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Sample records for allens avenue providence

  1. 27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  2. 28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  3. Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen's rule.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2010-08-01

    Allen's rule proposes that the appendages of endotherms are smaller, relative to body size, in colder climates, in order to reduce heat loss. Empirical support for Allen's rule is mainly derived from occasional reports of geographical clines in extremity size of individual species. Interspecific evidence is restricted to two studies of leg proportions in seabirds and shorebirds. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of 214 bird species to examine whether bird bills, significant sites of heat exchange, conform to Allen's rule. The species comprised eight diverse taxonomic groups-toucans, African barbets, Australian parrots, estrildid finches, Canadian galliforms, penguins, gulls, and terns. Across all species, there were strongly significant relationships between bill length and both latitude and environmental temperature, with species in colder climates having significantly shorter bills. Patterns supporting Allen's rule in relation to latitudinal or altitudinal distribution held within all groups except the finches. Evidence for a direct association with temperature was found within four groups (parrots, galliforms, penguins, and gulls). Support for Allen's rule in leg elements was weaker, suggesting that bird bills may be more susceptible to thermoregulatory constraints generally. Our results provide the strongest comparative support yet published for Allen's rule and demonstrate that thermoregulation has been an important factor in shaping the evolution of bird bills.

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer 24 June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer 24 June 1964 GRAND STAIRWAY, FROM SECOND FLOOR HALL, SHOWING STAINED GLASS WINDOW IN WEST WALL ABOVE LANDING - Francis J. Dewes House, 503 West Wrightwood Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer June 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer June 1964 STAINED GLASS WINDOW, WEST WINDOW IN SOUTH WALL, FROM BALCONY - Kehilath Anshe Ma'ariv Synagogue, 3301 South Indiana Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge, southbound of Warrington Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge, southbound of Warrington Avenue - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer June 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer June 1964 TRIPLE STAINED GLASS WINDOWS AND COLUMN SUPPORTING BALCONY (EAST WINDOWS IN SOUTH WALL OF MAIN FLOOR OF AUDITORIUM) - Kehilath Anshe Ma'ariv Synagogue, 3301 South Indiana Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. H. Julian Allen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    H. Julian Allen stands beside the observation window of the 8 x 7 foot test section of the NACA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. H. Julian Allen is best known for his 'Blunt Body Theory' of aerodynamics, a design technique for alleviating the severe re-entry heating problem which was then delaying the development of ballistic missiles. His findings revolutionized the fundamental design of ballistic missle re-entry shapes. Subsequently, applied research led to applications of the 'blunt' shape to ballistic missles and spacecraft which were intended to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. This application led to the design of ablative heat shields that protected the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo astronauts as their space capsules re- entered the Earth's atmosphere. 'Harvey' Allen as he was called by most, was not only a brilliant scientist and aeronautical engineer but was also admired for his kindness, thoughtfulness and sense of humor. Among his many other accomplishments, Harvey Allen served as Center Director of the NASA Ames Research Center from 1965 to 1969. He died of a heart attack on January 29, 1977 at the age of 66.

  9. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-04-05

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module.

  10. William G. Allen: On "Orators and Oratory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calloway-Thomas, Carolyn

    1988-01-01

    William G. Allen was an African-American professor at Central College, McGrawville, New York. His lecture, "Orators and Oratory," delivered on June 22, 1852, is the earliest recorded study by an American Black on the ancient art of oratory. The text of the lecture is provided. (BJV)

  11. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  12. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE NORTH OF BANCROFT AVENUE AT 2234 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE NORTH OF BANCROFT AVENUE AT 2234 PIEDMONT (DR. B.P. WALL HOUSE BY WILLIAM C. HAYS, 1909.) WEST SIDE OF THE STREET LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, June 29, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  13. Van Allen Discovery Most Important

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1959-01-01

    The first step toward the exploration of space occurred approximately 22 months ago as a part of the International Geophysical Year. In the short interval since October, 1957, the new tools of research, the satellite and the space rocket, have produced two unexpected results of fundamental scientific importance. First, instruments placed in the Explorer satellites by James A. Van Allen have revealed the existence of layers of energetic particles in the outer atmosphere. This discovery constitutes the most significant research achievement of the IGY satellite program. The layers may provide the explanation for the aurora and other geophysical phenomena, and they will also influence the design of vehicles for manned space flight, whose occupants must be shielded against their harmful biological effects. Second, the shape of the earth has been determined very accurately with the aid of data from the first Vanguard. As a result of this investigation, we have found that our planet tends toward the shape of a pear, with its stem at the North Pole. This discovery may produce major changes in our ideas on the interior structure of the earth.

  14. Reaction of oxygen with allene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Sheng-yu

    1988-07-01

    Elastic scattering studies carried out independently of the work related to the title forms the first section of the dissertation. The low-energy elastic scattering of He with Ar, Kr, Xe has been studied by molecular beam techniques. Two potential forms, exponential-spline-Morse-Morse-spline-van de Waals (ESMMSV) and Simon-Parr-Finlan-Dunham (SPFD), have been used to fit the measured differential cross section. Elastic scattering theory and experimental details are introduced. The reactive scattering of O(/sup 3/P) with allene has been studied using crossed molecular beams. Differing from the well known central-carbon-attack (CCA) mechanism in which the final products, carbon monoxide and ethylene, are obtained via a ring intermediate, a new mechanism, terminal-carbon-attack (TCA), has been observed. The production of O(/sup 3/P) atoms by radio frequency discharge is also introduced. To assist understanding of the experiments a multi-configuration self-consistent field (MCSCF) study of the reaction of O(/sup 3/P) with allene has been carried out. The key feature of the oxygen-allene potential energy surface for both CCA and TCA channels has been calculated with single-zeta (SZ), double-zeta (DZ), and double-zeta plus polarization (DZP) basis sets. Finally, an algorithm for optimizing the trial wavefunction in quantum Monte Carlo calculations has been developed. With the application of group theory, a symmetry-constrained optimization process can yield an improved trial wavefunction for the calculation of excited electronic state energies as well as the ground-state energy. Several applications are discussed. 145 refs.

  15. Kids Working on Paulista Avenue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Martha K.; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Six weeks of field research on 14 poor youth who sell services or products on the opulent Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo, Brazil, explored their work, play, aspirations and childhood outcomes. Comparing the 12 younger children to the two older youth workers who supervised them and to the few Brazilian longitudinal accounts of street youth, the…

  16. Water resources of Allen Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, approximately 29.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Allen Parish, Louisiana, including about 26.8 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 2.45 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Rice irrigation accounted for 74 percent (21.7 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, industrial, rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish were greatest in 1960 (119 Mgal/d) and 1980 (98.7 Mgal/d). The substantial decrease in surface-water use between 1960 and 1965 is primarily attributable to rice-irrigation withdrawals declining from 61.2 to 6.74 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Allen Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  17. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: A Centralized Data Access Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G. K.; Kessel, R.; Potter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the Van Allen Probes Space Weather data to users. Over the past years, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes science and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including, simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell, capability of visualizing data from both probes (A & B) on the same plot. In cooperation with all Van Allen Probes Instrument SOCs, the Science Gateway will soon be able to serve higher level data products (Level 3), and to visualize them via the above mentioned HTML5 interface. Users will also be able to create customized CDF files on the fly.

  18. Phosphine Catalysis of Allenes with Electrophiles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiming; Xu, Xingzhu; Kwon, Ohyun

    2014-01-01

    Nucleophilic phosphine catalysis of allenes with electrophiles is one of the most powerful and straightforward synthetic strategies for the generation of highly functionalized carbocycle or heterocycle structural motifs, which are present in a wide range of bioactive natural products and medicinally important substances. The reaction topologies can be controlled through judicious choice of the phosphine catalyst and the structural variations of starting materials. This Tutorial Review presents selected examples of nucleophilic phosphine catalysis using allenes and electrophiles. PMID:24663290

  19. Electrophilic addition and cyclization reactions of allenes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengming

    2009-10-20

    Modern organic synthesis depends on the development of highly selective methods for the efficient construction of potentially useful target molecules. A primary goal in our laboratory is the discovery of new reactions that convert readily available starting materials to complex products with complete control of regio- and stereoselectivity. Allenes are one underused moiety in organic synthesis, because these groups are often thought to be highly reactive. However, many compounds containing the allene group, including natural products and pharmaceuticals, are fairly stable. The chemistry of allenes has been shown to have significant potential in organic synthesis. Electrophilic additions to allenes have often been considered to be synthetically less attractive due to the lack of efficient control of the regio- and stereoselectivity. However, this Account describes electrophilic reactions of allenes with defined regio- and stereoselectivity developed in our laboratory. Many substituted allenes are readily available from propargylic alcohols. Our work has involved an exploration of the reactions of these allenes with many different electrophiles: the E- or Z-halo- or seleno-hydroxylations of allenyl sulfoxides, sulfones, phosphine oxides, carboxylates, sulfides or selenides, butenolides, and arenes, and the halo- or selenolactonization reactions of allenoic acids and allenoates. These reactions have produced a host of new compounds such as stereodefined allylic alcohols, ethers, amides, thiiranes, and lactones. In all these reactions, water acts as a reactant and plays an important role in determining the reaction pathway and the stereoselectivity. The differing electronic properties of the two C=C bonds in these allenes determine the regioselectivity of these reactions. Through mechanistic studies of chirality transfer, isolation and reactivity of cyclic intermediates, (18)O-labeling, and substituent effects, we discovered that the E-stereoselectivity of some

  20. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and Space Weather Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts as a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the VAP Space Weather data to users. Over the past year, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes summary and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell. We discuss the new Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and the Space Weather Data Pipeline.

  1. Cognitive Deterioration and Associated Pathology Induced by Chronic Low-Level Aluminum Ingestion in a Translational Rat Model Provides an Explanation of Alzheimer's Disease, Tests for Susceptibility and Avenues for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Walton, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    A translational aging rat model for chronic aluminum (Al) neurotoxicity mimics human Al exposure by ingesting Al, throughout middle age and old age, in equivalent amounts to those ingested by Americans from their food, water, and Al additives. Most rats that consumed Al in an amount equivalent to the high end of the human total dietary Al range developed severe cognitive deterioration in old age. High-stage Al accumulation occurred in the entorhinal cortical cells of origin for the perforant pathway and hippocampal CA1 cells, resulting in microtubule depletion and dendritic dieback. Analogous pathological change in humans leads to destruction of the perforant pathway and Alzheimer's disease dementia. The hippocampus is thereby isolated from neocortical input and output normally mediated by the entorhinal cortex. Additional evidence is presented that Al is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid plaques, granulovacuolar degeneration, and other pathological changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The shared characteristics indicate that AD is a human form of chronic Al neurotoxicity. This translational animal model provides fresh strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AD. PMID:22928148

  2. View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, inbound from Pittsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, inbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, outbound from Pittsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, outbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 26. 100 Second Avenue, North, detail of 'Silver Dollars' on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 100 Second Avenue, North, detail of 'Silver Dollars' on southeast side - Second Avenue North, Commercial District, Second Avenue North between Broadway & Church Streets, Nashville, Davidson County, TN

  5. 1. General view of Second Avenue from Church Street looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Second Avenue from Church Street looking toward Broadway - Second Avenue North, Commercial District, Second Avenue North between Broadway & Church Streets, Nashville, Davidson County, TN

  6. Allen Auditorium attic looking from southeast corner. Wine barrels with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Allen Auditorium attic looking from southeast corner. Wine barrels with scrap used for counterweight material for lift up walls no longer in use - Sheldon Jackson College, Richard H. Allen Memorial Hall, Lincoln Street, Sitka, Sitka Borough, AK

  7. Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall southbound on Warrington Avenue - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. An interspecific test of allen's rule: evolutionary implications for endothermic species.

    PubMed

    Nudds, R L; Oswald, S A

    2007-12-01

    Ecogeographical rules provide potential to describe how organisms are morphologically constrained to climatic conditions. Allen's rule (relatively shorter appendages in colder environments) remains largely unsupported and there remains much controversy whether reduced surface area of appendages provides energetic savings sufficient to make this morphological trend truly adaptive. By showing for the first time that Allen's rule holds for closely related endothermic species, we provide persuasive support of the adaptive significance of this trend for multiple species. Our results indicate that reduction of thermoregulatory cost during the coldest part of the breeding season is the most likely mechanism driving Allen's rule for these species. Because for 54% of seabird species examined, rise in seasonal maximum temperature over 100 years will exceed that for minimum temperatures, an evolutionary mismatch will arise between selection for limb length reduction and ability to accommodate heat stress.

  9. San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine Project project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. H. Julian Allen with Blunt Body Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    H. Julian Allen is best known for his 'Blunt Body Theory' of aerodynamics, a design technique for alleviating the severe re-entry heating problem which was then delaying the development of ballistic missiles. His findings revolutionized the fundamental design of ballistic missle re-entry shapes. Subsequently, applied research led to applications of the 'blunt' shape to ballistic missles and spacecraft which were intended to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. This application led to the design of ablative heat shields that protected the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo astronauts as their space capsules re- entered the Earth's atmosphere. 'Harvey' Allen as he was called by most, was not only a brilliant scientist and aeronautical engineer but was also admired for his kindness, thoughtfulness and sense of humor. Among his many other accomplishments, Harvey Allen served as Center Director of the NASA Ames Research Center from 1965 to 1969. He died of a heart attack on January 29, 1977 at the age of 66.

  11. Allen Brain Atlas: an integrated spatio-temporal portal for exploring the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Lau, Chris; Dolbeare, Tim; Gilbert, Terri L.; Thompson, Carol L.; Hawrylycz, Michael; Dang, Chinh

    2013-01-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas (http://www.brain-map.org) provides a unique online public resource integrating extensive gene expression data, connectivity data and neuroanatomical information with powerful search and viewing tools for the adult and developing brain in mouse, human and non-human primate. Here, we review the resources available at the Allen Brain Atlas, describing each product and data type [such as in situ hybridization (ISH) and supporting histology, microarray, RNA sequencing, reference atlases, projection mapping and magnetic resonance imaging]. In addition, standardized and unique features in the web applications are described that enable users to search and mine the various data sets. Features include both simple and sophisticated methods for gene searches, colorimetric and fluorescent ISH image viewers, graphical displays of ISH, microarray and RNA sequencing data, Brain Explorer software for 3D navigation of anatomy and gene expression, and an interactive reference atlas viewer. In addition, cross data set searches enable users to query multiple Allen Brain Atlas data sets simultaneously. All of the Allen Brain Atlas resources can be accessed through the Allen Brain Atlas data portal. PMID:23193282

  12. Allen Brain Atlas: an integrated spatio-temporal portal for exploring the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Lau, Chris; Dolbeare, Tim; Gilbert, Terri L; Thompson, Carol L; Hawrylycz, Michael; Dang, Chinh

    2013-01-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas (http://www.brain-map.org) provides a unique online public resource integrating extensive gene expression data, connectivity data and neuroanatomical information with powerful search and viewing tools for the adult and developing brain in mouse, human and non-human primate. Here, we review the resources available at the Allen Brain Atlas, describing each product and data type [such as in situ hybridization (ISH) and supporting histology, microarray, RNA sequencing, reference atlases, projection mapping and magnetic resonance imaging]. In addition, standardized and unique features in the web applications are described that enable users to search and mine the various data sets. Features include both simple and sophisticated methods for gene searches, colorimetric and fluorescent ISH image viewers, graphical displays of ISH, microarray and RNA sequencing data, Brain Explorer software for 3D navigation of anatomy and gene expression, and an interactive reference atlas viewer. In addition, cross data set searches enable users to query multiple Allen Brain Atlas data sets simultaneously. All of the Allen Brain Atlas resources can be accessed through the Allen Brain Atlas data portal.

  13. Recent Results from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) onboard the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Elkington, S. R.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-05-01

    We describe recent results from the REPT instruments on board Van Allen Probes mission launched on 30 August 2012. The twin spacecraft comprising the Van Allen probes mission are identically instrumented and carry a comprehensive suite of sensors characterizing magnetospheric charged particle populations, electric and magnetic fields and plasma waves. The REPT instruments comprise a well-shielded silicon solid state detector stack, with a state of the art electronics and measure electrons of ~1.5 to > 20 MeV and protons of ~17 to > 100 MeV. The instruments were commissioned 3 days after launch and continue to provide high quality measurements. We describe the Van Allen probes and the REPT instrument and report on the new and unexpected features of the outer zone electron populations observed by REPT.

  14. Allenes and computational chemistry: from bonding situations to reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Elena; Fernández, Israel

    2014-05-07

    The present review is focused on the application of computational/theoretical methods to the wide and rich chemistry of allenes. Special emphasis is made on the interplay and synergy between experimental and computational methodologies, rather than on recent developments in methods and algorithms. Therefore, this review covers the state-of-the-art applications of computational chemistry to understand and rationalize the bonding situation and vast reactivity of allenes. Thus, the contents of this review span from the most fundamental studies on the equilibrium structure and chirality of allenes to recent advances in the study of complex reaction mechanisms involving allene derivatives in organic and organometallic chemistry.

  15. Multi-Uses of Compensatory Programs in Reinforcing the Curriculum of Two Inner-City Schools: English Avenue Elementary School; English Avenue Primary School; 1972-73. Research and Development Report, Volume 7, Number 8, September 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goettee, Margaret; Watts, Larry

    There are two schools bearing the name English Avenue: English Avenue Elementary School and English Avenue Primary School. The primary school, which is within the zone boundaries of the elementary school, provided grades kindergarten through 2; the Follow Through Program operated at all three grade levels. After grade two, the pupils of the…

  16. Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. PIQUETTE AVENUE STREETSCAPE WITH STUDEBAKER CORPORATION IN FOREGROUND. 411 PIQUETTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PIQUETTE AVENUE STREETSCAPE WITH STUDEBAKER CORPORATION IN FOREGROUND. 411 PIQUETTE AVENUE IN CENTER, AND FORD PIQIETTE PLANT ON THE OTHER SIDE. (Duplicate color view of HAER MI-349-1) - 411 Piquette Avenue (Industrial), Detroit, MI

  18. 23. VIEW NORTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING NEW JERSEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW NORTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING NEW JERSEY AVENUE OVERPASS AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT. TAKEN FROM UNDERNEATH THE SOUTHEAST/SOUTHWEST FREEWAY. - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 22. VIEW SOUTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTHWEST ON VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF GARFIELD PARK, NARROW ROADWAY, RAILROAD TRACKS ENTERING THE TUNNEL, AND THE SOUTHEAST/SOUTHWEST FREEWAY. TAKEN FROM THE NEW JERSEY AVENUE OVERPASS. - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Detail of southeast corner and pipes, shown along California Avenue; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast corner and pipes, shown along California Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Contextual view of building 733 along Cedar Avenue; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 733 along Cedar Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 23. General view of Second Avenue from Broadway looking toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. General view of Second Avenue from Broadway looking toward Church Street HABS TENN 19-NASH, 14-2 - Second Avenue North, Commercial District, Second Avenue North between Broadway & Church Streets, Nashville, Davidson County, TN

  3. Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Contextual view looking down railroad avenue with building 680 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down railroad avenue with building 680 at left and building 390 at right; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 1. LOOKING EAST FROM 127125 JACKSON AVENUE (INDUSTRIAL COLLOIDS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING EAST FROM 127-125 JACKSON AVENUE (INDUSTRIAL COLLOIDS AND CHEMICALS, INC.) TO SULLIVAN'S SALOON (in background, with domed roof) - Jackson Avenue Warehouse District, 101-131 & 120-122 Jackson Avenue, Knoxville, Knox County, TN

  6. Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, showing south elevation; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Contextual view of building 253 looking down Walnut Avenue, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 253 looking down Walnut Avenue, showing south elevation at right; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, with building 521 in foreground; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, Benjamin Carr Farm in distance through the trees - Friends' Burial Ground, Eldred & Beacon Avenues, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  11. ORNAMENTAL IRON FENCING ALONG FREDERICK AVENUE, FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORNAMENTAL IRON FENCING ALONG FREDERICK AVENUE, FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF CEMETERY, SHOWING SECTION A. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Loudon Park National Cemetery, 3445 Frederick Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. Microscopy Opening Up New Cancer Discovery Avenues

    Cancer.gov

    Today’s high-powered microscopes are allowing researchers to study the fine details of individual cells and to peer into cells, opening up new avenues of discovery about the inner workings of cells, including the events that can cause healthy cells to tra

  13. 33 CFR 80.1440 - Port Allen, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Allen, Kauai, HI. 80.1440 Section 80.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1440 Port Allen, Kauai, HI. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1440 - Port Allen, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Port Allen, Kauai, HI. 80.1440 Section 80.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1440 Port Allen, Kauai, HI. A line drawn...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1440 - Port Allen, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Port Allen, Kauai, HI. 80.1440 Section 80.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1440 Port Allen, Kauai, HI. A line drawn...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1440 - Port Allen, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Port Allen, Kauai, HI. 80.1440 Section 80.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1440 Port Allen, Kauai, HI. A line drawn...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1440 - Port Allen, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port Allen, Kauai, HI. 80.1440 Section 80.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1440 Port Allen, Kauai, HI. A line drawn...

  18. Ion spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades several missions have recorded the presence of dynamic spectral features of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere. Previous studies have reported single "nose-like" structures occurring alone and simultaneous nose-like structures (up to three). These ion structures are named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. They constitute the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. The HOPE mass spectrometer onboard the Van Allen Probes measures energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet, where these ion structures are observed. We present a statistical study of nose-like structures, using 2-years measurements from the HOPE instrument. The results provide important details about the spatial distribution (dependence on geocentric distance), spectral features of the structures (differences among species), and geomagnetic conditions under which these structures occur.

  19. Van Allen Probe Charging During the St. Patrick's Day Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Minow, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    The geomagnetic storms on and around March 17, 2015 marked the largest storms seen in the declining phase of the solar cycle to date. We use the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometer on board the Van Allen Probe - A and B satellites to study in detail the charging effects seen on these spacecraft during this time. Ion particle flux data provides information on the magnitude of the charging events using the ion line charging signature due to low energy ions accelerated by the spacecraft potential. Electron flux observations are used to correlate the charging environment with variations in spacecraft potential through the event. We also investigate the density and temperature of ions and electrons during the time of the charging event.

  20. Van Allen Probe Charging During the St. Patrick's Day Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L. N.; Minow, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The geomagnetic storms on and around March 17, 2015 marked the largest storms seen in the declining phase of the solar cycle to date. We use the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometer on board the Van Allen Probe - A and B satellites to study in detail the charging effects seen on these spacecraft during this time. Ion particle flux data provides information on the magnitude of the charging events using the ion line charging signature due to low energy ions accelerated by the spacecraft potential. Electron flux observations are used to correlate the charging environment with variations in spacecraft potential through the event. We also investigate the density and temperature of ions and electrons during the time of the charging event.

  1. Free Pulp Transfer for Fingertip Reconstruction—The Algorithm for Complicated Allen Fingertip Defect

    PubMed Central

    Spyropoulou, Georgia-Alexandra; Shih, Hsiang-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We present a review of all the cases of free toe pulp transfer and an algorithm for application of free pulp transfer in complicated Allen fingertip defect. Methods: Seventeen patients underwent free toe pulp transfer for fingertip reconstruction by the senior author. Twelve cases were Allen type II with oblique pulp defect, 4 were Allen type III, and 1 patient had 2 fingertip injuries classified both as type IV. According to the algorithm presented, for the type III defects where the germinal matrix is still preserved, we use free pulp transfer and nail bed graft to preserve the nail growth instead of toe to hand transfer. For the type IV injuries with multiple defects, a combination of web flap from both big toe and second toe is possible for 1-stage reconstruction. Results: All pulp flaps survived completely. Static 2-point discrimination ranged from 6 to 15 mm (mean: 10.5 mm). No patient presented dysesthesia, hyperesthesia, pain at rest, or cold intolerance. The donor site did not present any nuisances apart from partial skin graft loss in 3 cases. Conclusions: We tried to classify and modify the defects’ reconstruction according to Allen classification. Free toe pulp transfer is a “like with like” reconstruction that provides sensate, glabrous skin with good color and texture match for fingertip trauma, and minimal donor site morbidity compared with traditional toe to hand transfer. PMID:26894009

  2. Allenes in Asymmetric Catalysis. Asymmetric Ring-Opening of Meso-Epoxides Catalyzed by Allene-Containing Phosphine Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xiaotao; Qi, Xiangbing; Ready, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Unsymmetrically substituted allenes (1,2 dienes) are inherently chiral and can be prepared in optically pure form. Nonetheless, to date the allene framework has not been incorporated into ligands for asymmetric catalysis. Since allenes project functionality differently than either tetrahedral carbon or chiral biaryls, they may create complementary chiral environments. This study demonstrates that optically active C2 symmetric allene-containing bisphosphine oxides can catalyze the addition of SiCl4 to meso epoxides with high enantioselectivity. The epoxide-opening likely involves generation of a Lewis acidic, cationic (bisphosphine oxide)SiCl3 complex. The fact that high asymmetric induction is observed suggests that allenes may represent a new platform for the development of ligands and catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:19722613

  3. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer, June, 1964 VIEW: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer, June, 1964 VIEW: EXTERIOR: WEST (CLARK STREET) AND SOUTH (JACKSON BLVD.) SIDES - U.S. Post Office, Customs House & Sub-Treasury, 218 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer 24 May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer 24 May 1964 (R. TO L.) MANHATTAN BLDG. (WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDES), OLD COLONY BLDG., FISHER BLDG., MONADNOCK BLOCK - Manhattan Building, 431 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Substituent effects on dynamics at conical intersections: Allene and methyl allenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Simon P.; Wang, Yanmei; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of allene and a series of its methylated analogues (1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene) in order to elucidate the conical intersection mediated dynamics that give rise to ultrafast relaxation to the ground electronic state. We use femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to probe the coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics following UV excitation at 200 nm (6.2 eV). Ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations are employed to determine the mechanistic details of two competing dynamical pathways to the ground electronic state. In all molecules, these pathways are found to involve as follows: (i) twisting about the central allenic C-C-C axis followed by pyramidalization at one of the terminal carbon atoms and (ii) bending of allene moiety. Importantly, the AIMS trajectory data were used for ab initio simulations of the TRPES, permitting direct comparison with experiment. For each molecule, the decay of the TRPES signal is characterized by short (30 fs, 52 fs, 23 fs) and long (1.8 ps, 3.5 ps, [306 fs, 18 ps]) time constants for 1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene, respectively. However, AIMS simulations show that these time constants are only loosely related to the evolution of electronic character and actually more closely correlate to large amplitude motions on the electronic excited state, modulating the instantaneous vertical ionization potentials. Furthermore, the fully substituted tetramethylallene is observed to undergo qualitatively different dynamics, as displacements involving the relatively massive methyl groups impede direct access to the conical intersections which give rise to the ultrafast relaxation dynamics observed in the other species. These results show that the branching between the "twisting" and "bending" pathways can be modified via the selective methylation of the terminal carbon atoms of

  6. Substituent effects on dynamics at conical intersections: Allene and methyl allenes.

    PubMed

    Neville, Simon P; Wang, Yanmei; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S

    2016-01-07

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of allene and a series of its methylated analogues (1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene) in order to elucidate the conical intersection mediated dynamics that give rise to ultrafast relaxation to the ground electronic state. We use femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to probe the coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics following UV excitation at 200 nm (6.2 eV). Ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations are employed to determine the mechanistic details of two competing dynamical pathways to the ground electronic state. In all molecules, these pathways are found to involve as follows: (i) twisting about the central allenic C-C-C axis followed by pyramidalization at one of the terminal carbon atoms and (ii) bending of allene moiety. Importantly, the AIMS trajectory data were used for ab initio simulations of the TRPES, permitting direct comparison with experiment. For each molecule, the decay of the TRPES signal is characterized by short (30 fs, 52 fs, 23 fs) and long (1.8 ps, 3.5 ps, [306 fs, 18 ps]) time constants for 1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene, respectively. However, AIMS simulations show that these time constants are only loosely related to the evolution of electronic character and actually more closely correlate to large amplitude motions on the electronic excited state, modulating the instantaneous vertical ionization potentials. Furthermore, the fully substituted tetramethylallene is observed to undergo qualitatively different dynamics, as displacements involving the relatively massive methyl groups impede direct access to the conical intersections which give rise to the ultrafast relaxation dynamics observed in the other species. These results show that the branching between the "twisting" and "bending" pathways can be modified via the selective methylation of the terminal carbon atoms of

  7. Substituent effects on dynamics at conical intersections: Allene and methyl allenes

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, Simon P.; Wang, Yanmei; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2016-01-07

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of allene and a series of its methylated analogues (1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene) in order to elucidate the conical intersection mediated dynamics that give rise to ultrafast relaxation to the ground electronic state. We use femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to probe the coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics following UV excitation at 200 nm (6.2 eV). Ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations are employed to determine the mechanistic details of two competing dynamical pathways to the ground electronic state. In all molecules, these pathways are found to involve as follows: (i) twisting about the central allenic C–C–C axis followed by pyramidalization at one of the terminal carbon atoms and (ii) bending of allene moiety. Importantly, the AIMS trajectory data were used for ab initio simulations of the TRPES, permitting direct comparison with experiment. For each molecule, the decay of the TRPES signal is characterized by short (30 fs, 52 fs, 23 fs) and long (1.8 ps, 3.5 ps, [306 fs, 18 ps]) time constants for 1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene, respectively. However, AIMS simulations show that these time constants are only loosely related to the evolution of electronic character and actually more closely correlate to large amplitude motions on the electronic excited state, modulating the instantaneous vertical ionization potentials. Furthermore, the fully substituted tetramethylallene is observed to undergo qualitatively different dynamics, as displacements involving the relatively massive methyl groups impede direct access to the conical intersections which give rise to the ultrafast relaxation dynamics observed in the other species. These results show that the branching between the “twisting” and “bending” pathways can be modified via the selective methylation of the terminal

  8. Regiodivergent and Stereoselective Hydrosilylation of 1,3-Disubstituted Allenes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Zachary D; Dorel, Ruth; Montgomery, John

    2015-07-27

    Methods for the highly stereoselective and regiodivergent hydrosilylation of 1,3-disubstituted allenes have been developed. The synthesis of E allylsilanes is accomplished with palladium NHC catalysts, and trisubstituted Z alkenylsilanes are accessed with nickel NHC catalysts. Unsymmetrically substituted allenes are well tolerated with nickel catalysis and afford Z alkenylsilanes. Evidence for a plausible mechanism was obtained through an isotopic double-labeling crossover study.

  9. 23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road type with gutter (asphalt construction typical on Union and Confederate Avenues), view to the sw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  10. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, NEW AVENUE WITH A FORMER TCIUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, NEW AVENUE WITH A FORMER TCI-US STEEL "DOUBLE THREE ROOM" COMPANY HOUSE BUILT FOR BLACK ORE MINERS AND THEIR FAMILIES DURING WORLD WAR I - New Village Worker Houses, New Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, NEW AVENUE WITH A FORMER TCIUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, NEW AVENUE WITH A FORMER TCI-US STEEL 'DOUBLE THREE ROOM' COMPANY HOUSE BUILT FOR BLACK ORE MINERS AND THEIR FAMILIES DURING WORLD WAR I. - New Village Worker Houses, New Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to show main entrance - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched gateways and pedimented pavilion ("Commerce and Communication" sculpted pediment) - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. "BURBANK FARM" SHOWING BANK CUT CREATED WHEN BODEGA AVENUE ROADBED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "BURBANK FARM" SHOWING BANK CUT CREATED WHEN BODEGA AVENUE ROADBED WAS LOWERED. WPA STONE RETAINING WALL AT BASE OF CUT. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  15. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. LOOKING 238°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM CARLOTA BOULEVARD. LOOKING 218°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE CONCRETE EMBANKMENT OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ON RIGHT. LOOKING 12°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ACCESS ROAD AT CENTER REAR AND REFUGE LANE AT LEFT FOREGROUND. LOOKING 212"SSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 2. AVENUE 43 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AVENUE 43 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO WITH NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING 76°E. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 43 Bridge, Milepost 27.12, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 72. 451 MADISON AVENUE, GRAND STAIR, ZODIAC CLOCK WITH DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. 451 MADISON AVENUE, GRAND STAIR, ZODIAC CLOCK WITH DECORATIVE CARVING BY STANFORD WHITE AND AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  1. Detail view of lancetarched, concrete pedestrian railing Union Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lancet-arched, concrete pedestrian railing - Union Avenue Viaduct, Spanning between Southeast Harrison & Southeast Ivon Streets on Union Avenue (Old Highway 99 East), Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 88. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY, SOUTH WALL, WEST CENTRAL SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY, SOUTH WALL, WEST CENTRAL SECTION SHOWING WINDOW AND RADIATOR (Pair with NY-5635-89) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  3. 13. Tenth Avenue grade separation: south side with elevator no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Tenth Avenue grade separation: south side with elevator no. 2 and track shed to left, facing north-northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  4. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM OVER NINTH AND K STREETS, NE. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Florida Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at corner of Benjamin Carr Farm. Wall moved to current location in 1941-1942. - Benjamin Carr Farm, Route 138 (Eldred Avenue) & Helm Street, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  7. 46. Exterior view at the corner of Seventh Avenue and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Exterior view at the corner of Seventh Avenue and Olive Way, looking NE. Opening night film, 'The Broadway Melody,' displayed on the canopy marquee. - Fox Theater, Seventh Avenue & Olive Way, Seattle, King County, WA

  8. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION. CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Bachelor Enlisted Quarters & Offices, Walnut Avenue, east side between D Street & C Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE; CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE; CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Bachelor Enlisted Quarters & Offices, Walnut Avenue, east side between D Street & C Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 6. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THIRD AVENUE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  11. 3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS FROM THE ANACOSTIA RIVER TO THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. View along Cavalry Avenue, with building 210 in left foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along Cavalry Avenue, with building 210 in left foreground and left to right, buildings 212 through 222. View to east. - Fort David A. Russell, Randall Avenue west of First Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  13. View across Cavalry Avenue, with fire station (building 285) in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View across Cavalry Avenue, with fire station (building 285) in left foreground and enlisted personnel barracks (building 222) in background. View to north. - Fort David A. Russell, Randall Avenue west of First Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  14. 60. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, WEST MURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, WEST MURAL PAINTING SHOWING A WOMAN (See NY-5635-54 for original location) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  15. Contextual view of building 505 Cedar avenue, showing south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 505 Cedar avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Interior showing both 425 and 427 North Miami Avenue, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior showing both 425 and 427 North Miami Avenue, view looking west, pressed tin ceiling in 425 North Miami is visible on the left - Chaille Commercial Building, 425-429 North Miami Avenue, Miami, Miami-Dade County, FL

  17. Orion GNC Mitigation Efforts for Van Allen Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Ellis T.; Jackson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Crew Module (CM) is NASA's next generation manned space vehicle, scheduled to return humans to lunar orbit in the coming decade. The Orion avionics and GN&C architectures have progressed through a number of project phases and are nearing completion of a major milestone. The first unmanned test mission, dubbed "Exploration Flight Test One" (EFT-1) is scheduled to launch from NASA Kennedy Space Center late next year and provides the first integrated test of all the vehicle systems, avionics and software. The EFT-1 mission will be an unmanned test flight that includes a high speed re-entry from an elliptical orbit, which will be launched on an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). The ELV will place CM and the ELV upper stage into a low Earth orbit (LEO) for one revolution. After the first LEO, the ELV upper stage will re-ignite and place the combined upper stage/CM into an elliptical orbit whose perigee results in a high energy entry to test CM response in a relatively high velocity, high heating environment. While not producing entry velocities as high as those experienced in returning from a lunar orbit, the trajectory was chosen to provide higher stresses on the thermal protection and guided entry systems, as compared against a lower energy LEO entry. However the required entry geometry with constraints on inclination and landing site result in a trajectory that lingers for many hours in the Van Allen radiation belts. This exposes the vehicle and avionics to much higher levels of high energy proton radiation than a typical LEO or lunar trajectory would encounter. As a result, Van Allen radiation poses a significant risk to the Orion avionics system, and particularly the Flight Control Module (FCM) computers that house the GN&C flight software. The measures taken by the Orion GN&C, Flight Software and Avionics teams to mitigate the risks associated with the Van Allen radiation on EFT-1 are covered in the paper. Background on the Orion avionics subsystem is

  18. LOOKING ALONG HALE ALII AVENUE TOWARD SHIPYARD AREA. FACILITIES 1040 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING ALONG HALE ALII AVENUE TOWARD SHIPYARD AREA. FACILITIES 1040 AND 1041 (QUARTERS 1 AND J) AT LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Hale Alii Avenue, Eighth Street, & Avenue D, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 22. View of east side of South Gaskin Avenue at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of east side of South Gaskin Avenue at the intersection with East Ashley Street, facing east. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  20. 23. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south of East Ward Street, facing west. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  1. 24. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south of East Ward Street, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  2. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH, WITH BROWN MARX BUILDING (BOTTOM CENTER TO RIGHT), EMPIRE BUILDING (CENTER TOP) WITH ITS TERRACOTTA-CLAD 20TH STREET AND FIRST AVENUE FACADES, AND JOHN HAND BUILDING - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing building 65 east elevation at left and buildings 99 and 99A at right; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing building 65 east elevation at left and buildings 99 and 99A at right; camera facing southwest - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. View of Hinkley Avenue from former intersection with Hoffman Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hinkley Avenue from former intersection with Hoffman Boulevard. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Buildings No. 2, 3, and 4 from left to right at rear. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. View of Hinkley Avenue looking towards former intersection with Hoffman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hinkley Avenue looking towards former intersection with Hoffman Boulevard. Note former building site of Building No. 1 at right rear. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Reactivity and Chemoselectivity of Allenes in Rh(I)-Catalyzed Intermolecular (5 + 2) Cycloadditions with Vinylcyclopropanes: Allene-Mediated Rhodacycle Formation Can Poison Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Allenes are important 2π building blocks in organic synthesis and engage as 2-carbon components in many metal-catalyzed reactions. Wender and co-workers discovered that methyl substituents on the terminal allene double bond counterintuitively change the reactivities of allenes in [Rh(CO)2Cl]2-catalyzed intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions with vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs). More sterically encumbered allenes afford higher cycloadduct yields, and such effects are also observed in other Rh(I)-catalyzed intermolecular cycloadditions. Through density functional theory calculations (B3LYP and M06) and experiment, we explored this enigmatic reactivity and selectivity of allenes in [Rh(CO)2Cl]2-catalyzed intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions with VCPs. The apparent low reactivity of terminally unsubstituted allenes is associated with a competing allene dimerization that irreversibly sequesters rhodium. With terminally substituted allenes, steric repulsion between the terminal substituents significantly increases the barrier of allene dimerization while the barrier of the (5 + 2) cycloaddition is not affected, and thus the cycloaddition prevails. Computation has also revealed the origin of chemoselectivity in (5 + 2) cycloadditions with allene-ynes. Although simple allene and acetylene have similar reaction barriers, intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions of allene-ynes occur exclusively at the terminal allene double bond. The terminal double bond is more reactive due to the enhanced d−π* backdonation. At the same time, insertion of the internal double bond of an allene-yne has a higher barrier as it would break π conjugation. Substituted alkynes are more difficult to insert compared with acetylene, because of the steric repulsion from the additional substituents. This leads to the greater reactivity of the allene double bond relative to the alkynyl group in allene-ynes. PMID:25379606

  8. Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 (Nuculanidae) and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 (Pristiglomidae) (Pelecypoda) in the Campos Basin off Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, Natalia Pereira; Absalão, Ricardo Silva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As a secondary result of oil prospecting in Brazil, samples from the Campos Basin continental slope became available. In these samples, specimens of the genera Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 were found. This contribution provides the southernmost record of the genus Microgloma, the first record of Microgloma mirmidina (Dautzenberg & Fischer 1897) from the western Atlantic, the descriptions of Microgloma macaron sp. n. and Microgloma nhanduti sp. n.as new species, and the shallowest record of Pristigloma alba Sanders & Allen 1973. PMID:22287903

  9. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  10. Nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the outer radiation belts: Van Allen Probes results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James; Vasko, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. Observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B provided long-lasting signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. The feedback from trapped particles provides steepening of parallel electric field and development of TDS seeded from initial whistler structure (well explained in terms of Particle-In-Cell model). The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system and are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts.

  11. Avenues for crowd science in Hydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Crowd science describes research that is conducted with the participation of the general public (the crowd) and gives the opportunity to involve the crowd in research design, data collection and analysis. In various fields, scientists have already drawn on underused human resources to advance research at low cost, with high transparency and large acceptance of the public due to the bottom up structure and the participatory process. Within the hydrological sciences, crowd research has quite recently become more established in the form of crowd observatories to generate hydrological data on water quality, precipitation or river flow. These innovative observatories complement more traditional ways of monitoring hydrological data and strengthen a community-based environmental decision making. However, the full potential of crowd science lies in internet based participation of the crowd and it is not yet fully exploited in the field of Hydrology. New avenues that are not primarily based on the outsourcing of labor, but instead capitalize the full potential of human capabilities have to emerge. In multiple realms of solving complex problems, like image detection, optimization tasks, narrowing of possible solutions, humans still remain more effective than computer algorithms. The most successful online crowd science projects Foldit and Galaxy Zoo have proven that the collective of tens of thousands users could clearly outperform traditional computer based science approaches. Our study takes advantage of the well trained human perception to conduct a spatial sensitivity analysis of land-surface variables of a distributed hydrological model to identify the most sensitive spatial inputs. True spatial performance metrics, that quantitatively compare patterns, are not trivial to choose and their applicability is often not universal. On the other hand humans can quickly integrate spatial information at various scales and are therefore a trusted competence. We selected

  12. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+ and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses, and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted by using a steady state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge-exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  13. Active and passive microwave measurements in Hurricane Allen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, V. E.; Bahn, G. S.; Grantham, W. L.; Harrington, R. F.; Jones, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center analysis of the airborne microwave remote sensing measurements of Hurricane Allen obtained on August 5 and 8, 1980 is summarized. The instruments were the C-band stepped frequency microwave radiometer and the Ku-band airborne microwave scatterometer. They were carried aboard a NOAA aircraft making storm penetrations at an altitude of 3000 m and are sensitive to rain rate, surface wind speed, and surface wind vector. The wind speed is calculated from the increase in antenna brightness temperature above the estimated calm sea value. The rain rate is obtained from the difference between antenna temperature increases measured at two frequencies, and wind vector is determined from the sea surface normalized radar cross section measured at several azimuths. Comparison wind data were provided from the inertial navigation systems aboard both the C-130 aircraft at 3000 m and a second NOAA aircraft (a P-3) operating between 500 and 1500 m. Comparison rain rate data were obtained with a rain radar aboard the P-3. Evaluation of the surface winds obtained with the two microwave instruments was limited to comparisons with each other and with the flight level winds. Two important conclusions are drawn from these comparisons: (1) the radiometer is accurate when predicting flight level wind speeds and rain; and (2) the scatterometer produces well behaved and consistent wind vectors for the rain free periods.

  14. Choctaw Leadership in Oklahoma: The Allen Wright Family and Education in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson; Smith, Joan K.; Vaughn, Courtney; Cesar, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Against the backdrop of internal colonialism, this article examines the educational and social lives of Allen Wright and his children to better understand how this Choctaw family successfully navigated the pressures of dual cultures by: (1) providing the socio-political context of the indigenous culture prior to Wright's birth; (2) chronicling and…

  15. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  16. On the metallic nature of carbon in allenes and heterocumulenes.

    PubMed

    Alcarazo, Manuel

    2011-03-07

    The IUPAC defines allenes as organic compounds having at least two double bonds from one carbon to two others. Thus the central carbon atom is in accord with the octet rule through the formation of two σ and two π bonds. However, this perspective highlights a series of recent experimental, as well as theoretical results, suggesting that depending on the substituents, this canonical description might not be the most adequate. In fact, in a growing number of examples the bond in allenes and related heterocumulenes is better described as an inner carbon that plays the role of the central atom of a "coordination complex" and interacts with its substituents as if they were ligands of this organic complex. This interpretation of the bond in allenes is especially useful in predicting the C(0), carbene or partial carbocationic character of the central carbon atom.

  17. Clarence Allen talks about the responsibilities in earthquake prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1978-01-01

    Dr. Clarence R. Allen is professor of geology and geophysics at the California Institute of Technology. He has been a member of advisory panels to the Executive Office of the President, National Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation, U.S Geological Survey, UNESCO, California State Mining and Geology Board, and the California Department of Water Resources. Dr. Allen has been President of both the Geological Society of America and the Seismological Society of America (SSA). The title of this interview is based on his presidential address to the SSA in 1976. 

  18. 12. LOOKING SOUTH ONTO PROPERTY FROM BODEGA AVENUE SHOWING HOUSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOOKING SOUTH ONTO PROPERTY FROM BODEGA AVENUE SHOWING HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. 'BURBANK FARM' ON RIGHT. TALL TREE TO RIGHT OF STREET LIGHT IS EUCALYPTUS ON WEST OF COTTAGE WHICH IS PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. 13. 'BURBANK FARM' SHOWING BANK CUT CREATED WHEN BODEGA AVENUE ROADBED WAS LOWERED. WPA STONE RETAINING WALL AT BASE OF CUT. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  19. Management engineering (building no. 4), looking west along Porter Avenue. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Management engineering (building no. 4), looking west along Porter Avenue. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Management Engineering, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. The Evolving Space Weather System—Van Allen Probes Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Sotirelis, T. S.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Kessel, R. L.; Becker, H. N.

    2014-10-01

    The overarching goal and purpose of the study of space weather is clear—to understand and address the issues caused by solar disturbances on humans and technological systems. Space weather has evolved in the past few decades from a collection of concerned agencies and researchers to a critical function of the National Weather Service of NOAA. The general effects have also evolved from the well-known telegraph disruptions of the mid-1800s to modern day disturbances of the electric power grid, communications and navigation, human spaceflight and spacecraft systems. The last two items in this list, and specifically the effects of penetrating radiation, were the impetus for the space weather broadcast implemented on NASA's Van Allen Probes' twin pair of satellites, launched in August of 2012 and orbiting directly through Earth's severe radiation belts. The Van Allen Probes mission, formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), was renamed soon after launch to honor the discoverer of Earth's radiation belts at the beginning of the space age, the late James Van Allen (the spacecraft themselves are still referred to as RBSP-A and RBSP-B). The Van Allen Probes are one part of NASA's Living With a Star program formulated to advance the scientific understanding of the connection between solar disturbances, the resulting heliospheric conditions, and their effects on the geospace and Earth environment.

  1. View from Western Avenue looking northwest down curbside walkway. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from Western Avenue looking northwest down curbside walkway. Building 15 in left foreground. Illustration of asymmetrical layout and forty-five degree angle of buildings to public street - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 4. View west of Eldred Avenue towards the Jamestown Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View west of Eldred Avenue towards the Jamestown Bridge, Benjamin Carr Farm to the south (left), Friends' Burial Ground to the north (right) in the background with stone wall and Cedar Hill Cemetery to the north (right) in the foreground with white picket fence. (See also HABS No. RI-398) - Benjamin Carr Farm, Route 138 (Eldred Avenue) & Helm Street, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  3. LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED NORTH AND SOUTH PORTIONS OF FACTORY COMPLEX. DANIEL LUTEN DESIGNED THE BRIDGE, AND ILLINOIS BRIDGE COMPANY BUILT IT IN 1918. THE BRIDGE WAS THE SITE OF THE BATTLE OF RUNNING BULLS IN THE 1936-1937 GM SIT DOWN STRIKE. - Delphi Flint West, 300 Chevrolet Avenue, Flint, Genesee County, MI

  4. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM NINTH AVENUE (Compare with HABS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM NINTH AVENUE (Compare with HABS NO. WI-308-89, taken in 1943.) - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1065, Northeast of Intersection of South Ninth Avenue & South "Y" Street, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  5. Looking west along Railroad Avenue toward the Fire House, visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west along Railroad Avenue toward the Fire House, visible in the center distance, behind the left Sentry House. The historic Marine Barracks (Building 930) is also visible at the far left, and Building 1296 in the right distance - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, South Fire Station, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 6. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE CHANGE IN ELEVATION OF SOUTHBOUND LANES TO MEET GRADE FOR ELYSIAN PARK ROAD CUT. INTERSTATE I-5 IN CENTER REAR. LOOKING 232°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING WALL AT RIGHT. RAILROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING 238°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 5. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. NOTE INTERSTATE I-5 OVERCROSSING AT CENTER REAR AND GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING 236°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 8. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL TO RIGHT OF FREEWAY. RAILWAY BRIDGE IS SEEN IN DISTANCE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. VIEW FROM CENTER OF ELM AVENUE, LOOKING WEST INTO SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM CENTER OF ELM AVENUE, LOOKING WEST INTO SECTION L. AT LEFT STANDS THE PONDEROUS MCDANIEL MAUSOLEUM, WHICH SHOWS THE INFLUENCE OF FRANK FURNESS ON H. Q. FRENCH’S 1887 DESIGN - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue, showing 212 Palm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue, showing 212 Palm (right center) in setting; building at extreme right center is 208 Palm (HABS-CA-2211); view to northeast. - Albert Hayman Cottage, 212 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND LANES AT RIGHT REAR; AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER DISTANCE; PARK LANDS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 2°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING WAY. SEEN FROM NE CORNER LOOKING SW. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  14. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING WAY VIEW OF 2401 PIEDMONT, ALPHA EPSILON PHI HOUSE BY RATCLIFF & RATCLIFF, 1958. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  15. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO TAKEN CIRCA 1909 SEEN FROM TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT CHANNING WAY LOOKING NW. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  16. 3. VIEW OF CENTRAL AVENUE LOOKING WEST FROM JUST EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CENTRAL AVENUE LOOKING WEST FROM JUST EAST OF THE INTERSECTION OF CENTRAL AVENUE AND THE EAST PERIMETER ROAD. THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT IS ABOUT 16 MILES NORTHWEST OF DENVER ON A PLATEAU AT THE EASTERN EDGE OF THE FRONT RANGE OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 4. Passaic River looking northwest from Ackerman Avenue bridge; Dundee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Passaic River looking northwest from Ackerman Avenue bridge; Dundee Textile Company Mill at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  18. View of southwest elevation of Building No. 42. Foothill Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southwest elevation of Building No. 42. Foothill Avenue in foreground, seen from yard of Building No. 41, Building No. 44 at rear. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 42, Northwest corner of Foothill Avenue & South Twenty-eighth Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE NORTH OF BANCROFT WAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE NORTH OF BANCROFT WAY. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. NOTE OAK GROVE AND UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA FOOTBALL STADIUM AT RIGHT REAR. NOTE STAIRCASE IN MEDIAN. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  20. 59. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, CENTRAL MURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, CENTRAL MURAL PAINTING SHOWING WOMAN ON A SWING (See NY-5635-54 for original location) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING WAY. SEEN FROM EAST SIDE OF CIRCLE LOOKING NORTH AT 2395 PIEDMONT, SIGMA PI HOUSE BY FREDERICK H. REIMERS, 1928. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  2. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING WAY. SEEN FROM SW CORNER TOWARDS 2395 PIEDMONT, SIGMA PI HOUSE BY FREDERICK H. REIMERS, 1928. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  3. 1. 319 EAST COMMERCIAL AVENUE IS THE SINGLE STORY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 319 EAST COMMERCIAL AVENUE IS THE SINGLE STORY BUILDING IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. IT IS DISTINGUISHED BY ITS CAST METAL FACADE WITH WOODEN INLAY, AND THE PRESSED METAL CORNICE AT THE PARAPET WALL - Anaconda Historic District, 319 East Commercial Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  4. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF HASTE STREET, CHATEAU ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF HASTE STREET, CHATEAU APARTMENTS BY CLARENCE CASEBOLT DAKIN, 1929 AT 2747 HASTE ON WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 8, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  5. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequentlymore » in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.« less

  6. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, Brian Arthur; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  7. 23. East Tremont Avenue Bridge crossing NEC. West Farms, Bronx ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. East Tremont Avenue Bridge crossing NEC. West Farms, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  8. 37. Webster Avenue Bridge. New Rochelle, Westchester Co., NY. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Webster Avenue Bridge. New Rochelle, Westchester Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 19.12. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  9. 36. Webster Avenue Bridge. New Rochelle, Westchester Co., NY. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Webster Avenue Bridge. New Rochelle, Westchester Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 19.12. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  10. VIEW SOUTHSOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  11. 7. RARITAN AVENUE BRIDGE. NEW BRUNSWICK, MIDDLESEX CO., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. RARITAN AVENUE BRIDGE. NEW BRUNSWICK, MIDDLESEX CO., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 30.92. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  12. 23. Haynes Avenue Bridge. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Haynes Avenue Bridge. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 11.39. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  13. 5. NEW BRUNSWICK STATION AND EASTON AVENUE BRIDGE NEW BRUNSWICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NEW BRUNSWICK STATION AND EASTON AVENUE BRIDGE NEW BRUNSWICK, MIDDLESEX CO., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 31.36. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  14. 16. Rahway Avenue Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rahway Avenue Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 14.49. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  15. 4. NEW BRUNSWICK STATION AND EASTON AVENUE BRIDGE. NEW BRUNSWICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NEW BRUNSWICK STATION AND EASTON AVENUE BRIDGE. NEW BRUNSWICK, MIDDLESEX CO., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 31.36. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  16. 6. RARITAN AVENUE BRIDGE. NEW BRUNSWICK, MIDDLESEX CO., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. RARITAN AVENUE BRIDGE. NEW BRUNSWICK, MIDDLESEX CO., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 30.92 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  17. 22. Haynes Avenue Bridge. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Haynes Avenue Bridge. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 11.39. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  18. 10. Milton Avenue Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Milton Avenue Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.41. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  19. 2. SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BRIDGE. TRENTON, MERCER CO., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BRIDGE. TRENTON, MERCER CO., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 56.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  20. Looking east along Porter Avenue, management engineering in foreground; supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east along Porter Avenue, management engineering in foreground; supply department storehouse (building no. 5) (Haer no. PA-387-1) to left. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Management Engineering, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. NOTE PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO AT LOWER RIGHT OF CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 11. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM AVENUE 14 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM AVENUE 14 BRIDGE. SAN FERNANDO ROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 25° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM WAREHOUSE, SHOWING TRACK MATERIAL STORED IN YARD - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  4. 71. 129 HILLSIDE AVENUE, SUBSTATION, VIEW OF MOTORWOUND SPRING TRIGGERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. 129 HILLSIDE AVENUE, SUBSTATION, VIEW OF MOTOR-WOUND SPRING- TRIGGERED A. C. OIL-CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON MAIN FLOOR UNDER GALLERY. MOTOR SITES ATOP THE BRICK COMPARTMENT. - Interborough Rapid Transit Subway (Original Line), New York County, NY

  5. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue. Police station (building no. 17) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue. Police station (building no. 17) is shown in foreground. Camera facing northwest. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  6. View of steel warehouses at Gilmore Avenue (building 710 second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses at Gilmore Avenue (building 710 second in on left); camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  7. NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE (WPA PROJECT, 1938-1941). - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  8. B & P Tunnel east portal & North Avenue Bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Tunnel east portal & North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 96.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 20. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW .5 MILE NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING NW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  10. 69. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW 1.5 MILES NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  11. 68. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW .5 MILE NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING NW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  12. 4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, SHOWING DETAIL OF TRACK WORK AND OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  13. 1. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. 5. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST SIDE OF CAR BARN TOWARD POWER SUBSTATION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  15. 8. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHEAST ADJACENT TO WAREHOUSE TOWARD CAR BARN - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  16. 3. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. 2. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING WEST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  18. VIEW ALONG OHIO AVENUE, LOOKING TOWARD 1905 BAND BARRACKS (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG OHIO AVENUE, LOOKING TOWARD 1905 BAND BARRACKS (BUILDING 61 O)CENTER AND FORAGE HOUSE (BUILDING 476)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. Isomer-specific combustion chemistry in allene and propyne flames

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Nils; Miller, James A.; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Kasper, Tina; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina; Wang, Juan; Cool, Terrill A.

    2009-11-15

    A combined experimental and modeling study is performed to clarify the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in flames fueled by the C{sub 3}H{sub 4} isomers allene and propyne. To this end, mole fraction profiles of several flame species in stoichiometric allene (propyne)/O{sub 2}/Ar flames are analyzed by means of a chemical kinetic model. The premixed flames are stabilized on a flat-flame burner under a reduced pressure of 25 Torr (=33.3 mbar). Quantitative species profiles are determined by flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry, and the isomer-specific flame compositions are unraveled by employing photoionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The temperature profiles are measured by OH laser-induced fluorescence. Experimental and modeled mole fraction profiles of selected flame species are discussed with respect to the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in both flames. The emphasis is put on main reaction pathways of fuel consumption, of allene and propyne isomerization, and of isomer-specific formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species. The present model includes the latest theoretical rate coefficients for reactions on a C{sub 3}H{sub 5} potential [J.A. Miller, J.P. Senosiain, S.J. Klippenstein, Y. Georgievskii, J. Phys. Chem. A 112 (2008) 9429-9438] and for the propargyl recombination reactions [Y. Georgievskii, S.J. Klippenstein, J.A. Miller, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 4259-4268]. Larger peak mole fractions of propargyl, allyl, and benzene are observed in the allene flame than in the propyne flame. In these flames virtually all of the benzene is formed by the propargyl recombination reaction. (author)

  20. Science Highlights from the RBSP-ECT Particle Instrument Suite on NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Harlan

    2014-05-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes mission includes an instrument suite known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) - Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite. RBSP-ECT contains a well-proven complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the radiation belts and the inner magnetosphere. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state of-the-art theory and modeling, provide new understanding on the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) spectrometer, the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively these three instrument types cover comprehensively the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts, then optimized to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. In this presentation, we summarize overall ECT science goals and then show scientific results derived from the ECT suite on the dual Van Allen Probes spacecraft to date. Mission operations began only in late October 2012, and we have now achieved significant results. Results presented here will include substantial progress toward resolving primary Van Allen Probes science targets, such as: the relative role of localized acceleration versus transport-generated particle acceleration

  1. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT BACK. NOTE AVENUE 60 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO. DEBS PARK HILL AT CENTER IS LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS CA-265-13, CA265-14, AND CA-265-V-4. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 97. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY CEILING DESIGNED BY GEORGE BRECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY CEILING DESIGNED BY GEORGE BRECK (The photographs are arranged sequentially with NY-5635-91 in the southwest corner proceeding eastward to NY-5635-98 in the southeast corner; the sequence begins again with NY-5635-99 in the northwest corner and ends with NY-5635-106 in the northeast corner; all photographs overlap) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  3. GENERAL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS WOODLANDS AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS WOODLANDS AVENUE. IN 1933, A CITY OF PHILADELPHIA LAND CONDEMNATION REQUIRED THE DEMOLITION OF AN EXISTING GATEWAY COMPLETED IN 1857 ON PLANS BY JOHN MCARTHUR, JR. PAUL CRET DESIGNED THE NEW GATES IN 1936. THEY WERE COMPLETED THE FOLLOWING YEAR AND MOVED TO THEIR PRESENT LOCATION IN 1948 AFTER ANOTHER CITY LAND CONDEMNATION. - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT BANCROFT WAY SEEN FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT BANCROFT WAY SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING SOUTH WITH BRICK WALL RUNNING NORTH TO SOUTH IN FRONT OF 2302 PIEDMONT (F. WOODWARD HOUSE BY EDWARD B. SEELY, 1909). Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  5. 22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. The Stroud Building (with awnings on the second story) is located on the east (right) side of the street near the center of the block. The original Adams Hotel is seen at the right rear of the photograph Circa 1901-1910. Credit ADLAPR. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Avenues of Influence Cross-Cultural Implications (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    cultural dimensions assessed typically evidence considerable overlap within cultures (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1998); and this overlap can mask...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0112               AVENUES OF INFLUENCE: CROSS- CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS (BRIEFING CHARTS)   Janet Sutton, PhD. Human...NUMBER N/A Avenues of Influence: Cross- Cultural Implications (Briefing Charts) 5b. GRANT NUMBER   5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  7. Recent Science Highlights of the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr

    2016-10-01

    The morning of 30 August 2012 saw an Atlas 5 rocket launch NASA's second Living With a Star spacecraft mission, the twin Radiation Belt Storm Probes, into an elliptic orbit cutting through Earth's radiation belts. Renamed the Van Allen Probes soon after launch, the Probes are designed to determine how the highly variable populations of high-energy charged particles within the radiation belts, dangerous to astronauts and satellites, are created, respond to solar variations, and evolve in space environments. The Van Allen Probes mission extends beyond the practical considerations of the hazard's of Earth's space environment. Twentieth century observations of space and astrophysical systems throughout the solar system and out into the observable universe have shown that the processes that generate intense particle radiation within magnetized environments such as Earth's are universal. During its mission the Van Allen Probes verified and quantified previously suggested energization processes, discovered new energization mechanisms, revealed the critical importance of dynamic plasma injections into the innermost magnetosphere, and used uniquely capable instruments to reveal inner radiation belt features that were all but invisible to previous sensors. This paper gives a brief overview of the mission, presents some recent science highlights, and discusses plans for the extended mission.

  8. Avenues to Prestige among Adolescents in Public and Religiously Affiliated High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, J. Jill; Powers, Rebecca S.; Brown, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    We used data from 1,733 college students to explore whether adolescents' avenues to prestige differ in public and private high schools. Students attending seven large universities during the 1997-98 academic year provided information on the ways in which adolescents in their high schools had gained prestige with peers. The analyses revealed no…

  9. Automatic registration of imaging mass spectrometry data to the Allen Brain Atlas transcriptome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, Walid M.; Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Tolner, Else; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; McDonnell, Liam; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2014-03-01

    Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging molecular imaging technology that provides spatially resolved information on biomolecular structures; each image pixel effectively represents a molecular mass spectrum. By combining the histological images and IMS-images, neuroanatomical structures can be distinguished based on their biomolecular features as opposed to morphological features. The combination of IMS data with spatially resolved gene expression maps of the mouse brain, as provided by the Allen Mouse Brain atlas, would enable comparative studies of spatial metabolic and gene expression patterns in life-sciences research and biomarker discovery. As such, it would be highly desirable to spatially register IMS slices to the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). In this paper, we propose a multi-step automatic registration pipeline to register ABA histology to IMS- images. Key novelty of the method is the selection of the best reference section from the ABA, based on pre-processed histology sections. First, we extracted a hippocampus-specific geometrical feature from the given experimental histological section to initially localize it among the ABA sections. Then, feature-based linear registration is applied to the initially localized section and its two neighbors in the ABA to select the most similar reference section. A non-rigid registration yields a one-to-one mapping of the experimental IMS slice to the ABA. The pipeline was applied on 6 coronal sections from two mouse brains, showing high anatomical correspondence, demonstrating the feasibility of complementing biomolecule distributions from individual mice with the genome-wide ABA transcriptome.

  10. Marine ecological-risk assessment pilot study for Allen Harbor, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.K.; Munns, W.R.; Mueller, C.; Nelson, W.G.; Pesch, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment framework was applied to characterize aquatic risks associated with hazardous waste disposal at Naval Construction Battalion Center (NCBC) Davisville, Rhode Island. An initial screening phase (I) assessed exposure and related that exposure to toxicological endpoints for bivalves, amphipods, sea urchins, and biomarker assays. Results showed little evidence of major contamination in sediments or tissues except for relatively high levels of polychlorinated biphenols (PBC), butyltins compounds (TBT), and fecal coliforms observed in Allen Harbor. Effects were detected in mussel physiology, sea urchin fertilization and development, biomarker responses, and soft shell clam histology. Possible sources of contamination and toxicity from the landfill leachate, surface runoff, and recreational boating were examined using a temporaland spatial sampling scheme. Chemical and toxicological information obtained implicated all three sources as affecting Allen Harbor water quality. Laboratory bioassays of landfill exposure media, employing a variety of marine species using acute and chronic endpoints, are being used to provide data for the development of an exposure-response model for risk to the marine environment. The model will define current risk and provide an interpretive framework for long-term monitoring.

  11. Novel avenues of drug discovery and biomarkers for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling

    2011-02-01

    Globally, developed nations spend a significant amount of their resources on health care initiatives that poorly translate into increased population life expectancy. As an example, the United States devotes 16% of its gross domestic product to health care, the highest level in the world, but falls behind other nations that enjoy greater individual life expectancy. These observations point to the need for pioneering avenues of drug discovery to increase life span with controlled costs. In particular, innovative drug development for metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus becomes increasingly critical given that the number of diabetic people will increase exponentially over the next 20 years. This article discusses the elucidation and targeting of novel cellular pathways that are intimately tied to oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus for new treatment strategies. Pathways that involve wingless, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) precursors, and cytokines govern complex biological pathways that determine both cell survival and longevity during diabetes mellitus and its complications. Furthermore, the role of these entities as biomarkers for disease can further enhance their utility irrespective of their treatment potential. Greater understanding of the intricacies of these unique cellular mechanisms will shape future drug discovery for diabetes mellitus to provide focused clinical care with limited or absent long-term complications.

  12. Serial Femtosecond Crystallography Opens New Avenues for Structural Biology

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Jesse; Fromme, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Free electron lasers (FELs) provide X-ray pulses in the femtosecond time domain with up to 1012 higher photon flux than synchrotrons and open new avenues for the determination of difficult to crystallize proteins, like large complexes and human membrane proteins. While the X-ray pulses are so strong that they destroy any solid material, the crystals diffract before they are destroyed. The most successful application of FELs for biology has been the method of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) where nano or microcrystals are delivered to the FEL beam in a stream of their mother liquid at room temperature, which ensures the replenishment of the sample before the next X-ray pulse arrives. New injector technology allows also for the delivery of crystal in lipidic cubic phases or agarose, which reduces the sample amounts for an SFX data set by two orders of magnitude. Time-resolved SFX also allows for analysis of the dynamics of biomolecules, the proof of principle being recently shown for light-induced reactions in photosystem II and photoactive yellow protein. An SFX data sets consist of thousands of single crystal snapshots in random orientations, which can be analyzed now “on the fly” by data analysis programs specifically developed for SFX, but de-novo phasing is still a challenge, that might be overcome by two-color experiments or phasing by shape transforms. PMID:26786767

  13. The role of ring current particle injections: Global simulations and Van Allen Probes observations during 17 March 2013 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Welling, Dan; Larsen, Brian; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Kletzing, Craig

    2014-02-01

    We simulate substorm injections observed by the Van Allen Probes during the 17 March 2013 storm using a self-consistent coupling between the ring current model RAM-SCB and the global MHD model BATS-R-US. This is a significant advancement compared to previous studies that used artificially imposed electromagnetic field pulses to mimic substorm dipolarization and associated inductive electric field. Several substorm dipolarizations and injections are reproduced in the MHD model, in agreement with the timing of shape changes in the AE/AL index. The associated inductive electric field transports plasma sheet plasma to geostationary altitudes, providing the boundary plasma source to the ring current model. It is found that impulsive plasma sheet injections, together with a large-scale convection electric field, are necessary to develop a strong ring current. Comparisons with Van Allen Probes observations show that our model reasonably well captures dispersed electron injections and the global Dst index.

  14. Ion Spectral Structures Observed by the Van Allen Probes and Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.; Luo, H.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Reeves, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades several missions have recorded the presence of dynamic spectral features of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere. Previous studies have revealed single "nose-like" structures occurring alone and simultaneous nose-like structures (up to three). In this study we also include signatures of new types of ion structure, namely "trunk-like" and "tusk-like" structures. All the ion structures are named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. They constitute the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. Multi-spacecraft analysis of these structures is important to understand their spatial distribution and temporal evolution. Mass spectrometers onboard Cluster (in a polar orbit) and the Van Allen Probes (in an equatorial orbit) measure energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet, where these ion structures are observed. We present a statistical study of the ion structures, using >1-year measurements from the two missions during the Van Allen Probes era. The results provide important details about the spatial distribution (dependence on geocentric distance and magnetic local time), spectral features of the structures (e.g., characteristic energy and differences among species), and geomagnetic and solar wind conditions under which these structures occur.

  15. Genetic diversity and structure in the Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata

    PubMed Central

    Aplasca, Andrea C.; Iverson, John B.; Welch, Mark E.; Colosimo, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata) is endemic to the Allen Cays, a tiny cluster of islands in the Bahamas. Naturally occurring populations exist on only two cays (<4 ha each). However, populations of unknown origin were recently discovered on four additional cays. To investigate patterns of genetic variation among these populations, we analyzed nuclear and mitochondrial markers for 268 individuals. Analysis of three mitochondrial gene regions (2,328 bp) and data for eight nuclear microsatellite loci indicated low genetic diversity overall. Estimates of effective population sizes based on multilocus genotypes were also extremely low. Despite low diversity, significant population structuring and variation in genetic diversity measures were detected among cays. Genetic data confirm the source population for an experimentally translocated population while raising concerns regarding other, unauthorized, translocations. Reduced heterozygosity is consistent with a documented historical population decline due to overharvest. This study provides the first range-wide genetic analysis of this subspecies. We suggest strategies to maximize genetic diversity during ongoing recovery including additional translocations to establish assurance populations and additional protective measures for the two remaining natural populations. PMID:26989628

  16. Observations of Quasi-Periodic Whistler Mode Waves by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, George; Wilkinson, Darrelle; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Santolik, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Observed in Earth's inner magnetosphere, quasi-periodic whistler mode emissions (QP) are electromagnetic waves in the frequency range from a few hundred Hz to a few kHz that exhibit a periodic modulation (typically a few minutes) of their wave intensity. These waves were first detected at high latitude ground stations, but more recently have been observed by a number of spacecraft, including the twin Van Allen Probes. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument simultaneously measures the vector wave magnetic field and electric field, allowing wave propagation parameters, such as wave normal angle and Poynting vector, to be obtained. Almost four years of Van Allen Probes data have been examined and a statistical survey of the occurrence and properties of the QP emissions has been performed. The QP emissions were found to have periods ranging from 1 to 16 minutes with events lasting from less than 1 hour up to 6 hours. Some events were detected on successive orbits and a number of events were simultaneously detected by both spacecraft, even during large spacecraft separations, providing an opportunity to investigate the source and propagation properties of these waves.

  17. Van Allen Probes Empirical Model of the Plasma Environment Inside Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Thomsen, M. F.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; MacDonald, E.

    2014-12-01

    With the Van Allen probes nearing a full precession around the Earth we present a parameterized empirical model of the plasma properties in the inner magnetosphere. Data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory built Helium-Oxygen-Proton-Electron (HOPE) spectrometer on this this unparalleled two-satellite mission provides excellent coverage of the equatorial magnetosphere inside of geostationary, albeit over a limited range of geomagnetic activity. Fusing data and derived products from the two spacecraft a specification of the state of the inner magnetosphere has been created providing species resolved fluxes, partial densities, temperatures, anisotropies, and ratios. This full coverage model reproduces some well know phenomenology and presents some lesser know behaviors providing new insights into details of plasma dynamics inside geostationary orbit.

  18. Mentoring Excellence in the Kinesiology Academy. National Association of Kinesiology in Higher Education 35th Dudley Allen Sargent Commemorative Lecture 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2016-01-01

    This article from the 35th Dudley Allen Sargent Lecture addresses the importance of senior faculty in kinesiology providing holistic guidance to tenure-track faculty to foster excellence in the field. The importance of holistic mentoring of all three faculty roles in higher education is illustrated using research on teaching and learning…

  19. Observation of chorus waves by the Van Allen Probes: Dependence on solar wind parameters and scale size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Kletzing, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Highly energetic electrons in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts can cause serious damage to spacecraft electronic systems and affect the atmospheric composition if they precipitate into the upper atmosphere. Whistler mode chorus waves have attracted significant attention in recent decades for their crucial role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons that ultimately change the dynamics of the radiation belts. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity. However, geomagnetic indices are nonspecific parameters that are compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements. The present study uses wave data from the two Van Allen Probes to present the distribution of lower band chorus waves not only as functions of single geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters but also as functions of combined parameters. Also the current study takes advantage of the unique equatorial orbit of the Van Allen Probes to estimate the average scale size of chorus wave packets, during close separations between the two spacecraft, as a function of radial distance, magnetic latitude, and geomagnetic activity, respectively. Results show that the average scale size of chorus wave packets is approximately 1300-2300 km. The results also show that the inclusion of combined parameters can provide better representation of the chorus wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere and therefore can further improve our knowledge of the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons.

  20. 4. VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE AT THE INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE AT THE INTERSECTION WITH SEVENTH STREET. THE PLANT HAS MOST OF THE AMENITIES OF A SMALL TOWN - WATER SUPPLY, WASTE WATER TREATMENT, POLICE FORCE, FIRE DEPARTMENT, FOOD SERVICES, HOSPITAL, COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK, STEAM GENERATION, VEHICLE MAINTENANCE, TRANSPORTATION, AND A GOVERNMENT. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 12. Riverside Avenue Bridge. Riverside, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Riverside Avenue Bridge. Riverside, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 30.26. (See HAER No. CT-13 for further documentation on this structure). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 70. HILLSIDE AVENUE, BRONX, SUBSTATION, LOOKING SOUTH TO RAISED CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. HILLSIDE AVENUE, BRONX, SUBSTATION, LOOKING SOUTH TO RAISED CONTROL POARD GALLERY. VIEW DOWN ROW OF ROTARY CONVERTERS, ALTERNATING CURRENT SIDE-NOTE SLIP RINGS ON SONVERTED SHAFT JUST AT THE HUB. - Interborough Rapid Transit Subway (Original Line), New York County, NY

  3. 69. 129 HILLSIDE AVENUE, BRONX, SUBSTATION, D. C. SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. 129 HILLSIDE AVENUE, BRONX, SUBSTATION, D. C. SIDE OF ROTARY VISIBLE-NOTE COPPER BRUSHES IN PLACE OF SLIP RINGS. THE THREE TRANSFORMER '5'S REDUCE VOLTAGE OF CURRENT PASSING TO ROTARY '5'. NOTE ROTARY CONVERTER MOUNTED IN HARDWOOD BASE INDEPENDENT OF SUBSTATION FLOOR. - Interborough Rapid Transit Subway (Original Line), New York County, NY

  4. SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE (WPA CONSTRUCTION 1938) OVER ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE (WPA CONSTRUCTION 1938) OVER ARROYO SECO CHANNEL NORTH OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. LOOKING 358°N - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING 126°SE - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. VIEW EASTACROSS SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE AT MOTT STREET CENTERBUILDING 57 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-ACROSS SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE AT MOTT STREET CENTER-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO 1 (1905) LEFT-BUILDING 51 MOTT STREET GENERATING STATION (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  7. 5. HANCOCK AVENUE NEAR HIGH WATER MARK LOOKING SOUTH TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HANCOCK AVENUE NEAR HIGH WATER MARK LOOKING SOUTH TO PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT. NOTE LINE OF MONUMENTS AND CONTEMPORARY ADAPTATION OF GUTTER, (PAVED WITH YELLOW CAUTION MARKINGS) NOT STONE LINED. VIEW S. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  8. What Would Madison Avenue Do? Marketing to Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    Whether one works for Nike or in a library, it is tough to attract an audience. That is where smart marketing can make all the difference. Even though libraries do not have millions of dollars to spend on slick Madison Avenue ad campaigns to entice today's teens, librarians do have access to the media that kids love, and that is a great place to…

  9. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue between Jones and Boone Drives. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue between Jones and Boone Drives. ASA office (U.S. Border Control Environmental Office Building no. 317) is shown at center. Camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  10. 7. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM POWER SUBSTATION TOWARD CAR BARN, SHOWING POWER LINE DETAIL - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  11. Neuroinformatics of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Leonard; Li, Yang; Lau, Chris; Feng, David; Bernard, Amy; Sunkin, Susan M; Zeng, Hongkui; Dang, Chinh; Hawrylycz, Michael; Ng, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a mesoscale whole brain axonal projection atlas of the C57Bl/6J mouse brain. Anatomical trajectories throughout the brain were mapped into a common 3D space using a standardized platform to generate a comprehensive and quantitative database of inter-areal and cell-type-specific projections. This connectivity atlas has several desirable features, including brain-wide coverage, validated and versatile experimental techniques, a single standardized data format, a quantifiable and integrated neuroinformatics resource, and an open-access public online database (http://connectivity.brain-map.org/). Meaningful informatics data quantification and comparison is key to effective use and interpretation of connectome data. This relies on successful definition of a high fidelity atlas template and framework, mapping precision of raw data sets into the 3D reference framework, accurate signal detection and quantitative connection strength algorithms, and effective presentation in an integrated online application. Here we describe key informatics pipeline steps in the creation of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas and include basic application use cases.

  12. Galactic Plane SETI Observations with the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.; Tarter, J. C.; Davis, M. M.; Jordan, J. C.; Kilsdonk, T. N.; Shostak, G. S.; Ackerman, R.; DeBoer, D. R.; Dreher, J. W.; Harp, G. R.; Ross, J. E.; Stauduhar, R.

    2005-12-01

    In the spring of 2006, the Allen Telescope Array (ATA), a joint effort of the U.C. Berkeley Radio Astronomy Lab and the SETI Institute, will begin initial operations. Starting with 42 antennas out of a planned 350, the array will be equivalent to a single 40 meter dish. Using three phased beams, we will survey twenty square degrees around the galactic center for narrowband signals in the frequency range from 1410 to 1730 MHz (the "Water Hole"). Comparison of results from the beams will be used to eliminate signals from terrestrial and satellite sources. At these frequencies, the wide field of view of the array allows us to cover the 2 x 10 degree strip with five antenna positions. The field of view will track one of the five positions for up to five hours, while the phased beams are pointed within the field of view for 98 seconds per 20 MHz frequency band. During these SETI observations spanning approximately seven months, other radio astronomy observations of this very interesting region will run in parallel using two other independently tunable IF systems with a correlator and other phase array beams feeding other backend processors. Construction of the ATA is supported by private funding, primarily from the Paul G. Allen Foundation. The correlator for the ATA is supported by NSF Grant AST-0322309 to the UCB Radio Astronomy Lab.

  13. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-10-05

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day–night asymmetry in Earth’s magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. In conclusion, simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. Finally, the current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  14. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Funsten, H O; Blake, J B

    2015-10-05

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day-night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  15. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day-night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  16. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day–night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons. PMID:26436770

  17. Astronauts Gardner and Allen during loading of Westar VI in payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, top, hangs onto a stinger device as Astronaut Dale A. Gardner in the cargo bay of Discovery waits to assist in the berthing of the previously stranded satellite. The end effector of the remote manipulator system (RMS), controlled from inside the Discovery'S cabin, grasps a special grapple point to Allen's right.

  18. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  19. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Michael W. Allen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Michael W. Allen, the Chairman and CEO of Allen Interactions, is an architect of interactive multimedia learning and is recognized for his many insights, inventions, and presentations. With over 50 years of experience in e-learning, both in academic and corporate settings, he is known for his role in creating Authorware and overseeing the work of…

  20. Allen Ivey: Pioneer in Counseling Theory and Practice, and Crusader for Multiculturalism and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago-Rivera, Azara L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the groundbreaking work of Dr. Allen Ivey through a personal interview and conversations with Mary Bradford Ivey, including a number of colleagues and former students. Allen's enormous contribution to the counseling profession spans nearly four decades. Although best known for microcounseling skills, which is widely taught in…

  1. Meeting the Challenge of Intermolecular Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cycloadditions of Alkynes and Allenes

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Michael E; Homs, Anna; Obradors, Carla; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    The development of gold(I)-catalyzed intermolecular carbo- and hetero-cycloadditions of alkynes and allenes has been more challenging than their intramolecular counterparts. Here we review, with a mechanistic perspective, the most fundamental intermolecular cycloadditions of alkynes and allenes with alkenes. PMID:25048645

  2. Convection Electric Field Observations by THEMIS and the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califf, S.; Li, X.; Bonnell, J. W.; Wygant, J. R.; Malaspina, D.; Hartinger, M.; Thaller, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present direct electric field measurements made by THEMIS and the Van Allen Probes in the inner magnetosphere, focusing on the large-scale, near-DC convection electric field. The convection electric field drives plasma Earthward from the tail into the inner magnetosphere, playing a critical role in forming the ring current. Although it is normally shielded deep inside the magnetosphere, during storm times this large-scale electric field can penetrate to low L values (L < 3), eroding the plasmasphere and also providing a mechanism for ~100 keV electron injection into the slot region and inner radiation belt. The relationship of the convection electric field with the plasmasphere is also important for understanding the dynamic outer radiation belt, as the plasmapause boundary has been strongly correlated with the dynamic variation of the outer radiation belt electrons.

  3. Variation of the ion composition in the ring current during magnetic storms: Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hao; Du, Aimin; Ge, Yasong; Cao, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported that the energy density of the oxygen ions in the ring current region will show more enhancements than protons during magnetic storms. Knowing how the ion composition changes during a magnetic storm is important for understanding the dynamic processes in the inner magnetosphere. By using ion flux data from HOPE and RBSPICE instruments on board the Van Allen probes, we study the energy density variation of both protons and oxygen ions during fifteen strong magnetic storms (minimum Dst < -80 nT) happened during year 2013 to 2014. Results provide important details about the ion composition at different storm stages and different magnetic local times. Results also give important indications about the ion acceleration in the inner magnetosphere and the source of the ring current ions during the magnetic storms.

  4. Comparison of species-resolved energy spectra from ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Manweiler, J. W.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparison between energy spectra measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument and the Van Allen Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) for two significant and distinct events in early 2013. The first is an impulsive solar particle event on March 17th. While intense, this event presented no significant surprises in terms of its composition or anisotropy characteristics, thus providing a good baseline for response of the trapped radiation belts as observed by the Van Allen Probes. The second solar event occurred late May 22nd and early May 23rd. This event has a much greater concentration of medium and heavy ions than the St. Patrick's Day event, as well as having very peculiar energy spectra with evidence of two distinct populations. During the St. Patrick's Day Event, the energy spectra for helium, carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, and iron all show the same spectral power law slope -3.1. The event shows strong anisotropy with intensities differing by a factor of four for both protons and Z>1 ions. The late May event also has strong anisotropy, and in the same directions as the St. Patrick's Day Event, but with very different composition and energy spectra. The spectra are much harder with power law spectral slopes of -0.5. Additionally, there is a significant spectral bump at 3 MeV/nuc for helium that is not present in the spectra of the heavier ions. The intensities of the heavier ions, however, show an increase that is an order of magnitude greater than the increase seen for helium. The March 17 RBSPICE observations show multiple injection events lasting for less than an hour each during the Van Allen Probes B apogees. These injections are seen in protons as well as Helium and only somewhat observed in Oxygen. Spectral slopes for the observations range from approximately -5 during quiet times to double peaked events with a spectral slope of approximately -2 at the beginning of the injection

  5. Recent Performance Testing Results Using the 3-element Production Test Array for the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J. C.; Blitz, L.; ATA 25 person Team; Paul G. Allen Foundation Collaboration

    2002-12-01

    The Allen Telescope Array will consist of 350 fixed six-meter dishes at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in northern California (land use permits pending). It is the first massively parallel array ever built. Where possible, components from consumer markets and mass-production manufacturing processes have been used to lower costs. The architecture of the array explicitly anticipates future growth as a result of "Moore's Law" improvements. There will be many novel features of this array including ultra-wideband instantaneous frequency coverage from 0.5 to 11 GHz, a very wide field of view (2.5 degrees across at 21 cm), miniaturized 80K cryogenics, full bandwidth analog data transmission from the antennas to the Myhrvold central processing facility, dynamic null-formation and tracking of satellite interferers, and continuous multi-user support for radio astronomical research and SETI explorations. Starting in July 2000, the technology development for this array has been a collaboration between the Paul G. Allen Foundation and the ATA team located at the SETI Institute and at the Radio Astronomy Laboratory at UC Berkeley. A rapid prototyping array (RPA) consisting of seven COTS antennas and room temperature L-band receivers was erected in Orinda, CA in March 2001. Thanks to strong and continuing support from Sun Microsystems, the RPA has provided an invaluable testbed for software development and evaluation of RFI mitigation schemes. An operational 3-element Production Test Array (PTA) has been implemented at Hat Creek Observatory over the last few months. The antennas, drives, monitor and control software, and frontend components are near-final versions to be manufactured for the full array. This poster provides performance data from the first few months of testing with the PTA. A final decision on commitment for construction is expected by April 1, 2003.

  6. 22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE FROM WEST OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT AREA OF THE PLANT. ON THE LEFT (NORTH) SIDE OF THE STREET IN THE FOREGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS BUILDING 111, THE GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 111 IS BUILDING 112, THE CAFETERIA. FURTHER TO THE EAST IS BUILDING 331, THE VEHICLE MAINTENANCE GARAGE AND FIRE DEPARTMENT; BUILDING 333, THE PAINT SHOP; BUILDING 334, THE ELECTRICAL AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE SHOP; AND BUILDING 551, THE GENERAL WAREHOUSE. ON THE RIGHT (SOUTH) SIDE OF CENTRAL AVENUE, IN THE FOREGROUND IS BUILDING 121, FIREARMS REPAIR. BEHIND BUILDING 121 IS BUILDING 122, EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES, AND BUILDING 123, HEALTH PHYSICS LABORATORY. BUILDING 441, THE PRODUCTION ... - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. View of intersection of Foothill Avenue and South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection of Foothill Avenue and South Twenty-Sixth Street. Note sports field at center rear. Seen from Foothill Avenue at Parking Area No. 34, looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. Chirality Transfer in Gold(I)‐Catalysed Hydroalkoxylation of 1,3‐Disubstituted Allenes

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Stacey; Sutherland, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gold(I)‐catalysed intermolecular hydroalkoxylation of enantioenriched 1,3‐disubstituted allenes was previously reported to occur with poor chirality transfer due to rapid allene racemisation. The first intermolecular hydroalkoxylation of allenes with efficient chirality transfer is reported here, exploiting conditions that suppress allene racemisation. A full substrate scope study reveals that excellent regio‐ and stereoselectivities are achieved when a σ‐withdrawing substituent is present. PMID:27862422

  9. New Cooled Feeds for the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Wm. J.; Fleming, Matthew; Munson, Chris; Tarter, Jill; Harp, G. R.; Spencer, Robert; Wadefalk, Niklas

    2017-04-01

    We developed a new generation of low-noise, broadband feeds for the Allen Telescope Array at the Hat Creek Observatory in Northern California. The new feeds operate over the frequency range 0.9 to 14 GHz. The noise temperatures of the feeds have been substantially improved by cooling the entire feed structure as well as the low-noise amplifiers to 70 K. To achieve this improved performance, the new feeds are mounted in glass vacuum bottles with plastic lenses that maximize the microwave transmission through the bottles. Both the cooled feeds and their low-noise amplifiers produce total system temperatures that are in the range 25–30 K from 1 GHz to 5 GHz and 40–50 K up to 12.5 GHz.

  10. 53. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. REPUBLIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. REPUBLIC SPRAWLS ALONG 798 ACRES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CUYAHOGA RIVER. IN THE DISTANCE, AT CENTER, BLAST FURNACES NOs. 5 AND 6 AND THE PLANT'S UPPER DOCK CAN BE SEEN. VERTICAL LEFT BRIDGE, IN FOREGROUND, CONNECTS BLAST FURNACES NOs. 1 AND 4 WITH THE STEEL FURNACE AND ROLLING MILL. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  12. Density functional theory study of Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activations and intermolecular annulations between benzamide derivatives and allenes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhong; Huang, Fang; Sun, Chuanzhi; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Jianbiao; Chen, Dezhan

    2015-04-20

    Density functional theory has been applied to gain insight into the Cp*Rh(OAc)2-catalyzed C-H activation and intermolecular annulation of benzamide derivatives with allenes. The study shows that the reactions proceed in three steps: (1) C-H activation induced by Rh catalyst reacting with benzamide derivatives, (2) carborhodation of allene, and (3) regeneration of Rh catalyst. The results indicate that the N-H deprotonation makes the following C-H activation much easier. The regio- and stereoselectivities of 1a (N-pivaloyloxy benzamide)/2a (cyclohexylallene) and 1b (N-pivaloyloxy-4-methyl-benzamide)/2b (1,1-dimethyl allene) depend on the allene carborhodation step. The steric hindrance effect is the dominant factor. We also discuss the reaction mechanism of 1c (N-methoxy benzamide)/2a. The chemoselectivity between 1c/2a is determined by the N-O cleavage step. Replacement of OPiv by OMe leads to loss of the stabilization effect provided by C=O in OPiv. Additionally, Cp*Rh(OAc)(OPiv) is produced in the Cp*Rh(OAc)2 regeneration step, which can work as catalyst as well.

  13. Generation and effects of EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes on 18 March 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Saikin, A.; Gamayunov, K. V.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B.; Geoffrey, R.; Smith, C. W.; Torbert, R. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play a crucial role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. The free energy for EMIC wave generation is usually provided by the temperature anisotropy of the energetic ring current ions. EMIC waves can in turn cause particle energization and losses through resonant wave-particle interactions. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated plasma conditions observed on 18 March 2013. From 0204 to 0211 UT, the Van Allen Probe-B detected He+-band EMIC wave activity in the post-midnight sector (MLT=4.6-4.9) at very low L-shells (L=2.6-2.9). The event occurred right outside the inward-pushed plasmapause in the early recovery phase of an intense geomagnetic storm - min. Dst = -132 nT at 2100 UT on 17 March 2013. During this event, the fluxes of energetic (> 1 keV), anisotropic O+ dominate both the H+ and He+ fluxes in this energy range. Meanwhile, O+ fluxes at low energies (< 0.1 keV) are low compared to H+ and He+ fluxes in the same energy range. The fluxes of <0.1 keV He+ are clearly enhanced during the wave event, indicating a signature of wave heating. To further confirm the association of the observed plasma features with the EMIC waves, we calculate the electron minimum resonant energy (Emin) and pitch angle diffusion coefficient (Dαα) of the EMIC wave packets by using nominal ion composition, derived total ion density from the frequencies of upper hybrid resonance, and measured ambient and wave magnetic field. EMIC wave growth rates are also calculated to evaluate the role of loss-cone distributed ring current ions in the EMIC wave generation.

  14. New results from the Colorado CubeSat and comparison with Van Allen Probes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.

    2013-05-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) is a 3-unit (10cm x 10cm x 30cm) CubeSat mission funded by the NSF, launched into a highly inclined (650) low-Earth (490km x 790km) orbit on 09/13/12 as a secondary payload under NASA's Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. CSSWE contains a single science payload, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), which is a simplified and miniaturized version of the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) built at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) of University of Colorado for NASA/Van Allen Probes mission, which consists of two identical spacecraft, launched on 08/30/12, that traverse the heart of the radiation belts in a low inclination (100) orbit. REPTile is designed to measure the directional differential flux of protons ranging from 9 to 40 MeV and electrons from 0.5 to >3.3 MeV. Three-month science mission (full success) was completed on 1/05/13. We are now into the extended mission phase, focusing on data analysis and modeling. REPTile measures a fraction of the total population that has small enough equatorial pitch angles to reach the altitude of CSSWE, thus measuring the precipitating population as well as the trapped population. These measurements are critical for understanding the loss of outer radiation belt electrons. New results from CSSWE and comparison with Van Allen Probes data will be presented. The CSSWE is also an ideal class project, involving over 65 graduate and undergraduate students and providing training for the next generation of engineers and scientists over the full life-cycle of a satellite project.

  15. A simple approach to separate a mixture of homopropargylic and allenic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fan; Hoang, Kim Le Mai; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2008-08-21

    A simple and practical approach to separate homopropargylic alcohol from allenic alcohol has been developed. It involves the formation of an insoluble silver acetylide species between silver nitrate and homopropargylic alcohol in aqueous acetone which can be separated from the allenic alcohol through a simple filtration. The homopropargylic alcohol can subsequently be recovered by hydrolysis with 1 N HCl. This protocol has been applied to the separation of a mixture of chiral homopropargylic and allenic alcohols in excellent yields with retention of absolute stereochemistry.

  16. 8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE MARCHION HARDWARE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY W.W. HISLOP, AND BUILT IN 1895. THE GROUND FLOOR WAS RENOVATED SOME TIME IN THE 1930s. IN THE CENTER IS THE IMPERIAL BLOCK (ca. 1920), AND THE FULLER DRUG COMPANY (1918-1932).THE FULLER SITE WAS OCCUPIED BY THE HIGHLAND THEATER FROM 1932 TO 1972, AND RETAINS MUCH OF THE INTERIOR DECORATION FROM THAT PERIOD - Anaconda Historic District, Park & Commercial Streets, Main Street vicinity, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  17. 80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  18. Gold(I)-catalysed synthesis of cyclic sulfamidates by intramolecular allene hydroamination.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Mari C M; Bebbington, Magnus W P

    2012-08-07

    Six-membered cyclic sulfamidates are prepared in high yields by treatment of allenic sulfamates with readily available gold(I) complexes. The reaction enables formation of N-substituted quaternary centres and complements existing processes for sulfamidate formation.

  19. Meniscus root refixation technique using a modified Mason-Allen stitch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dhong Won; Jang, Suk Hwan; Ha, Jeong Ku; Kim, Jin Goo; Ahn, Jin Hwan

    2013-03-01

    A complete posterior medial meniscus root tear results in the inability to withstand hoop stress and requires the repair of the posterior medial meniscus root. Several techniques to repair the posterior medial meniscus root have been proposed, but most techniques are based on simple stitching. A modified Mason-Allen technique, recognized as a superior stitching method to repair rotator cuff in shoulder surgery, was applied to overcome the potential weakness of those simple stitching techniques. This newly modified Mason-Allen technique reproduces the locking effect of a conventional modified Mason-Allen stitch allowing the physiological meniscal extrusion. The purpose of this article is to describe a posterior root repair technique using a modified Mason-Allen stitch with two strands consisting of a simple horizontal and a simple vertical stitch. Level of evidence V.

  20. [Book review] Green engineering: environmentally conscious design, by David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Green engineering: Environmentally conscious design / David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard / Prentice-Hall, Inc., One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 2002. 552 pages. ISBN 0-13-061908-6.

  1. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    PubMed

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E

    2005-09-08

    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  2. THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY SEARCH FOR ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGES ON MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Marin M.; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; De Pater, Imke; Barott, William C.; Delory, Gregory T.; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array was used to monitor Mars between 2010 March 9 and June 2, over a total of approximately 30 hr, for radio emission indicative of electrostatic discharge. The search was motivated by the report from Ruf et al. of the detection of non-thermal microwave radiation from Mars characterized by peaks in the power spectrum of the kurtosis, or kurtstrum, at 10 Hz, coinciding with a large dust storm event on 2006 June 8. For these observations, we developed a wideband signal processor at the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. This 1024 channel spectrometer calculates the accumulated power and power-squared, from which the spectral kurtosis is calculated post-observation. Variations in the kurtosis are indicative of non-Gaussianity in the signal, which can be used to detect variable cosmic signals as well as radio frequency interference (RFI). During the three-month period of observations, dust activity occurred on Mars in the form of small-scale dust storms; however, no signals indicating lightning discharge were detected. Frequent signals in the kurtstrum that contain spectral peaks with an approximate 10 Hz fundamental were seen at both 3.2 and 8.0 GHz, but were the result of narrowband RFI with harmonics spread over a broad frequency range.

  3. SETI Observations of Exoplanets with the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, G. R.; Richards, Jon; Tarter, Jill C.; Dreher, John; Jordan, Jane; Shostak, Seth; Smolek, Ken; Kilsdonk, Tom; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Wimberly, M. K. R.; Ross, John; Barott, W. C.; Ackermann, R. F.; Blair, Samantha

    2016-12-01

    We report radio SETI observations on a large number of known exoplanets and other nearby star systems using the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). Observations were made over about 19000 hr from 2009 May to 2015 December. This search focused on narrowband radio signals from a set totaling 9293 stars, including 2015 exoplanet stars and Kepler objects of interest and an additional 65 whose planets may be close to their habitable zones. The ATA observations were made using multiple synthesized beams and an anticoincidence filter to help identify terrestrial radio interference. Stars were observed over frequencies from 1 to 9 GHz in multiple bands that avoid strong terrestrial communication frequencies. Data were processed in near-real time for narrowband (0.7-100 Hz) continuous and pulsed signals with transmitter/receiver relative accelerations from -0.3 to 0.3 m s-2. A total of 1.9 × 108 unique signals requiring immediate follow-up were detected in observations covering more than 8 × 106 star-MHz. We detected no persistent signals from extraterrestrial technology exceeding our frequency-dependent sensitivity threshold of 180-310 × 10-26 W m-2.

  4. STS-46 Pilot Allen uses cycle ergometer on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Pilot Andrew M. Allen exercises using the cycle ergometer on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Allen, shirtless, is equipped with sensors for monitoring his biological systems during the exercise session. A communications kit assembly cable freefloats from his headset at his right and in front of the forward lockers. The open airlock hatch appears at his left and the sleep station behind him.

  5. Astronauts Gardner and Allen bringing Westar VI satellite into payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, left, and Joseph P. Allen IV work together with Dr. Anna L. Fisher (in the Discovery controlling the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm) to bring the Westar VI satellite into the Discovery's payload bay. Allen is on a mobile foot restraint, which is attached to the RMS end effector. Gardner uses the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) on the other side of the satellite. He is attempting to remove the stinger device from the now stabilized satellite.

  6. Enantioselective Terminal Addition to Allenes by Dual Chiral Primary Amine/Palladium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Wang, Yaning; Zhang, Long; Cai, Mao; Luo, Sanzhong

    2017-03-15

    We herein describe a synergistic chiral primary amine/achiral palladium catalyzed enantioselective terminal addition to allenes with α-branched β-ketocarbonyls and aldehydes. The reactions afford allylic adducts bearing acyclic all-carbon quaternary centers with high regio- and enantioselectivity. A wide range of allenes including those aliphatic or 1,1'-disubstituted could be employed, thus expanding the scope of typical asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions.

  7. Microwave-promoted synthesis of bicyclic azocine-β-lactams from bis(allenes).

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Aragoncillo, Cristina; Fernández, Israel; Gómez-Campillos, Gonzalo

    2014-08-01

    A metal-free preparation of structurally novel bicyclic azocine-β-lactams has been developed. The first examples accounting for the preparation of eight-membered rings from bis(allenes) in the absence of metals have been achieved by the thermolysis of nonconjugated 2-azetidinone-tethered bis(allenes) on application of microwave irradiation. This selective carbocyclization reaction has been studied experimentally, and additionally, its mechanism has been investigated by a DFT study.

  8. STS-46 Pilot Allen, in LES, at pilots station on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Pilot Andrew M. Allen, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), reviews descent procedural checklists while at pilots station on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The head-up display (HUD), flight mirror assembly, and forward windows appear in front of Allen. Control panels with drinking water containers and checklists are seen overhead.

  9. 77 FR 74504 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the State-Route 99/Cartmill Avenue Interchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... degradation that results in death or injury of listed species by significantly impairing essential behavioral... regulations as to carry out actions that create the likelihood of injury to listed species to such an extent... new Cartmill Avenue overpass would provide 16.5 feet of vertical clearance over State Route...

  10. 76 FR 51029 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron... Mercury site in Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan with the following settling parties: The.... Comments should reference the Carpenter Avenue Mercury site, Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan...

  11. 2. Copy of early 20th century photograph showing Euclid Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of early 20th century photograph showing Euclid Avenue facade, looking norh. Photograph owned by H.D. Koblitz. - F. B. Stearns Company, Euclid & Lakeview Avenues, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. 1. MEMORIAL HALL AND COURTHOUSE/LIBRARY EAST FRONT FROM CEDAR AVENUE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MEMORIAL HALL AND COURTHOUSE/LIBRARY EAST FRONT FROM CEDAR AVENUE, CAMERA FACING WEST. - Lancaster County Center, Memorial Hall & Courthouse/Library, 4845 Cedar Avenue, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 1. General view of underside of AbbeyAvenue branch of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of underside of Abbey-Avenue branch of the Central viaduct (1886-1888), looking East. This bridge, like the rest of the viaduct, consists of a series of iron and steel spans, supported on iron towers resting on cut-stone foundations. The stairway visible in the photograph led from Scranton Avenue on the valley floor to the bridge deck. - Abbey Avenue Viaduct, Spanning Walworth Valley at Abbey Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Trained immunity: a new avenue for tuberculosis vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Lerm, M; Netea, M G

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive immunity towards tuberculosis (TB) has been extensively studied for many years. In addition, in recent years the profound contribution of innate immunity to host defence against this disease has become evident. The discovery of pattern recognition receptors, which allow innate immunity to tailor its response to different infectious agents, has challenged the view that this arm of immunity is nonspecific. Evidence is now accumulating that innate immunity can remember a previous exposure to a microorganism and respond differently during a second exposure. Although the specificity and memory of innate immunity cannot compete with the highly sophisticated adaptive immune response, its contribution to host defence against infection and to vaccine-induced immunity should not be underestimated and needs to be explored. Here, we present the concept of trained immunity and discuss how this may contribute to new avenues for control of TB.

  15. 33. 193195 AUBURN AVENUE (Callaway BuildingGeorgia Insurance Brokerage Inc.) (Consolidated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 193-195 AUBURN AVENUE (Callaway Building--Georgia Insurance Brokerage Inc.) (Consolidated Mortgage Building--Three Sisters Beauty Shop; Alston & Co. Realty and Property Management) NORTH ELEVATION - 126-255 Auburn Avenue (Commercial Buildings), Auburn Avenue, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  16. Temperature of the plasmasphere from Van Allen Probes HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genestreti, K. J.; Goldstein, J.; Corley, G. D.; Farner, W.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Mouikis, C. G.; Ramnarace, C.; Skoug, R. M.; Turner, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce two novel techniques for estimating temperatures of very low energy space plasmas using, primarily, in situ data from an electrostatic analyzer mounted on a charged and moving spacecraft. The techniques are used to estimate proton temperatures during intervals where the bulk of the ion plasma is well below the energy bandpass of the analyzer. Both techniques assume that the plasma may be described by a one-dimensional E→×B→ drifting Maxwellian and that the potential field and motion of the spacecraft may be accounted for in the simplest possible manner, i.e., by a linear shift of coordinates. The first technique involves the application of a constrained theoretical fit to a measured distribution function. The second technique involves the comparison of total and partial-energy number densities. Both techniques are applied to Van Allen Probes Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) observations of the proton component of the plasmasphere during two orbits on 15 January 2013. We find that the temperatures calculated from these two order-of-magnitude-type techniques are in good agreement with typical ranges of the plasmaspheric temperature calculated using retarding potential analyzer-based measurements - generally between 0.2 and 2 eV (2000-20,000 K). We also find that the temperature is correlated with L shell and hot plasma density and is negatively correlated with the cold plasma density. We posit that the latter of these three relationships may be indicative of collisional or wave-driven heating of the plasmasphere in the ring current overlap region. We note that these techniques may be easily applied to similar data sets or used for a variety of purposes.

  17. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  18. 76 FR 36318 - Safety Zone; Waterway Closure, Morgan City-Port Allen Route From Mile Marker 0 to Port Allen Lock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... and tows from destruction, loss or injury due to hazards associated with rising flood water. DATES... the general public, levee system, vessels and tows from the hazards associated with rising flood water... hazards associated with rising flood water on the Morgan City-Port Allen Route. Basis and Purpose...

  19. Investigation of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing effects on the outer Van Allen belt through multi-point measurements in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Katsavrias, C.; Georgiou, M.; Turner, D. L.; Sandberg, I.; Balasis, G.; Papadimitriou, K.

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the response of the outer Van Allen belt electrons to various types of solar wind and internal magnetospheric forcing - in particular to Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), to geospace magnetic storms of different intensities and to intense magnetospheric substorms. We have employed multi-point particle and field observations in the inner magnetosphere (both in-situ and through ground-based remote sensing), including the Cluster, THEMIS, Van Allen Probes and GOES constellations, the XMM and INTEGRAL spacecraft, and the CARISMA and IMAGE ground magnetometer arrays. The data provide a broad range of particle energies and a wide radial and azimuthal spatial coverage. This work has received support from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analysing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

  20. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; ...

    2015-10-05

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day–night asymmetry in Earth’s magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28more » June 2013 geomagnetic storm. In conclusion, simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. Finally, the current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.« less

  1. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energy channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).

  2. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; ...

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energymore » channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).« less

  3. Pulsating aurora observed on the ground and in-situ by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, M.; Cohen, I. J.; Denton, R. E.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.; Bounds, S. R.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Kurth, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    Early observations and theory related to pulsating aurora suggested that the electrons that drive this aurora originate from the equatorial region of the magnetosphere and that a likely process that can scatter these electrons would involve chorus waves. Recent satellite observations during pulsating auroral events have provided important "firsts", including evidence of strong correlations between pulsating auroral patches and in-situ lower-band chorus (THEMIS), as well as correlations with energetic electron precipitation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit (GOES). These results provide important information regarding particle dynamics, leading to a question about how the chorus might be driven. We present observations of the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with a pulsating aurora event, as confirmed by observations on the ground. The in-situ data again show the presence of lower-band chorus. However, magnetic and electric field data also show that the wave bursts coincide with an apparent poloidal field-line resonance, begging the question of whether the resonance might be responsible for driving the VLF waves.

  4. Ring current pressure estimation with RAM-SCB using data assimilation and Van Allen Probe flux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez, H. C.; Yu, Y.; Lawrence, E.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2016-12-01

    Capturing and subsequently modeling the influence of tail plasma injections on the inner magnetosphere is important for understanding the formation and evolution of the ring current. In this study, the ring current distribution is estimated with the Ring Current-Atmosphere Interactions Model with Self-Consistent Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) using, for the first time, data assimilation techniques and particle flux data from the Van Allen Probes. The state of the ring current within the RAM-SCB model is corrected via an ensemble based data assimilation technique by using proton flux from one of the Van Allen Probes, to capture the enhancement of the ring current following an isolated substorm event on 18 July 2013. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of the ring current particle distributions in the RAM-SCB model, leading to better agreement with observations. This newly implemented data assimilation technique in the global modeling of the ring current thus provides a promising tool to improve the characterization of particle distribution in the near-Earth regions.

  5. Investigation of solar wind driver effects on electron acceleration and loss in the outer Van Allen belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsavrias, Christos; Li, Wen; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Georgiou, Marina; Dimitrakoudis, Stavros

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the response of the outer Van Allen belt electrons to various types of solar wind and internal magnetospheric forcing - in particular to Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), to High Speed Streams (HSS), to geospace magnetic storms of different intensities and to intense magnetospheric substorms. We have employed multi-point particle and field observations in the inner magnetosphere (both in-situ and through ground-based remote sensing), including the Cluster, THEMIS, Van Allen Probes and GOES constellations, the XMM and INTEGRAL spacecraft, and the CARISMA and IMAGE ground magnetometer arrays. The data provide a broad range of particle energies and a wide radial and azimuthal spatial coverage. Observations show that losses of equatorially mirroring electrons are primarily caused by magnetopause shadowing which in turn is achieved by outward diffusion driven by Pc5 ULF waves. Chorus wave activity, on the other hand, seems to be responsible for electron enhancements in the outer radiation belt even in the presence of pronounced outward diffusion.

  6. Ring Current Pressure Estimation withRAM-SCB using Data Assimilation and VanAllen Probe Flux Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez, H. C.; Yu, Y.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B.; Jordanova, V.

    2015-12-01

    Capturing and subsequently modeling the influence of tail plasma injections on the inner magnetosphere is particularly important for understanding the formation and evolution of Earth's ring current. In this study, the ring current distribution is estimated with the Ring Current-Atmosphere Interactions Model with Self-Consistent Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) using, for the first time, data assimilation techniques and particle flux data from the Van Allen Probes. The state of the ring current within the RAM-SCB is corrected via an ensemble based data assimilation technique by using proton flux from one of the Van Allen Probes, to capture the enhancement of ring current following an isolated substorm event on July 18 2013. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of the ring current particle distributions in the RAM-SCB model, leading to better agreement with observations. This newly implemented data assimilation technique in the global modeling of the ring current thus provides a promising tool to better characterize the effect of substorm injections in the near-Earth regions. The work is part of the Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large, Dynamic Storms (SHIELDS) project in Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  7. An RNA interference screen identifies new avenues for nephroprotection.

    PubMed

    Zynda, E R; Schott, B; Gruener, S; Wernher, E; Nguyen, G D; Ebeling, M; Kandel, E S

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury is a major public health problem, which is commonly caused by renal ischemia and is associated with a high risk of mortality and long-term disability. Efforts to develop a treatment for this condition have met with very limited success. We used an RNA interference screen to identify genes (BCL2L14, BLOC1S2, C2ORF42, CPT1A, FBP1, GCNT3, RHOB, SCIN, TACR1, and TNFAIP6) whose suppression improves survival of kidney epithelial cells in in vitro models of oxygen and glucose deprivation. Some of the genes also modulate the toxicity of cisplatin, an anticancer agent whose use is currently limited by nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of TACR1 product NK1R was protective in a model of mouse renal ischemia, attesting to the in vivo relevance of our findings. These data shed new light on the mechanisms of stress response in mammalian cells, and open new avenues to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with renal injury.

  8. Inner magnetosphere plasma, statistics from the Van Allen Probes HOPE instrument and data release 3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Olson, D. K.; Reeves, G.; Friedel, R. H.; Funsten, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    As the twin Van Allen probes spacecraft complete three years on-orbit more than a complete revolution in local time has occurred. We present the state of the HOPE plasma data and statistics of the plasma distribution inside of geostationary orbit. Over the course of the mission a better understanding of the instrument has been gained and the needed corrections added to the data to enable long-term statistics to be collected and compared with confidence. The major correction to the data is the expected degradation of the channel electron multiplier (CEM) efficiency as a function of time and count rate. HOPE provides background data sufficient to monitor the absolute detection efficiency throughout the mission. We have incorporated a time dependent gain correction factor to the data that normalizes the gain and thus the derived plasma properties. In addition the CEM bias voltage was adjusted bringing the gain back toward launch values. With a standard set of data electron and ion composition statistics are computed and presented. These statistics serve as a L-MLT dependent distribution to begin inner magnetosphere plasma modeling, instrument comparison, and climatology studies. These data are presented as ECT HOPE release 3.

  9. Inner magnetosphere plasma, statistics from the Van Allen Probes HOPE instrument and data release 3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotko, W.; Smith, R. H.; Zhang, B.; Ouellette, J.; Brambles, O.; Lyon, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    As the twin Van Allen probes spacecraft complete three years on-orbit more than a complete revolution in local time has occurred. We present the state of the HOPE plasma data and statistics of the plasma distribution inside of geostationary orbit. Over the course of the mission a better understanding of the instrument has been gained and the needed corrections added to the data to enable long-term statistics to be collected and compared with confidence. The major correction to the data is the expected degradation of the channel electron multiplier (CEM) efficiency as a function of time and count rate. HOPE provides background data sufficient to monitor the absolute detection efficiency throughout the mission. We have incorporated a time dependent gain correction factor to the data that normalizes the gain and thus the derived plasma properties. In addition the CEM bias voltage was adjusted bringing the gain back toward launch values. With a standard set of data electron and ion composition statistics are computed and presented. These statistics serve as a L-MLT dependent distribution to begin inner magnetosphere plasma modeling, instrument comparison, and climatology studies. These data are presented as ECT HOPE release 3.

  10. Revealing the generation of extremely low frequency chorus in Van Allen radiation belts

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Fuliang; Liu, Si; Tao, Xin; ...

    2017-03-02

    Recent studies have shown that chorus can efficiently accelerate the outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Chorus, previously often observed above 0.1 equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce, was generated by energetic electrons originating from Earth's plasmasheet. Chorus below 0.1 fce has seldom been reported until the recent data from Van Allen Probes but its origin has not been revealed so far. Because electron resonant energy can approach the relativistic level at extremely low frequency relativistic effects should be considered in the formula for whistler-mode wave growth rate. Here we report high-resolution observations during the 14 October 2014 small storm andmore » firstly demonstrate, using a fully relativistic simulation, that electrons with the high energy tail population and relativistic pitch angle anisotropy can provide free energy sufficient for generating chorus below 0.1 fce. The simulated wave growth displays a very similar pattern to the observations. Finally, the current results can be applied to Jupiter, Saturn and other magnetized planets.« less

  11. Variation of energetic electron flux in Earth's radiation belts based on Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rongxin; Zhong, Zhihong; Yu, Deyin

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's radiation belts have been an important research topic of solar-terrestrial physics from 1958. In 2012, Van Allen Probes (VAP) were launched into near-equatorial orbit and provide very good in-situ observations of energetic particles in inner magnetosphere. Since magnetospheric substorm can cause the severe disturbance of the Earth's megnetospheric environment, here we focus on the characteristics of energetic electron fluxes in the radiation belts during substorm time and non-storm time. Energetic electron data observed by the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT) of VAP during 2012 to 2014 are carefully analyzed. We select portions of energetic electron data from substorm onset phase, growth phase, recovery phase, and quiet time, and make a comparisons with theoretical computations. We find that the electron differential fluxes present E-1 shape at lower energies (<1MeV), and have a sharp transition with steeper slopes at high energies for large L-shells, which are in coincidence with Mauk's model [Mauk et al., 2010].

  12. Improved lattice Boltzmann modeling of binary flow based on the conservative Allen-Cahn equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Feng; Song, Baowei; Sukop, Michael C.; Hu, Haibao

    2016-08-01

    The primary and key task of binary fluid flow modeling is to track the interface with good accuracy, which is usually challenging due to the sharp-interface limit and numerical dispersion. This article concentrates on further development of the conservative Allen-Cahn equation (ACE) [Geier et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 063309 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.063309] under the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), with incorporation of the incompressible hydrodynamic equations [Liang et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 053320 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.053320]. Utilizing a modified equilibrium distribution function and an additional source term, this model is capable of correctly recovering the conservative ACE through the Chapman-Enskog analysis. We also simulate four phase-tracking benchmark cases, including one three-dimensional case; all show good accuracy as well as low numerical dispersion. By coupling the incompressible hydrodynamic equations, we also simulate layered Poiseuille flow and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, illustrating satisfying performance in dealing with complex flow problems, e.g., high viscosity ratio, high density ratio, and high Reynolds number situations. The present work provides a reliable and efficient solution for binary flow modeling.

  13. Thermal conversions of fatty acid peroxides to cyclopentenones: a biomimetic model for allene oxide synthase pathway.

    PubMed

    Mukhtarova, Lucia S; Mukhitova, Fakhima K; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    The trimethylsilyl (TMS) peroxides of linoleic acid 9(S)-hydroperoxide (TMS or Me esters) were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The cyclopentenones, trans- and cis-10-oxo-11-phytoenoic acid (10-oxo-PEA, Me or TMS esters) were first time detected as the products of TMS-peroxide thermal conversions. The major products were ketodienes, epoxyalcohols, hemiacetals and decadienals. For further study of thermal cyclopentenone formation, 9(S)- or 13(S)-hydroperoxides of linoleic acid (Me esters) were sealed in ampoules and heated at 230 °C for 15 or 30 min. The products were separated by HPLC. The cyclopentenone fractions were collected and analyzed by GC-MS. Trans-10-oxo-PEA (Me) and 10-oxo-9(13)-PEA (Me) were formed during the thermal conversion of 9-hydroperoxide (Me ester). Similarly, the cyclopentenones trans-12-oxo-PEA (Me) and 12-oxo-9(13)-PEA (Me) were detected after the heating of 13-hydroperoxide (Me ester). Thermal formation of cyclopentenones can be considered as a biomimetic model of AOS pathway, providing new insights into the mechanisms of allene oxide formation and cyclization.

  14. "Zipper-like" periodic magnetosonic waves: Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and magnetospheric multiscale observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.; Funsten, H. O.; Mitchell, D. G.; Manweiler, J. W.; Torbert, R. B.; Le Contel, O.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-02-01

    An interesting form of "zipper-like" magnetosonic waves consisting of two bands of interleaved periodic rising-tone spectra was newly observed by the Van Allen Probes, the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) missions. The two discrete bands are distinct in frequency and intensity; however, they maintain the same periodicity which varies in space and time, suggesting that they possibly originate from one single source intrinsically. In one event, the zipper-like magnetosonic waves exhibit the same periodicity as a constant-frequency magnetosonic wave and an electrostatic emission, but the modulation comes from neither density fluctuations nor ULF waves. A statistical survey based on 3.5 years of multisatellite observations shows that zipper-like magnetosonic waves mainly occur on the dawnside to noonside, in a frequency range between 10 fcp and fLHR. The zipper-like magnetosonic waves may provide a new clue to nonlinear excitation or modulation process, while its cause still remains to be fully understood.

  15. Conjugate observations of quasiperiodic emissions by the Cluster, Van Allen Probes, and THEMIS spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, F.; Hospodarsky, G.; Pickett, J. S.; Santolík, O.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present results of a detailed analysis of two electromagnetic wave events observed in the inner magnetosphere at frequencies of a few kilohertz, which exhibit a quasiperiodic (QP) time modulation of the wave intensity. The events were observed by the Cluster and Van Allen Probes spacecraft and in one event also by the THEMIS E spacecraft. The spacecraft were significantly separated in magnetic local time, demonstrating a huge azimuthal extent of the events. Geomagnetic conditions at the times of the observations were very quiet, and the events occurred inside the plasmasphere. The modulation period observed by the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS E spacecraft (duskside) was in both events about twice larger than the modulation period observed by the Cluster spacecraft (dawnside). Moreover, individual QP elements occur about 15 s earlier on THEMIS E than on Van Allen Probes, which might be related to a finite propagation speed of a modulating ULF wave.

  16. Space Weather data processing and Science Gateway for the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2013-12-01

    A near real-time data processing pipeline for the Space Weather broadcast data from the Van Allen Probes is presented. The Van Allen Probes broadcasts a sub-set of the science data in real-time when not downlinking the principal science data. This broadcast is received by several ground stations and relayed to APL in near real time to be ingested into the space weather processing pipeline. This pipeline processes the available level zero space weather data into higher level science data products. These products are made available to the public via the Van Allen Probes Science Gateway website (http://athena.jhuapl.edu). The website acts as pivotal point though which all other instrument SOC's can be accessed. Several other data products (e.g KP/DST indices) and tools (e.g orbit calculator) are made also available to the general public.

  17. A Century after Van Allen's Birth: Conclusion of Reconnaissance of Radiation Belts in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    On May 1, 1958 in the Great Hall of the US National Academy of Sciences, James A. Van Allen, having instrumented Explorer-1 and follow-on satellites with radiation detectors, announced the discovery of intense radiation at high altitudes above Earth. The press dubbed the doughnut-shaped structures "Van Allen Belts" (VAB). Soon thereafter, the search began for VAB at nearby planets. Mariner 2 flew by Venus in 1962 at a distance of 41,000 km, but no radiation was detected. The Mariner 4 mission to Mars did not observe planet-associated increase in radiation, but scaling arguments with Earth's magnetosphere yielded an upper limit to the ratio of magnetic moments of MM/ME < 0.001 (Van Allen et al, 1965). Similarly, the Mariner 5 flyby closer to Venus resulted in a ratio of magnetic moments < 0.001 (Van Allen et al, 1967), dealing a blow to the expectation that all planetary bodies must possess significant VAB. The flyby of Mercury in 1974 by Mariner 10 revealed a weak magnetic field, but the presence of durably trapped higher energy particles remained controversial until MESSENGER in 2011.The first flybys of Jupiter by Pioneers 10, 11 in 1973 and 1974, respectively, measured a plethora of energetic particles in Jupiter's magnetosphere and established the fact that their intensities were rotationally modulated. Later flybys of Jupiter and Saturn by the two Voyagers in 1979 and 1981 revealed that those magnetospheres possessed their own internal plasma source(s) and radiation belts. Subsequent discoveries of Van Allen belts at Uranus and Neptune by Voyager 2 demonstrated that VAB are the rule rather than the exception in planetary environments. We now know from the Voyagers and through Energetic Neutral Atom images from Cassini and IBEX that an immense energetic particle population surrounds the heliosphere itself. Thus, the reconnaissance of radiation belts of our solar system has been completed, some 56 years after the discovery of the Van Allen Belts at Earth.

  18. Experiments in no-impact control of dingoes: comment on Allen et al. 2013.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher N; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Letnic, Michael I; Newsome, Thomas M; Nimmo, Dale G; Ritchie, Euan G; Wallach, Arian D

    2014-02-22

    There has been much recent debate in Australia over whether lethal control of dingoes incurs environmental costs, particularly by allowing increase of populations of mesopredators such as red foxes and feral cats. Allen et al. (2013) claim to show in their recent study that suppression of dingo activity by poison baiting does not lead to mesopredator release, because mesopredators are also suppressed by poisoning. We show that this claim is not supported by the data and analysis reported in Allen et al.'s paper.

  19. Replacement of two amino acids of 9R-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of Aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sooman, Linda; Wennman, Anneli; Hamberg, Mats; Hoffmann, Inga; Oliw, Ernst H

    2016-02-01

    The genome of Aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (EHA25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9S-dioxygenase (DOX)-allene oxide synthase (AOS) of Fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the Fusarium and Colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of Aspergilli, including (DOX)-9R-AOS of Aspergillus terreus. The aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of EHA25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. Recombinant EHA25900 oxidized 18:2n-6 sequentially to 9R-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HPODE) and to a 9R(10)-allene oxide. 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS catalyze abstraction of the pro-R hydrogen at C-11, but the direction of oxygen insertion differs. A comparison between twelve 9-DOX domains of 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS revealed conserved amino acid differences, which could contribute to the chirality of products. The Gly616Ile replacement of 9R-DOX-AOS (A. niger) increased the biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide, whereas the Phe627Leu replacement led to biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide as main products. The double mutant (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) formed over 90% of the 9S stereoisomer of HPODE. 9S-HPODE was formed by antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion, i.e., the original H-abstraction was retained but the product chirality was altered. We conclude that 9R-DOX-AOS can be altered to 9S-DOX-AOS by replacement of two amino acids (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) in the DOX domain.

  20. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  1. Avenues for genetic modification of radiation use efficiency in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, M P; van Ginkel, M; Ribaut, J M

    2000-02-01

    environment to match the demand imposed by its development. Analysis of the physiological basis of genotype by environment interactions may indicate avenues for genetic improvement. The genetic control of photosynthetic regulation may be elucidated in the future through the application of genomics. However, given a lack of specific knowledge on the genetic basis of RUE, empirical selection is currently the most powerful tool for detecting favourable genetic interactions resulting from crosses between lines with superior photosynthetic traits and other high yielding characteristics. Selection for superior segregants can be accelerated using rapidly measured physiological selection traits, such as stomatal conductance or canopy temperature depression.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Gate 5 (Central Avenue) Interchange Improvements on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), an Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed to analyze potential environmental impacts associated with the...pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (Public Law 91-190, 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq) and the Air Force Environmental Impact Process (32 CFR 898...at Gate 5 (Central Avenue) and add a visitor’s parking lot. 2. PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION The purpose of this action is to provide safe access to

  3. Arc View/Avenue: Coding styles and utility scripts for efficient development

    SciTech Connect

    Ganter, J.

    1996-05-07

    Effectiveness and efficiency of software development can be greatly increased by writing modularized code using informal (styles) and formal (standards) work approaches. Software development is about connecting pieces into a coherent whole. Thus consistent work approaches provide a structure that allows individuals and teams to minimize the time and thought put into making these connections. These investments in structure return even more benefits in the maintenance phase when old code has to be examined by new programmers, or after time has passed. We present some examples of coding style for Avenue: a simplified form of Hungarian notation (notationHungarian, stringCustomerName, etc.), script naming prefixes and suffixes, and options in script headers. We demonstrate several modular, object-like utility scripts that can be used alone or combined into other utilities. These include developer tools such as a System.Echo substitute for Windows, a Window inspector, and a script for detecting and dealing with multiple display resolutions.

  4. Regioselective Allene Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by NHC Complexes of Nickel and Palladium

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Zachary D.; Li, Wei; Belderrain, Tomás R.; Montgomery, John

    2013-01-01

    Regioselective methods for allene hydrosilylation have been developed, with regioselectivity being governed primarily by choice of metal. Alkenylsilanes are produced via nickel catalysis with larger N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, and allylsilanes are produced via palladium catalysis with smaller N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. These complementary methods allow either regioisomeric product to be obtained with exceptional regiocontrol. PMID:24079389

  5. Phosphorus-Containing Bis-allenes: Synthesis and Heterocyclization Reactions Mediated by Iodine or Copper Dibromide.

    PubMed

    Essid, I; Laborde, C; Legros, F; Sevrain, N; Touil, S; Rolland, M; Ayad, T; Volle, J-N; Pirat, J-L; Virieux, D

    2017-03-30

    Bisphosphorylallenes were easily obtained in multigram scale from the Wittig-type rearrangement of bispropargyl alcohols. Unlike other conjugated bis-allenes, these reagents underwent a double cyclization mediated by iodine or copper dibromide leading to the formation of bis-1,2-oxaphospholenes.

  6. No Radio Flaring Detected from Cygnus X-3 at 3 GHz by Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. K. G.; Bower, G. C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the announcement of a 98 GHz flare from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 (ATel #3130), we observed it with the Allen Telescope Array (Welch et al., 2009 Proc. IEEE 97 1438 for 2.5 hours beginning at 2011 January 28.848 UT (MJD 55589.848), about 4.0 hours after the 98 GHz observations concluded.

  7. Astronauts Gardner and Allen on the RMS after recapture of Westar VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, left, holds a 'For Sale' sign, making light reference to the status of the recaptured communications satellite. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV stands on the mobile foot restraint (MFR), which in tandem with the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm served as a cherry-picker for capture efforts.

  8. Astronauts Gardner and Allen during loading of Palapa B-2 in payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, left, tethered to the orbiting Discovery, holds onto the Palapa B-2 satellite with his right hand while Astronaut Dale A. Gardner returns the used 'stinger' device to its stowage area. The payload bay is open, showing the area where the satellite will be stowed for the return to Earth.

  9. All Together Now: Valerie Allen--U.S. Department of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When Valerie Allen decided she did not want to be a Montessori teacher any longer, she began work on her MLIS. Immediately she learned concepts she could apply to her new job as information specialist for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN. While the LIS…

  10. Astronauts Joseph Allen rides cherry picker over stowage area/work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen rides a cherry picker over to a stowage area/work station to wrap up extravehicular activity (EVA) duties above Earth. The cherry picker is a union of the mobile foot restraint and the remote manipulator system (RMS), controlled from inside Discovery's cabin. The Westar VI/PAM-D satellite is pictured secured in Discovery's cargo bay.

  11. Precipitation of relativistic electrons of the Van Allen belts into the proton aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Jordanova, Vania K; Miyoshi, Y; Sakaguchi, K; Shiokawa, K; Evans, D S; Connors, M

    2008-01-01

    The Van Allen electron belts consist of two regions encircling the earth in which relativistic electrons are trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Populations of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts vary greatly with geomagnetic disturbance and they are a major source of damage to space vehicles. In order to know when and by how much these populations of relativistic electrons increase, it is important to elucidate not only the cause of acceleration of relativistic electrons but also the cause of their loss from the Van Allen belts. Here we show the first evidence that left-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere, on the basis of results of an excellent set of ground and satellite observations showing coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The proton aurora was produced by precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV due to EMIC waves near the plasma pause, which is a manifestation of wave-particle interactions. These observations clarify that ions with energies of tens of keV affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts via parasitic resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's.

  12. New Results About the Earth’s Van Allen Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The first great scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or 'belts', of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies showed that electrons in the energy range 100 keV < E< 1 MeV often populated both the inner and outer zones with a pronounced 'slot' region relatively devoid of energetic electrons existing between them. This two-belt structure for the Van Allen moderate-energy electron component was explained as being due to strong interactions of electrons with electromagnetic waves just inside the cold plasma (plasmapause) boundary. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. However, recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed wholly unexpected properties of the radiation belts, especially at highly relativistic (E > 2 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (E > 5 MeV) kinetic energies. In this presentation we show using high spatial and temporal resolution data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) experiment on board the Van Allen Probes that multiple belts can exist concurrently and that an exceedingly sharp inner boundary exists for ultra-relativistic electrons. Using additionally available Van Allen Probes data, we demonstrate that these remarkable features of energetic electrons are not due to a physical boundary within Earth's intrinsic magnetic field. Neither is it likely that human-generated electromagnetic transmitter wave fields might produce such effects. Rather, we conclude from these unique measurements that slow natural inward radial diffusion combined with weak, but persistent, wave-particle pitch angle

  13. 53. View looking north along First Street/Dayton Avenue, across covered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View looking north along First Street/Dayton Avenue, across covered Dundee Canal prism, toward Botany Worsted Mills - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  14. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Robert C. Allen was a gifted educator, as well as experienced ophthalmologist, who was a close personal friend of Dr. Edlich at the University of Virginia Health System. While serving on the faculty at the University of Virginia Health System, Dr. Allen proved to be a compassionate physician, who developed close personal relationships with the residents, faculty, and his patients. Dr. Allen was invited by Dr Edlich to be a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. When Dr. Allen told Dr. Edlich that he had ocular melanoma in 2000, this news was a wake-up call to Dr. Edlich on the need to prevent skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Empowered by this news, Dr. Edlich was honored to co-author four articles on skin cancer prevention, as well as the latest article focusing on prevention of ocular melanoma. The Ocular Melanoma Foundation (Richmond, VA (USA)) was founded in 2003 by Dr. Robert C. Allen to increase awareness, enhance education, and provide advocacy among both patients and health care professionals regarding this rare, but potentially lethal cancer. It has a website that provides patient information, up-to-date information and enables communication/ discourse between and among patients and practitioners (admin@ocularmelanoma.org). Dr. Allen died on March 24, 2005, at his home surrounded by family and loved ones. When surgeons are faced with challenging healthcare diseases, Dr. Edlich's mentor, Dr. Owen Wangensteen, advised Dr. Edlich that he should seek the advice and guidance of skilled basic scientists, who are familiar with the problem. Dr. Wangensteen is recognized as the greatest surgical teacher during the 20th century. Consequently, Dr. Edlich enlisted the advice and guidance from the two co-authors of the next article regarding the scientific basis for the selection of sunglasses to prevent the development of cataracts, pterygia, skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Dr. Reichow is a Professor

  15. Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; ...

    2016-05-09

    The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. In this paper, we report simultaneous observations form Van Allen Probes that chorus and hiss emissions occurred in the same range ~300–1500 Hz with themore » peak wave power density about 10-5 nT2/Hz during a weak storm on 3 July 2014. Chorus emissions propagate in a broad region outside the plasmapause. Meanwhile, hiss emissions are confined inside the plasmasphere, with a higher intensity and a broader area at a lower frequency. A sum of bi-Maxwellian distribution is used to model the observed anisotropic electron distributions and to evaluate the instability of waves. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation shows that a portion of chorus emission outside the plasmasphere can propagate into the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. Moreover, hiss waves below 1 kHz are more intense and propagate over a broader area than those above 1 kHz, consistent with the observation. Finally, the current results can explain distributions of the observed hiss emission and provide a further support for the mechanism of evolution of chorus into hiss emissions.« less

  16. Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Wygant, J. R.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2016-05-09

    The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. In this paper, we report simultaneous observations form Van Allen Probes that chorus and hiss emissions occurred in the same range ~300–1500 Hz with the peak wave power density about 10-5 nT2/Hz during a weak storm on 3 July 2014. Chorus emissions propagate in a broad region outside the plasmapause. Meanwhile, hiss emissions are confined inside the plasmasphere, with a higher intensity and a broader area at a lower frequency. A sum of bi-Maxwellian distribution is used to model the observed anisotropic electron distributions and to evaluate the instability of waves. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation shows that a portion of chorus emission outside the plasmasphere can propagate into the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. Moreover, hiss waves below 1 kHz are more intense and propagate over a broader area than those above 1 kHz, consistent with the observation. Finally, the current results can explain distributions of the observed hiss emission and provide a further support for the mechanism of evolution of chorus into hiss emissions.

  17. Location of EMIC Wave Events Relative to the Plasmapause: Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetrick, S.; Engebretson, M. J.; Posch, J. L.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; Wygant, J. R.; Gkioulidou, M.; Reeves, G. D.; Fennell, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Many early theoretical studies of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves generated in Earth's magnetosphere predicted that the equatorial plasmapause (PP) would be a preferred location for their generation. However, several large statistical studies in the past two decades, most notably Fraser and Nguyen [2001], have provided little support for this location. In this study we present a survey of the most intense EMIC waves observed by the EMFISIS fluxgate magnetometer on the Van Allen Probes-A spacecraft (with apogee at 5.9 RE) from its launch through the end of 2014, and have compared their location with simultaneous electron density data obtained by the EFW electric field instrument and ring current ion flux data obtained by the HOPE and RBSPICE instruments. We show distributions of these waves as a function of distance inside or outside the PP as a function of local time sector, frequency band (H+, He+, or both), and timing relative to magnetic storms and substorms. Most EMIC waves in this data set occurred within 1 RE of the PP in all local time sectors, but very few were limited to ± 0.1 RE, and most of these occurred in the 06-12 MLT sector during non-storm conditions. The majority of storm main phase waves in the dusk sector occurred inside the PP. He+ band waves dominated at most local times inside the PP, and H+ band waves were never observed there. Although the presence of elevated fluxes of ring current protons was common to all events, the configuration of lower energy ion populations varied as a function of geomagnetic activity and storm phase.

  18. Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; Kurita, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Santolik, O.; Clilverd, M.; Rodger, C. J.; Turunen, E.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2015-04-21

    Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also subrelativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler mode wave-particle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Tromsø VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements were clearly identified at altitudes >68 km in association with the pulsating aurora, suggesting precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV. The riometer and network of subionospheric radio wave observations also showed the energetic electron precipitations during this period. During this period, the footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Tromsø and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Considering the observed LBC waves and electrons, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave-particle interactions. This showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV, which is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated by the inversion method using the EISCAT observations. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range simultaneously precipitate into the ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora, providing the evidence that pulsating auroras are caused by whistler chorus waves. We suggest that scattering by propagating whistler simultaneously causes both the precipitations of subrelativistic electrons and the pulsating aurora.

  19. Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

    DOE PAGES

    Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; ...

    2015-04-21

    Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also subrelativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler mode wave-particle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Tromsø VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements were clearly identified at altitudes >68 km in association with the pulsating aurora, suggesting precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV. The riometermore » and network of subionospheric radio wave observations also showed the energetic electron precipitations during this period. During this period, the footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Tromsø and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Considering the observed LBC waves and electrons, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave-particle interactions. This showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV, which is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated by the inversion method using the EISCAT observations. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range simultaneously precipitate into the ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora, providing the evidence that pulsating auroras are caused by whistler chorus waves. We suggest that scattering by propagating whistler simultaneously causes both the precipitations of subrelativistic electrons and the pulsating aurora.« less

  20. Enantioselective Synthesis of 5,7-Bicyclic Ring Systems from Axially Chiral Allenes Using a Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cyclocarbonylation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Francois; Brummond, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    A transfer of chirality in an intramolecular Rh(I)-catalyzed allenic Pauson-Khand reaction (APKR) to access tetrahydroazulenones, tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]azepinones and dihydrocyclopenta[c]oxepinones enantioselectively (22 – 99% ee) is described. The substitution pattern of the allene affected the transfer of chiral information. Complete transfer of chirality was obtained for all trisubstituted allenes, but loss of chiral information was observed for disubstituted allenes. This work constitutes the first demonstration of a transfer of chiral information from an allene to the 5-position of a cyclopentenone using a cyclocarbonylation reaction. The absolute configuration of the corresponding cyclocarbonylation product was also established, something that is rarely done. PMID:23485149

  1. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Annulation between ortho-Alkenylphenols and Allenes. Key Role of the Metal Geometry in Determining the Reaction Outcome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    2-Alkenylphenols react with allenes, upon treatment with catalytic amounts of Pd(II) and Cu(II), to give benzoxepine products in high yields and with very good regio- and diastereoselectivities. This contrasts with the results obtained with Rh catalysts, which provided chromene-like products through a pathway involving a β-hydrogen elimination step. Computational studies suggest that the square planar geometry of the palladium is critical to favor the reductive elimination process required for the formation of the oxepine products. PMID:27807509

  2. Dietary delivery: A new avenue for microRNA therapeutics?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many people carefully monitor their food choices, adhering to the philosophy that you are what you eat. Recent research adds to a new wrinkle to that old adage, suggesting that dietary small RNAs (sRNAs) can control the gene expression of the consumer and may provide an effective, noninvasive, and i...

  3. Electron acceleration in the heart of the Van Allen radiation belts.

    PubMed

    Reeves, G D; Spence, H E; Henderson, M G; Morley, S K; Friedel, R H W; Funsten, H O; Baker, D N; Kanekal, S G; Blake, J B; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Thorne, R M; Turner, D L; Kletzing, C A; Kurth, W S; Larsen, B A; Niehof, J T

    2013-08-30

    The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA's Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belts and are inconsistent with a predominantly radial acceleration process.

  4. Automated determination of electron density from electric field measurements on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelavskaya, Irina; Kurth, William; Spasojevic, Maria; Shprits, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    We present the Neural-network-based Upper-hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurements made onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. A feedforward neural network is developed to determine the upper hybrid resonance frequency, f_{uhr}, from electric field measurements, which is then used to calculate the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few attempts to do robust, routine automated detections. We describe the design and implementation of the algorithm and perform an initial analysis of the resulting electron number density distribution obtained by applying NURD to 2.5 years of data collected with the EMFISIS instrumentation suite of the Van Allen Probes mission. Densities obtained by NURD are compared to those obtained by another recently developed automated technique and also to an existing empirical plasmasphere and trough density model.

  5. Cycloaddition reactions of allenes with N-phenylmaleimide. A two-step, diradical-intermediate process

    SciTech Connect

    Pasto, D.J.; Heid, P.F.; Warren, S.E.

    1982-06-30

    The stereoselectivities, chemoselectivities, relative reactivities, and kinetic isotope effects have been determined in the cycloaddition reactions of substituted allenes with N-phenylmaleimide. The comparison of these results with those derived from the studies of the cycloaddition of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-difluoroethene and the radical-chain addition of benzenethiol to allenes strongly indicates that the cycloadditions with N-phenylmaleimide occur via a two-step, diradical-intermediate process. The stereochemical features controlling the formation of the stereoisomeric diradical intermediates and their ring closures are discussed. In addition to the cycloaddition processes, competitive ene reactions occur to produce intermediate dienes, which react further to produce 1:2 adducts or nonreactive alkyne-containing 1:1 adducts. These ene reactions also appear to proceed via diradical intermediates.

  6. Ruthenium Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Paraformaldehyde to Trifluoromethyl Allenes: CF3-Bearing All-Carbon Quaternary Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Brannon; Montgomery, T. Patrick; Krische, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl substituted allenes engage in ruthenium catalyzed reductive couplings with paraformaldehyde to form products of hydrohydroxymethylation as single regioisomers. This method enables generation of CF3-bearing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. PMID:23841678

  7. A critique of Mark D. Allen's "the preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit".

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-07-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit. Brain and Language, 95, 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic properties. Allen claims that these findings challenge linguistic theories which assume that much of the syntactic behavior of verbs can be predicted from their meanings. I argue, however, that this conclusion is not supported by the data for two reasons: first, Allen focuses on aspects of verb syntax that are not claimed to be influenced by verb semantics; and second, he ignores aspects of verb syntax that are claimed to be influenced by verb semantics.

  8. Enantioselective and Regiodivergent Addition of Purines to Terminal Allenes: Synthesis of Abacavir.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Niels; Breit, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed atom-economic asymmetric N-selective intermolecular addition of purine derivatives to terminal allenes is reported. Branched allylic purines were obtained in high yields, regioselectivity and outstanding enantioselectivity utilizing a Rh/Josiphos catalyst. Conversely, linear selective allylation of purines could be realized in good to excellent regio- and E/Z-selectivity with a Pd/dppf catalyst system. Furthermore, the new methodology was applied to a straightforward asymmetric synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside abacavir.

  9. Van Allen Probes observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves triggered by enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J.-H.; Lee, D.-Y.; Noh, S.-J.; Shin, D.-K.; Hwang, J.; Kim, K.-C.; Lee, J. J.; Choi, C. R.; Thaller, S.; Skoug, R.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetospheric compression due to impact of enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn has long been considered as one of the generation mechanisms of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. With the Van Allen Probe-A observations, we identify three EMIC wave events that are triggered by Pdyn enhancements under prolonged northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) quiet time preconditions. They are in contrast to one another in a few aspects. Event 1 occurs in the middle of continuously increasing Pdyn while Van Allen Probe-A is located outside the plasmapause at postmidnight and near the equator (magnetic latitude (MLAT) -3°). Event 2 occurs by a sharp Pdyn pulse impact while Van Allen Probe-A is located inside the plasmapause in the dawn sector and rather away from the equator (MLAT 12°). Event 3 is characterized by amplification of a preexisting EMIC wave by a sharp Pdyn pulse impact while Van Allen Probe-A is located outside the plasmapause at noon and rather away from the equator (MLAT -15°). These three events represent various situations where EMIC waves can be triggered by Pdyn increases. Several common features are also found among the three events. (i) The strongest wave is found just above the He+ gyrofrequency. (ii) The waves are nearly linearly polarized with a rather oblique propagation direction ( 28° to 39° on average). (iii) The proton fluxes increase in immediate response to the Pdyn impact, most significantly in tens of keV energy, corresponding to the proton resonant energy. (iv) The temperature anisotropy with T⊥ > T|| is seen in the resonant energy for all the events, although its increase by the Pdyn impact is not necessarily always significant. The last two points (iii) and (iv) may imply that in addition to the temperature anisotropy, the increase of the resonant protons must have played a critical role in triggering the EMIC waves by the enhanced Pdyn impact.

  10. Astronauts Gardner and Allen during loading of Palapa B-2 in payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen, in this frame, is the sole anchor for the top portion (and most of) the captured Palapa B-2 satellite. Astronaut Dale A. Gardner is on the other end as they load it into the payload bay. Note the difference between the two stinger devices stowed on the Challenger's port side (right side of frame). The one nearer the spacecraft's vertical stabilizer is spent. The one nearer the camera is still awaiting use.

  11. Whistler-Mode Waves inside Density Ducts Observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosborough, S.; Bengtson, M.; Stein, R. L.; Streltsov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes satellites launched by NASA in 2012 are currently orbiting in Earth's radiation belts collecting data about electromagnetic waves and charged particles in the near-earth space environment. Whistler-mode waves are naturally occurring right-hand polarized, very-low frequency waves (< 30 kHz), that can efficiently interact with the energetic electrons in the earth's radiation belts magnetosphere and remediate them from the magnetosphere by precipitating these particles into the atmosphere. The important property of the whistler-mode waves is that they can be guided by density inhomogeneities extended along the ambient magnetic field and localized in the direction perpendicular to the field. Such density channels can be formed by the density enhancement or depletion and they are called ducts. The primary goal of our research is to find density duct and whistler waves in the data recorded by the Van Allen Probes satellites in the magnetosphere, and to reproduce these data with numerical simulations of time-dependent, two-dimensional electron MHD model. In this paper, we present results from our analysis of the observations performed by the Van Allen Probes satellites on 15 October 2014. Data from the probes show the electric and magnetic fields and plasma density. In this event whistler-mode waves were observed from 01:42 to 01:54 UT inside the localized density enhancement coincided with the flux of energetic electrons. Short time intervals, high concentrated electron density, and electron flux gradient activity make this event very interesting for the investigation. Numerical simulations of the electron MHD model revels reasonable quantitative agreement between numerical results and satellite observations, suggesting that the electromagnetic disturbances recorded by the Van Allen Probes satellites, are the whistler-mode waves indeed.

  12. Allene as the parent substrate in zinc-mediated biomimetic hydration reactions of cumulenes.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Burkhard O; Eger, Wilhelm A; Anders, Ernst

    2008-11-07

    The aim of our present investigation is to unravel the general mode of biomimetic activation of a wide variety of cumulenes by carbonic anhydrase (CA) models. Carbonic anhydrases allow the specific recognition, activation and transfer not only of CO2 but also of heteroallenes X=C=Y such as the polar or polarizable examples COS, CS2, H2CCO, and RNCS. Therefore, this enzyme class fulfils the requirements of excellent catalysts with a wide variety of important applications. Can this be extended to the isoelectronic but less reactive allene molecule, H2C=C=CH2 and extremely simplified models as mimetic concept for active center of the carbonic anhydrase? Allene is a waste product in the refinery, i.e. the C3-cut of the naphtha distillation; therefore, any addition product that can be obtained from allene in high yields will be of significant value. We investigated the complete catalytic cycle of a very simple model reaction, the hydration of allene, using density functional theory. Additionally, calculations were performed for the uncatalyzed reaction. There are two possible ways for the nucleophilic attack leading to different products. The zinc hydroxide complex and the water molecule can react at the central or the terminal carbon atoms (positional selectivity), the resulting products are 2-propen-1-ol and propen-2-ol, respectively, acetone. The calculations indicate a significant lower energy barrier for the rate determining step of the formation of propen-2-ol and therefore a well-expressed regioselectivity for the addition of such small molecules. The zinc complex has a pronounced catalytic effect and lowers the activation barrier from 262.5 to 123.9 kJ/mol compared with the uncatalyzed reaction. This work suggests the most probable paths for this reaction and discloses the necessity for the development of novel catalysts.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Formal (5 + 2) Annulation between ortho-Alkenylanilides and Allenes.

    PubMed

    Cendón, Borja; Casanova, Noelia; Comanescu, Cezar; García-Fandiño, Rebeca; Seoane, Andrés; Gulías, Moisés; Mascareñas, José L

    2017-04-07

    2-Alkenyltriflylanilides react with allenes upon treatment with catalytic amounts of Pd(OAc)2 and Cu(II) to give highly valuable 2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[b]azepines, in good yields, and with very high regio- and diastereoselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the C-H activation of the alkenylanilide involves a classical concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) mechanism.

  14. VIEW OF CHAPEL/ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, WITH CONSTITUTION AVENUE AND “BIVOUAC OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CHAPEL/ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, WITH CONSTITUTION AVENUE AND “BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD” PLAQUES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Los Angeles National Cemetery, 950 South Sepulveda Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK. MARMION WAY/AVENUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK. MARMION WAY/AVENUE 64 BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND. YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 28° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. DC66843 VIEW OF THE INDEPENDENCE AVENUE CORRIDOR SPANNED BY THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-43 VIEW OF THE INDEPENDENCE AVENUE CORRIDOR SPANNED BY THE •DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BRIDGES, LOOKING WEST FROM TWELFTH STREET, SW - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Observation of plasma depletions in outer radiation belt by Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.; Lee, E.; Kim, Y.; Park, Y.; Parks, G. K.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    Van Allen Probes (RBSP) observed plasma fine structures in the outer radiation belt during storm time on 14 November 2012. Five plasma depletion regions are clearly identified by VAP_A and VAP_B from 02:00UT to 04:45UT by particle instrument suite that can measure electrons and ions in a wide energy range, from 20 eV to 10 MeV. The plasma flux density dramatically decreases about 2 - 3 orders of magnitude in the depletion regions regardless of energy and particle species. Our analysis shows the plasma cavities are formed at the boundary of trapped and injected particle current. The total plasma pressures inside the depletion regions are much smaller than outside, implying unstable structures. It seems that this structures appear unusually only for storm main phase. During strong storm event, geomagnetic field is stretched and low plasma density region (lobe) moves to low latitude, this event could be analyzed by lobe region crossing of spacecraft. However, to explain temporal sequences of this event, we should assume large fluctuation of lobe boundary. Another possible analysis is plasma bubble generated in the tail region. The bubble model proposed to explain plasma transportation form tail to near Earth region in 1980s. While the bubble model reasonably explain the spatial and temporal structures observed by Van Allen probes, we cannot completely rule out the lobe region crossing model. In this presentation, we shall discuss about the characteristics of the plasma density cavities first observed by Van Allen Probes.

  18. Radition belt dynamics : Recent results from van Allen Probes and future observations from CeREs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, Shrikanth; O'Brien, Paul; Baker, Daniel N.; Ogasawara, Keiichi; Fennell, Joseph; Christian, Eric; Claudepierre, Seth; Livi, Stefano; Desai, Mihir; Li, Xinlin; Jaynes, Allison; Turner, Drew; Jones, Ashley; Schiller, Quintin

    2016-07-01

    We describe recent observations of the Earth's radiation belts made by instruments on board the Van Allen Probes mission, particularly the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Magnetic Electron Ion spectrometer (MagEIS). These observations have significantly advanced our understanding of terrestrial radiation belt dynamics. The Van Allen Probes mission comprises two identically instrumented spacecraft which were launched 31 August, 2012 into low-inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigees and apogees of of ~600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. We discuss the new scientific findings of the Van Allen Probes mission regarding the physics of energization and loss of relativistic electrons and their implications for future low-cost missions, especially CubeSats. We describe the CeREs (a Compact Radiation belt Explorer) CubeSat mission currently being built at the Goddard Space Flight Center, and carrying on board, an innovative instrument, the Miniaturized Electron Proton Telescope (MERiT). The MERiT is a compact low-mass low-power instrument measuring electrons from a few keV to tens of MeV in multiple differential channels. MERiT is optimized to measure electron microbursts with a high time resolution of a few milliseconds. We present and discuss possible future scientific contributions from CeREs.

  19. Unravelling the Complexities of the Earth's Radiation Belts: Findings from the Van Allen Probes mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola; Kessel, Ramona; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shri

    2014-05-01

    Within the first year of Van Allen Probe operations, team members made a series of highly publicized decisive discoveries concerning the structure and evolution of the Earth's radiation belts, the processes that energize particles there, and the locations where they operate. Nevertheless, much more extensive and less publicized findings from the Van Allen Probes suggest that Earth's radiation belts regions remain a highly complex and puzzling place. Although the relation between magnetic storm and radiation belt enhancements and loss has been emphasized, dynamics during non-storm periods has occasionally been shown to be dramatic. While emphasis has been placed on new findings regarding local non-adiabatic energization mechanisms, adiabatic mechanisms have also been shown to be important. Furthermore, the interplay between, and relative importance of, these and other energization processes remain uncertain. The role of seed populations has been highlighted, with some studies pointing to localized mechanisms and others pointing to the role of substorms in transporting and injecting such populations. Here we review some of the less publicized findings and future objectives of the Van Allen Probes mission to get a broader and in-depth view of present understanding of Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  20. A neural network approach for identifying particle pitch angle distributions in Van Allen Probes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, V. M.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Medeiros, C.; Da Silva, L. A.; Alves, L. R.; Koga, D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walsh, B. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Rockenbach, M.; Dal Lago, A.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Mendes, O.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Baker, D. N.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of particle pitch angle distributions (PADs) has been used as a means to comprehend a multitude of different physical mechanisms that lead to flux variations in the Van Allen belts and also to particle precipitation into the upper atmosphere. In this work we developed a neural network-based data clustering methodology that automatically identifies distinct PAD types in an unsupervised way using particle flux data. One can promptly identify and locate three well-known PAD types in both time and radial distance, namely, 90° peaked, butterfly, and flattop distributions. In order to illustrate the applicability of our methodology, we used relativistic electron flux data from the whole month of November 2014, acquired from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board the Van Allen Probes, but it is emphasized that our approach can also be used with multiplatform spacecraft data. Our PAD classification results are in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by standard statistical fitting algorithms. The proposed methodology has a potential use for Van Allen belt's monitoring.

  1. Allen Brain Atlas-Driven Visualizations: a web-based gene expression energy visualization tool.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, Andrew; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas-Driven Visualizations (ABADV) is a publicly accessible web-based tool created to retrieve and visualize expression energy data from the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) across multiple genes and brain structures. Though the ABA offers their own search engine and software for researchers to view their growing collection of online public data sets, including extensive gene expression and neuroanatomical data from human and mouse brain, many of their tools limit the amount of genes and brain structures researchers can view at once. To complement their work, ABADV generates multiple pie charts, bar charts and heat maps of expression energy values for any given set of genes and brain structures. Such a suite of free and easy-to-understand visualizations allows for easy comparison of gene expression across multiple brain areas. In addition, each visualization links back to the ABA so researchers may view a summary of the experimental detail. ABADV is currently supported on modern web browsers and is compatible with expression energy data from the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. By creating this web application, researchers can immediately obtain and survey numerous amounts of expression energy data from the ABA, which they can then use to supplement their work or perform meta-analysis. In the future, we hope to enable ABADV across multiple data resources.

  2. Spacecraft surface charging within geosynchronous orbit observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Larsen, Brian A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Breneman, Aaron; Wygant, John R.; Thomsen, Michelle F.

    2016-02-01

    Using the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) and Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instruments from the Van Allen Probes, we explored the relationship between electron energy fluxes in the eV and keV ranges and spacecraft surface charging. We present statistical results on spacecraft charging within geosynchronous orbit by L and MLT. An algorithm to extract the H+ charging line in the HOPE instrument data was developed to better explore intense charging events. Also, this study explored how spacecraft potential relates to electron number density, electron pressure, electron temperature, thermal electron current, and low-energy ion density between 1 and 210 eV. It is demonstrated that it is imperative to use both EFW potential measurements and the HOPE instrument ion charging line for examining times of extreme spacecraft charging of the Van Allen Probes. The results of this study show that elevated electron energy fluxes and high-electron pressures are present during times of spacecraft charging but these same conditions may also occur during noncharging times. We also show noneclipse significant negative charging events on the Van Allen Probes.

  3. (13)CHD2-CEST NMR spectroscopy provides an avenue for studies of conformational exchange in high molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Rennella, Enrico; Huang, Rui; Velyvis, Algirdas; Kay, Lewis E

    2015-10-01

    An NMR experiment for quantifying slow (millisecond) time-scale exchange processes involving the interconversion between visible ground state and invisible, conformationally excited state conformers is presented. The approach exploits chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and makes use of (13)CHD2 methyl group probes that can be readily incorporated into otherwise highly deuterated proteins. The methodology is validated with an application to a G48A Fyn SH3 domain that exchanges between a folded conformation and a sparsely populated and transiently formed unfolded ensemble. Experiments on a number of different protein systems, including a 360 kDa half-proteasome, establish that the sensitivity of this (13)CHD2 (13)C-CEST technique can be upwards of a factor of 5 times higher than for a previously published (13)CH3 (13)C-CEST approach (Bouvignies and Kay in J Biomol NMR 53:303-310, 2012), suggesting that the methodology will be powerful for studies of conformational exchange in high molecular weight proteins.

  4. Pathway activation profiling reveals new insights into age-related macular degeneration and provides avenues for therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Makarev, Evgeny; Cantor, Charles; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton; Aliper, Alexander; Csoka, Anotonei Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older people and is caused by loss of the central region of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Conventional methods of gene expression analysis have yielded important insights into AMD pathogenesis, but the precise molecular pathway alterations are still poorly understood. Therefore we developed a new software program, "AMD Medicine", and discovered differential pathway activation profiles in samples of human RPE/choroid from AMD patients and controls. We identified 29 pathways in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes: 27 pathways were activated in AMD compared to controls, and 2 pathways were activated in controls compared to AMD. In AMD, we identified a graded activation of pathways related to wound response, complement cascade, and cell survival. Also, there was downregulation of two pathways responsible for apoptosis. Furthermore, significant activation of pro-mitotic pathways is consistent with dedifferentiation and cell proliferation events, which occur early in the pathogenesis of AMD. Significantly, we discovered new global pathway activation signatures of AMD involved in the cell-based inflammatory response: IL-2, STAT3, and ERK. The ultimate aim of our research is to achieve a better understanding of signaling pathways involved in AMD pathology, which will eventually lead to better treatments.

  5. Providing an Avenue for Individual Enhancement: The Challenge for Vocational-Technical Education and Training in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu

    Nigeria's social and economic conditions at and after independence necessitated changes in educational and employment policy. At independence, in 1960, unification and economic development were necessary to galvanize the country's direction. Control and domination of the economy by foreigners deprived the country of the development of an…

  6. A systematic review of satisfaction and pediatric obesity treatment: new avenues for addressing attrition.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Joseph A; Irby, Megan Bennett; Geiger, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric obesity treatment programs report high attrition rates, but it is unknown if family experience and satisfaction contributes. This review surveys the literature regarding satisfaction in pediatric obesity and questions used in measurement. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL. Studies of satisfaction in pediatric weight management were reviewed, and related studies of obesity were included. Satisfaction survey questions were obtained from the articles or from the authors. Eighteen studies were included; 14 quantitative and 4 qualitative. Only one study linked satisfaction to attrition, and none investigated the association of satisfaction and weight outcomes. Most investigations included satisfaction as a secondary aim or used single-item questions of overall satisfaction; only one assessed satisfaction in noncompleters. Overall, participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with obesity treatment or prevention programs. Surveys focused predominantly on overall satisfaction or specific components of the program. Few in-depth studies of satisfaction with pediatric obesity treatment have been conducted. Increased focus on family satisfaction with obesity treatment may provide an avenue to lower attrition rates and improve outcomes. Enhancing measurement of satisfaction to yield actionable responses could positively influence outcomes, and a framework, via patient-centered care principles, is provided.

  7. Mitophagy and disease: new avenues for pharmacological intervention.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Goldman, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    The process of intracellular macromolecular degradation known as macroautophagy has long been associated with the degradation of mitochondria. Recent studies have provided evidence that the process of mitochondria degradation via autophagy, now referred to as mitophagy, appears to be specifically targeted to mitochondria and highly regulated under both physiologic and pathologic conditions. This article provides a review of key developments in mitophagy research, including background information on the history, mechanisms, and regulation of macroautophagy, as well as discoveries that have enhanced our understanding of the specificity and independent regulation of mitophagy. This is followed by an analysis of how our current understanding of the mechanics and regulation of mitophagy may be exploited to yield pharmacological interventions for mitochondria-associated diseases. As yet, the potential for mitophagy-related pharmacological treatments for disease remains largely untapped. However, rapid progress in our understanding of both mitophagy and the pathology of mitochondria-related diseases is leading us towards the convergence of science and medicine which will inevitably result in new and potent pharmacological therapies for the treatment of these maladies.

  8. 3. EXTERIOR/STREET LEVEL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR/STREET LEVEL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) CALDWELL-MILNER, MCADORY, JOHN HAND, WOODWARD BUILDINGS AND BROWN MARX BUILDING (RIGHT). ALSO PICTURED IS THE BANK FOR SAVINGS BUILDING (TOP RIGHT) AND THE RAILROAD RESERVATION (TOP LEFT TO RIGHT). VIEW TAKEN AS CITY THAWS FROM A MARCH BLIZZARD. - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory East Avenue/Emergency Response Planning Traffic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schmiegel, T

    2002-02-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) are located at the eastern end of the City of Livermore. Recently the research facilities have been placed on heightened security alerts due to the events of September 11. To respond to the security concerns, LLNL and SNL have proposed to place East Avenue between South Vasco Road and Greenville Road under administrative control. This type of control would require security check points at both ends of this segment of East Avenue, including a truck inspection facility west of the Greenville Road intersection. In this configuration, East Avenue would be closed to general public traffic. The purpose of this traffic study is to determine the potential traffic impact of placing East Avenue under administrative control. The primary focus of the traffic study is to evaluate the proposed modifications to the geometry and operation of East Avenue between South Vasco Road and Greenville Road. The study also includes a review of a traffic study prepared for the closure of East Avenue in 1989 to determine if the assumptions and conclusions of that study remain valid.

  10. Does MAX open up a new avenue for meiotic research?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Okuda, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively. We present a hypothetical model of a MAX-centered molecular network that regulates meiotic entry in mammals and propose that inducible Max knockout ESCs provide an excellent platform for exploring the molecular mechanisms of meiosis initiation, while excluding other aspects of gametogenesis.

  11. Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization Processes: Pivotal Avenues for Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Sukhdev; Sharma, Sunil K; Parmar, Virinder S; Van der Eycken, Erik V

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, gold catalysis has materialized as an incredible synthetic approach among the scientific community. Due to the trivial reaction conditions and great functional compatibility, these progressions are synthetically expedient, because practitioners can implement them to build intricate architectures from readily amassed building blocks with high bond forming indices. The incendiary growth of gold catalysts in organic synthesis has been demonstrated as one of the most prevailing soft Lewis acids for electrophilic activation of carbon-carbon multiple bonds towards a great assortment of nucleophiles. Nowadays, organic chemists consistently employ gold catalysts to carry out a diverse array of organic transformations to build unprecedented molecular architectures. Despite all these achievements and a plethora of reports, many vital challenges remain. In this account, we describe the reactivity of various gold catalysts towards cyclization processes developed over the years. These protocols give access to a wide scope of polyheterocyclic structures, containing different medium-sized ring skeletons. This is interesting, as the quest for highly selective reactions to assemble diversely functionalized products has attracted much attention. We envisage that these newly developed chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselective protocols could provide an expedient route to architecturally cumbersome heterocycles of importance for the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Diabetic Macular Edema: From Old Concepts to New Therapeutic Avenues.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Pulido, Jose S; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a significant cause of blindness in the working population and is currently challenging to treat. Current interventions include focal laser or intravitreal injections. This article outlines a new treatment protocol based on the theory that peripheral ischemia is the precursor to angiogenesis, which will ultimately gather its momentum at the fovea. Extreme peripheral light laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) back to the equator reduces excessive production of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the eye. This decreases VEGF-induced DME and provides long-term protection against the development of neovascularization. Initial exacerbation of DME often accompanies PRP. Therefore, injections of anti-VEGF agents (with or without dexamethasone implants) initially can forestall worsening of DME and prevent loss of vision. However, on the other hand, applying peripheral PRP and intraocular injections can induce posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). This could help release vitreomacular adhesions (VMA) and vitreomacular traction (VMT), thereby decreasing DME severity and improving the response to intravitreal injections. In the current approach, peripheral retinal photocoagulation should stop the drive for VEGF release; moreover, laser ablation should produce secondary, accidental, and beneficial PVD. This approach precludes focal laser therapy and paves the path for prolonged intervals between anti-VEGF therapy.

  13. Multi-Spacecraft Data Assimilation and Reanalysis During the THEMIS and Van Allen Probes Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Podladchikova, T.; Drozdov, A.; Subbotin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's radiation belts are a dynamic system, controlled by competition between source, acceleration, loss and transport of particles. Solar wind pressure enhancements and outward transport are responsible for loss of electrons to the magnetopause, while wave-particle interactions inside the magnetosphere, driven by solar wind pressure and velocity variations, may lead to acceleration and radial diffusion of 10's of keV to MeV energy electrons, and pitch-angle scattering loss to the atmosphere. An understanding of the mechanisms behind the observed dynamics is critical to accurate modeling and hence forecasting of radiation belt conditions, important for design, and protection of our space-borne assets. The Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) model solves the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation in three dimensional invariant coordinates, which allows one to more effectively separate adiabatic and non-adiabatic changes in the radiation belt electron population. The model includes geomagnetic storm intensity dependent parameterizations of the following dominant magnetospheric waves: day- and night-side chorus, plasmaspheric hiss (in the inner magnetosphere and inside the plume region), lightning and anthropogenic generated waves, and electro-magnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, also inside of plasmaspheric plumes. The model is used to forecast the future state of the radiation belt electron population, while real-time data may be used to update the current state of the belts through assimilation with the model. The Kalman filter provides a computationally inexpensive method to assimilate data with a model, while taking into account the errors associated with each. System identification is performed to determine the model and observational bias and errors. The Kalman filter outputs an optimal estimate of the actual system state and the Kalman-gain weighted corrections (innovation) may be used to identify systematic differences between data and the model. Careful

  14. A continuum theory of Allen's frontal contraction model of amoeboid pseudopodium extension.

    PubMed

    Odell, G M

    1977-03-01

    A continuum theory is proposed for the chemically controlled cytoplasmic streaming observed in pseudopodium extension in Chaos Carolinensis. Amoeboid cytoplasm is assumed to consist of submicroscopic contractile fibers bathed by viscous fluid. The fiber constituent models the actin-like and myosin-like contractile machinery known to be present in Chaos Carolinensis cytoplasm. A "trigger chemical", produced at the pseudopodium tip, moves by diffusion in, and convection by, the viscous fluid, and causes the contractile fibers to contract in their own length. The contracting fibers, attached at the tip and running continuously back toward the amoeba cell body, pull the fluid constituent of the cytoplasm forward and ultimately crosslink to form the outer gel tube of the advancing pseudopodium. That is, streaming cytoplasm is modeled as a two constituent porous medium, with the fluid constituent free to flow through a porous matrix of oriented (contractile fiber) rods, while the matrix of rods itself moves as the fibers contract, with fiber contraction controlled by a trigger chemical born by the fluid constituent. According to this theory, in the region behind the advancing pseudopodium tip, the contractile fiber rods move forward toward the tip faster than the fluid constituent. The hydrostatic pressure in the fluid therefore increases from the cell body toward the tip (Just the opposite from flow driven by pressure excess generated in the cell body). The excess of hydrostatic pressure above ambient built up at the tip provides the force to roll out the advancing pseudopodium tip. The cell membrane plays no active mechanical role. The mathematical transcription makes a precise theory of R. D. Allen's "frontal (or fountain zone) contraction model". The general system of coupled, non-linear, partial differential equations is solved for its simplest non-trivial special case, that of a steady-state motion, as seen from a coordinate system attached to the advancing tip

  15. EDITORIAL: Special issue in honour of J E Allen's 75th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.

    2003-11-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is dedicated to Professor John Allen who has spent most of his professional life in the Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, working on problems in gas discharges and plasma physics. His first degrees and doctorate were taken at Liverpool University in the 1950s where at the time there was an internationally renowned group led by Meek, Craggs and Edels. He then spent some time at Frascati in Italy on secondment from Harwell, helping to build up expertise there. He returned to England in the mid-1960s, first to Cambridge, but he soon migrated to Oxford to University College and the Department of Engineering Science to strengthen a team that already included von Engel, Motz and Woods with more recent reinforcement by Howatson and myself. Thus there was built up both a post-graduate MSc course and what amounted to a graduate school producing many scientists who have since distinguished themselves in all parts of the world. The prospects for success in the quest for fusion and the proximity of Culham Laboratory produced a heady mix. But the timescales lengthened and fashions changed. However, John moved with the times and he and his research students made notable contributions to the understanding of dusty plasmas and to radio-frequency plasmas used in the processing of microchips. The structure at Oxford was such that the recognition of a professorship came late in his career, but his international reputation was well established much earlier. Being freed of tutorial duties he has travelled much in recent years and has been Chairman of the International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (ICPIG) 1999-2001 and directly involved in the international effort to carry out dusty plasma experiments in space under micro-gravity conditions. For my part, having known John as a colleague over the past forty years, he has been a valuable point of reference when one needed someone to comment on new ideas, a

  16. Orion GN and C Mitigation Efforts for Van Allen Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Ellis T.; Jackson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Crew Module (CM) is NASA's next generation manned space vehicle, scheduled to return humans to lunar orbit in the coming decade. The Orion avionics and GN&C architectures have progressed through a number of project phases and are nearing completion of a major milestone. The first unmanned test mission, dubbed "Exploration Flight Test One" (EFT-1) is scheduled to launch from NASA Kennedy Space Center late next year and provides the first integrated test of all the vehicle systems, avionics and software.

  17. [A study on Horace N. Allen's medicine and recognition of Korean body].

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ah

    2011-12-31

    Je Jung Won was the first modern-style Government hospital built by the Korean King Ko-Jong in April 1885, and it was the medical missionary Horace Newton Allen(1858~1932) who made one of the greatest contributions to the establishment of the hospital. Allen was an American missionary. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University with a degree in theology in 1881, and completed one-yearcourse at Miami Medical College. In Korea and America he worked as a physician, a missionary, an American diplomatic minister to Korea and a Korean minister's secretary to America. While acting as a mediator between Korea and America, he knew and recorded the domestic and foreign situation of Korea during Gaehwagi(the civilized and enlightened age). Thus to study him is to understand Korea's Gaehwagi as well as to research American medical missionaries. During his stay in Korea(1884~1905), Allen steadily wrote diaries and letters about Korean politics, diplomacy, society, culture, and medicine. Thus his public/private record through diaries and letters(the quantity of these materials amounts to several thousands) supplements the Korean early modern era's historical record. However, until now these materials have received little scholarly attention from researchers except for a few historians of missionary work between Korea and America, or of Korean modern medicine. I intended to use these materials to suggest a new perspective on the study of Korean Gaehwagi. Allen, along with John W. Heron, who came to Seoul on June 21st 1885, treated about 10,460 Korean patients in the first year of the opening of JeJungWon. They made "the first annual report of the Korean Government Hospital". This report explained how Allen and Heron regarded and treated Korean patients. Allen's diaries, letters and other writings offer a realistic view of how the western people actually recognized the Korean people at that time. As a western doctor, Allen had an ambivalent attitude toward Korean medical concepts

  18. Reproductive delays in mammals: an unexplored avenue for post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Orr, Teri J; Zuk, Marlene

    2014-11-01

    Numerous mammalian taxa exhibit reproductive delays, pauses in reproduction that occur between mating and fertilization, between fertilization and implantation of the embryo, or after an embryo has implanted. Of the 27 mammalian orders, 9 are known to exhibit reproductive delays, including Diptrotodontia, Dasyuromorphia, Eulipotyphyta, Cingulata, Carnivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha and Cetartiodactyla. Most researchers interested in delays have focused on their evolutionary origins. However, the consequences of these delays have not been considered fully. Given the lengthening of the period over which reproduction occurs, it is possible that this unique aspect of reproduction facilitates post-copulatory sexual selection. When considered in the context of sexual selection, delays may allow sperm competition and female manipulation of fertilization (cryptic female choice) as well as other post-copulatory processes. We investigate the potential for reproductive delays to facilitate post-copulatory sexual selection and suggest avenues for research that may further our knowledge of sexual selection. We also provide a general review of reproductive delays in mammals.

  19. Differences in Redox Regulatory Systems in Human Lung and Liver Tumors Suggest Different Avenues for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A.; Tsuji, Petra A.; Lee, Byeong Jae; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2015-01-01

    A common characteristic of many cancer cells is that they suffer from oxidative stress. They, therefore, require effective redox regulatory systems to combat the higher levels of reactive oxygen species that accompany accelerated growth compared to the normal cells of origin. An elevated dependence on these systems in cancers suggests that targeting these systems may provide an avenue for retarding the malignancy process. Herein, we examined the redox regulatory systems in human liver and lung cancers by comparing human lung adenocarcinoma and liver carcinoma to their respective surrounding normal tissues. Significant differences were found in the two major redox systems, the thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Thioredoxin reductase 1 levels were elevated in both malignancies, but thioredoxin was highly upregulated in lung tumor and only slightly upregulated in liver tumor, while peroxiredoxin 1 was highly elevated in lung tumor, but downregulated in liver tumor. There were also major differences within the glutathione system between the malignancies and their normal tissues. The data suggest a greater dependence of liver on either the thioredoxin or glutathione system to drive the malignancy, while lung cancer appeared to depend primarily on the thioredoxin system. PMID:26569310

  20. Vascular Toxicities of Cancer Therapies: The Old and The New – An Evolving Avenue

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Joerg; Yang, Eric H.; Iliescu, Cezar; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Charitakis, Konstantinos; Hakeem, Abdul; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Leesar, Massoud A.; Grines, Cindy L.; Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, there has been a steady decline in cancer-related mortality, in part related to the introduction of so-called “targeted therapies”. Intended to interfere with a specific molecular pathway, these therapies have, paradoxically, led to a number of “off-target” effects. The latest examples are tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the Philadelphia Chromosome mutation product, which have been associated with progressive atherosclerosis and acute vascular events. Additionally, agents designed to interfere with the vascular growth factor signaling pathway have vascular side effects ranging from hypertension to arterial events and cardiomyocyte toxicity. Interestingly, the risk of cardiotoxicity with drugs such as trastuzumab is predicted by preexisting cardiovascular risk factors and disease, posing the question of a vascular component to the pathophysiology. The effect on the coronary circulation has been the leading explanation for cardiotoxicity of 5-Fluorouracil and may be the underlying the mechanism of presentation of apical ballooning syndrome with various chemotherapeutics. Classical chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin, often used in combination with bleomycin and vinca alkaloids, can lead to vascular events including acute coronary thrombosis, may be associated with an increased long-term cardiovascular risk. This review is intended to provide an update on the evolving spectrum of vascular toxicities with cancer therapeutics, particularly as it pertains to clinical practice as well as the conceptualization of cardiovascular diseases. Vascular toxicity with cancer therapy: the old and the new, an evolving avenue. PMID:27022039

  1. Investment Avenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  2. Effect of the orbital debris environment on the high-energy Van Allen proton belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, Andrei

    1988-01-01

    The lifetimes of high-energy (greater than 55 MeV) protons in the Van Allen radiation belt are calculated, assuming that in time the protons will collide with and be absorbed by particulate orbiting material. The calculations are based on the NASA/DoD Civil Needs Database for orbital debris (Gaines, 1966) and moderate assumptions of future space traffic. It is found that the lifetimes of high-energy protons below 1500 km will decrease, leading to a noticeable redution in their fluxes.

  3. Cognition About the Creative Process – Interview With Dr Andrew P. Allen

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P.; Loughnane, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between the creative process and cognition and perception? Lynda Loughnane, a master’s student in Art and Process in Crawford College of Art and Design, Cork, Ireland interviewed Dr Andrew P. Allen about the subject. Areas covered include mindfulness, Type 1 and Type 2 thinking, stage theories of creativity, engagement with the art process and the artwork, phenomenology and consciousness with and without self report. The interview was constructed to cover a wide range of subject matter, so as to gather as much information as possible in layman's language about the cognitive process in relation to creativity and interaction with art. PMID:27872674

  4. Evaluation of Single Board Computers for the Antenna Controller at the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, Gerald R.

    2002-12-01

    We review a variety off-the-shelf single board computers being considered for application in the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) for antenna control. The evaluation process used the following procedure: we developed an equivalent small program on each computer. This program communicates over a local area network (Ethernet) to a remote host, and makes some simple tests of the network bandwidth. The controllers are evaluated according to 1) the measured performance and 2) the time it takes to develop the software. Based on these tests we rate each controller and choose one based on the Ajile aJ-100 processor for application at the ATA.

  5. Evaluation of effects of groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant, Shelby County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, Connor J.

    2016-08-10

    The Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study groundwater-flow model was used to simulate the potential effects of future groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant in Shelby County, Tennessee. The scenario used in the simulation consisted of a 30-year average withdrawal period followed by a 30-day maximum withdrawal period. Effects of withdrawals at the Allen plant site on the Mississippi embayment aquifer system were evaluated by comparing the difference in simulated water levels in the aquifers at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and at the end of the scenario to a base case without the Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant withdrawals. Simulated potentiometric surface declines in the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site were about 7 feet at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11 feet at the end of the scenario. The affected area of the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site as delineated by the 4-foot potentiometric surface-decline contour was 2,590 acres at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11,380 acres at the end of the scenario. Simulated declines in the underlying Fort Pillow aquifer and overlying shallow aquifer were both less than 1 foot at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and the end of the scenario.

  6. Kalman Filtering and Smoothing of the Van Allen Probes Observations to Estimate the Radial, Energy and Pitch Angle Diffusion Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikova, T.; Shprits, Y.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Kalman filter technique combines the strengths of new physical models of the Earth's radiation belts with long-term spacecraft observations of electron fluxes and therefore provide an extremely useful method for the analysis of the state and evolution of the electron radiation belts. However, to get the reliable data assimilation output, the Kalman filter application is confronted with a set of fundamental problems. E.g., satellite measurements are usually limited to a single location in space, which confines the reconstruction of the global evolution of the radiation environment. The uncertainties arise from the imperfect description of the process dynamics and the presence of observation errors, which may cause the failure of data assimilation solution. The development of adaptive Kalman filter that combines the Van Allen Probes data and 3-D VERB code, its accurate customizations in the reconstruction of model describing the phase space density (PSD) evolution, extension of the possibilities to use measurement information, and the model adjustment by developing the identification techniques of model and measurement errors allowed us to reveal hidden and implicit regularities of the PSD dynamics and obtain quantitative and qualitative estimates of radial, energy and pitch angle diffusion characteristics from satellite observations. In this study we propose an approach to estimate radial, energy and pitch angle diffusion rates, as well as the direction of their propagation.

  7. The relationship between the macroscopic state of electrons and the properties of chorus waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Chao; An, Xin; Bortnik, Jacob; ...

    2016-08-04

    Plasma kinetic theory predicts that a sufficiently anisotropic electron distribution will excite whistler mode waves, which in turn relax the electron distribution in such a way as to create an upper bound on the relaxed electron anisotropy. Here using whistler mode chorus wave and plasma measurements by Van Allen Probes, we confirm that the electron distributions are well constrained by this instability to a marginally stable state in the whistler mode chorus waves generation region. Lower band chorus waves are organized by the electron β∥e into two distinct groups: (i) relatively large-amplitude, quasi-parallel waves with β∥e ≳0:025 and (ii) relativelymore » small-amplitude, oblique waves with β∥e ≲0:025. The upper band chorus waves also have enhanced amplitudes close to the instability threshold, with large-amplitude waves being quasi-parallel whereas small-amplitude waves being oblique. These results provide important insight for studying the excitation of whistler mode chorus waves.« less

  8. The relationship between the macroscopic state of electrons and the properties of chorus waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Chao; An, Xin; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard M.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald G.; Kletzing, Craig A.

    2016-08-04

    Plasma kinetic theory predicts that a sufficiently anisotropic electron distribution will excite whistler mode waves, which in turn relax the electron distribution in such a way as to create an upper bound on the relaxed electron anisotropy. Here using whistler mode chorus wave and plasma measurements by Van Allen Probes, we confirm that the electron distributions are well constrained by this instability to a marginally stable state in the whistler mode chorus waves generation region. Lower band chorus waves are organized by the electron β∥e into two distinct groups: (i) relatively large-amplitude, quasi-parallel waves with β∥e ≳0:025 and (ii) relatively small-amplitude, oblique waves with β∥e ≲0:025. The upper band chorus waves also have enhanced amplitudes close to the instability threshold, with large-amplitude waves being quasi-parallel whereas small-amplitude waves being oblique. These results provide important insight for studying the excitation of whistler mode chorus waves.

  9. The two last overviews by Colin Allen Wraight (1945-2014) on energy conversion in photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maróti, Péter; Govindjee

    2016-02-01

    Colin Allen Wraight (1945-2014) was a well-known biophysicist and biochemist of our times-formerly Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Plant Biology, and Head of the Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. (See a detailed Tribute to him by Govindjee et al., Photosynth Res, 2015.) During the latter part of his life, Colin had (1) given an excellent lecture in 2008 on the overall topic of the molecular mechanisms in biological energy conversion, focusing on how an ubiquinone is reduced to ubiquinol at the so-called "two electron gate", and (2) presented a review poster on the design features of long distance proton transport in biological systems, with focus on photosynthetic bacteria (a pdf file of the original is available from one of us, Govindjee). We present here for historical purpose, a complete transcript of his 2008 lecture and his 2013 poster, which have been annotated and expanded by the authors of this paper. The major theme is: electron and proton transfer in biological systems, with emphasis on bacterial reaction centers. The figures, some of which were prepared by us, are presented in sequence for both the lecture and the poster. A common bibliography is provided at the end of the paper, which is divided into two parts: (I) The Lecture; and (II) The Poster.

  10. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; ...

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front.more » Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.« less

  11. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Spence, Harlan E.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  12. Near-Earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R; Cattell, Cynthia A; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L; Reeves, Geoffrey D; Funsten, Herbert O; Spence, Harlan E; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-16

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeVelectron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L ∼ 5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ∼40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ∼3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  13. Viral ecology of organic and inorganic particles in aquatic systems: avenues for further research

    PubMed Central

    Weinbauer, M.G.; Bettarel, Y.; Cattaneo, R.; Luef, B.; Maier, C.; Motegi, C.; Peduzzi, P.; Mari, X.

    2016-01-01

    Viral abundance and processes in the water column and sediments are well studied for some systems; however, we know relatively little about virus–host interactions on particles and how particles influence these interactions. Here we review virus–prokaryote interactions on inorganic and organic particles in the water column. Profiting from recent methodological progress, we show that confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with lectin and nucleic acid staining is one of the most powerful methods to visualize the distribution of viruses and their hosts on particles such as organic aggregates. Viral abundance on suspended matter ranges from 105 to 1011 ml−1. The main factors controlling viral abundance are the quality, size and age of aggregates and the exposure time of viruses to aggregates. Other factors such as water residence time likely act indirectly. Overall, aggregates appear to play a role of viral scavengers or reservoirs rather than viral factories. Adsorption of viruses to organic aggregates or inorganic particles can stimulate growth of the free-living prokaryotic community, e.g. by reducing viral lysis. Such mechanisms can affect microbial diversity, food web structure and biogeochemical cycles. Viral lysis of bacterio- and phytoplankton influences the formation and fate of aggregates and can, for example, result in a higher stability of algal flocs. Thus, viruses also influence carbon export; however, it is still not clear whether they short-circuit or prime the biological pump. Throughout this review, emphasis has been placed on defining general problems and knowledge gaps in virus–particle interactions and on providing avenues for further research, particularly those linked to global change. PMID:27478304

  14. Inner Magnetosphere keV Ion Drift Path Boundaries as Observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strangeway, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Larsen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The drifts of keV ions in the inner magnetosphere are controlled by both electric field drifts and gradient and curvature (i.e., magnetic field) drifts, and further the magnetic field drifts oppose the corotation electric field drift in the dusk local time sector. Consequently, the ion drift paths can be quite complicated with the medium-energy ions drifting close to the Earth, but still being on open drift paths. In addition, structure in the energy-time spectrograms can be a consequence of either particle injection or particle loss. In order to distinguish between the two we will compare the energy-time spectrograms acquired with the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometer on board the Van Allen Probes with predictions of drift path boundaries. The simplest model assumes a uniform convection electric field and dipole model field, and we will use this a starting point for the comparison. The model can be modified to include shielding of the convection electric field, and rotation in local time of the zero-energy dusk-side stagnation point. As an additional check of the model we will compare the electric field used in the model with the electric field as measured by the Van Allen Probes, as well as the validity of using a dipole magnetic field through comparison with the measured magnetic field.

  15. An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    PubMed

    Baker, D N; Jaynes, A N; Hoxie, V C; Thorne, R M; Foster, J C; Li, X; Fennell, J F; Wygant, J R; Kanekal, S G; Erickson, P J; Kurth, W; Li, W; Ma, Q; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Malaspina, D M; Gerrard, A; Lanzerotti, L J

    2014-11-27

    Early observations indicated that the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep 'slot' region largely devoid of particles between them. There is a region of dense cold plasma around the Earth known as the plasmasphere, the outer boundary of which is called the plasmapause. The two-belt radiation structure was explained as arising from strong electron interactions with plasmaspheric hiss just inside the plasmapause boundary, with the inner edge of the outer radiation zone corresponding to the minimum plasmapause location. Recent observations have revealed unexpected radiation belt morphology, especially at ultrarelativistic kinetic energies (more than five megaelectronvolts). Here we analyse an extended data set that reveals an exceedingly sharp inner boundary for the ultrarelativistic electrons. Additional, concurrently measured data reveal that this barrier to inward electron radial transport does not arise because of a physical boundary within the Earth's intrinsic magnetic field, and that inward radial diffusion is unlikely to be inhibited by scattering by electromagnetic transmitter wave fields. Rather, we suggest that exceptionally slow natural inward radial diffusion combined with weak, but persistent, wave-particle pitch angle scattering deep inside the Earth's plasmasphere can combine to create an almost impenetrable barrier through which the most energetic Van Allen belt electrons cannot migrate.

  16. Collier Cobb and Allen D. Hole: Geologic mentors to early soil scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    Many influential individuals involved in the early US soil survey program were trained as geologists rather than as agronomists or soil scientists. Several geology departments served as pipelines for students interested in a career in soil survey. This paper looks at the professional history of two early mentors of these geologists turned soil surveyors and some of the students they sent on to the US soil survey and other soil science careers. Collier Cobb sent over 10 students to the soil survey starting in 1900 when US soil survey was in its infancy, including individuals of note such as Hugh H. Bennett, George N. Coffey, Williamson E. Hearn, and Thomas D. Rice. Allen D. Hole worked on soil surveys for the state of Indiana and sent over a dozen students on to US soil survey careers between 1911 and 1937, including Mark Baldwin and James Thorp. Francis Hole and Ralph McCracken, other students of Allen Hole, also went on to have distinguished soil science careers. These mentors and students clearly show the close ties that existed between soil science and geology in the United States during the early 1900s.

  17. Collier Cobb and Allen D. Hole: Geologic Mentors to Early American Soil Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Many influential individuals involved in the early United States soil survey program were trained as geologists rather than as agronomists or soil scientists. Several geology departments served as pipelines for students interested in a career in soil survey. This presentation looks at the professional history of two early mentors of these geologists turned soil surveyors and some of the students they sent on to the U.S. soil survey and other soil science careers. Collier Cobb (University of North Carolina) sent over 10 students to the soil survey starting in 1900 when U.S. soil survey was in its infancy, including individuals of note such as Hugh H. Bennett, George N. Coffey, Williamson E. Hearn, and Thomas D. Rice. Allen D. Hole (Earlham College, Indiana) worked on soil surveys for the state of Indiana and sent over a dozen students on to U.S. soil survey careers between 1911 and 1937, including Mark Baldwin and James Thorp. Francis Hole and Ralph McCracken, other students of Allen Hole, also went on to have distinguished soil science careers. These mentors and students clearly show the close ties that existed between soil science and geology in the United States during the early 1900s.

  18. Coordinated Radio and High-Energy Observations of Cygnus X-3 with the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter K. G.; Bower, G. C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2011-01-01

    The microquasar Cygnus X-3 is one of the few Galactic sources known to produce relativistic jets and can be one of the brightest radio sources in the Galaxy when flaring. In late 2009 it became the first such system to be seen in the gamma-ray regime with detections by both AGILE and Fermi. We have observed Cyg X-3 at 3 GHz every 5 days for the past six months with the Allen Telescope Array in conjunction with space-based X-ray (INTEGRAL, RXTE) and gamma-ray (Fermi) observations. We present results from both the long-term dataset and intensive observing sessions in which we obtain the radio lightcurve of Cyg X-3 on 10-minute timescales. We focus particularly on a May 2010 minor flare event for which we have coverage in all three bands.The first phase of the ATA was funded through generous grants from the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation. UC Berkeley, the SETI Institute, the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0540599), Sun Microsystems, Xilinx, Nathan Myhrvold, Greg Papadopoulos, and other corporations and individual donors contributed additional funding.

  19. Void structure of O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Kistler, L. M.; Tanaka, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument observed a new type of enhancement of O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere during substorms. As the satellite moved outward in the premidnight sector, the flux of the O+ ions with energy 10 keV appeared first in the energy-time spectrograms. Then, the enhancement of the flux spread toward high and low energies. The enhanced flux of the O+ ions with the highest energy remained, whereas the flux of the ions with lower energy vanished near apogee, forming what we call the void structure. The structure cannot be found in the H+ spectrogram. We studied the generation mechanism of this structure by using numerical simulation. We traced the trajectories of O+ ions in the electric and magnetic fields from the global magnetohydrodynamics simulation and calculated the flux of O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere in accordance with the Liouville theorem. The simulated spectrograms are well consistent with the ones observed by Van Allen Probes. We suggest the following processes. (1) When magnetic reconnection starts, an intensive equatorward and tailward plasma flow appears in the plasma lobe. (2) The flow transports plasma from the lobe to the plasma sheet where the radius of curvature of the magnetic field line is small. (3) The intensive dawn-dusk electric field transports the O+ ions earthward and accelerates them nonadiabatically to an energy threshold; (4) the void structure appears at energies below the threshold.

  20. 'Trunk-like' ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H.; Wolf, R.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J. T.; MacDonald, E.; Friedel, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. In this study, we report 'trunk-like' ion structures observed in situ by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. The trunk structures are present in heavy ions but not in H+. For the particular event, ion energies in the He+ trunks, located at L = 3.7-2.6, MLT = 8.8-10.3, and MLAT = -2.0-0.03°, vary monotonically from 3.5 to 0.04 keV. It is suggested that the trunk phenomenon is due to a combination of 1) deeper ion injections from storm activity, 2) the longer charge exchange lifetimes of heavy ions than H+, 3) the separation of a narrow layer of ions around the Alfvén layer from other convecting ions, and 4) the trajectory of the Van Allen Probes (i.e., an orbital effect). Both observation analysis and numerical modeling are utilized in the study.

  1. Observations and Simulations of Whistler-mode Waves Detected by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtson, M.; Rosborough, S.; Stein, R. L.; Streltsov, A. V.; Matheny, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    In March of 2014, Van Allen Probe A observed several packets of whistler-mode waves while passing through the apogee of an orbit on the dayside magnetosphere. These waves were localized in regions of strong density inhomogeneity. For one observed wave, the wave maximum occurred within the center of the channel formed by a density enhancement. The other two waves were observed on either side of strong density depletion. We first determine the wave characteristics using data from Van Allen Probe A. Then, we use the observations to specify parameters in an electron MHD simulation to model the propagation of whistler-mode waves inside density structures. These observations and simulations demonstrate how whistler-mode waves can become trapped inside density structures, a phenomenon known as ducting. The density ducts serve to guide the whistler-mode waves into the earth's radiation belt while minimizing damping effects. The purpose of this research is to understand the role of density ducts in guiding whistler-mode waves, which will have important applications for remediation of energetic particles from the radiation belt.

  2. Electric and magnetic radial diffusion coefficients using the Van Allen probes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ashar F.; Malaspina, David M.; Elkington, Scot R.; Jaynes, Allison N.; Chan, Anthony A.; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig A.

    2016-10-01

    ULF waves are a common occurrence in the inner magnetosphere and they contribute to particle motion, significantly, at times. We used the magnetic and the electric field data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Sciences (EMFISIS) and the Electric Field and Waves instruments (EFW) on board the Van Allen Probes to estimate the ULF wave power in the compressional component of the magnetic field and the azimuthal component of the electric field, respectively. Using L∗, Kp, and magnetic local time (MLT) as parameters, we conclude that the noon sector contains higher ULF Pc-5 wave power compared with the other MLT sectors. The dawn, dusk, and midnight sectors have no statistically significant difference between them. The drift-averaged power spectral densities are used to derive the magnetic and the electric component of the radial diffusion coefficient. Both components exhibit little to no energy dependence, resulting in simple analytic models for both components. More importantly, the electric component is larger than the magnetic component by one to two orders of magnitude for almost all L∗ and Kp; thus, the electric field perturbations are more effective in driving radial diffusion of charged particles in the inner magnetosphere. We also present a comparison of the Van Allen Probes radial diffusion coefficients, including the error estimates, with some of the previous published results. This allows us to gauge the large amount of uncertainty present in such estimates.

  3. Type II Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase: Probing the Mechanism with Alkyne/Allene Diphosphate Substrate Analogues†

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nagendra K.; Pan, Jian-Jung; Poulter, C. Dale

    2010-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the basic five-carbon building blocks of isoprenoid molecules. Two structurally unrelated classes of IDI are known. Type I IPP isomerase (IDI-1) utilizes a divalent metal in a protonation-deprotonation reaction. In contrast, the type II enzyme (IDI-2) requires reduced flavin, raising the possibility that the reaction catalyzed by IDI-2 involves the net addition/abstraction of a hydrogen atom. As part of our studies of the mechanism of isomerization for IDI-2, we synthesized allene and alkyne substrate analogues for the enzyme. These molecules are predicted to be substantially less reactive toward proton addition than IPP and DMAPP, but have similar reactivities toward hydrogen atom addition. This prediction was verified by calculations of gas phase heats of reaction for addition of a proton and of a hydrogen atom to 1-butyne (3) and 1,2-butadiene (4) to form the 1-buten-2-yl carbocation and radical, respectively, and related affinities for 2-methyl-1-butene (5) and 2-methyl-2-butene (6) using G3MP2B3 and CBS-QB3 protocols. Alkyne 1-OPP and allene 2-OPP were not substrates for Thermus thermophilus IDI-2 or Escherichia coli IDI-1, but instead were competitive inhibitors. The experimental and computational results are consistent with a protonation-deprotonation mechanism for the enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of IPP and DMAPP. PMID:20560533

  4. Impacts of intense inward and outward ULF wave radial diffusion on the Van Allen belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis; Rae, I. Jonathan; Murphy, Kyle

    2016-07-01

    During geomagnetic storms, the power in ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves can be orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by statistics determined from an entire solar cycle. This is especially true during the main phase and early recovery phase. These periods of enhanced storm-time ULF wave power can have significant impacts on the morphology and structure of the Van Allen belts. Either fast inward or outward radial diffusion can result, depending on the profiles of the electron phase space density and the outer boundary condition at the edge of the belts. Small changes in the time sequence of powerful ULF waves, and the time sequence of any magnetopause shadowing or the recovery of plamasheet sources relative to the ULF wave occurrence, have a remarkable impact on the resulting structure of the belts. The overall impact of the enhanced ULF wave power is profound, but the response can be very different depending on the available source flux in the plasmasheet. We review these impacts by examining ultra-relativistic electron dynamics during seemingly different storms during the Van Allen Probe era, including during the Baker et al. third radiation belt, and show the observed behaviour can be largely explained by differences in the time sequence of events described above.

  5. VIEW SOUTHEAST ACROSS HAMILTON AVENUE LEFTBUILDING 114ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST ACROSS HAMILTON AVENUE LEFT-BUILDING 114-ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP NORTH EXTENSION (1929) RIGHT-BUILDING 110-CARPENTER SHOP (1908) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. VIEW SOUTHACROSS HAMILTON AVENUE BY CLARK STREET CENTER REARBUILDING 101CLARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-ACROSS HAMILTON AVENUE BY CLARK STREET CENTER REAR-BUILDING 101-CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CLARK STREET WATER TOWER (1908 RIGHT-BUILDING 114 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP NORTH EXTENSION (1929) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  7. 75 FR 17139 - Proposed CERCLA Section 122(h) Cost Recovery Settlement for the Kentucky Avenue Wellfield...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Section 122(h) Cost Recovery Settlement for the Kentucky Avenue Wellfield Superfund Site, Town of Horseheads and Village of Horseheads, Chemung County, NY AGENCY: Environmental... (``CERCLA''), 42 ] U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. Expanding the Teaching Games for Understanding Model: New Avenues for Future Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Strean, William B.; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach in physical education, noting that many discussions of TGfU have focused on cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes and neglected the affective domain. An extended TGfU model is presented, suggesting new avenues for future research and practice (e.g., consideration of…

  9. VIEW NORTHSOUTH CLINTON AVENUE LEFTBUILDING 10CLINTON STREET STOREHOUSE (1927) CENTERBUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE LEFT-BUILDING 10-CLINTON STREET STOREHOUSE (1927) CENTER-BUILDING 35-ELMER STREET WIRE MILL (1899) RIGHT-BUILDING 54-FLAT SHOP 3 A (1924) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  10. 166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH AVE. FROM BUILDING 44 SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 46, 48, 55, AND 50 (PART OF ENLISTED BARRACKS COMPLEX), AND BUILDINGS 17, 16, 484, 483, 374, AND 375 (IN THE WAREHOUSE COMPLEX). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  11. Participation Observation: Chinese Mothers and Children at Rhodes Avenue English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenskyj, Helen

    Observations of Chinese mothers and children at Rhodes Avenue (Toronto) English classes and nursery confirm the hypothesis that a high level of parental warmth-support and control tends to become, by Canadian standards, overprotectiveness, and tends to result in a submissive, dependent, over-socialized child. Dependency upon the mother for…

  12. Walnut Springs Interest Unit, Fairmount Avenue School. Primary Unit--Team I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State College Area School District, PA.

    This environmental education teaching guide was designed for primary teachers who may want to develop their own environmental education units or who may wish to integrate the units contained in the guide into their own curriculum. The units in the guide were developed by primary teachers and reflect the experiences of the Fairmont Avenue School…

  13. DC66822 VIEW SOUTH TOWARD VIRGINIA AVENUE AND TO WEST POTOMAC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-22 VIEW SOUTH TOWARD VIRGINIA AVENUE AND TO WEST POTOMAC PARK BEYOND FROM THE ROOF OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AT 19TH AND C STREETS, NW - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Improving Critical Thinking Skills Using Learning Model Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anggrianto, Desi; Churiyah, Madziatul; Arief, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to know the effect of Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic learning model towards critical thinking skills of students of class X Office Administration (APK) in SMK Negeri 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia on material curve and equilibrium of demand and supply, subject Introduction to Economics and…

  15. 75 FR 76036 - American Axle & Manufacturing Detroit Manufacturing Complex Holbrook Avenue and Saint Aubin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Avenue and Saint Aubin Including On-Site Leased Workers From Paint Tech International Detroit, MI... from Paint Tech International were employed on-site at the Detroit, Michigan location of American Axle..., the Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from Paint Tech...

  16. 19. View to the north of Riverside Avenue. AZ196(J. C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View to the north of Riverside Avenue. AZ-196(J. C. Gatti House) at left Part of AZ-197 (Shannon Copper Company Store) can be seen in group of buildings at right - Clifton Townsite, Confluence of Chase Creek & San Francisco River, Clifton, Greenlee County, AZ

  17. From the IGY to the IHY: A Changing View of the Van Allen Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts by instrumentation flown on Explorer 1 in 1958 was the first major discovery of the Space Age. A view of the belts as static inner and outer zones of energetic particles with different sources, a double-doughnut encircling the Earth, became iconic to the point that their dynamic behavior and solar connection receded from public awareness and apparent scientific import. Then the Cycle 23 maximum in solar activity arrived in 1989-1991, the first approaching the activity level of the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, when the Van Allen belts were first discovered. Delay in launch of the NASA-Air Force Combined Radiation Release and Effects Satellite, following the Challenger accident in 1986, led to having the right instruments in the right orbit at the right time to detect prompt injection of outer belt electrons and solar energetic protons into the `slot region' between the inner and outer belts, forming new trapped populations which lasted for years in an otherwise benign location. This event in March 1991, along with the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, and our increased dependence on space technology since the early Explorer days, led to a resurgence of interest in the Van Allen radiation belts and understanding of their connectivity to the Sun. Additional instrumentation from NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program, the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) and IMAGE spacecraft from the Explorer program, NOAA and DOD spacecraft, and improved worldwide linkages of groundbased measurements have contributed much since 1991 to our understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the Van Allen belts. Further, the presence of continuous solar wind measurements beginning with the launch of WIND in 1994, and SOHO images of Coronal Mass Ejections and coronal hole sources of high speed solar wind flow have filled in the connection with solar activity qualitatively anticipated

  18. Cross-scale observations of the 2015 St. Patrick's day storm: THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, and TWINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H. O.; Kurth, W. S.; LLera, K.; McComas, D. J.; Perez, J. D.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Thaller, S. A.; Valek, P. W.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    We present cross-scale magnetospheric observations of the 17 March 2015 (St. Patrick's Day) storm, by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes), and Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS), plus upstream ACE/Wind solar wind data. THEMIS crossed the bow shock or magnetopause 22 times and observed the magnetospheric compression that initiated the storm. Empirical models reproduce these boundary locations within 0.7 RE. Van Allen Probes crossed the plasmapause 13 times; test particle simulations reproduce these encounters within 0.5 RE. Before the storm, Van Allen Probes measured quiet double-nose proton spectra in the region of corotating cold plasma. About 15 min after a 0605 UT dayside southward turning, Van Allen Probes captured the onset of inner magnetospheric convection, as a density decrease at the moving corotation-convection boundary (CCB) and a steep increase in ring current (RC) proton flux. During the first several hours of the storm, Van Allen Probes measured highly dynamic ion signatures (numerous injections and multiple spectral peaks). Sustained convection after ˜1200 UT initiated a major buildup of the midnight-sector ring current (measured by RBSP A), with much weaker duskside fluxes (measured by RBSP B, THEMIS a and THEMIS d). A close conjunction of THEMIS d, RBSP A, and TWINS 1 at 1631 UT shows good three-way agreement in the shapes of two-peak spectra from the center of the partial RC. A midstorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes and TWINS at 1740 UT, brought in fresh ions with lower average energies (leading to globally less energetic spectra in precipitating ions) but increased the total pressure. The cross-scale measurements of 17 March 2015 contain significant spatial, spectral, and temporal structure.

  19. On the generation of large amplitude spiky solitons by ultralow frequency earthquake emission in the Van Allen radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mofiz, U. A.

    2006-08-15

    The parametric coupling between earthquake emitted circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation and ponderomotively driven ion-acoustic perturbations in the Van Allen radiation belt is considered. A cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the modulated radiation envelope is derived, and then solved analytically. For ultralow frequency earthquake emissions large amplitude spiky supersonic bright solitons or subsonic dark solitons are found to be generated in the Van Allen radiation belt, detection of which can be a tool for the prediction of a massive earthquake may be followed later.

  20. Multipoint observations of the open-closed field line boundary as observed by the Van Allen Probes and geostationary satellites during the 14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, P.; MacDonald, E. A.; Funsten, H. O.; Glocer, A.; Grande, M.; Kletzing, C.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R. M.; Spence, H.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2015-08-01

    The twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft witnessed a series of lobe encounters between 0200 and 0515 UT on 14 November 2012. Although lobe entry had been observed previously by other spacecraft, the two Van Allen Probe spacecraft allow us to observe the motion of the boundary for the first time. Moreover, this event is unique in that it consists of a series of six quasi-periodic lobe entries. The events occurred on the dawn flank between 4 and 6.6 local time and at altitudes between 5.6 and 6.2 RE. During the events Dst dropped to less than -100nT with the IMF being strongly southward (Bz = -15nT) and eastward (By = 20 nT). Observations by LANL-GEO spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit also show lobe encounters on the dawn and dusk flanks. The two spacecraft configuration provides strong evidence that these periodic entries into the lobe are the result of local expansions of the OCB propagating from the tail and passing over the Van Allen Probes. Examination of pitch angle binned data from the HOPE instrument shows spatially large, accelerated ion structures occurring near simultaneously at both spacecraft, with the presence of oxygen indicating that they have an ionospheric source. The outflows are dispersed in energy and are detected when the spacecraft are on both open and closed field lines. These events provide a chance to examine the global magnetic field topology in detail, as well as smaller-scale spatial and temporal characteristics of the OCB, allowing us to constrain the position of the open/closed field line boundary and compare it to a global MHD model using a novel method. This technique shows that the model can reproduce a periodic approach and retreat of the OCB from the spacecraft but can overestimate its distance by as much as 3 RE. The model appears to simulate the dynamic processes that cause the spacecraft to encounter the lobe but incorrectly maps the overall topology of the magnetosphere during these extreme conditions.

  1. MENGA: A New Comprehensive Tool for the Integration of Neuroimaging Data and the Allen Human Brain Transcriptome Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Gaia; Veronese, Mattia; Expert, Paul; Turkheimer, Federico E.; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Brain-wide mRNA mappings offer a great potential for neuroscience research as they can provide information about system proteomics. In a previous work we have correlated mRNA maps with the binding patterns of radioligands targeting specific molecular systems and imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) in unrelated control groups. This approach is potentially applicable to any imaging modality as long as an efficient procedure of imaging-genomic matching is provided. In the original work we considered mRNA brain maps of the whole human genome derived from the Allen human brain database (ABA) and we performed the analysis with a specific region-based segmentation with a resolution that was limited by the PET data parcellation. There we identified the need for a platform for imaging-genomic integration that should be usable with any imaging modalities and fully exploit the high resolution mapping of ABA dataset. Aim In this work we present MENGA (Multimodal Environment for Neuroimaging and Genomic Analysis), a software platform that allows the investigation of the correlation patterns between neuroimaging data of any sort (both functional and structural) with mRNA gene expression profiles derived from the ABA database at high resolution. Results We applied MENGA to six different imaging datasets from three modalities (PET, single photon emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) targeting the dopamine and serotonin receptor systems and the myelin molecular structure. We further investigated imaging-genomic correlations in the case of mismatch between selected proteins and imaging targets. PMID:26882227

  2. Remarkable new results for high-energy protons and electrons in the inner Van Allen belt regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-04-01

    Early observations indicated that the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep 'slot' region largely devoid of particles between them. The two-belt radiation structure was explained as arising from strong electron interactions with plasmaspheric hiss just inside the plasmapause boundary with the inner edge of the outer radiation zone corresponding to the minimum plasmapause location.. Recent Van Allen Probes observations have revealed an unexpected radiation belt morphology, especially at ultrarelativistic kinetic energies (more than several megaelectronvolts). The data show an exceedingly sharp inner boundary for the ultrarelativistic electrons right at L=2.8. Additional, concurrently measured data reveal that this barrier to inward electron radial transport is likely due to scattering by powerful human electromagnetic transmitter (VLF) wave fields. We show that weak, but persistent, wave-particle pitch angle scattering deep inside the Earth's plasmasphere due to manmade signals can act to create an almost impenetrable barrier through which the most energetic Van Allen belt electrons cannot migrate. Inside of this distance, the Van Allen Probes data show that high energy (20 -100 MeV) protons have a double belt structure with a stable peak of flux at L~1.5 and a much more variable belt peaking at L~2.3.

  3. Rearrangement of vinyl allene oxide geometric isomers to cyclopentenones. Further computational insights with biologically relevant model systems.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Adán B; Grechkin, Alexander; de Lera, Ángel R

    2017-03-28

    Pathways for the rearrangement of the E and Z isomers of allyl- and methyl-substituted vinyl allene oxides to stereodefined cyclopentenones have been studied by DFT computations. Regardless of the reactant geometry, cis-configured cyclopentenones are found to be formed in a stepwise cascade comprising as key steps the ring opening of the oxirane to give an oxidopentadienyl diradical, its isomerization, and electrocyclization. An allyl substituent at the Csp(3) atom of the starting vinyl allene oxide induces opposite effects on the activation energies for ring opening: a decrease owing to assistance by homoconjugation for the out motion and an increase due to the stereoelectronic stabilization of the reactant. As a result, allyl- and methyl-substituted vinyl allene oxides exhibit comparable activation energies. Only model systems with crotyl substituents afford lower activation energies than the methyl counterparts due to the additional stabilization of the forming charge deficiency at a secondary carbon by homoconjugation. Moreover, upon homoconjugative interaction reactants of Z geometry are predicted to undergo cyclization more readily than the E isomers. The results with Z-crotyl substituent are congruent with the spontaneous rearrangement of natural vinyl allene oxide derived from α-linolenic acid to a racemic cis-cyclopentenone (12-oxo-PDA).

  4. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Enrgy Science: A Talk from Leo Holberg and Allen Mills

    ScienceCinema

    Holberg, Leo; Mills, Allen [NIST

    2016-07-12

    Leo Holberg and Allen Mills present a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  5. Rapid Asymmetric Synthesis of Disubstituted Allenes by Coupling of Flow‐Generated Diazo Compounds and Propargylated Amines

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Jian‐Siang; Makai, Szabolcs; von Keutz, Timo; Tran, Duc N.; Battilocchio, Claudio; Pasau, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We report herein the asymmetric coupling of flow‐generated unstabilized diazo compounds and propargylated amine derivatives, using a new pyridinebis(imidazoline) ligand, a copper catalyst and base. The reaction proceeds rapidly, generating chiral allenes in 10–20 minutes with high enantioselectivity (89–98 % de/ee), moderate yields and a wide functional group tolerance. PMID:28075518

  6. A finite difference method for a conservative Allen-Cahn equation on non-flat surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junseok; Jeong, Darae; Yang, Seong-Deog; Choi, Yongho

    2017-04-01

    We present an efficient numerical scheme for the conservative Allen-Cahn (CAC) equation on various surfaces embedded in a narrow band domain in the three-dimensional space. We apply a quasi-Neumann boundary condition on the narrow band domain boundary using the closest point method. This boundary treatment allows us to use the standard Cartesian Laplacian operator instead of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. We apply a hybrid operator splitting method for solving the CAC equation. First, we use an explicit Euler method to solve the diffusion term. Second, we solve the nonlinear term by using a closed-form solution. Third, we apply a space-time-dependent Lagrange multiplier to conserve the total quantity. The overall scheme is explicit in time and does not need iterative steps; therefore, it is fast. A series of numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed hybrid scheme.

  7. Long-duration exohiss waves outside the plasmasphere: observed by Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Su, Z.; Xiao, F.; Zheng, H.; Wang, Y.; He, Z.; Shen, C.; Zhang, M.; Wang, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    We report an exohiss event in the low-density trough region observed by Van Allen Probes on 2 February 2014. These exohiss waves are discovered in the wide MLT distribution [9.1,13.4] and low magnetic latitude, with narrow-band structure and weak intensity compared with plasmaspheric hiss. Using the Continue Waveform Burst Mode data and MAG data on the EMFISIS, we analyze the normal angle, electromagnetic planarity and anti~/parallel-propagating Poynting flux of exohiss wave. The results show indicate that exohiss waves are the result of plasmaspheric hiss leakage into the trough region. The dependence of the proportion of anti~/parallel-propagating Poynting flux on MLT can be explained by Landau damping associated with suprathermal eletrons.

  8. George Herbert Mead and the Allen controversy at the University of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gary A

    2007-01-01

    This essay uses previously unpublished correspondence of George Herbert Mead to tell the story of his involvement in the aftermath of a political dispute that took place at the University of Wisconsin during the years 1914-1915. It seeks thereby to clarify the historical significance of an article he published on this controversy in late 1915. Taken together with relevant information about the educational activities of William H. Allen of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, Mead's correspondence and article throw helpful light upon his understanding of how an educational survey of a university should proceed; they also show how he went about the task of evaluating a failed attempt at such a survey.

  9. Statistical distribution of EMIC wave spectra: Observations from Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    It has been known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can precipitate ultrarelativistic electrons through cyclotron resonant scattering. However, the overall effectiveness of this mechanism has yet to be quantified, because it is difficult to obtain the global distribution of EMIC waves that usually exhibit limited spatial presence. We construct a statistical distribution of EMIC wave frequency spectra and their intensities based on Van Allen Probes measurements from September 2012 to December 2015. Our results show that as the ratio of plasma frequency over electron gyrofrequency increases, EMIC wave power becomes progressively dominated by the helium band. There is a pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetry in the wave amplitude and the frequency spectrum. The frequency spectrum does not follow the commonly used single-peak Gaussian function. Incorporating these realistic EMIC wave frequency spectra into radiation belt models is expected to improve the quantification of EMIC wave scattering effects in ultrarelativistic electron dynamics.

  10. Van Allen Probes observations of oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanova, M. E.; Malaspina, D. M.; Jaynes, A. N.; Bruder, R. J.; Mann, I. R.; Wygant, J. R.; Ergun, R. E.

    2016-09-01

    Waves with frequencies in the vicinity of the oxygen cyclotron frequency and its harmonics have been regularly observed on the Van Allen Probes satellites during geomagnetic storms. We focus on properties of these waves and present events from the main phase of two storms on 1 November 2012 and 17 March 2013 and associated dropouts of a few MeV electron fluxes. They are electromagnetic, in the frequency range ~0.5 to several Hz, and amplitude ~0.1 to a few nT in magnetic and ~0.1 to a few mV/m in electric field, with both the wave velocity and the Poynting vector directed almost parallel to the background magnetic field. These properties are very similar to those of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, which are believed to contribute to loss of ring current ions and radiation belt electrons and therefore can be also important for inner magnetosphere dynamics.

  11. Five Years of SETI with the Allen Telescope Array: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent observations at the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) supporting a wide ranging Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The ATA supports observations over the frequency range 1-10 GHz with three simultaneous phased array beams used in an anticoincidence detector for false positive rejection. Here we summarize observational results over the years 2011-2015 covering multiple campaigns of exoplanet stars, the galactic plane, infrared excess targets, etc. Approximately 2 x 108 signals were identified and classified over more than 5000 hours of observation. From these results we consider various approaches to the rapid identification of human generated interference in the process of the search for a signal with origins outside the radius of the Moon's orbit. We conclude that the multi-beam technique is superb tool for answering the very difficult question of the direction of origin of signals. Data-based simulations of future instruments with more than 3 beams are compared.

  12. Traveling wave solutions for bistable fractional Allen-Cahn equations with a pyramidal front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hardy; Wei, Juncheng

    2017-05-01

    Using the method of sub-super-solution, we construct a solution of (- Δ) s u - cuz - f (u) = 0 on R3 of pyramidal shape. Here (- Δ) s is the fractional Laplacian of sub-critical order 1 / 2 < s < 1 and f is a bistable nonlinearity. Hence, the existence of a traveling wave solution for the parabolic fractional Allen-Cahn equation with pyramidal front is asserted. The maximum of planar traveling wave solutions in various directions gives a sub-solution. A super-solution is roughly defined as the one-dimensional profile composed with the signed distance to a rescaled mollified pyramid. In the main estimate we use an expansion of the fractional Laplacian in the Fermi coordinates.

  13. EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, L. W.; Bonnell, J. W.; Agapitov, O.; Paulson, K.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-02-01

    Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013-2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types—waves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often localized but can persist many hours. These investigations give insight into the nature of EMIC wave generation and support more accurate quantification of their effects on the ring current and outer radiation belt.

  14. Van Allen Probe Explorations of Plasma Spatial and Temporal Scales in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehof, J. T.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Reeves, G. D.; MacDonald, E.; Thomsen, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Friedel, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    We utilize the variable separation of the twin satellites of the Van Allen Probes mission to explore the time and spatial stability of plasma features in the inner magnetosphere. The spacecraft are in a leader-follower configuration with an approximately nine hour orbit, but with slightly different apogees and thus periods. Exploiting the resulting variation in separations, we survey differences in the plasma environment between inbound and outbound passes from a single satellite and between the two separated in time. The time separation ranges from minutes to 4.5 hours. From the HOPE instrument we obtain pitch angle resolved measurements of the plasma environment (for electrons, protons, helium, and oxygen). By utilizing both spacecraft, temporal and spatial effects are separated. By comparing temporal variations to drift and flow times, we determine which events' evolution is adequately described by simple flow or drift and which must result from more involved physics.

  15. Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Su, Zhenpeng; He, Zhaoguo; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei

    2016-12-01

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4-6 April and 18-20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR's spatial distribution and frequency range, and the current results have a wide application to all other magnetized astrophysical objects in the universe.

  16. PIC Simulations of Banded Chorus Events from Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Cowee, M.; Friedel, R. H.; Gary, S. P.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.; Liu, K.; MacDonald, E.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Winske, D.

    2013-12-01

    Banded chorus emissions are whistler waves with two bands separated by a narrow gap at 0.5ωce (ωce is the elctron gyro-frequency) in the frequency spectrum, often observed in the inner magnetosphere. The physical reason for the gap is still puzzling the space community. To better understand banded chorus generation, we identify occurrences of banded chorus in the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS data. Prameters derived from observations are used as initial conditions for our linear theory and nonlinear particle-in-cell simulations. By comparing our simulation results with electron pitch angle distributions from HOPE and wave spectra from EMFISIS, we will test some hypotheses for generation of banded chorus. LA-UR-13-26132.

  17. Formation of the oxygen torus in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations

    DOE PAGES

    Nose, Masahito; Oimatsu, S.; Keika, K.; ...

    2015-02-19

    Here we study the formation process of an oxygen torus during the 12–15 November 2012 magnetic storm, using the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by Van Allen Probes. We estimate the local plasma mass density (ρL) and the local electron number density (neL) from the resonant frequencies of standing Alfvén waves and the upper hybrid resonance band. The average ion mass (M) can be calculated by M ~ ρL/neL under the assumption of quasi-neutrality of plasma. During the storm recovery phase, both Probe A and Probe B observe the oxygen torus at L = 3.0–4.0 and L =more » 3.7–4.5, respectively, on the morning side. The oxygen torus has M = 4.5–8 amu and extends around the plasmapause that is identified at L~3.2–3.9. We find that during the initial phase, M is 4–7 amu throughout the plasma trough and remains at ~1 amu in the plasmasphere, implying that ionospheric O+ ions are supplied into the inner magnetosphere already in the initial phase of the magnetic storm. Numerical calculation under a decrease of the convection electric field reveals that some of thermal O+ ions distributed throughout the plasma trough are trapped within the expanded plasmasphere, whereas some of them drift around the plasmapause on the dawnside. This creates the oxygen torus spreading near the plasmapause, which is consistent with the Van Allen Probes observations. We conclude that the oxygen torus identified in this study favors the formation scenario of supplying O+ in the inner magnetosphere during the initial phase and subsequent drift during the recovery phase.« less

  18. Pi2 Pulsations Observed by Van Allen Probes: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Kim, K. H.; Kwon, H. J.; Lee, D. H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    The plasmaspheric virtual resonance model has been proposed as one of the source mechanisms for low-latitude Pi2 pulsations. Few studies have used simultaneous multipoint observations in space to examine the spatial structure of Pi2 pulsations both inside and outside the plasmasphere. In this study we show multipoint observations for Pi2 pulsations using the Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A and RBSP-B). We focus on the two events that occurred between 1700 and 2000 UT on March 12, 2013, which were simultaneously observed by Van Allen Probes and Bohyun (BOH, L = 1.35) station in South Korea. By using plasma density measurements, we determined that during this time RBSP-A was located outside the plasmasphere and RBSP-B was located inside it. We found that the poloidal, radial (δBx) and compressional (δBz), magnetic field components, and the azimuthal (Ey) electric field component observed by both RBSP-A and RBSP-B have a high correlation with the H component at BOH for both events. The δBx and δBz oscillations at both RBSP-A and RBSP-B are nearly out of phase with ground Pi2. The Ey -H cross phases at RBSP-A outside the plasmapause and RBSP-B inside the plasmapause are nearly in quadrature for the first Pi2 event. These observations indicate that the Pi2 pulsations exist outside the plasmasphere with a radially standing signature which supports the plasmaspheric virtual resonance model.

  19. Formation of the oxygen torus in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nose, Masahito; Oimatsu, S.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; De Pascuale, S.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Nakano, S.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2015-02-19

    Here we study the formation process of an oxygen torus during the 12–15 November 2012 magnetic storm, using the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by Van Allen Probes. We estimate the local plasma mass density (ρL) and the local electron number density (neL) from the resonant frequencies of standing Alfvén waves and the upper hybrid resonance band. The average ion mass (M) can be calculated by M ~ ρL/neL under the assumption of quasi-neutrality of plasma. During the storm recovery phase, both Probe A and Probe B observe the oxygen torus at L = 3.0–4.0 and L = 3.7–4.5, respectively, on the morning side. The oxygen torus has M = 4.5–8 amu and extends around the plasmapause that is identified at L~3.2–3.9. We find that during the initial phase, M is 4–7 amu throughout the plasma trough and remains at ~1 amu in the plasmasphere, implying that ionospheric O+ ions are supplied into the inner magnetosphere already in the initial phase of the magnetic storm. Numerical calculation under a decrease of the convection electric field reveals that some of thermal O+ ions distributed throughout the plasma trough are trapped within the expanded plasmasphere, whereas some of them drift around the plasmapause on the dawnside. This creates the oxygen torus spreading near the plasmapause, which is consistent with the Van Allen Probes observations. We conclude that the oxygen torus identified in this study favors the formation scenario of supplying O+ in the inner magnetosphere during the initial phase and subsequent drift during the recovery phase.

  20. Analysis of Van Allen Probes Data Showing Nonlinear Electric Field Feedback During a Magnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Katus, R. M.; Smith, L. K.; Skoug, R. M.; Niehof, J. T.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Smith, C. W.; Kletzing, C.; Ilie, R.; Ganushkina, N.

    2013-12-01

    Van Allen Probes data was examined to assess the role of nonlinear feedback in relationship to the spatial structure of hot ions in the inner magnetosphere. During the magnetic storm that peaked on June 1, 2013, localized electric field perturbations from the EFW instrument were observed in relationship to the plasma pressure peak (as identified by the HOPE H+ and O+ fluxes in the 1-40 keV range, as well as magnetic field perturbations from EMFISIS) with a systematic sinusoidal perturbation. Near apogee, it takes the Van Allen Probes 30-60 minutes to traverse a peak in the ion fluxes. Therefore, the electric field was averaged over several minutes to remove the higher-frequency wave oscillations, revealing the longer-baseline perturbation associated with the pressure peak. While the fluxes indicate that the satellite is passing through a pressure peak, the magnetic field perturbation reveals the spatial location of the pressure extrema relative to the spacecraft location. The pattern of these electric fields relative to the location of the plasma pressure peak is in agreement with the hypothesis based on theory and numerical simulation results that an azimuthally localized pressure peak should create a systematic and predictable small-scale reconfiguration of the electric field. This electric field modification is because the field-aligned currents near each end of the pressure crescent close via Pedersen currents, perturbing the electric field in this region, as regulated by the ionospheric conductance. The level of this reconfiguration, relative to the expected dawn-dusk electric field within the magnetosphere, indicates the intensity of the nonlinear feedback.

  1. 76 FR 22729 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant #1, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on April 6, 2011, applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, including on-site leased workers of...

  2. Dale Avenue Performance Objective Model Pre-Primary-Primary Performance Objectives Prekindergarten Through Grade Three: Manual; Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Helen B.; Gavzy, Rita

    The Dale Avenue Early Childhood Education Project was developed in the Dale Avenue School in Paterson, New Jersey through funding from the Elementary Secondary Education Act Title III. The Project was validated in 1973 by the standards and guidelines of the U.S. Office of Education as innovative, successful, cost effective, and exportable. As a…

  3. Modeling Loss and Rebuilding of the Earth's Outer Zone Electrons and Comparison with Van Allen Probes Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kress, B. T.; Li, Z.; Paral, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the competition between radiation belt electron energization due to radial transport and loss to the magnetopause and to the atmosphere is critical to understanding the dynamic changes in outer zone radiation belt electron flux response to solar wind drivers. Plasmasheet electron injection, both due to enhanced convection and substorm dipolarization, provides a source population for generation of whistler mode chorus and seed population for local acceleration. We now have available ~22 months of unprecedented measurements in energy and pitch angle resolution of electrons spanning the energy range from injected plasmasheet to multi-MeV electrons from the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft in near-equatorial plane elliptical orbits, with apogee at 5.8 Re; and two Balloon Array for Relativistic Radiation Belt Electron Losses (BARREL) campaigns during January-February 2013 and 2014, each establishing a longitudinal array of precipitation measurements extending to relativistic energies via measured Bremsstrahlung x-rays. In addition to this arsenal of data, a set of modeling tools has been developed to examine dynamics of electrons in the magnetosphere. These tools calculate electron trajectories in time-dependent magnetohydrodyanmic (MHD) fields using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model coupled with the Rice Convection Model to determine the E and B field response to solar wind drivers. With these tools we can follow electron dynamics including response to Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves which cause radial transport and energization for inward radial gradient as well as enhanced loss to the magnetopause for outward gradient. These tools have been applied to date to the large equinoctial storms of fall 2012, spring and fall 2013, in addition to moderate storms during BARREL balloon campaigns in both winters 2013 and 2014. Isolated substorm response can clearly be identified for the latter, while plasmasheet injection of electrons during periods of strong

  4. A Comparison of Van Allen Belt Radiation Environment Modeling Programs: AE8/AP8 Legacy, AE9/AP9, and SPENVIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Evan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In the space surrounding Earth there exists an active radiation environment consisting mostly of electrons and protons that have been trapped by Earths magnetic field. This radiation, also known as the Van Allen Belts, has the potential to damage man-made satellites in orbit; thus, proper precautions must be taken to shield NASA assets from this phenomenon. Data on the Van Allen Belts has been collected continuously by a multitude of space-based instruments since the beginning of space exploration. Subsequently, using theory to fill in the gaps in the collected data, computer models have been developed that take in the orbital information of a hypothetical mission and output the expected particle fluence and flux for that orbit. However, as new versions of the modeling system are released, users are left wondering how the new version differs from the old. Therefore, we performed a comparison of three different editions of the modeling system: AE8/AP8 (legacy), which is included in the model 9 graphical user interface as an option for ones calculations, AE9/AP9, and the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS), which is an online-based form of AE8/AP8 developed by NASA and the European Space Agency that changed the code to allow the program to extrapolate data to predict fluence and flux at higher energies. Although this evaluation is still ongoing, it is predicted that the model 8 (legacy) and SPENVIS version will have identical outputs with the exception of the extended energy levels from SPENVIS, while model 9 will provide different fluences than model 8 based on additional magnetic field descriptions and on-orbit data.

  5. Total Synthesis of (−)-Vindoline and (+)-4-epi-Vindoline Based on a 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Tandem Intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] Cycloaddition Cascade Initiated by an Allene Dienophile

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Justin E.; Barker, Timothy J.; Boger, Dale L.

    2015-01-01

    It is reported that an allene dienophile can initiate a tandem intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, that the intermediate cross-conjugated 1,3-dipole (a carbonyl ylide) can participate in an ensuing [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition in a remarkably effective manner, and that the reaction can be implemented to provide the core pentacyclic ring system of vindoline. Its discovery improves a previous total synthesis of (−)-vindoline and was used in a total synthesis of (+)-4-epi-vindoline and (+)-4-epi-vinblastine that additionally enlists an alternative series of late-stage transformations. PMID:26457536

  6. The Copenhagen Accord for limiting global warming: criteria, constraints, and available avenues.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Xu, Yangyang

    2010-05-04

    At last, all the major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have agreed under the Copenhagen Accord that global average temperature increase should be kept below 2 degrees C. This study develops the criteria for limiting the warming below 2 degrees C, identifies the constraints imposed on policy makers, and explores available mitigation avenues. One important criterion is that the radiant energy added by human activities should not exceed 2.5 (range: 1.7-4) watts per square meter (Wm(-2)) of the Earth's surface. The blanket of man-made GHGs has already added 3 (range: 2.6-3.5) Wm(-2). Even if GHG emissions peak in 2015, the radiant energy barrier will be exceeded by 100%, requiring simultaneous pursuit of three avenues: (i) reduce the rate of thickening of the blanket by stabilizing CO(2) concentration below 441 ppm during this century (a massive decarbonization of the energy sector is necessary to accomplish this Herculean task), (ii) ensure that air pollution laws that reduce the masking effect of cooling aerosols be made radiant energy-neutral by reductions in black carbon and ozone, and (iii) thin the blanket by reducing emissions of short-lived GHGs. Methane and hydrofluorocarbons emerge as the prime targets. These actions, even if we are restricted to available technologies for avenues ii and iii, can reduce the probability of exceeding the 2 degrees C barrier before 2050 to less than 10%, and before 2100 to less than 50%. With such actions, the four decades we have until 2050 should be exploited to develop and scale-up revolutionary technologies to restrict the warming to less than 1.5 degrees C.

  7. Avenue to understanding the mechanism of radiation effects. extended serial sacrifice experimental methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Neyman, J.

    1980-01-01

    The visualized avenue towards understanding the mechanism of the effects of radiation on the health of animals used in the experiments is, primarily, through willing interested cooperation between experimenting biologists, on the one hand, and equally willing and interested mathematical statisticians on the other. A review of the developments over two recent decades leads the author to the following conclusions relating to experimental designs; (1) the design of survival experiments with serial sacrifices as proposed by Arther C. Upton is basic, but (2) This design needs an extension. The building of this extension depends very much on the inventiveness of experimenting biologists.

  8. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. HOT CELL BUILDING IS AT CENTER LEFT OF VIEW; THE LOW-BAY PROJECTION WITH LADDER IS THE TEST TRAIN ASSEMBLY FACILITY, ADDED IN 1968. MTR BUILDING IS IN LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY BUILDING AT RIGHT IS THE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR BUILDING, TRA-642. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-32-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Simultaneous Pi2 observations by the Van Allen Probes inside and outside the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, H.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Park, J.-S.; Choi, J.; Hyun, K.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.; Huang, J.

    2015-06-01

    Plasmaspheric virtual resonance (PVR) model has been proposed as one of source mechanisms for low-latitude Pi2 pulsations. Since PVR-associated Pi2 pulsations are not localized inside the plasmasphere, simultaneous multipoint observations inside and outside the plasmasphere require to test the PVR model. Until now, however, there are few studies using simultaneous multisatellite observations inside and outside the plasmasphere for understanding the radial structure of Pi2 pulsation. In this study, we focus on the Pi2 event observed at low-latitude Bohyun (BOH, L = 1.35) ground station in South Korea in the postmidnight sector (magnetic local time (MLT) = 3.0) for the interval from 1730 to 1900 UT on 12 March 2013. By using electron density derived from the frequency of the upper hybrid waves detected at Van Allen Probe-A (VAP-A) and Van Allen Probe-B (VAP-B), the plasmapause is identified. At the time of the Pi2 event, VAP-A was outside the plasmasphere near midnight (00:55 MLT and L =˜ 6), while VAP-B was inside the plasmasphere in the postmidnight sector (02:15 MLT and L =˜ 5). VAP-B observed oscillations in the compressional magnetic field component (Bz) and the dawn-to-dusk electric field component (Ey), having high coherence with the BOH Pi2 pulsation in the H component. The H-Bz and H-Ey cross phases at VAP-B inside the plasmasphere were near -180° and -90°, respectively. These phase relationships among Bz, Ey, and H are consistent with a radially standing oscillation of the fundamental mode reported in previous studies. At VAP-A outside the plasmasphere, Bz oscillations were highly correlated with BOH Pi2 pulsations with ˜-180° phase delay, and the H-Ey cross phase is near -90°. From these two-satellite observations, we suggest that the fundamental PVR mode is directly detected by VAP-A and VAP-B.

  10. An extreme distortion of the Van Allen belt arising from the 'Hallowe'en' solar storm in 2003.

    PubMed

    Baker, D N; Kanekal, S G; Li, X; Monk, S P; Goldstein, J; Burch, J L

    2004-12-16

    The Earth's radiation belts--also known as the Van Allen belts--contain high-energy electrons trapped on magnetic field lines. The centre of the outer belt is usually 20,000-25,000 km from Earth. The region between the belts is normally devoid of particles, and is accordingly favoured as a location for spacecraft operation because of the benign environment. Here we report that the outer Van Allen belt was compressed dramatically by a solar storm known as the 'Hallowe'en storm' of 2003. From 1 to 10 November, the outer belt had its centre only approximately 10,000 km from Earth's equatorial surface, and the plasmasphere was similarly displaced inwards. The region between the belts became the location of high particle radiation intensity. This remarkable deformation of the entire magnetosphere implies surprisingly powerful acceleration and loss processes deep within the magnetosphere.

  11. 77 FR 48960 - Foreign-Trade Zone 12-McAllen, TX Notification of Proposed Export Production Activity TST NA Trim...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Activity TST NA Trim, LLC (Fabric/Leather Lamination and Cutting) Hidalgo, TX The McAllen Foreign Trade... TST NA Trim, LLC (TST), located in Hidalgo, Texas. The notification conforming to the requirements...

  12. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor. Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    DOE PAGES

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; ...

    2016-02-06

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, wemore » use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Moreover, our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a “gold standard,” here we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies inline image4 MeV. Our team present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 “St. Patrick's Day” geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.« less

  13. A Useful Allene for the Stereoselective Synthesis of Protected Quaternary 2-Amino-2-vinyl-1,3-diols.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Aleix; Ariza, Xavier; Contreras, Miguel A; Garcia, Jordi; Lloyd-Williams, Paul; Mercadal, Nerea; Sánchez, Carolina

    2017-02-03

    Treatment of readily available allene 1 with Cy2BH followed by addition of an aldehyde led to quaternary protected 2-amino-2-vinyl-1,3-diols in high yield and excellent stereochemical purity. The choice of benzoyl as N-protecting group is critical since the observed N- to O-Bz transfer during the process prevents later undesired isomerizations in the adducts and keeps all heteroatoms protected.

  14. Enantioselective Generation of Adjacent Stereocenters in a Copper‐Catalyzed Three‐Component Coupling of Imines, Allenes, and Diboranes

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kay; Ruscoe, Rebecca E.; Rae, James; Pulis, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A highly enantio‐ and diastereoselective copper‐catalyzed three‐component coupling affords the first general synthesis of homoallylic amines bearing adjacent stereocenters from achiral starting materials. The method utilizes a commercially available NHC ligand and copper source, operates at ambient temperature, couples readily available simple imines, allenes, and diboranes, and yields high‐value homoallylic amines that exhibit versatile amino, alkenyl, and boryl units. PMID:27539673

  15. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor. Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-02-06

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, we use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Moreover, our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a “gold standard,” here we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies inline image4 MeV. Our team present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 “St. Patrick's Day” geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.

  16. Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) documented in colorado based on recordings of its distinctive echolocation call

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, M.A.; Navo, K.W.; Bonewell, L.; Mosch, C.J.; Adams, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) inhabits much of the southwestern USA, but has not been documented in Colorado. We recorded echolocation calls consistent with I. phyllotis near La Sal Creek, Montrose County, Colorado. Based on characteristics of echolocation calls and flight behavior, we conclude that the echolocation calls described here were emitted by I. phyllotis and that they represent the first documentation of this species in Colorado.

  17. Van Allen Probes ECT/MagEIS Background Corrected Electron Flux Measurements: Methods and Initial Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.; Looper, M. D.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument, part ofthe Energetic Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite, onboard the NASA Van AllenProbes spacecraft. The ECT/MagEIS instrument measures radiation belt electrons in the ~20-4000 keV energy range and protons in the ~60-1000 keV energy range, with high resolution inboth energy and pitch-angle. In addition, the MagEIS electron measurement technique allowsfor a full quantification of the source(s) of background contamination in the measurement.MagEIS is thus able to make clean, reliable electron flux observations in the presence of strongpenetrating backgrounds, for example, contamination from relativistic protons in the inner zoneand inner slot region. We summarize our background correction algorithm, describe the varioussources of background contamination, and present an overview of our initial findings using thebackground corrected data set. Understanding the causes and effects of backgroundcontamination in the MagEIS electron data set is crucial for the interpretation and proper use ofsuch data. The techniques described will facilitate new investigations into the dynamics of theEarth's electron radiation belts, which have thus far not been possible.

  18. Automated Determination of Electron Density from Electric Field Measurements on the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Spasojevic, M.; Shprits, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present an algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurement made onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. It accomplishes this by using feedforward neural networks to automatically infer the upper hybrid resonance frequency, 𝑓𝑢h𝑟, from plasma wave measurement, which is then used to determine the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few attempts to do robust, routine automated detection (Kurth et al. [JGR, 2014]). We describe the design and implementation of the algorithm, as well as the resulting electron number density distribution. Resulting densities are compared with the densities obtained by Kurth et al. [JGR, 2014] and also to the empirical plasmasphere and trough density model of Sheeley et al. [JGR, 2001]. The analysis of the conditions, under which densities obtained by the proposed method differ significantly from the model of Sheeley et al. [JGR, 2001], is presented. Finally, we discuss the dependence of the electron number density on magnetic activity (Kp) and magnetic local time.

  19. Comparison between Low and High Latitude Lightning VLF Wave Propagation Using WWLLN and Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Brundell, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Mozer, F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning produces strong broadband radio waves, called "sferics", which propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and are detected thousands of kilometers away from their source. Global real-time detection of lightning strokes including their time, location and energy, is conducted with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). In the ionosphere, these sferics couple into very low frequency (VLF) whistler waves which propagate obliquely to the Earth's magnetic field. Possible one-to-one coincidence between lightning and VLF whistler wave is already found by the conjunction work between WWLLN and Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)). The previous global study showed a good match between WWLLN sferics and RBSP VLF whistlers at low L shell region (L < 3). In this summer, we started obtaining high sampling mode data from RBSP near the apogee. Initial results indicate many one-to-one coincidences at high L shell region (L>4). The whistlers observed at high L shell region are often nose whistlers. In our work, we will show the statistics results between WWLLN sferics and RBSP VLF whistlers at high L shell region. This talk will also explore the difference between low and high latitude lightning VLF wave propagation.

  20. Understanding Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics: Van Allen Probes observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Zhang, Xiaojia

    2016-10-01

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during geomagnetic storms using a 3D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the electron evolution observed by Van Allen Probes and simulation, we found that whistler-mode chorus waves play a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV through efficient energy diffusion. By only including radial diffusion driven by ultra-low-frequency waves, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and scattering by whistler-mode waves reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics, and the importance of nonlinear wave-particle interaction may still remain as an open question. We would like to acknowledge AFOSR Award FA9550-15-1-0158, NASA Grants NNX15AI96G, NNX15AF61G, and the NSF Grant AGS 1564510 for supporting this research.

  1. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's outer Van Allen belt.

    PubMed

    Baker, D N; Kanekal, S G; Hoxie, V C; Henderson, M G; Li, X; Spence, H E; Elkington, S R; Friedel, R H W; Goldstein, J; Hudson, M K; Reeves, G D; Thorne, R M; Kletzing, C A; Claudepierre, S G

    2013-04-12

    Since their discovery more than 50 years ago, Earth's Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is composed predominantly of megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days, depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. The spatially separated inner zone is composed of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations reveal an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (>2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for more than 4 weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.

  2. Estimates of trapped radiation encountered on low-thrust trajectories through the Van Allen belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, I. M.

    1973-01-01

    Estimates were made of the number of trapped protons and electrons encountered by vehicles on low-thrust trajectories through the Van Allen belts. The estimates serve as a first step in assessing whether these radiations present a problem to on-board sensitive components and payload. The integrated proton spectra and electron spectra are presented for the case of a trajectory described by a vehicle with a constant-thrust acceleration A sub c equal to 0.001 meter/sq sec. This value of acceleration corresponds to a trip time of about 54 days from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. It is shown that the time spent in the belts and hence the radiation encountered vary nearly inversely with the value of thrust acceleration. Thus, the integrated spectral values presented for the case of A sub c = 0.001 meter/sq sec can be generalized for any other value of thrust acceleration by multiplying them by the factor 0.001/A sub c.

  3. The seasonal dependence of relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's outer van Allen Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; McPherron, R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that geomagnetic activity shows a marked seasonal dependence. This effect has been attributed to the seasonal variation of the Earth's dipole tilt angle exposing the magnetosphere to an increased southward component of the interplanetary field (the Russell-McPherron effect) or an increased solar wind velocity (the axial/equinoctial effect). We examine the seasonal dependence of relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's outer Van Allen belt. An earlier investigation by Baker et. al., (1999) found that the relativistic electron fluxes do show a strong seasonal dependence with the equinoctial electron fluxes being almost three times higher than the solstitial fluxes. We extend this previous investigation using data obtained by sensors onboard SAMPEX. This study of the seasonal dependence is based on data with a higher time resolution as compared to the earlier study. The results of our analysis show that the peak electron fluxes are shifted in time from the nominal equinoctial times. We discuss some possible implications of our observations in the context of electron energization in the Earth's magnetosphere. Baker, D.N., S.G. Kanekal, T.I. Pulkkinen, and J.B. Blake, Equinoctial and solstitial averages of magnetospheric relativistic electrons: A strong semiannual modulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, No. 20, 3193-3196, 1999.

  4. Aromatic Osmacyclopropenefuran Bicycles and Their Relevance for the Metal-Mediated Hydration of Functionalized Allenes.

    PubMed

    Batuecas, María; Castro-Rodrigo, Ruth; Esteruelas, Miguel A; García-Yebra, Cristina; López, Ana M; Oñate, Enrique

    2016-10-24

    The aromatic osmacyclopropenefuran bicycles [OsTp{κ(3) -C(1) ,C(2) ,O-(C(1) H2 C(2) CHC(OEt)O)}(P(i) Pr3 )]BF4 (Tp=hydridotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate) and [OsH{κ(3) -C(1) ,C(2) ,O-(C(1) H2 C(2) CHC(OEt)O)}(CO)(P(i) Pr3 )2 ]BF4 , with the metal fragment in a common vertex between the fused three- and five-membered rings, have been prepared via the π-allene intermediates [OsTp(η(2) -CH2 =CCHCO2 Et)(OCMe2 )(P(i) Pr3 )]BF4 and [OsH(η(2) -CH2 =CCHCO2 Et)(CO)(OH2 )(P(i) Pr3 )2 ]BF4 , and their aromaticity analyzed by DFT calculations. The bicycle containing the [OsH(CO)(P(i) Pr3 )2 ](+) metal fragment is a key intermediate in the [OsH(CO)(OH2 )2 (P(i) Pr3 )2 ]BF4 -catalyzed regioselective anti-Markovnikov hydration of ethyl buta-2,3-dienoate to ethyl 4-hydroxycrotonate.

  5. Statistical Features of EMIC Waves Observed on Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Roh, S. J.; Cho, J.; Shin, D. K.; Hwang, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.; Thaller, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are one of the key plasma waves that can affect charged particle dynamics in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Knowledge of global distribution of the EMIC waves is critical for accurately assessing the significance of its interaction with charged particles. With the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS observations, we have surveyed EMIC events for ~2.5 years period. We have identified well-defined, banded wave activities only, as distinguished from broad band wave activities. We have obtained global distribution of occurrence of the identified waves with distinction between H- and He-bands. We compare it with previous observations such as THEMIS and CRRES. For the identified events we have drawn all the basic wave properties including wave frequency, polarization, wave normal angle. In addition, we have distinguished the EMIC events that occur inside the plasmasphere and at the plasmapause from those outside the plasmasphere. Finally, we have tested solar wind and geomagnetic dependence of the wave events. We give discussions about implications of these observations on wave generation mechanism and interaction with radiation belt electrons.

  6. “Trunk-like” heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; ...

    2015-10-27

    Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. Here, we report “trunk-like” ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant's trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energies in the He+ trunk, located at L=3.6–2.6, magnetic local time (MLT)=9.1–10.5, and magnetic latitude (MLAT) =-2.4–0.09°, vary monotonically from 3.5more » to 0.04 keV. Values at the two end points of the O+ trunk are energy=4.5–0.7keV, L=3.6–2.5, MLT=9.1–10.7, and MLAT=-2.4–0.4°. Our results from backward ion drift path tracings indicate that the trunks are likely due to (1) a gap in the nightside ion source or (2) greatly enhanced impulsive electric fields associated with elevated geomagnetic activity. Different ion loss lifetimes cause the trunks to differ among ion species.« less

  7. Study of lightning whistler waves observed at high L-shells on Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Holzworth, R.; Brundell, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Mozer, F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Lightning produces strong broadband radio waves, called "sferics", which propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and are detected thousands of kilometers away from their source. Global real-time detection of lightning strokes including their time, location and energy, is conducted with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). In the ionosphere, these sferics couple into very low frequency (VLF) whistler waves which propagate obliquely to the Earth's magnetic field. In our previous work, one-to-one coincidence between lightning and whistler waves is already found by the conjunction work between WWLLN and Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)). The previous global study showed a good match between WWLLN sferics and RBSP lightning whistlers at low L-shell region (L < 3). More case studies indicated that this kind of one-to-one coincidence can be extended to a high L-shell region. Since September 2012 to now (July 2015), EMFISIS instrument has already recorded 3-D waveform data with 35 ksamples/s for 527,279 and 542,346 of 6-second snapshots, respectively for RBSP-A and RBSP-B. 461,572 and 478,510 of snapshots with L-shell value larger than 3 are used in our work. In our work, we will show the distribution of lightning whistler waves at high L-shells. This talk will also explore the upper cutoff frequency of lightning whistler waves at high L-shells.

  8. "Trunk-like" heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Wolf, R. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B. A.; Niehof, J. T.; MacDonald, E. A.; Friedel, R.; Ferradas, C. P.; Luo, H.

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. We report "trunk-like" ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant's trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energies in the He+ trunk, located at L = 3.6-2.6, magnetic local time (MLT) = 9.1-10.5, and magnetic latitude (MLAT) = -2.4-0.09°, vary monotonically from 3.5 to 0.04 keV. The values at the two end points of the O+ trunk are energy = 4.5-0.7 keV, L = 3.6-2.5, MLT = 9.1-10.7, and MLAT = -2.4-0.4°. Results from backward ion drift path tracings indicate that the trunks are likely due to (1) a gap in the nightside ion source or (2) greatly enhanced impulsive electric fields associated with elevated geomagnetic activity. Different ion loss lifetimes cause the trunks to differ among ion species.

  9. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

    DOE PAGES

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; ...

    2016-06-20

    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave–particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. In this paper, using a data-driven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we showmore » for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave–particle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. Finally, when rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.« less

  10. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.; Honary, F.

    2016-06-20

    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave–particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. In this paper, using a data-driven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave–particle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. Finally, when rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

  11. Can You Hear Me Now? Software Development at the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Aaron; Harp, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a 42 radio dish array located in Hat Creek, CA and is used to search for traces of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and to study the interstellar medium. In order to minimize the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) that leaks into the antennas of the ATA and gain a stronger signal along with a clearer picture of the sky, we must analyze the array to determine which antennas are operating best. Readgains is a new tool that we developed to generate the system temperatures of the dishes and if they are below a given threshold (e.g. 150 K), we use them for observations. We conducted a five week observation of the galaxy 3c286 in order to study the behavior of the array and concluded that most operating antennas are performing well and the ones that were not will be excluded in the next observations. Hat Creek Radio Observatory will continue to use this tool for continuous analysis of the array.

  12. ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE measurements of interplanetary oxygen injection to the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    On March 17, 2015, a significant oxygen-rich interplanetary event was measure by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument. At the same time the Van Allen Probes Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument recorded significant enhancements of oxygen in the inner magnetosphere. We present a detailed analysis of this event utilizing a new method of exploiting the EPAM Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) data to precisely resolve helium and oxygen spectra within the 0.5 to 5 MeV/nuc range. We also present the flux, partial particle pressures, and pitch angle distributions of the ion measurements from RBSPICE. During this event, both EPAM and RBSPICE measured O:He ratios greater than 10:1. The pitch angle distributions from RBSPICE-B show a strong beam of oxygen at an L ~ 5.8 early on March 17th during orbit. The timing between the observations of the oxygen peak at ACE and the beam observed at RBSPICE-B is consistent with the travel-time required for energetic particle transport from L1 to Earth and access to the magnetosphere. We assert that the oxygen seen by RBSPICE during the initial phase of this event is the result of direct injection from the interplanetary medium of energetic ions. This poster contains the observations and detailed calculations to support this assertion.

  13. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's Outer Van Allen belt

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; ...

    2013-02-28

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts are thought to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is comprised predominantly of mega-electron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. Thus, the spatially separated inner zone is comprised of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations revealmore » an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (E > 2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for over four weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.« less

  14. “Trunk-like” heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Wolf, R. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B. A.; Niehof, J. T.; MacDonald, E. A.; Friedel, R.; Ferradas, C. P.; Luo, H.

    2015-10-27

    Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. Here, we report “trunk-like” ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant's trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energies in the He+ trunk, located at L=3.6–2.6, magnetic local time (MLT)=9.1–10.5, and magnetic latitude (MLAT) =-2.4–0.09°, vary monotonically from 3.5 to 0.04 keV. Values at the two end points of the O+ trunk are energy=4.5–0.7keV, L=3.6–2.5, MLT=9.1–10.7, and MLAT=-2.4–0.4°. Our results from backward ion drift path tracings indicate that the trunks are likely due to (1) a gap in the nightside ion source or (2) greatly enhanced impulsive electric fields associated with elevated geomagnetic activity. Different ion loss lifetimes cause the trunks to differ among ion species.

  15. Cellular localization and detergent dependent oligomerization of rice allene oxide synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Yoeun, Sereyvath; Kim, Jeong-Il; Han, Oksoo

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide synthase-1 from Oryza sativa (OsAOS1) localizes to the chloroplast, but lacks a putative chloroplast targeting sequence typically found in dicot AOS. Here, kinetic parameters and the oligomerization state/subunit composition of OsAOS1 were characterized in vitro in the absence or presence of detergent micelles. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of OsAOS1 reached a maximum near the critical micelle concentration for polyoxyethylene 10 tridecyl ether. Native gel analysis showed that OsAOS1 exists as a multimer in the absence of detergent micelles. The multimeric form of OsAOS1 was stably cross-linked in the absence of detergents, while only monomeric OsAOS1 was detected in the presence of detergent micelles. Gel filtration analysis indicated that the oligomeric state of OsAOS1 depends strongly on the detergents and that the monomer becomes the predominant form in the presence of detergent micelles. These data suggest that the detergent-dependent oligomeric state of OsAOS1 is an important factor for the regulation of its catalytic efficiency.

  16. New chorus wave properties near the equator from Van Allen Probes wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Santolik, O.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-05-01

    The chorus wave properties are evaluated using Van Allen Probes data in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere. Two distinct modes of lower band chorus are identified: a quasi-parallel mode and a quasi-electrostatic mode, whose wave normal direction is close to the resonance cone. Statistical results indicate that the quasi-electrostatic (quasi-parallel) mode preferentially occurs during relatively quiet (disturbed) geomagnetic activity at lower (higher) L shells. Although the magnetic intensity of the quasi-electrostatic mode is considerably weaker than the quasi-parallel mode, their electric intensities are comparable. A newly identified feature of the quasi-electrostatic mode is that its frequency peaks at higher values compared to the quasi-parallel mode that exhibits a broad frequency spectrum. Moreover, upper band chorus wave normal directions vary between 0° and the resonance cone and become more parallel as geomagnetic activity increases. Our new findings suggest that chorus-driven energetic electron dynamics needs a careful examination by considering the properties of these two distinct modes.

  17. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's Outer Van Allen belt

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.; Elkington, S. R.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M. K.; Reeves, G. D.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2013-02-28

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts are thought to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is comprised predominantly of mega-electron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. Thus, the spatially separated inner zone is comprised of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations reveal an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (E > 2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for over four weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.

  18. A Neural Network Approach for Identifying Relativistic Electron Pitch Angle Distributions in Van Allen Probes Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Vieira, L.; Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Koga, D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walsh, B.; Kanekal, S. G.; Silveira, M. D.; Medeiros, C.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Marchezi, J.; Rockenbach, M.; Jauer, P. R.; Gonzalez, W.; Baker, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    A myriad of physical phenomena occur in the inner magnetosphere, in particular at the Earth's radiation belts, which can be a result of the combination of both internal and external processes. However, the connection between physical processes occurring deep within the magnetosphere and external interplanetary drivers it is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate whether a selected set of interplanetary structures affect the local time distribution of three different classes of high energy electron pitch angle distributions (PADs), namely normal, isotropic, and butterfly. We split this work into two parts: initially we focus on the methodology used which employs a Self-Organized Feature Map (SOFM) neural network for identifying different classes of electron PAD shapes in the Van Allen Probes' Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) data. The algorithm can categorize the input data into an arbitrary number of classes from which three of them appears the most: normal, isotropic and butterfly. Other classes which are related with these three also emerge and deserve to be addressed in detail in future works. We also discuss the uncertainties of the algorithm. Then, we move to the second part where we describe in details the criteria used for selecting the interplanetary events, and also try to investigate the relation between key parameters characterizing such interplanetary structures and the local time distributions of electron PAD shapes.

  19. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.; Honary, F.

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a data-driven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave-particle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

  20. Low Energy Plasma Measurements of the Van Allen Probes Crossing Open Field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, B.; MacDonald, E.; Skoug, R. M.; Dixon, P.; Henderson, M. G.; Chaston, C. C.; Grande, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Thomsen, M.; Wygant, J. R.; Reeves, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes encountered unusual low-latitude flank-side open field lines during the Nov. 14 2012 geomagnetic storm. Both spacecraft entered the lobes five times over several hours in the main phase of the storm. Four of the ~ five minute events were seen by both probes nearly simultaneously despite being 45 minutes apart in orbit (less than one L shell). The more tailward satellite always saw the boundary crossing first. We present the HOPE low energy plasma observations during these encounters. Adjacent to the lobe intervals, HOPE observed a hot electron plasma sheet leading to significant spacecraft charging. The electron and ion fluxes were significantly diminished during the lobe crossings coincident with a stronger, more highly stretched magnetic field. Significant accelerated field aligned oxygen signatures were measured on both closed and apparently open field lines, along with strong Alfvenic waves. Using the multipoint measurements we will examine the source of this acceleration and its role in inner magnetosphere ion dynamics. This event also represents the chance to constrain and assess magnetic field models and we will examine the topological location of the field lobes relative to the spacecraft for multiple models.

  1. Correlations between chorus properties and electron velocity distributions: Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Cowee, M.; Gary, S. P.; Liu, K.; Min, K.; Winske, D.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetospheric chorus consists of whistler waves driven unstable by anisotropicelectron velocity distributions. A gap in the power spectrum of chorus at a fre-quency close to half the electron cyclotron frequency (Ωe/2) are often observedso that chorus can be categorized into four types accordingly: banded chorus(with two bands in the spectrum separated by Ωe/2), lower band only (withonly one band below Ωe/2), upper band only (with only one band above Ωe/2)and broadband (with only one band including Ωe/2). Here we present a studyto correlate chorus properties with electron velocity distributions based on thehypothesis that each band of chorus is excited by an anisotropic electron com-ponent. On Jan 14 2013, Van Allen Probes satellite A measured strong chorusactivity, and all four types were observed. We analyze HOPE and EMFISIS dataand show that there is a good correlation between the observed wave frequencyand propagation direction and the predictions of kinetic linear dispersion theoryusing electron component densities and temperatures obtained by fitting HOPEdata to a multi-component bi-Maxwellian distribution function. However, thetemperature anisotropies observed by HOPE are usually close to the instabil-ity threshold and therefore it is not possible at this point to predict whether acertain band can be excited based on measured electron velocity distributions.LA-UR-14-26177.

  2. 76 FR 27366 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants #1 And #2, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Division. Together, the Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1 and 2 are part of an integrated production process for... Caravan Knight, Detroit, Michigan. The workers are engaged in the production of automotive engines....

  3. Amplitude-frequency characteristics of ion-cyclotron and whistler-mode waves from Van Allen Probes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubchich, A. A.; Demekhov, A. G.; Titova, E. E.; Yahnin, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Using two-hour (from 2300 UT January 25, 2013 to 0100 UT January 26, 2013) measurement data from Van Allen Probes on fluxes of energetic particles, cold plasma density, and magnetic field magnitude, we have calculated the local growth rate of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron and whistler-mode waves for field-aligned propagation. The results of these calculations have been compared with wave spectra observed by the same Van Allen Probe spacecraft. The time intervals when the calculated wave increments are sufficiently large, and the frequency ranges corresponding to the enhancement peak agree with the frequency-time characteristics of observed electromagnetic waves. We have analyzed the influence of variations in the density and ionic composition of cold plasma, fluxes of energetic particles, and their pitch-angle distribution on the wave generation. The ducted propagation of waves plays an important role in their generation during the given event. The chorus VLF emissions observed in this event cannot be explained by kinetic cyclotron instability, and their generation requires much sharper changes ("steps") for velocity distributions than those measured by energetic particle detectors on Van Allen Probes satellites.

  4. Reaction of cis-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase with an allene substrate, 2,3-butadienoate: hydration via an enamine.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gottfried K; Johnson, William H; Huddleston, Jamison P; Serrano, Hector; Johnson, Kenneth A; Whitman, Christian P

    2012-01-11

    cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (cis-CaaD) catalyzes the hydrolytic dehalogenation of cis-3-haloacrylates to yield malonate semialdehyde. The enzyme processes other substrates including an allene (2,3-butadienoate) to produce acetoacetate. In the course of a stereochemical analysis of the cis-CaaD-catalyzed reaction using this allene, the enzyme was unexpectedly inactivated in the presence of NaBH(4) by the reduction of a covalent enzyme-substrate bond. Covalent modification was surprising because the accumulated evidence for cis-CaaD dehalogenation favored a mechanism involving direct substrate hydration mediated by Pro-1. However, the results of subsequent mechanistic, pre-steady state and full progress kinetic experiments are consistent with a mechanism in which an enamine forms between Pro-1 and the allene. Hydrolysis of the enamine or an imine tautomer produces acetoacetate. Reduction of the imine species is likely responsible for the observed enzyme inactivation. This is the first reported observation of a tautomerase superfamily member functioning by covalent catalysis. The results may suggest that some fraction of the cis-CaaD-catalyzed dehalogenation of cis-3-haloacrylates also proceeds by covalent catalysis.

  5. Pd/Cu cooperative catalysis: an efficient synthesis of (3-isoindazolyl)allenes via cross-coupling of 2-alkynyl azobenzenes and terminal alkynes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuan; Feng, Chao; Yamane, Motoki

    2017-02-23

    An efficient synthesis of (3-isoindazolyl)allenes from 2-alkynyl azobenzenes and terminal alkynes via cooperative Pd(PPh3)2Cl2/CuI-catalyzed cross-coupling has been developed. By making use of this approach, (3-isoindazolyl)allenes with various substituents can be synthesized in good to excellent yields. A rapid synthesis of biologically active indazolo[2,3-a]quinoline was also achieved using this method as the key step.

  6. Measurements from the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument on the role of electric fields in controlling the structure of the inner magnetosphere and the dynamic of particle energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, J. R.; Breneman, A. W.; Dai, L.; Thaller, S. A.; Cattell, C. A.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O. V.; Ergun, R.; Baker, D. N.; Li, X.; Califf, S.; Malaspina, D.; Hudson, M. K.; Millan, R. M.; Halford, A.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Donovan, E.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Bounds, S. R.; Fennell, J. F.; Reeves, G. D.; Smith, C. W.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes electric field experiment (EFW) provides measurements in the inner magnetosphere of quasi-static electric fields and high time resolution burst recordings of wave electric and magnetic fields (from the EMFISIS sensors) at rates as high as 16.4 ksamples/s. The EFW instrument also provides estimates of plasma density. We present electric field measurements from the two probes of these electric fields along with magnetic fields and particles to illustrate the role of the electric fields in the erosion of the plasmasphere, the energization of ring current particles, shock acceleration of relativistic particles, and near earth plasma sheet injection of energetic particles. These analysis include comparisons to dc magnetic fields provided by the EMFISIS fluxgate magnetometer and energetic particle measurements (from 10 eV to 20 MeV) provided by HOPE, MagEIS, and REPT instruments in the ECT suite. We will also present a preliminary comparison over the complete duration of the mission between the structure and intensity of the large-scale convection electric field and its interplanetary drivers, including CMEs and SIRs.

  7. Pollutant Concentrations in Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratio with Avenues of Trees for Various Wind Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2012-07-01

    This study summarizes the effects of avenues of trees in urban street canyons on traffic pollutant dispersion. We describe various wind-tunnel experiments with different tree-avenue models in combination with variations in street-canyon aspect ratio W/ H (with W the street-canyon width and H the building height) and approaching wind direction. Compared to tree-free street canyons, in general, higher pollutant concentrations are found. Avenues of trees do not suppress canyon vortices, although the air ventilation in canyons is hindered significantly. For a perpendicular wind direction, increases in wall-average and wall-maximum concentrations at the leeward canyon wall and decreases in wall-average concentrations at the windward wall are found. For oblique and perpendicular wind directions, increases at both canyon walls are obtained. The strongest effects of avenues of trees on traffic pollutant dispersion are observed for oblique wind directions for which also the largest concentrations at the canyon walls are found. Thus, the prevailing assumption that attributes the most harmful dispersion conditions to a perpendicular wind direction does not hold for street canyons with avenues of trees. Furthermore, following dimensional analysis, an estimate of the normalized wall-maximum traffic pollutant concentration in street canyons with avenues of trees is derived.

  8. Source of O+ in the ring current: Van Allen Probes observations during the 1 June 2013 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Song, P.; Burke, W. J.; Zhang, J.; Noah, M.; Larsen, B.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    During magnetic storms, the concentration of O+ ions in the ring current can increase substantially. The mechanisms that energize these O+ ions so that they gain enough energy to escape from the ionosphere into the magnetosphere have long been debated. The highly sensitive HOPE (Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probe satellites provide an opportunity to investigate this problem. The two satellites are in nearly identical highly-elliptical, low-inclination (~10°) orbits with a perigee of 1.1 Earth radii (RE), an apogee of 5.8 RE, and a period of ~9 hours. We study a storm event whose SSC occurred near 15:00 UT on 31 May 2013 followed by a lengthy initial phase. The main phase began early on 1 June, reaching a Sym-H minimum of - 134 nT at 07:54 UT. We have identified a large energetic proton enhancement event which is marked by a significant increase in the fluxes of high-energy ions in the deep portion of the main phase. We concentrate on the relative dynamics of H+ and O+. From 03:00 UT to 06:50 UT, there were a few quasi-periodic enhancements of O+ fluxes in the 200 eV to 3.5 keV energy range. A Fourier analysis shows clear power around 30 min periods and excellent coherence among these channels. These enhancements further show clear dispersion with high-energy channels increasing first followed by lower energy channels. During the event, the satellites were near the apogee in the pre-midnight local time sector. The location of the source region can be inferred by energy dispersion based on the time-of-flight effect. One may show that if the particles in different energies were produced at the same time and location, time is linearly correlated with the reciprocal of square-root of the energy for the enhanced fluxes and the source distance can be derived by the slope of the lines of enhanced fluxes. During the event, we identified 8 such enhancements. The sources of these O+ ions appear to be from similar distance to the

  9. Science Goals and Overview of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite on NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Cravens, J. P.; Elkington, S. R.; Fennell, J. F.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Funsten, H. O.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J. C.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M. G.; Horne, R. B.; Hudson, M. K.; Jahn, J.-M.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kanekal, S. G.; Klatt, B. W.; Larsen, B. A.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E. A.; Mann, I. R.; Niehof, J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Onsager, T. G.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R. M.; Smith, S. S.; Suther, L. L.; Thomsen, M. F.; Thorne, R. M.

    2013-11-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) sensor, and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively they cover, continuously, the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts. The instruments use those proven techniques along with innovative new designs, optimized for operation in the most extreme conditions in order to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. The design, fabrication and operation of ECT spaceflight instrumentation in the harsh radiation belt environment ensure that particle measurements have the fidelity needed for closure in answering key mission science questions. ECT instrument details are provided in companion papers in this same issue. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the RBSP-ECT instrument suite on the Van Allen Probe spacecraft within the context of the overall mission objectives

  10. Avenues into Food Planning: A Review of Scholarly Food System Research

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes several avenues of planning inquiry into food systems research, revealing gaps in the literature, allied fields of study and mismatches between scholarly disciplines and the food system life cycle. Planners and scholars in associated fields have identified and defined problems in the food system as ‘wicked’ problems, complex environmental issues that require systemic solutions at the community scale. While food justice scholars have contextualized problem areas, planning scholars have made a broad case for planning involvement in solving these wicked problems while ensuring that the functional and beneficial parts of the food system continue to thrive. This review maps the entry points of scholarly interest in food systems and planning’s contributions to its study, charting a research agenda for the future. PMID:24932131

  11. From the blood to the brain: avenues of eukaryotic pathogen dissemination to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Norikiyo; Lodoen, Melissa B

    2015-08-01

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and treatments available to combat the highly debilitating symptoms of CNS infection are limited. The mechanisms by which pathogens in the circulation overcome host immunity and breach the blood-brain barrier are active areas of investigation. In this review, we discuss recent work that has significantly advanced our understanding of the avenues of pathogen dissemination to the CNS for four eukaryotic pathogens of global health importance: Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and Cryptococcus neoformans. These studies highlight the remarkable diversity of pathogen strategies for trafficking to the brain and will ultimately contribute to an improved ability to combat life-threatening CNS disease.

  12. Results of the radiological survey at 1052 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL208)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1052 Central Avenue in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated August 26, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story block and frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and a 6-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/17.5 m wide by 43.5 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Results of the radiological survey at 1054 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL211)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1054 Central Avenue in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated August 27, 1986. The commercial property consists of a two-story frame and block building located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt drive connects the working areas to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the building is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/13 m wide by 43 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Recent developments in neurofibromatoses and RASopathies: management, diagnosis and current and future therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Rauen, Katherine A; Huson, Susan M; Burkitt-Wright, Emma; Evans, D Gareth; Farschtschi, Said; Ferner, Rosalie E; Gutmann, David H; Hanemann, C Oliver; Kerr, Bronwyn; Legius, Eric; Parada, Luis F; Patton, Michael; Peltonen, Juha; Ratner, Nancy; Riccardi, Vincent M; van der Vaart, Thijs; Vikkula, Miikka; Viskochil, David H; Zenker, Martin; Upadhyaya, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was the first RASopathy and is now one of many RASopathies that are caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Their common underlying pathogenetic etiology causes significant overlap in phenotypic features which includes craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, GI and ocular abnormalities, and a predisposition to cancer. The proceedings from the symposium "Recent Developments in Neurofibromatoses (NF) and RASopathies: Management, Diagnosis and Current and Future Therapeutic Avenues" chronicle this timely and topical clinical translational research symposium. The overarching goal was to bring together clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, advocate leaders, trainees, students and individuals with Ras pathway syndromes to discuss the most state-of-the-art basic science and clinical issues in an effort to spark collaborations directed towards the best practices and therapies for individuals with RASopathies.

  15. Results of the radiological survey at 1110 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL215)

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1988-02-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1110 Central Avenue in Albany, New York (AL215) was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 4, 1987. This commercial property consists of a one-story concrete block office building (Building 1), a one-story concrete block warehouse (Building 2), and four connected storage buildings constructed variously of wood, metal, or concrete block. The structures are situated on an irregularly shaped lot. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 10-m grid network established for measurements outside the buildings is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/45 m wide by 98 m deep. Two views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. The microbiome and its pharmacological targets: therapeutic avenues in cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana Luisa; Chilloux, Julien; Sarafian, Magali H; Rahim, Mohd Badrin Abdul; Boulangé, Claire L; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Consisting of trillions of non-pathogenic bacteria living in a symbiotic relationship with their mammalian host, the gut microbiota has emerged in the past decades as one of the key drivers for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). By degrading dietary substrates, the gut microbiota produces several metabolites that bind human pharmacological targets, impact subsequent signalling networks and in fine modulate host's metabolism. In this review, we revisit the pharmacological relevance of four classes of gut microbial metabolites in CMD: short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), bile acids, methylamines and indoles. Unravelling the signalling mechanisms of the microbial-mammalian metabolic axis adds one more layer of complexity to the physiopathology of CMD and opens new avenues for the development of microbiota-based pharmacological therapies.

  17. Avenues into Food Planning: A Review of Scholarly Food System Research.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    This review summarizes several avenues of planning inquiry into food systems research, revealing gaps in the literature, allied fields of study and mismatches between scholarly disciplines and the food system life cycle. Planners and scholars in associated fields have identified and defined problems in the food system as 'wicked' problems, complex environmental issues that require systemic solutions at the community scale. While food justice scholars have contextualized problem areas, planning scholars have made a broad case for planning involvement in solving these wicked problems while ensuring that the functional and beneficial parts of the food system continue to thrive. This review maps the entry points of scholarly interest in food systems and planning's contributions to its study, charting a research agenda for the future.

  18. Observations of purely compressional waves in the upper ULF band observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, J. L.; Engebretson, M. J.; Johnson, J.; Kim, E. H.; Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; Reeves, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Purely compressional electromagnetic waves, also denoted fast magnetosonic waves, equatorial noise, and ion Bernstein modes, can both heat thermal protons and accelerate electrons up to relativistic energies. These waves have been observed both in the near-equatorial region in the inner magnetosphere and in the plasma sheet boundary layer. Although these waves have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (DC and AC magnetometers and electric field sensors), most recent studies have used data from AC sensors, and many have been restricted to frequencies above ~50 Hz. We report here on a survey of ~200 of these waves, based on DC electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetometer instruments, respectively, on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during its first two years of operation. The high sampling rate of these instruments makes it possible to extend observational studies of the lower frequency population of such waves to lower L shells than any previous study. These waves, often with multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, were observed both inside and outside the plasmapause, in regions with plasma number densities ranging from 10 to >1000 cm-3. Wave occurrence was sharply peaked near the magnetic equator and occurred at L shells from below 2 to ~6 (the spacecraft apogee). Waves appeared at all local times but were more common from noon to dusk. Outside the plasmapause, occurrence maximized broadly across noon. Inside the plasmapause, occurrence maximized in the dusk sector, in an extended plasmasphere. Every event occurred in association with a positive gradient in the HOPE omnidirectional proton flux in the range between 2 keV and 10 keV. The Poynting vector, determined for 8 events, was in all cases directed transverse to B, but with variable azimuth, consistent with earlier models and observations.

  19. Drifting Quasi-Periodic Modulation of the Fast Magnetosonic Mode: Van Allen Probe Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardsen, S. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Kurth, W. S.; Wygant, J. R.; MacDonald, E.

    2014-12-01

    The fast magnetosonic mode is one of the dominant wave modes in the Earth's radiation belts. These waves influence the ring current by scattering ions in energy in the 10's of keV range, and are believed to be a heat source for radiation belt electrons. The fast magnetosonic mode observed around the Earth's inner equatorial magnetosphere sometimes exhibits quasi-periodic modulation as detected by the Van Allen probes. During each modulation the wave frequency exhibits a strong drifting (dispersive) signature characterized by a rising tone. Each tone is composed of harmonics with spacing close to the proton cyclotron frequency. The tones are band limited in frequency and mainly observed above the 20th harmonic of the local proton cyclotron frequency. We observe this modulation mainly outside the plasmapause, but it has also been observed to penetrate down to 1.5 RE. The modulation is observed up to magnetic latitudes of ±17º, at all magnetic local times, but its signatures are more pronounced on the dayside. For events where lower frequency ULF waves are detected, the period of the ULF wave is about twice the modulation period of the fast magnetosonic mode, suggesting strong wave-wave interactions. The modulation period varies from 50 to 200 s and its duration ranges from 0.2 to 3 h, with the maximum duration limited by the spacecraft orbit. We hypothesize that the rising tone is produced by changing Alfven velocities created by steepened density fluctuations due to plasma modification by an underlying ULF wave.

  20. Lipoxygenase-allene oxide synthase pathway in octocoral thermal stress response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lõhelaid, H.; Teder, T.; Samel, N.

    2015-03-01

    Marine ecosystems are sensitive to elevated seawater temperature, with stony corals serving as model organisms for temperature-imposed declines in population viability and diversity. Several stress markers, including heat shock proteins, have been used for the detection and prediction of stress responses in stony corals. However, the stress indicators in soft corals remain elusive. In higher animals and plants, oxylipins synthesized by fatty acid di- and monooxygenases contribute to stress-induced signaling; however, the role of eicosanoid pathways in corals remains unclear. The eicosanoid gene specific to corals encodes for a natural fusion protein of allene oxide synthase and lipoxygenase ( AOS- LOX). In this work, using the easily cultivated soft coral Capnella imbricata as the stress response model, we monitored the expression of the AOS-LOX and the formation of arachidonic acid metabolites in response to an acute rise in water temperature. Gene expression profiles of two 70 kDa heat shock proteins ( Hsps: Hsp70 and Grp78) were used as a positive control for the stress response. In comparison with normal seawater temperature (23 °C), AOS- LOXa and Hsps were all up-regulated after modest (28 °C) and severe (31 °C) temperature elevation. While the up-regulation of AOS- LOXa and Grp78 was more sensitive to moderate temperature changes, Hsp70s were more responsive to severe heat shock. Concurrently, endogenous and exogenous AOS-LOXa-derived eicosanoids were up-regulated. Thus, together with the up-regulation of AOS- LOX by other abiotic and biotic stress stimuli, these data implicate AOS-LOX as part of the general stress response pathway in corals.

  1. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  2. Jasmonate biosynthesis and the allene oxide cyclase family of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Irene; Hause, Bettina; Miersch, Otto; Kurz, Tobias; Maucher, Helmut; Weichert, Heiko; Ziegler, Jörg; Feussner, Ivo; Wasternack, Claus

    2003-04-01

    In biosynthesis of octadecanoids and jasmonate (JA), the naturally occurring enantiomer is established in a step catalysed by the gene cloned recently from tomato as a single-copy gene (Ziegler et al., 2000). Based on sequence homology, four full-length cDNAs were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia coding for proteins with AOC activity. The expression of AOC genes was transiently and differentially up-regulated upon wounding both locally and systemically and was induced by JA treatment. In contrast, AOC protein appeared at constitutively high basal levels and was slightly increased by the treatments. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant occurrence of AOC protein as well as of the preceding enzymes in octadecanoid biosynthesis, lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), in fully developed tissues, but much less so in 7-day old leaf tissues. Metabolic profiling data of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products including JA and octadecanoids in wild-type leaves and the jasmonate-deficient mutant OPDA reductase 3 (opr3) revealed preferential activity of the AOS branch within the LOX pathway. 13-LOX products occurred predominantly as esterified derivatives, and all 13-hydroperoxy derivatives were below the detection limits. There was a constitutive high level of free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in untreated wild-type and opr3 leaves, but an undetectable-expression of AOC. Upon wounding opr3 leaves exhibited only low expression of AOC, wounded wild-type leaves, however, accumulated JA and AOC mRNA. These and further data suggest regulation of JA biosynthesis by OPDA compartmentalization and a positive feedback by JA during leaf development.

  3. Statistical analysis of plasmaspheric magnetosonic mode waves from Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Shoji, M.; Kurita, S.; Kitamura, N.; Machida, S.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Boardsen, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetosonic waves (MSWs) are electromagnetic emissions whose properites can be described by the cold plasma extraordinary mode, which are typically generated at frequencies (f) between the proton cyclotron frequency (fcp) and the lower hybrid resonant frequency. It has been suggested that MSWs can contribute to the acceleration of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. In this study, we investigate the Poynting vector of plasmaspheric MSWs using the spectral matrix data from the EMFISIS instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. We derived the polarization and planarity from the spectrum matrix using the SVD method (Santolik et al., 2003) and also estimated the Poynting vector. The planarity is used as a proxy to distinguish presence of a single wave vector from mixture of waves propagating in different directions. The Poynting vector of MSWs with high planarity shows that the MSWs are observed to propagate radially as well as longitudinally. The occurrence probability of the propagation directions depends on the geomagnetic activities. During the geomagnetically quiet periods (Kp < 3), the percentage of inward, outward, and longitudinal propagations of MSWs at 60 Hz are 22%, 36% and 42% respectively. On the other hand, during the geomagnetically active periods (Kp > 5), the percentages are 53%, 21%, and 26%, respectively. The result indicates that the MSWs tend to propagate inward during the geomagnetically active periods. Since the fundamental frequency of the ion Bernstein mode would be local cyclotron frequency, we also investigate the source of MSWs from the minimum frequency of MSWs. It is found that a large number of MSWs tend to be generated at L=3.0-3.5 inside the plasmapause. We will also discuss the validity of the Poynting flux computation as a function of f/fcp.

  4. Van Allen Probes observation and modeling of chorus excitation and propagation during weak geomagnetic activities

    DOE PAGES

    He, Yihua; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; ...

    2015-08-20

    We report correlated data on nightside chorus waves and energetic electrons during two small storm periods: 1 November 2012 (Dst ≈ –45) and 14 January 2013 (Dst ≈ –18). The Van Allen Probes simultaneously observed strong chorus waves at locations L = 5.8 – 6.3, with a lower frequency band 0.1–0.5fce and a peak spectral density ~10–4 nT2/Hz. In the same period, the fluxes and anisotropy of energetic (~10–300 keV) electrons were greatly enhanced in the interval of large negative interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Using a bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed electron distribution, we perform ray tracing simulations tomore » show that nightside chorus waves are indeed produced by the observed electron distribution with a peak growth for a field-aligned propagation approximately between 0.3fce and 0.4fce, at latitude <7°. Moreover, chorus waves launched with initial normal angles either θ < 90° or > 90° propagate along the field either northward or southward and then bounce back either away from Earth for a lower frequency or toward Earth for higher frequencies. The current results indicate that nightside chorus waves can be excited even during weak geomagnetic activities in cases of continuous injection associated with negative Bz. Furthermore, we examine a dayside event during a small storm C on 8 May 2014 (Dst ≈ –45) and find that the observed anisotropic energetic electron distributions potentially contribute to the generation of dayside chorus waves, but this requires more thorough studies in the future.« less

  5. Van Allen Probes observation and modeling of chorus excitation and propagation during weak geomagnetic activities

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yihua; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-08-20

    We report correlated data on nightside chorus waves and energetic electrons during two small storm periods: 1 November 2012 (Dst ≈ –45) and 14 January 2013 (Dst ≈ –18). The Van Allen Probes simultaneously observed strong chorus waves at locations L = 5.8 – 6.3, with a lower frequency band 0.1–0.5fce and a peak spectral density ~10–4 nT2/Hz. In the same period, the fluxes and anisotropy of energetic (~10–300 keV) electrons were greatly enhanced in the interval of large negative interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Using a bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed electron distribution, we perform ray tracing simulations to show that nightside chorus waves are indeed produced by the observed electron distribution with a peak growth for a field-aligned propagation approximately between 0.3fce and 0.4fce, at latitude <7°. Moreover, chorus waves launched with initial normal angles either θ < 90° or > 90° propagate along the field either northward or southward and then bounce back either away from Earth for a lower frequency or toward Earth for higher frequencies. The current results indicate that nightside chorus waves can be excited even during weak geomagnetic activities in cases of continuous injection associated with negative Bz. Furthermore, we examine a dayside event during a small storm C on 8 May 2014 (Dst ≈ –45) and find that the observed anisotropic energetic electron distributions potentially contribute to the generation of dayside chorus waves, but this requires more thorough studies in the future.

  6. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and cluster observations of EMIC waves, ULF pulsations, and an electron flux dropout

    SciTech Connect

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; Carr, C.; Santolik, O.

    2016-03-04

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12–14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12–13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13–14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst <–100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near prestorm values, possibly in response to strong ultralow frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  7. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and cluster observations of EMIC waves, ULF pulsations, and an electron flux dropout

    DOE PAGES

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; ...

    2016-03-04

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12–14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervalsmore » of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12–13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13–14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst <–100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near prestorm values, possibly in response to strong ultralow frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.« less

  8. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH +allene reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.

    2007-10-01

    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl +CH2CCH2OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl(P1/22):Cl(P3/22) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CCH2OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH +allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C2H3, H +acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O +allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates.

  9. Adventures on the C3H5O potential energy surface: OH+propyne, OH+allene and related reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Zádor, Judit; Miller, James A.

    2014-06-25

    We mapped out the stationary points and the corresponding conformational space on the C3H5O potential energy surface relevant for the OH + allene and OH + propyne reactions systematically and automatically using the KinBot software at the UCCSD(T)-F12b/cc-pVQZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. We used RRKM-based 1-D master equations to calculate pressure- and temperature-dependent, channel-specific phenomenological rate coefficients for the bimolecular reactions propyne + OH and allene + OH, and for the unimolecular decomposition of the CH3CCHOH, CH3C(OH)CH, CH2CCH2OH, CH2C(OH)CH2 primary adducts, and also for the related acetonyl, propionyl, 2-methylvinoxy, and 3-oxo-1-propyl radicals. The major channel of the bimolecular reactions at highmore » temperatures is the formation propargyl + H2O, which makes the title reactions important players in soot formation at high temperatures. However, below ~1000 K the chemistry is more complex, involving the competition of stabilization, isomerization and dissociation processes. We found that the OH addition to the central carbon of allene has a particularly interesting and complex pressure dependence, caused by the low-lying exit channel to form ketene + CH3 bimolecular products. In this study, we compared our results to a wide range of experimental data and assessed possible uncertainties arising from certain aspects of the theoretical framework.« less

  10. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC Waves, ULF Pulsations, and an Electron Flux Dropout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; Macdowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; Carr, C.; Santolík, O.

    2016-01-01

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12-14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12-13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13-14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst<100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near prestorm values, possibly in response to strong ultralow frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  11. Transition metal-catalyzed/mediated reaction of allenes with a nucleophilic functionality connected to the alpha-carbon atom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengming

    2003-09-01

    Allenes with a nucleophilic functionality connected to the alpha-carbon atom have been shown to be versatile building blocks for the syn-thesis of gamma-butenolides, gamma-lactams, gamma-iminolactones, vinylic epoxides, 4-amino-2-alkenols, 2-amino-3-alkenols, 2,5-dihydrofurans, furans, vinylic cyclopropanes, and cyclopentenes, depending on the nature of the nucleophilic centers. The reaction may proceed via the carbometalation-nucleophilic attack mechanism or nucleometallation-reductive elimination. The stereochemical outcomes by these two pathways are different.

  12. Van Allen Probes observations of dipolarization and its associated O+ flux variations in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, M.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent study employing the MDS-1 satellite reveals that magnetic field dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere is not unusual. When the MDS-1 satellite was located at L=3.5-5.0 near the auroral onset longitude (MLT difference of ≤2.5 h), the occurrence probability of local dipolarization was about 16%. Surprisingly, an event was found at L~3.6, far inside the geosynchronous altitude. It was also shown that after the dipolarization, the oxygen ENA flux in the nightside ring current region measured by the IMAGE satellite was predominantly enhanced by a factor of 2-5 and stayed at an enhanced level for more than 1 h, while clear enhancement was scarcely seen in the hydrogen ENA flux. To better understand mechanisms of the selective acceleration of O+ ions during dipolarization, an in-situ measurement of ion fluxes is needed. However, there are few studies investigating H+ and O+ flux variations during dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere. In this study we investigate magnetic field dipolarization and its associated ion flux variations in the deep inner magnetosphere, using magnetic field and ion flux data obtained by the Van Allen Probes. From the magnetic field data recorded on the nightside (1800-0600 MLT) in the inner magnetosphere (L=3.0-6.6) in VDH coordinates, we select substorm-related dipolarization events in which the H component increases by more than 20 nT and the absolute value of the V component decreases by more than 8 nT in 5 minutes. About 150 dipolarization events are identified from 1 October 2012 to 30 June 2015. We find that the dipolarization mostly occurs at L=4.5-6.5 in the premidnight sector (2100-0000 MLT). No events are found at L<4.0. Some dipolarization events are accompanied by O+ flux enhancements in the energy range higher than a few keV, which have the pitch angle distribution peaked around 45 or 135 degrees. We also find that low energy O+ ions often appear after dipolarization with an energy dispersion starting from

  13. Gene co-expression analysis identifies brain regions and cell types involved in migraine pathophysiology: a GWAS-based study using the Allen Human Brain Atlas.

    PubMed

    Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta R; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Davey Smith, George; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-04-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology.

  14. MIDL: A Demonstration of Multi-Mission Analysis of Charged Particle Data From Van Allen Probes and the Juno Earth Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. E.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Mauk, B.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    At the present time, a fleet of heliosphere spacecraft is producing an unprecedented number of measurements of charged particles and magnetic fields throughout the solar system - from Mercury to the local interstellar medium. It is vital to have a flexible and efficient data browsing, discovery, and analysis environment to navigate this wealth of information. We present a multi-mission tool for quick look data viewing and analysis. In addition to a rich tool and feature set, MIDL3 (Mission Independent Data Layer - 3rd version) provides environments to cater to different user classes from instrument team engineers, to team scientists, to the general science community. Furthermore, MIDL3 adds a new, highly interactive, end-user visualization environment for rapid browsing and exploration of science and engineering data. Like AMDA and MAPSVIEW, MIDL has functioned for Cassini plasma and particle data as a highly successful platform for inter-comparing different instruments/sensors with minimal preparation work on the part of the user. We present a demonstration of simultaneous analysis of the JUNO Earth flyby (October 9, 2013) data from the JEDI instruments and Van Allen Probes data from the RBSPICE instruments. Since these two instrument sets share a very similar design (see presentations by C Paranicas, et al. and J Manwiler, et al. at this conference for details) we anticipate important results from this unique opportunity to compare measurements of energetic electrons and ions made by six telescopes each for the five similar instruments on three spacecraft within Earth's magnetosphere.

  15. Carotenoid composition of the flowers of Mimulus lewisii and related species: Implications regarding the prevalence and origin of two unique, allenic pigments.

    PubMed

    LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2015-05-01

    The genus Mimulus has been used as a model system in a wide range of ecological and evolutionary studies and contains many species with carotenoid pigmented flowers. However, the detailed carotenoid composition of these flowers has never been reported. In this paper the floral carotenoid composition of 11 Mimulus species are characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and chemical methods with a particular focus on the genetic model species, Mimulus lewisii. M. lewisii flowers have five major carotenoids: antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and the unique allenic carotenoids, deepoxyneoxanthin and mimulaxanthin. This carotenoid profile is consistent with the expression levels of putative carotenoid biosynthetic genes in the M. lewisii flower. The other 10 species possess the same five carotenoids or a subset of these. Comparison of the carotenoid profiles among species in a phylogenetic context provides new insights into the biosynthesis and evolution of deepoxyneoxanthin and mimulaxanthin. This work also lays the foundation for future studies regarding transcriptional control of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Mimulus flowers.

  16. Inferring electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensity from low altitude POES proton flux measurements: A detailed case study with conjugate Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Shi, Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zuo, Pingbing; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the magnetospheric particle dynamics and can lead to resonant pitch-angle scattering and ultimate precipitation of ring current protons. Commonly, the statistics of in situ EMIC wave measurements is adopted for quantitative investigation of wave-particle interaction processes, which however becomes questionable for detailed case studies especially during geomagnetic storms and substorms. Here we establish a novel technique to infer EMIC wave amplitudes from low-altitude proton measurements onboard the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). The detailed procedure is elaborated regarding how to infer the EMIC wave intensity for one specific time point. We then test the technique with a case study comparing the inferred root-mean-square (RMS) EMIC wave amplitude with the conjugate Van Allen Probes EMFISIS wave measurements. Our results suggest that the developed technique can reasonably estimate EMIC wave intensities from low-altitude POES proton flux data, thereby providing a useful tool to construct a data-based, near-real-time, dynamic model of the global distribution of EMIC waves once the proton flux measurements from multiple POES satellites are available for any specific time period.

  17. Myth smashers, myth makers: (re)visionary techniques in the works of Paula Gunn Allen, Gloria Anzaldúa and Audre Lorde.

    PubMed

    Keating, A

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the revisionist mythmaking strategies employed by three lesbian-feminist writers of color: Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna/Sioux/Lebanese/Scottish), Gloria Anzaldúa (Chicana tejana), and Audre Lorde (Caribbean/African/American). By incorporating creatrix figures such as the West African Mawulisa, the pre-Aztec Coatlicue, and the Laguna Pueblo Spider Old Woman/Thought Woman into their works, they challenge the cultural stereotypes that silence women of color by denying their access to language. Their use of nonwestern mythic material destabilizes monolithic definitions of (white heterosexual) female identity, yet their mythmaking goes beyond this challenge to hegemonic concepts of (white) womanhood. As they replace the Judeo-Christian world-view with modes of perception drawn from Native American, Chicana, and African mythic traditions, they offer a far-reaching critique of western culture's binary structures. By displacing the boundaries between inner/outer, subject/object, spirit/matter, and other dichotomous terms, the new myths they create provide radical alternatives to the existing social structures.

  18. Novel genomic techniques open new avenues in the analysis of monogenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Hullmann, Julia; Appenzeller, Silke

    2011-02-01

    The molecular genetic cause of over 3,000 monogenic disorders is currently unknown. This review discusses how novel genomic techniques like Next-Generation DNA Sequencing (NGS) and genotyping arrays open new avenues in the elucidation of genetic defects causing monogenic disorders. They will not only speed up disease gene identification but will enable us to systematically tackle previously intractable monogenic disorders. These are mainly disorders not amenable to classic linkage analysis, for example, due to insufficient family size. Most monogenic diseases are caused by exonic mutations or splice-site mutations changing the amino acid sequence of the affected gene. These mutations can be identified by sequencing of all exons in the human genome (exome sequencing) rendering whole genome sequencing unnecessary in most cases. Genotyping arrays containing 10⁵ -2×10⁶ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and nonpolymorphic markers allow highly accurate mapping of genomic deletions and duplications not detectable by exome sequencing, which are the second most common cause of monogenic disorders. However, several hundred rare, previously unknown sequence variants affecting the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein are found in the exome of every human individual. Therefore, the main challenge will be the differentiation between the many rare benign variants detected by novel genomic techniques and disease causing mutations.

  19. Paradoxical thinking as a new avenue of intervention to promote peace.

    PubMed

    Hameiri, Boaz; Porat, Roni; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Bieler, Atara; Halperin, Eran

    2014-07-29

    In societies involved in an intractable conflict, there are strong socio-psychological barriers that contribute to the continuation and intractability of the conflict. Based on a unique field study conducted in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, we offer a new avenue to overcome these barriers by exposing participants to a long-term paradoxical intervention campaign expressing extreme ideas that are congruent with the shared ethos of conflict. Results show that the intervention, although counterintuitive, led participants to express more conciliatory attitudes regarding the conflict, particularly among participants with center and right political orientation. Most importantly, the intervention even influenced participants' actual voting patterns in the 2013 Israeli general elections: Participants who were exposed to the paradoxical intervention, which took place in proximity to the general elections, reported that they tended to vote more for dovish parties, which advocate a peaceful resolution to the conflict. These effects were long lasting, as the participants in the intervention condition expressed more conciliatory attitudes when they were reassessed 1 y after the intervention. Based on these results, we propose a new layer to the general theory of persuasion based on the concept of paradoxical thinking.

  20. New avenues for reducing intensive care needs in patients with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Guertin, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Relatively soon after their accident, patients suffering a spinal cord injury (SCI) begin generally experiencing the development of significant, often life-threatening secondary complications. Many of which are associated with chronic physical inactivity-related immune function problems and increasing susceptibility to infection that repeatedly requires intensive care treatment. Therapies capable of repairing the spinal cord or restoring ambulation would normally prevent many of these problems but, as of now, there is no cure for SCI. Thus, management strategies and antibiotics remain the standard of care although antimicrobial resistance constitutes a significant challenge for patients with chronic SCI facing recurrent infections of the urinary tract and respiratory systems. Identifying alternative therapies capable of safe and potent actions upon these serious health concerns should therefore be considered a priority. This editorial presents some of the novel approaches currently in development for the prevention of specific infections after SCI. Among them, brain-permeable small molecule therapeutics acting centrally on spinal cord circuits that can augment respiratory capabilities or bladder functions. If eventually approved by regulatory authorities, some of these new avenues may potentially become clinically-relevant therapies capable of indirectly preventing the occurrence and/or severity of these life-threatening complications in people with paraplegic or tetraplegic injuries. PMID:27896143

  1. Invited commentary: Personality phenotype and mortality--new avenues in genetic, social, and clinical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P

    2013-09-01

    In this issue of the Journal, Jokela et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(5):667-675) scrutinize the association between personality phenotype and all-cause mortality in remarkable detail by using an "individual-participant meta-analysis" design. Across 7 large cohorts varying in demographics and methods of personality measurement, they find varying prospective associations for 4 dimensions of the five-factor (or "Big Five") model of personality, but robust and consistent prospective associations for Big Five dimension of "conscientiousness." Jokela et al. place an important exclamation point on a long era of study of this topic and hint directly and indirectly at new avenues for this line of research. I consider the following 3 areas particularly rife for further inquiry: the role of genetics in personality and health studies; the role of personality in social inequalities in health; and the health policy and clinical implications of work like that of Jokela et al., including the potential role of personality phenotype in the evolution of personalized medicine.

  2. Repopulating Decellularized Kidney Scaffolds: An Avenue for Ex Vivo Organ Generation

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Robert A.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that fully developed organs can be decellularized, resulting in a complex scaffold and extracellular matrix (ECM) network capable of being populated with other cells. This work has resulted in a growing field in bioengineering focused on the isolation, characterization, and modification of organ derived acellular scaffolds and their potential to sustain and interact with new cell populations, a process termed reseeding. In this review, we cover contemporary advancements in the bioengineering of kidney scaffolds including novel work showing that reseeded donor scaffolds can be transplanted and can function in recipients using animal models. Several major areas of the field are taken into consideration, including the decellularization process, characterization of acellular and reseeded scaffolds, culture conditions, and cell sources. Finally, we discuss future avenues based on the advent of 3D bioprinting and recent developments in kidney organoid cultures as well as animal models of renal genesis. The ongoing mergers and collaborations between these fields hold the potential to produce functional kidneys that can be generated ex vivo and utilized for kidney transplantations in patients suffering with renal disease. PMID:27375844

  3. Chemical Exfoliation of Layered Superconductors: An Avenue to Synthesize Boron-rich Quasi Two Dimensional Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Saroj Kumar; Liza James, Asha; Jasuja, Kabeer

    2015-03-01

    Zero-dimensional and one-dimensional boron based nanostructures have presented excellent avenues in the past for utilizing the fascinating science of boron at the atomic level. The research on synthesizing two-dimensional (2-D) boron-based nanostructures is currently in its incipient stages. In this talk, we demonstrate two chemical approaches that yield quasi 2-D boron-rich nanostructures by enabling an exfoliation of a layered boron-based superconductor. While one approach employs the simple tool of ultrasonication in an aqueous phase, the other approach utilizes a chelation mediated strategy based on coordination of metal ions and organic ligands. Both these synthetic routes are shown to result in a processable colloidal dispersion of nanosheets. This talk will present details of the two exfoliation approaches and a comprehensive study of the morphological, chemical and optical properties of the dispersed nanosheets. We will demonstrate that the exfoliated nanosheets undergo an in-situ chemical modification with ionizable functional groups derived from solvent that enable electrostatic stabilization. We will further shown that this functionalization modifies the band structure of the nanosheets which gives rise to photoluminescence and result in physico-chemical properties distinct from the parent superconductor. This ability to synthesize quasi 2-D boron rich nanostructures significantly adds to the current state of literature on born-based quasi-planar nanostructures.

  4. Food commensal microbes as a potentially important avenue in transmitting antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua H; Manuzon, Michele; Lehman, Mark; Wan, Kai; Luo, Hongliang; Wittum, Thomas E; Yousef, Ahmed; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2006-01-01

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ART) pathogens is a major threat to public health. While the surfacing of ART food-borne pathogens is alarming, the magnitude of the antibiotic resistance (AR) gene pool in food-borne commensal microbes is yet to be revealed. Incidence of ART commensals in selected retail food products was examined in this study. The presence of 10(2)-10(7) CFU of ART bacteria per gram of foods in many samples, particularly in ready-to-eat, 'healthy' food items, indicates that the ART bacteria are abundant in the food chain. AR-encoding genes were detected in ART isolates, and Streptococcus thermophilus was found to be a major host for AR genes in cheese microbiota. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc sp. isolates were also found carrying AR genes. The data indicate that food could be an important avenue for ART bacterial evolution and dissemination. AR-encoding plasmids from several food-borne commensals were transmitted to Streptococcus mutans via natural gene transformation under laboratory conditions, suggesting the possible transfer of AR genes from food commensals to human residential bacteria via horizontal gene transfer.

  5. New avenues for treating emotional memory disorders: towards a reconsolidation intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kindt, Merel; van Emmerik, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The discovery that fear memories may change upon retrieval, a process referred to as memory reconsolidation, opened avenues to develop a revolutionary new treatment for emotional memory disorders. Reconsolidation is a two-phase process in which retrieval of a memory initiates a transient period of memory destabilization, followed by a protein synthesis-dependent restabilization phase. This reconsolidation window offers unique opportunities for amnesic agents to interfere with the process of memory restabilization, thereby weakening or even erasing the emotional expression from specific fear memories. Here we present four uncontrolled case descriptions of patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who received a reconsolidation intervention. The intervention basically involves a brief reactivation of the trauma memory aimed to trigger memory destabilization, followed by the intake of one pill of 40 mg propranolol HCl (i.e. a noradrenergic beta-blocker) that should disrupt the process of memory restabilization. We present three cases who showed a steep decline of fear symptoms after only one or two intervention sessions. To illustrate that the translation from basic science to clinical practice is not self-evident, we also present a description of a noneffective intervention in a relatively complex case. Even though the reconsolidation intervention is very promising, the success of the treatment depends on whether the memory reactivation actually triggers memory reconsolidation. Obviously the uncontrolled observations described here warrant further study in placebo-controlled designs. PMID:27536348

  6. Paradoxical thinking as a new avenue of intervention to promote peace

    PubMed Central

    Hameiri, Boaz; Porat, Roni; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Bieler, Atara; Halperin, Eran

    2014-01-01

    In societies involved in an intractable conflict, there are strong socio-psychological barriers that contribute to the continuation and intractability of the conflict. Based on a unique field study conducted in the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, we offer a new avenue to overcome these barriers by exposing participants to a long-term paradoxical intervention campaign expressing extreme ideas that are congruent with the shared ethos of conflict. Results show that the intervention, although counterintuitive, led participants to express more conciliatory attitudes regarding the conflict, particularly among participants with center and right political orientation. Most importantly, the intervention even influenced participants' actual voting patterns in the 2013 Israeli general elections: Participants who were exposed to the paradoxical intervention, which took place in proximity to the general elections, reported that they tended to vote more for dovish parties, which advocate a peaceful resolution to the conflict. These effects were long lasting, as the participants in the intervention condition expressed more conciliatory attitudes when they were reassessed 1 y after the intervention. Based on these results, we propose a new layer to the general theory of persuasion based on the concept of paradoxical thinking. PMID:25024185

  7. Prompt injections of highly relativistic electrons induced by interplanetary shocks: A statistical study of Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Jian, L. K.; Li, X.; Jones, A.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A.; Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a statistical study on the sudden response of outer radiation belt electrons due to interplanetary (IP) shocks during the Van Allen Probes era, i.e., 2012 to 2015. Data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board Van Allen Probes are used to investigate the highly relativistic electron response (E > 1.8 MeV) within the first few minutes after shock impact. We investigate the relationship of IP shock parameters, such as Mach number, with the highly relativistic electron response, including spectral properties and radial location of the shock-induced injection. We find that the driving solar wind structure of the shock does not affect occurrence for enhancement events, 25% of IP shocks are associated with prompt energization, and 14% are associated with MeV electron depletion. Parameters that represent IP shock strength are found to correlate best with highest levels of energization, suggesting that shock strength may play a key role in the severity of the enhancements. However, not every shock results in an enhancement, indicating that magnetospheric preconditioning may be required.

  8. How quickly, how deeply, and how strongly can dynamical outer boundary conditions impact Van Allen radiation belt morphology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian R.; Ozeke, Louis G.

    2016-06-01

    Here we examine the speed, strength, and depth of the coupling between dynamical variations of ultrarelativistic electron flux at the outer boundary and that in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Using ULF wave radial diffusion as an exemplar, we show how changing boundary conditions can completely change belt morphology even under conditions of identical wave power. In the case of ULF wave radial diffusion, the temporal dynamics of a new source population or a sink of electron flux at the outer plasma sheet boundary can generate a completely opposite response which reaches deep into the belt under identical ULF wave conditions. Very significantly, here we show that such coupling can occur on timescales much faster than previously thought. We show that even on timescales ~1 h, changes in the outer boundary electron population can dramatically alter the radiation belt flux in the heart of the belt. Importantly, these flux changes can at times occur on timescales much faster than the L shell revisit time obtained from elliptically orbiting satellites such as the Van Allen Probes. We underline the importance of such boundary condition effects when seeking to identify the physical processes which explain the dominant behavior of the Van Allen belts. Overall, we argue in general that the importance of temporal changes in the boundary conditions is sometimes overlooked in comparison to the pursuit of (ever) increasingly accurate estimates of wave power and other wave properties used in empirical representations of wave transport and diffusion rates.

  9. Comparison of Van Allen Probes radiation belt proton data with test particle simulation for the 17 March 2015 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, M. A.; Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Selesnick, R. S.

    2016-11-01

    The loss of protons in the outer part of the inner radiation belt (L = 2 to 3) during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm was investigated using test particle simulations that follow full Lorentz trajectories with both magnetic and electric fields calculated from an empirical model. The simulation results presented here are compared with proton pitch angle measurements from the Van Allen Probe satellites Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument before and after the coronal mass ejection-shock-driven storm of 17-18 March 2015, with minimum Dst =- 223 nT, the strongest storm of Solar Cycle 24, for four different energy ranges with 30, 38, 50, and 66 MeV mean energies. Two simulations have been run, one with an inductive electric field and one without. All four energy channels show good agreement with the Van Allen Probes REPT measurements for low L (L < 2.4) in both simulations but diverge for higher L values. The inclusion of the inductive electric field, calculated from the time-changing magnetic field, significantly improves the agreement between simulation and REPT measurements at L > 2.4. A previous study using the Highly Elliptical Orbiter 3 spacecraft also showed improved agreement when including the inductive electric field but was unable to compare effects on the pitch angle distributions.

  10. Evolution of Florida Bay islands from a supratidal precursor: evidence from westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, T.M.; Merriam, D.F.

    1988-05-01

    Cores from the interior portions of westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key document island nucleation from a supratidal precursor developed on a paralic peat deposit; whereas cores from exterior portions of these islands document development of marine mudbanks, progradation or colonization by mangroves, and supratidal sedimentation. The supratidal precursor beneath these islands consists of eroded remnants of coastal tidal flats or local topographic highs that remained supratidal throughout the Holocene sea-level rise. Sedimentologic and biostratigraphic evidence suggest erosion of mangroves by storms or inundation of mangroves by storm deposits is a common precursor to subsequent sediment aggradation on both islands. If other Florida Bay islands develop from mangrove colonization of marine mudbanks, then data from westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key indicate that nucleation from a supratidal precursor and mangrove colonization of marine mudbanks are both viable mechanisms for island initiation. The absence of evidence of a supratidal nucleus beneath an island can result from (a) island migration and subsequent erosion or (b) insufficient sampling density. Stratigraphic data from Florida Bay are insufficient to discriminate between the relative importance of these two models of island evolution; the authors contend that any model of the evolution of Florida Bay islands must incorporate island nucleation from a supratidal precursor as a viable mechanism for island evolution.

  11. Results from the magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, Joseph; O'Brien, Paul; Roeder, James; Reeves, Geoffrey; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Spence, Harlan; Blake, Bernard

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  12. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84 Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black...

  13. EPA Finalizes $4 Million Cleanup Plan for Fulton Avenue Superfund Site in Hempstead and North Hempstead, N.Y.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has finalized its decision to modify an interim cleanup plan originally issued in 2007 to address a portion of the contaminated groundwater at the Fulton Avenue Superfund site in the Towns of North

  14. 78 FR 19194 - P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying... Division, P&P Computers (``P&P'') was convicted of violating the International Emergency Economic Powers... IEEPA and the Iranian Transactions Regulations by exporting computer and related equipment from...

  15. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning at... of the westerly limit of the channel to a point approximately 360 feet southerly of Bird Island Pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite...

  16. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning at... of the westerly limit of the channel to a point approximately 360 feet southerly of Bird Island Pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite...

  17. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning at... of the westerly limit of the channel to a point approximately 360 feet southerly of Bird Island Pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite...

  18. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning at... of the westerly limit of the channel to a point approximately 360 feet southerly of Bird Island Pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite...

  19. 78 FR 19195 - RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629, Respondent, Mohammad Reza (a/k...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., Respondent, Mohammad Reza (a/k/a Ray) Hajian, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629, Related Person.../a ``Ray'') Hajian (``Hajian'') is the owner and operator of RH International. Hajian pled guilty... the Regulations: Mohammad Reza (a/k/a ``Ray'') Hajian (``Hajian''), with a last known address at:...

  20. Management of endocrine disease: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: novel pathogenic insights opening new therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Raquel

    2015-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR is primarily present in epithelial cells of the airways, intestine and in cells with exocrine and endocrine functions. Mutations in the gene encoding the channel protein complex (CFTR) cause alterations in the ionic composition of secretions from the lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and also the pancreas. CF-related diabetes (CFRD), the most common complication of CF, has a major detrimental impact on pulmonary function, nutrition and survival. Glucose derangements in CF seem to start from early infancy and, even when the pathophysiology is multifactorial, insulin insufficiency is clearly a major component. Consistently, recent evidence has confirmed that CFTR is an important regulator of insulin secretion by islet β-cells. In addition, several other mechanisms were also recognized from cellular and animals models also contributing to either β-cell mass reduction or β-cell malfunction. Understanding such mechanisms is crucial for the development of the so-called 'transformational' therapies in CF, including the preservation of insulin secretion. Innovative therapeutic approaches aim to modify specific CFTR mutant proteins or positively modulate their function. CFTR modulators have recently shown in vitro capacity to enhance insulin secretion and thereby potential clinical utility in CFDR, including synergistic effects between corrector and potentiator drugs. The introduction of incretins and the optimization of exocrine pancreatic replacement complete the number of therapeutic options of CFRD besides early diagnosis and implementation of insulin therapy. This review focuses on the recently identified pathogenic mechanisms leading to CFRD relevant for the development of novel pharmacological avenues in CFRD therapy.