of a single multiplex amplification refractory mutation system PCR for the detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodan; Zhang, Chen; Shi, Ming; Yang, Mengjie; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ji; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Gang; Ma, Xuejun

    2013-11-01

    A rapid and simple method for the detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical for the efficient treatment and control of this pathogen in developing country. Here we developed a single multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (M-ARMS) PCR, in which chimeric-primer and temperature switch PCR (TSP) strategy were included. Using this method, we detected rifampin resistance-associated mutations at codons 511, 516, 526 and 531 in the rifampin resistance-determining region of rpoB gene. The performance of M-ARMS-PCR assay was evaluated with 135 cultured isolates of M. tuberculosis. The sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 100%, respectively, compared with direct DNA sequencing, and 86.67% and 89.71%, respectively, compared with culture-based phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Therefore, this newly-developed M-ARMS-PCR method is useful and efficient with an intended application in provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for rapid detection of rifampin resistance-associated mutations.

  13. Protocol: a simple gel-free method for SNP genotyping using allele-specific primers in rice and other plant species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genotype analysis using multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a useful but labor-intensive or high-cost procedure in plant research. Here we describe an alternative genotyping method that is suited to multi-sample or multi-locus SNP genotyping and does not require electrophoresis or specialized equipment. Results We have developed a simple method for multi-sample or multi-locus SNP genotyping using allele-specific primers (ASP). More specifically, we (1) improved the design of allele-specific primers, (2) established a method to detect PCR products optically without electrophoresis, and (3) standardized PCR conditions for parallel genomic assay using various allele-specific primers. As an illustration of multi-sample SNP genotyping using ASP, we mapped the locus for lodging resistance in a typhoon (lrt5). Additionally, we successfully tested multi-locus ASP-PCR analysis using 96 SNPs located throughout the genomes of rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars 'Koshihikari' and 'Kasalath', and demonstrated its applicability to other diverse cultivars/subspecies, including wild rice (O. rufipogon). Conclusion Our ASP methodology allows characterization of SNPs genotypes without electrophoresis, expensive probes or specialized equipment, and is highly versatile due to the flexibility in the design of primers. The method could be established easily in any molecular biology laboratory, and is applicable to diverse organisms. PMID:20409329

  14. A novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by combining a random unbiased Phi29 amplification with a specific real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Lu, Jie; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yufeng; Cohen, Chad; Ni, Xin; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we develop a novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by performing a random unbiased Phi29 amplification prior to the use of a specific real-time PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of the conventional real-time PCR was 100 colony-forming units (CFU) of MTB genome/reaction, while the REPLI real-time PCR assay could detect 0.4 CFU/reaction. In comparison with the conventional real-time PCR, REPLI real-time PCR shows better sensitivity for the detection of smear-negative tuberculosis (P = 0.015).

  15. Allele-specific copy-number discovery from whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, WeiBo; Wang, Wei; Sun, Wei; Crowley, James J; Szatkiewicz, Jin P

    2015-08-18

    Copy-number variants (CNVs) are a major form of genetic variation and a risk factor for various human diseases, so it is crucial to accurately detect and characterize them. It is conceivable that allele-specific reads from high-throughput sequencing data could be leveraged to both enhance CNV detection and produce allele-specific copy number (ASCN) calls. Although statistical methods have been developed to detect CNVs using whole-genome sequence (WGS) and/or whole-exome sequence (WES) data, information from allele-specific read counts has not yet been adequately exploited. In this paper, we develop an integrated method, called AS-GENSENG, which incorporates allele-specific read counts in CNV detection and estimates ASCN using either WGS or WES data. To evaluate the performance of AS-GENSENG, we conducted extensive simulations, generated empirical data using existing WGS and WES data sets and validated predicted CNVs using an independent methodology. We conclude that AS-GENSENG not only predicts accurate ASCN calls but also improves the accuracy of total copy number calls, owing to its unique ability to exploit information from both total and allele-specific read counts while accounting for various experimental biases in sequence data. Our novel, user-friendly and computationally efficient method and a complete analytic protocol is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/asgenseng/. PMID:25883151

  16. A novel measurement of allele discrimination for assessment of allele-specific silencing by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko

    2014-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing by RNA interference (ASP-RNAi) is an atypical RNAi that is capable of discriminating target alleles from non-target alleles, and may be therapeutically useful for specific inhibition of disease-causing alleles without affecting their corresponding normal alleles. However, it is difficult to design and select small interfering RNA (siRNAs) that confer ASP-RNAi. A major problem is that there are few appropriate measures in determining optimal allele-specific siRNAs. Here we show two novel formulas for calculating a new measure of allele-discrimination, named "ASP-score". The formulas and ASP-score allow for an unbiased determination of optimal siRNAs, and may contribute to characterizing such allele-specific siRNAs.

  17. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue, conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Balne, P K; Basu, S; Rath, S; Barik, M R; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test) of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8%) was higher (not significant, P value 0.2) than conventional PCR (57.6%) and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%). Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20) by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

  18. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain. PMID:22986206

  19. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain.

  20. Improved PCR amplification for molecular analysis using DNA from long-term preserved formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Taga, Masataka; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Shinohara, Tomoko; Takahashi, Keiko; Ito, Reiko; Yasui, Wataru; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hamatani, Kiyohiro

    2013-01-01

    Archival tissue specimens are valuable resources of materials for molecular biological analyses in retrospective studies, especially for rare diseases or those associated with exposure to uncommon environmental events. Although successful amplification with PCR is essential for analysis of DNA extracted from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, we have often encountered problems with poor PCR amplification of target fragments. To overcome this, we examined whether heat treatment in alkaline solution could efficiently restore the PCR template activity of DNA that had already been extracted from FFPE lung cancer tissue specimens. The effect of the heat treatment was assessed by PCR for the TP53 gene and other lung cancer-related gene loci. The heat treatment of DNA samples in borate buffer resulted in successful PCR amplification of DNA fragments ranging from 91 to 152 bp. This technique for restoration of template activity of DNA for PCR amplification is very simple and economical, and requires no special apparatus, so it may be applicable for molecular analysis of DNA samples from FFPE tissue specimens at various laboratories.

  1. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Soderlund, Carol A; Nelson, William M; Goff, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor), where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense), and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available from https

  2. Allele Workbench: Transcriptome Pipeline and Interactive Graphics for Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Soderlund, Carol A.; Nelson, William M.; Goff, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor), where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense), and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available from https

  3. DETECTION OF GIARDIA IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS BY IMMUNO-PCR AMPLIFICATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic DNA was extracted either directly from Giardia muris cysts seeded into environmental surface waters or from cysts isolated by immunomagnetic beads (IMB).A 0.171-kbp segment of the giardin gene was PCR-amplified following "direct extraction" of Giardia DNA from seeded Caha...

  4. DETECTION OF GIARDIA IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS BY IMMUNO-PCR AMPLIFICATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic DNA was extracted either directly from Giardia muris cysts seeded into environmental surface waters or from cysts isolated by immunomagnetic beads (IMB}. A 0.171-kbp segment of the giardin gene was PCR-amplified following "direct extraction" of Giardia DNA from seeded Cah...

  5. Single-primer PCR amplification of segments of the main noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Derenko, M.V.; Malyarchuk, B.A.

    1994-11-01

    A method for amplifying segments of the main noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA using a single-primer PCR is proposed. The method employs oligonucleotides that are homologous to this region of the human mitochondrial genome. Possible reaction mechanisms and the prospects for using the method in evolutionary and population genetic studies are discussed. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Modified PCR methods for 3' end amplification from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Jie; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2009-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique to study gene expression at the genome level. However, a disadvantage of the shortness of SAGE tags is that it prevents further study of SAGE library data, thus limiting extensive application of the SAGE method in gene expression studies. However, this problem can be solved by extension of the SAGE tags to 3' cDNAs. Therefore, several methods based on PCR have been developed to generate a 3' longer fragment cDNA corresponding to a SAGE tag. The list of modified methods is extensive, and includes rapid RT-PCR analysis of unknown SAGE tags (RAST-PCR), generation of longer cDNA fragments from SAGE tags for gene identification (GLGI), a high-throughput GLGI procedure, reverse SAGE (rSAGE), two-step analysis of unknown SAGE tags (TSAT-PCR), etc. These procedures are constantly being updated because they have characteristics and advantages that can be shared. Development of these methods has promoted the widespread use of the SAGE technique, and has accelerated the speed of studies of large-scale gene expression.

  7. Development of a reliable dual-gene amplification RT-PCR assay for the detection of Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus in Turkey brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Al-Tori, Amira; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Yuval, Chanoch; Perk, Shimon; Lublin, Avishai

    2012-11-01

    The Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus (TMEV) causes neuroparalytic signs, paresis, in-coordination, morbidity and mortality in turkeys. In parallel to the increased worldwide scientific interest in veterinary avian flaviviruses, including the Bagaza, Tembusu and Tembusu-related BYD virus, TMEV-caused disease also reemergence in commercial turkeys during late summer of 2010. While initially TMEV was detected by NS5-gene RT-PCR, subsequently, the env-gene RT-PCR was employed. As lately several inconsistencies were observed between the clinical, serological and molecular detection of the TMEV env gene, this study evaluated whether genetic changes occurred in the recently isolated viruses, and sought to optimize and improve the direct TMEV amplification from brain tissues of affected turkeys. The main findings indicated that no changes occurred during the years in the TMEV genome, but the PCR detection sensitivities of the env and NS5 genes differed. The RT-PCR and RNA purification were optimized for direct amplification from brain tissues without pre-replication of clinical samples in tissue cultures or in embryonated eggs. The amplification sensitivity of the NS5-gene was 10-100 times more than the env-gene when separate. The new dual-gene amplification RT-PCR was similar to that of the NS5 gene, therefore the assay can be considered as a reliable diagnostic assay. Cases where one of the two amplicons would be RT-PCR negative would alert and warn on the virus identity, and possible genetic changes. In addition, the biochemical environment of the dual-gene amplification reaction seemed to contribute in deleting non-specific byproducts that occasionally appeared in the singular RT-PCR assays on RNA purified from brain tissues.

  8. Data supporting the design and evaluation of a universal primer pair for pseudogene-free amplification of HPRT1 in real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Valadan, Reza; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Alhosseini-Abyazani, Mahdyieh Naghavi; Amjadi, Omolbanin; Rafiei, Alireza; Tehrani, Mohsen; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) is a common housekeeping gene for sample normalization in the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain (qRT-PCR). However, co-amplification of HPRT1 pseudogenes may affect accurate results obtained in qRT-PCR. We designed a primer pair (HPSF) for pseudogene-free amplification of HPRT1 in qRT-PCR [1]. We showed specific amplification of HPRT1 mRNA in some common laboratory cell lines, including HeLa, NIH/3T3, CHO, BHK, COS-7 and VERO. This article provides data supporting the presence and location of HPRT1 pseudogenes within human and mouse genome, and the strategies used for designing primers that avoid the co-amplification of contaminating pseudogenes in qRT-PCR. In silico analysis of human genome showed three homologous sequences for HPRT1 on chromosomes 4, 5 and 11. The mRNA sequence of HPRT1 was aligned with the pseudogenes, and the primers were designed toward 5′ end of HPRT1 mRNA that was only specific to HPRT1 mRNA not to the pseudogenes. The standard curve plot generated by HPSF primers showed the correlation coefficient of 0.999 and the reaction efficiency of 99.5%. Our findings suggest that HPSF primers can be recommended as a candidate primer pair for accurate and reproducible qRT-PCR assays. PMID:26217821

  9. Data supporting the design and evaluation of a universal primer pair for pseudogene-free amplification of HPRT1 in real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Valadan, Reza; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Alhosseini-Abyazani, Mahdyieh Naghavi; Amjadi, Omolbanin; Rafiei, Alireza; Tehrani, Mohsen; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) is a common housekeeping gene for sample normalization in the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain (qRT-PCR). However, co-amplification of HPRT1 pseudogenes may affect accurate results obtained in qRT-PCR. We designed a primer pair (HPSF) for pseudogene-free amplification of HPRT1 in qRT-PCR [1]. We showed specific amplification of HPRT1 mRNA in some common laboratory cell lines, including HeLa, NIH/3T3, CHO, BHK, COS-7 and VERO. This article provides data supporting the presence and location of HPRT1 pseudogenes within human and mouse genome, and the strategies used for designing primers that avoid the co-amplification of contaminating pseudogenes in qRT-PCR. In silico analysis of human genome showed three homologous sequences for HPRT1 on chromosomes 4, 5 and 11. The mRNA sequence of HPRT1 was aligned with the pseudogenes, and the primers were designed toward 5' end of HPRT1 mRNA that was only specific to HPRT1 mRNA not to the pseudogenes. The standard curve plot generated by HPSF primers showed the correlation coefficient of 0.999 and the reaction efficiency of 99.5%. Our findings suggest that HPSF primers can be recommended as a candidate primer pair for accurate and reproducible qRT-PCR assays.

  10. ACNE: a summarization method to estimate allele-specific copy numbers for Affymetrix SNP arrays

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Estevez, Maria; Bengtsson, Henrik; Rubio, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Current algorithms for estimating DNA copy numbers (CNs) borrow concepts from gene expression analysis methods. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have special characteristics that, if taken into account, can improve the overall performance. For example, cross hybridization between alleles occurs in SNP probe pairs. In addition, most of the current CN methods are focused on total CNs, while it has been shown that allele-specific CNs are of paramount importance for some studies. Therefore, we have developed a summarization method that estimates high-quality allele-specific CNs. Results: The proposed method estimates the allele-specific DNA CNs for all Affymetrix SNP arrays dealing directly with the cross hybridization between probes within SNP probesets. This algorithm outperforms (or at least it performs as well as) other state-of-the-art algorithms for computing DNA CNs. It better discerns an aberration from a normal state and it also gives more precise allele-specific CNs. Availability: The method is available in the open-source R package ACNE, which also includes an add on to the aroma.affymetrix framework (http://www.aroma-project.org/). Contact: arubio@ceit.es Supplementaruy information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20529889

  11. Poly(A) polymerase modification and reverse transcriptase PCR amplification of environmental RNA.

    PubMed

    Botero, Lina M; D'Imperio, Seth; Burr, Mark; McDermott, Timothy R; Young, Mark; Hassett, Daniel J

    2005-03-01

    We describe a combination of two established techniques for a novel application for constructing full-length cDNA clone libraries from environmental RNA. The cDNA was cloned without the use of prescribed primers that target specific genes, and the procedure did not involve random priming. Purified RNA was first modified by addition of a poly(A) tail and then was amplified by using a commercially available reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) cDNA synthesis kit. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a cDNA clone library was constructed from size-fractionated RNA (targeting 16S rRNA) purified from a geothermally heated soil in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. The resulting cDNA library contained clones representing Bacteria and Eukarya taxa and several mRNAs. There was no exact clone match between this library and a separate cDNA library generated from an RT-PCR performed with unmodified rRNA and Bacteria-specific forward and universal reverse primers that were designed from cultivated organisms; however, both libraries contained representatives of the Firmicutes and the alpha-Proteobacteria. Unexpectedly, there were no Archaea clones in the library generated from poly(A)-modified RNA. Additional RT-PCRs performed with universal and Archaea-biased primers and unmodified RNA demonstrated the presence of novel Archaea in the soil. Experiments with pure cultures of Sulfolobus solfataricus and Halobacterium halobium revealed that some Archaea rRNA may not be a suitable substrate for the poly(A) tail modification step. The protocol described here demonstrates the feasibility of directly accessing prokaryote RNA (rRNA and/or mRNA) in environmental samples, but the results also illustrate potentially important problems.

  12. PCR amplification of SNP loci from crude DNA for large-scale genotyping of oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Lyon, Rebecca; Zhou, Yuxin; Lamour, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other eukaryotes, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are abundant in many oomycete plant pathogen genomes. High resolution DNA melting analysis (HR-DMA) is a cost-effective method for SNP genotyping, but like many SNP marker technologies, is limited by the amount and quality of template DNA. We describe PCR preamplification of Phytophthora and Peronospora SNP loci from crude DNA extracted from a small amount of mycelium and/or infected plant tissue to produce sufficient template to genotype at least 10 000 SNPs. The approach is fast, inexpensive, requires minimal biological material and should be useful for many organisms in a variety of contexts. PMID:24871597

  13. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests.

  14. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Tougan, Takahiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synthesis from only 0.49 femtograms of mRNA (730 mRNA molecules) as a substrate, a quantity that corresponds to a minor population of mRNA molecules in a single mammalian cell. Analysis of the independent cDNA clone of this library (6.6 x 10(5) cfu) suggests that 30-fold RNA amplification occurred in each round of the amplification process. The size distribution and representation of mRNAs in the resulting one-cell cDNA library retained its similarity to that of the million-cell cDNA library. The use of chum-RNA might also facilitate reactions involving other DNA/RNA modifying enzymes whose Michaelis constant (K(m)) values are around 1 mM, allowing them to be activated in the presence of only small quantities of substrate. PMID:18603591

  15. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    Tougan, Takahiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synthesis from only 0.49 femtograms of mRNA (730 mRNA molecules) as a substrate, a quantity that corresponds to a minor population of mRNA molecules in a single mammalian cell. Analysis of the independent cDNA clone of this library (6.6 × 105 cfu) suggests that 30-fold RNA amplification occurred in each round of the amplification process. The size distribution and representation of mRNAs in the resulting one-cell cDNA library retained its similarity to that of the million-cell cDNA library. The use of chum-RNA might also facilitate reactions involving other DNA/RNA modifying enzymes whose Michaelis constant (Km) values are around 1 mM, allowing them to be activated in the presence of only small quantities of substrate. PMID:18603591

  16. The Use of Coded PCR Primers Enables High-Throughput Sequencing of Multiple Homolog Amplification Products by 454 Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bollback, Jonathan P.; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2007-01-01

    Background The invention of the Genome Sequence 20™ DNA Sequencing System (454 parallel sequencing platform) has enabled the rapid and high-volume production of sequence data. Until now, however, individual emulsion PCR (emPCR) reactions and subsequent sequencing runs have been unable to combine template DNA from multiple individuals, as homologous sequences cannot be subsequently assigned to their original sources. Methodology We use conventional PCR with 5′-nucleotide tagged primers to generate homologous DNA amplification products from multiple specimens, followed by sequencing through the high-throughput Genome Sequence 20™ DNA Sequencing System (GS20, Roche/454 Life Sciences). Each DNA sequence is subsequently traced back to its individual source through 5′tag-analysis. Conclusions We demonstrate that this new approach enables the assignment of virtually all the generated DNA sequences to the correct source once sequencing anomalies are accounted for (miss-assignment rate<0.4%). Therefore, the method enables accurate sequencing and assignment of homologous DNA sequences from multiple sources in single high-throughput GS20 run. We observe a bias in the distribution of the differently tagged primers that is dependent on the 5′ nucleotide of the tag. In particular, primers 5′ labelled with a cytosine are heavily overrepresented among the final sequences, while those 5′ labelled with a thymine are strongly underrepresented. A weaker bias also exists with regards to the distribution of the sequences as sorted by the second nucleotide of the dinucleotide tags. As the results are based on a single GS20 run, the general applicability of the approach requires confirmation. However, our experiments demonstrate that 5′primer tagging is a useful method in which the sequencing power of the GS20 can be applied to PCR-based assays of multiple homologous PCR products. The new approach will be of value to a broad range of research areas, such as those of

  17. Gender verification in sports by PCR amplification of SRY and DYZ1 Y chromosome specific sequences: presence of DYZ1 repeat in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Serrat, A; García de Herreros, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform genetic sex typing during the Barcelona Olympic Games using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Y chromosome specific sequences. METHODS: The assay consisted of the amplification of a specific sequence corresponding to the repeat DYZ1 element from buccal smears samples of 2406 female competitors. Positive samples were reanalysed for the presence of another Y chromosome specific gene, SRY. RESULTS: The expression of these two elements did not always correlate; six samples were found where the presence of DYZ1 but not SRY was detected. This presence of DYZ1 sequence in female athletes is higher than in unselected females, where no DYZ1 amplification was observed in any of the 1629 samples analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Amplification of DYZ1 repeat should not be used as the only index for determining genetic sex, at least in sporting events. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9015592

  18. Genomic DNA of MCF-7 breast cancer cells not an ideal choice as positive control for PCR amplification based detection of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Like Sequences.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bhushan B; Hiremath, Shivaprakash V; Kulkarni, Suyamindra S; Hallikeri, Umesh R; Patil, Basavaraj R; Gai, Pramod B

    2013-11-01

    The identification of the etiology of breast cancer is a crucial research issue for the development of an effective preventive and treatment strategies. Researchers are exploring the possible involvement of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) in causing human breast cancer. Hence, it becomes very important to use a consistent positive control agent in PCR amplification based detection of MMTV-Like Sequence (MMTV-LS) in human breast cancer for accurate and reproducible results. This study was done to investigate the feasibility of using genomic DNA of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to detect MMTV-LS using PCR amplification based detection. MMTV env and SAG gene located at the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences were targeted for the PCR based detection. No amplification was observed in case of the genomic DNA of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. However, the 2.7 kb DNA fragment comprising MMTV env and SAG LTR sequences yielded the products of desired size. From these results it can be concluded that Genomic DNA of MCF-7 cell is not a suitable choice as positive control for PCR or RT-PCR based detection of MMTV-LS. It is also suggested that plasmids containing the cloned genes or sequences of MMTV be used as positive control for detection of MMTV-LS.

  19. Allele-Specific Reprogramming of Cancer Metabolism by the Long Non-coding RNA CCAT2.

    PubMed

    Redis, Roxana S; Vela, Luz E; Lu, Weiqin; Ferreira de Oliveira, Juliana; Ivan, Cristina; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Adamoski, Douglas; Pasculli, Barbara; Taguchi, Ayumu; Chen, Yunyun; Fernandez, Agustin F; Valledor, Luis; Van Roosbroeck, Katrien; Chang, Samuel; Shah, Maitri; Kinnebrew, Garrett; Han, Leng; Atlasi, Yaser; Cheung, Lawrence H; Huang, Gilbert Y; Monroig, Paloma; Ramirez, Marc S; Catela Ivkovic, Tina; Van, Long; Ling, Hui; Gafà, Roberta; Kapitanovic, Sanja; Lanza, Giovanni; Bankson, James A; Huang, Peng; Lai, Stephen Y; Bast, Robert C; Rosenblum, Michael G; Radovich, Milan; Ivan, Mircea; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Liang, Han; Fraga, Mario F; Widger, William R; Hanash, Samir; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ambrosio, Andre L B; Gomes Dias, Sandra M; Calin, George A

    2016-02-18

    Altered energy metabolism is a cancer hallmark as malignant cells tailor their metabolic pathways to meet their energy requirements. Glucose and glutamine are the major nutrients that fuel cellular metabolism, and the pathways utilizing these nutrients are often altered in cancer. Here, we show that the long ncRNA CCAT2, located at the 8q24 amplicon on cancer risk-associated rs6983267 SNP, regulates cancer metabolism in vitro and in vivo in an allele-specific manner by binding the Cleavage Factor I (CFIm) complex with distinct affinities for the two subunits (CFIm25 and CFIm68). The CCAT2 interaction with the CFIm complex fine-tunes the alternative splicing of Glutaminase (GLS) by selecting the poly(A) site in intron 14 of the precursor mRNA. These findings uncover a complex, allele-specific regulatory mechanism of cancer metabolism orchestrated by the two alleles of a long ncRNA. PMID:26853146

  20. Allele-Specific Deletions in Mouse Tumors Identify Fbxw7 as Germline Modifier of Tumor Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Losada, Jesus; Wu, Di; DelRosario, Reyno; Balmain, Allan; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5–10%). There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001), but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility. PMID:22348067

  1. SNPsplit: Allele-specific splitting of alignments between genomes with known SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing reads overlapping polymorphic sites in diploid mammalian genomes may be assigned to one allele or the other. This holds the potential to detect gene expression, chromatin modifications, DNA methylation or nuclear interactions in an allele-specific fashion. SNPsplit is an allele-specific alignment sorter designed to read files in SAM/BAM format and determine the allelic origin of reads or read-pairs that cover known single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) positions. For this to work libraries must have been aligned to a genome in which all known SNP positions were masked with the ambiguity base 'N' and aligned using a suitable mapping program such as Bowtie2, TopHat, STAR, HISAT2, HiCUP or Bismark. SNPsplit also provides an automated solution to generate N-masked reference genomes for hybrid mouse strains based on the variant call information provided by the Mouse Genomes Project. The unique ability of SNPsplit to work with various different kinds of sequencing data including RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq, Bisulfite-Seq or Hi-C opens new avenues for the integrative exploration of allele-specific data. PMID:27429743

  2. A uniform survey of allele-specific binding and expression over 1000-Genomes-Project individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieming; Rozowsky, Joel; Galeev, Timur R; Harmanci, Arif; Kitchen, Robert; Bedford, Jason; Abyzov, Alexej; Kong, Yong; Regan, Lynne; Gerstein, Mark

    2016-04-18

    Large-scale sequencing in the 1000 Genomes Project has revealed multitudes of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Here, we provide insights into the functional effect of these variants using allele-specific behaviour. This can be assessed for an individual by mapping ChIP-seq and RNA-seq reads to a personal genome, and then measuring 'allelic imbalances' between the numbers of reads mapped to the paternal and maternal chromosomes. We annotate variants associated with allele-specific binding and expression in 382 individuals by uniformly processing 1,263 functional genomics data sets, developing approaches to reduce the heterogeneity between data sets due to overdispersion and mapping bias. Since many allelic variants are rare, aggregation across multiple individuals is necessary to identify broadly applicable 'allelic elements'. We also found SNVs for which we can anticipate allelic imbalance from the disruption of a binding motif. Our results serve as an allele-specific annotation for the 1000 Genomes variant catalogue and are distributed as an online resource (alleledb.gersteinlab.org).

  3. A uniform survey of allele-specific binding and expression over 1000-Genomes-Project individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieming; Rozowsky, Joel; Galeev, Timur R.; Harmanci, Arif; Kitchen, Robert; Bedford, Jason; Abyzov, Alexej; Kong, Yong; Regan, Lynne; Gerstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale sequencing in the 1000 Genomes Project has revealed multitudes of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Here, we provide insights into the functional effect of these variants using allele-specific behaviour. This can be assessed for an individual by mapping ChIP-seq and RNA-seq reads to a personal genome, and then measuring ‘allelic imbalances' between the numbers of reads mapped to the paternal and maternal chromosomes. We annotate variants associated with allele-specific binding and expression in 382 individuals by uniformly processing 1,263 functional genomics data sets, developing approaches to reduce the heterogeneity between data sets due to overdispersion and mapping bias. Since many allelic variants are rare, aggregation across multiple individuals is necessary to identify broadly applicable ‘allelic elements'. We also found SNVs for which we can anticipate allelic imbalance from the disruption of a binding motif. Our results serve as an allele-specific annotation for the 1000 Genomes variant catalogue and are distributed as an online resource (alleledb.gersteinlab.org). PMID:27089393

  4. SNPsplit: Allele-specific splitting of alignments between genomes with known SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing reads overlapping polymorphic sites in diploid mammalian genomes may be assigned to one allele or the other. This holds the potential to detect gene expression, chromatin modifications, DNA methylation or nuclear interactions in an allele-specific fashion. SNPsplit is an allele-specific alignment sorter designed to read files in SAM/BAM format and determine the allelic origin of reads or read-pairs that cover known single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) positions. For this to work libraries must have been aligned to a genome in which all known SNP positions were masked with the ambiguity base 'N' and aligned using a suitable mapping program such as Bowtie2, TopHat, STAR, HISAT2, HiCUP or Bismark. SNPsplit also provides an automated solution to generate N-masked reference genomes for hybrid mouse strains based on the variant call information provided by the Mouse Genomes Project. The unique ability of SNPsplit to work with various different kinds of sequencing data including RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq, Bisulfite-Seq or Hi-C opens new avenues for the integrative exploration of allele-specific data. PMID:27429743

  5. Correction of Hair Shaft Defects through Allele-Specific Silencing of Mutant Krt75.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Jones, Evan C; Zhang, Lianfeng; Clark, Richard A; Roop, Dennis R; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in keratin genes can cause a number of inheritable skin disorders characterized by intraepidermal blistering, epidermal hyperkeratosis, or abnormalities in skin appendages, such as nail plate dystrophy and structural defects in hair. Allele-specific silencing of mutant keratins through RNA interference is a promising therapeutic approach for suppressing the expression of mutant keratins and related phenotypes in the epidermis. However, its effectiveness on skin appendages remains to be confirmed in vivo. In this study, we developed allele-specific small interfering RNAs capable of selectively suppressing the expression of a mutant Krt75, which causes hair shaft structural defects characterized by the development of blebs along the hair shaft in mice. Hair regenerated from epidermal keratinocyte progenitor cells isolated from mutant Krt75 mouse models reproduced the blebbing phenotype when grafted in vivo. In contrast, mutant cells manipulated with a lentiviral vector expressing mutant Krt75-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) persistently suppressed this phenotype. The phenotypic correction was associated with a significant reduction of mutant Krt75 mRNA in the skin grafts. Thus, data obtained from this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing RNA interference to achieve durable correction of hair structural phenotypes through allele-specific silencing of mutant keratin genes. PMID:26763422

  6. Bringing Laboulbeniales into the 21st century: enhanced techniques for extraction and PCR amplification of DNA from minute ectoparasitic fungi.

    PubMed

    Haelewaters, Danny; Gorczak, Michał; Pfliegler, Walter P; Tartally, András; Tischer, Marta; Wrzosek, Marta; Pfister, Donald H

    2015-12-01

    Laboulbeniales is one of the most peculiar orders of Ascomycota. These fungi are characterized by an ectoparasitic life-style on arthropods, determinate growth, lack of an asexual stage, high species richness, and intractability to culture. The order Laboulbeniales, sister to Pyxidiophorales, has only recently been assigned a separate class, the Laboulbeniomycetes, based on very few ribosomal DNA sequences. So far, DNA isolations and PCR amplifications have proven difficult. Here, we provide details of isolation techniques and the application of commercially available kits that enable efficient and reliable genetic analyses of these fungi. We provide 43 newly generated Laboulbeniales ribosomal DNA sequences, among which are the first published sequences for species in the genera Gloeandromyces, Herpomyces, Laboulbenia, Monoicomyces, and Polyandromyces. DNA extractions were possible using from 1 to 30 thalli from hosts preserved in ethanol (70-100 %). In two cases, we successfully isolated DNA from thalli on dried insect collections. Laboulbeniales molecular systematics could be substantially enhanced through these improved methods by allowing more complete sampling of both taxa and gene regions. PMID:26734547

  7. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for detection of a mutation in the relax circular DNA and the covalently closed circular DNA of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wan-Long; Hu, Jie-Li; Fang, Yan; Luo, Qiang; Xu, Ge; Xu, Lei; Jing, Zhou-Hong; Shan, Xue-Feng; Zhu, Yan-Ling; Huang, Ai-Long

    2013-12-01

    The relax circle DNA (rcDNA) sequence and the covalently closed circle DNA (cccDNA) sequence in hepatitis B virus (HBV) are crucial regions for HBV infections. To analyze mutations in rcDNA and cccDNA, DNA sequencing is often used, although it is time-consuming and expensive. Herein, we report a simple, economic, albeit accurate allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) to detect mutations in these regions of HBV. This method can be extensively used to screen for mutations at specific positions of HBV genome.

  8. Developmental validation of a single-tube amplification of the 13 CODIS STR loci, D2S1338, D19S433, and amelogenin: the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patrick J; Hennessy, Lori K; Leibelt, Craig S; Roby, Rhonda K; Reeder, Dennis J; Foxall, Paul A

    2004-11-01

    Analysis of length polymorphism at short tandem repeat (STR) loci utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process has proven to be an ideal assay for human identification purposes. The short length of STR loci coupled with the amplification of target sequence through PCR allows for a robust, sensitive, and specific assay for highly polymorphic markers. A multiplex containing fifteen STR loci plus the gender-determining locus Amelogenin was developed to provide a single amplification/detection of all CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) STR loci (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, TPOX, and vWA) as well as two internationally-accepted STRs (D2S1338 and D19S433). By incorporating five-dye fragment analysis technology and non-nucleotide linkers, previously optimized AmpFlSTR kit primer sequences have been maintained. This kit has been developed in accordance with the standards of the forensic community as defined by the DNA Advisory Board. Validation studies were performed to include developmental validation, and the results support the use of the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit for human identity and parentage testing.

  9. Development and comparison of the real-time amplification based methods--NASBA-Beacon, RT-PCR taqman and RT-PCR hybridization probe assays--for the qualitative detection of sars coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Chantratita, Wasun; Pongtanapisit, Wiroj; Piroj, Wantanich; Srichunrasmi, Chutatip; Seesuai, Somying

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive and robust procedure for the qualitative detection of SARS coronavirus RNA. Three unique detection formats were developed for real-time RNA amplification assays: a post amplification detection step with a virus-specific internal capture probe based on Taqman (RT-PCR TaqMan assay), hybridization probe (RT-PCR hybridization probe assay) and a real-time assay with virus-specific molecular beacon probes (NASBA-Beacon assay). The analytical sensitivity or reproducibility of the test results among those three assays was compared. All assays yielded results by detecting SARS coronavirus targeting the BNI-1 region in less than 2 hours. RNA detection by all the formats was unaffected by the presence of human sputum. The limits of detection were at least 10 copies of input RNA for both RT-PCR formats (RT-PCR TaqMan and RT-PCR hybridization probe assays), while the NASBA-Beacon assay could detect as little as 1 copy per reaction, with high reproducibility of the coefficient of variation (CV) of <10. These results demonstrate that real-time NASBA provides a rapid and sensitive alternative to RT-PCR for the routine qualitative assay of sputum for SARS corona viral RNA detection.

  10. Analysis of any point mutation in DNA. The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).

    PubMed Central

    Newton, C R; Graham, A; Heptinstall, L E; Powell, S J; Summers, C; Kalsheker, N; Smith, J C; Markham, A F

    1989-01-01

    We have improved the "polymerase chain reaction" (PCR) to permit rapid analysis of any known mutation in genomic DNA. We demonstrate a system, ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutation System), that allows genotyping solely by inspection of reaction mixtures after agarose gel electrophoresis. The system is simple, reliable and non-isotopic. It will clearly distinguish heterozygotes at a locus from homozygotes for either allele. The system requires neither restriction enzyme digestion, allele-specific oligonucleotides as conventionally applied, nor the sequence analysis of PCR products. The basis of the invention is that unexpectedly, oligonucleotides with a mismatched 3'-residue will not function as primers in the PCR under appropriate conditions. We have analysed DNA from patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, from carriers of the disease and from normal individuals. Our findings are in complete agreement with allele assignments derived by direct sequencing of PCR products. Images PMID:2785681

  11. Strongly structured DNA sequences as targets for genosensing: sensing phase design and coupling to PCR amplification for a highly specific 33-mer gliadin DNA fragment.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; Frutos-Cabanillas, Gloria; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2014-10-15

    Electrochemical genosensors are becoming cost-effective miniaturizable alternatives to real-time PCR (RT-PCR) methods for the detection of sequence-specific DNA fragments. We report on the rapid detection of PCR amplicons without the need of purification or strand separation. A challenging target sequence for both PCR amplification and electrochemical detection allowed us to address some difficulties associated to hybridization on electrode surfaces. The target was a highly specific oligonucleotide sequence of wheat encoding the most immunogenic peptide of gliadin that triggers the immune response of celiac disease (CD), the 33-mer. With a sandwich assay format and a rational design of the capture and tagged-signaling probes the problems posed by the strong secondary structure of the target and complementary probes were alleviated. Using a binary self-assembled monolayer and enzymatic amplification, a limit of detection of 0.3 nM was obtained. The genosensor did not respond to other gluten-containing cereals such as rye and barley. Coupling to PCR to analyze wheat flour samples required tailoring both the capture and signaling probes. This is the first time that deleterious steric hindrance from long single-stranded regions adjacent to the electrode surface is reported for relatively short amplicons (less than 200 bp). The importance of the location of the recognition site within the DNA sequence is discussed. Since the selected gene fragment contains several repetitions of short sequences, a careful optimization of the PCR conditions had to be performed to circumvent the amplification of non-specific fragments from wheat flour.

  12. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes. PMID:27465215

  13. Polymorphisms in Phytophthora infestans: Four Mitochondrial Haplotypes Are Detected after PCR Amplification of DNA from Pure Cultures or from Host Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Gareth W.; Shaw, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Four pairs of primers were designed for PCR amplification of known polymorphic regions of the mitochondrial genome of Phytophthora infestans. Digestion of the amplified products with restriction enzymes allows identification of previously identified haplotypes. Product P2 cut with MspI uniquely identifies haplotypes Ib and IIa, while types Ia and IIb are differentiated by digestion of product P4 with EcoRI. Digestion of products P1 and P3 gave results similar to that with digestion of P4, but amplification of these products was less robust. Thus, all four common haplotypes are identified by amplifying and digesting products P2 and P4. Identification of haplotypes was also possible from DNA extracted directly from small, late-blight lesions on both tomato and potato leaves, making isolation of the fungus unnecessary. A rapid and efficient method of monitoring changes in the pathogen population is facilitated. These PCR primers were also useful for differentiating other Phytophthora species. PMID:9758833

  14. Allele-specific silencing of mutant Ataxin-7 in SCA7 patient-derived fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Scholefield, Janine; Watson, Lauren; Smith, Danielle; Greenberg, Jacquie; Wood, Matthew JA

    2014-01-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders are inherited neurodegenerative conditions defined by a common pathogenic CAG repeat expansion leading to a toxic gain-of-function of the mutant protein. Consequences of this toxicity include activation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and transcriptional dysregulation. Several studies in animal models have shown that reducing levels of toxic protein using small RNAs would be an ideal therapeutic approach for such disorders, including spinocerebellar ataxia-7 (SCA7). However, testing such RNA interference (RNAi) effectors in genetically appropriate patient cell lines with a disease-relevant phenotype has yet to be explored. Here, we have used primary adult dermal fibroblasts from SCA7 patients and controls to assess the endogenous allele-specific silencing of ataxin-7 by two distinct siRNAs. We further identified altered expression of two disease-relevant transcripts in SCA7 patient cells: a twofold increase in levels of the HSP DNAJA1 and a twofold decrease in levels of the de-ubiquitinating enzyme, UCHL1. After siRNA treatment, the expression of both genes was restored towards normal levels. To our knowledge, this is the first time that allele-specific silencing of mutant ataxin-7, targeting a common SNP, has been demonstrated in patient cells. These findings highlight the advantage of an allele-specific RNAi-based therapeutic approach, and indicate the value of primary patient-derived cells as useful models for mechanistic studies and for measuring efficacy of RNAi effectors on a patient-to-patient basis in the polyQ diseases. PMID:24667781

  15. Allele-specific silencing of mutant Ataxin-7 in SCA7 patient-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Janine; Watson, Lauren; Smith, Danielle; Greenberg, Jacquie; Wood, Matthew J A

    2014-12-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders are inherited neurodegenerative conditions defined by a common pathogenic CAG repeat expansion leading to a toxic gain-of-function of the mutant protein. Consequences of this toxicity include activation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and transcriptional dysregulation. Several studies in animal models have shown that reducing levels of toxic protein using small RNAs would be an ideal therapeutic approach for such disorders, including spinocerebellar ataxia-7 (SCA7). However, testing such RNA interference (RNAi) effectors in genetically appropriate patient cell lines with a disease-relevant phenotype has yet to be explored. Here, we have used primary adult dermal fibroblasts from SCA7 patients and controls to assess the endogenous allele-specific silencing of ataxin-7 by two distinct siRNAs. We further identified altered expression of two disease-relevant transcripts in SCA7 patient cells: a twofold increase in levels of the HSP DNAJA1 and a twofold decrease in levels of the de-ubiquitinating enzyme, UCHL1. After siRNA treatment, the expression of both genes was restored towards normal levels. To our knowledge, this is the first time that allele-specific silencing of mutant ataxin-7, targeting a common SNP, has been demonstrated in patient cells. These findings highlight the advantage of an allele-specific RNAi-based therapeutic approach, and indicate the value of primary patient-derived cells as useful models for mechanistic studies and for measuring efficacy of RNAi effectors on a patient-to-patient basis in the polyQ diseases.

  16. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.

  17. Genome-wide survey of allele-specific splicing in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nembaware, Victoria; Lupindo, Bukiwe; Schouest, Katherine; Spillane, Charles; Scheffler, Konrad; Seoighe, Cathal

    2008-01-01

    Background Accurate mRNA splicing depends on multiple regulatory signals encoded in the transcribed RNA sequence. Many examples of mutations within human splice regulatory regions that alter splicing qualitatively or quantitatively have been reported and allelic differences in mRNA splicing are likely to be a common and important source of phenotypic diversity at the molecular level, in addition to their contribution to genetic disease susceptibility. However, because the effect of a mutation on the efficiency of mRNA splicing is often difficult to predict, many mutations that cause disease through an effect on splicing are likely to remain undiscovered. Results We have combined a genome-wide scan for sequence polymorphisms likely to affect mRNA splicing with analysis of publicly available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and exon array data. The genome-wide scan uses published tools and identified 30,977 SNPs located within donor and acceptor splice sites, branch points and exonic splicing enhancer elements. For 1,185 candidate splicing polymorphisms the difference in splicing between alternative alleles was corroborated by publicly available exon array data from 166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We developed a novel probabilistic method to infer allele-specific splicing from EST data. The method uses SNPs and alternative mRNA isoforms mapped to EST sequences and models both regulated alternative splicing as well as allele-specific splicing. We have also estimated heritability of splicing and report that a greater proportion of genes show evidence of splicing heritability than show heritability of overall gene expression level. Our results provide an extensive resource that can be used to assess the possible effect on splicing of human polymorphisms in putative splice-regulatory sites. Conclusion We report a set of genes showing evidence of allele-specific splicing from an integrated analysis of genomic polymorphisms, EST data and exon array data, including several

  18. Evaluation of a real-time PCR and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in plant tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López-Soriano, Pablo; Bühlmann, Andreas; van Doorn, Joop; Pham, Khanh; Cambra, Miguel A; Berruete, Isabel M; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Olmos, Antonio; López, María M

    2015-05-01

    Operational capacity of real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) diagnostic assays for detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni was established in a ring-test involving four laboratories. Symptomatic and healthy almond leaf samples with two methods of sample preparation were analyzed. Kappa coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and post-test probability of detection were estimated to manage the risk associated with the use of the two methods.

  19. Electrochemical detection of point mutation based on surface hybridization assay conjugated allele-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Zhu, Jing; Li, Guiyin; Chen, Zhencheng; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-04-15

    In this work, we developed an electrochemical detection method based on allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) and surface hybridization assay technique for the point mutation detection. A high-fidelity Vent(R)™(exo⁻) DNA polymerase, which eliminated the 3'→5' proofreading exonuclease activity by genetical engineering, was used to discriminate and extend the detection probe that perfectly matched with mutant target DNA and generate a redox-active DNA replica which folded into a molecular beacon structure by intramolecular hybridization. After hybridized with capture probe modified on gold electrode by self-assembly reaction, the redox tags can be closed to electrode, resulting in a substantial current with the maximized sensitivity for point mutation analysis. However, when there is an allele mismatch in the wild target DNA, and so no the redox-active replica DNA can be obtained. In this case, no remarkable current signal can be trigged. The proposed approach has been successfully implemented for the identification of single base mutation at the -28 position in human β-globin gene with a detection limit of 0.5 fM, demonstrating that this method provides a highly specific, sensitive and cost-efficient approach for point mutation detection.

  20. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) for diagnosis of natural infection with canine distemper virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) is present worldwide and produces a lethal systemic infection of wild and domestic Canidae. Pre-existing antibodies acquired from vaccination or previous CDV infection might interfere the interpretation of a serologic diagnosis method. In addition, due to the high similarity of nucleic acid sequences between wild-type CDV and the new vaccine strain, current PCR derived methods cannot be applied for the definite confirmation of CD infection. Hence, it is worthy of developing a simple and rapid nucleotide-based assay for differentiation of wild-type CDV which is a cause of disease from attenuated CDVs after vaccination. High frequency variations have been found in the region spanning from the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the matrix (M) gene to the fusion (F) gene (designated M-F UTR) in a few CDV strains. To establish a differential diagnosis assay, an amplification refractory mutation analysis was established based on the highly variable region on M-F UTR and F regions. Results Sequences of frequent polymorphisms were found scattered throughout the M-F UTR region; the identity of nucleic acid between local strains and vaccine strains ranged from 82.5% to 93.8%. A track of AAA residue located 35 nucleotides downstream from F gene start codon highly conserved in three vaccine strains were replaced with TGC in the local strains; that severed as target sequences for deign of discrimination primers. The method established in the present study successfully differentiated seven Taiwanese CDV field isolates, all belonging to the Asia-1 lineage, from vaccine strains. Conclusions The method described herein would be useful for several clinical applications, such as confirmation of nature CDV infection, evaluation of vaccination status and verification of the circulating viral genotypes. PMID:20534175

  1. Rapid identification and fingerprinting of Candida krusei by PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic sequence CKRS-1.

    PubMed Central

    Carlotti, A; Chaib, F; Couble, A; Bourgeois, N; Blanchard, V; Villard, J

    1997-01-01

    A PCR method was developed to identify and fingerprint Candida krusei isolates simply and rapidly. The primer pair Arno1 and Arno2 was designed to amplify the polymorphic species-specific repetitive sequence CKRS-1 (C. krusei repeated sequence 1) that we identified in the nontranscribed intergenic regions (IGRs) of rRNA genes in C. krusei LMCK31. The specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and fingerprinting ability of the PCR assay were evaluated. Amplification products were obtained from all 131 C. krusei isolates studied. No other yeast species of medical importance (n = 26), including species similar to C. krusei, species of pathogenic filamentous fungi, or a variety of pathogenic bacteria, yielded a PCR product with these primers. This PCR assay allowed for the identification of C. krusei in less than 6 h. The PCR assay was sensitive enough to detect as little as 10 to 100 fg of C. krusei-purified DNA and proved to be reproducible. Since amplification products varied both in number and in molecular weight according to the strains, PCR patterns allowed strains to be distinguished. To ascertain the epidemiological usefulness of this PCR fingerprinting, the patterns of the 131 isolates were compared. A total of 95 types which corresponded to 95 independent strains were delineated (discriminatory power = 1 with n = 95). Comparison of the results of PCR fingerprinting and those of fingerprinting with the CkF1,2 probe showed that they concurred. In addition, this work yields insights into the mechanisms involved in generating polymorphisms in the IGRs of C. krusei. Since this method is simpler and faster than established identification and genotyping methods of this important pathogenic species, it is a critical improvement for clinical microbiology laboratories relevant not only to diagnosis but also to epidemiology. PMID:9163440

  2. Regulation of the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus by allele-specific enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhuojuan; Lin, Chengqi; Woodfin, Ashley R; Bartom, Elizabeth T; Gao, Xin; Smith, Edwin R; Shilatifard, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a critical developmental process characteristic of parent of origin-specific gene expression. It is well accepted that differentially DNA-methylated regions (DMRs) and enhancers are two major classes of cis-elements determining parent of origin-specific gene expression, with each recruiting different sets of transcription factors. Previously, we identified the AF4/FMR2 (AFF) family protein AFF3 within the transcription elongation complex SEC-L3. Here, we report that AFF3 can specifically bind both gametic DMRs (gDMRs) and enhancers within imprinted loci in an allele-specific manner. We identify the molecular regulators involved in the recruitment of AFF3 to gDMRs and provide mechanistic insight into the requirement of AFF3 at an enhancer for the expression of an ∼200-kb polycistronic transcript within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus. Our data suggest that the heterochromatic environment at the gDMR reinforces silencing of its related enhancer by controlling the binding and activity of AFF3 in an allele-specific manner. In summary, this study provides molecular details about the regulation of dosage-critical imprinted gene expression through the regulated binding of the transcription elongation factor AFF3 between a DMR and an enhancer. PMID:26728555

  3. In Vivo Evaluation of Candidate Allele-specific Mutant Huntingtin Gene Silencing Antisense Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Amber L; Skotte, Niels H; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; Østergaard, Michael E; Watt, Andrew T; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Doty, Crystal N; Villanueva, Erika B; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Xie, Yuanyun; Freier, Susan M; Swayze, Eric E; Seth, Punit P; Bennett, Clarence Frank; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant, genetic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of voluntary motor control, psychiatric disturbance, and cognitive decline, for which there is currently no disease-modifying therapy. HD is caused by the expansion of a CAG tract in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. The mutant HTT protein (muHTT) acquires toxic functions, and there is significant evidence that muHTT lowering would be therapeutically efficacious. However, the wild-type HTT protein (wtHTT) serves vital functions, making allele-specific muHTT lowering strategies potentially safer than nonselective strategies. CAG tract expansion is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be targeted by gene silencing reagents such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to accomplish allele-specific muHTT lowering. Here we evaluate ASOs targeted to HD-associated SNPs in acute in vivo studies including screening, distribution, duration of action and dosing, using a humanized mouse model of HD, Hu97/18, that is heterozygous for the targeted SNPs. We have identified four well-tolerated lead ASOs that potently and selectively silence muHTT at a broad range of doses throughout the central nervous system for 16 weeks or more after a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. With further validation, these ASOs could provide a therapeutic option for individuals afflicted with HD. PMID:25101598

  4. Microarrays for high-throughput genotyping of MICA alleles using allele-specific primer extension.

    PubMed

    Baek, I C; Jang, J-P; Choi, H-B; Choi, E-J; Ko, W-Y; Kim, T-G

    2013-10-01

    The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA), a ligand of NKG2D, has been defined in human diseases by its allele associations with various autoimmune diseases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and cancer. This study describes a practical system to develop MICA genotyping by allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) on microarrays. From the results of 20 control primers, strict and reliable cut-off values of more than 30,000 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) as positive and less than 3000 MFI as negative, were applied to select high-quality specific extension primers. Among 55 allele-specific primers, 44 primers could be initially selected as optimal primer. Through adjusting the length, six primers were improved. The other failed five primers were corrected by refractory modification. MICA genotypes by ASPE on microarrays showed the same results as those by nucleotide sequencing. On the basis of these results, ASPE on microarrays may provide high-throughput genotyping for MICA alleles for population studies, disease-gene associations and HSCT.

  5. Allele-specific RNAi Mitigates Phenotypic Progression in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lebrón, Edgardo; Gouvion, Cynthia M; Moore, Steven A; Davidson, Beverly L; Paulson, Henry L

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances suggesting new therapeutic targets, Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains incurable. Aberrant production and accumulation of the Aβ peptide resulting from altered processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is central to the pathogenesis of disease, particularly in dominantly inherited forms of AD. Thus, modulating the production of APP is a potential route to effective AD therapy. Here, we describe the successful use of an allele-specific RNA interference (RNAi) approach targeting the Swedish variant of APP (APPsw) in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), we delivered an anti-APPsw short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) to the hippocampus of AD transgenic mice (APP/PS1). In short- and long-term transduction experiments, reduced levels of APPsw transprotein were observed throughout targeted regions of the hippocampus while levels of wild-type murine APP remained unaltered. Moreover, intracellular production of transfer RNA (tRNA)-valine promoter–driven shRNAs did not lead to detectable neuronal toxicity. Finally, long-term bilateral hippocampal expression of anti-APPsw shRNA mitigated abnormal behaviors in this mouse model of AD. The difference in phenotype progression was associated with reduced levels of soluble Aβ but not with a reduced number of amyloid plaques. Our results support the development of allele-specific RNAi strategies to treat familial AD and other dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19532137

  6. Regulation of the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus by allele-specific enhancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhuojuan; Lin, Chengqi; Woodfin, Ashley R.; Bartom, Elizabeth T.; Gao, Xin; Smith, Edwin R.; Shilatifard, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a critical developmental process characteristic of parent of origin-specific gene expression. It is well accepted that differentially DNA-methylated regions (DMRs) and enhancers are two major classes of cis-elements determining parent of origin-specific gene expression, with each recruiting different sets of transcription factors. Previously, we identified the AF4/FMR2 (AFF) family protein AFF3 within the transcription elongation complex SEC-L3. Here, we report that AFF3 can specifically bind both gametic DMRs (gDMRs) and enhancers within imprinted loci in an allele-specific manner. We identify the molecular regulators involved in the recruitment of AFF3 to gDMRs and provide mechanistic insight into the requirement of AFF3 at an enhancer for the expression of an ∼200-kb polycistronic transcript within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus. Our data suggest that the heterochromatic environment at the gDMR reinforces silencing of its related enhancer by controlling the binding and activity of AFF3 in an allele-specific manner. In summary, this study provides molecular details about the regulation of dosage-critical imprinted gene expression through the regulated binding of the transcription elongation factor AFF3 between a DMR and an enhancer. PMID:26728555

  7. Detection of early and single infections of Schistosoma japonicum in the intermediate host snail, Oncomelania hupensis, by PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takashi; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Wang, Tian-Ping; Lu, Shaohong; Chen, Rui; Wen, Liyong; Ohta, Nobuo

    2010-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the specific primer set amplifying 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Schistosoma japonicum was able to detect genomic DNA of S. japonicum, but not S. mansoni, at 100 fg. This procedure enabled us to detect the DNA from a single miracidium and a snail infected with one miracidium at just 1 day after infection. We compared these results with those from loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting 28S rDNA and found similar results. The LAMP could amplify the specific DNA from a group of 100 normal snails mixed with one infected snail A PCR screening of infected snails from endemic regions in Anhui Province revealed schistosomal DNA even in snails found negative by microscopy. PCR and LAMP show promise for monitoring the early infection rate in snails, and they may be useful for predicting the risk of infection in the endemic places. PMID:20810818

  8. Amplification refractory mutation system-PCR is essential for the detection of chimaeras with a minor allele population: a case report.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Park, Hye Ryoen; Park, Tae Sung; Oh, Seung Hwan; Shin, Myung Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook; Park, Jong Tae; Cho, Duck

    2013-05-01

    Blood chimaera is a rare but important issue for immunohaematology laboratories. Several molecular approaches, such as ABO genotyping, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing and DNA short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, have been used to identify chimaerism. Unfortunately, the minor allele population can be overlooked by PCR-based methods, which preferentially amplify the major allele population. A case with AweakB (AwB), demonstrating a mixed-field pattern, was sent to our laboratory for further evaluation. Direct sequencing of ABO exons 6 and 7 revealed a B101/O02 genotype. Analysis of the 12 STR loci and HLA typing did not provide any evidence of chimaerism. However, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR identified the minor A102 allele in addition to B101/O02. Three alleles of the chimaera were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Thus, ARMS-PCR is essential, especially in the case of a chimaera with a minor allele population.

  9. PCR amplfication on a microarray of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides : detection of bacterial toxin- and drug-resistent genes and their mutations.

    SciTech Connect

    Strizhkov, B. N.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Mikhailovich, V. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    2000-10-01

    PCR amplification on a microarray of gel-immobilized primers (microchip) has been developed. One of a pair of PCR primers was immobilized inside a separate microchip polyacrylamide porous gel pad of 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.02 (or 0.04) micron in size and 0.2 (or 0.4) nL in volume. The amplification was carried out simultaneously both in solution covering the microchip array and inside gel pads. Each gel pad contained the immobilized forward primers, while the fluorescently labeled reverse primers, as well as all components of the amplification reaction, diffused into the gel pads from the solution. To increase the amplification efficiency, the forward primers were also added into the solution. The kinetics of amplification was measured in real time in parallel for all gel pads with a fluorescent microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The accuracy of the amplification was assessed by using the melting curves obtained for the duplexes formed by the labeled amplification product and the gel-immobilized primers during the amplification process; alternatively, the duplexes were produced by hybridization of the extended immobilized primers with labeled oligonucleotide probes. The on-chip amplification was applied to detect the anthrax toxin genes and the plasmid-borne beta-lactamase gene responsible for bacterial ampicillin resistance. The allele-specific type of PCR amplification was used to identify the Shiga toxin gene and discriminate it from the Shiga-like one. The genomic mutations responsible for rifampicin resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were detected by the same type of PCR amplification of the rpoB gene fragment isolated from sputum of tuberculosis patients. The on-chip PCR amplification has been shown to be a rapid, inexpensive and powerful tool to test genes responsible for bacterial toxin production and drug resistance, as well as to reveal point nucleotide mutations.

  10. Development and validation of a whole genome amplification long-range PCR sequencing method for ADPKD genotyping of low-level DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Genyan; Tan, Adrian Y; Michaeel, Alber; Blumenfeld, Jon; Donahue, Stephanie; Bobb, Warren; Parker, Tom; Levine, Daniel; Rennert, Hanna

    2014-10-15

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in two large genes, PKD1 and PKD2, but genetic testing is complicated by the large transcript sizes and the duplication of PKD1 exons 1-33 as six pseudogenes on chromosome 16. Long-range PCR (LR-PCR) represents the gold standard approach for PKD1 genetic analysis. However, a major issue with this approach is that it requires large quantities of genomic DNA (gDNA) material limiting its application primarily to DNA extracted from blood. In this study, we have developed a whole genome amplification (WGA)-based genotyping assay for PKD1 and PKD2, and examined whether this approach can be applied to biosamples with low DNA yield, including blood, buccal cells and urine. DNA samples were amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and a high-fidelity DNA polymerase followed by LR-PCR and exon-specific amplifications of PKD1 and PKD2 respectively, and Sanger sequencing. This method has generated large amounts of DNA with high average product length (>10 kb), which were uniformly amplified across all sequences assessed. When compared to the gDNA direct sequencing method for six ADPKD samples, a total of 89 variants were detected including all 86 variations previously reported, in addition to three new variations, including one pathogenic mutation not previously detected by the standard gDNA-based analysis. We have further applied WGA to ADPKD mutation analysis of low DNA-yield specimens, successfully detecting all 63 gene variations. Compared to the gDNA method the WGA-based assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, WGA-based LR-PCR represents a major technical improvement for PKD genotyping from trace amounts of DNA.

  11. Allele-Specific Interactions between CAST AWAY and NEVERSHED Control Abscission in Arabidopsis Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Groner, William D.; Christy, Megan E.; Kreiner, Catherine M.; Liljegren, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    An advantage of analyzing abscission in genetically tractable model plants is the ability to make use of classic genetic tools such as suppression analysis. We have investigated the regulation of organ abscission by carrying out suppression analysis in Arabidopsis flowers. Plants carrying mutations in the NEVERSHED (NEV) gene, which encodes an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein, retain their outer floral organs after fertilization. Mutant alleles of CAST AWAY (CST), which encodes a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, were found to restore organ abscission in nev flowers in an allele-specific manner. To further explore the basis of the interactions between CST and NEV, we tested whether the site of a nev mutation is predictive of its ability to be suppressed. Our results suggest instead that the strength of a nev allele influences whether organ abscission can be rescued by a specific allele of CST.

  12. Loss of RNA expression and allele-specific expression associated with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    McKean, David M.; Homsy, Jason; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Patel, Neil; Gorham, Joshua; DePalma, Steven R.; Ware, James S.; Zaidi, Samir; Ma, Wenji; Patel, Nihir; Lifton, Richard P.; Chung, Wendy K.; Kim, Richard; Shen, Yufeng; Brueckner, Martina; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Sharp, Andrew J.; Seidman, Christine E.; Gelb, Bruce D.; Seidman, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD), a prevalent birth defect occurring in 1% of newborns, likely results from aberrant expression of cardiac developmental genes. Mutations in a variety of cardiac transcription factors, developmental signalling molecules and molecules that modify chromatin cause at least 20% of disease, but most CHD remains unexplained. We employ RNAseq analyses to assess allele-specific expression (ASE) and biallelic loss-of-expression (LOE) in 172 tissue samples from 144 surgically repaired CHD subjects. Here we show that only 5% of known imprinted genes with paternal allele silencing are monoallelic versus 56% with paternal allele expression—this cardiac-specific phenomenon seems unrelated to CHD. Further, compared with control subjects, CHD subjects have a significant burden of both LOE genes and ASE events associated with altered gene expression. These studies identify FGFBP2, LBH, RBFOX2, SGSM1 and ZBTB16 as candidate CHD genes because of significantly altered transcriptional expression. PMID:27670201

  13. Design of an internal amplification control for a duplex PCR used in the detection of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in pediatric feces.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Ibáñez, Ángel Gabriel; Lucero-Estrada, Cecilia; Chialva, Constanza; Zárate, Juan Manuel; Juri-Ayub, Maximiliano; Escudero, María Esther

    2015-12-01

    A conventional PCR targeted directly to the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrheal stools of symptomatic patients may require the introduction of internal controls to detect false negative results. In the present study, we designed a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) to be included in a well-known PCR protocol used to amplify the stx1and stx2 genes from STEC isolates. The IAC was introduced in the PCR reaction and amplified when E. coli O157:H7 cultures and contaminated pediatric feces were assayed. When STEC concentration was 10(3) CFU ml(-1) in pure culture and 10(4) CFU g(-1) in contaminated stools, the IAC at concentration of 0.143 pg μl(-1) in the PCR reaction mixture was co-amplified with the stx2 sequence, producing bands of 279 and 349 bp, respectively. These STEC values were considered the detection limits of the duplex PCR. The specific detection of STEC by duplex PCR including IAC might be achieved directly on pediatric feces when the pathogen load reaches concentrations of at least 10(4) CFU g(-1).

  14. Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae with an internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuang; Zhao, Hui; Xian, Yuyin; Hussain, Malik A; Wu, Xiyang

    2014-06-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that can simultaneously detect 4 major Vibrio spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae, in the presence of an internal amplification control (IAC) was developed. Species-specific PCR primers were designed based on the gyrB gene for V. alginolyticus, the collagenase gene for V. parahaemolyticus, the vvhA gene for V. vulnificus, and the ompW gene for V. cholerae. Additionally, an IAC primer pair was designed in conserved regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene that is used to indicate false-negative results. A multiplex PCR method was developed after optimization of the reaction conditions. The specificity of the PCR was validated by using 83 Vibrio strains and 10 other non-Vibrio bacterial species. The detection limit of the PCR was 10 CFU per tube for V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and 10(5) CFU per tube for V. cholerae in mixed conditions. This method was used to identify 69 suspicious Vibrio isolates, and the results were consistent with physiological and biochemical tests. This multiplex PCR method proved to be rapid, sensitive, and specific. The existence of IAC could successfully eliminate false-negative results for the detection of V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae.

  15. Quasi-digital PCR: Enrichment and quantification of rare DNA variants.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Scott O; Wittwer, Carl T; Zhou, Luming; Palais, Robert; Dwight, Zachary; Gale, Bruce K

    2014-08-01

    Rare variant enrichment and quantification was achieved by allele-specific, competitive blocker, digital PCR for aiming to provide a noninvasive method for detecting rare DNA variants from circulating cells. The allele-specific blocking chemistry improves sensitivity and lowers assay cost over previously described digital PCR methods while the instrumentation allowed for rapid thermal cycling for faster turnaround time. Because the digital counting of the amplified variants occurs in the presence of many wild-type templates in each well, the method is called "quasi-digital PCR". A spinning disk was used to separate samples into 1000 wells, followed by rapid-cycle, allele-specific amplification in the presence of a molecular beacon that serves as both a blocker and digital indicator. Monte Carlo simulations gave similar results to Poisson distribution statistics for mean number of template molecules and provided an upper and lower bound at a specified confidence level and accounted for input DNA concentration variation. A 111 bp genomic DNA fragment including the BRAF p.V600E mutation (c.T1799A) was amplified with quasi-digital PCR using cycle times of 23 s. Dilution series confirmed that wild-type amplification was suppressed and that the sensitivity for the mutant allele was <0.01 % (43 mutant alleles amongst 500,000 wild-type alleles). The Monte Carlo method presented here is publically available on the internet and can calculate target concentration given digital data or predict digital data given target concentration.

  16. siRNA-mediated Allele-specific Silencing of a COL6A3 Mutation in a Cellular Model of Dominant Ullrich Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Véronique; Zou, Yaqun; Ko, Dayoung; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2014-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD) is a severe disorder of early childhood onset for which currently there is no effective treatment. UCMD commonly is caused by dominant-negative mutations in the genes coding for collagen type VI, a major microfibrillar component of the extracellular matrix surrounding the muscle fibers. To explore RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential therapy for UCMD, we designed a series of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligos that specifically target the most common mutations resulting in skipping of exon 16 in the COL6A3 gene and tested them in UCMD-derived dermal fibroblasts. Transcript analysis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that two of these siRNAs were the most allele-specific, i.e., they efficiently knocked down the expression from the mutant allele, without affecting the normal allele. In HEK293T cells, these siRNAs selectively suppressed protein expression from a reporter construct carrying the mutation, with no or minimal suppression of the wild-type (WT) construct, suggesting that collagen VI protein levels are as also reduced in an allele-specific manner. Furthermore, we found that treating UCMD fibroblasts with these siRNAs considerably improved the quantity and quality of the collagen VI matrix, as assessed by confocal microscopy. Our current study establishes RNAi as a promising molecular approach for treating dominant COL6-related dystrophies. PMID:24518369

  17. A novel one cycle allele specific primer extension--molecular beacon displacement method for DNA point mutation detection with improved specificity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Guan, Yuan; Zhao, Meiping; Li, Yuanzong

    2007-02-12

    We report here a new method for the real-time detection of DNA point mutations with molecular beacon as the fluorescence tracer and 3' (exo-) Bst DNA polymerase large fragment as the polymerase. The method is based on the mechanism of allele specific primer extension-strand displacement (ASPE-SD). To improve the specificity of the method only one cycle of the allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used that could largely eliminate the non-specific reactions between the primers and template of the "wrong" genotype. At first, the primer and molecular beacon both hybridize to the DNA template, and the molecular beacon emits intensive fluorescence. The role of 3' exonuclease excision of Bst DNA polymerase large fragment is utilized for primer extension. When 3'-termini matches its corresponding template, the primer would efficiently extend and replace the molecular beacon that would simultaneously return to its closed form leading to the quenching of the fluorescence. However, when 3'-termini of the primer mismatches its corresponding template primer extension and molecular beacon displacement would not happen and fluorescence of the hybridized molecular beacon holds the line without fluorescence quenching. This approach was fully demonstrated in synthetic template systems and applied to detect point mutation at codon 259, a possible point mutation site in exon 7 of p53 gene, obtained from human genomic DNA samples with unambiguous differentiation power.

  18. Fast-Track, One-Step E. coli Detection: A Miniaturized Hydrogel Array Permits Specific Direct PCR and DNA Hybridization while Amplification.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Antje; Pollok, Sibyll; Rudloff, Anne; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    A timesaving and convenient method for bacterial detection based on one-step, one-tube deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization on hydrogel array while target gene amplification is described. The hydrogel array is generated by a fast one-pot synthesis, where N,N'-dimethylacrylamide/polyethyleneglycol(PEG1900 )-bisacrylamide mixture polymerizes via radical photoinitiation by visible light within 20 min concomitant with in situ capture probe immobilization. These DNA-functionalized hydrogel droplets arrayed on a planar glass surface are placed in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture during the thermal amplification cycles. The bacterial cells can be implemented in a direct PCR reaction, omitting the need for prior template DNA extraction. The resulting fluorescence signal is immediately detectable after the end of the PCR (1 h) following one short washing step by microscopy. Therefore a valid signal can be reached within 1.5 h including 10 min for pipetting and placement of the tubes and chips. The performance of this novel hydrogel DNA array was successfully proven with varying cell numbers down to a limit of 10(1) Escherichia coli cells. PMID:27220309

  19. Fast-Track, One-Step E. coli Detection: A Miniaturized Hydrogel Array Permits Specific Direct PCR and DNA Hybridization while Amplification.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Antje; Pollok, Sibyll; Rudloff, Anne; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    A timesaving and convenient method for bacterial detection based on one-step, one-tube deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization on hydrogel array while target gene amplification is described. The hydrogel array is generated by a fast one-pot synthesis, where N,N'-dimethylacrylamide/polyethyleneglycol(PEG1900 )-bisacrylamide mixture polymerizes via radical photoinitiation by visible light within 20 min concomitant with in situ capture probe immobilization. These DNA-functionalized hydrogel droplets arrayed on a planar glass surface are placed in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture during the thermal amplification cycles. The bacterial cells can be implemented in a direct PCR reaction, omitting the need for prior template DNA extraction. The resulting fluorescence signal is immediately detectable after the end of the PCR (1 h) following one short washing step by microscopy. Therefore a valid signal can be reached within 1.5 h including 10 min for pipetting and placement of the tubes and chips. The performance of this novel hydrogel DNA array was successfully proven with varying cell numbers down to a limit of 10(1) Escherichia coli cells.

  20. Evaluation of a new efficient procedure for single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping: tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Naoko; Fujimura, Kozue; Nakamura, Junji; Suehiro, Yutaka; Hamanaka, Yuichiro; Hinoda, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) is a new efficient method for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. To determine the optimal conditions for ARMS-PCR we attempted to genotype ten SNPs. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 168 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers. Two problems inhibited uniform efficiency of the amplification of three bands. The first problem was the lower amplification efficiency of the shorter and allele-specific products compared with the largest product. This phenomenon was overcome by increasing the relative concentration of the inner primers. The second problem was non-specific amplification of the shorter products. To reduce the amplification of these non-specific bands, adjusting any one of the following PCR conditions was effective: i) reducing the ratio of the inner primer concentration relative to that of the outer primers; ii) increasing the annealing temperature for the initial 5-10 cycles; iii) hot start PCR. With these procedures all ten of the SNPs were successfully genotyped. Our present data may be useful in the further application of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR to SNP genotyping.

  1. Detection of new HLA-DPB1 alleles generated by interallelic gene conversion using PCR amplification of DPB1 second exon sequences from sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, H.; Zangenberg, G.; Bugawan, T.

    1994-09-01

    The rate at which allelic diversity at the HLA class I and class II loci evolves has been the subject of considerable controversy as have the mechanisms which generate new alleles. The patchwork pattern of polymorphism, particularly within the second exon of the HLA-DPB1 locus where the polymorphic sequence motifs are localized to 6 discrete regions, is consistent with the hypothesis that much of the allelic sequence variation may have been generated by segmental exchange (gene conversion). To measure the rate of new DPB1 variant generation, we have developed a strategy in which DPB1 second exon sequences are amplified from pools of FACS-sorted sperm (n=50) from a heterozygous sperm donor. Pools of sperm from these heterozygous individuals are amplified with an allele-specific primer for one allele and analyzed with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) complementary to the other allele. This screening procedure, which is capable of detecting a single variant molecule in a pool of parental alleles, allows the identification of new variants that have been generated by recombination and/or gene conversion between the two parental alleles. To control for potential PCR artifacts, the same screening procedure was carried out with mixtures of sperm from DPB1 *0301/*0301 and DPB1 *0401/ 0401 individuals. Pools containing putative new variants DPB1 alleles were analyzed further by cloning into M13 and sequencing the M13 clones. Our current estimate is that about 1/10,000 sperm from these heterozygous individuals represents a new DPB1 allele generated by micro-gene conversion within the second exon.

  2. Development of a real-time PCR assay with an internal amplification control for detection of Gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria in fish.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Jones, Jessica L; Benner, Ronald; Burkhardt, William

    2011-05-01

    Prompt detection of bacteria that contribute to scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning can aid in the detection of potentially toxic fish products and prevent the occurrence of illness. We report development of the first real-time PCR method for rapid detection of Gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) in fish. The real-time PCR assay was 100% inclusive for detecting high-histamine producing isolates and did not detect any of the low- or non-histamine producing isolates. The efficiency of the assay with/without internal amplification control ranged from 96-104% and in the presence of background flora and inhibitory matrices was 92/100% and 73-96%, respectively. This assay was used to detect HPB from naturally contaminated yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and false albacore samples. Photobacterium damselae (8), Plesiomonas shigelloides (2), Shewanella sp. (1), and Morganella morganii (1) were subsequently isolated from the real-time PCR positive fish samples. These results indicate that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study is a rapid and sensitive method for detecting high-HPB. The assay may be adapted for quantification of HPB, either directly or with an MPN-PCR method. PMID:21356438

  3. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) for pathogenic Leptospira spp. detection with leptospires isolation and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Suwancharoen, Duangjai; Sittiwicheanwong, Busara; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat

    2016-09-01

    Leptospirosis has been one of the worldwide zoonotic diseases caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Many molecular techniques have consecutively been developed to detect such pathogen including loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP assay and real-time PCR using bacterial culture as the gold standard and to assess the agreement among these three tests using Cohen's kappa statistics. In total, 533 urine samples were collected from 266 beef and 267 dairy cattle reared in central region of Thailand. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were 96.8% (95% CI 81.5-99.8) and 97.0% (95% CI 94.9-98.2), respectively. The accuracy of LAMP (97.0%) was significantly higher than that of real-time PCR (91.9%) at 95% CI. With Cohen's kappa statistics, culture method and LAMP were substantially agreed with each other (77.4%), whereas real-time PCR only moderately agreed with culture (47.7%) and LAMP (45.3%), respectively. Consequently, LAMP was more effective than real-time PCR in detecting Leptospira spp. in the urine of cattle. Besides, LAMP had less cost and was simpler than real-time PCR. Thus, LAMP was an excellent alternative for routine surveillance of leptospirosis in cattle. PMID:27150208

  4. Rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii by real-time PCR based on the cgcA gene and TaqMan probe with internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangfang; Yu, Yigang; Li, Rong; Wu, Xinwei; Xiao, Xinglong; Wu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a severe virulent strain that is frequently detected in powdered infant formula (PIF). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a fast and specific detection method. The specificity of our newly developed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was validated with DNA from 46 strains. Among them, 12 C. sakazakii strains were correctly amplified, whereas no positive florescent signal was observed from 34 nontarget controls. The detection limit of C. sakazakii was about 110 CFU/mL in broth and 1100 CFU/g in PIF. After enrichment in buffered peptone water for 6 h, our developed qRT-PCR assay could reliably detect C. sakazakii when the inoculation level was as low as 2 CFU/25 g (0.08 CFU/g) in PIF. The growth of C. sakazakii could be inhibited by the presence of Lactobacillus pentosus and Bacillus cereus, which used a longer enrichment period before the isolation was accomplished. However, at 5 and 50 CFU/25 g inoculation levels of C. sakazakii in the presence of 4 × 10(6) CFU L. pentosus/25 g or of 2 × 10(4) CFU B. cereus/25 g, the qRT-PCR assay could detect the presence of Cronobacter even though these artificially spiked samples were negative in culture. Therefore, our results indicated that the qRT-PCR assay could detect samples containing inhibitors and could avoid false negatives by using an internal amplification control.

  5. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) for pathogenic Leptospira spp. detection with leptospires isolation and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Suwancharoen, Duangjai; Sittiwicheanwong, Busara; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat

    2016-09-01

    Leptospirosis has been one of the worldwide zoonotic diseases caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Many molecular techniques have consecutively been developed to detect such pathogen including loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP assay and real-time PCR using bacterial culture as the gold standard and to assess the agreement among these three tests using Cohen's kappa statistics. In total, 533 urine samples were collected from 266 beef and 267 dairy cattle reared in central region of Thailand. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were 96.8% (95% CI 81.5-99.8) and 97.0% (95% CI 94.9-98.2), respectively. The accuracy of LAMP (97.0%) was significantly higher than that of real-time PCR (91.9%) at 95% CI. With Cohen's kappa statistics, culture method and LAMP were substantially agreed with each other (77.4%), whereas real-time PCR only moderately agreed with culture (47.7%) and LAMP (45.3%), respectively. Consequently, LAMP was more effective than real-time PCR in detecting Leptospira spp. in the urine of cattle. Besides, LAMP had less cost and was simpler than real-time PCR. Thus, LAMP was an excellent alternative for routine surveillance of leptospirosis in cattle.

  6. PCR Amplification-Independent Methods for Detection of Microbial Communities by the High-Density Microarray PhyloChip ▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Wu, Cindy H.; Beller, Harry R.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Chakraborty, Romy; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Osman, Shariff R.; Singer, Mary E.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental microbial community analysis typically involves amplification by PCR, despite well-documented biases. We have developed two methods of PCR-independent microbial community analysis using the high-density microarray PhyloChip: direct hybridization of 16S rRNA (dirRNA) or rRNA converted to double-stranded cDNA (dscDNA). We compared dirRNA and dscDNA communities to PCR-amplified DNA communities using a mock community of eight taxa, as well as experiments derived from three environmental sample types: chromium-contaminated aquifer groundwater, tropical forest soil, and secondary sewage in seawater. Community profiles by both direct hybridization methods showed differences that were expected based on accompanying data but that were missing in PCR-amplified communities. Taxon richness decreased in RNA compared to that in DNA communities, suggesting a subset of 20% in soil and 60% in groundwater that is active; secondary sewage showed no difference between active and inactive populations. Direct hybridization of dscDNA and RNA is thus a viable alternative to PCR-amplified microbial community analysis, providing identification of the active populations within microbial communities that attenuate pollutants, drive global biogeochemical cycles, or proliferate disease states. PMID:21764955

  7. Combination of a modified block PCR and endonuclease IV-based signal amplification system for ultra-sensitive detection of low-abundance point mutations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xianjin; Xu, Anqin; Zhai, Junqiu; Zhao, Meiping

    2013-12-15

    By combination of a modified block PCR and endonuclease IV-based signal amplification system, we have developed a novel approach for ultra-sensitive detection of point mutations. The method can effectively identify mutant target sequence immersed in a large background of wild-type sequences with abundance down to 0.03% (for C→A) and 0.005% (for C→G). This sensitivity is among the highest in comparison with other existing approaches and the operating procedures are simple and time saving. The method holds great potential for future application in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.

  8. Blocking primers to enhance PCR amplification of rare sequences in mixed samples – a case study on prey DNA in Antarctic krill stomachs

    PubMed Central

    Vestheim, Hege; Jarman, Simon N

    2008-01-01

    Background Identification of DNA sequence diversity is a powerful means for assessing the species present in environmental samples. The most common molecular strategies for estimating taxonomic composition depend upon PCR with universal primers that amplify an orthologous DNA region from a range of species. The diversity of sequences within a sample that can be detected by universal primers is often compromised by high concentrations of some DNA templates. If the DNA within the sample contains a small number of sequences in relatively high concentrations, then less concentrated sequences are often not amplified because the PCR favours the dominant DNA types. This is a particular problem in molecular diet studies, where predator DNA is often present in great excess of food-derived DNA. Results We have developed a strategy where a universal PCR simultaneously amplifies DNA from food items present in DNA purified from stomach samples, while the predator's own DNA is blocked from amplification by the addition of a modified predator-specific blocking primer. Three different types of modified primers were tested out; one annealing inhibiting primer overlapping with the 3' end of one of the universal primers, another annealing inhibiting primer also having an internal modification of five dI molecules making it a dual priming oligo, and a third elongation arrest primer located between the two universal primers. All blocking primers were modified with a C3 spacer. In artificial PCR mixtures, annealing inhibiting primers proved to be the most efficient ones and this method reduced predator amplicons to undetectable levels even when predator template was present in 1000 fold excess of the prey template. The prey template then showed strong PCR amplification where none was detectable without the addition of blocking primer. Our method was applied to identifying the winter food of one of the most abundant animals in the world, the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Dietary

  9. SNP genotyping using single-tube fluorescent bidirectional PCR.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Christy M; Cobb, Benjamin D

    2002-07-01

    SNP genotyping is a well-populatedfield with a large number of assay formats offering accurate allelic discrimination. However, there remains a discord between the ultimate goal of rapid, inexpensive assays that do not require complex design considerations and involved optimization strategies. We describe the first integration of bidirectional allele-specific amplification, SYBR Green I, and rapid-cycle PCR to provide a homogeneous SNP-typing assay. Wild-type, mutant, and heterozygous alleles were easily discriminated in a single tube using melt curve profiling of PCR products alone. We demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of this assay with a blinded trial using clinical samples from individuals with sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait, or unaffected individuals. The tests were completed in less than 30 min without expensive fluorogenic probes, prohibiting design rules, or lengthy downstream processing for product analysis.

  10. Amplification of Chloroplast DNA Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): A Practical Activity for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kenny; Barfoot, Jan; Crawford, Kathleen E.; Simpson, Craig G.; Beaumont, Paul C.; Bownes, Mary

    2006-01-01

    We describe a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol suitable for use in secondary schools and colleges. This PCR protocol can be used to investigate genetic variation between plants. The protocol makes use of primers which are complementary to sequences of nucleotides that are highly conserved across different plant genera. The regions of…

  11. Allele-specific analysis of DNA replication origins in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Boris; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lajugie, Julien; Aladjem, Mirit I; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2015-05-19

    The mechanisms that control the location and timing of firing of replication origins are poorly understood. Using a novel functional genomic approach based on the analysis of SNPs and indels in phased human genomes, we observe that replication asynchrony is associated with small cumulative variations in the initiation efficiency of multiple origins between the chromosome homologues, rather than with the activation of dormant origins. Allele-specific measurements demonstrate that the presence of G-quadruplex-forming sequences does not correlate with the efficiency of initiation. Sequence analysis reveals that the origins are highly enriched in sequences with profoundly asymmetric G/C and A/T nucleotide distributions and are almost completely depleted of antiparallel triplex-forming sequences. We therefore propose that although G4-forming sequences are abundant in replication origins, an asymmetry in nucleotide distribution, which increases the propensity of origins to unwind and adopt non-B DNA structure, rather than the ability to form G4, is directly associated with origin activity.

  12. Allele-Specific Methylation Occurs at Genetic Variants Associated with Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, John N.; Raj, Towfique; Fagerness, Jes; Stahl, Eli; Viloria, Fernando T.; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Seddon, Johanna; Daly, Mark; Chess, Andrew; Plenge, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesize that the phenomenon of allele-specific methylation (ASM) may underlie the phenotypic effects of multiple variants identified by Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS). We evaluate ASM in a human population and document its genome-wide patterns in an initial screen at up to 380,678 sites within the genome, or up to 5% of the total genomic CpGs. We show that while substantial inter-individual variation exists, 5% of assessed sites show evidence of ASM in at least six samples; the majority of these events (81%) are under genetic influence. Many of these cis-regulated ASM variants are also eQTLs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes and/or in high linkage-disequilibrium with variants linked to complex disease. Finally, focusing on autoimmune phenotypes, we extend this initial screen to confirm the association of cis-regulated ASM with multiple complex disease-associated variants in an independent population using next-generation bisulfite sequencing. These four variants are implicated in complex phenotypes such as ulcerative colitis and AIDS progression disease (rs10491434), Celiac disease (rs2762051), Crohn's disease, IgA nephropathy and early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (rs713875) and height (rs6569648). Our results suggest cis-regulated ASM may provide a mechanistic link between the non-coding genetic changes and phenotypic variation observed in these diseases and further suggests a route to integrating DNA methylation status with GWAS results. PMID:24911414

  13. Allele-specific deposition of macroH2A1 in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, J H; Kim, J D; Chung, J H; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-01-13

    In the current study, we analyzed the deposition patterns of macroH2A1 at a number of different genomic loci located in X chromosome and autosomes. MacroH2A1 is preferentially deposited at methylated CpG CpG-rich regions located close to promoters. The macroH2A1 deposition patterns at the methylated CpG islands of several imprinted domains, including the Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) of Xist, Peg3, H19/Igf2 Igf2, Gtl2/Dlk1, and Gnas domains, show consistent allele-specificity towards inactive, methylated alleles. The macroH2A1 deposition levels at the ICRs and other Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) of these domains are also either higher or comparable to those observed at the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Overall, our results indicate that besides DNA methylation macroH2A1 is another epigenetic component in the chromatin of ICRs displaying differential association with two parental alleles.

  14. Allele-specific methylation occurs at genetic variants associated with complex disease.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, John N; Raj, Towfique; Fagerness, Jes; Stahl, Eli; Viloria, Fernando T; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Seddon, Johanna; Daly, Mark; Chess, Andrew; Plenge, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesize that the phenomenon of allele-specific methylation (ASM) may underlie the phenotypic effects of multiple variants identified by Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS). We evaluate ASM in a human population and document its genome-wide patterns in an initial screen at up to 380,678 sites within the genome, or up to 5% of the total genomic CpGs. We show that while substantial inter-individual variation exists, 5% of assessed sites show evidence of ASM in at least six samples; the majority of these events (81%) are under genetic influence. Many of these cis-regulated ASM variants are also eQTLs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes and/or in high linkage-disequilibrium with variants linked to complex disease. Finally, focusing on autoimmune phenotypes, we extend this initial screen to confirm the association of cis-regulated ASM with multiple complex disease-associated variants in an independent population using next-generation bisulfite sequencing. These four variants are implicated in complex phenotypes such as ulcerative colitis and AIDS progression disease (rs10491434), Celiac disease (rs2762051), Crohn's disease, IgA nephropathy and early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (rs713875) and height (rs6569648). Our results suggest cis-regulated ASM may provide a mechanistic link between the non-coding genetic changes and phenotypic variation observed in these diseases and further suggests a route to integrating DNA methylation status with GWAS results.

  15. The allele-specific suppressor sup-39 alters use of cryptic splice sites in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Roller, A B; Hoffman, D C; Zahler, A M

    2000-01-01

    Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans sup-39 gene cause allele-specific suppression of the uncoordination defect of unc-73(e936). e936 is a point mutation that changes the canonical G at the 5' end of intron 16 to a U. This mutation activates three splice donors, two of which define introns beginning with the canonical GU. Use of these two cryptic splice sites causes loss of reading frame; interestingly these messages are not substrates for nonsense-mediated decay. The third splice donor, used in 10% of steady-state e936 messages, is the mutated splice donor at the wild-type position, which defines an intron beginning with UU. In the presence of a sup-39 mutation, these same three splice donors are used, but the ratio of messages produced by splicing at these sites changes. The percentage of unc-73(e936) messages containing the wild-type splice junction is increased to 33% with a corresponding increase in the level of UNC-73 protein. This sup-39-induced change was also observed when the e936 mutant intron region was inserted into a heterologous splicing reporter construct transfected into worms. Experiments with splicing reporter constructs showed that the degree of 5' splice site match to the splicing consensus sequence can strongly influence cryptic splice site choice. We propose that mutant SUP-39 is a new type of informational suppressor that alters the use of weak splice donors. PMID:10757761

  16. Assessing allele-specific expression across multiple tissues from RNA-seq read data

    PubMed Central

    Pirinen, Matti; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Donnelly, Peter; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivas, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: RNA sequencing enables allele-specific expression (ASE) studies that complement standard genotype expression studies for common variants and, importantly, also allow measuring the regulatory impact of rare variants. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project is collecting RNA-seq data on multiple tissues of a same set of individuals and novel methods are required for the analysis of these data. Results: We present a statistical method to compare different patterns of ASE across tissues and to classify genetic variants according to their impact on the tissue-wide expression profile. We focus on strong ASE effects that we are expecting to see for protein-truncating variants, but our method can also be adjusted for other types of ASE effects. We illustrate the method with a real data example on a tissue-wide expression profile of a variant causal for lipoid proteinosis, and with a simulation study to assess our method more generally. Availability and implementation: http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/~rivas/mamba/. R-sources and data examples http://www.iki.fi/mpirinen/ Contact: matti.pirinen@helsinki.fi or rivas@well.ox.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25819081

  17. Extensive allele-specific translational regulation in hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jingyi; Wang, Xi; McShane, Erik; Zauber, Henrik; Sun, Wei; Selbach, Matthias; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Translational regulation is mediated through the interaction between diffusible trans-factors and cis-elements residing within mRNA transcripts. In contrast to extensively studied transcriptional regulation, cis-regulation on translation remains underexplored. Using deep sequencing-based transcriptome and polysome profiling, we globally profiled allele-specific translational efficiency for the first time in an F1 hybrid mouse. Out of 7,156 genes with reliable quantification of both alleles, we found 1,008 (14.1%) exhibiting significant allelic divergence in translational efficiency. Systematic analysis of sequence features of the genes with biased allelic translation revealed that local RNA secondary structure surrounding the start codon and proximal out-of-frame upstream AUGs could affect translational efficiency. Finally, we observed that the cis-effect was quantitatively comparable between transcriptional and translational regulation. Such effects in the two regulatory processes were more frequently compensatory, suggesting that the regulation at the two levels could be coordinated in maintaining robustness of protein expression. PMID:26253569

  18. Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions.

    PubMed

    Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Anacker, Christoph; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Pruessner, Jens C; Pariante, Carmine M; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Mercer, Kristina B; Mayberg, Helen S; Bradley, Bekh; Nemeroff, Charles B; Holsboer, Florian; Heim, Christine M; Ressler, Kerry J; Rein, Theo; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2013-01-01

    Although the fact that genetic predisposition and environmental exposures interact to shape development and function of the human brain and, ultimately, the risk of psychiatric disorders has drawn wide interest, the corresponding molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We found that a functional polymorphism altering chromatin interaction between the transcription start site and long-range enhancers in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene, an important regulator of the stress hormone system, increased the risk of developing stress-related psychiatric disorders in adulthood by allele-specific, childhood trauma-dependent DNA demethylation in functional glucocorticoid response elements of FKBP5. This demethylation was linked to increased stress-dependent gene transcription followed by a long-term dysregulation of the stress hormone system and a global effect on the function of immune cells and brain areas associated with stress regulation. This identification of molecular mechanisms of genotype-directed long-term environmental reactivity will be useful for designing more effective treatment strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:23201972

  19. Enhanced detection of DNA sequences using end-point PCR amplification and online gel electrophoresis (GE)-ICP-MS: determination of gene copy number variations.

    PubMed

    González, T Iglesias; Espina, M; Sierra, L M; Bettmer, J; Blanco-González, E; Montes-Bayón, M; Sanz-Medel, A

    2014-11-18

    The design and evaluation of analytical methods that permit quantitative analysis of specific DNA sequences is exponentially increasing. For this purpose, highly sensitive methodologies usually based on labeling protocols with fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles are often explored. Here, the possibility of label-free signal amplification using end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are exploited using on-column agarose gel electrophoresis as separation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the detection of phosphorus in amplified DNA sequences. The calibration of the separation system with a DNA ladder permits direct estimation of the size of the amplified gene fragment after PCR. With this knowledge, and considering the compound-independent quantification capabilities exhibited by ICP-MS for phosphorus (it is only dependent on the number of P atoms per molecule), the correlation of the P-peak area of the amplified gene fragment, with respect to the gene copy numbers (in the starting DNA), is then established. Such a relationship would permit the determination of copy number variations (CNVs) in genomic DNA using ICP-MS measurements. The method detection limit, in terms of the required amount of starting DNA, is ∼6 ng (or 1000 cells if 100% extraction efficiency is expected). The suitability of the proposed label-free amplification strategy is applied to CNVs monitoring in cells exposed to a chemical agent capable of deletion induction, such as cisplatin. PMID:25312744

  20. Molecular characterization and a multiplex allele-specific PCR method for detection of thiabendazole resistance in Penicillium expansum from apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is commonly used as a postharvest treatment for control of blue mold in apples caused by Penicillium expansum. Different point mutations in the ß-tubulin gene conferring benzimidazole resistance have been reported in plant pathogens, but molecular mechanisms of TBZ resistance in ...

  1. Developmental validation of the Yfiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit: An enhanced Y-STR multiplex for casework and database applications.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Siddhita; Zhong, Chang; Nguyen, Vivian; Ge, Jianye; Lagacé, Robert E; Short, Marc L; Mulero, Julio J

    2016-09-01

    Y-chromosomal loci have proven useful in solving investigations where low levels of male DNA are present in a high female DNA background. An intrinsic limitation of Y-STRs compared with autosomal STRs is a reduced power of discrimination due to a lack of recombination throughout most of the Y-chromosome. Thus, in an effort to increase the power of discrimination we have developed a new 6-dye, 27-plex Y-STR system that includes the 17 loci from the Yfiler(®) and Yfiler(®) Direct kits (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 (Y GATA C4), and Y GATA H4) plus three highly polymorphic Y-STR loci (DYS460, DYS481, and DYS533), and seven rapidly mutating Y-STR loci (DYF387S1a/b, DYS449, DYS518, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627) which allow for improved discrimination of related individuals. The Yfiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit is a dual application assay designed to amplify DNA from extracted casework and database samples from storage cards and swab lysates via direct amplification. Compared to the Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit, the new multiplex shows increased discrimination of male lineages and also improved performance in inhibited samples, improved balance in male DNA samples mixed with female DNA at ratios >1:1000, and faster time to results. The Yfiler Plus Kit shows very high concordance to the Yfiler Kit but discordance with the PowerPlex(®) Y23 Kit at the DYS481 locus was observed in 2 out of 30 samples tested. This developmental validation work follows the SWGDAM guidelines and demonstrates that the assay is robust and suitable for use on forensic casework and database samples.

  2. Developmental validation of the Yfiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit: An enhanced Y-STR multiplex for casework and database applications.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Siddhita; Zhong, Chang; Nguyen, Vivian; Ge, Jianye; Lagacé, Robert E; Short, Marc L; Mulero, Julio J

    2016-09-01

    Y-chromosomal loci have proven useful in solving investigations where low levels of male DNA are present in a high female DNA background. An intrinsic limitation of Y-STRs compared with autosomal STRs is a reduced power of discrimination due to a lack of recombination throughout most of the Y-chromosome. Thus, in an effort to increase the power of discrimination we have developed a new 6-dye, 27-plex Y-STR system that includes the 17 loci from the Yfiler(®) and Yfiler(®) Direct kits (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 (Y GATA C4), and Y GATA H4) plus three highly polymorphic Y-STR loci (DYS460, DYS481, and DYS533), and seven rapidly mutating Y-STR loci (DYF387S1a/b, DYS449, DYS518, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627) which allow for improved discrimination of related individuals. The Yfiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit is a dual application assay designed to amplify DNA from extracted casework and database samples from storage cards and swab lysates via direct amplification. Compared to the Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit, the new multiplex shows increased discrimination of male lineages and also improved performance in inhibited samples, improved balance in male DNA samples mixed with female DNA at ratios >1:1000, and faster time to results. The Yfiler Plus Kit shows very high concordance to the Yfiler Kit but discordance with the PowerPlex(®) Y23 Kit at the DYS481 locus was observed in 2 out of 30 samples tested. This developmental validation work follows the SWGDAM guidelines and demonstrates that the assay is robust and suitable for use on forensic casework and database samples. PMID:27459350

  3. PCR-free and label-free fluorescent detection of telomerase activity at single-cell level based on triple amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanfang; Xu, Jing; Li, Baoxin; Jin, Yan

    2016-07-15

    As a universal biomarker for cancer diagnostics and cancer therapeutics, telomerase has attracted extensive attention concerning its detection and discovery of its inhibitors. Herein, we developed a PCR-free and label-free fluorescent strategy for facile, reliable and highly sensitive assay of human telomerase activity from crude cancer cell extracts. A G-quadruplex-selective fluorescent dye, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), was utilized as signal probe. Two hairpin probes with hidden G-quadruplex strand in their stem were designed as assembly components of strand displacement reaction (SDR). In this strategy, one telomerase elongation product contains several hexamer repeats which can hybridize with numerous assistant DNA to release a lot of trigger DNA (T-DNA) of SDR for achieving first step amplification. Then, strand displacement reaction led to the formation of G-quadruplex at the both end of two hairpin DNA probes for realizing second step amplification. Finally, the re-released T-DNA initiated another cycle of SDR, resulting in a significant increase in the fluorescence intensity of NMM. By taking advantage of triple signal amplification, the telomerase activity in the HeLa extracts equivalent to 1-3000 cells was detected in homogeneous solution. Telomerase activities of different cell lines, including cancer cells and normal cell, were also successfully evaluated. Meanwhile, the inhibition effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) was also investigated. Therefore, it offers a simple and reliable method for detecting telomerase activity at single-cell level without complex pre-modification of probe and enzyme auxiliary signal amplification, which has the merits of simplicity, rapid response, low cost and high reliability. PMID:26999622

  4. PCR-free and label-free fluorescent detection of telomerase activity at single-cell level based on triple amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanfang; Xu, Jing; Li, Baoxin; Jin, Yan

    2016-07-15

    As a universal biomarker for cancer diagnostics and cancer therapeutics, telomerase has attracted extensive attention concerning its detection and discovery of its inhibitors. Herein, we developed a PCR-free and label-free fluorescent strategy for facile, reliable and highly sensitive assay of human telomerase activity from crude cancer cell extracts. A G-quadruplex-selective fluorescent dye, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), was utilized as signal probe. Two hairpin probes with hidden G-quadruplex strand in their stem were designed as assembly components of strand displacement reaction (SDR). In this strategy, one telomerase elongation product contains several hexamer repeats which can hybridize with numerous assistant DNA to release a lot of trigger DNA (T-DNA) of SDR for achieving first step amplification. Then, strand displacement reaction led to the formation of G-quadruplex at the both end of two hairpin DNA probes for realizing second step amplification. Finally, the re-released T-DNA initiated another cycle of SDR, resulting in a significant increase in the fluorescence intensity of NMM. By taking advantage of triple signal amplification, the telomerase activity in the HeLa extracts equivalent to 1-3000 cells was detected in homogeneous solution. Telomerase activities of different cell lines, including cancer cells and normal cell, were also successfully evaluated. Meanwhile, the inhibition effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) was also investigated. Therefore, it offers a simple and reliable method for detecting telomerase activity at single-cell level without complex pre-modification of probe and enzyme auxiliary signal amplification, which has the merits of simplicity, rapid response, low cost and high reliability.

  5. A genomic library-based amplification approach (GL-PCR) for the mapping of multiple IS6110 insertion sites and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Namouchi, Amine; Mardassi, Helmi

    2006-11-01

    Evidence suggests that insertion of the IS6110 element is not without consequence to the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. Thus, mapping of multiple IS6110 insertion sites in the genome of biomedically relevant clinical isolates would result in a better understanding of the role of this mobile element, particularly with regard to transmission, adaptability and virulence. In the present paper, we describe a versatile strategy, referred to as GL-PCR, that amplifies IS6110-flanking sequences based on the construction of a genomic library. M. tuberculosis chromosomal DNA is fully digested with HincII and then ligated into a plasmid vector between T7 and T3 promoter sequences. The ligation reaction product is transformed into Escherichia coli and selective PCR amplification targeting both 5' and 3' IS6110-flanking sequences are performed on the plasmid library DNA. For this purpose, four separate PCR reactions are performed, each combining an outward primer specific for one IS6110 end with either T7 or T3 primer. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the PCR products generated from a single ligation reaction allowed mapping of 21 out of the 24 IS6110 copies of two 12 banded M. tuberculosis strains, yielding an overall sensitivity of 87,5%. Furthermore, by simply comparing the migration pattern of GL-PCR-generated products, the strategy proved to be as valuable as IS6110 RFLP for molecular typing of M. tuberculosis complex strains. Importantly, GL-PCR was able to discriminate between strains differing by a single IS6110 band. PMID:16725220

  6. Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification is more convenient than real-time PCR for quantification of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Petra; Wolters, Liselotte; Schoone, Gerard; Schallig, Henk; Sillekens, Peter; Hermsen, Rob; Sauerwein, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Determination of the number of malaria parasites by routine or even expert microscopy is not always sufficiently sensitive for detailed quantitative studies on the population dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum, such as intervention or vaccine trials. To circumvent this problem, two more sensitive assays, real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) and real-time quantitative PCR (QT-PCR) were compared for quantification of P. falciparum parasites. QT-NASBA was adapted to molecular beacon real-time detection technology, which enables a reduction of the time of analysis and of contamination risk while retaining the specificity and sensitivity of the original assay. Both QT-NASBA and QT-PCR have a sensitivity of 20 parasites/ml of blood, but QT-PCR requires a complicated DNA extraction procedure and the use of 500 microl of venous blood to achieve this sensitivity, compared to 50 microl of finger prick blood for real-time QT-NASBA. Both techniques show a significant correlation to microscopic parasite counts, and the quantification results of the two real-time assays are significantly correlated for in vitro as well as in vivo samples. However, in comparison to real-time QT-PCR, the results of real-time QT-NASBA can be obtained 12 h earlier, with relatively easy RNA extraction and use of finger prick blood samples. The prospective development of multiplex QT-NASBA for detection of various P. falciparum developmental stages increases the value of QT-NASBA for malaria studies. Therefore, for studies requiring sensitive and accurate detection of P. falciparum parasites in large numbers of samples, the use of real-time QT-NASBA is preferred over that of real-time QT-PCR.

  7. Diagnosis and Differentiation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis Infections in Pigs by PCR Amplification of the p36 and p46 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Caron, J.; Ouardani, M.; Dea, S.

    2000-01-01

    The genome of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae encodes several immunodominant proteins, including a cytosolic protein (p36), three membranous proteins (p46, p65, and p74), and an adhesin (p97). Cross-reactions with M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis reduce the specificity of conventional serological detection methods. However, certain antigenic determinants of the p36 and p46 proteins have been shown to be specific for M. hyopneumoniae. In the present study, pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to permit PCR amplification of entire p36 and p46 genes and of internal fragments of these genes. Specific amplicons could be obtained with as low as 0.5 to 50 pg of extracted chromosomal DNA. No amplification product was obtained when testing p36 and p46 primer pairs with genomic DNA or RNA from other mycoplasma species, bacteria, and viruses commonly associated with respiratory diseases in pigs. By using the single p36-PCR method, a positive reaction was demonstrated in 100% (30 of 30) of lungs from pigs that developed typical lesions associated with an M. hyopneumoniae infection, and no false-positive results were detected when 62 apparently normal lungs were tested. On the other hand, with the single p46-PCR method a sensitivity of 86.6% (26 of 30) and a specificity of 96.7% (60 of 62) were obtained in comparison with the necropsy findings. A mixed infection with M. hyorhinis was diagnosed in 13.3% (4 of 30) of the cases by using species-specific primers for the heterologous p37 gene. The sensitivity of the single p36-PCR method for the detection of M. hyopneumoniae, when tested on tracheobronchial swabs, was 100% (20 positive samples), with a specificity of 93.3% (14 of 15 negative samples), compared to the necropsy findings. Both expected amplicons were obtained with 86.6% (26 of 30) positive lungs when p36 and p46 primers were used simultaneously (multiplex PCR) to further increase the specificity of the PCR assay. PMID:10747113

  8. Rapid detection of hepatitis B virus variants associated with lamivudine and adefovir resistance by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification combined with real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuangrong; Wang, Feng; Li, Fake; Chang, Kai; Yang, Shaojun; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming

    2014-02-01

    Drug-resistant mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the major obstacles to successful therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. Although there are many methods for detecting the antiviral drug-resistant mutations of HBV, their applications are restricted because of their shortcomings, such as low sensitivity, the time required, and the high cost. For this study, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe real-time PCR (MLP-RT-PCR) method was developed to simultaneously detect lamivudine (LAM)- and adefovir (ADV)-resistant HBV mutants (those with the mutations rtM204V/I, rtA181V/T, and rtN236T). The new method combined the high-throughput nature of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with the rapid and sensitive detection of real-time PCR. In this report, MLP-RT-PCR was evaluated by detecting drug-resistant mutants in 116 patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. By MLP-RT-PCR analysis, LAM-resistant mutations were detected in 41 patients (35.3%), ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 17 patients (14.7%), and LAM- and-ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 5 patients (4.3%). Based on the results of MLP-RT-PCR, the mutations rtM204V, rtM204I, rtA181T, rtA181V, and rtN236T were 95.7% (111/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), 99.1% (115/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), and 99.1% (115/116 patients) concordant, respectively, with those of direct sequencing. The MLP-RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than direct sequencing for detecting mutations with low frequencies. Four samples containing the low-frequency (<10%) mutants were identified by MLP-RT-PCR and further confirmed by clonal sequencing. MLP-RT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method that enables the detection of multidrug-resistant HBV mutations in clinical practice.

  9. Rapid Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Variants Associated with Lamivudine and Adefovir Resistance by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Combined with Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shuangrong; Wang, Feng; Li, Fake; Chang, Kai; Yang, Shaojun; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the major obstacles to successful therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. Although there are many methods for detecting the antiviral drug-resistant mutations of HBV, their applications are restricted because of their shortcomings, such as low sensitivity, the time required, and the high cost. For this study, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe real-time PCR (MLP-RT-PCR) method was developed to simultaneously detect lamivudine (LAM)- and adefovir (ADV)-resistant HBV mutants (those with the mutations rtM204V/I, rtA181V/T, and rtN236T). The new method combined the high-throughput nature of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with the rapid and sensitive detection of real-time PCR. In this report, MLP-RT-PCR was evaluated by detecting drug-resistant mutants in 116 patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. By MLP-RT-PCR analysis, LAM-resistant mutations were detected in 41 patients (35.3%), ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 17 patients (14.7%), and LAM- and-ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 5 patients (4.3%). Based on the results of MLP-RT-PCR, the mutations rtM204V, rtM204I, rtA181T, rtA181V, and rtN236T were 95.7% (111/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), 99.1% (115/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), and 99.1% (115/116 patients) concordant, respectively, with those of direct sequencing. The MLP-RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than direct sequencing for detecting mutations with low frequencies. Four samples containing the low-frequency (<10%) mutants were identified by MLP-RT-PCR and further confirmed by clonal sequencing. MLP-RT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method that enables the detection of multidrug-resistant HBV mutations in clinical practice. PMID:24478474

  10. Ultrasensitive amplification refractory mutation system real-time PCR (ARMS RT-PCR) assay for detection of minority hepatitis B virus-resistant strains in the era of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Ntziora, Fotinie; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Haida, Catherine; Manesis, Emanuel; Papatheodoridis, George; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Elefsiniotis, Ioannis; Karamitros, Timokratis; Vassilakis, Alexis; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2013-09-01

    Resistance to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been associated with mutations in the HBV polymerase region. This study aimed at developing an ultrasensitive method for quantifying viral populations with all major HBV resistance-associated mutations, combining the amplification refractory mutation system real-time PCR (ARMS RT-PCR) with a molecular beacon using a LightCycler. The discriminatory ability of this method, the ARMS RT-PCR with molecular beacon assay, was 0.01 to 0.25% for the different HBV resistance-associated mutations, as determined by laboratory-synthesized wild-type (WT) and mutant (Mut) target sequences. The assay showed 100% sensitivity for the detection of mutant variants A181V, T184A, and N236T in samples from 41 chronically HBV-infected patients under antiviral therapy who had developed resistance-associated mutations detected by direct PCR Sanger sequencing. The ratio of mutant to wild-type viral populations (the Mut/WT ratio) was >1% in 38 (63.3%) of 60 samples from chronically HBV-infected nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive patients; combinations of mutations were also detected in half of these samples. The ARMS RT-PCR with molecular beacon assay achieved high sensitivity and discriminatory ability compared to the gold standard of direct PCR Sanger sequencing in identifying resistant viral populations in chronically HBV-infected patients receiving antiviral therapy. Apart from the dominant clones, other quasispecies were also quantified. In samples from chronically HBV-infected nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive patients, the assay proved to be a useful tool in detecting minor variant populations before the initiation of the treatment. These observations need further evaluation with prospective studies before they can be implemented in daily practice.

  11. Efficient and allele-specific genome editing of disease loci in human iPSCs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cory; Abalde-Atristain, Leire; He, Chaoxia; Brodsky, Brett R; Braunstein, Evan M; Chaudhari, Pooja; Jang, Yoon-Young; Cheng, Linzhao; Ye, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Efficient and precise genome editing is crucial for realizing the full research and therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Engineered nucleases including CRISPR/Cas9 and transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) provide powerful tools for enhancing gene-targeting efficiency. In this study, we investigated the relative efficiencies of CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs in human iPSC lines for inducing both homologous donor-based precise genome editing and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated gene disruption. Significantly higher frequencies of NHEJ-mediated insertions/deletions were detected at several endogenous loci using CRISPR/Cas9 than using TALENs, especially at nonexpressed targets in iPSCs. In contrast, comparable efficiencies of inducing homologous donor-based genome editing were observed at disease-associated loci in iPSCs. In addition, we investigated the specificity of guide RNAs used in the CRISPR/Cas9 system in targeting disease-associated point mutations in patient-specific iPSCs. Using myeloproliferative neoplasm patient-derived iPSCs that carry an acquired JAK2-V617F point mutation and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency patient-derived iPSCs that carry an inherited Z-AAT point mutation, we demonstrate that Cas9 can specifically target either the mutant or the wild-type allele with little disruption at the other allele differing by a single nucleotide. Overall, our results demonstrate the advantages of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in allele-specific genome targeting and in NHEJ-mediated gene disruption.

  12. Characterization and machine learning prediction of allele-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    He, Jianlin; Sun, Ming-an; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Qianfei; Li, Qing; Xie, Hehuang

    2015-12-01

    A large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) has been identified in the human genome. Currently, the epigenetic influences of SNPs on their neighboring CpG sites remain elusive. A growing body of evidence suggests that locus-specific information, including genomic features and local epigenetic state, may play important roles in the epigenetic readout of SNPs. In this study, we made use of mouse methylomes with known SNPs to develop statistical models for the prediction of SNP associated allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM). ASM has been classified into parent-of-origin dependent ASM (P-ASM) and sequence-dependent ASM (S-ASM), which comprises scattered-S-ASM (sS-ASM) and clustered-S-ASM (cS-ASM). We found that P-ASM and cS-ASM CpG sites are both enriched in CpG rich regions, promoters and exons, while sS-ASM CpG sites are enriched in simple repeat and regions with high frequent SNP occurrence. Using Lasso-grouped Logistic Regression (LGLR), we selected 21 out of 282 genomic and methylation related features that are powerful in distinguishing cS-ASM CpG sites and trained the classifiers with machine learning techniques. Based on 5-fold cross-validation, the logistic regression classifier was found to be the best for cS-ASM prediction with an ACC of 0.77, an AUC of 0.84 and an MCC of 0.54. Lastly, we applied the logistic regression classifier on human brain methylome and predicted 608 genes associated with cS-ASM. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis indicated that these cS-ASM associated genes are significantly enriched in the category coding for transcripts with alternative splicing forms. In summary, this study provided an analytical procedure for cS-ASM prediction and shed new light on the understanding of different types of ASM events.

  13. Allele-specific H3K79 Di- versus trimethylation distinguishes opposite parental alleles at imprinted regions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Purnima; Han, Li; Rivas, Guillermo E; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Nicholson, Thomas B; Larson, Garrett P; Chen, Taiping; Szabó, Piroska E

    2010-06-01

    Imprinted gene expression corresponds to parental allele-specific DNA CpG methylation and chromatin composition. Histone tail covalent modifications have been extensively studied, but it is not known whether modifications in the histone globular domains can also discriminate between the parental alleles. Using multiplex chromatin immunoprecipitation-single nucleotide primer extension (ChIP-SNuPE) assays, we measured the allele-specific enrichment of H3K79 methylation and H4K91 acetylation along the H19/Igf2 imprinted domain. Whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac displayed a paternal-specific enrichment at the paternally expressed Igf2 locus, H3K79me3 was paternally biased at the maternally expressed H19 locus, including the paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR). We found that these allele-specific differences depended on CTCF binding in the maternal ICR allele. We analyzed an additional 11 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and found that, in general, H3K79me3 was associated with the CpG-methylated alleles, whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac enrichment was specific to the unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that allele-specific differences in the globular histone domains may constitute a layer of the "histone code" at imprinted genes.

  14. Enumeration of total bacteria and bacteria with genes for proteolytic activity in pure cultures and in environmental samples by quantitative PCR mediated amplification.

    PubMed

    Bach, H-J; Tomanova, J; Schloter, M; Munch, J C

    2002-05-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for the absolute quantification of different groups of bacteria in pure cultures and in environmental samples. 16S rRNA genes were used as markers for eubacteria, and genes for extracellular peptidases were used as markers for potentially proteolytic bacteria. For the designed 16S rDNA TaqMan assay, specificity of the designed primer-probe combination for eubacteria, a high amplification efficiency over a wide range of starting copy numbers and a high reproducibility is demonstrated. Cell concentrations of Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens in liquid culture were monitored by TaqMan-PCR using the 16S rDNA target sequence of Escherichia coli as external standard for quantification. Results agree with plate counts and microscopic counts of DAPI stained cells. The significance of 16S rRNA operon multiplicity to the quantification of bacteria is discussed.Furthermore, three sets of primer pair together with probe previously designed for targeting different classes of bacterial extracellular peptidases were tested for their suitability for TaqMan-PCR based quantification of proteolytic bacteria. Since high degeneracy of the probes did not allow accurate quantification, SybrGreen was used instead of molecular probes to visualize and quantify PCR products during PCR. The correlation between fluorescence and starting copy number was of the same high quality as for the 16S rDNA TaqMan assay for all the three peptidase gene classes. The detected amount of genes for neutral metallopeptidase of B. cereus, for subtilisin of B. subtilis and for alkaline metallopeptidase of P. fluorescens corresponded exactly to the numbers of bacteria investigated by the 16S rDNA targeting assay. The developed assays were applied for the quantification of bacteria in soil samples.

  15. DNA deamination enables direct PCR amplification of the cystatin B (CSTB) gene-associated dodecamer repeat expansion in myoclonus epilepsy type Unverricht-Lundborg.

    PubMed

    Weinhaeusel, Andreas; Morris, Michael A; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Haas, Oskar A

    2003-11-01

    The Unverricht-Lundborg type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by the dysfunction of the cystatin B (CSTB) gene product. In the vast majority of affected cases, mRNA transcription is impaired by a biallelic expansion of a dodecamer repeat within the 5'-untranslated region of the respective gene. Since this minisatellite contains exclusively G and C nucleotides, direct PCR analysis of allele expansion is extremely difficult and error prone. To circumvent these problems, we have developed a PCR assay that is based on the deamination of the DNA prior to amplification. We have developed a method based on PCR after DNA deamination of the GC-rich repeat region, which improves the PCR condition to such an extent that we were not only able to reliably amplify expanded alleles of affected individuals (homozygotes and compound heterozygotes), but also the two alleles of full mutation carriers, whose analysis is particularly difficult because of PCR bias and heteroduplex formation between the two alleles. We used promoter- and repeat-specific primer combinations to investigate whether dodecamer repeat expansion concurs with de novo methylation of the CSTB gene promoter in a similar fashion to other repeat expansion syndromes. We confirmed previous evidence obtained by HpaII digestion and Southern blot analysis that both the promoter and the repeat regions are unmethylated, in both healthy and affected individuals. Thus, in contrast to certain trinucleotide repeat expansion-associated diseases, such as fragile X syndrome (FRAXA) and myotonic dystrophy, methylation analyses can not be utilized for indirect diagnostic testing.

  16. Detection and Identification of Bartonella Species Pathogenic for Humans by PCR Amplification Targeting the Riboflavin Synthase Gene (ribC)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G.; Ayers, M.; McClure, S. C. C.; Richardson, S. E.; Tellier, R.

    2003-01-01

    Several Bartonella species have now been implicated as human pathogens. The recovery of these fastidious organisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory remains difficult, and current methods are still relatively insensitive. Thus, the bartonellae are good candidates for detection by PCR. We have developed a PCR assay which uses a single primer pair targeting the riboflavin synthase gene (ribC) and detected six Bartonella species that have been implicated in human disease, B. henselae, B. quintana, B. bacilliformis, B. clarridgeiae, B. elizabethae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Species identification is achieved simply by restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicon. This PCR assay appears to be specific for the Bartonella genus because it failed to amplify DNA from several other bacterial species. PMID:12624031

  17. Comparative analysis of viral concentration methods for detecting the HAV genome using real-time RT-PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Bum; Lee, Hyeokjin; Ha, Sang-Do; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Choi, Changsun

    2012-06-01

    Hepatitis A is a major infectious disease epidemiologically associated with foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Molecular detection using real-time RT-PCR to detect the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in contaminated vegetables can be hindered by low-virus recoveries during the concentration process and by natural PCR inhibitors in vegetables. This study evaluated three virus concentration methods from vegetables: polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, ultrafiltration (UF), and immunomagnetic separation (IMS). UF was the most efficient concentration method, while PEG and IMS were very low for the recovery rate of HAV. These results demonstrate that UF is the most appropriate method for recovering HAV from contaminated vegetables and that this method combined with the real-time RT-PCR assay may be suitable for routine laboratory use.

  18. A multiplex allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for HLA-B*13:01 genotyping in four Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Chen, G; Kang, X; Han, M; Chen, R; Chen, C; Wang, H

    2016-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*13:01 is identified currently as a marker of individual susceptibility to drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction, such as dapsone-induced hypersensitivity reactions (DIHRs) and trichloroethylene-induced dermatitis. Therefore, screening for the HLA-B*13:01 allele can assist clinics in identifying patients at risk of developing DIHRs. By combining the allele-specific primers with TaqMan probes, we established a single tube, triplex real-time PCR to detect HLA-B*13:01. The reliability of this assay was validated by the comparison of genotyping results with those by sequence-based typing (SBT). With this assay, the distribution of HLA-B*13:01 in a total of 350 blood samples from four ethnic groups: Han, Tibetan, Uighur, and Buyei were determined. A 100% concordance was observed between the results with the established real-time PCR and SBT in 100 samples. The detection limit of this assay was 0.016 ng genomic DNA. The prevalence of HLA-B*13:01 carriers were 11%, 8%, 1%, and 2% in the Buyei (n = 100), Northern Han (n = 100), Tibetan (n = 100), and Uighur (n = 50) populations, respectively. The multiplex real-time PCR assay provided a fast and reliable method for accurate detection of HLA-B*13:01 allele prior to dapsone administration in clinical practice and onset of the reaction after exposure to trichloroethylene.

  19. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification and SYBR green real-time PCR methods for the detection of Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus in citrus species.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Dasgupta, I; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2014-07-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus (CMBV) is an important pathogen in southern India spread by infected citrus propagules. One of the measures to arrest the spread of CMBV is to develop methods to screen and certify citrus propagules as CMBV-free. The methods loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and SYBR green real-time PCR (SGRTPCR) have been developed for the efficient detection of CMBV in citrus propagules. This paper compares the sensitivities of LAMP and SGRTPCR with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of CMBV. Whereas PCR and LAMP were able to detect CMBV from a minimum of 10 ng of total DNA of infected leaf samples, SGRTPCR could detect the same from 1 ng of total DNA. Using SGRTPCR, the viral titres were estimated to be the highest in rough lemon and lowest in Nagpur Mandarin of the five naturally infected citrus species tested. The results will help in designing suitable strategies for the sensitive detection of CMBV from citrus propagules.

  20. Evaluation of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification by real-time PCR on paraffin wax-embedded material: a potential tool for the diagnosis of atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas.

    PubMed

    Hostein, I; Pelmus, M; Aurias, A; Pedeutour, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Coindre, J M

    2004-01-01

    Atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas and dedifferentiated liposarcomas are characterized by 12q13-15 region amplification. In contrast, this molecular event has not been reported in benign lipomas. Within the 12q13-15 chromosomal region, the MDM2, SAS, HMGA2, and CDK4 genes are the most frequent targets of amplification. A series of lipomas (36 cases) and liposarcomas (48 cases) was analysed for MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification by real-time PCR. MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification was detected in 2.8% and 5.6% of lipomas and 98.2% and 82.4% of liposarcomas, respectively. Moreover, co-amplification of the two genes as well as a higher-level amplification was observed more frequently in dedifferentiated liposarcomas than in atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas. Real-time PCR proved to be a fast and reliable method to characterize lipomas and liposarcomas by quantification of MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification. It is applicable to paraffin wax-embedded tissues and could be useful when histological diagnosis is difficult.

  1. Identification of Tunisian Leishmania spp. by PCR amplification of cysteine proteinase B (cpb) genes and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Melek; Fathallah-Mili, Akila; Driss, Mehdi; Lahmadi, Ramzi; Ayari, Chiraz; Guizani, Ikram; Ben Said, Moncef; Benabderrazak, Souha

    2013-03-01

    Discrimination of the Old World Leishmania parasites is important for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. We have developed PCR assays that allow the discrimination between Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum Tunisian species. The identification was performed by a simple PCR targeting cysteine protease B (cpb) gene copies. These PCR can be a routine molecular biology tools for discrimination of Leishmania spp. from different geographical origins and different clinical forms. Our assays can be an informative source for cpb gene studying concerning drug, diagnostics and vaccine research. The PCR products of the cpb gene and the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) Leishmania gene were sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic trees of Leishmania based cpb and nagt sequences are close in topology and present the classic distribution of Leishmania in the Old World. The phylogenetic analysis has enabled the characterization and identification of different strains, using both multicopy (cpb) and single copy (nagt) genes. Indeed, the cpb phylogenetic analysis allowed us to identify the Tunisian Leishmania killicki species, and a group which gathers the least evolved isolates of the Leishmania donovani complex, that was originated from East Africa. This clustering confirms the African origin for the visceralizing species of the L. donovani complex. PMID:23228525

  2. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism in Mice: Allele- Specific Effects on Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sujung; Pierce, Anson; Dory, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) protects the extracellular matrix (ECM) from oxidative stress. We previously reported a new allele for ecSOD, expressed in 129P3/J mice (129), which differs from the wild-type (wt), expressed in C57BL/6J and other strains, by two amino acid substitutions and a 10 bp deletion in the 3' UTR of the mRNA [1]. The newly discovered allele is associated with a phenotype of significantly increased circulating and heparin-releasable enzyme activities and levels. In order to examine the properties of the two forms of ecSOD in an identical environment we generated, by extensive backcrossing of ecSOD heterozygous progeny to C57BL/6J females, a congenic C57 strain with the 129 (or wt) allele of ecSOD. These mice are homozygous for nearly 5,000 SNPs across all chromosomes, as determined by Affymetrix Parallele Mouse 5K SNP panel. The present study describes the generation of the congenic mice (genetically >99.8 % identical) and their ecSOD phenotype. The congenic mice plasma ecSOD activities before and after heparin administration recapitulate the differences reported in the founder mice. Tissue enzyme distribution is similar in both congenic groups, although the 129 allele is associated with higher levels of enzyme expression despite lower levels of enzyme mRNA. In these characteristics the phenotype is also allele driven, with little impact by the rest of the genome. The congenic mice carrying the 129 allele have mRNA levels that are in between those found in the founder 129P3/J and C57BL/6J strains. We conclude that the ecSOD phenotype in most aspects of enzyme expression is allele- driven, with the exception of tissue mRNA levels, where a significant contribution by the surrounding (host) genome is observed. These results also suggest potential allele-specific differences in the regulation of ecSOD synthesis and intracellular processing/secretion of ecSOD, independent of the genotype context. Most importantly, the congenic mice

  3. Sequential monitoring of chimerism and detection of minimal residual disease after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation (BSCT) using multiplex PCR amplification of short tandem repeat-markers.

    PubMed

    Thiede, C; Bornhäuser, M; Oelschlägel, U; Brendel, C; Leo, R; Daxberger, H; Mohr, B; Florek, M; Kroschinsky, F; Geissler, G; Naumann, R; Ritter, M; Prange-Krex, G; Lion, T; Neubauer, A; Ehninger, G

    2001-02-01

    Sequential analysis of chimerism after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation (BSCT) has been shown to be predictive for graft failure and relapse. We have explored the impact of a novel approach for the quantitative determination of chimerism using a commercial PCR assay with multiplex amplification of nine STR-loci and fluorescence detection. The feasibility was studied in 121 patients transplanted from related or unrelated donors. Follow-up investigation was performed in 88 patients. Twenty-eight of these patients had received a transplantation after dose-reduced conditioning therapy. Results were compared to data obtained by FISH analysis in a subgroup of patients receiving grafts from sex-mismatched donors. The analysis was possible in all patients, the median number of informative alleles was 4 (range 1-8) compared to 7 (range 1-9) in the related and unrelated situation, respectively. A good correlation was seen in 84 samples from 14 patients analyzed in parallel with STR-PCR and FISH. Decreasing values of donor chimerism were detected prior to or concomitantly with the occurrence of graft failure and relapse of disease in all patients investigated prospectively. Using FACS-sorted material, eg peripheral blood CD34+ cells, the assay permitted the detection of residual recipient cells with high sensitivity (down to one CD34+ Kasumi cell in 40,000 normal WBC). Evaluation of the inter-laboratory reproducibility revealed that in 20 samples analyzed in three different centers, the median coefficient of variation was 2.1% (range 0.7-9.6%). Taken together, the results support the use of the test as a valuable tool in the follow-up of patients undergoing allogeneic BSCT. In cases lacking PCR-detectable disease-specific gene products, this assay may represent an alternative to recently established real-time PCR methods. PMID:11236950

  4. Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives.

  5. A study on the determination of risk factors associated with babesiosis and prevalence of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, in small ruminants from Southern Punjab (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, F; Fatima, M; Shahnawaz, S; Naeem, M; Shaikh, Rs; Ali, M; Shaikh, As; Aktas, M; Ali, M

    2011-08-01

    Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host, which includes a wide variety of vertebrates including small ruminants causing decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. The objective of the present study was to establish a PCR based method for the detection of Babesia sp. in small ruminant population in Southern Punjab and to determine the risk factors involve in the spread of babesiosis. A total of 107 blood samples were collected from 40 sheep and 67 goats in seven districts of Southern Punjab from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals and the herd were collected through questionnaires. 36 blood samples (34% of total) produced the DNA fragment specific for 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, of which 20 were sheep and 16 were goats. Samples from all seven district contained Babesia positive samples and prevalence varied between 18 to 68%. It was observed that male animals (P = 0.009) and young animals under one year of age (P = 0.01) were more prone to the parasite. It was observed that herds consist of more than 15 animals (P = 0.007), composed of mixed species of small ruminants (P = 0.022), associated with dogs (P = 0.003) and dogs having ticks on their bodies (P = 0.011) were among the major risk factors for the spread of babesiosis in small ruminants. PMID:21894263

  6. A study on the determination of risk factors associated with babesiosis and prevalence of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, in small ruminants from Southern Punjab (Pakistan)

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, F.; Fatima, M.; Shahnawaz, S.; Naeem, M.; Shaikh, R.S.; Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.S.; Aktas, M.; Ali, M.

    2011-01-01

    Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host, which includes a wide variety of vertebrates including small ruminants causing decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. The objective of the present study was to establish a PCR based method for the detection of Babesia sp. in small ruminant population in Southern Punjab and to determine the risk factors involve in the spread of babesiosis. A total of 107 blood samples were collected from 40 sheep and 67 goats in seven districts of Southern Punjab from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals and the herd were collected through questionnaires. 36 blood samples (34% of total) produced the DNA fragment specific for 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, of which 20 were sheep and 16 were goats. Samples from all seven district contained Babesia positive samples and prevalence varied between 18 to 68%. It was observed that male animals (P = 0.009) and young animals under one year of age (P = 0.01) were more prone to the parasite. It was observed that herds consist of more than 15 animals (P = 0.007), composed of mixed species of small ruminants (P = 0.022), associated with dogs (P = 0.003) and dogs having ticks on their bodies (P = 0.011) were among the major risk factors for the spread of babesiosis in small ruminants. PMID:21894263

  7. Discovery and characterization of RecA protein of thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus MAT72 phage Tt72 that increases specificity of a PCR-based DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Aleksandra; Kaczorowska, Anna-Karina; Plotka, Magdalena; Fridjonsson, Olafur H; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O; Hjorleifsdottir, Sigridur; Kristjansson, Jakob K; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2014-07-20

    The recA gene of newly discovered Thermus thermophilus MAT72 phage Tt72 (Myoviridae) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The 1020-bp gene codes for a 339-amino-acid polypeptide with an Mr of 38,155 which shows 38.7% positional identity to the E. coli RecA protein. When expressed in E. coli, the Tt72 recA gene did not confer the ability to complement the ultraviolet light (254nm) sensitivity of an E. coli recA mutant. Tt72 RecA protein has been purified with good yield to catalytic and electrophoretic homogeneity using a three-step chromatography procedure. Biochemical characterization indicated that the protein can pair and promote ATP-dependent strand exchange reaction resulting in formation of a heteroduplex DNA at 60°C under conditions otherwise optimal for E. coli RecA. When the Tt72 RecA protein was included in a standard PCR-based DNA amplification reaction, the specificity of the PCR assays was significantly improved by eliminating non-specific products.

  8. Efficient CRISPR-rAAV engineering of endogenous genes to study protein function by allele-specific RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Kaulich, Manuel; Lee, Yeon J.; Lönn, Peter; Springer, Aaron D.; Meade, Bryan R.; Dowdy, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Gene knockout strategies, RNAi and rescue experiments are all employed to study mammalian gene function. However, the disadvantages of these approaches include: loss of function adaptation, reduced viability and gene overexpression that rarely matches endogenous levels. Here, we developed an endogenous gene knockdown/rescue strategy that combines RNAi selectivity with a highly efficient CRISPR directed recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) mediated gene targeting approach to introduce allele-specific mutations plus an allele-selective siRNA Sensitive (siSN) site that allows for studying gene mutations while maintaining endogenous expression and regulation of the gene of interest. CRISPR/Cas9 plus rAAV targeted gene-replacement and introduction of allele-specific RNAi sensitivity mutations in the CDK2 and CDK1 genes resulted in a >85% site-specific recombination of Neo-resistant clones versus ∼8% for rAAV alone. RNAi knockdown of wild type (WT) Cdk2 with siWT in heterozygotic knockin cells resulted in the mutant Cdk2 phenotype cell cycle arrest, whereas allele specific knockdown of mutant CDK2 with siSN resulted in a wild type phenotype. Together, these observations demonstrate the ability of CRISPR plus rAAV to efficiently recombine a genomic locus and tag it with a selective siRNA sequence that allows for allele-selective phenotypic assays of the gene of interest while it remains expressed and regulated under endogenous control mechanisms. PMID:25586224

  9. Assessment of allele-specific gene silencing by RNA interference with mutant and wild-type reporter alleles.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yusuke; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Kaneko, Kiyotoshi; Hohjoh, Hirohiko

    2006-02-28

    Allele-specific gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is therapeutically useful for specifically suppressing the expression of alleles associated with disease. To realize such allele-specific RNAi (ASPRNAi), the design and assessment of small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes conferring ASP-RNAi is vital, but is also difficult. Here, we show ASP-RNAi against the Swedish- and London-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) variants related to familial Alzheimer's disease using two reporter alleles encoding the Photinus and Renilla luciferase genes and carrying mutant and wild-type allelic sequences in their 3'-untranslated regions. We examined the effects of siRNA duplexes against the mutant alleles in allele-specific gene silencing and off-target silencing against the wild-type allele under heterozygous conditions, which were generated by cotransfecting the reporter alleles and siRNA duplexes into cultured human cells. Consistently, the siRNA duplexes determined to confer ASP-RNAi also inhibited the expression of the bona fide mutant APP and the production of either amyloid beta 40- or 42-peptide in Cos-7 cells expressing both the full-length Swedish- and wild-type APP alleles. The present data suggest that the system with reporter alleles may permit the preclinical assessment of siRNA duplexes conferring ASP-RNAi, and thus contribute to the design and selection of the most suitable of such siRNA duplexes.

  10. Allele-specific transcription factor binding to common and rare variants associated with disease and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Marco; Pan, Gang; Nord, Helena; Wallerman, Ola; Wallén Arzt, Emelie; Berggren, Olof; Elvers, Ingegerd; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Rönnblom, Lars; Lindblad Toh, Kerstin; Wadelius, Claes

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of disease-associated SNPs, but in few cases the functional variant and the gene it controls have been identified. To systematically identify candidate regulatory variants, we sequenced ENCODE cell lines and used public ChIP-seq data to look for transcription factors binding preferentially to one allele. We found 9962 candidate regulatory SNPs, of which 16 % were rare and showed evidence of larger functional effect than common ones. Functionally rare variants may explain divergent GWAS results between populations and are candidates for a partial explanation of the missing heritability. The majority of allele-specific variants (96 %) were specific to a cell type. Furthermore, by examining GWAS loci we found >400 allele-specific candidate SNPs, 141 of which were highly relevant in our cell types. Functionally validated SNPs support identification of an SNP in SYNGR1 which may expose to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and primary biliary cirrhosis, as well as an SNP in the last intron of COG6 exposing to the risk of psoriasis. We propose that by repeating the ChIP-seq experiments of 20 selected transcription factors in three to ten people, the most common polymorphisms can be interrogated for allele-specific binding. Our strategy may help to remove the current bottleneck in functional annotation of the genome. PMID:26993500

  11. Underestimation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria abundance by amplification bias in amoA-targeted qPCR.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Musovic, Sanin; Palomo, Alejandro; Diwan, Vaibhav; Smets, Barth F

    2016-07-01

    Molecular methods to investigate functional groups in microbial communities rely on the specificity and selectivity of the primer set towards the target. Here, using rapid sand filters for drinking water production as model environment, we investigated the consistency of two commonly used quantitative PCR methods to enumerate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB): one targeting the phylogenetic gene 16S rRNA and the other, the functional gene amoA. Cloning-sequencing with both primer sets on DNA from two waterworks revealed contrasting images of AOB diversity. The amoA-based approach preferentially recovered sequences belonging to Nitrosomonas Cluster 7 over Cluster 6A ones, while the 16S rRNA one yielded more diverse sequences belonging to three AOB clusters, but also a few non-AOB sequences, suggesting broader, but partly unspecific, primer coverage. This was confirmed by an in silico coverage analysis against sequences of AOB (both isolates and high-quality environmental sequences). The difference in primer coverage significantly impacted the estimation of AOB abundance at the waterworks with high Cluster 6A prevalence, with estimates up to 50-fold smaller for amoA than for 16S rRNA. In contrast, both approaches performed very similarly at waterworks with high Cluster 7 prevalence. Our results highlight that caution is warranted when comparing AOB abundances obtained using different qPCR primer sets. PMID:27166579

  12. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Level Forensic Science, Biochemistry, or Molecular Biology Courses: Human DNA Amplification Using STR Single Locus Primers by Real-Time PCR with SYBR Green Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.; Kadunc, Raelynn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was conducted using published human TPOX single-locus DNA primers for validation and various student-designed short tandem repeat (STR) primers for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. SYBR Green was used to detect the amplification of the expected amplicons. The…

  13. A method combining immunocapture and PCR amplification in a microtiter plate for the detection of plant viruses and subviral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, G; de Blas, C; Torres, V; Ponz, F

    1993-12-15

    A method for the detection of RNA viral and subviral plant pathogens was developed that combines pathogen partial purification by solid-phase adsorbed antibodies, reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitation of the amplified products by fluorescence. The reverse transcription of the RNA is performed directly on the retained material without any previous thermal or chemical disruption of the virus particles. The whole procedure can be carried out in a microtiter plate. Its validity has been successfully confirmed for the detection of bean yellow mosaic virus, cherry leafroll virus, cucumber mosaic virus, citrus tristeza virus, grapevine fanleaf virus, potato leafroll virus, pepper mild mottle virus, and tomato spotted wilt virus, as well as the satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus and potato spindle tuber viroid. In this procedure virus-specific antibodies can be replaced by monoclonal antibodies against double-stranded RNA, thus offering the possibility of detection when no specific virus antibodies are available, or immunological methods are difficult to use (i.e., subviral pathogens like satellite-RNAs or viroids). The method described has the typical sensitivity of assays based on the polymerase chain reaction, it is not more laborious than ELISA, and an equivalent degree of automation is possible. PMID:8113346

  14. Detection of MDM2-CDK4 amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 200 paraffin-embedded tumor samples: utility in diagnosing adipocytic lesions and comparison with immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Nicolas; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Maire, Georges; Hostein, Isabelle; Keslair, Frédérique; Guillou, Louis; Ranchere-Vince, Dominique; Terrier, Philippe; Pedeutour, Florence

    2007-10-01

    Atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcomas and dedifferentiated liposarcomas are characterized by the amplification of MDM2 and CDK4 genes. To evaluate the accuracy of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in the differential diagnosis of adipose tissue tumors, we investigated MDM2-CDK4 status by FISH, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [quantitative PCR (Q-PCR)] and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 200 adipose tumors. First, we evaluated MDM2-CDK4 amplification and expression in a series of 94 well-defined adipose tissue tumors. Results showed that FISH was interpretable in 45 of 50 cases (90%), and was more specific and sensitive than Q-PCR and IHC. We then used the same techniques as complementary diagnostic tools in a series of 106 adipose and soft tissue tumors of unclear diagnosis to distinguish between (i) lipomas and atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcomas, (ii) malignant undifferentiated tumors and dedifferentiated liposarcomas, and (iii) a variety of benign tumors and liposarcomas. Our results indicate that although helpful, IHC alone is often insufficient to solve diagnostic problems. FISH and Q-PCR methods gave concordant results and were equally informative in most cases. However, the proportion of noninterpretable cases was slightly higher with FISH than with Q-PCR. When tumor cells represented a minor component of the tumor tissue, such as with inflammatory tumors, FISH was more powerful than Q-PCR by allowing visualization of individual cells. In conclusion, we recommend that the evaluation of MDM2-CDK4 amplification using FISH or Q-PCR be used to supplement IHC analysis when diagnosis of adipose tissue tumors is not possible based on clinical and histologic information alone.

  15. Quantitative detection of the M204V hepatitis B virus minor variants by amplification refractory mutation system real-time PCR combined with molecular beacon technology.

    PubMed

    Ntziora, F; Paraskevis, D; Haida, C; Magiorkinis, E; Manesis, E; Papatheodoridis, G; Manolakopoulos, S; Beloukas, A; Chryssoy, S; Magiorkinis, G; Sypsa, V; Hatzakis, A

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in the highly conserved tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) motif are frequently associated with resistance to antivirals and represent a major concern in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Conventional methods fail to detect minority populations of drug-resistant viral quasispecies if they represent less than 25% of the total sample virus population. The amplification refractory mutation system real-time PCR (ARMS RT-PCR) was combined with molecular beacon technology using the LightCycler system. The samples from HBV patients selected for assay evaluation included (i) 57 samples from treatment-naïve patients for biological discriminatory ability (cutoff) estimation, (ii) 12 samples from patients with treatment failure that were M204V positive by sequencing, and (iii) 13 samples from patients with treatment failure that were negative for mutation at codon 204 by sequencing. The discriminatory ability of the assay was 0.25% when tested with laboratory-synthesized DNA target sequences. The median mutant-to-wild-type ratio for samples from naive patients tested positive for the wild type and for mutant variants was 0.01% (5th and 95th percentiles = 0.0001 and 0.04%, respectively). A value of 0.04% was selected as the biological cutoff of the assay of clinical samples. In all samples M204V positive by sequencing (12/12), the mutant variant was detected as the predominant population (range, 82.76 to 99.43%). Interestingly, in 5 (38%) of 13 samples negative by sequencing, the M204V variant was detected at a ratio above the biological cutoff (0.05 to 28%). The assay represents an efficient technique for the early detection and quantification of M204V variants before mutant strains emerge to dominate the population.

  16. Allele-Specific Transcriptome and Methylome Analysis Reveals Stable Inheritance and Cis-Regulation of DNA Methylation in Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Clark, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints, which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids that are emerging as a model for studies of epigenetic processes in insects. In this study, we quantified allele-specific expression and methylation genome-wide in Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. No parent-of-origin effect in allelic expression was found for >8,000 covered genes, suggesting a lack of genomic imprinting in adult Nasonia. As we expected, both significant cis- and trans- effects are responsible for the expression divergence between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. Surprisingly, all 178 differentially methylated genes are also differentially methylated between the two alleles in F1 hybrid offspring, recapitulating the parental methylation status with nearly 100% fidelity, indicating the presence of strong cis-elements driving the target of gene body methylation. In addition, we discovered that total and allele-specific expression are positively correlated with allele-specific methylation in a subset of the differentially methylated genes. The 100% cis-regulation in F1 hybrids suggests the methylation machinery is conserved and DNA methylation is targeted by cis features in Nasonia. The lack of genomic imprinting and parent-of-origin differentially methylated regions in Nasonia, together with the stable inheritance of methylation status between generations, suggests either a cis-regulatory motif for methylation at the DNA level or highly stable inheritance of an epigenetic signal in Nasonia. PMID

  17. Allele-Specific Transcriptome and Methylome Analysis Reveals Stable Inheritance and Cis-Regulation of DNA Methylation in Nasonia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Werren, John H; Clark, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints, which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids that are emerging as a model for studies of epigenetic processes in insects. In this study, we quantified allele-specific expression and methylation genome-wide in Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. No parent-of-origin effect in allelic expression was found for >8,000 covered genes, suggesting a lack of genomic imprinting in adult Nasonia. As we expected, both significant cis- and trans- effects are responsible for the expression divergence between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. Surprisingly, all 178 differentially methylated genes are also differentially methylated between the two alleles in F1 hybrid offspring, recapitulating the parental methylation status with nearly 100% fidelity, indicating the presence of strong cis-elements driving the target of gene body methylation. In addition, we discovered that total and allele-specific expression are positively correlated with allele-specific methylation in a subset of the differentially methylated genes. The 100% cis-regulation in F1 hybrids suggests the methylation machinery is conserved and DNA methylation is targeted by cis features in Nasonia. The lack of genomic imprinting and parent-of-origin differentially methylated regions in Nasonia, together with the stable inheritance of methylation status between generations, suggests either a cis-regulatory motif for methylation at the DNA level or highly stable inheritance of an epigenetic signal in Nasonia. PMID

  18. Molecular beacon-based fluorescence biosensor for the detection of gene fragment and PCR amplification products related to chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailin; Sun, Zhouliang; Wang, Kun; Chen, Xuhai; Xu, Xiongwei; Wu, Yong; Lin, Xinhua; Chen, Yuanzhong; Du, Min

    2012-01-01

    A novel fluorescence method has been established for the determination of gene fragment and PCR amplification products related to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). A molecular beacon (MB) which comprises a DNA loop section, a pair of fluorophore (tetramethoxyl rhodamine, TAMRA), and a quencher (4-(2-methyl-on-amino-azobenzene) benzoate, DABCYL) was designed. The loop sequence of MB was designed according to the DNA sequence relating to CML (type b3a2) which contained a single-stranded oligonucleotide. Before hybridization, the fluorescence from the TAMRA had been quenched by the DABCYL. After hybridization with the complementary DNA, the quencher will become far away from the TAMRA, and the fluorescence intensity detected will increase. Changes in the fluorescence intensity have a linear relationship with the concentration of complementary DNA (C) in the range of 4.0 × 10(-9)-3.2 × 10(-8) mol/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9973; the detection limit was 6.0 × 10(-10) mol/L (S/N = 3). The developed method has high selectivity, which can be used to discriminate single-base mismatch sequence. The method has been applied to detect the short-stranded CML DNA fragment (278 bp) with high sensitivity. This approach is a promising method for the detection of CML in real samples for medical diagnostics.

  19. Extensive Recombination Due to Heteroduplexes Generates Large Amounts of Artificial Gene Fragments during PCR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Song, Hongshuo; Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Fengmin; Zhuang, Hui; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial recombinants can be generated during PCR when more than two genetically distinct templates coexist in a single PCR reaction. These recombinant amplicons can lead to the false interpretation of genetic diversity and incorrect identification of biological phenotypes that do not exist in vivo. We investigated how recombination between 2 or 35 genetically distinct HIV-1 genomes was affected by different PCR conditions using the parallel allele-specific sequencing (PASS) assay and the next generation sequencing method. In a standard PCR condition, about 40% of amplicons in a PCR reaction were recombinants. The high recombination frequency could be significantly reduced if the number of amplicons in a PCR reaction was below a threshold of 1013–1014 using low thermal cycles, fewer input templates, and longer extension time. Heteroduplexes (each DNA strand from a distinct template) were present at a large proportion in the PCR products when more thermal cycles, more templates, and shorter extension time were used. Importantly, the majority of recombinants were identified in heteroduplexes, indicating that the recombinants were mainly generated through heteroduplexes. Since prematurely terminated extension fragments can form heteroduplexes by annealing to different templates during PCR amplification, recombination has a better chance to occur with samples containing different genomes when the number of amplicons accumulate over the threshold. New technologies are warranted to accurately characterize complex quasispecies gene populations. PMID:25211143

  20. Comparison of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and nested-PCR assay targeting the RE and B1 gene for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood samples of children with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Shirzad; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Pournia, Yadollah; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kazemi, Bahram

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis diagnosis constitutes an important measure for disease prevention and control. In this paper, a newly described DNA amplification technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and nested-PCR targeting the repeated element (RE) and B1 gene, were compared to each other for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in blood samples of children with leukaemia. One hundred ten blood samples from these patients were analyzed by LAMP and nested-PCR. Out of 50 seropositive samples (IgM+, IgG+), positive results were obtained with 92% and 86% on RE, B1-LAMP and 82% and 68% on RE, B1-nested PCR analyses, respectively. Of the 50 seronegative samples, three, two and one samples were detected positive by RE-LAMP, B1-LAMP and RE-nested PCR assays, respectively, while none were detected positive by B1-nested PCR. None of the 10 IgM-, IgG+ samples was detected positive after testing LAMP and nested-PCR assays in duplicate. This is the first report of a study in which the LAMP method was applied with high sensitivity and efficacy for the diagnosis of T. gonii in blood samples of children with leukaemia.

  1. Allele-Specific Reduction of the Mutant Huntingtin Allele Using Transcription Activator-Like Effectors in Human Huntington's Disease Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fink, Kyle D; Deng, Peter; Gutierrez, Josh; Anderson, Joseph S; Torrest, Audrey; Komarla, Anvita; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Cary, Whitney; Anderson, Johnathon D; Gruenloh, William; Duffy, Alexandra; Tempkin, Teresa; Annett, Geralyn; Wheelock, Vicki; Segal, David J; Nolta, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of CAG repeats. Although pathogenesis has been attributed to this polyglutamine expansion, the underlying mechanisms through which the huntingtin protein functions have yet to be elucidated. It has been suggested that postnatal reduction of mutant huntingtin through protein interference or conditional gene knockout could prove to be an effective therapy for patients suffering from HD. For allele-specific targeting, transcription activator-like effectors (TALE) were designed to target single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the mutant allele and packaged into a vector backbone containing KRAB to promote transcriptional repression of the disease-associated allele. Additional TALEs were packaged into a vector backbone containing heterodimeric FokI and were designed to be used as nucleases (TALEN) to cause a CAG-collapse in the mutant allele. Human HD fibroblasts were treated with each TALE-SNP or TALEN. Allele-expression was measured using a SNP-genotyping assay and mutant protein aggregation was quantified with Western blots for anti-ubiquitin. The TALE-SNP and TALEN significantly reduced mutant allele expression (p < 0.05) when compared to control transfections while not affecting expression of the nondisease allele. This study demonstrates the potential of allele-specific gene modification using TALE proteins, and provides a foundation for targeted treatment for individuals suffering from Huntington's or other genetically linked diseases. PMID:26850319

  2. Allele-specific RNA interference rescues the long-QT syndrome phenotype in human-induced pluripotency stem cell cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Matsa, Elena; Dixon, James E.; Medway, Christopher; Georgiou, Orestis; Patel, Minal J.; Morgan, Kevin; Kemp, Paul J.; Staniforth, Andrew; Mellor, Ian; Denning, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Aims Long-QT syndromes (LQTS) are mostly autosomal-dominant congenital disorders associated with a 1:1000 mutation frequency, cardiac arrest, and sudden death. We sought to use cardiomyocytes derived from human-induced pluripotency stem cells (hiPSCs) as an in vitro model to develop and evaluate gene-based therapeutics for the treatment of LQTS. Methods and results We produced LQTS-type 2 (LQT2) hiPSC cardiomyocytes carrying a KCNH2 c.G1681A mutation in a IKr ion-channel pore, which caused impaired glycosylation and channel transport to cell surface. Allele-specific RNA interference (RNAi) directed towards the mutated KCNH2 mRNA caused knockdown, while leaving the wild-type mRNA unaffected. Electrophysiological analysis of patient-derived LQT2 hiPSC cardiomyocytes treated with mutation-specific siRNAs showed normalized action potential durations (APDs) and K+ currents with the concurrent rescue of spontaneous and drug-induced arrhythmias (presented as early-afterdepolarizations). Conclusions These findings provide in vitro evidence that allele-specific RNAi can rescue diseased phenotype in LQTS cardiomyocytes. This is a potentially novel route for the treatment of many autosomal-dominant-negative disorders, including those of the heart. PMID:23470493

  3. Interleukin-28B Genotyping by Melt-Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay PCR Analysis Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917, a Useful Tool for Prediction of Therapy Response in Hepatitis C Patients ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Vaughan, Gilberto; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra Yolanda; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Ruiz-Pacheco, Juan Alberto; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have identified associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring near the interleukin-28B (IL-28B) gene and response to antiviral treatment among hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Here, we describe a reliable melt-mismatch amplification mutation assay (melt-MAMA) PCR-based genotyping method for IL-28B which can be used in the management of HCV patients, helping to better define the course of therapy. PMID:21613433

  4. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, Jørgen; Breinholt, Marie F; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte; Pedersen, Carsten; Lund, Flemming; Mygind, Henrik; Sölétormos, György; Rudnicki, Martin

    2012-12-01

    We compare HER2 receptor amplification analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) DNA copy-number assay following laser capture microdissection (LCM) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with verified ovarian cancer. We speculate that LCM should result in a more accurate assessment of HER2 amplification in our real-time PCR assay compared with IHC and FISH. HER2 overexpression measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR was found in 5.0%, 5.0%, and 22.5%, respectively. HER2 negative results measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR were found in 95%, 92.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. Analysis failed for IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR in 0%, 2.5%, or 17.5% of cases. Concordance between IHC and FISH, IHC and real-time PCR, or FISH and real-time PCR were 89.7%, 72.7%, or 78.1%, respectively. Only few ovarian cancer patients were HER2 overexpressed measured by IHC or FISH and thus could be eligible for antibody-based therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Interestingly, we find an increased number of HER2 positive patients by real-time PCR analysis on microdissected cancer cells, suggesting a number of HER2 positive patients not detected by current methods. Thus, the concept of quantitative measurement of HER2 on microdissected cancer cells should be explored further.

  5. Allele-specific silencing of mutant p53 attenuates dominant-negative and gain-of-function activities

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Swathi V.; Parrales, Alejandro; Begani, Priya; Narkar, Akshay; Adhikari, Amit S.; Martinez, Luis A.; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Many p53 hotspot mutants not only lose the transcriptional activity, but also show dominant-negative (DN) and oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Increasing evidence indicates that knockdown of mutant p53 (mutp53) in cancer cells reduces their aggressive properties, suggesting that survival and proliferation of cancer cells are, at least partially, dependent on the presence of mutp53. However, these p53 siRNAs can downregulate both wild-type p53 (wtp53) and mutp53, which limits their therapeutic applications. In order to specifically deplete mutp53, we have developed allele-specific siRNAs against p53 hotspot mutants and validated their biological effects in the absence or presence of wtp53. First, the mutp53-specific siRNAs selectively reduced protein levels of matched p53 mutants with minimal reduction in wtp53 levels. Second, downregulation of mutp53 in cancer cells expressing a mutp53 alone (p53mut) resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration. Third, transfection of mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53 also reduced cell proliferation and migration with increased transcripts of p53 downstream target genes, which became further profound when cells were treated with an MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a or a chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. These results indicate that depletion of mutp53 by its specific siRNA restored endogenous wtp53 activity in cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53. This is the first study demonstrating biological effects and therapeutic potential of allele-specific silencing of mutp53 by mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53, thus providing a novel strategy towards targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26700961

  6. Powerful Identification of Cis-regulatory SNPs in Human Primary Monocytes Using Allele-Specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson; Lundmark, Per; Lundmark, Anders; Ge, Bing; Maouche, Seraya; Göring, Harald H. H.; Liljedahl, Ulrika; Enström, Camilla; Brocheton, Jessy; Proust, Carole; Godefroy, Tiphaine; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Jolley, Jennifer; Crisp-Hihn, Abigail; Foad, Nicola; Lloyd-Jones, Heather; Stephens, Jonathan; Gwilliam, Rhian; Rice, Catherine M.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Pastinen, Tomi; Deloukas, Panos; Goodall, Alison H.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Cambien, François; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    A large number of genome-wide association studies have been performed during the past five years to identify associations between SNPs and human complex diseases and traits. The assignment of a functional role for the identified disease-associated SNP is not straight-forward. Genome-wide expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis is frequently used as the initial step to define a function while allele-specific gene expression (ASE) analysis has not yet gained a wide-spread use in disease mapping studies. We compared the power to identify cis-acting regulatory SNPs (cis-rSNPs) by genome-wide allele-specific gene expression (ASE) analysis with that of traditional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. Our study included 395 healthy blood donors for whom global gene expression profiles in circulating monocytes were determined by Illumina BeadArrays. ASE was assessed in a subset of these monocytes from 188 donors by quantitative genotyping of mRNA using a genome-wide panel of SNP markers. The performance of the two methods for detecting cis-rSNPs was evaluated by comparing associations between SNP genotypes and gene expression levels in sample sets of varying size. We found that up to 8-fold more samples are required for eQTL mapping to reach the same statistical power as that obtained by ASE analysis for the same rSNPs. The performance of ASE is insensitive to SNPs with low minor allele frequencies and detects a larger number of significantly associated rSNPs using the same sample size as eQTL mapping. An unequivocal conclusion from our comparison is that ASE analysis is more sensitive for detecting cis-rSNPs than standard eQTL mapping. Our study shows the potential of ASE mapping in tissue samples and primary cells which are difficult to obtain in large numbers. PMID:23300628

  7. Dr(a-) polymorphism of decay accelerating factor. Biochemical, functional, and molecular characterization and production of allele-specific transfectants.

    PubMed Central

    Lublin, D M; Thompson, E S; Green, A M; Levene, C; Telen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The Dra antigen belongs to the Cromer-related blood group system, a series of antigens on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damage. We studied the rare inherited Dr(a-) phenotype to ascertain the associated biochemical and functional changes in DAF and to characterize the basis for this polymorphism. Radioimmunoassay assay and flow cytometric analysis of Dr(a-) erythrocytes demonstrated 40% of normal surface expression of DAF but normal levels of several other glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, distinguishing this phenotype from that of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Western blots confirmed this reduced DAF expression and indicated a slightly faster mobility of the molecule on SDS-PAGE. Despite the reduced DAF expression, Dr(a-) erythrocytes functioned normally in the complement lysis sensitivity assay. Utilization of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify mononuclear cell genomic DNA from three unrelated Dr(a-) individuals demonstrated that a point mutation underlies the Dr(a-) phenotype: a C to T change in nucleotide 649 resulting in a serine165 to leucine change. This defines the Drb allele of DAF, which can be distinguished from Dra by a Taq I restriction fragment length polymorphism. We created transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing either the Dra or the Drb allelic form of DAF. These allele-specific transfectants were tested by inhibition of hemagglutination or flow cytometry and confirmed the specificity of anti-Dra alloantisera. The allele-specific transfectants could form the basis of a new serological approach to immunohematology. Images PMID:1710232

  8. One-Step Ligation on RNA Amplification for the Detection of Point Mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jingjing; Coetzer, Mia; Angione, Stephanie; Kantor, Rami; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2015-11-01

    The detection of point mutations is required in the diagnosis of many human diseases. The conformal specificity of DNA ligases was elegantly used to distinguish single-nucleotide mismatches. However, to detect point mutations in RNA retroviruses, conventional ligase-mediated approaches require the reverse transcription of viral genomes before separate ligation and amplification steps. We developed one-step ligation on RNA amplification (LRA) for the direct detection of RNA point mutations. The process combines the ligase-mediated joining of two oligonucleotides and subsequent hot start amplification into a single-tube reaction. We report that modifications to the structure of the oligonucleotide ligation probes improve the rate of ligation and the specificity of mutation detection on RNA. We applied LRA to the detection of a common, clinically relevant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase drug-resistant point mutation, K103N, and compared it with allele-specific PCR and pyrosequencing. LRA achieved a limit of specific quantitation of 1:100 (1%), and a limit of specific detection for mutant K103N RNA transcripts among excess wild-type strands of 1:10,000 (0.01%). LRA also exhibited good detection threshold of 5 × 10(2) copies/μL K103N RNA transcripts. LRA is a novel point mutation detection method, with potential utilization in HIV drug resistance detection and early diagnostics of genetic disorders associated with other infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:26322949

  9. The genetic association of RUNX3 with ankylosing spondylitis can be explained by allele-specific effects on IRF4 recruitment that alter gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Vecellio, Matteo; Roberts, Amity R; Cohen, Carla J; Cortes, Adrian; Knight, Julian C; Bowness, Paul; Wordsworth, B Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the functional basis for the genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), upstream of the RUNX3 promoter, with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods We performed conditional analysis of genetic association data and used ENCODE data on chromatin remodelling and transcription factor (TF) binding sites to identify the primary AS-associated regulatory SNP in the RUNX3 region. The functional effects of this SNP were tested in luciferase reporter assays. Its effects on TF binding were investigated by electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. RUNX3 mRNA levels were compared in primary CD8+ T cells of AS risk and protective genotypes by real-time PCR. Results The association of the RUNX3 SNP rs4648889 with AS (p<7.6×10−14) was robust to conditioning on all other SNPs in this region. We identified a 2 kb putative regulatory element, upstream of RUNX3, containing rs4648889. In reporter gene constructs, the protective rs4648889 ‘G’ allele increased luciferase activity ninefold but significantly less activity (4.3-fold) was seen with the AS risk ‘A’ allele (p≤0.01). The binding of Jurkat or CD8+ T-cell nuclear extracts to the risk allele was decreased and IRF4 recruitment was reduced. The AS-risk allele also affected H3K4Me1 histone methylation and associated with an allele-specific reduction in RUNX3 mRNA (p<0.05). Conclusion We identified a regulatory region upstream of RUNX3 that is modulated by rs4648889. The risk allele decreases TF binding (including IRF4) and reduces reporter activity and RUNX3 expression. These findings may have important implications for understanding the role of T cells and other immune cells in AS. PMID:26452539

  10. SISH/CISH or qPCR as alternative techniques to FISH for determination of HER2 amplification status on breast tumors core needle biopsies: a multicenter experience based on 840 cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Until now, FISH has been the gold standard technique to identify HER2 amplification status in ambiguous cases of breast cancer. Alternative techniques have been developed to increase the capacities of investigating HER2 amplification status. The aims of this multicenter study in a large series of breast cancer patients were to prospectively compare the level of performance of CISH, SISH, and qPCR alternative techniques on paraffin-embedded core biopsies with “gold standard FISH” for evaluation of HER2 amplification status. Methods This study was performed on 840 cases scored by immunohistochemistry (IHC): 0=317 (38%), 1+=183 (22%), 2+=109 (13%), 3+=231 (27%). Each of the 15 French centers participating in the study analyzed 56 breast carcinoma cases diagnosed on fixed paraffin-embedded core biopsies. HER2 amplification status was determined by commercially available FISH used as the reference technique with determination of the HER2/CEN17 ratio or HER2 copy number status. The alternative techniques performed on the same cases were commercially available SISH or CISH and a common qPCR method especially designed for the study including a set of 10 primer pairs: 2 for HER2 (exons 8 and 26), 5 to evaluate chromosome 17 polysomy TAOK1, UTP6, MRM1, MKS1, SSTR2 and 3 for diploidy control TSN, LAP3 and ADAMTS16. Results The concordance between IHC and FISH was 96% to 95% based on the HER2/CEN17 ratio (n=766) or HER2 copy number (n=840), respectively. The concordance of the alternative techniques with FISH was excellent: 97% and 98% for SISH (498 and 587 cases), 98% and 75% for CISH (108 and 204 cases) and 95% and 93% (699 and 773 cases) for qPCR based on the HER2/CEN17 ratio or HER2 copy number, respectively. Similarly, sensitivity ranged from 99% to 95% for SISH, 100% to 99% for CISH and 89% to 80% for qPCR. The concordance with FISH (ratio) in the 2+ cases was 89% for SISH, 100% for CISH and 93% for qPCR. Conclusion These alternative techniques showed an

  11. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, D R; Choongkittaworn, N M; Dyer, K A; Aten, J; Otto, P; Behler, C; Bryant, E M; Rabinovitch, P S

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted chromosome or chromosome fragment. Previously reported methods for the development of chromosome libraries require larger numbers of chromosomes, with preparation of pure chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry, generation of somatic cell hybrids containing targeted chromosomes, or a combination of both procedures. These procedures are labor intensive, especially when hybrid cell lines are not already available, and this has limited the generation of chromosome-specific DNA libraries from nonhuman species. In contrast, a single sorted chromosome is a pure source of DNA for library production even when flow cytometric resolution of chromosome populations is poor. Furthermore, any sorting cytometer may be used with this technique. Using this approach, we demonstrate the generation of PCR libraries suitable for both molecular and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies from individual baboon and canine chromosomes, separate human homologues, and a rearranged marker chromosome from a transformed cell line. PCR libraries specific to subchromosomal regions have also been produced by sorting a small chromosome fragment. This simple and rapid technique will allow generation of nonhuman linkage maps and probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characterization of marker chromosomes from solid tumors. In addition, allele-specific libraries generated by this strategy may also be useful for mapping genetic diseases. Images PMID:8016078

  12. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE) is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA) and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes) remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%). Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes in the human term

  13. Validation of a Multiplex Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of KRAS Gene Mutations in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues from Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seekhuntod, Sirirat; Thavarungkul, Paninee; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with KRAS mutations do not respond to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and fail to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mutation analysis of KRAS is needed before starting treatment with monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The objective of this study is to develop a multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR) assay to detect KRAS mutations. Methods We developed a single-tube MAS-PCR assay for the detection of seven KRAS mutations (G12D, G12A, G12R, G12C, G12S, G12V, and G13D). We performed MAS-PCR assay analysis for KRAS on DNA isolated from 270 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal cancer tissues. Sequences of all 270 samples were determined by pyrosequencing. Seven known point-mutation DNA samples diluted with wild-type DNA were assayed to determine the limitation of detection and reproducibility of the MAS-PCR assay. Results Overall, the results of MAS-PCR assay were in good concordance with pyrosequencing, and only seven discordant samples were found. The MAS-PCR assay reproducibly detected 1 to 2% mutant alleles. The most common mutations were G13D in codon 13 (49.17%), G12D (25.83%) and G12V (12.50%) in codon 12. Conclusion The MAS-PCR assay provides a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tool for accurate detection of KRAS mutations in routine FFPE colorectal cancer tissues. PMID:26812617

  14. Visualizing allele-specific expression in single cells reveals epigenetic mosaicism in an H19 loss-of-imprinting mutant

    PubMed Central

    Ginart, Paul; Kalish, Jennifer M.; Jiang, Connie L.; Yu, Alice C.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Raj, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Imprinting is a classic mammalian epigenetic phenomenon that results in expression from a single parental allele. Imprinting defects can lead to inappropriate expression from the normally silenced allele, but it remains unclear whether every cell in a mutant organism follows the population average, which would have profound implications for human imprinting disorders. Here, we apply a new fluorescence in situ hybridization method that measures allele-specific expression in single cells to address this question in mutants exhibiting aberrant H19/Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) imprinting. We show that mutant primary embryonic mouse fibroblasts are comprised of two subpopulations: one expressing both H19 alleles and another expressing only the maternal copy. Only in the latter cell population is Igf2 expression detected. Furthermore, the two subpopulations are stable in that cells do not interconvert between the two expression patterns. Combined small input methylation analysis and transcriptional imaging revealed that these two mutant subpopulations exhibit distinct methylation patterns at their imprinting control regions. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation reduced the proportion of monoallelic cells. Importantly, we observed that the same two subpopulations are also present in vivo within murine cardiac tissue. Our results establish that imprinting disorders can display striking single-cell heterogeneity in their molecular phenotypes and suggest that such heterogeneity may underlie epigenetic mosaicism in human imprinting disorders. PMID:26944681

  15. Allele-specific suppression of mutant huntingtin using antisense oligonucleotides: providing a therapeutic option for all Huntington disease patients.

    PubMed

    Skotte, Niels H; Southwell, Amber L; Østergaard, Michael E; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Warby, Simon C; Doty, Crystal N; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Kordasiewicz, Holly; Watt, Andrew T; Freier, Susan M; Hung, Gene; Seth, Punit P; Bennett, C Frank; Swayze, Eric E; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The mutant protein causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration resulting in motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Currently, there is no disease altering treatment, and symptomatic therapy has limited benefit. The pathogenesis of HD is complicated and multiple pathways are compromised. Addressing the problem at its genetic root by suppressing mutant huntingtin expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for HD. We have developed and evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly enriched on HD alleles (HD-SNPs). We describe our structure-activity relationship studies for ASO design and find that adjusting the SNP position within the gap, chemical modifications of the wings, and shortening the unmodified gap are critical for potent, specific, and well tolerated silencing of mutant huntingtin. Finally, we show that using two distinct ASO drugs targeting the two allelic variants of an HD-SNP could provide a therapeutic option for all persons with HD; allele-specifically for roughly half, and non-specifically for the remainder.

  16. Allele-Specific Suppression of Mutant Huntingtin Using Antisense Oligonucleotides: Providing a Therapeutic Option for All Huntington Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Skotte, Niels H.; Southwell, Amber L.; Østergaard, Michael E.; Carroll, Jeffrey B.; Warby, Simon C.; Doty, Crystal N.; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Kordasiewicz, Holly; Watt, Andrew T.; Freier, Susan M.; Hung, Gene; Seth, Punit P.; Bennett, C. Frank; Swayze, Eric E.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The mutant protein causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration resulting in motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Currently, there is no disease altering treatment, and symptomatic therapy has limited benefit. The pathogenesis of HD is complicated and multiple pathways are compromised. Addressing the problem at its genetic root by suppressing mutant huntingtin expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for HD. We have developed and evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly enriched on HD alleles (HD-SNPs). We describe our structure-activity relationship studies for ASO design and find that adjusting the SNP position within the gap, chemical modifications of the wings, and shortening the unmodified gap are critical for potent, specific, and well tolerated silencing of mutant huntingtin. Finally, we show that using two distinct ASO drugs targeting the two allelic variants of an HD-SNP could provide a therapeutic option for all persons with HD; allele-specifically for roughly half, and non-specifically for the remainder. PMID:25207939

  17. Visualizing allele-specific expression in single cells reveals epigenetic mosaicism in an H19 loss-of-imprinting mutant.

    PubMed

    Ginart, Paul; Kalish, Jennifer M; Jiang, Connie L; Yu, Alice C; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Raj, Arjun

    2016-03-01

    Imprinting is a classic mammalian epigenetic phenomenon that results in expression from a single parental allele. Imprinting defects can lead to inappropriate expression from the normally silenced allele, but it remains unclear whether every cell in a mutant organism follows the population average, which would have profound implications for human imprinting disorders. Here, we apply a new fluorescence in situ hybridization method that measures allele-specific expression in single cells to address this question in mutants exhibiting aberrant H19/Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) imprinting. We show that mutant primary embryonic mouse fibroblasts are comprised of two subpopulations: one expressing both H19 alleles and another expressing only the maternal copy. Only in the latter cell population is Igf2 expression detected. Furthermore, the two subpopulations are stable in that cells do not interconvert between the two expression patterns. Combined small input methylation analysis and transcriptional imaging revealed that these two mutant subpopulations exhibit distinct methylation patterns at their imprinting control regions. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation reduced the proportion of monoallelic cells. Importantly, we observed that the same two subpopulations are also present in vivo within murine cardiac tissue. Our results establish that imprinting disorders can display striking single-cell heterogeneity in their molecular phenotypes and suggest that such heterogeneity may underlie epigenetic mosaicism in human imprinting disorders.

  18. Allele-specific expression of mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) gene and alternative susceptibility to colorectal cancer in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Yanfei; Huang, Xiaoye; Yu, Tao; Wei, Zhiyun; McGrath, John; Xu, Fei; Bi, Yan; Li, Xingwang; Yang, Fengping; Li, Weidong; Zou, Xia; Peng, Zhihai; Xiao, Yanzeng; Zhang, Yan; He, Lin; He, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among schizophrenia is lower than normal. To explore this potential protective effect, we employed an innovative strategy combining association study with allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis in MCC gene. We first genotyped four polymorphisms within MCC in 312 CRC patients, 270 schizophrenia patients and 270 controls. Using the MassArray technique, we performed ASE measurements in a second sample series consisting of 50 sporadic CRC patients, 50 schizophrenia patients and 52 controls. Rs2227947 showed significant differences between schizophrenia cases and controls, and haplotype analysis reported some significant discrepancies among these three subject groups. ASE values of rs2227948 and rs2227947 presented consistently differences between CRC (or schizophrenia) patients and controls. Of the three groups, highest frequencies of ASE in MCC were concordantly found in CRC group, whereas lowest frequencies of ASE were observed in schizophrenia group. Similar trends were confirmed in both haplotype frequencies and ASE frequencies (i.e. CRC > control > schizophrenia). We provide a first indication that MCC might confer alterative genetic susceptibility to CRC in individuals with schizophrenia promising to shed more light on the relationship between schizophrenia and cancer progression. PMID:27226254

  19. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  20. Recommendations for Accurate Resolution of Gene and Isoform Allele-Specific Expression in RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Wood, David L. A.; Nones, Katia; Steptoe, Anita; Christ, Angelika; Harliwong, Ivon; Newell, Felicity; Bruxner, Timothy J. C.; Miller, David; Cloonan, Nicole; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation modulates gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally, and can profoundly alter an individual’s phenotype. Measuring allelic differential expression at heterozygous loci within an individual, a phenomenon called allele-specific expression (ASE), can assist in identifying such factors. Massively parallel DNA and RNA sequencing and advances in bioinformatic methodologies provide an outstanding opportunity to measure ASE genome-wide. In this study, matched DNA and RNA sequencing, genotyping arrays and computationally phased haplotypes were integrated to comprehensively and conservatively quantify ASE in a single human brain and liver tissue sample. We describe a methodological evaluation and assessment of common bioinformatic steps for ASE quantification, and recommend a robust approach to accurately measure SNP, gene and isoform ASE through the use of personalized haplotype genome alignment, strict alignment quality control and intragenic SNP aggregation. Our results indicate that accurate ASE quantification requires careful bioinformatic analyses and is adversely affected by sample specific alignment confounders and random sampling even at moderate sequence depths. We identified multiple known and several novel ASE genes in liver, including WDR72, DSP and UBD, as well as genes that contained ASE SNPs with imbalance direction discordant with haplotype phase, explainable by annotated transcript structure, suggesting isoform derived ASE. The methods evaluated in this study will be of use to researchers performing highly conservative quantification of ASE, and the genes and isoforms identified as ASE of interest to researchers studying those loci. PMID:25965996

  1. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  2. Bivariate segmentation of SNP-array data for allele-specific copy number analysis in tumour samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background SNP arrays output two signals that reflect the total genomic copy number (LRR) and the allelic ratio (BAF), which in combination allow the characterisation of allele-specific copy numbers (ASCNs). While methods based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been extended from array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) to jointly handle the two signals, only one method based on change-point detection, ASCAT, performs bivariate segmentation. Results In the present work, we introduce a generic framework for bivariate segmentation of SNP array data for ASCN analysis. For the matter, we discuss the characteristics of the typically applied BAF transformation and how they affect segmentation, introduce concepts of multivariate time series analysis that are of concern in this field and discuss the appropriate formulation of the problem. The framework is implemented in a method named CnaStruct, the bivariate form of the structural change model (SCM), which has been successfully applied to transcriptome mapping and aCGH. Conclusions On a comprehensive synthetic dataset, we show that CnaStruct outperforms the segmentation of existing ASCN analysis methods. Furthermore, CnaStruct can be integrated into the workflows of several ASCN analysis tools in order to improve their performance, specially on tumour samples highly contaminated by normal cells. PMID:23497144

  3. Analysis of LMNB1 Duplications in Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy Provides Insights into Duplication Mechanisms and Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giorgio, Elisa; Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Kropp, Laura; Chakka, Anish Baswanth; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Gregorio, Eleonora Di; Lacerenza, Daniela; Vaula, Giovanna; Talarico, Flavia; Mandich, Paola; Toro, Camilo; Pierre, Eleonore Eymard; Labauge, Pierre; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Vairo, Filippo Pinto; Miguel, Diego; Stubbolo, Danielle; Marques, Lourenco Charles; Gahl, William; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Melberg, Atle; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Cohen, Oren S; Pjontek, Rastislav; Grau, Armin; Klopstock, Thomas; Fogel, Brent; Meijer, Inge; Rouleau, Guy; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre L; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi; Vanderver, Adeline; Dahl, Niklas; Hobson, Grace; Brusco, Alfredo; Brussino, Alessandro; Padiath, Quasar Saleem

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is an adult onset demyelinating disorder that is caused by duplications of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene. However, as only a few cases have been analyzed in detail, the mechanisms underlying LMNB1 duplications are unclear. We report the detailed molecular analysis of the largest collection of ADLD families studied, to date. We have identified the minimal duplicated region necessary for the disease, defined all the duplication junctions at the nucleotide level and identified the first inverted LMNB1 duplication. We have demonstrated that the duplications are not recurrent; patients with identical duplications share the same haplotype, likely inherited from a common founder and that the duplications originated from intrachromosomal events. The duplication junction sequences indicated that nonhomologous end joining or replication-based mechanisms such fork stalling and template switching or microhomology-mediated break induced repair are likely to be involved. LMNB1 expression was increased in patients’ fibroblasts both at mRNA and protein levels and the three LMNB1 alleles in ADLD patients show equal expression, suggesting that regulatory regions are maintained within the rearranged segment. These results have allowed us to elucidate duplication mechanisms and provide insights into allele-specific LMNB1 expression levels. PMID:23649844

  4. Allele-specific suppression of mutant huntingtin using antisense oligonucleotides: providing a therapeutic option for all Huntington disease patients.

    PubMed

    Skotte, Niels H; Southwell, Amber L; Østergaard, Michael E; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Warby, Simon C; Doty, Crystal N; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Kordasiewicz, Holly; Watt, Andrew T; Freier, Susan M; Hung, Gene; Seth, Punit P; Bennett, C Frank; Swayze, Eric E; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The mutant protein causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration resulting in motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Currently, there is no disease altering treatment, and symptomatic therapy has limited benefit. The pathogenesis of HD is complicated and multiple pathways are compromised. Addressing the problem at its genetic root by suppressing mutant huntingtin expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for HD. We have developed and evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly enriched on HD alleles (HD-SNPs). We describe our structure-activity relationship studies for ASO design and find that adjusting the SNP position within the gap, chemical modifications of the wings, and shortening the unmodified gap are critical for potent, specific, and well tolerated silencing of mutant huntingtin. Finally, we show that using two distinct ASO drugs targeting the two allelic variants of an HD-SNP could provide a therapeutic option for all persons with HD; allele-specifically for roughly half, and non-specifically for the remainder. PMID:25207939

  5. Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay Real-Time PCR Analysis of the Leptin Gene G2548A and A19G Polymorphisms and Serum Leptin in Infancy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Savino, Francesco; Rossi, Lorenza; Di Stasio, Liliana; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Bergallo, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy metabolism. Its coding gene (LEP) is one of the most promising candidates for obesity. Although some studies have detected associations of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LEP gene with serum leptin levels and obesity-related traits, the results are still conflicting. We investigated two SNPs to find relationships with leptin concentrations. Thirty healthy Caucasian infants younger than 6 months were genotyped for the SNPs G2548A and A19G with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation system-mismatch amplification mutation assay (ARMS- MAMA) real-time PCR, and serum leptin concentrations were measured with a radioimmunoassay method. Considering the significant linkage disequilibrium observed between the two SNPs, we divided the sample according to the number of GG haplotypes and observed that individuals homozygous for the GG haplotype had higher serum leptin levels in early infancy than the others. Although these preliminary results are based on a limited sample, they suggest that the genetic background seems to play a role in modulating leptin levels in infancy, but changes in leptin levels over infancy and their correlation with obesity need to be further explored. We describe an ARMS-MAMA real-time PCR procedure which could be profitably applied in routine genetic screening.

  6. Rapid and efficient identification of the mouse leptin receptor mutation (C57BL/KsJ-db/db) by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harry; Nam, Hajin; Suh, Jun-Gyo

    2016-03-01

    The C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse has a point mutation in the leptin receptor gene and is one of the most useful animal model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in human. Since the homozygote of C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse is infertile, detection of point mutation in the leptin receptor gene is important for efficient maintaining strains as well as mass production of homozygotes. To develop a rapid and efficient genotyping method for C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse, the tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used. The 407 and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from normal (+/+) mice; while the 407 and 268 bp PCR products were amplified from homozygotes (db/db) mice; and the 407, 268, and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from heterozygotes (db/+) mice. This result showed that the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR analysis by us is suitable to detect point mutation of the leptin receptor gene. Taken together, our method will dramatically reduce animal use for maintenance of strains as well as production of homozygote in the C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) strains. PMID:27051445

  7. Rapid and efficient identification of the mouse leptin receptor mutation (C57BL/KsJ-db/db) by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harry; Nam, Hajin; Suh, Jun-Gyo

    2016-03-01

    The C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse has a point mutation in the leptin receptor gene and is one of the most useful animal model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in human. Since the homozygote of C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse is infertile, detection of point mutation in the leptin receptor gene is important for efficient maintaining strains as well as mass production of homozygotes. To develop a rapid and efficient genotyping method for C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse, the tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used. The 407 and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from normal (+/+) mice; while the 407 and 268 bp PCR products were amplified from homozygotes (db/db) mice; and the 407, 268, and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from heterozygotes (db/+) mice. This result showed that the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR analysis by us is suitable to detect point mutation of the leptin receptor gene. Taken together, our method will dramatically reduce animal use for maintenance of strains as well as production of homozygote in the C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) strains.

  8. Rapid and efficient identification of the mouse leptin receptor mutation (C57BL/KsJ-db/db) by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Harry; Nam, Hajin

    2016-01-01

    The C57BLKS/J-Leprdb mouse has a point mutation in the leptin receptor gene and is one of the most useful animal model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in human. Since the homozygote of C57BLKS/J-Leprdb mouse is infertile, detection of point mutation in the leptin receptor gene is important for efficient maintaining strains as well as mass production of homozygotes. To develop a rapid and efficient genotyping method for C57BLKS/J-Leprdb mouse, the tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used. The 407 and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from normal (+/+) mice; while the 407 and 268 bp PCR products were amplified from homozygotes (db/db) mice; and the 407, 268, and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from heterozygotes (db/+) mice. This result showed that the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR analysis by us is suitable to detect point mutation of the leptin receptor gene. Taken together, our method will dramatically reduce animal use for maintenance of strains as well as production of homozygote in the C57BLKS/J-Leprdb strains. PMID:27051445

  9. DNA extraction, preservation, and amplification.

    PubMed

    Knebelsberger, Thomas; Stöger, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a routine practice in biodiversity research is strongly dependent on the quality of the source material, DNA extraction method, and selection of adequate primers in combination with optimized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. For the isolation of nucleic acids, silica-gel membrane methods are to be favored because they are easy to handle, applicable for high sample throughput, relatively inexpensive, and provide high DNA quality, quantity, and purity which are pre-requisites for successful PCR amplification and long-term storage of nucleic acids in biorepositories, such as DNA banks. In this section, standard protocols and workflow schemes for sample preparation, DNA isolation, DNA storage, PCR amplification, PCR product quality control, and PCR product cleanup are proposed and described in detail. A PCR troubleshooting and primer design section may help to solve problems that hinder successful amplification of the desired barcoding gene region.

  10. A GWAS SNP for Schizophrenia Is Linked to the Internal MIR137 Promoter and Supports Differential Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Alix; Breen, Gerome; Bubb, Vivien J.; Quinn, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MIR137 gene locus have been shown to confer risk for schizophrenia through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The expression levels of microRNA-137 (miR-137) and its validated gene targets have also been shown to be disrupted in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Regulation of miR-137 expression is thus imperative for normal neuronal functioning. We previously characterized an internal promoter domain within the MIR137 gene that contained a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and could alter the in vitro levels of miR-137 in a stimulus-induced and allele-specific manner. We now demonstrate that haplotype tagging-SNP analysis linked the rs1625579 GWAS SNP for schizophrenia to this internal MIR137 promoter through a proxy SNP rs2660304 located at this domain. We postulated that the rs2660304 promoter SNP may act as predisposing factor for schizophrenia through altering the levels of miR-137 expression in a genotype-dependent manner. Reporter gene analysis of the internal MIR137 promoter containing the common VNTR variant demonstrated genotype-dependent differences in promoter activity with respect to rs2660304. In line with previous reports, the major allele of the rs2660304 proxy SNP, which has previously been linked with schizophrenia risk through genetic association, resulted in downregulation of reporter gene expression in a tissue culture model. The genetic influence of the rs2660304 proxy SNP on the transcriptional activity of the internal MIR137 promoter, and thus the levels of miR-137 expression, therefore offers a distinct regulatory mechanism to explain the functional significance of the rs1625579 GWAS SNP for schizophrenia risk. PMID:26429811

  11. Identification of transcriptome SNPs between Xiphophorus lines and species for assessing allele specific gene expression within F1 interspecies hybrids☆

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldroth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathon R; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, X. maculatus and X. couchianus, and their F1 interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ≈ 70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ≈ 5–10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6,524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F1 interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the insilico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F1 interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression. PMID:21466860

  12. Comprehensively evaluating cis-regulatory variation in the human prostate transcriptome by using gene-level allele-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicholas B; McDonnell, Shannon; French, Amy J; Fogarty, Zach; Cheville, John; Middha, Sumit; Riska, Shaun; Baheti, Saurabh; Nair, Asha A; Wang, Liang; Schaid, Daniel J; Thibodeau, Stephen N

    2015-06-01

    The identification of cis-acting regulatory variation in primary tissues has the potential to elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits and further our understanding of transcriptomic diversity across cell types. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data can improve upon the detection of cis-acting regulatory variation by leveraging allele-specific expression (ASE) patterns in association analysis. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of cis-acting eQTLs by analyzing RNA-seq gene-expression data and genome-wide high-density genotypes from 471 samples of normal primary prostate tissue. Using statistical models that integrate ASE information, we identified extensive cis-eQTLs across the prostate transcriptome and found that approximately 70% of expressed genes corresponded to a significant eQTL at a gene-level false-discovery rate of 0.05. Overall, cis-eQTLs were heavily concentrated near the transcription start and stop sites of affected genes, and effects were negatively correlated with distance. We identified multiple instances of cis-acting co-regulation by using phased genotype data and discovered 233 SNPs as the most strongly associated eQTLs for more than one gene. We also noted significant enrichment (25/50, p = 2E-5) of previously reported prostate cancer risk SNPs in prostate eQTLs. Our results illustrate the benefit of assessing ASE data in cis-eQTL analyses by showing better reproducibility of prior eQTL findings than of eQTL mapping based on total expression alone. Altogether, our analysis provides extensive functional context of thousands of SNPs in prostate tissue, and these results will be of critical value in guiding studies examining disease of the human prostate.

  13. Pathway Analysis Using Information from Allele-Specific Gene Methylation in Genome-Wide Association Studies for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Li-Chung; Kao, Chung-Feng; Shih, Wei-Liang; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric trait with high heritability. Despite efforts through conducting genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the success of identifying susceptibility loci for BPD has been limited, which is partially attributed to the complex nature of its pathogenesis. Pathway-based analytic strategy is a powerful tool to explore joint effects of gene sets within specific biological pathways. Additionally, to incorporate other aspects of genomic data into pathway analysis may further enhance our understanding for the underlying mechanisms for BPD. Patterns of DNA methylation play important roles in regulating gene expression and function. A commonly observed phenomenon, allele-specific methylation (ASM) describes the associations between genetic variants and DNA methylation patterns. The present study aimed to identify biological pathways that are involve in the pathogenesis of BPD while incorporating brain specific ASM information in pathway analysis using two large-scale GWA datasets in Caucasian populations. A weighting scheme was adopted to take ASM information into consideration for each pathway. After multiple testing corrections, we identified 88 and 15 enriched pathways for their biological relevance for BPD in the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium dataset, respectively. Many of these pathways were significant only when applying the weighting scheme. Three ion channel related pathways were consistently identified in both datasets. Results in the GAIN dataset also suggest for the roles of extracellular matrix in brain for BPD. Findings from Gene Ontology (GO) analysis exhibited functional enrichment among genes of non-GO pathways in activity of gated channel, transporter, and neurotransmitter receptor. We demonstrated that integrating different data sources with pathway analysis provides an avenue to identify promising and novel biological pathways for exploring the

  14. Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 3 by single-base extension method and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed allele specific (AS) SNP primers for rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) race 3. FOV_BT_SNP_R3 and FOV_BT_AS_R3 primers were designed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of partial sequence alignment of the ß-tubulin (BT) gene from several FOV races. These ...

  15. Genome-wide identification and quantification of cis- and trans-regulated genes responding to Marek's disease virus infection via analysis of allele-specific expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Marek’s disease (MD) is a commercially important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a naturally-occurring oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. We attempted to identify genes conferring MD resistance, by completing a genome-wide screen for allele-specific expr...

  16. Simultaneous Detection of Major Drug Resistance Mutations of HIV-1 Subtype B Viruses from Dried Blood Spot Specimens by Multiplex Allele-Specific Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Fangping; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jing; Nkengasong, John; Gao, Feng; Yang, Chunfu

    2016-01-01

    A multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay has been developed for the detection of HIV-1 subtype C drug resistance mutations (DRMs). We have optimized the MAS assay to determine subtype B DRMs in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from patients on antiretroviral therapy. The new assay accurately detected DRMs, including low-abundance mutations that were often missed by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26560533

  17. DNA Amplification from Pin Mounted Bumble Bees (Bombus) in a Museum Collection: Effects of Fragment Size and Specimen Age on Successful PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data in the form of pinned specimens in entomological collections offer the potential to determine trends in genetic diversity of bumble bees (Bombus). We screened eight microsatellite loci for amplification success in pinned bumble bee specimens from the U.S. National Pollinating Insects C...

  18. Selective amplification of cDNA sequence from total RNA by cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR): application to sequencing 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.

    PubMed

    Isegawa, Y; Sheng, J; Sokawa, Y; Yamanishi, K; Nakagomi, O; Ueda, S

    1992-12-01

    A method, referred to as cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been developed to permit selective and specific amplification of cDNA sequence from total cellular RNA. This technique comprises (i) digestion of cDNA with multiple restriction enzymes, (ii) ligation of cleavage products to double-stranded DNA cassettes possessing a corresponding restriction site and (iii) amplification of cassette-ligated restriction fragments containing a short, known sequence (but not all the other ligation products) by PCR using the specific and cassette primers; the specific primer is designed to prime synthesis from the known sequence of the cDNA whereas the cassette primer anneals to one strand of the cassette. Sequencing from the cassette primer provides information to design a new primer for the next walking step. The amplified cDNA fragments are often larger than the maximum DNA fragments (500-600 bp) that can be sequenced without the need of synthesizing internal sequencing primer. Each of such large cDNA fragments is dissected into smaller DNA fragments by repeating cassette-ligation mediated PCR exploiting different restriction sites and different sets of cassette primers. This dissection process reduces the number of specific primers to a minimum, thereby increasing the speed of sequencing and minimizing the overall cost. We have successfully applied this cDNA walking and sequencing by the cassette-ligation mediated PCR to the sequencing of an entire 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Sensitive Real-Time PCR Detection of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. and a Comparison of Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods for the Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Balassiano, Ilana; Abeynayake, Janaki; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Liu, Yuanyuan; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the genus Leptospira, the causative agents of leptospirosis, are categorized into pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. However, the benefit of using a clinical diagnostic that is specific for pathogenic species remains unclear. In this study, we present the development of a real-time PCR (rtPCR) for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira (the pathogenic rtPCR), and we perform a comparison of the pathogenic rtPCR with a published assay that detects all Leptospira species [the undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) assay] and a reference 16S Leptospira rtPCR, which was originally designed to detect pathogenic species. Methodology/Principal Findings For the pathogenic rtPCR, a new hydrolysis probe was designed for use with primers from the UFI assay, which targets the 16S gene. The pathogenic rtPCR detected Leptospira DNA in 37/37 cultured isolates from 5 pathogenic and one intermediate species. Two strains of the non-pathogenic L. biflexa produced no signal. Clinical samples from 65 patients with suspected leptospirosis were then tested using the pathogenic rtPCR and a reference Leptospira 16S rtPCR. All 65 samples had tested positive for Leptospira using the UFI assay; 62 (95.4%) samples tested positive using the pathogenic rtPCR (p = 0.24). Only 24 (36.9%) samples tested positive in the reference 16S rtPCR (p<0.0001 for comparison with the pathogenic rtPCR and UFI assays). Amplicon sequencing confirmed the detection of pathogenic Leptospira species in 49/50 cases, including 3 cases that were only detected using the UFI assay. Conclusions/Significance The pathogenic rtPCR displayed similar sensitivity to the UFI assay when testing clinical specimens with no difference in specificity. Both assays proved significantly more sensitive than a real-time molecular test used for comparison. Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical and epidemiologic significance of more sensitive Leptospira detection using these tests. PMID:25379890

  20. CYP21A2 mutation analysis in Korean patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia using complementary methods: sequencing after long-range PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Hong, Geehay; Park, Hyung Doo; Choi, Rihwa; Jin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Ki, Chang Seok; Lee, Soo Youn; Song, Junghan; Kim, Jong Won

    2015-09-01

    CYP21A2 mutation analysis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is challenging because of the genomic presence of a homologous CYP21A2 pseudogene and the significant incidence of pseudogene conversion and large deletions. The objective of this study was to accurately analyze the CYP21A2 genotype in Korean CAH patients using a combination of complementary methods. Long-range PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were performed to confirm valid amplification of CYP21A2 and to detect large gene conversions and deletions before direct sequencing. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was conducted concurrently in 14 CAH-suspected patients and six family members of three patients. We identified 27 CYP21A2 mutant alleles in 14 CAH-suspected patients. The c.293-13A>G (or c.293-13C>G) was the most common mutation, and p.Ile173Asn was the second, identified in 25% and 17.9% of alleles, respectively. A novel frame-shift mutation of c.492delA (p.Glu 164Aspfs*24) was detected. Large deletions were detected by MLPA in 10.7% of the alleles. Mutation studies of the six familial members for three of the patients aided in the identification of haplotypes. In summary, we successfully identified CYP21A2 mutations using both long-range PCR and sequencing and dosage analyses. Our data correspond relatively well with the previously reported mutation spectrum analysis.

  1. The -5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Starska, Katarzyna; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Olszewski, Jurek; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina; Aleksandrowicz, Paweł; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; Bryś, Magdalena

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the -5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region -5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the -5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that -5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer.

  2. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  3. MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

  4. Multiplex PMA-qPCR Assay with Internal Amplification Control for Simultaneous Detection of Viable Legionella pneumophila, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus in Environmental Waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Xin, Hongyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2015-12-15

    Pathogenic microorganisms are responsible for many infectious diseases, and pathogen monitoring is important and necessary for water quality control. This study for the first time explored a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) to simultaneously detect viable Legionella pneumophila, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus in one reaction from water samples. Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) was applied to enhance the dead bacterial permeability of PMA. The sensitivity of the multiplex PMA-qPCR assay achieved two colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for L. pneumophila and three CFU per reaction for S. typhimurium and S. aureus. No PCR products were amplified from all nontarget control samples. Significantly, with comparable specificity and sensitivity, this newly invented multiplex PMA-qPCR assay took a much shorter time than did conventional culture assays when testing water samples with spiked bacteria and simulated environmental water treatment. The viable multiplex PMA-qPCR assay was further successfully applied to pathogen detection from rivers, canals, and tap water samples after simple water pretreatment. PMID:26512952

  5. PCR methods for the rapid detection and identification of four pathogenic Legionella spp. and two Legionella pneumophila subspecies based on the gene amplification of gyrB.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangpeng; Cao, Boyang; Dou, Yan; Liu, Yanwei; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2011-08-01

    A total of 25 gyrB gene sequences from 20 Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila strains and five L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri strains were obtained and analyzed, and a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Legionella bozemanae, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella micdadei and Legioenella pneumophila, and two single PCRs for the differentiation of L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila and L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri were established. The multiplex PCR method was shown to be highly specific and reproducible when tested against 41 target strains and 17 strains of other bacteria species. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR was also analyzed and was shown to detect levels as low as 1 ng of genomic DNA or 10 colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter in mock water samples. Sixty-three air conditioner condensed water samples from Shanghai City were examined, and the result was validated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The data reported here demonstrate that the multiplex PCR method described is efficient and convenient for the detection of Legionella species in water samples. Twenty L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila strains and five L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri strains were used for the validation of the two L. pneumophila subspecies-specific PCR methods, and the results indicated that the two PCR methods were both highly specific and convenient for the identification of L. pneumophila at the subspecies level. PMID:21626022

  6. Application of Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Primer and PCR Clamping by LNA Oligonucleotide to Enhance the Amplification of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Regions in Investigating the Community Structures of Plant–Associated Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ikenaga, Makoto; Tabuchi, Masakazu; Kawauchi, Tomohiro; Sakai, Masao

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous extraction of host plant DNA severely limits investigations of the community structures of plant–associated fungi due to the similar homologies of sequences in primer–annealing positions between fungi and host plants. Although fungal-specific primers have been designed, plant DNA continues to be excessively amplified by PCR, resulting in the underestimation of community structures. In order to overcome this limitation, locked nucleic acid (LNA) primers and PCR clamping by LNA oligonucleotides have been applied to enhance the amplification of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. LNA primers were designed by converting DNA into LNA, which is specific to fungi, at the forward primer side. LNA oligonucleotides, the sequences of which are complementary to the host plants, were designed by overlapping a few bases with the annealing position of the reverse primer. Plant-specific DNA was then converted into LNA at the shifted position from the 3′ end of the primer–binding position. PCR using the LNA technique enhanced the amplification of fungal ITS regions, whereas those of the host plants were more likely to be amplified without the LNA technique. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis displayed patterns that reached an acceptable level for investigating the community structures of plant–associated fungi using the LNA technique. The sequences of the bands detected using the LNA technique were mostly affiliated with known isolates. However, some sequences showed low similarities, indicating the potential to identify novel fungi. Thus, the application of the LNA technique is considered effective for widening the scope of community analyses of plant–associated fungi. PMID:27600711

  7. Combined use of RFLP and PCR-ASO typing for HLA-DR-Dw and DQw typing.

    PubMed

    Bignon, J D; Bidwell, J L

    1991-01-01

    Due to some limitations of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in HLA-DR-DQ typing, we present a combined use of RFLP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing. This scheme consists in selectively amplifying the few RFLP ill-defined genes (DR1/DR'Br' and DR4-Dw subsets) using PCR with allele specific primers to avoid cross-hybridization. PMID:1676910

  8. Comparison of conventional RT-PCR, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR in the rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleotide in contaminated commercial bovine sera batches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Qin; Tan, Bin; Li, Peng; Wang, Feng-Xue; Guo, Li; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Wen, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2014-10-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can contaminate biological products produced in bovine or porcine cells or manufactured using bovine sera. A rapid, specific, sensitive, and practical method of detecting BVDV in bio-products is needed. The purpose of this study was to compare three assays with respect to their ability to accurately detect BVDV in biological samples, namely reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR, and conventional RT-PCR. All assays detected BVDV nucleotide and differentiated between BVDV-free and -contaminated bovine sera successfully. In addition, the results were specific to BVDV: the amplification of samples containing the closely related classical swine fever virus or other pathogenic bovine viruses yielded negative results. The lowest detection threshold, 10(1) copies, was displayed by the SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assay. This assay was also the most effective in the detection of BVDV contamination in a set of commercially available bovine sera. The field conditions suggest that RT-LAMP is specific and sensitive to detecting BVDV in biological samples and may be used for quality control of biomaterials.

  9. PCR amplification of a multi-copy mitochondrial gene (cox3) improves detection of Cytauxzoon felis infection as compared to a ribosomal gene (18S).

    PubMed

    Schreeg, Megan E; Marr, Henry S; Griffith, Emily H; Tarigo, Jaime L; Bird, David M; Reichard, Mason V; Cohn, Leah A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2016-07-30

    Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that infects felids. Clinical disease caused by acute C. felis infection rapidly progresses in domestic cats, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Accurately diagnosing cytauxzoonosis as soon as possible during acute infection would allow for earlier initiation of antiprotozoal therapy which could lead to higher survival rates. Molecular detection of parasite rRNA genes (18S) by PCR has previously been shown to be a sensitive method of diagnosing C. felis infections. Based on evidence from related apicomplexan species, we hypothesized that C. felis mitochondrial genes would exist at higher copy numbers than 18S and would be a more sensitive diagnostic target. In this study we have designed a PCR assay targeting the C. felis mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). Herein we demonstrate that (1) the cox3 PCR can detect as low as 1 copy of DNA target and can detect C. felis in samples with known mitochondrial sequence heterogeneity, (2) cox3 copy number is increased relative to 18S in blood and tissue samples from acutely infected cats, and (3) the cox3 PCR is more sensitive than 18S PCR for detection of C. felis during early infections.

  10. Direct RNA detection without nucleic acid purification and PCR: Combining sandwich hybridization with signal amplification based on branched hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    We have developed a convenient, robust and low-cost RNA detection system suitable for high-throughput applications. This system uses a highly specific sandwich hybridization to capture target RNA directly onto solid support, followed by on-site signal amplification via 2-dimensional, branched hybridizing chain polymerization through toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. The assay uses SYBR Green to detect targets at concentrations as low as 1 pM, without involving nucleic acid purification or any enzymatic reaction, using ordinary oligonucleotides without modification or labeling. The system was demonstrated in the detection of malaria RNA in blood and GAPDH gene expression in cell lysate.

  11. Direct PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from single microbial cells isolated from an Antarctic iceberg using laser microdissection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, Katsuhiko; Niki, Hironori; Baba, Tomoya

    2011-09-01

    Here, we describe a technique that allows the genetic linage analysis of 16S rRNA genes in bacteria observed under a microscope. The technique includes the isolation of microbial cells using a laser microdissection microscope, lysis of the cells, and amplification of the 16S rRNA genes in the isolated cells without interference by bacterial DNA contamination from the experimental environment or reagents. Using this technique, we successfully determined 15 16S rRNA gene sequences in cells isolated from an Antarctic iceberg. These sequences showed 94%-100% identity to their closest strains, which included bacteria that occur in aqueous, marine, and soil environments.

  12. COLD-PCR amplification of bisulfite-converted DNA allows the enrichment and sequencing of rare un-methylated genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Milbury, Coren A; Karatza, Elli; Chen, Clark C; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Merewood, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant hypo-methylation of DNA is evident in a range of human diseases including cancer and diabetes. Development of sensitive assays capable of detecting traces of un-methylated DNA within methylated samples can be useful in several situations. Here we describe a new approach, fast-COLD-MS-PCR, which amplifies preferentially un-methylated DNA sequences. By employing an appropriate denaturation temperature during PCR of bi-sulfite converted DNA, fast-COLD-MS-PCR enriches un-methylated DNA and enables differential melting analysis or bisulfite sequencing. Using methylation on the MGMT gene promoter as a model, it is shown that serial dilutions of controlled methylation samples lead to the reliable sequencing of un-methylated sequences down to 0.05% un-methylated-to-methylated DNA. Screening of clinical glioma tumor and infant blood samples demonstrated that the degree of enrichment of un-methylated over methylated DNA can be modulated by the choice of denaturation temperature, providing a convenient method for analysis of partially methylated DNA or for revealing and sequencing traces of un-methylated DNA. Fast-COLD-MS-PCR can be useful for the detection of loss of methylation/imprinting in cancer, diabetes or diet-related methylation changes. PMID:24728321

  13. COLD-PCR amplification of bisulfite-converted DNA allows the enrichment and sequencing of rare un-methylated genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Milbury, Coren A; Karatza, Elli; Chen, Clark C; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Merewood, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant hypo-methylation of DNA is evident in a range of human diseases including cancer and diabetes. Development of sensitive assays capable of detecting traces of un-methylated DNA within methylated samples can be useful in several situations. Here we describe a new approach, fast-COLD-MS-PCR, which amplifies preferentially un-methylated DNA sequences. By employing an appropriate denaturation temperature during PCR of bi-sulfite converted DNA, fast-COLD-MS-PCR enriches un-methylated DNA and enables differential melting analysis or bisulfite sequencing. Using methylation on the MGMT gene promoter as a model, it is shown that serial dilutions of controlled methylation samples lead to the reliable sequencing of un-methylated sequences down to 0.05% un-methylated-to-methylated DNA. Screening of clinical glioma tumor and infant blood samples demonstrated that the degree of enrichment of un-methylated over methylated DNA can be modulated by the choice of denaturation temperature, providing a convenient method for analysis of partially methylated DNA or for revealing and sequencing traces of un-methylated DNA. Fast-COLD-MS-PCR can be useful for the detection of loss of methylation/imprinting in cancer, diabetes or diet-related methylation changes.

  14. Development of a highly specific assay for rapid identification of pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica based on PCR amplification of the Yersinia heat-stable enterotoxin gene (yst).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, A; Liesack, W; Griffiths, M W; Robins-Browne, R M

    1997-06-01

    The chromosomal gene yst, which encodes a heat-stable enterotoxin of Yersinia enterocolitica, is a useful diagnostic marker because it occurs only in invasive strains of this species. A homologous gene also occurs in some strains of Yersinia kristensenii. Sequence analysis of the yst genes from two different strains of Y. enterocolitica and from Y. kristensenii revealed a substantial number of mismatches at the 3' ends of the yst genes of the so-called American and European biotypes of Y. enterocolitica. Moreover, several mismatches and a deletion of 5 codons were found in the yst of Y. kristensenii. These findings were used to develop a PCR-based assay for yst of Y. enterocolitica which yielded a detectable product in as little as 50 min. The assay was 100% specific in terms of its ability to identify potentially pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica regardless of biotype or serotype. The PCR yielded an amplicon that was visible on agarose gel electrophoresis from as few as 100 CFU, or 10 CFU when the PCR was combined with dot blot hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe that corresponded to an internal sequence of yst. These results establish the value of the yst gene as a target for the identification of pathogenic bioserotypes of Y. enterocolitica and the usefulness of PCR for this purpose.

  15. Development of a highly specific assay for rapid identification of pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica based on PCR amplification of the Yersinia heat-stable enterotoxin gene (yst).

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, A; Liesack, W; Griffiths, M W; Robins-Browne, R M

    1997-01-01

    The chromosomal gene yst, which encodes a heat-stable enterotoxin of Yersinia enterocolitica, is a useful diagnostic marker because it occurs only in invasive strains of this species. A homologous gene also occurs in some strains of Yersinia kristensenii. Sequence analysis of the yst genes from two different strains of Y. enterocolitica and from Y. kristensenii revealed a substantial number of mismatches at the 3' ends of the yst genes of the so-called American and European biotypes of Y. enterocolitica. Moreover, several mismatches and a deletion of 5 codons were found in the yst of Y. kristensenii. These findings were used to develop a PCR-based assay for yst of Y. enterocolitica which yielded a detectable product in as little as 50 min. The assay was 100% specific in terms of its ability to identify potentially pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica regardless of biotype or serotype. The PCR yielded an amplicon that was visible on agarose gel electrophoresis from as few as 100 CFU, or 10 CFU when the PCR was combined with dot blot hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe that corresponded to an internal sequence of yst. These results establish the value of the yst gene as a target for the identification of pathogenic bioserotypes of Y. enterocolitica and the usefulness of PCR for this purpose. PMID:9163505

  16. Allele-specific duplex polymerase chain reaction to differentiate Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies and to detect highly clarithromycin-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Y; Lee, S Y; Kim, B J; Kook, Y H

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the structural differences of erm, we used a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to differentiate Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and subsp. massiliense isolates and to detect the point mutations of 23S rRNA gene that confer a high level of resistance to clarithromycin. Subsp. massiliense strains occupying almost half of the clinical isolates can be simply identified, and their clarithromycin susceptibility can be rapidly determined. PMID:27514964

  17. CYP21A2 Mutation Analysis in Korean Patients With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Using Complementary Methods: Sequencing After Long-Range PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis With Multiple Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Geehay; Choi, Rihwa; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Soo-Youn; Song, Junghan; Kim, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    CYP21A2 mutation analysis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is challenging because of the genomic presence of a homologous CYP21A2 pseudogene and the significant incidence of pseudogene conversion and large deletions. The objective of this study was to accurately analyze the CYP21A2 genotype in Korean CAH patients using a combination of complementary methods. Long-range PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were performed to confirm valid amplification of CYP21A2 and to detect large gene conversions and deletions before direct sequencing. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was conducted concurrently in 14 CAH-suspected patients and six family members of three patients. We identified 27 CYP21A2 mutant alleles in 14 CAH-suspected patients. The c.293-13A>G (or c.293-13C>G) was the most common mutation, and p.Ile173Asn was the second, identified in 25% and 17.9% of alleles, respectively. A novel frame-shift mutation of c.492delA (p.Glu 164Aspfs*24) was detected. Large deletions were detected by MLPA in 10.7% of the alleles. Mutation studies of the six familial members for three of the patients aided in the identification of haplotypes. In summary, we successfully identified CYP21A2 mutations using both long-range PCR and sequencing and dosage analyses. Our data correspond relatively well with the previously reported mutation spectrum analysis. PMID:26206692

  18. In silico mining and characterization of simple sequence repeats from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) expressed sequence tags (EST-SSRs); PCR amplification, polymorphism evaluation and multiplexing and cross-species assays.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, Emmanouella; Lagnel, Jacques; Pakaki, Victoria; Louro, Bruno; Canario, Adelino V M; Reinhardt, Richard; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S

    2011-06-01

    We screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) found in ESTs derived from an EST-database development project ('Marine Genomics Europe' Network of Excellence). Different motifs of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide SSRs were evaluated for variation in length and position in the expressed sequences, relative abundance and distribution in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). We found 899 ESTs that harbor 997 SSRs (4.94%). On average, one SSR was found per 2.95 kb of EST sequence and the dinucleotide SSRs are the most abundant accounting for 47.6% of the total number. EST-SSRs were used as template for primer design. 664 primer pairs could be successfully identified and a subset of 206 pairs of primers was synthesized, PCR-tested and visualized on ethidium bromide stained agarose gels. The main objective was to further assess the potential of EST-SSRs as informative markers and investigate their cross-species amplification in sixteen teleost fish species: seven sparid species and nine other species from different families. Approximately 78% of the primer pairs gave PCR products of expected size in gilthead sea bream, and as expected, the rate of successful amplification of sea bream EST-SSRs was higher in sparids, lower in other perciforms and even lower in species of the Clupeiform and Gadiform orders. We finally determined the polymorphism and the heterozygosity of 63 markers in a wild gilthead sea bream population; fifty-eight loci were found to be polymorphic with the expected heterozygosity and the number of alleles ranging from 0.089 to 0.946 and from 2 to 27, respectively. These tools and markers are expected to enhance the available genetic linkage map in gilthead sea bream, to assist comparative mapping and genome analyses for this species and further with other model fish species and finally to help advance genetic analysis for cultivated and wild populations and accelerate breeding programs.

  19. Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca) resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher mollusks, data on some early branching lineages are still limited. Despite of some partial success in obtaining these data from Solenogastres, by some regarded to be the most "basal" mollusks, this taxon still remained problematic due to contamination with food organisms and general amplification difficulties. Results We report here the first authentic 18S genes of three Solenogastres species (Mollusca), each possessing a unique sequence composition with regions conspicuously rich in guanine and cytosine. For these GC-rich regions we calculated strong secondary structures. The observed high intra-molecular forces hamper standard amplification and appear to increase formation of chimerical sequences caused by contaminating foreign DNAs from potential prey organisms. In our analyses, contamination was avoided by using RNA as a template. Indication for contamination of previously published Solenogastres sequences is presented. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were conducted using RNA specific models that account for compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Conclusions The extreme morphological diversity of mollusks is mirrored in the molecular 18S data and shows elevated substitution rates mainly in three higher taxa: true limpets (Patellogastropoda), Cephalopoda and Solenogastres. Our phylogenetic tree based on 123 species, including representatives of all mollusk classes, shows limited resolution at the class level but illustrates the pitfalls of artificial groupings formed due to shared biased sequence composition. PMID:20214780

  20. Comparison of Fixatives, Fixation Time, and Severity of Infection on PCR Amplification and Detection of Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium chelonae DNA in Paraffin-Embedded Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Tracy S.; Kent, Michael L.; Ferguson, Jayde A.; Watral, Virginia G.; Whipps, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a common disease of laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio). Different infection patterns occur in zebrafish depending on mycobacterial species. Mycobacterium marinum and M. haemophilum produce virulent infections associated with high mortality, whereas M. chelonae is more wide spread and not associated with high mortality. Identification of mycobacterial infections to the species level provides important information for making management decisions. Observation of acid-fast bacilli in histological sections or tissue imprints is the most common diagnostic method for mycobacteriosis in fish, but only allows for diagnosis to the genus level. Mycobacterial culture, followed by molecular or biochemical identification is the traditional approach, but recently it has been shown that DNA of diagnostic value can be retrieved from paraffin blocks. We investigated effects of the following parameters on the ability of our qPCR test for the hsp gene (primer set HS5F/hsp667R) to retrieve specific DNA from paraffin-embedded zebrafish: type of fixative, time in fixative before processing, species of mycobacteria, and severity of infection. Whole zebrafish were experimentally infected with either M. chelonae or M. marinum, and then preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin or Dietrich’s fixative for 3, 7, 21 and 45 days. Subsequently, fish were evaluated by H&E and Fite’s acid-fast stains to detect mycobacteria within granulomatous lesions. The PCR assay was quite effective, and obtained PCR product from 75% and 88% of the M. chelonae and M. marinum infected fish, respectively. Fixative type, time in fixative, and mycobacterial species showed no statistical relationship with the efficacy of the PCR test. PMID:23709464

  1. Rapid discrimination of Tomato chlorosis virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus and co-amplification of plant internal control using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Papayiannis, Lambros C; Harkou, Ivi S; Markou, Yiannis M; Demetriou, Christos N; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2011-09-01

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) (genus: Crinivirus, family: Closteroviridae) are two emergent whitefly-transmitted viruses that have been associated with yellowing symptoms of tomato crops during the last two decades. A real-time, one-step reverse transcription (RT) TaqMan(®) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed and optimized for the multiplex detection of TICV, ToCV and an internal control of mitochondrion cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOXI) gene from plants. The plant mtCOXI assay can be used as an internal control in at least 77 plant species from 28 different families. The one-step RT TaqMan PCR assay successfully detected and discriminated the two virus species in infected tomato plants, other host plants and their whitefly vectors. In direct comparison, the assay was approximately 10,000-fold and 100-fold more sensitive than conventional one-step RT-PCR and two-step nested RT-PCR, respectively. The increased sensitivity allowed the use of alternative template preparation methods that do not require RNA purification. The assay can be performed either by the direct addition of crude plant extract into the real-time reaction mixture or alternatively, the sap extract can be blotted on a positively charged nylon membrane, eluted and added in the reaction mixture. The developed assay allows the simple, fast and cost-effective testing of a large number of samples and can be easily applied in surveys and certification schemes.

  2. Amplification of a single-locus variable-number direct repeats with restriction fragment length polymorphism (DR-PCR/RFLP) for genetic typing of Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Zaleska, Alicja; Krawczyk, Beata; Kotłowski, Roman; Mikucka, Agnieszka; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    In search of an effective DNA typing technique for Acinetobacter baumannii strains for hospital epidemiology use, the performance and convenience of a new target sequence was evaluated. Using known genomic sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii strains AR 319754 and ATCC 17978, we developed single-locus variable-number direct-repeat analysis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (DR-PCR/RFLP) method. A total of 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients of the Clinical Hospital in Bydgoszcz, Poland, were examined. Initially, all strains were typed using macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE). Digestion of the chromosomal DNA with the ApaI endonuclease and separation of the fragments by PFGE revealed 21 unique types. Application of DR-PCR/RFLP resulted in recognition of 12 clusters. The results showed that the DR-PCR/RFLP method is less discriminatory than REA-PFGE, however, the novel genotyping method can be used as an alternative technique for generating DNA profiles in epidemiological studies of intra-species genetic relatedness of Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

  3. Pseudogene of dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k) found by PCR amplification and direct sequencing of rodent-human cell hybrid DNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, X.; Ali, G.; Blass, J.P.; Szabo, P.; Tanzi, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the cDNA for the E2k component of the human {alpha}-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) hybridized not only to a major locus on chromosome 14q24.3 in a region associated with familial Alzheimer`s disease and with Joseph-Machado disease, but also to another locus on chromosome 1p31. The authors now report that PCR of genomic DNA and direct sequencing indicated that the chromosome 1 locus is an intronless pseudogene. PCR of genomic DNA amplified E2k fragments from mouse-human cell hybrids containing human chromosome 1 DNA but not from hybrids containing human chromosome 14 DNA. The resulting amplicons were of comparable sizes to those when the cDNA was used to template. The direct sequencing of these amplicons confirmed the lack of introns and indicated a frame shift, which led to the presence of four termination codons early in the coding region. PCR followed by direct sequencing of the amplicons appears to be a convenient method for identifying intronless pseudogenes.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA as a non-invasive biomarker: accurate quantification using real time quantitative PCR without co-amplification of pseudogenes and dilution bias.

    PubMed

    Malik, Afshan N; Shahni, Rojeen; Rodriguez-de-Ledesma, Ana; Laftah, Abas; Cunningham, Phil

    2011-08-19

    Circulating mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) is a potential non-invasive biomarker of cellular mitochondrial dysfunction, the latter known to be central to a wide range of human diseases. Changes in MtDNA are usually determined by quantification of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (Mt/N) using real time quantitative PCR. We propose that the methodology for measuring Mt/N needs to be improved and we have identified that current methods have at least one of the following three problems: (1) As much of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome, many commonly used MtDNA primers co-amplify homologous pseudogenes found in the nuclear genome; (2) use of regions from genes such as β-actin and 18S rRNA which are repetitive and/or highly variable for qPCR of the nuclear genome leads to errors; and (3) the size difference of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes cause a "dilution bias" when template DNA is diluted. We describe a PCR-based method using unique regions in the human mitochondrial genome not duplicated in the nuclear genome; unique single copy region in the nuclear genome and template treatment to remove dilution bias, to accurately quantify MtDNA from human samples.

  5. Development of a PCR protocol for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish by amplification of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene.

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Magi, Gian Enrico; Balboa, Sabela; Barja, Juan L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2008-04-30

    The aims of the study were to evaluate a new PCR protocol designed to detect Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues and to develop a non-destructive method for the diagnosis of furunculosis. A set of primers (Fer3, Fer4), flanking a fragment of the fstA gene (coding for the ferric-siderophore receptor) was designed, showing to be sensitive and specific. When compared to PCR methods previously reported, the new protocol recognized all the 69 A. salmonicida strains evaluated, with no cross-reactions with the other bacterial species analysed. Sensitivity assays were performed in fish tissues seeded with serial dilutions of pure cultures of A. salmonicida and mixed cultures of this bacterium with Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila. Detection limits obtained were of 60 and 450 bacterial cells 100 mg(-1) of tissue, respectively. Mucus and blood were evaluated in order to develop a non-destructive tool to detect the pathogen. The detection limits in seeded mucus and blood samples were 2.5 x 10(2) and 1 x 10(5) bacterial cells mL(-1), respectively. When the method was used to detect A. salmonicida in asymptomatic wild salmon, four samples of mucus and six of blood were positive, corresponding to 6 out of the 31 fish examined, whereas only one of the samples resulted positive by culture methods. It is concluded that the PCR protocol evaluated is fast, specific and sensitive to detect A. salmonicida in infected and asymptomatic fish, and will be helpful for the control of the disease through the prompt detection of carriers within fish populations. PMID:18035507

  6. Mitochondrial DNA as a non-invasive biomarker: Accurate quantification using real time quantitative PCR without co-amplification of pseudogenes and dilution bias

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Afshan N.; Shahni, Rojeen; Rodriguez-de-Ledesma, Ana; Laftah, Abas; Cunningham, Phil

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial dysfunction is central to many diseases of oxidative stress. {yields} 95% of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome. {yields} Dilution of untreated genomic DNA leads to dilution bias. {yields} Unique primers and template pretreatment are needed to accurately measure mitochondrial DNA content. -- Abstract: Circulating mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) is a potential non-invasive biomarker of cellular mitochondrial dysfunction, the latter known to be central to a wide range of human diseases. Changes in MtDNA are usually determined by quantification of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (Mt/N) using real time quantitative PCR. We propose that the methodology for measuring Mt/N needs to be improved and we have identified that current methods have at least one of the following three problems: (1) As much of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome, many commonly used MtDNA primers co-amplify homologous pseudogenes found in the nuclear genome; (2) use of regions from genes such as {beta}-actin and 18S rRNA which are repetitive and/or highly variable for qPCR of the nuclear genome leads to errors; and (3) the size difference of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes cause a 'dilution bias' when template DNA is diluted. We describe a PCR-based method using unique regions in the human mitochondrial genome not duplicated in the nuclear genome; unique single copy region in the nuclear genome and template treatment to remove dilution bias, to accurately quantify MtDNA from human samples.

  7. Population data of six STR loci using hexaplex PCR amplification and typing system, "Midi-6" in four regional populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchihi, Rieko; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Inoue, Chikako; Kishida, Tetsuko; Yoshioka, Naofumi; Katsumata, Yoshinao

    2007-07-01

    The genetic differences of the allele frequency distributions for six STR loci (D20S480, D6S2439, D6S1056, D9S1118, D4S2639, and D17S1290) among regions in Japan were examined using our recently designed hexaplex amplification and typing system, "Midi-6" newly named, to construct a database in the Japanese population. Genotypes at six loci were analyzed in 198, 200, 175, and 196 individuals from the area of Akita, Nagoya, Oita, and Okinawa, respectively, in Japan. The allele frequency distributions were significantly different (p<0.05) at from one to five loci among the four populations when compared pairwise. Significant differences were also observed at two or three loci between Oita- or Okinawa-Japanese and the "pooled" population (n=769), respectively. However, since F(ST) (theta) values were extremely low (<0.05), ranging from 0.0020 to 0.0118 for six loci, genetic differentiation within the pooled Japanese population was negligible. Therefore, it suggested that the data of the allele frequencies at six loci in the pooled population would be employed as the base of calculation for statistical probabilities. PMID:16650706

  8. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification demonstrates the absence of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I specific pol sequences in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Henni, T; Divine, M; Gaulard, P; Haioun, C; Duc Dodon, M; Gourdin, M F; Desforges, L; Goossens, M; Reyes, F; Farcet, J P

    1990-09-01

    HTLV-I seronegative patients in nonendemic areas have been described with T-cell proliferations the DNA of which contains specific HTLV-I viral sequences. We have looked for the presence of HTLV-I DNA sequences in 27 HTLV-I seronegative patients with peripheral T-cell lymphomas, distinct from adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and four HTLV-I seropositive patients, three with an ATL and one with a tropical spastic paraparesis. Using HTLV-I pol specific primers, the genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph nodes massively infiltrated by tumor cells was analyzed by the enzymatic gene amplification procedure. In contrast to the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the four HTLV-I seropositive patients, the peripheral T-cell lymphoma samples did not harbor HTLV-I pol sequences. The data show that the detection of HTLV-I nucleotide sequences by the polymerase chain reaction correlates with serologic analysis in this series. PMID:2266151

  9. Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Maria Elena; Mameli, Alessandro; Piras, Gavino; Berti, Andrea; Calo, Carla Maria; Vona, Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    The 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the AmpFlSTR YFiler Amplification Kit (AB Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS3891, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1) were typed in 100 samples from North Sardinia (Italy). A total of 91 different haplotypes were found, where 9 haplotypes were shared by two individuals. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9982. DYS458 non-consensus alleles were found in one samples, and one in the DYS438. We found a double peak in one sample for the DYS19 with alleles 15/16. Population comparisons with available 10 YSTR loci data in Mediterranean Basin samples were undertaken, significant differences were observed between our sample and all the compared populations, except for a entire sample from Sardinia. Prediction of haplogroups showed I2al was found to be the most frequent haplogroup (33%) in our sample. Testing high-resolution Y-chromosome data sets it is useful in autochthonous population and micro-population studies to highlight the most informative loci for evolutionary aims. PMID:19662792

  10. Allele-specific germ cell epimutation in the spacer promoter of the 45S ribosomal RNA gene after Cr(III) exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Shiao, Y.-H. . E-mail: shiao@mail.ncifrcf.gov; Crawford, Erik B.; Anderson, Lucy M.; Patel, Pritesh; Ko, Kinarm

    2005-06-15

    Paternal exposure of mice to Cr(III) causes increased tumor risk in offspring; an epigenetic mechanism has been hypothesized. Representational difference analysis of gene methylation in sperm revealed hypomethylation in the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene after Cr(III) exposure, compared with controls. The most striking effects were seen in the rRNA spacer promoter, a region in the intergenic region of rRNA gene clusters that can influence transcription. Methylation of the rRNA spacer promoter has not been studied heretofore. Sperm DNAs from Cr(III)-treated and control mice were modified by the bisulfite method followed by PCR amplification of the spacer promoter, including 27 CpG sites. Cloning and dideoxy sequencing identified sequence variants (T or G at base -2214) in the spacer promoter. The T allele had less DNA methylation than the G allele in control mice (17 of 17 clones vs. 42 of 72 clones, P = 0.0004). In spite of diversity of sperm DNA methylation patterns, the DNA clones from Cr(III)-exposed mice had fewer methylated CpG sites, by an average of 19% (P < 0.0001). This difference was limited to the G allele. The pyrosequencing technique was applied to quantify the percentage of methylation directly from amplified PCR products. Strikingly, for nine CpG sites including the spacer promoter core region, hypomethylation was highly significant in the Cr(III)-treated group (paired T test, P < 0.0001). Thus, one allele of the 45S rRNA spacer promoter is hypomethylated in sperm germ cells after Cr(III) exposure. This epimutation may lead to increase of tumor risk in the offspring.

  11. PCR amplification from single DNA molecules on magnetic beads in emulsion: application for high-throughput screening of transcription factor targets

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Takaaki; Takei, Yoshiaki; Ohtsuka, Miharu; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki; Yamane, Tsuneo; Nakano, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a novel method of genetic library construction on magnetic microbeads based on solid-phase single-molecule PCR in a fine and robust water-phase compartment formed in water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. In this method, critically diluted DNA fragments were distributed over the emulsion as templates, where beads crosslinked with multiple primers and other PCR components were encapsulated to form multiple reaction compartments. The delivered DNA was then amplified and covalently immobilized on the beads in parallel, within individual compartments, to construct a genetic library on beads (GLOBE), which was readily applicable to a genomewide global scanning of genetic elements recognized by a defined DNA-binding protein. We constructed a GLOBE of Paracoccus denitrificans and selected gene beads that were bound to the His-tagged transcription factor PhaR by flow cytometry. As a result of flow cytometry screening with an anti-His fluorescent antibody, the PhaR target fragments were enriched 1200-fold from this library with this system. Therefore, this system is a powerful tool for analyzing the transcription network on a genomewide scale. PMID:16214800

  12. PCR method for the rapid detection and discrimination of Legionella spp. based on the amplification of pcs, pmtA, and 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Monika; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Legionella bacteria are organisms of public health interest due to their ability to cause pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease) in susceptible humans and their ubiquitous presence in water supply systems. Rapid diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease allows the use of therapy specific for the disease. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most common cause of infection acquired in community and hospital environments. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this work, simplex and duplex PCR assays with the use of new molecular markers pcs and pmtA involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis were specified for rapid and cost-efficient identification and distinguishing Legionella species. The sets of primers developed were found to be sensitive and specific for reliable detection of Legionella belonging to the eight most clinically relevant species. Among these, four primer sets I, II, VI, and VII used for duplex-PCRs proved to have the highest identification power and reliability in the detection of the bacteria. Application of this PCR-based method should improve detection of Legionella spp. in both clinical and environmental settings and facilitate molecular typing of these organisms.

  13. Evaluation of PCR primer selectivity and phylogenetic specificity by using amplification of 16S rRNA genes from betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Junier, Pilar; Kim, Ok-Sun; Hadas, Ora; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2008-08-01

    The effect of primer specificity for studying the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria (betaAOB) was evaluated. betaAOB represent a group of phylogenetically related organisms for which the 16S rRNA gene approach is especially suitable. We used experimental comparisons of primer performance with water samples, together with an in silico analysis of published sequences and a literature review of clone libraries made with four specific PCR primers for the betaAOB 16S rRNA gene. With four aquatic samples, the primers NitA/NitB produced the highest frequency of ammonia-oxidizing-bacterium-like sequences compared to clone libraries with products amplified with the primer combinations betaAMOf/betaAMOr, betaAMOf/Nso1255g, and NitA/Nso1225g. Both the experimental examination of ammonia-oxidizing-bacterium-specific 16S rRNA gene primers and the literature search showed that neither specificity nor sensitivity of primer combinations can be evaluated reliably only by sequence comparison. Apparently, the combination of sequence comparison and experimental data is the best approach to detect possible biases of PCR primers. Although this study focused on betaAOB, the results presented here more generally exemplify the importance of primer selection and potential primer bias when analyzing microbial communities in environmental samples.

  14. Trypanosoma vivax: characterization of the spliced-leader gene of a Brazilian stock and species-specific detection by PCR amplification of an intergenic spacer sequence.

    PubMed

    Ventura, R M; Paiva, F; Silva, R A; Takeda, G F; Buck, G A; Teixeira, M M

    2001-09-01

    The sequence of the spliced-leader gene repeat of a Brazilian Trypanosoma vivax stock from cattle showed high similarity to sequences of West African T. vivax in both intron and intergenic sequences. This is the first evidence based on DNA sequences of close-relatedness between Brazilian and West African T. vivax stocks. A T. vivax-specific diagnostic PCR assay based on spliced-leader gene intergenic sequences was able to amplify DNA from T. vivax stocks from South America (Brazil, Bolivia, and Colombia) and West Africa. Species-specificity of this method was confirmed by results obtained by testing 15 other trypanosomes, including other species and subspecies that can also infect cattle. The PCR assay developed presented high sensitivity, detecting the DNA content of only one parasite and also revealing T. vivax infection in asymptomatic animals without detectable parasitemia by microhematocrit or in Giemsa-stained blood smears. Use of crude preparations from field-blood samples collected on both filter paper and glass slides as DNA template suggested that this method could be useful for the diagnosis of T. vivax in large epidemiological studies.

  15. PCR method for the rapid detection and discrimination of Legionella spp. based on the amplification of pcs, pmtA, and 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Monika; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Legionella bacteria are organisms of public health interest due to their ability to cause pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease) in susceptible humans and their ubiquitous presence in water supply systems. Rapid diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease allows the use of therapy specific for the disease. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most common cause of infection acquired in community and hospital environments. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this work, simplex and duplex PCR assays with the use of new molecular markers pcs and pmtA involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis were specified for rapid and cost-efficient identification and distinguishing Legionella species. The sets of primers developed were found to be sensitive and specific for reliable detection of Legionella belonging to the eight most clinically relevant species. Among these, four primer sets I, II, VI, and VII used for duplex-PCRs proved to have the highest identification power and reliability in the detection of the bacteria. Application of this PCR-based method should improve detection of Legionella spp. in both clinical and environmental settings and facilitate molecular typing of these organisms. PMID:26423783

  16. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starska, Katarzyna; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina; Aleksandrowicz, Paweł; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; and others

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.

  17. Genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine using PCR-based amplification: effects of sample volume, storage temperature, preservatives, and aging on DNA extraction and typing.

    PubMed

    Vu, N T; Chaturvedi, A K; Canfield, D V

    1999-05-31

    Urine is often the sample of choice for drug screening in aviation/general forensic toxicology and in workplace drug testing. In some instances, the origin of the submitted samples may be challenged because of the medicolegal and socioeconomic consequences of a positive drug test. Methods for individualization of biological samples have reached a new boundary with the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA profiling, but a successful characterization of the urine specimens depends on the quantity and quality of DNA present in the samples. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of storage conditions, sample volume, concentration modes, extraction procedures, and chemical preservations on the quantity of DNA recovered, as well as the success rate of PCR-based genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine. Urine specimens from male and female volunteers were divided and stored at various temperatures for up to 30 days. The results suggested that sample purification by dialfiltration, using 3000-100,000 molecular weight cut-off filters, did not enhance DNA recovery and typing rate as compared with simple centrifugation procedures. Extraction of urinary DNA by the organic method and by the resin method gave comparable typing results. Larger sample volume yielded a higher amount of DNA, but the typing rates were not affected for sample volumes between 1 and 5 ml. The quantifiable amounts of DNA present were found to be greater in female (14-200 ng/ml) than in male (4-60 ng/ml) samples and decreased with the elapsed time under both room temperature (RT) and frozen storage. Typing of the male samples also demonstrated that RT storage samples produced significantly higher success rates than that of frozen samples, while there was only marginal difference in the DNA typing rates among the conditions tested using female samples. Successful assignment of DQA1 + PM genotype was achieved for all samples of fresh urine, independent of gender

  18. Genome-wide identification of allele-specific expression in response to Streptococcus suis 2 infection in two differentially susceptible pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huayu; Gaur, Uma; Mekchay, Supamit; Peng, Xianwen; Li, Lianghua; Sun, Hua; Song, Zhongxu; Dong, Binke; Li, Mingbo; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Li, Kui; Mei, Shuqi; Liu, Guisheng

    2015-11-01

    Although allele expression imbalance has been recognized in many species, and strongly linked to diseases, no whole transcriptome allele imbalance has been detected in pigs during pathogen infections. The pathogen Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) causes serious zoonotic disease. Different pig breeds show differential susceptibility/resistance to pathogen infection, but the biological insight is little known. Here we analyzed allele-specific expression (ASE) using the spleen transcriptome of four pigs belonging to two phenotypically different breeds after SS2 infection. The comparative analysis of allele specific SNPs between control and infected animals revealed 882 and 1096 statistically significant differentially expressed allele SNPs (criteria: ratio ≧ 2 or ≦ 0.5) in Landrace and Enshi black pig, respectively. Twenty nine allelically imbalanced SNPs were further verified by Sanger sequencing, and later six SNPs were quantified by pyrosequencing assay. The pyrosequencing results are in agreement with the RNA-seq results, except two SNPs. Looking at the role of ASE in predisposition to diseases, the discovery of causative variants by ASE analysis might help the pig industry in long term to design breeding programs for improving SS2 resistance.

  19. New prediction model for probe specificity in an allele-specific extension reaction for haplotype-specific extraction (HSE) of Y chromosome mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Watkins, Norman E; Nagy, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Allele-specific extension reactions (ASERs) use 3' terminus-specific primers for the selective extension of completely annealed matches by polymerase. The ability of the polymerase to extend non-specific 3' terminal mismatches leads to a failure of the reaction, a process that is only partly understood and predictable, and often requires time-consuming assay design. In our studies we investigated haplotype-specific extraction (HSE) for the separation of male DNA mixtures. HSE is an ASER and provides the ability to distinguish between diploid chromosomes from one or more individuals. Here, we show that the success of HSE and allele-specific extension depend strongly on the concentration difference between complete match and 3' terminal mismatch. Using the oligonucleotide-modeling platform Visual Omp, we demonstrated the dependency of the discrimination power of the polymerase on match- and mismatch-target hybridization between different probe lengths. Therefore, the probe specificity in HSE could be predicted by performing a relative comparison of different probe designs with their simulated differences between the duplex concentration of target-probe match and mismatches. We tested this new model for probe design in more than 300 HSE reactions with 137 different probes and obtained an accordance of 88%.

  20. Bacterial taxa associated with the hematophagous mite Dermanyssus gallinae detected by 16S rRNA PCR amplification and TTGE fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Thioulouse, Jean; Chauve, Claude; Normand, Philippe; Zenner, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Arthropoda, Mesostigmata) is suspected to be involved in the transmission of a wide variety of pathogens, but nothing is known about its associated non-pathogenic bacterial community. To address this question, we examined the composition of bacterial communities in D. gallinae collected from standard poultry farms in Brittany, France. Genetic fingerprints of bacterial communities were generated by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) separation of individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by DNA sequence analysis. Most of the sequences belonged to the Proteobacteria and Firmicute phyla, with a majority of sequences corresponding to the Enterobacteriales order and the Staphylococcus genus. By using statistical analysis, we showed differences in biodiversity between poultry farms. We also determined the major phylotypes that compose the characteristic microbiota associated with D. gallinae. Saprophytes, opportunistic pathogens and pathogenic agents such as Pasteurella multocida, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and sequences close to the genus Aerococcus were identified. Endosymbionts such as Schineria sp., Spiroplasma sp. Anistosticta, "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii" and Rickettsiella sp. were also present in the subdominant bacterial community. Identification of potential targets within the symbiont community may be considered in the future as a means of ectoparasite control.

  1. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bryś, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  2. Application of broad-range 16S rRNA PCR amplification and DGGE fingerprinting for detection of tick-infecting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2003-02-01

    Ticks play an important role in the transmission of arthropod-borne diseases of viral, protozoal and bacterial origin. The present article describes a molecular-biological based method, which facilitated the broad-range analyses of bacterial communities in ixodid ticks (Ixodes ricinus). DNA was extracted both from single ticks and pooled adult ticks. Eubacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments (16S rDNA) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with broad-range ribosomal primers. Sequences spanning the hypervariable V3 region of the 16S rDNA and representing individual bacterial taxons were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). For phylogenetic identification, DGGE bands were exised, cloned and sequenced. In addition, we set up a 16S rDNA clone library which was screened by DGGE. Sequences were compared with sequences of known bacteria listed in the GenBank database. A number of bacteria were affiliated with the genera Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Borrelia, which are known to be pathogenic and transmitted by ticks. Two sequences were related to the yet to be cultivated Haemobartonella. To our knowledge, Haemobartonella has never been directly detected in I. ricinus. In addition, members of the genera Staphylococcus, Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas, and Moraxella were detected, which have not been identified in ticks so far. Two bacteria were most closely related to a rickettsial endosymbiont of an Acanthamoeba sp., and to an endosymbiont (Legionellaceae, Coxiella group) of the microarthropod Folsomia candida. The results prove that 16S rDNA genotyping in combination with DGGE analysis is a promising approach for the detection and identification of bacteria infecting ticks, regardless of whether these bacteria are fastidious, obligate intracellular or noncultivable.

  3. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed. PMID:26551336

  4. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed.

  5. Transcriptional status of known and novel genes tagged with consensus of 33.15 repeat loci employing minisatellite-associated sequence amplification (MASA) and real-time PCR in water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Premi, Sanjay; Pathak, Deepali; Ahsan, Zaid; Tiwari, Madhulika; Garg, Lalit C; Ali, Sher

    2006-01-01

    We conducted minisatellite-associated sequence amplification (MASA) with an oligo (5' CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3') based on consensus of 33.15 repeat loci using cDNA from the testis, ovary, spleen, kidney, heart, liver, and lung of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis and uncovered 25 amplicons of six different sizes (1,263, 846/847, 602, 576, 487, and 324 base pairs). These fragments, cloned and sequenced, were found to represent several functional, regulatory, and structural genes. Blast search of all the 25 amplicons showed homologies with 43 transcribing genes across the species. Of these, the 846/847-bp fragment, having homology with the adenylate kinase gene, showed nucleotide changes at six identical places in the ovary and testis. The 1,263; 324; and 487-bp fragments showed homology with the secreted modular calcium binding protein (SMOC-1), leucine-rich repeat neuronal 6A (LRRN6A) mRNA, and human TTTY5 mRNA, respectively. Real-time PCR showed maximum expression of AKL, LRRN6A, and T-cell receptor gamma (TCR-gamma)-like genes in the testis, SMOC-1 in the liver, and the T-cell receptor-like (TCRL) gene in the spleen compared to those used as endogenous control. We construe that these genes have evolved from a common progenitor and conformed to various biological functions during the course of evolution. MASA approach coupled with real-time PCR has potentials to uncover accurate expression of a large number of genes within and across the species circumventing the screening of cDNA library.

  6. Phototyping: comprehensive DNA typing for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 & DQB1 by PCR with 144 primer mixes utilizing sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP).

    PubMed

    Bunce, M; O'Neill, C M; Barnardo, M C; Krausa, P; Browning, M J; Morris, P J; Welsh, K I

    1995-11-01

    We have developed a single DNA typing method which uses 144 sequence-specific primer (SSP) reactions to simultaneously detect all known HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 and DQB1 specificities in an allele specific or group specific manner using the same method, reagents, PCR parameters and protocols for all loci. The results from this integrated class I & II method can be visualized on a single photographic or electronic image and hence is described as "Phototyping". Phototyping has an overall resolution greater than or equivalent to good serology and results can be obtained in under 3 hours making the method suitable for genotyping potential cadaver donor peripheral blood without serological backup. This in turn produces the potential for reducing cold ischaemia times in renal transplantation as well as the application of prospective matching to cardiac and liver transplantation. The method has capacity to detect new alleles, for example, novel amplification patterns suggestive of 4 new HLA-B alleles have been detected. The Phototyping set has been used as the sole method of HLA typing for over 1010 individuals. Phototyping is not problem-free; deviations from the standard protocol, poor quality DNA and unsuitable PCR machines can result in individual PCR failures or in incorrect assignment of antigens. Approximately 5% of genotypes were repeated (either partially or fully) because of incomplete or equivocal results.

  7. A one step multiplex PCR assay for rapid screening of East Asian mtDNA haplogroups on forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Yoon, Jung Ah; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup typing has become an essential tool to study human evolutionary history and to infer the matrilineal bio-geographic ancestry. In forensic field, the screening of mtDNA haplogroups by genotyping of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help guarantee the quality of mtDNA sequence data as well as can reduce the need to sequence samples that do not match. Here, a multiplex mutagenically separated (MS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for simultaneous rapid detection of 14 coding region SNPs and one deletion motif representing common mtDNA haplogroups of East Asia. The multiplex MS PCR system we developed has the advantage of being a one step procedure that requires only a single PCR amplification with allele-specific primers and allowing straightforward designation of haplogroups along the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Therefore, it would be a simple, rapid, and reliable detection method useful for large-scale screening of mtDNA variations to determine East Asian mtDNA haplogroups.

  8. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

  9. Identification of the Causative Organism of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Ethiopia by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Dawit; Olobo, Joseph O.; Habte, Abebe; Negesse, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abraham; Abate, Getahun; Yassin, Mohammed A.; Bereda, Kiflu; Harboe, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with multiple differential diagnoses. Demonstration of the etiologic agent by smear microscopy or culture of fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens is often unsuccessful. FNA specimens from 40 patients presenting at a rural health center in South Ethiopia and diagnosed as positive for TBLN on the basis of clinical and cytological criteria were analyzed for mycobacterial DNA by PCR. Thirty (75%) had cervical lymphadenitis and 11 (27.5%) were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three primer sets were initially used to identify the causative agent at the genus (antigen 85 complex), complex (IS6110 insertion sequence), and species (pncA gene and allelic variation) levels. Among the forty TBLN cases, 35 (87.5%) were positive by PCR at the genus and complex levels. Based on PCR for detection of allelic variation at position 169, 24 (68.6%) of the 35 were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6 (17.1%) were positive for M. bovis. These six were positive in additional PCR assays using the JB21-JB22 primer set, which is highly specific for M. bovis. Five (14.1%) showed amplification for both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis with the allele-specific primer set. Cooccurrence of pyrazinamide (PZA)-sensitive and -resistant M. tuberculosis in those five cases was indicated, since all were negative in assays with the JB21-JB22 primer set. This feature was seen in 3 of 11 HIV-positive and 2 of 29 HIV-negative individuals (P < 0.001). Conclusion: among 35 PCR-positive cases of TBLN from southern Ethiopia, 29 (82.9%) were caused by M. tuberculosis and six (17.1%) were caused by M. bovis. PMID:12409403

  10. Analysis of allele-specific expression in mouse liver by RNA-Seq: a comparison with Cis-eQTL identified using genetic linkage.

    PubMed

    Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Martin, Lisa; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Roux, Pierre-François; Pan, Calvin; van Nas, Atila; Demeure, Olivier; Cantor, Rita; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J

    2013-11-01

    We report an analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE) and parent-of-origin expression in adult mouse liver using next generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) of reciprocal crosses of heterozygous F1 mice from the parental strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We found a 60% overlap between genes exhibiting ASE and putative cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) identified in an intercross between the same strains. We discuss the various biological and technical factors that contribute to the differences. We also identify genes exhibiting parental imprinting and complex expression patterns. Our study demonstrates the importance of biological replicates to limit the number of false positives with RNA-Seq data.

  11. The Length Distribution of Class I-Restricted T Cell Epitopes Is Determined by Both Peptide Supply and MHC Allele-Specific Binding Preference.

    PubMed

    Trolle, Thomas; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Sidney, John; Bardet, Wilfried; Osborn, Sean C; Kaever, Thomas; Sette, Alessandro; Hildebrand, William H; Nielsen, Morten; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-02-15

    HLA class I-binding predictions are widely used to identify candidate peptide targets of human CD8(+) T cell responses. Many such approaches focus exclusively on a limited range of peptide lengths, typically 9 aa and sometimes 9-10 aa, despite multiple examples of dominant epitopes of other lengths. In this study, we examined whether epitope predictions can be improved by incorporating the natural length distribution of HLA class I ligands. We found that, although different HLA alleles have diverse length-binding preferences, the length profiles of ligands that are naturally presented by these alleles are much more homogeneous. We hypothesized that this is due to a defined length profile of peptides available for HLA binding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Based on this, we created a model of HLA allele-specific ligand length profiles and demonstrate how this model, in combination with HLA-binding predictions, greatly improves comprehensive identification of CD8(+) T cell epitopes. PMID:26783342

  12. CalMaTe: a method and software to improve allele-specific copy number of SNP arrays for downstream segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Estevez, Maria; Aramburu, Ander; Bengtsson, Henrik; Neuvial, Pierre; Rubio, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Summary: CalMaTe calibrates preprocessed allele-specific copy number estimates (ASCNs) from DNA microarrays by controlling for single-nucleotide polymorphism-specific allelic crosstalk. The resulting ASCNs are on average more accurate, which increases the power of segmentation methods for detecting changes between copy number states in tumor studies including copy neutral loss of heterozygosity. CalMaTe applies to any ASCNs regardless of preprocessing method and microarray technology, e.g. Affymetrix and Illumina. Availability: The method is available on CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/) in the open-source R package calmate, which also includes an add-on to the Aroma Project framework (http://www.aroma-project.org/). Contact: arubio@ceit.es Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22576175

  13. Allele-specific loss and transcription of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, A; Pepe, F; Chiacchia, J; Pagotto, S; Lanuti, P; Veschi, S; Di Marco, M; D'Argenio, A; Innocenti, I; Vannata, B; Autore, F; Marchisio, M; Wernicke, D; Verginelli, F; Leone, G; Rassenti, L Z; Kipps, T J; Mariani-Costantini, R; Laurenti, L; Croce, C M; Visone, R

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster has a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a clinically heterogeneous disease with indolent and aggressive forms. The miR-15a/16-1 locus is located at 13q14, the most frequently deleted region in CLL. Starting from functional investigations of a rare SNP upstream the miR cluster, we identified a novel allele-specific mechanism that exploits a cryptic activator region to recruit the RNA polymerase III for miR-15a/16-1 transcription. This regulation of the miR-15a/16- locus is independent of the DLEU2 host gene, which is often transcribed monoallellically by RPII. We found that normally one allele of miR-15a/16-1 is transcribed by RNAPII, the other one by RNAPIII. In our subset of CLL patients harboring 13q14 deletions, exclusive RNA polymerase III (RPIII)-driven transcription of the miR-15a/16-1 was the consequence of loss of the RPII-regulated allele and correlated with high expression of the poor prognostic marker ZAP70 (P=0.019). Thus, our findings point to a novel biological process, characterized by double allele-specific transcriptional regulation of the miR-15a/16-1 locus by alternative mechanisms. Differential usage of these mechanisms may distinguish at onset aggressive from indolent forms of CLL. This provides a basis for the clinical heterogeneity of the CLL patients carrying 13q14 deletions. PMID:24732594

  14. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Elkin, Chris

    2006-05-09

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  15. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  16. Quantifying RNA allelic ratios by microfluidic multiplex PCR and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Xin; Ramaswami, Gokul; Smith, Kevin S; Turecki, Gustavo; Montgomery, Stephen B; Li, Jin Billy

    2014-01-01

    We developed a targeted RNA sequencing method that couples microfluidics-based multiplex PCR and deep sequencing (mmPCR-seq) to uniformly and simultaneously amplify up to 960 loci in 48 samples independently of their gene expression levels and to accurately and cost-effectively measure allelic ratios even for low-quantity or low-quality RNA samples. We applied mmPCR-seq to RNA editing and allele-specific expression studies. mmPCR-seq complements RNA-seq for studying allelic variations in the transcriptome.

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Major Drug Resistance Mutations in the Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Genes for HIV-1 Subtype C by Use of a Multiplex Allele-Specific Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Fangping; Zhou, Zhiyong; DeVos, Joshua; Wagar, Nick; Diallo, Karidia; Zulu, Isaac; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Weidle, Paul J.; Ndongmo, Clement B.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Kagoli, Matthew; Nkengasong, John

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput, sensitive, and cost-effective HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) detection assays are needed for large-scale monitoring of the emergence and transmission of HIVDR in resource-limited settings. Using suspension array technology, we have developed a multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay that can simultaneously detect major HIVDR mutations at 20 loci. Forty-five allele-specific primers tagged with unique 24-base oligonucleotides at the 5′ end were designed to detect wild-type and mutant alleles at the 20 loci of HIV-1 subtype C. The MAS assay was first established and optimized with three plasmid templates (C-wt, C-mut1, and C-mut2) and then evaluated using 148 plasma specimens from HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals. All the wild-type and mutant alleles were unequivocally distinguished with plasmid templates, and the limits of detection were 1.56% for K219Q and K219E, 3.13% for L76V, 6.25% for K65R, K70R, L74V, L100I, K103N, K103R, Q151M, Y181C, and I47V, and 12.5% for M41L, K101P, K101E, V106A, V106M, Y115F, M184V, Y188L, G190A, V32I, I47A, I84V, and L90M. Analyses of 148 plasma specimens revealed that the MAS assay gave 100% concordance with conventional sequencing at eight loci and >95% (range, 95.21% to 99.32%) concordance at the remaining 12 loci. The differences observed were caused mainly by 24 additional low-abundance alleles detected by the MAS assay. Ultradeep sequencing analysis confirmed 15 of the 16 low-abundance alleles. This multiplex, sensitive, and straightforward result-reporting assay represents a new efficient genotyping tool for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring. PMID:23985909

  18. Junctional and allele-specific residues are critical for MERS-CoV neutralization by an exceptionally potent germline-like antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Tianlei; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Du, Lanying; Shi, Wei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Lingshu; Li, Wei; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Zhou, Tongqing

    2015-09-15

    The MERS-CoV is an emerging virus, which already infected more than 1,300 humans with high (~36%) mortality. Here, we show that m336, an exceptionally potent human anti-MERS-CoV antibody, is almost germline with only one somatic mutation in the heavy chain. The structure of Fab m336 in complex with the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain reveals that its IGHV1-69-derived heavy chain provides more than 85% binding surface and that its epitope almost completely overlaps with the receptor-binding site. Analysis of antibodies from 69 healthy humans suggests an important role of the V(D)J recombination-generated junctional and allele-specific residues for achieving high affinity of binding at such low levels of somatic hypermutation. Our results also have important implications for development of vaccine immunogens based on the newly identified m336 epitope as well as for elucidation of mechanisms of neutralization by m336-like antibodies and their elicitation in vivo.

  19. Junctional and allele-specific residues are critical for MERS-CoV neutralization by an exceptionally potent germline-like antibody

    DOE PAGES

    Ying, Tianlei; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Du, Lanying; Shi, Wei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Lingshu; Li, Wei; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; et al

    2015-09-15

    The MERS-CoV is an emerging virus, which already infected more than 1,300 humans with high (~36%) mortality. Here, we show that m336, an exceptionally potent human anti-MERS-CoV antibody, is almost germline with only one somatic mutation in the heavy chain. The structure of Fab m336 in complex with the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain reveals that its IGHV1-69-derived heavy chain provides more than 85% binding surface and that its epitope almost completely overlaps with the receptor-binding site. Analysis of antibodies from 69 healthy humans suggests an important role of the V(D)J recombination-generated junctional and allele-specific residues for achieving high affinity of bindingmore » at such low levels of somatic hypermutation. Our results also have important implications for development of vaccine immunogens based on the newly identified m336 epitope as well as for elucidation of mechanisms of neutralization by m336-like antibodies and their elicitation in vivo.« less

  20. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  1. Reliable and fast allele-specific extension of 3'-LNA modified oligonucleotides covalently immobilized on a plastic base, combined with biotin-dUTP mediated optical detection.

    PubMed

    Michikawa, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Kenji; Kawai, Seiko; Sugahara, Keisuke; Suga, Tomo; Otsuka, Yoshimi; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    In the present work, a convenient microarray SNP typing system has been developed using a plastic base that covalently immobilizes amino-modified oligonucleotides. Reliable SNP allele discrimination was achieved by using allelic specificity-enhanced enzymatic extension of immobilized oligonucleotide primer, with a locked nucleic acid (LNA) modification at the SNP-discriminating 3'-end nucleotide. Incorporation of multiple biotin-dUTP molecules during primer extension, followed by binding of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated streptavidin, allowed optical detection of the genotyping results through precipitation of colored alkaline phosphatase substrates onto the surface of the plastic base. Notably, rapid primer extension was demonstrated without a preliminary annealing step of double-stranded template DNA, allowing overall processes to be performed within a couple of hours. Simultaneous evaluation of three SNPs in the genes TGFB1, SOD2 and APEX1, previously investigated for association with radiation sensitivity, in 25 individuals has shown perfect assignment with data obtained by another established technique (MassARRAY system).

  2. Inactive allele-specific methylation and chromatin structure of the imprinted gene U2af1-rs1 on mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Hideo; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kamiya, Mamoru

    1996-07-01

    The imprinted U2Af1-rs1 gene that maps to mouse chromosome 11 is predominately expressed from the paternal allele. We examined the methylation of genomic sequences in and around the U2af1-rs1 locus to establish the extent of sequence modifications that accompanied the silencing of the maternal allele. The analysis of HapII or HhaI sites showed that the silent maternal allele was hypermethylated in a block of CpG sequences that covered more than 10 kb. By comparison, the expressed paternal allele was unmethylated from a CpG island upstream of the transcribed region through 2 kb. An analysis of DNaseI hypersensitivity of a putative promoter of U2af1-rs1 showed an open chromatin conformation only on the unmethylated, expressed paternal allele. These results suggest that allele-specific hypermethylation covering the gene and its upstream CpG island plays a role in maternal allele repression of U2af1-rs1, which is reflected in altered chromatin conformation of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Allele-specific expression at the RET locus in blood and gut tissue of individuals carrying risk alleles for Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Matera, Ivana; Musso, Marco; Griseri, Paola; Rusmini, Marta; Di Duca, Marco; So, Man-Ting; Mavilio, Domenico; Miao, Xiaoping; Tam, Paul Hk; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Ceccherini, Isabella; Garcia-Barcelo, Merce

    2013-05-01

    RET common variants are associated with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR; colon aganglionosis), a congenital defect of the enteric nervous system. We analyzed a well-known HSCR-associated RET haplotype that encompasses linked alleles in coding and noncoding/regulatory sequences. This risk haplotype correlates with reduced level of RET expression when compared with the wild-type counterpart. As allele-specific expression (ASE) contributes to phenotypic variability in health and disease, we investigated whether RET ASE could contribute to the overall reduction of RET mRNA detected in carriers. We tested heterozygous neuroblastoma cell lines, ganglionic gut tissues (18 HSCR and 14 non-HSCR individuals) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; 16 HSCR and 14 non-HSCR individuals). Analysis of the data generated by SNaPshot and Pyrosequencing revealed that the RET risk haplotype is significantly more expressed in gut than in PBMCs (P = 0.0045). No ASE difference was detected between patients and controls, irrespective of the sample type. Comparison of total RET expression levels between gut samples with and without ASE, correlated reduced RET expression with preferential transcription from the RET risk haplotype. Nonrandom RET ASE occurs in ganglionic gut regardless of the disease status. RET ASE should not be excluded as a disease mechanism acting during development.

  4. Junctional and allele-specific residues are critical for MERS-CoV neutralization by an exceptionally potent germline-like antibody

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tianlei; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Du, Lanying; Shi, Wei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Lingshu; Li, Wei; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Zhou, Tongqing

    2015-01-01

    The MERS-CoV is an emerging virus, which already infected more than 1,300 humans with high (∼36%) mortality. Here, we show that m336, an exceptionally potent human anti-MERS-CoV antibody, is almost germline with only one somatic mutation in the heavy chain. The structure of Fab m336 in complex with the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain reveals that its IGHV1-69-derived heavy chain provides more than 85% binding surface and that its epitope almost completely overlaps with the receptor-binding site. Analysis of antibodies from 69 healthy humans suggests an important role of the V(D)J recombination-generated junctional and allele-specific residues for achieving high affinity of binding at such low levels of somatic hypermutation. Our results also have important implications for development of vaccine immunogens based on the newly identified m336 epitope as well as for elucidation of mechanisms of neutralization by m336-like antibodies and their elicitation in vivo. PMID:26370782

  5. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.

  6. Evaluation of a blood-specific DNA methylated region and trial for allele-specific blood identification from mixed body fluid DNA.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Takamura, Ayari; Sakurada, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains. We also demonstrated a test for allele-specific blood identification from a mixed DNA sample by bisulfite sequencing analysis of these CpG sites and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7359943 (A/G), which is of relevance in cases where mixed samples are obtained from crime scenes. The stability of DNA methylation in aged samples and the usefulness of neighboring genetic information shown in this study suggest that DNA-methylation-based body fluid identification will play a major role in future forensic investigations. PMID:27591539

  7. PCR-based screening for the most prevalent alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency mutations (PI S, Z, and Mmalton) in COPD patients from Eastern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Denden, Sabri; Lakhdar, Ramzi; Keskes, Nadia Boudawara; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hedi; Chibani, Jemni Ben; Khelil, Amel Haj

    2013-10-01

    It is generally agreed that the protease inhibitor (PI) alleles PI*S (Val264Glu) and PI*Z (Lys342Glu) are the most common alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency variants worldwide, but the PI*Mmalton allele (ΔPhe52) prevails over these variants in some Mediterranean regions. In eastern Tunisia (Mahdia), we screened 100 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for these variants. The PI*S and PI*Z alleles were genotyped by the previously described SexAI/Hpγ99I RFLP-PCR. We provide here a new method for PI*Mmalton genotyping using mismatched RFLP-PCR. These methods are suitable for routine clinical application and can easily be reproduced by several laboratories, since they do not require extensive optimization, unlike the previously described bidirectional allele-specific amplification PCR for PI*Mmalton genotyping. Our results were in agreement with previous reports from central Tunisia (Kairouan), suggesting that the PI*Mmalton mutation is the most frequent alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency-related mutation in Tunisia.

  8. The frequency of the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase I2 (atypical) allele in Caucasian, Oriental and African black populations determined by the restriction profile of PCR-amplified DNA.

    PubMed

    Dandré, F; Cassaigne, A; Iron, A

    1995-06-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase I (ALDH I) gene codes for a mitochondrial enzyme which plays a major role in hepatic alcohol detoxication. It has been related to alcohol flushing in Orientals bearing the atypical ALDH I2 gene. The variant protein results from a lysine for glutamate substitution at position 487 (G-->A change in exon 12). A procedure for ALDH I2 detection consisting in a differentiation between the 'atypical' allele and the 'wild' allele has been improved through PCR and subsequent MboII digestion. Blood samples collected on anticoagulant or directly absorbed on blotting paper were used for DNA amplification in the presence of two specific oligonucleotidic primers, each one able to incorporate a restriction site in the amplimer. After MboII digestion, PCR products were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then visualized with ethidium bromide. This technique permits a rapid and non-radioactive detection of atypical ALDH I2 on a PCR product without the use of allele specific oligonucleotides. It was applied to the study of ALDH I2 allele frequency in random population samples of three ethnic groups: Caucasians, Orientals and African blacks.

  9. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  10. Bioanalytical applications of isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The most popular in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including real-time PCR are costly and require thermocycling, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Highly efficient in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques using simple, portable and low-cost instruments are crucial in disease diagnosis, mutation detection and biodefense. Toward this goal, isothermal amplification techniques that represent a group of attractive in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques for bioanalysis have been developed. Unlike PCR where polymerases are easily deactivated by thermally labile constituents in a sample, some of the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as helicase-dependent amplification and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, enable the detection of bioanalytes with much simplified protocols and with minimal sample preparations since the entire amplification processes are performed isothermally. This review focuses on the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry. Starting off from their amplification mechanisms and significant properties, the adoption of isothermal amplification techniques in bioanalytical chemistry and their future perspectives are discussed. Representative examples illustrating the performance and advantages of each isothermal amplification technique are discussed along with some discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

  11. Practical Prediction of Ten Common Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes/Serogroups in One PCR Reaction by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and Melting Curve (MLPA-MC) Assay in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lei; Zou, Jianhua; Jin, Ping; Hu, Yanwei; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Xu; Wang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae has more than 95 distinct serotypes described to date. However, only certain serotypes are more likely to cause pneumococcal diseases. Thus serotype surveillance is important for vaccine formula design as well as in post-vaccine serotype shift monitor. The goal of this study was to develop a practical screening assay for ten Shenzhen China common pneumococcal serotypes/serogroups in one molecular reaction. Methods A molecular assay, based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and melting curve (MC) analysis, was developed in an integrated approach (MLPA-MC) for the detection of ten capsular serotypes/serogroups 4, 6 (6A/6B/6C/6D), 9V/9A, 14, 15F/15A, 15B/15C, 18 (18F/18A/18B/18C), 19F, 19A and 23F. We designed serotype/serogroup-specific MLPA probes and fluorescent detection probes to discriminate the different serotypes/serogroups in one molecular reaction. The three steps of MLPA-MC assay are continuous reactions in one well detected by LightCycler 480. A total of 210 S. pneumoniae isolates from our local Maternity and Child Health Hospital were randomly chosen to evaluate the assay against published multiplex PCR assays. Results Our results showed that 198 (94.3%) of S. pneumoniae isolates were type-able by our assays and the results were in complete concordance with the published multiplex PCRs. Using the MLPA-MC assay, 96 S. pneumoniae isolates could be typed within 3 hours with limited hands-on time. This serotype/serogroup-screening assay can be easily modified or extended by modification of the serotype/serogroup-specific MLPA probes combinations according to the needs of different laboratories. Conclusions We recommend use of this assay as a starting point for screening serotype/serogroup frequencies. There is a need for this assay to be combined with other molecular typing assays, like published serotype specific PCRs, or even the Quellung reaction for serotype confirmation. PMID:26151828

  12. In silico PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Zhang, Changbin

    2011-01-01

    In silico PCR analysis is a useful and efficient complementary method to ensure primer specificity for an extensive range of PCR applications from gene discovery, molecular diagnosis, and pathogen detection to forensic DNA typing. In silico PCR, SNPCheck, and Primer-BLAST are commonly used web-based in silico PCR tools. Their applications are discussed here in stepwise detail along with several examples, which aim to make it easier for the intended users to apply the tools. This virtual PCR method can assist in the selection of newly designed primers, identify potential mismatches in the primer binding sites due to known SNPs, and avoid the amplification of unwanted amplicons so that potential problems can be prevented before any "wet bench" experiment.

  13. Mutant Allele-Specific Uncoupling of PENETRATION3 Functions Reveals Engagement of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter in Distinct Tryptophan Metabolic Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xunli; Dittgen, Jan; Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Molina, Antonio; Schneider, Bernd; Doubský, Jan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PENETRATION (PEN) genes quantitatively contribute to the execution of different forms of plant immunity upon challenge with diverse leaf pathogens. PEN3 encodes a plasma membrane-resident pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter and is thought to act in a pathogen-inducible and PEN2 myrosinase-dependent metabolic pathway in extracellular defense. This metabolic pathway directs the intracellular biosynthesis and activation of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates for subsequent PEN3-mediated efflux across the plasma membrane at pathogen contact sites. However, PEN3 also functions in abiotic stress responses to cadmium and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-mediated auxin homeostasis in roots, raising the possibility that PEN3 exports multiple functionally unrelated substrates. Here, we describe the isolation of a pen3 allele, designated pen3-5, that encodes a dysfunctional protein that accumulates in planta like wild-type PEN3. The specific mutation in pen3-5 uncouples PEN3 functions in IBA-stimulated root growth modulation, callose deposition induced with a conserved peptide epitope of bacterial flagellin (flg22), and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation from PEN3 activity in extracellular defense, indicating the engagement of multiple PEN3 substrates in different PEN3-dependent biological processes. We identified 4-O-β-d-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide (4OGlcI3F) as a pathogen-inducible, tryptophan-derived compound that overaccumulates in pen3 leaf tissue and has biosynthesis that is dependent on an intact PEN2 metabolic pathway. We propose that a precursor of 4OGlcI3F is the PEN3 substrate in extracellular pathogen defense. These precursors, the shared indole core present in IBA and 4OGlcI3F, and allele-specific uncoupling of a subset of PEN3 functions suggest that PEN3 transports distinct indole-type metabolites in distinct biological processes. PMID:26023163

  14. Comparative analysis of type 2 diabetes-associated SNP alleles identifies allele-specific DNA-binding proteins for the KCNQ1 locus.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Masaki; Udagawa, Haruhide; Watanabe, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Naoko; Kawaguchi, Miho; Uebanso, Takashi; Nishimura, Wataru; Nammo, Takao; Yasuda, Kazuki

    2015-07-01

    Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been extremely successful, it remains a big challenge to functionally annotate disease‑associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as the majority of these SNPs are located in non‑coding regions of the genome. In this study, we described a novel strategy for identifying the proteins that bind to the SNP‑containing locus in an allele‑specific manner and successfully applied this method to SNPs in the type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene, potassium voltage‑gated channel, KQT‑like subfamily Q, member 1 (KCNQ1). DNA fragments encompassing SNPs, and risk or non‑risk alleles were immobilized onto the novel nanobeads and DNA‑binding proteins were purified from the nuclear extracts of pancreatic β cells using these DNA‑immobilized nanobeads. Comparative analysis of the allele-specific DNA-binding proteins indicated that the affinities of several proteins for the examined SNPs differed between the alleles. Nuclear transcription factor Y (NF‑Y) specifically bound the non‑risk allele of the SNP rs2074196 region and stimulated the transcriptional activity of an artificial promoter containing SNP rs2074196 in an allele‑specific manner. These results suggest that SNP rs2074196 modulates the affinity of the locus for NF‑Y and possibly induces subsequent changes in gene expression. The findings of this study indicate that our comparative method using novel nanobeads is effective for the identification of allele‑specific DNA‑binding proteins, which may provide important clues for the functional impact of disease‑associated non‑coding SNPs.

  15. Proper Use of Allele-Specific Expression Improves Statistical Power for cis-eQTL Mapping with RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    HU, Yi-Juan; SUN, Wei; TZENG, Jung-Ying; PEROU, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) offer insight into the molecular mechanisms of loci that were found to be associated with complex diseases and the mechanisms can be classified into cis- and trans-acting regulation. At present, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is rapidly replacing expression microarrays to assess gene expression abundance. Unlike microarrays that only measure the total expression of each gene, RNA-seq also provides information on allele-specific expression (ASE), which can be used to distinguish cis-eQTLs from trans-eQTLs and, more importantly, enhance cis-eQTL mapping. However, assessing the cis-effect of a candidate eQTL on a gene requires knowledge of the haplotypes connecting the candidate eQTL and the gene, which cannot be inferred with certainty. The existing two-stage approach that first phases the candidate eQTL against the gene and then treats the inferred phase as observed in the association analysis tends to attenuate the estimated cis-effect and reduce the power for detecting a cis-eQTL. In this article, we provide a maximum-likelihood framework for cis-eQTL mapping with RNA-seq data. Our approach integrates the inference of haplotypes and the association analysis into a single stage, and is thus unbiased and statistically powerful. We also develop a pipeline for performing a comprehensive scan of all local eQTLs for all genes in the genome by controlling for false discovery rate, and implement the methods in a computationally efficient software program. The advantages of the proposed methods over the existing ones are demonstrated through realistic simulation studies and an application to empirical breast cancer data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. PMID:26568645

  16. Allele-Specific Virulence Attenuation of the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ1a Type III Effector via the Arabidopsis ZAR1 Resistance Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer D.; Wu, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Plant resistance (R) proteins provide a robust surveillance system to defend against potential pathogens. Despite their importance in plant innate immunity, relatively few of the ∼170 R proteins in Arabidopsis have well-characterized resistance specificity. In order to identify the R protein responsible for recognition of the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector (T3SE) HopZ1a, we assembled an Arabidopsis R gene T–DNA Insertion Collection (ARTIC) from publicly available Arabidopsis thaliana insertion lines and screened it for plants lacking HopZ1a-induced immunity. This reverse genetic screen revealed that the Arabidopsis R protein HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1 (ZAR1; At3g50950) is required for recognition of HopZ1a in Arabidopsis. ZAR1 belongs to the coiled-coil (CC) class of nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS–LRR) containing R proteins; however, the ZAR1 CC domain phylogenetically clusters in a clade distinct from other related Arabidopsis R proteins. ZAR1–mediated immunity is independent of several genes required by other R protein signaling pathways, including NDR1 and RAR1, suggesting that ZAR1 possesses distinct signaling requirements. The closely-related T3SE protein, HopZ1b, is still recognized by zar1 Arabidopsis plants indicating that Arabidopsis has evolved at least two independent R proteins to recognize the HopZ T3SE family. Also, in Arabidopsis zar1 plants HopZ1a promotes P. syringae growth indicative of an ancestral virulence function for this T3SE prior to the evolution of recognition by the host resistance protein ZAR1. Our results demonstrate that the Arabidopsis resistance protein ZAR1 confers allele-specific recognition and virulence attenuation of the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE protein HopZ1a. PMID:20368970

  17. Mutant Allele-Specific Uncoupling of PENETRATION3 Functions Reveals Engagement of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter in Distinct Tryptophan Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunli; Dittgen, Jan; Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Molina, Antonio; Schneider, Bernd; Svatoš, Aleš; Doubský, Jan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Weigel, Detlef; Bednarek, Paweł; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) penetration (PEN) genes quantitatively contribute to the execution of different forms of plant immunity upon challenge with diverse leaf pathogens. PEN3 encodes a plasma membrane-resident pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter and is thought to act in a pathogen-inducible and PEN2 myrosinase-dependent metabolic pathway in extracellular defense. This metabolic pathway directs the intracellular biosynthesis and activation of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates for subsequent PEN3-mediated efflux across the plasma membrane at pathogen contact sites. However, PEN3 also functions in abiotic stress responses to cadmium and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-mediated auxin homeostasis in roots, raising the possibility that PEN3 exports multiple functionally unrelated substrates. Here, we describe the isolation of a pen3 allele, designated pen3-5, that encodes a dysfunctional protein that accumulates in planta like wild-type PEN3. The specific mutation in pen3-5 uncouples PEN3 functions in IBA-stimulated root growth modulation, callose deposition induced with a conserved peptide epitope of bacterial flagellin (flg22), and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation from PEN3 activity in extracellular defense, indicating the engagement of multiple PEN3 substrates in different PEN3-dependent biological processes. We identified 4-O-β-D-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide (4OGlcI3F) as a pathogen-inducible, tryptophan-derived compound that overaccumulates in pen3 leaf tissue and has biosynthesis that is dependent on an intact PEN2 metabolic pathway. We propose that a precursor of 4OGlcI3F is the PEN3 substrate in extracellular pathogen defense. These precursors, the shared indole core present in IBA and 4OGlcI3F, and allele-specific uncoupling of a subset of PEN3 functions suggest that PEN3 transports distinct indole-type metabolites in distinct biological processes.

  18. Electromobility Shift Assay Reveals Evidence in Favor of Allele-Specific Binding of RUNX1 to the 5' Hypersensitive Site 4-Locus Control Region.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hossein; Ghobakhloo, Sepideh; Neishabury, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    In our previous studies on the Iranian β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients, we identified an association between the severity of the β-thal phenotype and the polymorphic palindromic site at the 5' hypersensitive site 4-locus control region (5'HS4-LCR) of the β-globin gene cluster. Furthermore, a linkage disequilibrium was observed between this region and XmnI-HBG2 in the patient population. Based on this data, it was suggested that the well-recognized phenotype-ameliorating role assigned to positive XmnI could be associated with its linked elements in the LCR. To investigate the functional significance of polymorphisms at the 5'HS4-LCR, we studied its influence on binding of transcription factors. Web-based predictions of transcription factor binding revealed a binding site for runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), when the allele at the center of the palindrome (TGGGG(A/G)CCCCA) was A but not when it was G. Furthermore, electromobility shift assay (EMSA) presented evidence in support of allele-specific binding of RUNX1 to 5'HS4. Considering that RUNX1 is a well-known regulator of hematopoiesis, these preliminary data suggest the importance of further studies to confirm this interaction and consequently investigate its functional and phenotypical relevance. These studies could help us to understand the molecular mechanism behind the phenotype modifying role of the 5'HS4-LCR polymorphic palindromic region (rs16912979), which has been observed in previous studies. PMID:27492765

  19. SAAS-CNV: A Joint Segmentation Approach on Aggregated and Allele Specific Signals for the Identification of Somatic Copy Number Alterations with Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity.

  20. SAAS-CNV: A Joint Segmentation Approach on Aggregated and Allele Specific Signals for the Identification of Somatic Copy Number Alterations with Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity. PMID:26583378

  1. RNA-Seq Analysis of Allele-Specific Expression, Hybrid Effects, and Regulatory Divergence in Hybrids Compared with Their Parents from Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graeme D.M.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Adams, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is a prominent process among natural plant populations that can result in phenotypic novelty, heterosis, and changes in gene expression. The effects of intraspecific hybridization on F1 hybrid gene expression were investigated using parents from divergent, natural populations of Cirsium arvense, an invasive Compositae weed. Using an RNA-seq approach, the expression of 68,746 unigenes was quantified in parents and hybrids. The expression levels of 51% of transcripts differed between parents, a majority of which had less than 1.25× fold-changes. More unigenes had higher expression in the invasive parent (P1) than the noninvasive parent (P2). Of those that were divergently expressed between parents, 10% showed additive and 81% showed nonadditive (transgressive or dominant) modes of gene action in the hybrids. A majority of the dominant cases had P2-like expression patterns in the hybrids. Comparisons of allele-specific expression also enabled a survey of cis- and trans-regulatory effects. Cis- and trans-regulatory divergence was found at 70% and 68% of 62,281 informative single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, respectively. Of the 17% of sites exhibiting both cis- and trans-effects, a majority (70%) had antagonistic regulatory interactions (cis x trans); trans-divergence tended to drive higher expression of the P1 allele, whereas cis-divergence tended to increase P2 transcript abundance. Trans-effects correlated more highly than cis with parental expression divergence and accounted for a greater proportion of the regulatory divergence at sites with additive compared with nonadditive inheritance patterns. This study explores the nature of, and types of mechanisms underlying, expression changes that occur in upon intraspecific hybridization in natural populations. PMID:23677938

  2. Comparison of human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a typing by solid phase red cell adherence to HPA-1 allotypes determined by allele-specific restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed

    McGann, M J; Procter, J L; Honda, J; Matsuo, K; Stroncek, D F

    2000-01-01

    Phenotype results for human platelet antigen (HPA)-1 by Capture-P(R), (Immucor, Inc., Norcross, GA) solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) were compared to results of allele-specific restriction enzyme analysis (ASRA) for the determination of HPA-1 allotype. Because the expression of HPA-1a and HPA-1b is determined by a single nucleotide substitution of thymine --> cytosine at position 196 of the gene encoding membrane glycoprotein (GP)-IIIa, it is possible to distinguish the alternate forms of the gene using ASRA. Primers (5'- GCTCCAATGTACGGGGTAAACTC-3' and 5'-CAGACCTCCACCTTGTGCTCTATG- 3') were designed to amplify the region of DNA that contains the polymorphism and a restriction enzyme (Nci I) was used to cleave the DNA in a predictable manner. Platelet-rich plasma for immunophenotying and anticoagulated whole blood for DNA extraction were obtained from 159 platepheresis donors. Of 159 SPRCA tests, 138 were valid and 21 were invalid due to positive autologous controls. For 135 HPA-1a-positive and 2 HPA-1a-negative phenotype tests the DNA typing results correlated: 135 positive samples were either HPA-1a/a or HPA-1a/b and 2 negative samples were HPA-1b/b. One donor that typed as HPA-1b/b by ASRA had a positive result of 2+ on SPRCA. This donor had been previously typed by SPRCA as HPA-1a-negative and DNA typed as HPA-1b/b by our laboratory. Based on these findings results of = 3+ by SPRCA are interpreted as HPA-1a-positive for donor screening purposes. SPRCA test results of = 2+ are considered equivocal and the HPA-1 allotype is determined by ASRA. HPA-1a-negative donors by SPRCA must be confirmed as HPA-1b/b by ASRA prior to issue for a patient that requires HPA-1anegative platelets.

  3. Fine mapping of QTL and genomic prediction using allele-specific expression SNPs demonstrates that the complex trait of genetic resistance to Marek’s disease is predominantly determined by transcriptional regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypothesis that polymorphisms associated with transcriptional regulation are critical for viral disease resistance was tested by selecting birds using SNPs exhibiting allele-specific expression (ASE) in response to viral challenge. Analysis indicates ASE markers account for 83% of the disease re...

  4. Identification of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in Brassica napus genome and development of allele-specific markers for high oleic and low linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingyong; Fan, Chuchuan; Guo, Zhenhua; Qin, Jie; Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Qingyuan; Fu, Tingdong; Zhou, Yongming

    2012-08-01

    Modification of oleic acid (C18:1) and linolenic acid (C18:3) contents in seeds is one of the major goals for quality breeding after removal of erucic acid in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The fatty acid desaturase genes FAD2 and FAD3 have been shown as the major genes for the control of C18:1 and C18:3 contents. However, the genome structure and locus distributions of the two gene families in amphidiploid B. napus are still not completely understood to date. In the present study, all copies of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in the A- and C-genome of B. napus and its two diploid progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, were identified through bioinformatic analysis and extensive molecular cloning. Two FAD2 genes exist in B. rapa and B. oleracea, and four copies of FAD2 genes exist in B. napus. Three and six copies of FAD3 genes were identified in diploid species and amphidiploid species, respectively. The genetic control of high C18:1 and low C18:3 contents in a double haploid population was investigated through mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits and the molecular cloning of the underlying genes. One major QTL of BnaA.FAD2.a located on A5 chromosome was responsible for the high C18:1 content. A deleted mutation in the BnaA.FAD2.a locus was uncovered, which represented a previously unidentified allele for the high oleic variation in B. napus species. Two major QTLs on A4 and C4 chromosomes were found to be responsible for the low C18:3 content in the DH population as well as in SW Hickory. Furthermore, several single base pair changes in BnaA.FAD3.b and BnaC.FAD3.b were identified to cause the phenotype of low C18:3 content. Based on the results of genetic mapping and identified sequences, allele-specific markers were developed for FAD2 and FAD3 genes. Particularly, single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms markers for FAD3 alleles were demonstrated to be a reliable type of SNP markers for unambiguous identification of genotypes with

  5. Identification of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in Brassica napus genome and development of allele-specific markers for high oleic and low linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingyong; Fan, Chuchuan; Guo, Zhenhua; Qin, Jie; Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Qingyuan; Fu, Tingdong; Zhou, Yongming

    2012-08-01

    Modification of oleic acid (C18:1) and linolenic acid (C18:3) contents in seeds is one of the major goals for quality breeding after removal of erucic acid in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The fatty acid desaturase genes FAD2 and FAD3 have been shown as the major genes for the control of C18:1 and C18:3 contents. However, the genome structure and locus distributions of the two gene families in amphidiploid B. napus are still not completely understood to date. In the present study, all copies of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in the A- and C-genome of B. napus and its two diploid progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, were identified through bioinformatic analysis and extensive molecular cloning. Two FAD2 genes exist in B. rapa and B. oleracea, and four copies of FAD2 genes exist in B. napus. Three and six copies of FAD3 genes were identified in diploid species and amphidiploid species, respectively. The genetic control of high C18:1 and low C18:3 contents in a double haploid population was investigated through mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits and the molecular cloning of the underlying genes. One major QTL of BnaA.FAD2.a located on A5 chromosome was responsible for the high C18:1 content. A deleted mutation in the BnaA.FAD2.a locus was uncovered, which represented a previously unidentified allele for the high oleic variation in B. napus species. Two major QTLs on A4 and C4 chromosomes were found to be responsible for the low C18:3 content in the DH population as well as in SW Hickory. Furthermore, several single base pair changes in BnaA.FAD3.b and BnaC.FAD3.b were identified to cause the phenotype of low C18:3 content. Based on the results of genetic mapping and identified sequences, allele-specific markers were developed for FAD2 and FAD3 genes. Particularly, single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms markers for FAD3 alleles were demonstrated to be a reliable type of SNP markers for unambiguous identification of genotypes with

  6. Hybrid Chirped Pulse Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Barty, C P J

    2002-05-07

    We present a novel chirped pulse amplification method which combines optical parametric amplification and laser amplification. We have demonstrated this hybrid CPA concept with a combination of beta-barium borate and Ti:sapphire. High-efficiency, multi-terawatt compatible amplification is achieved without gain narrowing and without electro-optic modulators using a simple commercial pump laser.

  7. Evaluation of PCR amplification bias by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of small-subunit rRNA and mcrA genes by using defined template mixtures of methanogenic pure cultures and soil DNA extracts.

    PubMed

    Lueders, Tillmann; Friedrich, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a widely used method for profiling microbial community structure in different habitats by targeting small-subunit (SSU) rRNA and also functional marker genes. It is not known, however, whether relative gene frequencies of individual community members are adequately represented in post-PCR amplicon frequencies as shown by T-RFLP. In this study, precisely defined artificial template mixtures containing genomic DNA of four different methanogens in various ratios were prepared for subsequent T-RFLP analysis. PCR amplicons were generated from defined mixtures targeting not only the SSU rRNA but also the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA/mrtA) genes of methanogens. Relative amplicon frequencies of microorganisms were quantified by comparing fluorescence intensities of characteristic terminal restriction fragments. SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) template ratios in defined template mixtures of the four-membered community were recovered absolutely by PCR-T-RFLP analysis, which demonstrates that the T-RFLP analysis evaluated can give a quantitative view of the template pool. SSU rDNA-targeted T-RFLP analysis of a natural community was found to be highly reproducible, independent of PCR annealing temperature, and unaffected by increasing PCR cycle numbers. Ratios of mcrA-targeted T-RFLP analysis were biased, most likely by PCR selection due to the degeneracy of the primers used. Consequently, for microbial community analyses, each primer system used should be evaluated carefully for possible PCR bias. In fact, such bias can be detected by using T-RFLP analysis as a tool for the precise quantification of the PCR product pool.

  8. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2010-09-28

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  9. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product