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Sample records for allergen skin sensitization

  1. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, R.; Verma, S. K.; Dua, R.; Kant, S.; Kushwaha, R.A.S; Agarwal, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%), followed by dusts (12.0%), pollens (7.8%), animal dander (3.1%), and fungi (1.3%). The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3%) followed by locust male (25%), grasshopper (20.8%), cricket (16.7%), cockroach female (16.7%) and cockroach male (14.6%). Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients. PMID:20442839

  2. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Goswami, Ritobrata; Benedé, Sara; Grishina, Galina; Dunkin, David; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Maleki, Soheila J; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. PMID:25295541

  3. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Goswami, Ritobrata; Benedé, Sara; Grishina, Galina; Dunkin, David; Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Berin, M. Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. PMID:25295541

  4. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  5. Skin exposure promotes a Th2 - dependent sensitization to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy without known prior oral exposure, which suggests that alternative routes of exposure contribute to food allergy. We hypothesized that peanut activates innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We tested this hypothesis by topical...

  6. Variability of Offending Allergens of Allergic Rhinitis According to Age: Optimization of Skin Prick Test Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Chul; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Whun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates offending allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) according to age that establish a minimal panel for skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify if a patient is sensitized. Methods We retrospectively analyzed SPT results according to age to determine the minimum test battery panel necessary to screen at least 93%-95% of AR patients. Allergic skin tests (common airborne indoor and outdoor allergens) were performed on 7,182 patients from January 2007 to June 2011. All patients were classified into 9 groups according to age; subsequently, we investigated offending allergens by age group. Results A total of 5,032 (70.1%) patients were found sensitized to at least one of the 55 aeroallergen extracts tested. The annual ranking of offending allergens was not significantly different from each other over the past 5 years. House dust mites (HDM) were the most prevalent allergens ranked from first to third for all 5 years. The allergens in the minimum test panel differed slightly among all age groups; in addition, the types of sensitized allergen sources were more diverse in the older versus younger age group. HDM covered a larger proportion of the sensitized allergens in the younger age group versus the older age group. Testing with 5 allergens (Dermatophagoides farinae, Tetranychus urticae, oak, mugwort and cockroach) adequately identified over 90% of the sensitized patients. Conclusions A SPT with around 5-7 allergens adequately detected most of the sensitization in the majority of the age groups in Korea. However, this study suggests that physicians perform the SPT with appropriately selected allergens in each age category for the screening of AR. PMID:24404393

  7. Fragrance compound geraniol forms contact allergens on air exposure. Identification and quantification of oxidation products and effect on skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Bäcktorp, Carina; Svensson, Sophie; Nyman, Gunnar; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-05-01

    Fragrances are common causes of contact allergy. Geraniol (trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol) is an important fragrance terpene. It is considered a weak contact allergen and is used for fragrance allergy screening among consecutive dermatitis patients. Analogous to other monoterpenes studied, such as limonene and linalool, geraniol has the potential to autoxidize on air exposure and form highly allergenic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate and propose a mechanism for the autoxidation of geraniol at room temperature. To investigate whether allergenic compounds are formed, the sensitizing potency of geraniol itself, air-exposed geraniol, and its oxidation products was determined using the local lymph node assay in mice. The results obtained show that the allylic alcohol geraniol follows an oxidation pattern different from those of linalool and limonene, which autoxidize forming hydroperoxides as the only primary oxidation products. The autoxidation of geraniol follows two paths, originating from allylic hydrogen abstraction near the two double bonds. From geraniol, hydrogen peroxide is primarily formed together with aldehydes geranial and neral from a hydroxyhydroperoxide. In addition, small amounts of a hydroperoxide are formed, analogous to the formation of the major linalool hydroperoxide. The autoxidation of geraniol greatly influenced the sensitizing effect of geraniol. The oxidized samples had moderate sensitizing capacity, quite different from that of pure geraniol. The hydroperoxide formed is believed to be the major contributor to allergenic activity, together with the aldehydes geranial and neral. On the basis of the present study and previous experience, we recommend that the possibility of autoxidation and the subsequent formation of contact allergenic oxidation products are considered in risk assessments performed on fragrance terpenes.

  8. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  9. Are specific allergen sensitivities inherited?

    PubMed

    Misiak, Rana Tawil; Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward

    2010-09-01

    A family history of an allergic condition is a well-accepted risk factor for the development of an allergic condition in an individual, particularly for allergic disorders such as asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis. However, the question of whether specific allergen sensitization is inherited requires a complicated answer, as environmental exposure plays an important role in the development of allergen-specific IgE. This article summarizes the findings of recent studies in the literature regarding what is known about the inheritance of specific allergens. Overall, properly collected and analyzed data appear to both support and refute the hypothesis that specific allergen sensitization is inherited, even when attempting to account for the complexities of varying study methodologies and the evaluation of diverse populations and communities. PMID:20574668

  10. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, L F; Wildfire, J; Lichtveld, M; Kennedy, S; El-Dahr, J M; Chulada, P C; Cohn, R; Mitchell, H; Thornton, E; Mvula, M; Sterling, Y; Martin, W; Stephens, K; White, L

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4-12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  11. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, L. F.; Wildfire, J.; Lichtveld, M.; Kennedy, S.; El-Dahr, J. M.; Chulada, P. C.; Cohn, R.; Mitchell, H.; Thornton, E.; Mvula, M.; Sterling, Y.; Martin, W.; Stephens, K.; White, L.

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  12. [Proteolytic enzymes: potential allergens for the skin and respiratory tract?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1985-03-01

    Proteolytic enzymes of animal, bacterial, mould or plant origin are used in many industrial processes, e.g. in the detergent, food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in medicine. The allergenic potency of these enzymes should not be underestimated, for they cause, in particular, IgE-mediated respiratory allergies. The risk of sensitization to enzymes due to inhalation as a result of occupational exposure is very high (up to 50%), and therapeutic applications are also not without risk. Therefore, the utmost care should be taken in the production and handling of pulverized enzymes and their inhalation should be avoided. Papain and Bromelain are used as tenderizers of meat and to clarify beer. Therefore, these enzymes are also potential ingestive allergens and may represent an unrecognized cause of an allergic reaction following a meal. As contact allergens the enzymes play a minor role; biodetergents in particular present no increased risk of skin damage for the user. PMID:3888919

  13. Allergen skin test reactivities among asthmatic Thai children.

    PubMed

    Kongpanichkul, A; Vichyanond, P; Tuchinda, M

    1997-02-01

    Skin prick tests with 14 selected local aeroallergens were performed on 100 asthmatic children aged 0-16 years attending the Pediatric Allergy Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital. The 14 allergens included Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), Johnson grass (Sorghum halopense), Cladosporium clarosporoides, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium mix, Aspergillus mix, cat dander, dog dander, milk, egg white, soy and shrimp. Positive skin test reactivity was defined as a mean wheal diameter > or = 3 mm at the 20 minute reading. There were 68 males and 32 females. Their ages were between 0-2 years (n = 1), 2-5 years (n = 19), 5-10 years (n = 49) and 10-16 years (n = 31). Of all the subjects, 22 were classified as having mild asthma, 74 with moderate asthma and 4 with severe asthma. At least one skin prick test was positive in 74 subjects (74%) and two positive tests in 66 subjects (66%). The prevalence of sensitization to various allergens was as follows; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 67%, Dermatophagoides farinae 62%, American cockroach 44%, shrimp 14%, Johnson grass 14%, cat dander 10%, Alternaria 7%, Cladosporium 7%, dog dander 5%, soy 4%, Penicillium 3%, Aspergillus 2%, milk 2% and egg white 1%. The wheal size to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus did not correlate with age. In this group of asthmatic Thai children, house dust mites are the most important allergen causing sensitization. PMID:9078689

  14. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient. PMID:26433528

  15. Contact allergens formed on air exposure of linalool. Identification and quantification of primary and secondary oxidation products and the effect on skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna; Harambasic, Elma; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2004-12-01

    Linalool (3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol) is an important fragrance chemical, frequently used in scented products because of its fresh, flowery odor. Linalool is an unsaturated hydrocarbon and is therefore susceptible to oxidation in the presence of air. The primary oxidation products, that is, hydroperoxides, formed in the autoxidation process, are reactive compounds that can be suspected to act as sensitizers. In the present investigation, we studied the autoxidation of linalool with emphasis on the formation of hydroperoxides. The oxidation products were isolated using flash chromatography and preparative HPLC and were identified with NMR and GC/MS, using synthesized reference compounds. Two hydroperoxides and several different secondary oxidation products were identified, among which some contain structural features that make them potential allergens. The amounts of linalool and the major oxidation products were quantified over time, using GC and an HPLC-method, suitable for the analysis of thermolabile primary oxidation products. The hydroperoxide 7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-diene-3-ol was found to be present in 15% in an oxidized sample. The local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to investigate the sensitizing potential of pure linalool, two samples of air-exposed linalool, and oxidation products of linalool (an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, a mixture of two hydroperoxides, and an alcohol). Pure linalool showed no sensitizing potential. The air-exposed samples of linalool produced clearly positive responses, and the hydroperoxides were the strongest allergens of the tested oxidation products. The study demonstrates the importance of autoxidation on the sensitizing potential of linalool. We also conclude that the sensitizing potential differs with the composition of the oxidation mixture and thus with the air exposure time.

  16. Further evaluation of quantitative structure--activity relationship models for the prediction of the skin sensitization potency of selected fragrance allergens.

    PubMed

    Patlewicz, Grace Y; Basketter, David A; Pease, Camilla K Smith; Wilson, Karen; Wright, Zoe M; Roberts, David W; Bernard, Guillaume; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Fragrance substances represent a very diverse group of chemicals; a proportion of them are associated with the ability to cause allergic reactions in the skin. Efforts to find substitute materials are hindered by the need to undertake animal testing for determining both skin sensitization hazard and potency. One strategy to avoid such testing is through an understanding of the relationships between chemical structure and skin sensitization, so-called structure-activity relationships. In recent work, we evaluated 2 groups of fragrance chemicals -- saturated aldehydes and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Simple quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models relating the EC3 values [derived from the local lymph node assay (LLNA)] to physicochemical properties were developed for both sets of aldehydes. In the current study, we evaluated an additional group of carbonyl-containing compounds to test the predictive power of the developed QSARs and to extend their scope. The QSAR models were used to predict EC3 values of 10 newly selected compounds. Local lymph node assay data generated for these compounds demonstrated that the original QSARs were fairly accurate, but still required improvement. Development of these QSAR models has provided us with a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of action for aldehydes, and hence how to avoid or limit allergy. Knowledge generated from this work is being incorporated into new/improved rules for sensitization in the expert toxicity prediction system, deductive estimation of risk from existing knowledge (DEREK).

  17. Food allergen sensitization pattern in adults in relation to severity of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on the frequency of IgE mediated food sensitization and food allergy (FA) in adults with atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective We investigated the pattern of food sensitization in adults with AD in relation to AD severity using multiplexed allergen microarray. Methods 211 adult patients referred between January 2010-July 2011 for evaluation of AD were unselectively included. Severity of AD was determined by therapy intensity, SASSAD-skin-score and sTARC levels. Allergen specific sIgE levels were measured by ImmunoCAP ISAC® microarray. FA was defined as convincing history taken by physician and sensitization to the corresponding allergen. Results Sensitization to food was found in 74.4% of the AD patients, 54% had a positive history of FA and 20.4% asymptomatic sensitization. There was no association between severity of AD and frequency of food sensitization or history of FA. Sensitization to PR-10 related food allergens occurred most frequently (63.5%) and was independent from AD severity. Correspondingly, pollen-food syndrome accounted for most of the FA, being also independent from AD severity. Of all plant food allergens only sensitization to nAra h 1 was significantly more frequent in patients with severe AD. In the total group 75 (35.5%) patients with AD showed sensitization to any animal food allergen. The percentage was significantly higher in patients with severe AD (51.4%) compared to patients with mild/moderate AD (27.7%). Sensitization to cow’s milk allergens, in particular to nBos d lactoferrin, was more frequent in severe AD patients. Conclusion AD was frequently associated with food sensitization. The percentage of sensitization to animal food allergens was significantly higher in severe AD patients. PMID:24679244

  18. Topical skin treatment with Fab fragments of an allergen-specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody suppresses allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Sae-Wong, Chutha; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Kangsanant, Sureeporn; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-05-15

    Fab fragments (Fabs), which lack effector functions due to the absence of the Fc portion, maintain the ability to bind to specific allergens. In the present study, we examined whether Fabs of an allergen-specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were able to regulate allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. BALB/c mice passively sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE mAb were repeatedly challenged with OVA applied to the skin after sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. Fabs prepared by the digestion of anti-OVA IgG1 mAb (O1-10) with papain were applied to the skin 30min before the OVA challenges followed by measurement of clinical symptoms including erythema/hemorrhage, edema, scarring/dryness, and excoriation/erosion of the skin. Treatment with O1-10 Fabs, but not intact O1-10, showed inhibition of clinical symptoms (P<0.01) induced by the repeated OVA challenges in the sensitized mice; O1-10 Fabs suppressed histological changes such as epidermal hyperplasia (P<0.01) and the accumulation of mast cells (P<0.01) and neutrophils (P<0.01). Furthermore, treatment with O1-10 Fabs inhibited the increase in levels of IL-13 (P<0.01) and IL-17A production (P<0.05) in the lymph nodes of the sensitized mice. Additionally, the increased level of OVA in serum following the repeated OVA challenges in the sensitized mice was reduced by the treatment (P<0.05). These results suggest that topical application of pathogenic allergen-specific IgG1 mAb Fabs to the skin of mice is effective in suppressing allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions, suggesting that allergen-specific mAb Fabs could be used as a tool to regulate allergen-induced atopic dermatitis. PMID:26970183

  19. Anti-hapten antibodies in response to skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Helen; Popple, Amy; Gellatly, Nichola; Maxwell, Gavin; Williams, Jason; Friedmann, Peter S; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2016-04-01

    Whereas T lymphocyte (T cell) activation is the key event in the acquisition of skin sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, the humoral component of immune responses to organic contact allergens has received little consideration. There is evidence that, in experimental animals, topical exposure to potent contact allergens is associated with B cell activation and proliferation, and hapten-specific antibody production. However, there is very limited evidence available for anti-hapten antibody responses being induced following topical exposure of humans to contact allergens. Nevertheless, it is important to appreciate that there are almost no negative studies in which evidence for antibody production as the result of skin sensitization has been sought and not found. That is, there is absence of evidence rather than evidence of absence. Furthermore, exposure to chemical respiratory allergens, in which the skin has been implicated as a potential route of sensitization, results in anti-hapten antibody responses. It is proposed that skin sensitization to contact allergens will normally be accompanied by antibody production. The phenomenon is worthy of investigation, as anti-hapten antibodies could potentially influence and/or regulate the induction of skin sensitization. Moreover, such antibodies may provide an informative correlate of the extent to which sensitization has been acquired.

  20. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3–5 years: 1500 children; Age 6–12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3–5 years of age (all p < 0.05). Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3–5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite. PMID:26371014

  1. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-09-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p < 0.05). Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  2. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina

    2007-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  3. Skin test, RAST and clinical reactions to peanut allergens in children.

    PubMed

    Kemp, A S; Mellis, C M; Barnett, D; Sharota, E; Simpson, J

    1985-01-01

    One-hundred-and-four children were skin-tested with four peanut-allergen preparations, a commercial extract, extracts of raw and roast peanuts prepared by NH4HCO3 extraction, and a wheatgerm lectin-reactive glycoprotein obtained by affinity chromatography. The presence of symptoms after ingestion of peanut or peanut products was also recorded. The roast allergen extract provided the greatest specificity with eight symptomatic children having a positive skin test and only one positive skin-test reaction in an asymptomatic child in the group of 104 children tested. Despite differences in the incidence of skin-test reactions there was a strong correlation between raw, roast and commercial RAST suggesting common allergens were being identified by circulating IgE. Clinical sensitivity was observed particularly in younger children with 75% of the children being under 4 years of age. A positive roast skin test or a RAST test adds confirmation to the clinical history of allergic reactions to peanuts.

  4. *Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens fol...

  5. Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Allergen Exposure: Screening For Sensitization Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An in vitro assay to identify respiratory sensitizers will provide a rapid screen and reduce animal use. The study goal was to identify biomarkers that differentiate allergen versus non-allergen responses following an acute exposure. Methods: Female BALB/c mice rec...

  6. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  7. Patients with atopic eczema do become sensitized to contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Cronin, E; McFadden, J P

    1993-04-01

    Sensitization to contact allergens in atopics was assessed by grouping 989 patients, who were routinely patch tested, by their personal atopic status. Sensitization to > or = 1 allergens occurred in 38% of the 191 patients with existing atopic eczema, in 53% of the 120 with a past history of atopic eczema, in 54% of the 156 with only mucous membrane atopy and in 50% of the 510 who were not atopic. Sensitization to perfume, a common environmental allergen, was similar in all 4 groups, as was nickel among women. Patients with atopic eczema should be patch tested.

  8. Melon sensitivity shares allergens with Plantago and grass pollens.

    PubMed

    García Ortiz, J C; Cosmes Martín, P; Lopez-Asunolo, A

    1995-03-01

    Possible associations between allergy to pollen and that to food allergens were studied in 262 patients sensitized to pollen. Forty-four patients (16.7%) showed some allergic symptoms after testing with fruits and vegetables, melon being the food most frequently involved (24 patients), followed by sunflower seed (12 patients). Skin testing was done by the prick method with natural fruit or vegetable, and also with commercial food extracts. We found in our region that the distribution of sensitivity to pollens in the group of patients with allergy to fruits or vegetables does not coincide with the prevalence in pollen-allergic subjects in general, since in the first group--subjects allergic to food--there was a major prevalence of allergy to Plantago (P < 0.01). In particular, in the group of subjects allergic to melon, the prevalence of sensitivity to grass and especially to Plantago was larger than in pollen-allergic subjects in general (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The use of fresh food produced better results than commercial extracts. A positive skin test to fresh melon closely correlated with positive CAP results. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out, and we found that Dactylis and Plantago extracts inhibited the binding of the melon-positive pool to solid-phase melon. The results suggest the existence of common antigenic epitopes in melon and Plantago pollen, and in melon and grass pollen.

  9. Allergen sensitization of asthmatic and nonasthmatic schoolchildren in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, M; Gutierrez, I; Calvo, N; Araya, C; Karlberg, J; Hanson, L A; Belin, L

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in Costa Rica is very high -- at the level of 20-30% -- and the reason is still unknown. A group of children from our previous epidemiologic study was randomly selected in order to establish the relation between asthma symptoms and allergy sensitization to common allergens. Serum samples from children with and without asthma were analyzed for the presence of IgE antibodies to 36 different allergens, for the presence of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens, and for total serum IgE. The most prevalent IgE antibodies were those to mite, cockroach, dog, and house-dust allergens with MAST pipettes for the serologic measurements. Positive reactions to house dust, mite, cat, and the two molds (Alternaria and Cladosporium), and food allergens such as egg white, peanut, and shellfish were significantly more prevalent among the asthmatics than the nonasthmatics. Sensitization was equally prevalent at different ages, but the house-dust, mite, cat, dog, cockroach, Alternaria, and egg-white allergens had sensitized boys more often than girls (P < 0.01). The result of the analysis of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens by Phadiatop supported the MAST pipette results, showing allergen sensitization in 57.7% of the asthmatic children and 42.3% in the nonasthmatic group. The concentration of IgE was significantly higher among the asthmatic children (372.2 kU/l) than among the nonasthmatic children (249.1 kU/l) (P < 0.00001). Parasitic infestations were not examined in this study, but in most of Costa Rica these have largely been eliminated and could not explain the high total IgE levels. Our data indicate that the very high prevalence of bronchial asthma in Costa Rican schoolchildren can be related to sensitization, especially to airborne indoor allergens such as those of mites, cockroaches, and dogs.

  10. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  11. Skin prick test reactivity to common allergens among women in Entebbe, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Muhangi, Lawrence; Ndibazza, Juliet; Tumusiime, Josephine; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Elliott, Alison M

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of atopic sensitization, and to identify common aeroallergens associated with atopic sensitization among women in Entebbe, Uganda, and to determine risk factors for atopic sensitization among those with and without a history of asthma or eczema. A case-control study was conducted within a trial of deworming in pregnancy, approximately 2 years after the intervention. Skin prick test reactivity was assessed among 20 women with a history of asthma, 25 with history of eczema and 95 controls. Overall prevalence of reactivity was estimated by adjusting for the prevalence of asthma in the whole cohort. Overall skin prick test prevalence was: any allergen 30.7%, Blomia tropicalis 10.9%, Dermatophagoides mix 16.8%, cockroach 15.8%. The prevalence of a positive skin prick test was significantly associated with a history of asthma (70% to any allergen vs. 32%, P=0.002) but not with a history of eczema (44% vs. 36%, P=0.49). Women with Mansonella perstans had significantly reduced odds for atopic sensitization (adjusted odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.69); women with a history of asthma were less likely to have hookworm (adjusted odds ratio 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.81) but this association was weaker for women with a history of eczema. [Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN32849447]. PMID:18321545

  12. Sensitization to green coffee bean (GCB) and castor bean (CB) allergens among dock workers.

    PubMed

    De Zotti, R; Patussi, V; Fiorito, A; Larese, F

    1988-01-01

    Dock workers (n = 218) occupationally exposed to green coffee beans (GCB) were studied, using a specific questionnaire for allergic symptoms and skin tests for common and occupational allergens. Thirty-one workers (14.3%) complained of allergic symptoms of the eye, nose and bronchial system at the workplace. The prick tests, using both commercial allergens and specific extracts prepared from the most common types of coffee and their corresponding sacks, confirmed a sensitization in 21 workers (9.6%). A positive skin reaction to castor beans (CB) was found in nearly all these cases; in ten workers there was also a positive reaction to GCB allergens and in 14 cases prick tests were positive to extracts of sacks. There was a good concordance between prick tests and specific IgE for CB (95.0%) and also, but to a lesser extent, for GCB. The authors concluded that there is a significant risk of sensitization to CB and GCB allergens in dock workers occupied in handling green coffee bean, despite the fact that the exposure is not continuous. CB emerged as a common contaminant of GCB from various countries. For effective prevention, a modification of the methods of transport is required to avoid CB contamination to other products. Eliminating environmental dust during shipping operations is the most important preventive measure and it can be achieved by the use of containers, as some exporting countries are already doing.

  13. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  14. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    PubMed

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation. PMID:26337000

  15. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    PubMed

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation.

  16. Mechanisms and characteristics of airway sensitization to indoor allergens.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Cazzola, M; Russo, M; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2001-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases, and particularly of bronchial asthma, has been linked to changes induced by human activities in outdoor and indoor environments. People living in industrialized countries spend most of their time indoors: in private homes, offices and means of transport. Indoor environments are not a refuge from outdoor air pollution. Modern systems for energy saving such as insulated windows and doors reduce the indoor natural ventilation and consequently increase the rate of indoor humidity. These conditions may determine an increase in the level of indoor pollutants (tobacco smoke, gases produced by cooling processes etc.) and of allergens derived from mites, domestic animals and cockroaches. Upholstered furniture, wall-to-wall carpets, central heating systems and/or humidifiers may also contribute to the growth of mite populations. The increasing levels of exposure to pollutants and allergens in indoor environments represents a risk factor for the development of airway sensitization, especially if these materials are inhaled early in life. The major cat allergen Fel d 1 is considered an ubiquitous allergen, since it has been found in many indoor environments where a cat has never been kept. The clothing of cat owners seems to help spread Fel d 1 in cat-free environments. Sensitization to cockroach allergens is very common in patients living in urban areas where unhygenic conditions may favour the growth of cockroach populations. Monitoring of the levels of allergens and strategies of allergen and pollutant avoidance in indoor environments are the main ways to reduce the prevalence of respiratory allergies induced by these materials.

  17. [Sensitive skin: a complex syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escalas-Taberner, J; González-Guerra, E; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that ever larger numbers of people report having sensitive skin, for which a European prevalence of 50% is estimated. Sensitive skin is characterized by hyperreactivity, with manifestations varying in relation to many factors. The pathogenesis of this disorder is poorly understood, although studies point to a biophysical mechanism. Objective diagnosis of sensitive skin is difficult, as information comes mainly from the patient's report of symptoms in the absence of effective, strongly predictive tests because of great interindividual variability in skin sensitivity. Substances that trigger a reaction in hypersensitive skin also vary greatly. The impact of this syndrome on quality of life is considerable and patients often present psychiatric symptoms; therefore, dermatologists should explore this possibility when taking a patient's history. Patient cooperation and physician persistence are both essential for treating sensitive skin.

  18. Relevance and avoidance of skin-care product allergens: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven A; Yiannias, James A

    2009-07-01

    Patch testing can be particularly rewarding when skin-care product allergens are identified. Careful determination of relevance, followed by careful education regarding allergen avoidance, can result in dramatic clinical improvement. Several common clinical scenarios are reviewed with a focus on pragmatic solutions to heighten positive patient outcomes.

  19. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to r...

  20. Sensitization rates of causative allergens for dogs with atopic dermatitis: detection of canine allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jang, Hye-Jin; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific IgE serology tests became commercially available in the 1980s. Since then these tests have been widely used to diagnose and treat allergic skin diseases. However, the relationship between a positive reaction and disease occurrence has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate allergens using a serologic allergy test in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). Dogs clinically diagnosed with AD (n = 101) were tested using an allergen-specific IgE immunoassay. Among the total 92 environmental and food allergens, house dust and house dust mites were the most common. Several allergens including airborne pollens and molds produced positive reactions, and which was considered increasing allergens relating to the climate changes. The presence of antibodies against staphylococci and Malassezia in cases of canine AD was warranted in this study. Additionally, strong (chicken, turkey, brown rice, brewer's yeast, and soybean) and weakly (rabbit, vension, duck, and tuna) positive reactions to food allergens could be used for avoidance and limited-allergen trials. PMID:24962408

  1. Allergy Work-Up Including Component-Resolved Diagnosis: How to Make Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy More Specific.

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matricardi, Paolo M; Hamilton, Robert G

    2016-02-01

    Symptoms are recorded by obtaining a clinical history. Allergen sensitization is demonstrated by skin prick test or allergen-specific IgE serology. IgE sensitizations to allergen sources can be identified knowing the relationship between major aeroallergens and homologous allergen families. Some develop allergic sensitization to pan-allergens. Allergen extracts do not allow definitive separation of the sources. IgE antibody analysis of the major allergenic molecules facilitates differentiation of sensitizing allergen sources. IgE sensitizations to inhalant allergens are only relevant in the case of corresponding symptoms. In questionable cases, conjunctival or nasal provocation tests help induce confirmatory symptoms and identify relevant allergens for immunotherapy.

  2. Peanut allergen in house dust of eating area and bed--a risk factor for peanut sensitization?

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, V; Ahrens, B; Wehrmann, A-K; Kalb, B; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2013-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that high environmental exposure to peanut allergens may be a potent risk factor for cutaneous sensitization. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether peanut proteins are detectable in house dust of different household areas. Peanut levels of dust samples were measured with ELISA. Overall, peanut was detectable in 19 of 21 households in the eating area and/or in bed. The frequency of peanut consumption correlated with peanut levels. Forty-eight hours after intentional peanut consumption, peanut levels were highly increased. Nevertheless, further research is required to prove whether peanut allergen in house dust can cause sensitization via skin. PMID:24351066

  3. 167 Allergen Sensitization in Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Rigalt, Ann Michelle; Maselli, Juan Pablo; Alvarado, Ninotchka; Carpio, Paola; Chur, Víctor; Mayén, Patricia; Morán, Edgar; Pinto, Mario; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no previous studies published reporting allergen sensitizations in the population of most Central American countries, including Guatemala. There are many types of climates in different regions, with variable altitude, humidity, etc. The purpose of this study was to determine the most common allergen sensitizations in children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in 4 different regions. Methods The study was performed on 461 children aged 5 to 15 years, from 4 different regions in Guatemala. A questionnaire was given to record information regarding family history of atopic disease and symptoms of Rhinitis and Asthma. The diagnosis was made in the presence of at least 3 symptoms of each disease. Scratch testing was performed using a commercially available device and a panel of 8 allergen extracts: Cypress Arizona, Dog, Cat, Dermatophagoides farinae and pteronyssinus, Cockroach Mix, Mold Mix and Bermuda grass. Results Patient average age was 8.3 years, 55% male and 45% female. Patient distribution by region was 35% from Huehuetenango, 29% Chiquimula, 18% Mazatenango and 18% Quetzaltenango. Family history of allergic rhinitis was present in 46% of patients, asthma in 51% and atopic dermatitis in 33%. The most common diagnosis was rhinitis in 86% of patients, 52% had asthma and 43%, both rhinitis and asthma. 98% had a positive Histamine Control and all a Negative Saline Control. 36% of patients had no allergy sensitization to allergens tested and 64% showed positive skin tests. The most frequent allergic sensitization was to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (44%) and farinae (43%), followed by Cockroach (28%). We also found less frequently, positive skin tests to grass (14%), Cat (14%), Mold (10%), Dog (8%) and Cypress (6%). The regions with higher dust mite sensitization were Quetzaltenango (51–55%) and Huehuetenango (45–51%). Conclusions The most common allergen sensitizations in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma in Guatemala are dust

  4. Sensitization to silk allergen among workers of silk filatures in India: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Giriyanna; Vijayeendra, Anagha Manakari; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nagaraj, Chitra; Masthi, Nugehally Raju Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Sericulture plays an eminent role in development of rural economy in India. Silk filature is a unit where silk is unwound from the cocoons and the strands are collected into skeins. During the process workers are exposed to the high molecular weight proteins like Sericin and Fibroin which are potent allergens leading to sensitization over a period of time and subsequently occupational related health disorders. Objective To identify and compare the magnitude of silk allergen sensitization in workers of silk filatures. Methods A community based comparative descriptive study was conducted for a period of 1 year at Ramanagara in south India. One hundred twenty subjects working in the silk filatures formed the study group. For comparison, 2 types of controls were selected viz.120 subjects who were not working in the silk filatures but resided in the same geographical area (control A) and 360 subjects who were not working in silk filatures as well not residing in the same geographical area (control B). Skin prick test was used to identify the silk allergen sensitization. Results Mean age was 34.14 ± 2.84 years in the study group. Mean age was 40.59 ± 14.40 years and 38.54 ± 12.20 years in control A and control B, respectively. There were 35 males (29.16%) and 85 females (70.84%) in the study group. There were 58 (48.34%) males and 62 (51.66%) females and 152 (42.2%) males and 208 females (57.8%) in control A and control B, respectively. Sensitization to silk allergen was 35.83% in the study group and 20.83% in the control group A and 11.11% in control group B. There was difference in the allergen sensitivity between the study group and control groups and it was statistically significant (chi-square = 38.08; p < 0.001). Conclusion There is high burden of silk allergen sensitization among silk filature workers. PMID:27141481

  5. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.

    2010-04-15

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approx 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

  6. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: screening for sensitization potential.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D W

    2010-04-15

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naïve individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approximately 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods. PMID:20045013

  7. Methylisothiazolinone: an emergent allergen in common pediatric skin care products.

    PubMed

    Schlichte, Megan J; Katta, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as "gentle," "sensitive," "organic," or "hypoallergenic" often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children.

  8. Methylisothiazolinone: an emergent allergen in common pediatric skin care products.

    PubMed

    Schlichte, Megan J; Katta, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as "gentle," "sensitive," "organic," or "hypoallergenic" often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949

  9. Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949

  10. Assessment of the risk of respiratory sensitization from fragrance allergens released by air fresheners.

    PubMed

    ter Burg, Wouter; Bouma, Krista; Schakel, Durk J; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; van Engelen, Jacqueline; van Loveren, Henk; Ezendam, Janine

    2014-04-01

    Consumers using air fresheners are exposed to the emitted ingredients, including fragrances, via the respiratory tract. Several fragrances are known skin sensitizers, but it is unknown whether inhalation exposure to these chemicals can induce respiratory sensitization. Effects on the immune system were assessed by testing a selection of five fragrance allergens in the respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA). The probability and extent of exposure were assessed by measuring concentrations of the 24 known fragrance allergens in 109 air fresheners. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners were D-limonene and linalool. In the respiratory LLNA, these fragrances were negative. Of the other tested chemicals, only isoeugenol induced a statistically significant increase in cell proliferation. Consumer exposure was assessed in more detail for D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol by using exposure modeling tools. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners, D-limonene, and linalool gave rise to a higher consumer exposure compared with isoeugenol. To evaluate whether the consumer exposure to these fragrances is low or high, these levels were compared with measured air concentrations of diisocyanates, known human respiratory sensitizers. This comparison showed that consumer exposure from air fresheners to D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol is considerably lower than occupational exposure to diisocyanates. By combing this knowledge on sensitizing potency with the much lower exposure compared to diisocyanates it seems highly unlikely that isoeugenol can induce respiratory sensitization in consumers using air fresheners.

  11. Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

  12. Absolute quantification of allergens from complex mixtures: a new sensitive tool for standardization of allergen extracts for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Ulla; Dauly, Claire; Robinson, Sarah; Hornshaw, Martin; Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Ipsen, Henrik

    2011-04-01

    Products for specific diagnosis and immunotherapy of IgE-mediated allergies are currently based on natural extracts. Quantification of major allergen content is an important aspect of standardization as important allergens particularly impact vaccine potency. The aim of the study was to develop a mass spectrometry (MS) based assay for absolute quantification of Timothy (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 in P. pratense extract. High-resolution and accurate mass (HRAM) MS was selected for its ability to detect peptides with high selectivity and mass accuracy (<3 ppm). Isotope labeled heavy peptides were used for absolute quantification of specific isoallergens of Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 at low femtomole level in P. pratense extract. Robustness and linearity of the method was demonstrated with intra day precision ≤ 5% (n = 3). Phl p 1b was shown to be 5 times less abundant than its variant Phl p 1a and Phl p 5b was shown to be 9 times more abundant than the Phl p 5a. The present study shows that allergen, and/or isoallergen specific, surrogate signature peptides analyzed with HRAM MS is a sensitive and accurate tool for identification and quantification of allergens from complex allergen sources.

  13. Mechanistic relationship among mutagenicity, skin sensitization, and skin carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Callander, R D; Kimber, I

    1993-01-01

    Twenty organic Salmonella mutagens, seven of which (including benzo[a]pyrene) are established skin carcinogens, and one of which (2-chloroethanol) is a well-defined noncarcinogen to skin, have been evaluated for skin-sensitizing activity using the local lymph node assay. The relative mutagenicity of the agents to Salmonella was also established. Fourteen of the chemicals were positive in the local lymph node assay, including the seven skin carcinogens. 2-Chloroethanol was inactive as a sensitizing agent. We suggest that a variety of factors contributes to the lack of sensitizing activity of the remaining six bacterial mutagens: extremes of intrinsic chemical reactivity, high water solubility reducing dermal translocation, and inappropriate dermal metabolism. Two reference skin-sensitizing agents (an oxazolinone and fluorescein isothiocyanate) were established as in vitro clastogens after their recognition as nonmutagens to Salmonella. These data imply that mutagenicity, rather than simply activity in the Salmonella assay, is a primary stimulus for electrophilic sensitization and carcinogenic initiation in the skin. We conclude that genotoxicity data for an agent can provide indications of the agent's potential to induce skin sensitization and that genotoxins which are skin-sensitizing agents have an enhanced potential to initiate skin carcinogenesis. We suggest that common, albeit individually distinct, structure-activity relationships underpin genotoxicity, skin sensitization, and the initiation of skin carcinogenesis. These relationships should simplify the hazard evaluation of chemicals and contribute to a reduction in animal usage. Several predictions of skin carcinogenicity are made based on the data presented. PMID:8513766

  14. Maternal respiratory sensitization and gestational allergen exposure does not affect subsequent pup responses to homologous or heterologous allergen.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ward, Marsha D W

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that the predisposition towards atopy begins early in life. Maternal allergy has been associated with an increased risk of the development of allergic disease in offspring. Some studies suggest that the development of childhood atopy may also be influenced by prenatal allergen exposure. In this study, a respiratory allergen exposure model was used to determine the impact of maternal sensitization (with or without additional exposures during pregnancy) on subsequent pup responses to homologous or heterologous allergen. Female BALB/c mice received two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) prior to breeding. Some mice also received three additional exposures during pregnancy. Control mothers did not receive treatment. Young adult offspring received three IA exposures to MACA, house dust mite extract (HDM) or HBSS. Offspring sensitized as young adults to either HDM or MACA developed an airway inflammatory response, including increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lactate dehydrogenase activity, total protein and total and differential cell counts compared to offspring exposed to HBSS. Increased airway responsiveness to methacholine was observed in pups treated with HDM but not with MACA. Maternal sensitization status (with or without gestational allergen exposure) had no effect on offspring response to either MACA or HDM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IA administration of MACA or HDM extract to young adult BALB/c mice induces the development of an inflammatory airway response. In contrast to previous reports, neither maternal sensitization nor gestational allergen exposure could be demonstrated to have a clear effect on offspring sensitization. This discrepancy may be a function of the respiratory sensitization and exposure protocol used in this study, which mimics natural sensitization more closely than do parenteral routes of exposure. PMID

  15. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded.

  16. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded. PMID:20574602

  17. Pectate Lyase Pollen Allergens: Sensitization Profiles and Cross-Reactivity Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Maria Livia; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Weiss, Richard; Ebner, Christof; Yokoi, Hidenori; Takai, Toshiro; Didierlaurent, Alain; Rafaiani, Chiara; Briza, Peter; Mari, Adriano; Behrendt, Heidrun; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background Pollen released by allergenic members of the botanically unrelated families of Asteraceae and Cupressaceae represent potent elicitors of respiratory allergies in regions where these plants are present. As main allergen sources the Asteraceae species ragweed and mugwort, as well as the Cupressaceae species, cypress, mountain cedar, and Japanese cedar have been identified. The major allergens of all species belong to the pectate lyase enzyme family. Thus, we thought to investigate cross-reactivity pattern as well as sensitization capacities of pectate lyase pollen allergens in cohorts from distinct geographic regions. Methods The clinically relevant pectate lyase pollen allergens Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1, Jun a 1, and Cry j 1 were purified from aqueous pollen extracts, and patients´ sensitization pattern of cohorts from Austria, Canada, Italy, and Japan were determined by IgE ELISA and cross-inhibition experiments. Moreover, we performed microarray experiments and established a mouse model of sensitization. Results In ELISA and ELISA inhibition experiments specific sensitization pattern were discovered for each geographic region, which reflected the natural allergen exposure of the patients. We found significant cross-reactivity within Asteraceae and Cupressaceae pectate lyase pollen allergens, which was however limited between the orders. Animal experiments showed that immunization with Asteraceae allergens mainly induced antibodies reactive within the order, the same was observed for the Cupressaceae allergens. Cross-reactivity between orders was minimal. Moreover, Amb a 1, Art v 6, and Cry j 1 showed in general higher immunogenicity. Conclusion We could cluster pectate lyase allergens in four categories, Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1/Jun a 1, and Cry j 1, respectively, at which each category has the potential to sensitize predisposed individuals. The sensitization pattern of different cohorts correlated with pollen exposure, which should be considered for

  18. 573 Prevalence of Allergen Sensitization in Children with Atopy Suspicion between Six Months and Five Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marinovic, Maria Angelica; Rojas, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Background Classically we have been taught that the skin prick test (SPT) must be performed over 4 years of age mainly because of the lack of sensibility the test has on younger children, now a days the utility of the SPT in younger children with atopic history is controversial and it would help make an early diagnosis. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of allergen sensitization in children between 0 and 5 years of age that have atopic history. We also describe the sensitization percentages to the most relevant allergens according to age group. Methods SPT performed between January 2006 and July 2010 at the Respiratory and Allergy Department of Clínica Santa Maria to children with atopic story were analyzed. A standard base of 21 allergens from LETI laboratory was used. Results Seven hundred and fifty two children with SPT were studied; they were divided into 2 groups. Group A corresponding to children between 6 and 24 months of age, group B corresponding to children between 25 months and 5 years of age. In group A 76 SPT and group B 676 SPT were performed. The total number of SPT positive to 1 or more allergens was 46.4%. (Group A: 6.4%, group B 40%). The most prevalent allergens according to age were: group A: grass 16%, egg 16%, cat dander 10% and house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinsus and farinae) 10%. Group B: grass 15%, house dust mite 13.6%, fungal allergens (Aspergillus an Alternaria) 11.4%, trees 9% and cat dander 6.6%. Conclusions A high sensitization percentage to grass and egg is seen under 24 months of age. Egg sensitization diminishes significantly over 2 years of age, on the other hand house dust mite and fungal sensitization increases with age which could be explained by a longer exposure time in genetically predisposed children. Forty-six percent of the children are sensitized to 1 or more allergens which make us question the classical indication that SPT will be done over 4 years of age. When high suspicion of

  19. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen.

  20. Investigation of the skin sensitizing activity of linalool.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Wright, Zoë M; Colson, Neil R; Patlewicz, Grace Y; Pease, Camilla K Smith

    2002-09-01

    An increasing range of chemicals appears to be capable of causing skin sensitization as a result of their capacity to undergo air oxidation (autoxidation) with the consequent formation of reactive species such as epoxides and hydroperoxides. In this small investigation, the ability of linalool, a common fragrance ingredient, to cause such effects was quantified using the local lymph node assay before and after careful purification by vacuum distillation. The commercially available grade of linalool (97% purity) was shown to be a weak skin sensitizer. Various impurities, including linalool oxide, dihydrolinalool, epoxylinalool, 3-hexenyl butyrate and 3,7-dimethyl-1,7-octadiene-3,6-diol were identified and were completely removed (except for the dihydrolinalool remaining at 1.4%) and the re-purified linalool retested. Neither linalool or dihydrolinalool are protein-reactive compounds. The sensitization potency of the re-purified linalool sample was considerably reduced, but not entirely eliminated, suggesting either that an allergenic impurity could be very quickly reformed by mechanisms of activation or that certain potent undetectable allergens remained. Both possibilities are consistent with what is understood of the chemistry and composition of commercially available linalool.

  1. [Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Sensitization pattern of inhalant allergens in children with asthma who are living different altitudes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkaya, Emin; Sogut, Ayhan; Küçükkoç, Mehmet; Eres, Mustafa; Acemoglu, Hamit; Yuksel, Hasan; Murat, Naci

    2015-11-01

    Variability in children's allergic sensitization has been detected not only among different countries but also among cities within the same nation but yet different climatic areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization pattern of asthmatic children who lived in different altitude areas: the two largest Turkish cities, Istanbul (sea level) and Erzurum (high altitude). Five hundred and twelve asthmatic children (6-15 years old) from Istanbul (western Turkey, at sea level) and 609 from Erzurum (eastern Turkey, at an altitude of 1800 m) were included in the study. All participants underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, spirometry, total IgE level, and clinical examination. The positive sensitization ratio to aeroallergens in children with asthma living at sea level was statistically higher than that in children living in the high altitude group [ p = 0.001, OR (odds ratio) 4.9 (confidence interval (CI) 3.67-6.459)]. However, pollen sensitization in asthmatic children living in high altitudes was significantly higher than that in children living at sea level [ p = 0.00, OR 2.6 (CI 1.79-3.87)]. Children with asthma who live at high altitudes are characterized by higher pollen but lower mite sensitization rates than those living at sea level in Turkey. Different climatic conditions and altitudes may affect aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma.

  3. Sensitization pattern of inhalant allergens in children with asthma who are living different altitudes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Emin; Sogut, Ayhan; Küçükkoç, Mehmet; Eres, Mustafa; Acemoglu, Hamit; Yuksel, Hasan; Murat, Naci

    2015-11-01

    Variability in children's allergic sensitization has been detected not only among different countries but also among cities within the same nation but yet different climatic areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization pattern of asthmatic children who lived in different altitude areas: the two largest Turkish cities, Istanbul (sea level) and Erzurum (high altitude). Five hundred and twelve asthmatic children (6-15 years old) from Istanbul (western Turkey, at sea level) and 609 from Erzurum (eastern Turkey, at an altitude of 1800 m) were included in the study. All participants underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, spirometry, total IgE level, and clinical examination. The positive sensitization ratio to aeroallergens in children with asthma living at sea level was statistically higher than that in children living in the high altitude group [p = 0.001, OR (odds ratio) 4.9 (confidence interval (CI) 3.67-6.459)]. However, pollen sensitization in asthmatic children living in high altitudes was significantly higher than that in children living at sea level [p = 0.00, OR 2.6 (CI 1.79-3.87)]. Children with asthma who live at high altitudes are characterized by higher pollen but lower mite sensitization rates than those living at sea level in Turkey. Different climatic conditions and altitudes may affect aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma.

  4. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history--based eivdence of asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen lev...

  5. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Priscila Ferreira de Sousa; Gangl, Katharina; Vieira, Francisco de Assis Machado; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Linhart, Birgit; Flicker, Sabine; Fiebig, Helmut; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet. Objective To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules. Methods We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities. Results Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%), Phl p 5 (82%), Phl p 2 (76%) followed by Phl p 4 (64%), Phl p 6 (45%), Phl p 11 (18%) and Phl p 12 (18%). Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found. Conclusions Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population. PMID:26067084

  6. The Major Soybean Allergen Gly m Bd 28K Induces Hypersensitivity Reactions in Mice Sensitized to Cow's Milk Proteins.

    PubMed

    Candreva, Ángela María; Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Curciarello, Renata; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Docena, Guillermo Horacio; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2016-02-24

    Reactions to soy have been reported in a proportion of patients with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA). In this work, we analyzed if Gly m Bd 28K/P28, one of the major soybean allergens, is a cross-reactive allergen with cow milk proteins (CMP). We showed that P28 was recognized by IgE sera from CMA patients and activated human peripheral basophils degranulation. Moreover, IgE sera of mice exclusively sensitized to CMP recognized P28. Splenocytes from sensitized animals secreted IL-5 and IL-13 when incubated with CMP or soy proteins, but only IL-13 when treated with P28. In addition, a skin test was strongly positive for CMP and weakly positive for P28. Remarkably, milk-sensitized mice showed hypersensitivity symptoms following sublingual challenge with P28 or CMP. With the use of bioinformatics' tools seven putative cross-reactive epitopes were identified. In conclusion, using in vitro and in vivo tests we demonstrated that P28 is a novel cross-reactive allergen with CMP.

  7. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  8. CCR4 in human allergen-induced late responses in the skin and lung.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Wilson, Duncan; Francis, James N; Jopling, Louise A; Jacobson, Mikila R; Hodge, Martin R; Andrew, David P; Till, Stephen J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Williams, Timothy J; Pease, James E; Lloyd, Clare M; Sabroe, Ian; Durham, Stephen R

    2002-07-01

    We studied the regulation of CCR4 expression in peripheral blood and in human models of cutaneous and pulmonary allergen challenge. CCR4 expression was detectable on freshly isolated CD4+ lymphocytes and in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines derived from blood of atopic donors. Numbers of CCR4+ cells were up-regulated in T cell lines expanded in the presence of IL-4. CCR4 mRNA was absent at baseline in normal subjects in lung and skin, but present at baseline in the lung of some atopics. Baseline expression of CCR4 mRNA and protein was higher in lung vs. skin, but allergen-induced increases in CCR4 mRNA+ cells were observed in both organs. CCR4 protein+ cells were present at higher levels after allergen challenge in atopics compared to normal subjects. CCR4 may be important in the recruitment of T lymphocytes at sites of allergic inflammation, in a non-organ-specific manner.

  9. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1 > 0.12 µg/g and Can f 1>1.2 µg/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1 > 0.10 µg/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 µg/g (by 32%). Conclusion Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. PMID:22863552

  10. Gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Schamber, Paz; Schwab-Richards, Rachel; Bauersachs, Stefan; Mueller, Ralf S

    2014-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial allergic skin disease in humans and dogs. Genetic predisposition, immunologic hyperreactivity, a defective skin barrier, and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to house dust mite antigens. Skin biopsy samples were collected from six sensitized and six nonsensitized Beagle dogs before and 6 hr and 24 hr after challenge using skin patches with allergen or saline as a negative control. Transcriptome analysis was performed by the use of DNA microarrays and expression of selected genes was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Expression data were compared between groups (unpaired design). After 24 hr, 597 differentially expressed genes were detected, 361 with higher and 226 with lower mRNA concentrations in allergen-treated skin of sensitized dogs compared with their saline-treated skin and compared with the control specimens. Functional annotation clustering and pathway- and co-citation analysis showed that the genes with increased expression were involved in inflammation, wound healing, and immune response. In contrast, genes with decreased expression in sensitized dogs were associated with differentiation and barrier function of the skin. Because the sensitized dogs did not show differences in the untreated skin compared with controls, inflammation after allergen patch test probably led to a decrease in the expression of genes important for barrier formation. Our results further confirm the similar pathophysiology of human and canine atopic dermatitis and revealed genes previously not known to be involved in canine atopic dermatitis.

  11. Gene Expression in the Skin of Dogs Sensitized to the House Dust Mite Dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Schamber, Paz; Schwab-Richards, Rachel; Bauersachs, Stefan; Mueller, Ralf S.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial allergic skin disease in humans and dogs. Genetic predisposition, immunologic hyperreactivity, a defective skin barrier, and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to house dust mite antigens. Skin biopsy samples were collected from six sensitized and six nonsensitized Beagle dogs before and 6 hr and 24 hr after challenge using skin patches with allergen or saline as a negative control. Transcriptome analysis was performed by the use of DNA microarrays and expression of selected genes was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Expression data were compared between groups (unpaired design). After 24 hr, 597 differentially expressed genes were detected, 361 with higher and 226 with lower mRNA concentrations in allergen-treated skin of sensitized dogs compared with their saline-treated skin and compared with the control specimens. Functional annotation clustering and pathway- and co-citation analysis showed that the genes with increased expression were involved in inflammation, wound healing, and immune response. In contrast, genes with decreased expression in sensitized dogs were associated with differentiation and barrier function of the skin. Because the sensitized dogs did not show differences in the untreated skin compared with controls, inflammation after allergen patch test probably led to a decrease in the expression of genes important for barrier formation. Our results further confirm the similar pathophysiology of human and canine atopic dermatitis and revealed genes previously not known to be involved in canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:25098772

  12. Integrated Decision Strategies for Skin Sensitization Hazard

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the top priorities of the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is the identification and evaluation of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization testing. Although skin sensitization is a complex process, the key biologi...

  13. Opposing effects on immune function and skin barrier regulation by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in an allergen-induced eczema model.

    PubMed

    Mudnakudu Nagaraju, Kiran Kumar; Babina, Magda; Worm, Margitta

    2013-11-01

    Proteasome inhibition (PI) has been reported to interfere with antibody-driven autoimmune diseases. The impact of PI on the allergic immune response and on skin diseases like atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been thoroughly explored, however. Here, we examined whether the PI bortezomib interferes with the allergic immune response and the severity of AD by using an established mouse model of allergen-driven dermatitis, to which bortezomib was applied after the establishment of systemic sensitization to ovalbumin. The treatment indeed resulted in a remarkable decrease in total and allergen-specific plasma cells/antibody-secreting cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry and ELISpot, respectively. This was accompanied by rapid reductions in serum antibody titres, including a prominent reduction of the IgE isotype. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were greatly diminished in lesional skin on immunohistological staining. The impressive effects at the level of immune modulation did not result in any improvement in the eczema, however. Following up on this unexpected result, we found that the skin itself was susceptible to bortezomib, by which it was instructed to lower the expression of critical skin barrier genes, especially transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin. Together, bortezomib eliminates plasma cells and decreases immunoglobulin responses, including allergenic IgE. Although anti-inflammatory effects are detectable in the skin, counter-regulatory effects from PI on resident skin cells likely undermine improvement in the eczema. These results caution against the therapeutic use of bortezomib for inflammatory skin disorders, which are characterized by inherently impaired barrier function, especially AD.

  14. Acute allergic skin response as a new tool to evaluate the allergenicity of whey hydrolysates in a mouse model of orally induced cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Schouten, Bastiaan; Hofman, Gerard A; van Baalen, Ton; Nijkamp, Frans P; Knippels, Léon M J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Garssen, Johan

    2010-06-01

    Hypoallergenic milk formulae are used for cow's milk allergic infants and may be a good option for infants at risk. Clinical studies have shown that the protein source or the hydrolysis methodology used may influence the effectiveness in infants stressing the importance of adequate pre-clinical testing of hypoallergenic formulae in an in vivo model of orally induced cow's milk allergy. This study was undertaken to introduce a new read-out system to measure the residual allergenicity of whey hydrolysates on both the sensitization and challenge phase of orally induced cow's milk allergy in mice. Mice were sensitized orally to whey or a partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) to measure the residual sensitizing capacity. To predict the residual allergenicity of hydrolysates, whey allergic mice were challenged in the ear with pWH, extensive whey hydrolysate or an amino acid-based formula. An acute allergic skin response (ear swelling at 1 h), whey-specific serum antibodies, and local MCP-1 concentrations were measured. In contrast to whey, oral sensitization with pWH did not result in the induction of whey-specific antibodies, although a minor residual skin response to whey was observed after challenge. Skin exposure to whey hydrolysates showed a hydrolysation dependent reduction of the acute allergic skin response in whey allergic mice. In contrast to whey, skin exposure to pWH did not enhance tissue MCP-1 levels. The acute allergic skin response in mice orally sensitized to cow's milk proteins reveals a new pre-clinical tool which might provide information about the residual sensitizing capacity of hydrolysates supporting the discussion on the use of hypoallergenic formulae in high risk children. This mouse model might be a relevant model for the screening of new hypoallergenic formulae aimed to prevent or treat cow's milk allergy.

  15. Allergen sensitization linked to climate and age, not to intermittent-persistent rhinitis in a cross-sectional cohort study in the (sub)tropics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure leads to allergen sensitization in susceptible individuals and this might influence allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype expression. We investigated whether sensitization patterns vary in a country with subtropical and tropical regions and if sensitization patterns relate to AR phenotypes or age. Methods In a national, cross-sectional study AR patients (2-70 y) seen by allergists underwent blinded skin prick testing with a panel of 18 allergens and completed a validated questionnaire on AR phenotypes. Results 628 patients were recruited. The major sensitizing allergen was house dust mite (HDM) (56%), followed by Bermuda grass (26%), ash (24%), oak (23%) and mesquite (21%) pollen, cat (22%) and cockroach (21%). Patients living in the tropical region were almost exclusively sensitized to HDM (87%). In the central agricultural zones sensitization is primarily to grass and tree pollen. Nationwide, most study subjects had perennial (82.2%), intermittent (56.5%) and moderate-severe (84.7%) AR. Sensitization was not related to the intermittent-persistent AR classification or to AR severity; seasonal AR was associated with tree (p < 0.05) and grass pollen sensitization (p < 0.01). HDM sensitization was more frequent in children (0-11 y) and adolescents (12-17 y) (subtropical region: p < 0.0005; tropical region p < 0.05), but pollen sensitization becomes more important in the adult patients visiting allergists (Adults vs children + adolescents for tree pollen: p < 0.0001, weeds: p < 0.0005). Conclusions In a country with (sub)tropical climate zones SPT sensitization patterns varied according to climatological zones; they were different from those found in Europe, HDM sensitization far outweighing pollen allergies and Bermuda grass and Ash pollen being the main grass and tree allergens, respectively. Pollen sensitization was related to SAR, but no relation between sensitization and intermittent-persistent AR or AR severity

  16. Skin sensitization testing in potency and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kimber, I; Basketter, D A; Berthold, K; Butler, M; Garrigue, J L; Lea, L; Newsome, C; Roggeband, R; Steiling, W; Stropp, G; Waterman, S; Wiemann, C

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to review, and make recommendations for, the use of relevant skin sensitization test methods, for the purposes of determination of relative potency and the threshold dose necessary for the induction of skin sensitization, and for risk assessment. In addressing the first area, the utility of three guinea pig tests (the guinea pig maximization test, the occluded patch test, and the open epicutaneous test) of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and of human volunteer testing for the assessment of relative potency and identification of thresholds for sensitization were considered. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) Although attempts have been made to modify the guinea pig maximization test for the purposes of deriving dose-response relationships, this method is usually unsuitable for determination of relative sensitizing potency. (2) Guinea pig methods that do not require the use of adjuvant and which employ a relevant route of exposure (the occluded patch test and the open epicutaneous test) are more appropriate for the assessment of relative skin-sensitizing potency. (3) The LLNA is suitable for the determination of relative skin sensitizing potency, and the adaptation of this method for derivation of comparative criteria such as EC3 values (the estimated concentration of test chemical required to induce a stimulation index of 3 in the LLNA) provides an effective and quantitative basis for such measurements. (4) For all the methods identified above, potency is assessed relative to other chemical allergens of known skin sensitizing potential. The estimation of likely threshold concentrations is dependent upon the availability of suitable benchmark chemicals of known potency for human sensitization. (5) Human testing (and specifically, the Human Repeat Insult Patch Test) can provide information of value in confirming the absence of skin sensitizing activity of formulations and products under specific conditions of use and exposure

  17. Focus on cat allergen (Fel d 1): immunological and aerodynamic characteristics, modality of airway sensitization and avoidance strategies.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; D'Amato, Gennaro; Russo, Maria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; D'Amato, Luciana; De Martino, Mariano; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2003-09-01

    The increasing frequency of pet ownership (especially cats) in many industrialized countries has raised the level of exposure to the allergens produced by these animals. Moreover, it is likely that modern energy-saving systems and the wide use of upholstered furniture has resulted in closer contact between cats (and their allergens) and humans. Many different methods have been developed to quantify the main cat allergen (Fel d 1) in settled dust and in ambient air. The threshold levels of cat allergen inducing sensitization or triggering respiratory symptoms in sensitized patients have been calculated in settled dust, but airborne amounts of Fel d 1 probably represent a more reliable index of allergen exposure. Noticeably, the amount of Fel d 1 may be relatively high also in confined environments where cats have never been kept. It has been demonstrated that clothes of cat owners are the main source for dispersal of allergens in cat-free environments. This fact may be of relevance, because recent studies have shown that allergic sensitization to cats is more likely to develop in children exposed to moderate levels of this allergen than in children exposed to high amounts of Fel d 1. The ubiquity of cat allergen may justify the common observation that allergen avoidance is often insufficient to reduce the risk of developing allergic sensitization and/or symptom exacerbation in highly susceptible patients. Further efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of Fel d 1 avoidance strategies to try to reduce the risk of allergic sensitization to this allergen.

  18. Quantitation of latex allergens.

    PubMed

    Palosuo, Timo; Alenius, Harri; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2002-05-01

    Minimizing allergen concentration in latex goods to prevent sensitization to natural rubber latex (NRL) and thereby the development of clinical allergy is acknowledged as of mutual interest for rubber manufacturers and regulatory health authorities. However, measuring total protein, the principal currently available method, cannot be deemed a satisfactory regulatory measure to control allergen content. Specific methods based on human IgE-containing reagents, such as radioallergosorbent test (RAST) inhibition, have been available in certain laboratories for demonstrating NRL allergens in rubber products but the methods lack standardization. Currently, one commercial test has become available for measuring individual NRL allergens by capture ELISA-based assays using monoclonal antibodies and purified or recombinant allergens. Such methods are specific, they can be properly standardized, and they are of sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Results from medical gloves collected in two national market surveys in Finland in 1995 and 1999, respectively, show that Hev b 6.02 and Hev b 5, the two major allergens for NRL-allergic adults, are the most abundant allergens regularly detectable in high- and moderate-allergen gloves. In addition, Hev b 3 and Hev b 1, the two major allergens for children with spina bifida, are also commonly found. In general, when the sum of the four allergens exceeded 1 microg/g, most NRL-allergic patients showed positive skin prick test reactions against them. Using these new methods assessment of threshold levels that could in due course become guidelines for the rubber industry and regulatory health authorities is becoming possible. Eventually, this progress is expected to lead to a declining incidence of latex allergy. PMID:12079417

  19. The GARD assay for assessment of chemical skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Albrekt, Ann-Sofie; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Lindstedt, Malin

    2013-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin disease caused by an immunologic reaction to low molecular weight compounds, so called haptens. These substances are commonly present in products used by humans in daily life, such as in cosmetics and fragrances, as well as within chemical industry and in pharmaceuticals. The frequent usage of these compounds in different applications has led to increasing incidences of allergic contact dermatitis, which has become a substantial economic burden for society. As a consequence, chemicals are routinely tested for their ability to induce skin sensitization, using animal models such as the murine Local Lymph Node Assay. However, recent legislations regulate the use of animal models within chemical testing. Thus, there is an urgent need for in vitro alternatives to replace these assays for safety assessment of chemicals. Recently, we identified a signature of predictive genes, which are differentially regulated in the human myeloid cell-line MUTZ-3 when stimulated with sensitizing compounds compared to non-sensitizing compounds. Based on these findings, we have formulated a test strategy for assessment of sensitizing compounds, called Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection, GARD. In this paper, we present a detailed method description of how the assay should be performed. PMID:23032079

  20. Detection of castor allergens in castor wax.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Müller, D J; Salvaggio, J E

    1980-01-01

    The presence of castor bean allergens in castor wax products was determined by in vivo and in vitro analysis of castor wax extracts. Allergens were detected in one extract of castor wax by the PCA reaction in mice, the RAST inhibition reaction, and skin prick test in castor bean sensitive individuals. However, these allergens in the wax were of much lower potency than those in the bean, and were not detectable in a deodorant product utilizing castor wax.

  1. Comparison between Siriraj mite allergen vaccine and standardized commercial mite vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Sripramong, Chaweewan; Sookrung, Nitat; Bunnag, Chaweewan

    2010-03-01

    House dust mite is a major cause of allergic asthma and rhinitis in Thai population. Skin prick test (SPT) is a useful tool for the diagnosis of the IgE-mediated reactions. The imported commercial mite vaccine for SPT is available but it is relatively expensive. Aim of this study is to compare Siriraj Mite Allergen Vaccine (SMAV) with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults. A double blind, self-controlled study between the SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine was performed by SPT in 17 normal Thai adult males and non-pregnant or non-lactating females aged 18-60 years. The study showed that 35.29 % of non atopic adults had positive SPT reaction to Dp and Df of both SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. Mean wheal and flare diameters from SPT of Dp and Df of SMAV showed strong correlation with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine (r= 0.768 and 0.897 in Dp and Df respectively, p <0.001). The intraclass correlation was also excellent (0.893 and 0.775 in Dp and Df respectively). There was no significant difference in wheal and flare diameter between SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. No systemic or large local reaction was found in any of the study cases.

  2. Giant magnetoresistive sensor array for sensitive and specific multiplexed food allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari C; Wang, Shan X

    2016-06-15

    Current common allergen detection methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dip-stick methods, do not provide adequate levels of sensitivity and specificity for at-risk allergic patients. A method for performing highly sensitive and specific detection of multiple food allergens is thus imperative as food allergies are becoming increasingly recognized as a major healthcare concern, affecting an estimated 4% of the total population. We demonstrate first instance of sensitive and specific multiplexed detection of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and wheat allergen Gliadin using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor arrays. Commercialized ELISA kits for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 report limits of detection (LODs) at 31.5 ng/mL and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the 96-well-based ELISA developed in-house for Gliadin was found to have a LOD of 40 ng/mL. Our multiplexed GMR-based assay demonstrates the ability to perform all three assays on the same chip specifically and with sensitivities at LODs about an order of magnitude lower than those of 96-well-based ELISAs. LODs of GMR-based assays developed for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Gliadin were 7.0 ng/mL, 0.2 ng/mL, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little to no cross-reactivity. These LODs are clinically important as some patients could react strongly against such low allergen levels. Given the limitations of current industrial detection technology, multiplexed GMR-based assays provide a method for highly sensitive and specific simultaneous detection of any combination of food-product allergens, thus protecting allergic patients from life-threatening events, including anaphylaxis, by unintentional consumption.

  3. Giant magnetoresistive sensor array for sensitive and specific multiplexed food allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari C; Wang, Shan X

    2016-06-15

    Current common allergen detection methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dip-stick methods, do not provide adequate levels of sensitivity and specificity for at-risk allergic patients. A method for performing highly sensitive and specific detection of multiple food allergens is thus imperative as food allergies are becoming increasingly recognized as a major healthcare concern, affecting an estimated 4% of the total population. We demonstrate first instance of sensitive and specific multiplexed detection of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and wheat allergen Gliadin using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor arrays. Commercialized ELISA kits for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 report limits of detection (LODs) at 31.5 ng/mL and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the 96-well-based ELISA developed in-house for Gliadin was found to have a LOD of 40 ng/mL. Our multiplexed GMR-based assay demonstrates the ability to perform all three assays on the same chip specifically and with sensitivities at LODs about an order of magnitude lower than those of 96-well-based ELISAs. LODs of GMR-based assays developed for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Gliadin were 7.0 ng/mL, 0.2 ng/mL, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little to no cross-reactivity. These LODs are clinically important as some patients could react strongly against such low allergen levels. Given the limitations of current industrial detection technology, multiplexed GMR-based assays provide a method for highly sensitive and specific simultaneous detection of any combination of food-product allergens, thus protecting allergic patients from life-threatening events, including anaphylaxis, by unintentional consumption. PMID:26859787

  4. Associations of allergic sensitization and clinical phenotypes with innate immune response genes polymorphisms are modified by house dust mite allergen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Marcin; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Wardzyńska, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Polymorphisms within innate immunity genes are associated with allergic phenotypes but results are variable. These associations were not analyzed with respect to allergen exposure. We investigated associations of TLR and CD14 polymorphisms with allergy phenotypes in the context of house dust mite (HDM) exposure. Material and methods Children, aged 12-16 years (n=326), were recruited from downtown and rural locations and assessed by allergist. Skin prick tests, total and HDM-specific sIgE measurements were done. HDM allergen concentrations in dust were measured. Genetic polymorphisms were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results Allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopy were more prevalent in urban area. Although HDM allergen concentrations were higher in rural households, sIgE were present more frequently in urban children. In the whole population no association was found between HDM exposure and sensitization. In children with CD14/−159CC, CD14/−159TT and TLR9/2848GA genotypes increased exposure to HDM was associated with reduced incidence of allergic rhinitis. Significant associations of increased HDM exposure with reduced incidence of atopy were found for the whole population and subjects with CD14/−159CC, CD14/−1359GT, TLR4/896AA and TLR9/2848GA genotypes. Among children with CD14/−159CC and CD14/−1359GG significant positive correlation between HDM allergen concentrations in household and sensitization to HDM was observed. In contrast, protective effect of high HDM allergen exposure against specific sensitization was seen in subjects with TLR4/896 AG. Conclusions Development of specific sensitization and allergy may be associated with innate immune response genes polymorphisms and is modified by allergen exposure. PMID:22328887

  5. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  6. Allergen Sensitization Profiles in a Population-Based Cohort of Children Hospitalized for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; McLinden, Daniel J.; Lierl, Michelle B.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Allergen sensitization is associated with asthma morbidity. A better understanding of allergen sensitization patterns among children hospitalized for asthma could help clinicians tailor care more effectively. To our knowledge, however, sensitization profiles among children hospitalized for asthma are unknown. Objectives: We sought to describe allergen sensitization profiles and the distribution of self-reported in-home exposures among children hospitalized for asthma. We also sought to assess how sensitization profiles varied by sociodemographic and clinical factors. Methods: This population-based cohort study includes data for 478 children, aged 4–16 years, hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation. Predictors included child age, race, sex, insurance status, reported income, salivary cotinine, exposure to traffic-related air pollution, asthma and atopic history, and season of admission. Outcomes included serum IgE specific to Alternaria alternata/A. tenuis, Aspergillus fumigatus, American cockroach, mouse epithelium, dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae), cat dander, and dog dander (deemed sensitive if IgE ≥ 0.35). Self-reported adverse exposures included mold/mildew, water leaks, cockroaches, rodents, and cracks or holes in the walls or ceiling. Presence of carpeting and furry pets was also assessed. Measurements and Main Results: More than 50% of included patients were sensitized to each of Alternaria, Aspergillus, dust mite, cat dander, and dog dander; 28% were sensitized to cockroach and 18% to mouse. Roughly 68% were sensitized to three or more allergens with evidence of clustering. African American children, compared with white children, were more likely to be sensitized to Alternaria, Aspergillus, cockroach, and dust mite (all P < 0.01). White children were more likely to be sensitized to mouse, cat, and dog (all P < 0.01). Lower income was associated with cockroach sensitization whereas higher income was associated

  7. Sensitization Profile to Allergens in Patients Using Multi-Test II

    PubMed Central

    Maniglia, Sergio Fabricio; Tsuru, Fernanda Miyoko; Santos, Victor Carvalho dos; Ueda, Denis Massatsugu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical intervention in allergies has broadened its perspective, also focusing in the quality of life of patients. Patients are instructed, before using pharmacotherapy agents, to avoid the causal agent. Objective This study aims to analyze the sensitization profile of patients with allergic complaints and identify possible characteristics specific to each age group and gender. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study included data collected from medical records (from Multi-Test II database, Lincoln Diagnostics Inc. Decatur, Illinois) of 1,912 patients who underwent skin prick test from March to October 2013. Patients were organized and analyzed according to gender, age, and results of the allergens subtypes tested. Results The study was composed of 1,912 patients (60% male and 40% female) of ages between 3 and 87 years. Positive tests were more prevalent in quantity and intensity with the mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, each with 60% of the total analyzed. In second place were pollens, especially Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis. Conclusion The female and male sexes were equally atopic. Fungi and epithelia of dog and cat were not considered potential aeroallergens that could cause symptoms. However, mites are common in Paraná, Brazil. Further studies regarding the pollens are needed, as this study result diverged from the literature. PMID:25992129

  8. Sensitive skin and rosacea: nosologic framework.

    PubMed

    Misery, L

    2011-11-01

    Flushing due to rosacea may be mistaken for sensitive skin, which can manifest as abnormal sensations during fairly acute reactions to a variety of triggers, many of which are shared by rosacea and sensitive skin. Nevertheless, the two conditions are clearly different. Rosacea is a vascular disease, worsens gradually over time, manifests as flares triggered chiefly by systemic factors, is largely confined to the facial and/or ocular regions, and responds to specific treatments. Sensitive skin, in contrast, is an epidermal cosmetic problem that runs a variable course, with diffuse skin involvement and flares triggered mainly by contact factors. The flares respond to specific cosmetics and are usually worsened by treatments for rosacea.

  9. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  10. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  11. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  12. The risk of systemic reactions to skin prick-tests using food allergens: CICBAA data and literature review.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Morisset, M; Guénard, L; Rancé, F; Kanny, G; Lemerdy, Ph

    2006-02-01

    Prick-tests to foods are usually carried out as the first step in the diagnosis of food allergy. Severe anaphylaxis accounts for 4.9 % of allergies in children and occurs more frequently in adults, raising the possibility of systemic reactions to prick-tests in highly sensitized people. Several studies published in the literature have used commercial extracts. As for airborne allergens, concentrations causing a skin reaction of 15 mm do not present a risk of systemic reactions. Prick-tests to native foods--prick-in-prick tests--have been less extensively studied. The CICBAA1 data, from 1,138 food allergic patients of all ages, cover 34,905 prick-in-prick tests to foods. The wheal of these prick-tests has been regulary registered. The risk of systemic reactions can be evaluated at 0.008 %. There were no severe reactions and anti-histamine and corticosteroid therapy were sufficient. These results are similar to those of the large study in 2000 carried out by Devenney in neonates (0.005%). A review of the literature reveals only a few severe reactions in adults. The authors draw attention to the necessary precautions: temporary contra-indication for skin prick-tests in children and adults with grade 3 or 4 asthma, with particular attention to such foods as all kinds of nuts, fish, etc.

  13. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  14. [Allergens-induced sensitization alters airway epithelial adhesion molecules expression in mice].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dan; Tan, Mei-Ling; Xiang, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Qun; Zhu, Li-Ming; Dai, Ai-Guo

    2015-12-25

    To explore the relationship between the epithelial adhesion molecules and immune responses of airway epithelium, we observed the expression of integrin β4 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the mice airway epithelium after sensitization with allergens. BALB/c mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) and then developed airway hyper-responsiveness as determined by barometric whole-body plethysmography. Both OVA and HDM sensitization led to increases of the number of peripheral leukocytes as well as inflammatory cells infiltration in lungs. OVA sensitized mice showed more severe inflammatory cells infiltration than HDM sensitized mice. Immunohistochemistry analysis of mice lung tissues revealed that sensitization with both allergens also led to a decrease of integrin β4 expression and an increase of ICAM-1 expression in airway epithelia. OVA sensitized mice showed a more significant increase of ICAM-1 expression compared with HDM sensitized mice. siRNA mediated silencing of integrin β4 gene in 16HBE cells resulted in an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Our results indicate a possible role of airway epithelial adhesion molecules in allergen-induced airway immune responses. PMID:26701635

  15. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  16. The complex problem of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Holmes, Jo; Peters, Lisa; Cooper, Karen; Rowson, Matthew; Basketter, David A

    2005-08-01

    There exists within the population subsets of individuals who display heightened skin reactivity to materials the majority find tolerable. In a series of investigations, we have examined interrelationships between many of the endpoints associated with the term 'sensitive skin'. In the most recent work, 58 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.5% menthol and 1.0% capsaicin on the nasolabial fold, unoccluded, with sensory reactions recorded at 2.5 min, 5 min and 8 min after application. Urticant susceptibility was evaluated with 1 m benzoic acid and 125 mM trans-cinnamic acid applied to the volar forearm for 20 min. A 2 x 23-h patch test was also conducted using 0.1% and 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.3% and 0.6% cocamidopropyl betaine and 0.1% and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride to determine irritant susceptibility. As found in previous studies, increased susceptibility to one endpoint was not predictive of sensitivity to another. In our experience, nasolabial stinging was a poor predictor of general skin sensitivity. Nevertheless, it may be possible to identify in the normal population individuals who, coincidentally, are more generally sensitive to a range of non-immunologic adverse skin reactions. Whether such individuals are those who experience problems with skin care products remains to be addressed. PMID:16033403

  17. Putting the parts together: combining in vitro methods to test for skin sensitizing potentials.

    PubMed

    Bauch, Caroline; Kolle, Susanne N; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Eltze, Tobias; Fabian, Eric; Mehling, Annette; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease and is elicited by repeated skin contact with an allergen. In the regulatory context, currently only data from animal experiments are acceptable to assess the skin sensitizing potential of substances. Animal welfare and EU Cosmetic Directive/Regulation call for the implementation of animal-free alternatives for safety assessments. The mechanisms that trigger skin sensitization are complex and various steps are involved. Therefore, a single in vitro method may not be able to accurately assess this endpoint. Non-animal methods are being developed and validated and can be used for testing strategies that ensure a reliable prediction of skin sensitization potentials. In this study, the predictivities of four in vitro assays, one in chemico and one in silico method addressing three different steps in the development of skin sensitization were assessed using 54 test substances of known sensitizing potential. The predictivity of single tests and combinations of these assays were compared. These data were used to develop an in vitro testing scheme and prediction model for the detection of skin sensitizers based on protein reactivity, activation of the Keap-1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and dendritic cell activation. PMID:22659254

  18. [Sensitive skin and rosacea: nosologic framework].

    PubMed

    Misery, L

    2011-09-01

    Flushing due to rosacea may be confused with sensitive skin because it is characterized by slightly acute reactions to varied factors with the perception of abnormal sensations and often common triggering factors. Nevertheless, these are clearly two different phenomena. On the one hand, rosacea is a vascular disease, with progressive worsening and eruptions set off by systemic factors, with a facial and/or ocular topography that respond to specific treatments. On the other hand, sensitive skin corresponds to an epidermal, cosmetic problem, with variable progression, whose eruptions are instead set off by contact factors and have a ubiquitous topography. Eruptions are improved by specific cosmetics and usually worsened by rosacea treatments.

  19. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  20. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  1. Performance of skin tests with allergens from B. melitensis B115 and rough B. abortus mutants for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Blasco, J M; De Miguel, M J; Marín, C M; Barberán, M; Conde-Álvarez, R; Moriyón, I; Muñoz, P M

    2014-01-10

    Swine brucellosis by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease whose control is based on serological testing and culling. However, current serological tests detect antibodies to the O-polysaccharide (O/PS) moiety of Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), and thus lack specificity when infections by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other gram-negative bacteria carrying cross-reacting O/PS occur. The skin test with the protein-rich brucellin extract obtained from rough B. melitensis B115 is assumed to be specific for discriminating these false positive serological reactions (FPSR). However, B115 strain, although unable to synthesize S-LPS, accumulates O/PS internally, which could cause diagnostic problems. Since the brucellin skin test has been seldom used in pigs and FPSR are common in these animals, we assessed its performance using cytosoluble protein extracts obtained from B. abortus rough mutants in manBcore or per genes (critical for O/PS biosynthesis) and B. melitensis B115. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined in B. suis biovar 2 culture positive and brucellosis free sows, and apparent prevalence in sows of unknown individual bacteriological and serological status belonging to B. suis biovar 2 naturally infected herds. Moreover, the specificity in discriminating brucellosis from FPSR was assessed in brucellosis free boars showing FPSR. The skin test with B. abortus ΔmanBcore and B. melitensis B115 allergens performed similarly, and the former one resulted in 100% specificity when testing animals showing FPSR in indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal and complement fixation serological tests. We conclude that O/PS-free genetically defined mutants represent an appropriate alternative to obtain Brucella protein extracts for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

  2. Adverse reactions to immunotherapy are associated with different patterns of sensitization to grass allergens.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Rodríguez, F; Campo, P; Laffond, E; Marín, A; Alonso, M D

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during immunotherapy with a grass extract (AVANZ® Phleum, ALK-Abelló) are related to the different patterns of sensitization of patients to grass allergens. A total of 192 patients with rhinitis and/or asthma sensitized to grass pollen received a 4-week updosing with five injections. ADRs were evaluated following EAACI guidelines. A total of 432 ADRs in 133 (69%) patients were recorded, 64% local and 31% systemic. There was a significant association between the number of grass allergens that sensitized the patients and the total number of ADRs (P = 0.004) occurred locally (P = 0.003) and systemically (P = 0.01). Sensitization to Phl p1 + Phl p5 or Phl p1 + Phl p5 + Phl p12 was significantly associated with a higher frequency of local or systemic reactions (P = 0.001, both). Different patterns of sensitization to grass allergens may potentially be considered a risk marker to the development of ADRs to immunotherapy.

  3. Prediction of Skin Sensitization with a Particle Swarm Optimized Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hua; Huang, Jianping; Cao, Chenzhong

    2009-01-01

    Skin sensitization is the most commonly reported occupational illness, causing much suffering to a wide range of people. Identification and labeling of environmental allergens is urgently required to protect people from skin sensitization. The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) are the two most important in vivo models for identification of skin sensitizers. In order to reduce the number of animal tests, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are strongly encouraged in the assessment of skin sensitization of chemicals. This paper has investigated the skin sensitization potential of 162 compounds with LLNA results and 92 compounds with GPMT results using a support vector machine. A particle swarm optimization algorithm was implemented for feature selection from a large number of molecular descriptors calculated by Dragon. For the LLNA data set, the classification accuracies are 95.37% and 88.89% for the training and the test sets, respectively. For the GPMT data set, the classification accuracies are 91.80% and 90.32% for the training and the test sets, respectively. The classification performances were greatly improved compared to those reported in the literature, indicating that the support vector machine optimized by particle swarm in this paper is competent for the identification of skin sensitizers. PMID:19742136

  4. Integrated decision strategies for skin sensitization hazard.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Judy; Zang, Qingda; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Paris, Michael; Lehmann, David M; Choksi, Neepa; Matheson, Joanna; Jacobs, Abigail; Lowit, Anna; Allen, David; Casey, Warren

    2016-09-01

    One of the top priorities of the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is the identification and evaluation of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization testing. Although skin sensitization is a complex process, the key biological events of the process have been well characterized in an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Accordingly, ICCVAM is working to develop integrated decision strategies based on the AOP using in vitro, in chemico and in silico information. Data were compiled for 120 substances tested in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) and KeratinoSens assay. Data for six physicochemical properties, which may affect skin penetration, were also collected, and skin sensitization read-across predictions were performed using OECD QSAR Toolbox. All data were combined into a variety of potential integrated decision strategies to predict LLNA outcomes using a training set of 94 substances and an external test set of 26 substances. Fifty-four models were built using multiple combinations of machine learning approaches and predictor variables. The seven models with the highest accuracy (89-96% for the test set and 96-99% for the training set) for predicting LLNA outcomes used a support vector machine (SVM) approach with different combinations of predictor variables. The performance statistics of the SVM models were higher than any of the non-animal tests alone and higher than simple test battery approaches using these methods. These data suggest that computational approaches are promising tools to effectively integrate data sources to identify potential skin sensitizers without animal testing. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26851134

  5. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  6. Subcutaneous Allergic Sensitization to Protease Allergen Is Dependent on Mast Cells but Not IL-33: Distinct Mechanisms between Subcutaneous and Intranasal Routes.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Seiji; Suzuki, Mayu; Hara, Mutsuko; Shimura, Sakiko; Ochi, Hirono; Maruyama, Natsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Ichikawa, Saori; Ikeda, Shigaku; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2016-05-01

    Protease activity of papain, a plant-derived occupational allergen homologous to mite major allergens, is essential to IgE/IgG1 production and lung eosinophilia induced by intranasal papain administration in mice, and IL-33 contributes to these responses. In this work, we investigate skin and Ab responses induced by s.c. papain administration into ear lobes and responses induced by subsequent airway challenge with papain. Subcutaneous papain injection induced swelling associated with increased epidermal thickness, dermal inflammation, serum IgE/IgG1 responses, and Th2 cytokine production in draining lymph node cells restimulated in vitro. These responses were markedly less upon s.c. administration of protease inhibitor-treated papain. Results obtained by using mast cell-deficient mice and reconstitution of tissue mast cells suggested the contribution of mast cells to papain-specific IgE/IgG1 responses and eosinophil infiltration. The responses were equivalent between wild-type and IL-33(-/-) mice. After the subsequent airway challenge, the s.c. presensitized wild-type mice showed more severe lung eosinophilia than those without the presensitization. The presensitized IL-33(-/-) mice showed modest lung eosinophilia, which was absent without the presensitization, but its severity and IgE boost by the airway challenge were markedly less than the presensitized wild-type mice, in which protease activity of inhaled papain contributed to the responses. The results suggest that mechanisms for the protease-dependent sensitization differ between skin and airway and that cooperation of mast cell-dependent, IL-33-independent initial sensitization via skin and protease-induced, IL-33-mediated mechanism in re-exposure via airway to protease allergens maximizes the magnitude of the transition from skin inflammation to asthma in natural history of progression of allergic diseases. PMID:27001956

  7. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product.

  8. Pattern of sensitization to common environmental allergens amongst atopic Singapore children in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J; Shek, L P; Shek, L; Khor, E S; Wang, D Y; Lee, B W

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the sensitization pattern to a range of common allergens in young Singaporean children. A cross-sectional study involving 75 children aged below 3 years was carried out. They presented between December 1995 and April 2000 with symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Their levels of allergen-specific serum IgE to a panel of foods (egg white, milk, soy protein, shrimp, wheat and peanut), pet dander, dust mites and cockroaches were measured with Pharmacia CAP System radioallergosorbent test kits. Serum IgE levels greater than 0.35 kU/l represented a positive result. Four children could not be tested with the complete panel because of insufficient serum. The prevalence of sensitization was highest for cow's milk (45.9%) followed by egg white (38.7%), dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.4%) and Blomia tropicalis (25.5%). Sensitization to ingested allergens was significantly more prevalent in children aged 1 year or younger than in the older children (70.4% of those below 1 year, and 50% of those aged 1-3 years; p < 0.02). Sensitization to inhaled allergens, such as dust mites, was more likely to manifest as respiratory symptoms (allergic rhinitis and asthma), while ingested allergens were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and eczema (p < 0.001). It was concluded that infants and young children are at high risk of sensitization to common environmental substances. Allergen avoidance is therefore important even in the very young. The prevalence of sensitization to food allergens is higher compared to inhalant allergens in young children. PMID:12009071

  9. [Changes in food allergen sensitization rates of Japanese allergic children during the last 15 years].

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Miyanomae, Takeshi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Masatoshi; Yoshioka, Takakazu; Okafuji, Ikuo; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2004-07-01

    In order to evaluate the changes in food allergen sensitization rates of allergic children, serum samples from 85 patients about 15 years ago (past group) and those from 90 current patients (present group) were randomly selected, and the specific IgE for six food allergens (wheat, peanuts, sesame, mackerel, ovomucoid, and kiwi) were measured with the CAP-RAST system. Sensitivity rates (class 2 or higher) for wheat and peanuts were significantly higher in the present than in the past group. Although there was no statistical difference in sensitivity rates (class 2 or higher) for kiwi between the groups, sensitivity rates (class 1 or higher) of the present group were significantly higher than those of the past group, indicating that the number of cases mildly sensitized to kiwi has been increasing. This trend was especially marked among children aged 6 or younger, and there was no statistical difference in sensitivity rates among those aged 7 or older. For the management of food allergy, special attention should therefore be paid not only to an increase in the number of patients, but also to changes in the kinds of causative foods.

  10. IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haoli; Oyoshi, Michiko K.; Le, Yi; Bianchi, Teresa; Koduru, Suresh; Mathias, Clinton B.; Kumar, Lalit; Le Bras, Séverine; Young, Deborah; Collins, Mary; Grusby, Michael J.; Wenzel, Joerg; Bieber, Thomas; Boes, Marianne; Silberstein, Leslie E.; Oettgen, Hans C.; Geha, Raif S.

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of intense pruritus, scratching, and epicutaneous (e.c.) sensitization with allergens. To explore the roles of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in AD, we examined skin lesions from patients with AD and used a mouse model of allergic skin inflammation. IL-21 and IL-21R expression was upregulated in acute skin lesions of AD patients and in mouse skin subjected to tape stripping, a surrogate for scratching. The importance of this finding was highlighted by the fact that both Il21r–/– mice and WT mice treated with soluble IL-21R–IgG2aFc fusion protein failed to develop skin inflammation after e.c. sensitization of tape-stripped skin. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific WT CD4+ T cells accumulated poorly in draining LNs (DLNs) of e.c. sensitized Il21r–/– mice. This was likely caused by both DC-intrinsic and nonintrinsic effects, because trafficking of skin DCs to DLNs was defective in Il21r–/– mice and, to a lesser extent, in WT mice reconstituted with Il21r–/– BM. More insight into this defect was provided by the observation that skin DCs from tape-stripped WT mice, but not Il21r–/– mice, upregulated CCR7 and migrated toward CCR7 ligands. Treatment of epidermal and dermal cells with IL-21 activated MMP2, which has been implicated in trafficking of skin DCs. These results suggest an important role for IL-21R in the mobilization of skin DCs to DLNs and the subsequent allergic response to e.c. introduced antigen. PMID:19075398

  11. Food proteins from different allergen families sensitize Balb/c mice to family-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Sun, Na; Zhou, Cui; Zhou, Xin; Lu, Jing; Wang, Cuiyan; Che, Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The classification of food allergens based on the structure and function of proteins contributes to the study of the relationship between bioinformatics and potential allergenicity of allergens. Food allergens always share sequence similarity with the allergens in the same allergen families. For that reason, food proteins from different allergen families may induce different patterns of immune responses in animal models. Female Balb/c mice (3-4-weeks-old) were sensitized with food proteins once per week for 4 weeks, and then challenged 2 weeks later (on Day 42 of study). Blood was collected (to obtain serum levels of histamine and protein-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies) and measures of vascular permeability were performed 20 min after the challenge. Five food proteins (11S globulin, OVA [ovalbumin], HAS [human serum albumin] and LRP [lysine-responsive storage protein] of different allergen families, and Cry 1Ab/Ac [crystal protein]) were used to assess patterns of immune responses for each allergen family and then bioinformatics and digestive stability in simulated gastric fluid were employed to assess the overall utility of the Balb/c. The assay results indicated that, in this model, histamine and protein-specific IgE antibody levels and vascular permeability could be used to identify allergenicity of 11S globulin, OVA, and PAP (potato acid phosphatase) only. However, the results of the protein-specific IgG1 measures could only distinguish allergic food proteins with negative control. Based on bioinformatic analyses, the five different food proteins clearly induced distinct patterns of immune responses in the Balb/c model.

  12. A sensitive method for determination of allergenic fragrance terpene hydroperoxides using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rudbäck, Johanna; Islam, Nurul; Nilsson, Ulrika; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2013-04-01

    Different compositions of monoterpenes are utilized for their pleasant scent in cosmetics and perfumes. However, the most commonly used fragrance terpenes easily oxidize upon contact with air, forming strongly skin-sensitizing hydroperoxides. Due to their thermolability and low UV absorbance, detection methods for hydroperoxides are scarce. For the first time, a simple and sensitive method using LC/ESI-MS/MS was developed to quantitatively determine hydroperoxides from the common fragrance compounds linalool, linalyl acetate, and limonene. The method was applied to autoxidized petitgrain oil and sweet orange oil. A separation was accomplished using a C3 column. The method LOD for the investigated hydroperoxides in the essential oils was below 0.3 μg/mL, corresponding to 0.3 ppm. For prevention purposes and according to EU regulations, concentrations in cosmetics exceeding 100 ppm in "rinse-off" and 10 ppm in "stay-on" products of linalool and limonene must be labeled. However, the products may still contain allergens, such as hydroperoxides, formed by oxidative degradation of their parent terpenes. The sensitivity and selectivity of the presented LC/MS/MS method enables detection of hydroperoxides from the fragrance terpenes linalool, linalyl acetate, and limonene. However, for routine measurements, the method requires further validation.

  13. Electrophilic reactions of skin-sensitizing sultones.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Williams, Douglas L; Bethell, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Reactions of the strong skin sensitizer hexadec-1-ene-1,3-sultone with sodium hydroxide, sodium methoxide, sodium metabisulfite, sodium butanethiolate, n-butylamine, and aniline have been investigated, and the reaction products have been identified. Most of the nucleophiles studied react by nucleophilic addition (Michael type addition) to the double bond at the 2-position, although in most cases the final products result from further reactions of the initital adducts. The findings are considered together with those reported by Meschkat, Barratt, and Lepoittevin for reactions of hex-1-ene-1,3-sultone and hexane-1,3-sultone, and the implications of the two sets of findings for the mechanism of skin-sensitizing action are discussed. It is concluded that nucleophilic attack at the 3-position of the alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones occurs only with those nucleophiles, which either have very low reactivity in nucleophilic addition or are unable to give rise to thermodynamically stable products via initial reaction at the 2-position. It is further concluded that the observed differences in electrophilic reactivity between alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones and alkane-1,3-sultones are not large enough to rationalize the differences in skin sensitization properties between the two types of sultone. It is suggested that the differences in specificity arise because the alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones act as Michael type electrophiles whereas the alkane sultones act as SN2 electrophiles. It is suggested that the reason for the greater potency of the alk-1-ene-1,3-sultones may be the ability of the initial C2 adducts with protein to undergo further reactions by substitution at C3, leading to cross-linking and consequent perturbation to the protein tertiary structure.

  14. Studies on the specific degranulation of mast cell sensitized by several allergens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongchao; Li, Zhenxing; Lin, Hong; Samee, Haider; Khalid, Jamil

    2009-04-01

    Food allergy is a major health issue worldwide. Mast cells play a very important role in the immediate hypersensitivity for which mast cell degranulation needs to be studied extensively. In this study, an approach was taken to study the characteristics of sensitized mast cell degranulation in vitro, which associated with the study of mast cells and animal models. BALB/c mice were immunized respectively by several food allergens, then blood and peritoneal mast cells were collected at different time points. A dynamic determination was carried out between mast cells and serumal IgE. Comparative analysis on sequential time points showed that there was a close coincidence between mast cell degranulation and IgE antibody titers in sensitized BALB/c mice. Furthermore, it is interesting that sensitized mast cells could implement specific degranulation against the challenges in vitro, but the closely tropomyosins induced mast cell degranulation displayed cross reactions. This is very similar to IgE resisting the allergens in vivo. The study disclosed some characteristics on mast cells, coming from sensitized BALB/c mice, degranulation in vitro.

  15. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-02-01

    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry. PMID:8681562

  16. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-02-01

    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry.

  17. Recombinant allergen-based provocation testing☆

    PubMed Central

    Niederberger, Verena; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Pauli, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, recombinant allergens from all important allergen sources have been cloned and are now available as recombinant proteins. These molecules can be produced in practically unlimited amounts without biological or batch-to-batch variability. It has been shown in provocation tests that recombinant allergens have similar clinical effects as their natural counterparts. With the help of these tools it is possible to reveal the precise reactivity profiles of patients and to uncover and differentiate cross-reactivity from genuine sensitization to an allergen source. Although it has been shown some time ago that it would be possible to replace crude allergen extracts with recombinant allergens for skin prick testing, and even though the use of allergen components can improve routine diagnosis, these tools are still not available for clinical routine applications. The use of provocation tests is a crucial step in the development of new, hypoallergenic vaccines for therapy of allergic disease. Here we describe important provocation methods (skin prick test, intradermal test, atopy patch test, nasal provocation, colonoscopic provocation test) and give an overview of the clinical provocation studies which have been performed with recombinant allergens so far. PMID:23920475

  18. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature by staining/lectinoblots, and in vitro stability in simulated gastric fluid. Results All the eggplant-sensitized subjects showed positive skin prick test with peel, pulp, raw, and cooked eggplant extracts; allergen-specific IgE to all these was positive. Raw eggplant contains 5 allergens in the range 36-71 kD. Most allergens are localized in the eggplant peel (9 allergens; 26-71 kD range) than the pulp (3 allergens; 52-71 kD); among these, the 26, 28, 36, and 71 kD allergens seem to be heat-stable. The 43, 45, 64, and 71 kD allergens are detected as glycoproteins; the 26, 64, and 71 kD allergens are stable displaying retention of IgE-binding ability in simulated gastric fluid digestion. Conclusions Eggplant is a multiallergenic vegetable in the context of presence of allergens in all edible parts of eggplant having preponderance in the peel. PMID:23283148

  19. Evaluating a Skin Sensitization Model and Examining Common Assumptions of Skin Sensitizers (ASCCT meeting)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Skin sensitization is an adverse outcome that has been well studied over many decades. It was summarized using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework as part of the OECD work programme (OECD, 2012). Currently there is a strong focus on how AOPs can be applied for different r...

  20. Evaluating a Skin Sensitization Model and Examining Common Assumptions of Skin Sensitizers (QSAR conference)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Skin sensitization is an adverse outcome that has been well studied over many decades. Knowledge of the mechanism of action was recently summarized using the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework as part of the OECD work programme (OECD, 2012). Currently there is a strong focus...

  1. Assessment of the allergenic potential of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins, the major sensitizing allergen in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-5 gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which omega-5 gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interfe...

  2. FRET-based dimeric aptamer probe for selective and sensitive Lup an 1 allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Mairal, T; Nadal, P; Svobodova, M; O'Sullivan, C K

    2014-04-15

    A sensitive method for the rapid and sensitive detection of the anaphylactic food allergen Lup an 1 (β-conglutin) exploiting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been developed. A high affinity dimeric form of a truncated 11-mer aptamer against β-conglutin was used, with each monomeric aptamer being flanked by donor/acceptor moieties. The dimeric form in the absence of target yields fluorescence emission due to the FRET from the excited fluorophore to the proximal second fluorophore. However, upon addition of β-conglutin, the specific interaction induces a change in the bi-aptameric structure resulting in an increase in fluorescence emission. The method is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 150 pM, providing an effective tool for the direct detection of the toxic β-conglutin subunit in foodstuffs in just 1 min at room temperature. PMID:24280051

  3. Clinical Significance of Component Allergens in Fagales Pollen-Sensitized Peanut Allergy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Son, Young Woong; Lee, Sang Chul; Jeong, Kyunguk; Sim, Da Woon; Park, Hye Jung; Lee, Sooyoung; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Clinical features of peanut allergy can range from localized to systemic reactions. Because peanut and birch pollen have cross-reactivity, peanut can lead to localized allergic reaction in Fagales pollen-sensitized oral allergy syndrome (OAS) patients without peanut sensitization per se. The purpose of this study was to discriminate true peanut food allergy from cross-reactive hypersensitivity in birch-sensitized peanut allergy. Methods Birch-sensitized (n=81) and peanut anaphylaxis patients (n=12) were enrolled. Peanut-related allergic reactions and sensitization profiles were examined. Specific IgE to Fagales tree pollens (birch, oak), peanut, and their component allergens (Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8, and Ara h 9) were evaluated. Based on these specific IgEs and clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 groups: group 1 (Fagales pollen allergy without OAS), group 2 (Fagales pollen allergy with OAS), group 3 (OAS with peanut anaphylaxis), and group 4 (peanut anaphylaxis). Results After peanut consumption, one-third of OAS patients experienced oral symptoms not associated with peanut sensitization. Ara h 1 or Ara h 2 was positive in peanut anaphylaxis patients, whereas Ara h 8 was positive in OAS patients. There were 4 patients with both peanut anaphylaxis and OAS (group 3). Both Ara h 2 and Ara h 8 were positive in these patients. Foods associated with OAS in Korea showed unique patterns compared to Westernized countries. Conclusions Ara h 2 and Ara h 8 may be important component allergens for discriminating peanut allergy. PMID:27582401

  4. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Methodology Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Results Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Conclusion Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level

  5. Repeated allergen exposure enhances excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve-mediated bronchoconstriction in sensitized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, N; Ichinose, M; Igarashi, A; Miura, M; Yamauchi, H; Sasaki, Y; Ishikawa, J; Tomaki, M; Shirato, K

    1996-07-01

    The effect of repeated allergen inhalation challenge on the airway excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (e-NANC) nerve-mediated bronchoconstrictor response was studied in ovalbumin (OA) sensitized guinea-pigs. Three weeks after sensitization, OA inhalation, 0.03% for 3 min (challenged group), or saline inhalation (control group) was repeated every day for 4 weeks. The e-NANC nerve function was examined in vitro by means of isometric tension measurement of main bronchi. After pretreatment with atropine (10(-6) M) and propranolol (10(-6) M), we performed electrical field stimulation (EFS) or exogenous neurokinin A (NKA) administration. In the challenged group, EFS-induced main bronchial contraction was significantly greater than that of the control group (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), but exogenous NKA-mediated responses were almost the same in both groups. The e-NANC-induced main bronchial contractions after EFS were enhanced by pretreatment with the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, to the same degree in the control and challenged groups, indicating that the peptide degradation mechanisms were not impaired even in the challenged group. Substance P immunoreactivities in the lung of the challenged group were significantly higher than those of the control group. These results suggest that chronic airway inflammation after repeated allergen challenge increases excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve function, possibly by enhancing sensory neuropeptide production and/or release. PMID:8836656

  6. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  7. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  8. Allergenic tropomyosins and their cross-reactivities.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-01-01

    The ingestion or inhalation of some proteins may lead to adverse immune reactions. Allergens may trigger allergic reactions in genetically predisposed individuals when they are absorbed through the skin or make contact with mucous membranes. An allergic disease often deteriorates the quality of life and may sometimes be life-threatening due to anaphylactic shock. A number of allergens have been characterized from various multicellular organisms to date. It is thought to be reasonable to pay a special attention to the substance which is highly cross-reactive and which causes adverse responses in the molecules that are not sensitized but similar to the sensitized allergen. Tropomyosin has been described as an important food allergen in shrimp, lobster, crab, oysters, squid, and other invertebrates. Allergic reactions to shellfish and mollusks are often cross-reactive, which may be explained by the highly conserved amino acid sequences of tropomyosins among invertebrates, but vertebrate tropomyosins are not known to be allergenic. Several tropomyosins from domestic arthropods have been reported to be allergenic. Recently, it was suggested that an infection of helminthic parasites might lead to sensitization to tropomyosin and elicit allergic reactions to other invertebrates. Much effort has been made to characterize these allergenic tropomyosins from various sources. We will discuss the physicochemical characteristics and the potential application of tropomyosin for the diagnosis and therapeutics of allergic disorders.

  9. Diphenylthiourea, a common rubber chemical, is bioactivated to potent skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Kristin; Bergström, Moa Andresen; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Westman, Gunnar; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2011-01-14

    Diphenylthiourea (DPTU) is a known skin sensitizer commonly used as a vulcanization accelerator in the production of synthetic rubber, for example, neoprene. The versatile usage of neoprene is due to the multifaceted properties of the material; for example, it is stretchable, waterproof, and chemical- and abrasion-resistant. The wide application of neoprene has resulted in numerous case reports of dermatitis patients allergic to DPTU. The mechanism by which DPTU works as a contact allergen has not been described; thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate if DPTU is a prohapten that can be activated by skin metabolism. The metabolic activation and covalent binding of (14)C-labeled DPTU to proteins were tested using a skinlike cytochrome P450 (P450) cocktail containing the five most abundant P450s found in human skin (CYP1A1, 1B1, 2B6, 2E1, and 3A5) and human liver microsomes. The incubations were carried out in the presence or absence of the metabolite trapping agents glutathione, methoxylamine, and benzylamine. The metabolism mixtures were analyzed by LC-radiochromatography, LC-MS, and LC-MS/MS. DPTU was mainly metabolically activated to reactive sulfoxides resulting in desulfurated adducts in both enzymatic systems used. Also, phenylisothiocyanate and phenylisocyanate were found to be metabolites of DPTU. The sensitizing capacity of the substrate (DPTU) and three metabolites was tested in the murine local lymph node assay. Two out of three metabolites tested were strong skin sensitizers, whereas DPTU itself, as previously known, was negative using this mouse model. In conclusion, DPTU forms highly reactive metabolites upon bioactivation by enzymes present in the skin. These metabolites are able to induce skin sensitization and are probable causes for DPTU allergy. To increase the possibilities of diagnosing contact allergy to DPTU-containing items, we suggest that suitable metabolites of DPTU should be used for screening testing. PMID:21073181

  10. Allergen-triggered airway hyperresponsiveness and lung pathology in mice sensitized with the biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Ward, M D; Madison, S L; Sailstad, D M; Gavett, S H; Selgrade, M K

    2000-02-21

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus recently licensed for indoor control of cockroaches, a major source of allergens. While M. anisopliae has been shown to be non-infectious and non-toxic to mammals there has been only limited research on potential allergenicity. Using a mouse model, we previously demonstrated allergic immune and inflammatory responses to this agent. The present study was designed to determine whether these responses were associated with changes in pulmonary responses, lung pathology, and the cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Soluble factors from fungal components were combined in equal protein amounts to form M. anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). BALB/C mice were intratracheally (i.t.) challenged with 10 microg MACA 14 days post intraperitoneal sensitization with 25 microg fungal antigen in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Physiological and cellular changes were examined. The mice were tested for airway hyperresponsiveness before (No Chal) and after (1, 3, and 8 days post challenge (DPIT)) MACA IT challenge. Subsequently, serum, BALF and the lungs were harvested. All treatment groups concurrently demonstrated significant non-specific pulmonary inflammation (neutrophil influx) and increased pulmonary sensitivity to methacholine (Mch) at 1 DPIT MACA challenge. Where as both adjuvant treated and naïve mice airway responses had returned to near normal levels by 3 DPIT, mice which were previously sensitized with MACA were still hyperresponsive to Mch challenge at 3 and 8 DPIT. This hyperresponsiveness correlates with eosinophil and lymphocyte influx, which is maximal at 3 DPIT and still elevated at 8 DPIT. Interleukin (IL) 5 was elevated for all treatment groups at 1 DPIT but only the MACA sensitized mice maintained elevated levels for both 3 and 8 DPIT. Furthermore, MACA sensitized mice had a more extensive inflammatory histopathology at all examined time points with peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates, like

  11. Cleansing, moisturizing, and sun-protection regimens for normal skin, self-perceived sensitive skin, and dermatologist-assessed sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stacy S; Subramanyan, Kumar; Liu, Daphne; Bryk, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring or maintaining healthy skin requires a multifunctional approach: mild cleansing, moisturizing, and sun protection. The clinical benefits of a daily, healthy facial skin-care regimen comprising a mild cleanser and moisturizer were evaluated on normal skin, self-perceived sensitive skin, and dermatologist-assessed sensitive skin for a period of up to 4 weeks. Subjects with normal, healthy skin were photographed with a calibrated, high-resolution digital camera, and the average improvement in overall health was calculated using image morphing and facial averaging techniques, following a 2-week period of product application. In a second study that included subjects with self-assessed sensitive facial skin, changes in skin hydration, skin dryness, and skin sensitivity (determined by means of a lactic acid sting test and subject self-assessment) were monitored during a 3-week regimen of mild cleansing and moisturizing with products designed for sensitive skin. The third study involved dermatologist-assessed highly sensitive skin patients (mostly rosacea with an atopic background in some cases). These patients underwent a 4-week skin-care regimen involving mild cleansing and moisturizing. In all three studies, significant improvements in skin health/quality were observed by means of expert assessments, instrumental evaluations, and subjective self-assessment. PMID:14728701

  12. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Human Skin Sensitization Hazard

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single in chemico, in vit...

  13. Multivariate Models for Prediction of Human Skin Sensitization Hazard

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single alternative method...

  14. Multivariate Models for Prediction of Skin Sensitization Hazard in Humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of ICCVAM’s highest priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single alternative me...

  15. "Venom" of the slow loris: sequence similarity of prosimian skin gland protein and Fel d 1 cat allergen.

    PubMed

    Krane, Sonja; Itagaki, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Koji; Weldon, Paul J

    2003-02-01

    Bites inflicted on humans by the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), a prosimian from Indonesia, are painful and elicit anaphylaxis. Toxins from N. coucang are thought to originate in the brachial organ, a naked, gland-laden area of skin situated on the flexor surface of the arm that is licked during grooming. We isolated a major component of the brachial organ secretions from N. coucang, an approximately 18 kDa protein composed of two 70-90 amino-acid chains linked by one or more disulfide bonds. The N-termini of these peptide chains exhibit nearly 70% sequence similarity (37% identity, chain 1; 54% identity, chain 2) with the two chains of Fel d 1, the major allergen from the domestic cat (Felis catus). The extensive sequence similarity between the brachial organ component of N. coucang and the cat allergen suggests that they exhibit immunogenic cross-reactivity. This work clarifies the chemical nature of the brachial organ exudate and suggests a possible mode of action underlying the noxious effects of slow loris bites.

  16. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  17. Plethysmography Phenotype QTL in Mice Before and After Allergen Sensitization and Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kelada, Samir N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is common airway disease that is characterized in part by enhanced airway constriction in response to nonspecific stimuli. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with asthma risk in humans, but these studies have not accounted for gene–environment interactions, which are thought to be important factors in asthma. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate responses to a common human allergen, we applied a house dust mite mouse (HDM) model of allergic airway disease (AAD) to 146 incipient lines of the Collaborative Cross (CC) and the CC founder strains. We employed a longitudinal study design in which mice were phenotyped for response to the bronchoconstrictor methacholine both before and after HDM sensitization and challenge using whole body plethysmography (WBP). There was significant variation in methacholine responsiveness due to both strain and HDM treatment, as reflected by changes in the WBP parameter enhanced pause. We also found that distinct QTL regulate baseline [chromosome (Chr) 18] and post-HDM (Chr 19) methacholine responsiveness and that post-HDM airway responsiveness was correlated with other features of AAD. Finally, using invasive measurements of airway mechanics, we tested whether the Chr 19 QTL affects lung resistance per se using C57BL/6J mice and a consomic strain but found that QTL haplotype did not affect lung resistance. We conclude that aspects of baseline and allergen-induced methacholine responsiveness are associated with genetic variation, and that robust detection of airway resistance QTL in genetically diverse mice will be facilitated by direct measurement of airway mechanics. PMID:27449512

  18. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens and challenge proven food allergy in patients visiting allergy centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Inam, Muhammad; Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Roohi, Nabila; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Shahid; Ismail, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the prevalence of food allergy in the adult allergic patients of Rawalpindi and Islamabad , Pakistan, based on self-report, skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge test (OFC). SPT was used for the estimation of sensitization to wheat, egg, milk, beef, chicken, mutton, fish, corn, lentils, rice, soya, peanut and banana. Among 689 patients, 39.19 % showed sensitivity to one or more foods, where, sensitization to wheat (156; 22.6 %) was highest, followed by egg (148; 21.48 %) and milk (138; 20.03 %). Sensitization to various proteins ranged between 15.53-15.97 %, while lentils, corn, rice, soya and peanut sensitization was 15.4, 16, 12.5, 12 and 11.5 % respectively. Only 7.1 % patients were SPT positive for banana allergen. SPT was performed in patients with self-reported food allergy (341/689) and also with no self-reported history of food allergy (348/689). SPT results were positive in 69.8 % of the self-report group, whereas, in the patients with no self-reported food allergy 9.2 % were found sensitized to one or more tested food allergens. 101 patients were recruited for OFC, 61 % of these were confirmed of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy in the study population was 9 %. Food specific OFC results show that wheat allergy is affecting 1.6 % (95 % CI 0.9-2.84 %) of the total allergy patients, followed by egg allergy 1.31 % (95 % CI 0.70-2.47 %). Furthermore, corn allergy, rice allergy and peanut allergy were 1.02, 0.87 and 0.73 %, respectively. In conclusion, wheat allergy is the most prevalent, followed by egg, chicken, beef and fish allergy, respectively. PMID:27563525

  19. Mechanism-Based QSAR Modeling of Skin Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Dearden, J C; Hewitt, M; Roberts, D W; Enoch, S J; Rowe, P H; Przybylak, K R; Vaughan-Williams, G D; Smith, M L; Pillai, G G; Katritzky, A R

    2015-10-19

    Many chemicals can induce skin sensitization, and there is a pressing need for non-animal methods to give a quantitative indication of potency. Using two large published data sets of skin sensitizers, we have allocated each sensitizing chemical to one of 10 mechanistic categories and then developed good QSAR models for the seven categories that have a sufficient number of chemicals to allow modeling. Both internal and external validation checks showed that each model had good predictivity.

  20. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  1. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  2. Identification of crustacea allergens by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L; Salvaggio, J E

    1985-01-01

    Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) detected 18 precipitating antigens in extracts of shrimp. Of these antigens, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis (CLIE) of shrimp extract demonstrated that 5 cross-reacted with crayfish, 3 with lobster and 1 with crab extract. Allergens present in the shrimp CIE plates were identified by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) using sera from 6 study subjects who were skin-test and RAST positive to shrimp extract. Of the 7 allergens detected, 3 (precipitins 1, 3 and 6) reacted with most of the 6 sera tested from shrimp-sensitive subjects. Precipitins 1 and 6 appear to be common crustacea allergens (present in shrimp, crayfish, lobster and crab) whereas precipitin 3 may be a specific allergen since it is present only in shrimp.

  3. Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710

  4. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-07-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  5. In Situ Metabolism of Cinnamyl Alcohol in Reconstructed Human Epidermis: New Insights into the Activation of This Fragrance Skin Sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Moss, Eric; Debeuckelaere, Camille; Berl, Valérie; Elbayed, Karim; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Lepoittevin, J-P

    2016-07-18

    Chemical modification of epidermal proteins by skin sensitizers is the molecular event which initiates the induction of contact allergy. However, not all chemical skin allergens react directly as haptens with epidermal proteins but need either a chemical (prehaptens) or metabolic (prohaptens) activation step to become reactive. Cinnamyl alcohol has been considered a model prohapten, as this skin sensitizer has no intrinsic reactivity. Therefore, the prevailing theory is that cinnamyl alcohol is enzymatically oxidized into the protein-reactive cinnamaldehyde, which is the sensitizing agent. Knowing that reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models have been demonstrated to be quite similar to the normal human epidermis in terms of metabolic enzymes, use of RHE may be useful to investigate the in situ metabolism/activation of cinnamyl alcohol, particularly when coupled with high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. Incubation of carbon-13 substituted cinnamyl derivatives with RHE did not result in the formation of cinnamaldehyde. The metabolites formed suggest the formation of an epoxy-alcohol and an allylic sulfate as potential electrophiles. These data suggest that cinnamyl alcohol is inducing skin sensitization through a route independent of the one involving cinnamaldehyde and should therefore be considered as a skin sensitizer on its own. PMID:27281158

  6. [Different threshold concentrations for sensitization by cattle hair allergen Bos d 2 in atopic and non-atopic farmers].

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1996-02-01

    Several threshold values for indoor allergens leading to IgE sensitization were proposed. Currently such values exists for allergens of house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach and cattle. A high sensitization is known as an important risk factor in the development of asthma. This study was undertaken to examine threshold values of major cow hair allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust of atopic and nonatopic cow hair asthmatic farmers. 45 patients with cow hair asthma were visited at their homes. House dust samples were taken from corridor, living room, and bedroom. The concentration of Bos d 2 was determined by means of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Additionally, samples of venous blood were taken to demonstrate specific IgE towards cow epithelia by CAP-RAST. Five patients were excluded from further investigations because they have given up their cattle for less than 6 months. In 21 patients occurred typical atopic stigmata like infantil history of atopic eczema, hay fever or milk crust, while the other 19 subjects did not show an atopic diathesis. High sensitization towards cow epithelia (specific IgE > 0.7 kU/l in CAP-RAST) occurred significantly more often in atopics than in nonatopics. In atopic subjects the allergen concentrations leading to IgE sensitization amounted to 1-20 micrograms Bos d 2/g dust, whereas in nonatopics were found higher Bos d 2 threshold values (25-50 micrograms/g dust). The present study suggests that in nonatopic cow hair asthmatics high indoor Bos d 2 levels lead to IgE sensitization as well as the close contact to cattle. PMID:8868592

  7. A study of the enhanced sensitizing capacity of a contact allergen in lipid vesicle formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsson, Carl; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Graneli, Annette; Andersen, Klaus E.; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Jonsson, Charlotte A.; Ericson, Marica B.

    2011-05-01

    The growing focus on nanotechnology and the increased use of nano-sized structures, e.g. vesicles, in topical formulations has led to safety concerns. We have investigated the sensitizing capacity and penetration properties of a fluorescent model compound, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), when administered in micro- and nano-scale vesicle formulations. The sensitizing capacity of RBITC was studied using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the skin penetration properties were compared using diffusion cells in combination with two-photon microscopy (TPM). The lymph node cell proliferation, an indicator of a compounds sensitizing capacity, increased when RBITC was applied in lipid vesicles as compared to an ethanol:water (Et:W) solution. Micro-scale vesicles showed a slightly higher cell proliferative response compared to nano-scale vesicles. TPM imaging revealed that the vesicle formulations improved the skin penetration of RBITC compared to the Et:W solution. A strong fluorescent region in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis implies elevated association of RBITC to these skin layers when formulated in lipid vesicles. In conclusion, the results indicate that there could be an elevated risk of sensitization when haptens are delivered in vehicles containing lipid vesicles. Although the size of the vesicles seems to be of minor importance, further studies are needed before a more generalized conclusion can be drawn. It is likely that the enhanced sensitizing capacity is a consequence of the improved penetration and increased formation of hapten-protein complexes in epidermis when RBITC is delivered in ethosomal formulations. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  8. Sensitive and selective magnetoimmunosensing platform for determination of the food allergen Ara h 1.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, V; Campuzano, S; Pellicanò, A; Torrente-Rodríguez, R M; Reviejo, A J; Cosio, M S; Pingarrón, J M

    2015-06-23

    A highly sensitive disposable amperometric immunosensor based on the use of magnetic beads (MBs) is described for determination of Ara h 1, the major peanut allergen, in only 2h. The approach uses a sandwich configuration involving selective capture and biotinylated detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified MBs (HOOC-MBs). The MBs bearing the immunoconjugates are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and the affinity reactions are monitored amperometrically at -0.20 V (vs a Ag pseudo-reference electrode) in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and upon addition of H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The developed immunosensor exhibits a wide range of linearity between 20.8 and 1000.0 ng mL(-1) Ara h 1, a detection limit of 6.3 ng mL(-1), a great selectivity, a good reproducibility with a RSD of 6.3% for six different immunosensors and a useful lifetime of 25 days. The usefulness of the immunosensor was demonstrated by determining Ara h 1 in different matrices (food extracts and saliva). The results correlated properly with those provided by a commercial ELISA method offering a reliable and promising analytical screening tool in the development of user-friendly devices for on-site determination of Ara h 1. PMID:26092337

  9. Ex vivo effects of naphthoquinones on allergen-sensitized mononuclear cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Inoue, K; Shimada, A; Takano, H

    2016-09-01

    Naphthoquinone (NQ), one of the extractable chemical compounds of diesel exhaust particles, enhances allergic asthma traits in mice. However, it remains unknown whether: (1) several types of NQs have the same potential to facilitate allergies; and (2) NQs synergistically disrupt the functional phenotypes of immune cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of two types (1,2- and 1,4-) of NQs on sensitized mononuclear cells using an ex vivo assay. Male BALB/c mice were repeatedly and intraperitoneally administered ovalbumin (OVA: 20 µg) plus alum with or without two different doses of each NQ. After the final administration, splenocytes (mononuclear cells) were isolated from these mice and cultured in the presence of OVA. Helper T-related cytokines in the culture supernatants and downstream molecules were then evaluated. Protein levels of interferon-γ were higher in the supernatants from 1,2-NQ and 1,4-NQ at low dose + OVA-exposed mononuclear cells following the OVA stimulation than in those from OVA-exposed mononuclear cells. Interleukin (IL)-13 levels were higher in the supernatants from low dose NQs + OVA-exposed mononuclear cells. IL-17 levels were significantly higher in the supernatants from low dose 1,2-NQ + OVA-exposed mononuclear cells. The quantity of phosphorylated STAT6 in the nuclei of these cells was significantly greater in the low dose NQ + OVA groups than in the OVA group. These findings suggest NQs differently enhance allergen sensitization in the context of the Th response against mononuclear cells such as lymphocytes. PMID:26884456

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  11. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  12. Spatial summation of thermal sensations depends on skin type and skin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Petrini, Laura; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which spatial summation (SS) of thermal senses is affected by skin type and skin thermal sensitivity. A total of 19 healthy subjects underwent measurements of warm- and cold-sensation threshold (WST and CST) with a large (9 cm(2)) and small (2.25 cm(2)) stimulation area, within the glabrous (palm) and hairy skin (dorsal surface) of the hand. SS of WST was also measured in warm-sensitive and warm-insensitive hairy skin sites. WST and CST significantly increased as stimulation area decreased (at a similar amount), in both hairy and glabrous skin. SS of CST in the glabrous skin was larger than that of hairy skin. A significant SS of WS existed in both warm-sensitive and warm-insensitive sites but the amount of SS was larger in warm-insensitive sites. Sex did not affect any of the factors tested. The similar amount of SS for WST and CST suggest that despite possible differences in receptor density, these two sub-systems share common features. Based on the stimulation areas used herein and on receptive-field (RF) sizes, SS of WST and CST appears to occur within RF of a single neuron. The larger magnitude of SS in the glabrous than hairy skin might suggest a larger integration of sensory information from the former, possibly due to a greater functional role of the palm.

  13. Comparison of six commercial ELISA kits for their specificity and sensitivity in detecting different major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Shyamali; Smits, Mieke; Fiechter, Daniëlle; de Jong, Aard; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Pieters, Raymond H; Koppelman, Stef J

    2015-02-18

    Six commercial peanut enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were assessed for their ability to recover peanut from the standard reference material 2387 peanut butter and also for their specificity in detecting four major peanut allergens, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6. The percentage recovery of peanut from peanut butter differed across different kits as well as at different sample concentrations. The highest recovery was observed with the Romer and R-Biopharm kits, while four other kits were found to underestimate the protein content of the reference peanut butter samples. Five of the kits were most sensitive in detecting Ara h 3 followed by Ara h 1, while hardly recognizing Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. The other kit showed the highest sensitivity to Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, while Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 were poorly recognized. Although Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are known to be heat stable and more potent allergens, antisera specific to any of these four peanut proteins/allergens may serve as good markers for the detection of peanut residues.

  14. Comparison of six commercial ELISA kits for their specificity and sensitivity in detecting different major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Shyamali; Smits, Mieke; Fiechter, Daniëlle; de Jong, Aard; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Pieters, Raymond H; Koppelman, Stef J

    2015-02-18

    Six commercial peanut enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were assessed for their ability to recover peanut from the standard reference material 2387 peanut butter and also for their specificity in detecting four major peanut allergens, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6. The percentage recovery of peanut from peanut butter differed across different kits as well as at different sample concentrations. The highest recovery was observed with the Romer and R-Biopharm kits, while four other kits were found to underestimate the protein content of the reference peanut butter samples. Five of the kits were most sensitive in detecting Ara h 3 followed by Ara h 1, while hardly recognizing Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. The other kit showed the highest sensitivity to Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, while Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 were poorly recognized. Although Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are known to be heat stable and more potent allergens, antisera specific to any of these four peanut proteins/allergens may serve as good markers for the detection of peanut residues. PMID:25651402

  15. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  16. Allergens in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. S.; Janda, J.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Rhyner, C.; Marti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  17. Fabrics Protect Sensitive Skin from UV Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Late Johnson Space Center engineer Dr. Robert Dotts headed a team to develop cool suits for children suffering from life-threatening sun sensitivities. Dotts hoped to develop ultraviolet-blocking technology in a fabric that -- unlike in a bulky space suit -- could remain comfortable, light, and breathable in the sun and heat. The team worked with SPF 4 US LLC (SPF) of Madison, Wisconsin to design ultraviolet-blocking cool suits, which protect sun-sensitive patients and enable them to experience life outdoors safely. Using knowledge gained during the NASA collaboration, SPF created an entire line of ultraviolet-blocking apparel.

  18. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-12-01

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization, integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to replace conventional animal tests. Chemical methods are intended to characterize the potential of a sensitizer to induce earlier molecular initiating events. The presence of an electrophilic mechanistic domain is considered one of the essential chemical features to covalently bind to the biological target and induce further haptenation processes. Current in chemico assays rely on the quantification of unreacted model nucleophiles after incubation with the candidate sensitizer. In the current study, a new fluorescence-based method, 'HTS-DCYA assay', is proposed. The assay aims at the identification of reactive electrophiles based on their chemical reactivity toward a model fluorescent thiol. The reaction workflow enabled the development of a High Throughput Screening (HTS) method to directly quantify the reaction adducts. The reaction conditions have been optimized to minimize solubility issues, oxidative side reactions and increase the throughput of the assay while minimizing the reaction time, which are common issues with existing methods. Thirty-six chemicals previously classified with LLNA, DPRA or KeratinoSens™ were tested as a proof of concept. Preliminary results gave an estimated 82% accuracy, 78% sensitivity, 90% specificity, comparable to other in chemico methods such as Cys-DPRA. In addition to validated chemicals, six natural products were analyzed and a prediction of their sensitization potential is presented for the first time.

  19. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-12-01

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization, integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to replace conventional animal tests. Chemical methods are intended to characterize the potential of a sensitizer to induce earlier molecular initiating events. The presence of an electrophilic mechanistic domain is considered one of the essential chemical features to covalently bind to the biological target and induce further haptenation processes. Current in chemico assays rely on the quantification of unreacted model nucleophiles after incubation with the candidate sensitizer. In the current study, a new fluorescence-based method, 'HTS-DCYA assay', is proposed. The assay aims at the identification of reactive electrophiles based on their chemical reactivity toward a model fluorescent thiol. The reaction workflow enabled the development of a High Throughput Screening (HTS) method to directly quantify the reaction adducts. The reaction conditions have been optimized to minimize solubility issues, oxidative side reactions and increase the throughput of the assay while minimizing the reaction time, which are common issues with existing methods. Thirty-six chemicals previously classified with LLNA, DPRA or KeratinoSens™ were tested as a proof of concept. Preliminary results gave an estimated 82% accuracy, 78% sensitivity, 90% specificity, comparable to other in chemico methods such as Cys-DPRA. In addition to validated chemicals, six natural products were analyzed and a prediction of their sensitization potential is presented for the first time. PMID:26455772

  20. A new ten-item questionnaire for assessing sensitive skin: the Sensitive Scale-10.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Mery, Sophie; Georgescu, Victor; Sibaud, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Sensitive skin is common but until now there has been no scale for measuring its severity. The Sensitive Scale is a new scale with a 14-item and a 10-item version that was tested in 11 countries in different languages on 2,966 participants. The aim of this study was to validate the pertinence of using the Sensitive Scale to measure the severity of sensitive skin. The internal consistency was high. Correlations with the dry skin type, higher age, female gender, fair phototypes and Dermatology Life Quality Index were found. Using the 10-item version appeared to be preferable because it was quicker and easier to complete, with the same internal consistency and the 4 items that were excluded were very rarely observed in patients. The mean initial scores were around 44/140 and 37/100. The use of a cream for sensitive skin showed the pertinence of the scale before and after treatment.

  1. Genetic identification of an expansive mechanoreceptor sensitive to skin stroking

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junwei; Neubarth, Nicole L.; Dickendesher, Travis L.; Nwe, Pann H.; Cassidy, Colleen; Woodbury, C. Jeffery; Ginty, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Touch perception begins with activation of low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) in the periphery. LTMR terminals exhibit tremendous morphological heterogeneity that specifies their mechanical receptivity. In a survey of mammalian skin, we found a preponderance of neurofilament-heavy chain+ circumferential endings associated with hair follicles, prompting us to develop a genetic strategy to interrogate these neurons. Targeted in vivo recordings revealed them to be Aβ Field-LTMRs, identified 50 years ago but largely elusive thereafter. Remarkably, while Aβ Field-LTMRs are highly sensitive to gentle stroking of the skin, they are unresponsive to hair deflection, and they encode skin indentation in the noxious range across large, spotty receptive fields. Individual Aβ Field-LTMRs form up to 180 circumferential endings, making them the most anatomically expansive LTMR identified to date. Thus, Aβ Field-LTMRs are a major mammalian LTMR subtype that forms circumferential endings in hairy skin, and their sensitivity to gentle skin stroking arises through integration across many low-sensitivity circumferential endings. PMID:26687362

  2. Genetic Identification of an Expansive Mechanoreceptor Sensitive to Skin Stroking.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Lehnert, Brendan P; Liu, Junwei; Neubarth, Nicole L; Dickendesher, Travis L; Nwe, Pann H; Cassidy, Colleen; Woodbury, C Jeffery; Ginty, David D

    2015-12-17

    Touch perception begins with activation of low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) in the periphery. LTMR terminals exhibit tremendous morphological heterogeneity that specifies their mechanical receptivity. In a survey of mammalian skin, we found a preponderance of neurofilament-heavy-chain(+) circumferential endings associated with hair follicles, prompting us to develop a genetic strategy to interrogate these neurons. Targeted in vivo recordings revealed them to be Aβ field-LTMRs, identified 50 years ago but largely elusive thereafter. Remarkably, while Aβ field-LTMRs are highly sensitive to gentle stroking of the skin, they are unresponsive to hair deflection, and they encode skin indentation in the noxious range across large, spotty receptive fields. Individual Aβ field-LTMRs form up to 180 circumferential endings, making them the most anatomically expansive LTMR identified to date. Thus, Aβ field-LTMRs are a major mammalian LTMR subtype that forms circumferential endings in hairy skin, and their sensitivity to gentle skin stroking arises through integration across many low-sensitivity circumferential endings. PMID:26687362

  3. [Allergen analysis].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental requirement when testing for and ensuring compliance with legally required labelling regulations is the reliable analysis of food allergens. This can be carried out by means of either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or protein detection. Protein detection has the advantage of directly detecting the allergenic component and can currently be carried out using immunological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA])/lateral flow devices [LFD]) or mass spectrometry-based techniques. DNA detection is indirect, but allows the presence of food allergens to be validated through the use of another marker. Each method has its pros and cons, which have to be considered on a case-by-case basis. ELISA is quantitative, quick and easy to carry out and has high sensitivity. LFD testing is ideal for industrial applications, as the tests can be carried out on-site. Both antibody-based tests may have problems with processed foods and false positive results. Mass-spectrometric techniques show a lot of promise, but are currently still time-consuming and complex to carry out. They also run into problems with processed foods and their degree of sensitivity is matrix and parameter dependent. For these reasons, this technique is only occasionally used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides the highest specificity and, depending on the target sequence, a very good to good level of sensitivity. Despite the high stability of DNA, PCR is still subject to the influence of processing and matrix related factors. Due to natural variation and production-related changes in the structures relevant in the process of detection, all methods exhibit a relatively high level of uncertainty of measurement. At present, there is no method which provides the absolute correct quantification. However, by means of laboratory-based analyses it is possible to calibrate for the allergen in question and thus be able to make reliable measurements using methods that are already available. PMID

  4. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  5. The direct peptide reactivity assay: selectivity of chemical respiratory allergens.

    PubMed

    Lalko, Jon F; Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank; Foertsch, Leslie M; Api, Anne Marie; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that some chemicals are capable of causing allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract. Commonly, though not exclusively, chemical allergens are associated with the selective development of skin or respiratory sensitization. The reason for this divergence is unclear, although it is hypothesized that the nature of interactions between the chemical hapten and proteins is influential. The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) has been developed as a screen for the identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals, and here we describe the use of this method to explore whether differences exist between skin and respiratory allergens with respect to their peptide-binding properties. Known skin and respiratory sensitizers were reacted with synthetic peptides containing either lysine (Lys) or cysteine (Cys) for 24 h. The samples were analyzed by HPLC/UV, and the loss of peptide from the reaction mixture was expressed as the percent depletion compared with the control. The potential for preferential reactivity was evaluated by comparing the ratio of Lys to Cys depletion (Lys:Cys ratio). The results demonstrate that the majority of respiratory allergens are reactive in the DPRA, and that in contrast to most skin-sensitizing chemicals, preferentially react with the Lys peptide. These data suggest that skin and respiratory chemical allergens can result in different protein conjugates, which may in turn influence the quality of induced immune responses. Overall, these investigations reveal that the DPRA has considerable potential to be incorporated into tiered testing approaches for the identification and characterization of chemical respiratory allergens. PMID:22713598

  6. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut. PMID:26593515

  7. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut.

  8. 494 Skin Sensitization to Carmine Before Onset of Systemic Allergy to Ingested Carmine

    PubMed Central

    Katada, Yoshinori; Harada, Yoshinori; Azuma, Naoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Saeki, Yukihiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization to food can occur through skin exposure. We investigated anaphylactic cases due to carmine, a food additive extracted from Dactylopius coccus. Methods Screening all patients, who visited our department from January 2000 to December 2009, we identified 2 new such cases. Both had history of rash induced by certain cosmetics containig carmine. We further investigated previous case reports of carmine allergy, whether skin sensitization antedated food allergy or not. Results Case 1: A 26-year-old woman visited our hospital because of anaphylaxis occurred within 5 minutes after ingesting a Japanese YOKAN (sweetened and jellied bean paste). IgE antibodies against common food allergens including beans and wheat were all negative. As the paste contains carmine, we tested specific IgE antibody, which was positive. She had been avoiding using certain cheeks and lips for 2 years, since they cause erythema. These cosmetics emerged as containing carmine. Abstaining from the food additive made her free from anaphylaxis. Case 2: A 30-year-old woman came to our hospital for dyspnea, uriticaria, and bilateral blepharedema, immediately after drinking Campari soda. Her past history was prominent, as she had 4 episodes of anaphylaxis in 4 years, requiring emergency transport twice. All anaphylactic episodes occurred in Italian restaurants when she drank cocktails, which might contain carmine in Campari soda. She had been also sensitive to certain rouges since several years before the first onset of anaphylaxis. It became clear that the rouges contained carmine. In literatures, we found 22 cases with allergy to ingested carmine. It is surprising that all cases were women (aged 25 to 52), while occupationally sensitized patients are predominantly men. As far as we could know, 85.7 % of (6/7) mentioned cases had previous history of sensitization to cosmetics containing carmine. Conclusions In many cases with allergy against ingested carmine, the route of

  9. Performance of the N/TERT epidermal model for skin sensitizer identification via Nrf2-Keap1-ARE pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Alloul-Ramdhani, Mariam; Tensen, Cornelis P; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2014-08-01

    Animal testing of chemical ingredients for cosmetic purposes is prohibited. Therefore there is an urgent need for in vitro models to identify chemical allergens. In human skin, keratinocytes (KCs) are abundantly present and are key players in initiation of allergic contact dermatitis. One of the pathways that has been shown to be induced by sensitizers is the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway. In this study we compared the response of four keratinocyte-based models including (a) primary human KCs, (b) N/TERT monolayer cultures, (c) the Leiden Epidermal models (LEMs) and (d) the N/TERT epidermal models (NEMs). All keratinocyte-based models were subjected to chemical exposure of the sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and irritant Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at nontoxic concentrations. Activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway was evaluated by measuring Nrf2 protein levels as well as nuclear translocation and activation of transcriptional targets of Nrf2. Results show that the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway is activated by the sensitizer DNCB in monolayer keratinocytes and as well as the LEMs and NEMs and not by the irritant SDS. Collectively our data demonstrate that the N/TERT models respond similarly as primary KCs and could therefore serve as an alternative model for skin sensitizer identification, thereby overcoming the need for primary skin tissue. PMID:24794257

  10. Attenuated noradrenergic sensitivity during local cooling in aged human skin

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caitlin S; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W. Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reflex-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) is impaired in older humans; however, it is unclear whether this blunted VC also occurs during local cooling, which mediates VC through different mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the sensitization of cutaneous vessels to noradrenaline (NA) during direct skin cooling seen in young skin is blunted in aged skin. In 11 young (18–30 years) and 11 older (62–76 years) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry while local skin temperature was cooled and clamped at 24°C. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LD flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVCbase). At one site, five doses of NA (10−10–10−2m) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis during cooling while the other 24°C site served as control (Ringer solution + cooling). At control sites, VC due to cooling alone was similar in young versus older (−54 ± 5 versus −56 ± 3%ΔCVCbase, P= 0.46). In young, NA infusions induced additional dose-dependent VC (10−8, 10−6, 10−4 and 10−2m: −70 ± 2, −72 ± 3, −78 ± 3 and −79 ± 4%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). In older subjects, further VC did not occur until the highest infused dose of NA (10−2m: −70 ± 5%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). When cutaneous arterioles are sensitized to NA by direct cooling, young skin exhibits the capacity to further constrict to NA in a dose-dependent manner. However, older skin does not display enhanced VC capacity until treated with saturating doses of NA, possibly due to age-associated decrements in Ca2+ availability or α2C-adrenoceptor function. PMID:15705648

  11. Non-animal test methods for predicting skin sensitization potentials.

    PubMed

    Mehling, Annette; Eriksson, Tove; Eltze, Tobias; Kolle, Susanne; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and it is estimated that 15-20 % of the general population suffers from contact allergy, with increasing prevalence. Evaluation of the sensitization potential of a substance is usually carried out in animal models. Nowadays, there is much interest in reducing and ultimately replacing current animal tests. Furthermore, as of 2013, the EU has posed a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients that includes skin sensitization. Therefore, predictive and robust in vitro tests are urgently needed. In order to establish alternatives to animal testing, the in vitro tests must mimic the very complex interactions between the sensitizing chemical and the different parts of the immune system. This review article summarizes recent efforts to develop in vitro tests for predicting skin sensitizers. Cell-based assays, in chemico methods and, to a lesser extent, in silico methods are presented together with a discussion of their current status. With considerable progress having been achieved during the last years, the rationale today is that data from different non-animal test methods will have to be combined in order to obtain reliable hazard and potency information on potential skin sensitizers. PMID:22707154

  12. Skin Barrier Function and Its Importance at the Start of the Atopic March

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Mary Beth; Peele, Kathy; Wilson, Nevin W.

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis can be due to a variety of causes from nonatopic triggers to food allergy. Control of egress of water and protection from ingress of irritants and allergens are key components of cutaneous barrier function. Current research suggests that a degraded barrier function of the skin allows the immune system inappropriate access to environmental allergens. Epidermal aeroallergen exposure may allow sensitization to allergen possibly initiating the atopic march. Further research into connections between epidermal barrier function and possible allergen sensitization will be important to undertake. Future clinical trials focused on skin barrier protection may be of value as a possible intervention in prevention of the initiation of the atopic march. PMID:22619686

  13. Effects of a new topical combination on sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Fauger, A; Lhoste, A; Chavagnac-Bonneville, M; Sayag, M; Jourdan, E; Ardiet, N; Perichaud, C; Trompezinski, S; Misery, L

    2015-01-01

    Using well-tolerated cosmetics or those with soothing effects is recommended to treat sensitive skin. However, we lack clinical studies. Two clinical trials were performed on sensitive skin in France and Thailand. The primary objective was to evaluate the preventive soothing effect. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the immediate soothing effect, product tolerance, and impact on quality of life. Evaluation methods included a stinging test and scoring erythema and stinging intensity. We also assessed tolerance, quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, and cosmetic qualities. The clinical trials were performed in France and Thailand to test efficacy in two different environments and on different ethnic skin. Interesting effects were observed in patients with sensitive skin in France and Thailand: a preventive soothing effect, a soothing effect on erythema, and an immediate soothing effect. In vivo biometrological, sodium lauryl sulfate, and capsaicin tests confirmed these data. A favorable effect on quality of life was also noted. The product was appreciated by volunteers for its efficacy, tolerance, and cosmetic qualities. A preliminary study on the effects on interleukin 8 was also included in the paper.

  14. Integrated Computational Solution for Predicting Skin Sensitization Potential of Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Aarti; Singh, Vivek K.; Jere, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin sensitization forms a major toxicological endpoint for dermatology and cosmetic products. Recent ban on animal testing for cosmetics demands for alternative methods. We developed an integrated computational solution (SkinSense) that offers a robust solution and addresses the limitations of existing computational tools i.e. high false positive rate and/or limited coverage. Results The key components of our solution include: QSAR models selected from a combinatorial set, similarity information and literature-derived sub-structure patterns of known skin protein reactive groups. Its prediction performance on a challenge set of molecules showed accuracy = 75.32%, CCR = 74.36%, sensitivity = 70.00% and specificity = 78.72%, which is better than several existing tools including VEGA (accuracy = 45.00% and CCR = 54.17% with ‘High’ reliability scoring), DEREK (accuracy = 72.73% and CCR = 71.44%) and TOPKAT (accuracy = 60.00% and CCR = 61.67%). Although, TIMES-SS showed higher predictive power (accuracy = 90.00% and CCR = 92.86%), the coverage was very low (only 10 out of 77 molecules were predicted reliably). Conclusions Owing to improved prediction performance and coverage, our solution can serve as a useful expert system towards Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment for skin sensitization. It would be invaluable to cosmetic/ dermatology industry for pre-screening their molecules, and reducing time, cost and animal testing. PMID:27271321

  15. [Allergens responsible for occupational eczemas in hairdressers].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, E

    1982-01-01

    Allergens responsible for occupational contact dermatitis occurring in hairdressers are reviewed. The subject is of topical interest as far as the number of reports on occupational skin diseases shows a considerable increase in the last years. Only a--not yet available--careful analysis of the expertises in the possession of the competent Employers Liability Insurance Association can disclose the relevance of individual sensitizers contained in hair care products to occupational contact eczemas of hairdressers. PMID:6217966

  16. A sensitive assay for the detection of IgE bound to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, in the form of immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Pree, Ines; Reisinger, Jürgen; Bohle, Barbara; Frantal, Sophie; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2009-06-30

    Allergen-IgE immune complexes, in which the IgE paratopes are occupied by allergen, remain undetected in standard IgE-detection assays which are based on capturing specific IgE by allergens.We describe an assay for the detection of immune complexes consisting of IgE bound to one of the most frequent environmental allergens, the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. This assay is based on a Bet v 1-specific monoclonal antibody, Bip 1, which binds to an epitope on Bet v 1 that is distinct from the epitopes recognized by allergic patients' IgE. IgE-immune complexes formed with sera from birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 46) were undetectable with solid phase-bound allergen but could be captured by Bip 1 immobilized to nitrocellulose membranes or ELISA plates and traced with radioactively or enzymatically labelled anti-human IgE antibodies. The levels of IgE complexed with Bet v 1 measured in our assays were highly correlated with the amounts of non-complexed allergen-specific IgE as determined by the ImmunoCAP assay which is based on solid phase-bound IgE (r = 0.95; p < 0.01). Bet v 1-specific IgE could even be detected at serum dilutions below the cut off of the ImmunoCAP system (i.e., 0.35 kUA/L). We have thus developed a robust and sensitive assay for the detection and quantification of Bet v 1-IgE immune complexes which should be useful to measure allergen-bound IgE in human body fluids and in in vitro experiments.

  17. ISOLATION OF RABBIT IGA ANTIHAPTEN ANTIBODY AND DEMONSTRATION OF SKIN-SENSITIZING ACTIVITY IN HOMOLOGOUS SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Kaoru; Yagi, Yasuo; Pressman, David

    1966-01-01

    Multiple antibody components of rabbit antisera against p-azobenzenearsonate (Rp) were studied with respect to their globulin nature and skin-sensitizing activity. IgA antibody was characterized by isolating two IgA-rich fractions from a specifically purified antibody preparation. Examination of these fractions showed that IgA antibodies existed in two molecular forms, one with a sedimentation constant of 7S and the other 9S. Skin-sensitizing activity was examined by a P-K type test and a PCA test with Rp-rabbit serum albumin in homologous (rabbit) species. Only the 7S but not 9S IgA antibody sensitized rabbit skin. IgM antibody showed no activity and IgG antibody showed very low activity. In contrast, only IgG antibody was active in the P-K type test to sensitize a heterologous species (guinea pig). None of the antibodies of other classes showed sensitizing activity in heterologous skin. The 7S IgA antibody lost its sensitizing activity upon reduction and alkylation, although no change in its molecular size could be observed. The loss of sensitizing activity was not due to the destruction of antigen-binding activity since the treated 7S IgA antibody retained this activity as shown by radioimmunoelectrophoresis and by binding to the specific immunoadsorbent. The 9S IgA antibody was more resistant to these treatments than the IgM antibody and showed no indication of dissociation. The treated 9S IgA also retained antigen-binding activity. Both the P-K type and PCA reactions were considerably stronger when the interval between injections of antibody and antigen was 24 hr rather than 4 to 5 hr. PMID:4159250

  18. Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potency of chemicals by using the existing methods and considerations of relevance for elicitation.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Andersen, Klaus E; Liden, Carola; Van Loveren, Henk; Boman, Anders; Kimber, Ian; Alanko, Kristiina; Berggren, Elisabet

    2005-01-01

    The Technical Committee of Classification and Labelling dealing with harmonized classification of substances and classification criteria under Directive 67/548/EEC on behalf of the European Commission nominated an expert group on skin sensitization in order to investigate further the possibility for potency consideration of skin sensitizers for future development of the classification criteria. All substances and preparations should be classified on the basis of their intrinsic properties and should be labelled accordingly with the rules set up in the Directive 67/548/EEC. The classification should be the same under their full life cycle and in the case that there is no harmonized classification the substance or preparation should be self-classified by the manufacturer in accordance with the same criteria. The Directive does not apply to certain preparations in the finished state, such as medical products, cosmetics, food and feeding stuffs, which are subject to specific community legislation. The main questions that are answered in this report are whether it would be possible to give detailed guidance on how to grade allergen potency based on the existing methods, whether such grading could be translated into practical thresholds and whether these could be set for both induction and elicitation. Examples are given for substances falling into various potency groups for skin sensitization relating to results from the local lymph node assay, the guinea pig maximization test, the Buehler method and human experience. PMID:15701129

  19. [Comparative immunological characteristics of Daphnia allergens].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Mochalov, A A; Sipitsyna, N E; Petrova, N S; Kanchurin, A Kh

    1986-08-01

    Materials on the study of Daphnia allergens are presented. Daphnia allergens have been shown to possess considerable sensitizing properties. The optimum method for the preparation of the allergen has been selected. The method of measuring the electrophoretic mobility of cells with a view to the evaluation of the specific activity of Daphnia allergen is proposed. PMID:2429484

  20. Pollensomes as Natural Vehicles for Pollen Allergens.

    PubMed

    Prado, Noela; De Linares, Concepción; Sanz, María L; Gamboa, Pedro; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Olive (Olea europaea) pollen constitutes one of the most important allergen sources in the Mediterranean countries and some areas of the United States, South Africa, and Australia. Recently, we provided evidence that olive pollen releases nanovesicles of respirable size, named generically pollensomes, during in vitro germination. Olive pollensomes contain allergens, such as Ole e 1, Ole e 11, and Ole e 12, suggesting a possible role in allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of pollensomes to the allergic reaction. We show that pollensomes exhibit allergenic activity in terms of patients' IgE-binding capacity, human basophil activation, and positive skin reaction in sensitized patients. Furthermore, allergen-containing pollensomes have been isolated from three clinically relevant nonphylogenetically related species: birch (Betula verrucosa), pine (Pinus sylvestris), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Most interesting, pollensomes were isolated from aerobiological samples collected with an eight-stage cascade impactor collector, indicating that pollensomes secretion is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Our findings indicate that pollensomes may represent widespread vehicles for pollen allergens, with potential implications in the allergic reaction.

  1. Correlation between experimental human and murine skin sensitization induction thresholds.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie; Basketter, David; Lalko, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment for skin sensitization is directed towards the determination of levels of exposure to known sensitizing substances that will avoid the induction of contact allergy in humans. A key component of this work is the predictive identification of relative skin sensitizing potency, achieved normally by the measurement of the threshold (the "EC3" value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA). In an extended series of studies, the accuracy of this murine induction threshold as the predictor of the absence of a sensitizing effect has been verified by conduct of a human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). Murine and human thresholds for a diverse set of 57 fragrance chemicals spanning approximately four orders of magnitude variation in potency have been compared. The results confirm that there is a useful correlation, with the LLNA EC3 value helping particularly to identify stronger sensitizers. Good correlation (with half an order of magnitude) was seen with three-quarters of the dataset. The analysis also helps to identify potential outlier types of (fragrance) chemistry, exemplified by hexyl and benzyl salicylates (an over-prediction) and trans-2-hexenal (an under-prediction).

  2. Effects of geohelminth infection and age on the associations between allergen-specific IgE, skin test reactivity and wheeze: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, A-L; Vaca, M; Oviedo, G; Workman, L J; Chico, M E; Platts-Mills, T A E; Rodrigues, L C; Barreto, M L; Cooper, P J

    2013-01-01

    Background Most childhood asthma in poor populations in Latin America is not associated with aeroallergen sensitization, an observation that could be explained by the attenuation of atopy by chronic helminth infections or effects of age. Objective To explore the effects of geohelminth infections and age on atopy, wheeze, and the association between atopy and wheeze. Methods A case-control study was done in 376 subjects (149 cases and 227 controls) aged 7–19 years living in rural communities in Ecuador. Wheeze cases, identified from a large cross-sectional survey, had recent wheeze and controls were a random sample of those without wheeze. Atopy was measured by the presence of allergen-specific IgE (asIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) responses to house dust mite and cockroach. Geohelminth infections were measured in stools and anti-Ascaris IgE in plasma. Results The fraction of recent wheeze attributable to anti-Ascaris IgE was 45.9%, while those for SPT and asIgE were 10.0% and 10.5% respectively. The association between atopy and wheeze was greater in adolescents than children. Although Anti-Ascaris IgE was strongly associated with wheeze (adj. OR 2.24 (95% CI 1.33–3.78, P = 0.003) and with asIgE (adj. OR 5.34, 95% CI 2.49–11.45, P < 0.001), the association with wheeze was independent of asIgE. There was some evidence that the association between atopy and wheeze was greater in uninfected subjects compared with those with active geohelminth infections. Conclusions and clinical relevance Atopy to house dust mite and cockroach explained few wheeze cases in our study population, while the presence of anti-Ascaris IgE was an important risk factor. Our data provided only limited evidence that active geohelminth infections attenuated the association between atopy and wheeze in endemic areas or that age modified this association. The role of allergic sensitization to Ascaris in the development of wheeze, independent of atopy, requires further investigation. PMID

  3. [The study of profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens in the Moscow region].

    PubMed

    Akhapkina, I G; Krakhanenkova, S N; Dobronravova, E V; Shushpanova, E N

    2014-05-01

    The profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens is an important element of common pattern of immune diseases needed for development of effective pharmaceuticals. The purpose of the study was to analyze the rate of detection of combined forms of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens (pollen of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood, fungi A. alternata, C. herbarum, R. nigricans, P. notatum, C. albicans, A. fumigatus) in the Moscow region on the basis of data of scarification skin samples. The mono-sensibilization was established in 23.36% of all cases of hypersensitivity. At that, among leading allergens turned out A. alternata and cocksfoot pollen (6.54% and 4.67%), followed by allergens of wormwood pollen, P. notatum, R. nigricans, birch pollen and C. albicans (3.74%, 3.74%, 1.87%, 1.87% and 0.93% correspondingly). The polysensibilization was established in 51.40% of cases. Besides, the combined hypersensitivity to pollen allergens of plants (20.26%) and to pollen and fungal allergens (20.56%) occurred more frequently In the group of patients with polysensibilization predominated combined allergic reactions to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergens (36.36%). On the whole, most frequently occurred sensitization to allergens of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood and A. alternata allergen (76.14%, 69.32%, 57.95%, 55.68%, 39.77% and 56.82% correspondingly). In the Moscow region predominate combined forms of hypersensitivity to two and more pollen and fungal allergens. The polysensitization to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergen occurs more frequently.

  4. Development of a multiparametric in vitro model of skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Gerault, Eloise; Platteel, Marion; Peschard, Olivier; Veron, Wilfried; Mondon, Philippe; Pascal, Svinareff; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2015-01-01

    Most animal experiments on cosmetics safety are prohibited and since March 2013, this obligation includes sensitization tests. However, until now there has been no validated alternative in vitro method. In this work, 400 compounds used in the cosmetic industry were selected to cover the greatest diversity of structures, biological activities and sensitizing potential. These molecules were submitted to a series of tests aimed at reproducing essential steps in sensitization and to distinguish between sensitization and irritations, i.e., transcutaneous permeation (factor A), haptenation (factor B), sensitization cytokines production (factor C) and acute toxicity (factor D). The transcutaneous diffusion was measured on human skin explants using Franz cells. Haptenation was tested in solution on human serum albumin. Sensitization cytokine production was investigated by measurement of interleukin-18 release by keratinocytes. Acute toxicity was determined using an 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(75) cell viability test. As only sufficiently stable, soluble and detectable compounds are usable, 33, 72, 68 and 68 molecules were finally tested on factors A, B, C and D, respectively, and 32 were completely screened by the four factors. The individual correlation of the four factors with the reference in vivo tests was limited but the combination of these factors led to a correlation between in vivo and in vitro assays of 81.2% and the safety of the test (risk of false negative) reached 96.8%. The techniques employed are simple and inexpensive and this model of four tests appears as a promising technique to evaluate in vitro the skin sensitization potential of unknown molecules. PMID:24496914

  5. Development of a multiparametric in vitro model of skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Gerault, Eloise; Platteel, Marion; Peschard, Olivier; Veron, Wilfried; Mondon, Philippe; Pascal, Svinareff; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2015-01-01

    Most animal experiments on cosmetics safety are prohibited and since March 2013, this obligation includes sensitization tests. However, until now there has been no validated alternative in vitro method. In this work, 400 compounds used in the cosmetic industry were selected to cover the greatest diversity of structures, biological activities and sensitizing potential. These molecules were submitted to a series of tests aimed at reproducing essential steps in sensitization and to distinguish between sensitization and irritations, i.e., transcutaneous permeation (factor A), haptenation (factor B), sensitization cytokines production (factor C) and acute toxicity (factor D). The transcutaneous diffusion was measured on human skin explants using Franz cells. Haptenation was tested in solution on human serum albumin. Sensitization cytokine production was investigated by measurement of interleukin-18 release by keratinocytes. Acute toxicity was determined using an 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(75) cell viability test. As only sufficiently stable, soluble and detectable compounds are usable, 33, 72, 68 and 68 molecules were finally tested on factors A, B, C and D, respectively, and 32 were completely screened by the four factors. The individual correlation of the four factors with the reference in vivo tests was limited but the combination of these factors led to a correlation between in vivo and in vitro assays of 81.2% and the safety of the test (risk of false negative) reached 96.8%. The techniques employed are simple and inexpensive and this model of four tests appears as a promising technique to evaluate in vitro the skin sensitization potential of unknown molecules.

  6. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  7. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. PMID:12915766

  8. How allergenic are hypoallergenic infant formulae?

    PubMed

    Rugo, E; Wahl, R; Wahn, U

    1992-06-01

    In a comparative study six different protein hydrolysates, marketed as 'hypoallergenic' infant formulae were investigated by skin prick tests, RAST, RAST inhibition and titrated provocation tests. When hydrolysates containing a high percentage of larger peptides were found to have the highest capacity to induce positive skin tests, provocation tests and to bind to human serum IgE antibodies of cow's milk allergic children. Casein hydrolysates appeared to have the least residual allergenic activity. We recommend that 'hypoallergenic' formulae should be tested in each case, before being prescribed to cow's milk sensitive children.

  9. Allergenicity of orange juice and orange seeds: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S L; Ye, S T; Yu, Y

    1989-06-01

    Oranges are considered to be common allergenic fruits in China. They may induce severe food allergy in sensitive individuals. Allergic histories were analyzed in 26 orange-sensitive patients. Intradermal tests with extracts of orange juice and seeds were performed in 16 out of the 26 patients. P-K test was performed in one patient. The allergic history analysis suggested that clinical symptoms of some orange-allergic subjects were different from other fruit allergies but similar to nut and other oil plant seed allergies. The skin test and P-K test showed that the major allergenic components of orange reside in orange seeds instead of orange juice. Systemic reactions developed in 5 patients after intradermal tests with 1:20-200 (w/v) orange seed extracts. We considered that orange seed contains high potent allergens which may induce orange sensitivity due to careless chewing of orange seeds. PMID:2751771

  10. A sensitive fluorescent assay for measuring the cysteine protease activity of Der p 1, a major allergen from the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, O; Sewell, H F; Shakib, F

    1998-01-01

    The potent allergenicity of Der p 1, a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is thought to be related to its cysteine protease activity. Therefore, there is considerable interest in developing a sensitive assay for measuring Der p 1 activity to screen for specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates for the first time that the activity of Der p 1 can be measured conveniently in a continuous rate assay with the fluorogenic substrate Boc-Gln-Ala-Arg-AMC (K(m) = 280 microM and kcat/K(m) = 4.6 x 10(3)/M/s). PMID:9893750

  11. Calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement in rabbit skinned fibers.

    PubMed

    Joumaa, V; Herzog, W

    2014-08-15

    Isometric force after active stretch of muscles is higher than the purely isometric force at the corresponding length. This property is termed residual force enhancement. Active force in skeletal muscle depends on calcium attachment characteristics to the regulatory proteins. Passive force has been shown to influence calcium attachment characteristics, specifically the sarcomere length dependence of calcium sensitivity. Since one of the mechanisms proposed to explain residual force enhancement is the increase in passive force that results from engagement of titin upon activation and stretch, our aim was to test if calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement was different from that of its corresponding purely isometric contraction and if such a difference was related to the molecular spring titin. Force-pCa curves were established in rabbit psoas skinned fibers for reference and residual force-enhanced states at a sarcomere length of 3.0 μm 1) in a titin-intact condition, 2) after treatment with trypsin to partially eliminate titin, and 3) after treatment with trypsin and osmotic compression with dextran T-500 to decrease the lattice spacing in the absence of titin. The force-pCa curves of residual force enhancement were shifted to the left compared with their corresponding controls in titin-intact fibers, indicating increased calcium sensitivity. No difference in calcium sensitivity was observed between reference and residual force-enhanced contractions in trypsin-treated and osmotically compressed trypsin-treated fibers. Furthermore, calcium sensitivity after osmotic compression was lower than that observed for residual force enhancement in titin-intact skinned fibers. These results suggest that titin-based passive force regulates the increase in calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement by a mechanism other than reduction of the myofilament lattice spacing.

  12. Preparation of studies on antibody production against food allergens in mice and effect of flavonoids in simultaneous injection into mouse skin.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We had tried to evaluate antibody production against food allergens in mouse models. Some food allergens, which were beta-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, and peanut allergen Ara h 1, were used as immunoges in this experiment. Under the same conditions these allergens were immunized as emulsion with freund...

  13. Integrated testing and assessment approaches for skin sensitization: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Patlewicz, Grace Y

    2014-04-01

    A Bayesian integrated testing strategy (ITS) approach, aiming to assess skin sensitization potency, has been presented, in which data from various types of in vitro assays are integrated and assessed in combination for their ability to predict in vivo skin sensitization data. Here we discuss this approach and compare it to our quantitative mechanistic modeling (QMM) approach based on physical organic chemistry. The main findings of the Bayesian study are consistent with our chemistry-based approach and our previously published assessment of the key determinants of sensitization potency, in particular the relatively high predictive value found for chemical reactivity data and the relatively low predictive value for bioavailability parameters. As it stands at present the Bayesian approach does not utilize the full range of predictive capability that is already available, and aims only to assign potency categories rather than numerical potency values per se. In contrast, for many chemicals the QMM approach can already provide numerical potency predictions. However, the Bayesian approach may have potential for those chemicals where a chemistry modeling approach cannot provide a complete answer (e.g. pro-electrophiles whose in cutaneo activation cannot currently be modeled confidently). Nonetheless, our main message is of the importance of leveraging chemistry insights and read-across approaches to the fullest extent possible.

  14. Effect and correlation of serum total IgE, eosinophil granule cationic proteins and sensitized allergens in atopic dermatitis patients with or without rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Shuang; Yu, Chia-Li; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Kuo, Wen-Rei; Lin, Hsiang-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2002-05-01

    To understand the relevance of serological parameters and eliciting allergens in the patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and patients with atopic dermatitis in combination with rhinitis (ADR), we compared the serum total IgE, major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and identified the sensitized allergens in these two groups. The serum levels of total IgE, MBP and ECP were not significantly different in these two groups. Patients with ADR had a higher positive rate of aeroallergens including housedust, mite (D.F), mite (D.P) and cockroach than patients with AD. However, a high positive rate of seafood allergens (include crab, shellfish and shrimp) was observed in patients with AD. The serum IgE level correlated well with serum MBP level (r = 0.603, P = 0. 019) in patients with ADR. There was a strong correlation between serum MBP and ECP level (r = 0.773, P = 0.005) in patients with AD and in patients with ADR (r = 0.721, P = 0.008). We also found that numbers of sensitized allergens correlated well with total IgE in patients with AD (r = 0.760, P = 0.001) and in patients with ADR (r = 0.487, P = 0.004). These results suggested that the aeroallergens are the most important allergens causing and aggravating atopic diseases in Taiwan. Seafood may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. We suggest the measurement of serum total IgE combined with Multiple Allergens Simultaneous Test-Chemiluminescent Assays(AST-CLA) test could be helpful in the diagnosis of atopic diseases.

  15. Allergen diagnosis microarray with high-density immobilization capacity using diamond-like carbon-coated chips for profiling allergen-specific IgE and other immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-14

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample.

  16. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  17. Sensitivity analysis on an AC600 aluminum skin component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendiguren, J.; Agirre, J.; Mugarra, E.; Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.

    2016-08-01

    New materials are been introduced on the car body in order to reduce weight and fulfil the international CO2 emission regulations. Among them, the application of aluminum alloys is increasing for skin panels. Even if these alloys are beneficial for the car design, the manufacturing of these components become more complex. In this regard, numerical simulations have become a necessary tool for die designers. There are multiple factors affecting the accuracy of these simulations e.g. hardening, anisotropy, lubrication, elastic behavior. Numerous studies have been conducted in the last years on high strength steels component stamping and on developing new anisotropic models for aluminum cup drawings. However, the impact of the correct modelling on the latest aluminums for the manufacturing of skin panels has been not yet analyzed. In this work, first, the new AC600 aluminum alloy of JLR-Novelis is characterized for anisotropy, kinematic hardening, friction coefficient, elastic behavior. Next, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the simulation of a U channel (with drawbeads). Then, the numerical an experimental results are correlated in terms of springback and failure. Finally, some conclusions are drawn.

  18. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  19. Allergenic characteristics of a modified peanut allergen.

    PubMed

    King, Nina; Helm, Ricki; Stanley, J Steven; Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, Dirk; Hatahet, Lina; Sampson, Hugh; Pons, Laurent; Burks, Wesley; Bannon, Gary A

    2005-10-01

    Attempts to treat peanut allergy using traditional methods of allergen desensitization are accompanied by a high risk of anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine if modifications to the IgE-binding epitopes of a major peanut allergen would result in a safer immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of peanut-allergic patients. IgE-binding epitopes on the Ara h 2 allergen were modified, and modified Ara h 2 (mAra h 2) protein was produced. Wild-type (wAra h 2) and mAra h 2 proteins were analyzed for their ability to interact with T-cells, their ability to bind IgE, and their ability to release mediators from a passively sensitized RBL-2H3 cell line. Multiple T-cell epitopes were identified on the major peanut allergen, Ara h 2. Ara h 2 amino acid regions 11-35, 86-125, and 121-155 contained the majority of peptides that interact with T-cells from most patients. The wAra h 2 and mAra h 2 proteins stimulated proliferation of T-cells from peanut-allergic patients to similar levels. In contrast, the mAra h 2 protein exhibited greatly reduced IgE-binding capacity compared to the wild-type allergen. In addition, the modified allergen released significantly lower amounts of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker for IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 degranulation, compared to the wild-type allergen.

  20. Allergens in combination have a synergistic effect on the elicitation response: a study of fragrance-sensitized individuals.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A; Andersen, K; Menné, T

    1998-08-01

    Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15 subjects allergic to only one of the same two fragrance substances. The test and matched control subject were patch tested in exactly the same way with two allergens applied in serial dilution in separate chambers on one side and combined in one chamber on the other side of the upper back. The assessment of reactions was carried out on day 3 by clinical grading and laser Doppler flowmetry, and the extent of the reaction was measured in millimetres. The data were analysed by logistic dose-response models. It was found that the combination of two allergens in individuals allergic to both substances had a synergistic effect on the elicitation response evaluated by all three methods. The 1 : 1 mixtures of the two allergens elicited responses as if the doses were three to four times higher than those actually used, which is significantly more than expected if an additive effect had been present. In the control group, no increased response was seen to the combined allergens compared with the allergens tested separately. The synergistic effect demonstrated is likely to apply to other contact allergens as well and should be taken into account in designing diagnostic tests and performing safety assessments.

  1. Development of allergen-coated paper discs for allergy diagnosis by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Singh, B P; Sridhara, S; Malhotra, M; Tulsani, N B; Gangal, S V

    2000-08-01

    In vitro testing is useful for detecting pollen and fungal-allergen sensitivities in nasobronchial-allergy patients. However, allergen-coated discs or solid-phases supplied in kits do not contain all the relevant extracts. The present study was aimed to develop a safe and credible procedure of allergen coating on paper discs for allergy diagnosis by ELISA. Paper discs were coated with indigenous allergens using poly(vinyl alcohol) and glutaraldehyde. ELISAs were carried out to standardize the allergen-coated discs using skin-test-positive-patients' sera. The cut-off value (A) for ELISA was worked out by analysing normal human sera (NHS) and is based on the mean+/-2 S.D. for the NHS value. The allergen-coated discs, i.e. Centre for Biochemical Technology (CBT) discs, demonstrated excellent comparison with plate-binding method and Pharmacia discs [Prosopis juliflora (mesquite), critical value 0.879 at 5% probability+/-0.599, n=11, is significant]. Inter- and Intra-assay coefficients of variations ranged from 2.5-14.05% to 4. 8-11.5% with different allergens. Results of skin tests and ELISA with CBT discs showed 60-70% correlation.

  2. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  3. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria.

  4. Phospholipidomic Profile Variation on THP-1 Cells Exposed to Skin or Respiratory Sensitizers and Respiratory Irritant.

    PubMed

    Martins, João D; Maciel, Elisabete A; Silva, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel; Ricardo, Fernando; Domingues, Pedro; Neves, Bruno M; Domingues, Maria Rosário M; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to low molecular weight reactive chemicals often leads to development of allergic reactions such as allergic contact dermatitis and respiratory allergies. Further insights into the interaction of these chemicals with physiopathological relevant cellular models might provide the foundations for novel non-animal approaches to safety assessment. In this work we used the human THP-1 cell line to determine phospholipidome changes induced by the skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB), the respiratory allergen hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and the irritant methyl salicylate (MESA). We detected that these chemicals differently induce lipid peroxidation and modulate THP-1 IL-1β, IL-12B, IL-8, CD86, and HMOX1 transcription. Decreased phosphatidylethanolamine content was detected in cells exposed to MESA, while profound alterations in the relative abundance of cardiolipin species were observed in cells exposed to DNFB. All chemicals tested induced a decrease in the relative abundance of plasmanyl phosphatidylcholine species PC (O-16:0e/18:1) and phosphatidylinositol species PI (34:1), while increasing PI (38:4). An increased abundance of oleic acid was observed in the phospholipids of cells exposed to DNFB while a decreased abundance of palmitic acid was detected in cells treated with MESA or DNFB. We conclude that both specific and common alterations at phospholipidome levels are triggered by the different chemicals, while not allowing a complete distinction between them using a Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP). The common effects observed at phospholipids level with all the chemicals tested might be related to unspecific cell cytotoxic mechanisms that nevertheless may contribute to the elicitation of specific immune responses. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2639-2651, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946329

  5. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  6. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers. PMID:25863610

  7. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers.

  8. [Food allergens].

    PubMed

    Bonneau, J C

    1997-07-01

    Perhaps more than any other kind of allergen, search for a food allergen seems to be difficult. There should be no bias about the usual allergens found in our food, that are a source of pathology that is less spectacular than shocks or giant urticaria that are provoked by easily recognised causes. Crossed allergies must be recognised in their overall features. This may give decisive aid in the etiological approach by facilitating understanding of the symptoms and the discovery of potential triggering allergens which are systematically sought.

  9. The associations of triclosan and paraben exposure with allergen sensitization and wheeze in children.

    PubMed

    Spanier, Adam J; Fausnight, Tracy; Camacho, Tareq F; Braun, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan and parabens are chemicals used in personal care and medical products as microbicides and preservatives. Triclosan and paraben exposure may be associated with allergy (atopy), but these associations have not been evaluated with respect to other atopic states such as eczema (atopic dermatitis). This study examines the associations of urinary triclosan and paraben concentrations with allergic sensitization and asthma in children according to eczema history. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. children aged 6-18 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006). Triclosan and paraben concentrations were measured in urine. We assessed associations of triclosan and parabens with allergic sensitization and asthma using multivariable logistic regression in 837 children with complete data and stratified our results by eczema status. After covariate adjustment, triclosan and methyl and propyl paraben concentrations were positively associated with the odds of aeroallergen sensitization. Eczema did not significantly modify the association between triclosan or paraben levels and aeroallergen sensitization, asthma, or wheeze. The odds of parent-reported atopic asthma increased 34% (95% CI, 0, 81) across triclosan concentration quartiles. Increasing triclosan concentrations (quartiles) were associated with 2.3 times the odds of food sensitization (95% CI, 1.14, 4.44) among children with eczema, but not among children without eczema (OR, 1.25; 95% CI 0.93, 1.68; effect measure modification, p = 0.04). Triclosan and paraben exposures may increase the risk of atopic asthma and aeroallergen sensitization. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings and determine if these chemicals pose a risk to children's health.

  10. New treatments for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Mübeccel

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents the only curative and specific way for the treatment of allergic diseases, which have reached a pandemic dimension in industrial countries affecting up to 20-30% of the population. Although applied for 100 years to cure allergy, SIT still faces several problems related to side effects and limited efficacy. Currently, allergen-SIT is performed with vaccines based on allergen extracts that can cause severe, often life threatening, anaphylactic reactions as well as new IgE sensitization to other allergens present in the extract. Low patient adherence and high costs due to long duration (3 to 5 years) of treatment have been commonly reported. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these issues and it became possible to produce recombinant allergen-SIT vaccines with reduced allergenic activity.

  11. New treatments for allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents the only curative and specific way for the treatment of allergic diseases, which have reached a pandemic dimension in industrial countries affecting up to 20-30% of the population. Although applied for 100 years to cure allergy, SIT still faces several problems related to side effects and limited efficacy. Currently, allergen-SIT is performed with vaccines based on allergen extracts that can cause severe, often life threatening, anaphylactic reactions as well as new IgE sensitization to other allergens present in the extract. Low patient adherence and high costs due to long duration (3 to 5 years) of treatment have been commonly reported. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these issues and it became possible to produce recombinant allergen-SIT vaccines with reduced allergenic activity. PMID:25258656

  12. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy.

  13. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy. PMID:26447559

  14. New strategies for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carnés, Jerónimo; Robinson, Douglas S

    2008-06-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy, consisting in the administration of increasing amounts of offending allergens into sensitive patients was first used nearly one hundred years ago and remains in use worldwide for treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. It has been recognised as the only effective treatment for type I allergic diseases when the appropriate quantities of allergens are used. The immunological mechanisms by which specific immunotherapy is effective include the modulation of T cells and the response of B-cells and is accompanied by significant decreases of specific IgE and increases in allergen specific IgG antibodies, mainly IgG4. While specific allergen injection immunotherapy is highly effective and the most common way of administration other routes such as oral or intranasal ways have been considered as and alternative to subcutaneous injections. During the last century, allergenic vaccines have been prepared using individual allergens adsorbed to different adjuvant substances. These vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and good results in different clinical trials. However, many novel approaches to allergen immunotherapy have been developed in the last years in order to increase the safety and efficacy of allergenic vaccines. In that way, different and modern vaccines have been prepared including more purified products such as depigmented allergen extracts; allergoids, consisting on big molecules of thousands of kDa, which contain all the individual allergens and show a significant decrease in severe adverse reactions; peptides or small aminoacid sequences; recombinant allergens; hypoallergenic vaccines where the IgE binding sites have been modified; or allergen-CpG fusion molecules. New presentations are under study and new treatments will be developed in the near future with the objective that the prevention of allergic disease may become a reality. The review article also discuss recent patent related to the field. PMID:19075996

  15. Interactions between FLG mutations and allergens in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Liu, Jiang-Bo; Liu, Qiang; Yao, Mianzhi; Cheng, Ruhong; Xue, Hui; Zhou, Hua; Yao, Zhirong

    2012-12-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations and sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have been well documented. However, whether an interaction exists between these mutations and specific sensitization in AD patients is still unknown. The aim of the study was to explore the interaction between FLG mutations and specific sensitization in AD patients. A total of 249 AD outpatients were recruited in the current study. Skin prick tests were conducted to assess the patient's sensitization to specific allergens. FLG mutations were analyzed through comprehensive sequencing. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the interactions between FLG mutations and sensitization present. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 years, and the mean age of onset of AD was 9.6 months. The mean SCORAD of the patients was 25.8. Fourteen types of mutations were identified in the FLG of 64 patients. A total of 24 (9.6 %) and 29 (11.6 %) cases were mutated with 3321delA and K4671X, respectively. Sensitization to at least one type of allergen was detected in 118 patients (47.4 %). Logistic regression analyses showed that FLG mutations presented an interaction with sensitization to peanut and did not interact with the other detected allergens among AD patients. Sensitization to peanut allergens would have an interaction with the mutation of K4671X and the combined mutations in FLG in patients with atopic dermatitis. However, sensitization to the other common allergens might not interact with FLG mutations in the development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:22903496

  16. Advances in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of several food allergens in complex and processed foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Planque, M; Arnould, T; Dieu, M; Delahaut, P; Renard, P; Gillard, N

    2016-09-16

    Sensitive detection of food allergens is affected by food processing and foodstuff complexity. It is therefore a challenge to detect cross-contamination in food production that could endanger an allergic customer's life. Here we used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous detection of traces of milk (casein, whey protein), egg (yolk, white), soybean, and peanut allergens in different complex and/or heat-processed foodstuffs. The method is based on a single protocol (extraction, trypsin digestion, and purification) applicable to the different tested foodstuffs: chocolate, ice cream, tomato sauce, and processed cookies. The determined limits of quantitation, expressed in total milk, egg, peanut, or soy proteins (and not soluble proteins) per kilogram of food, are: 0.5mg/kg for milk (detection of caseins), 5mg/kg for milk (detection of whey), 2.5mg/kg for peanut, 5mg/kg for soy, 3.4mg/kg for egg (detection of egg white), and 30.8mg/kg for egg (detection of egg yolk). The main advantage is the ability of the method to detect four major food allergens simultaneously in processed and complex matrices with very high sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Advances in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of several food allergens in complex and processed foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Planque, M; Arnould, T; Dieu, M; Delahaut, P; Renard, P; Gillard, N

    2016-09-16

    Sensitive detection of food allergens is affected by food processing and foodstuff complexity. It is therefore a challenge to detect cross-contamination in food production that could endanger an allergic customer's life. Here we used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous detection of traces of milk (casein, whey protein), egg (yolk, white), soybean, and peanut allergens in different complex and/or heat-processed foodstuffs. The method is based on a single protocol (extraction, trypsin digestion, and purification) applicable to the different tested foodstuffs: chocolate, ice cream, tomato sauce, and processed cookies. The determined limits of quantitation, expressed in total milk, egg, peanut, or soy proteins (and not soluble proteins) per kilogram of food, are: 0.5mg/kg for milk (detection of caseins), 5mg/kg for milk (detection of whey), 2.5mg/kg for peanut, 5mg/kg for soy, 3.4mg/kg for egg (detection of egg white), and 30.8mg/kg for egg (detection of egg yolk). The main advantage is the ability of the method to detect four major food allergens simultaneously in processed and complex matrices with very high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27554027

  18. Food allergens.

    PubMed

    Burks, W; Helm, R; Stanley, S; Bannon, G A

    2001-06-01

    A number of advances in the scientific knowledge concerning adverse food reactions have been made in the past few years. Understanding about the nature of the food allergen itself, the molecular characterization of the epitopes on these allergens, the pathophysiology of the clinical reaction, and the diagnostic methods have all been significantly enhanced.

  19. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  20. The Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitization Test (U-SENS) addresses the activation of dendritic cell event in the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Piroird, Cécile; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Rousset, Françoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Gomes, Charles; Cotovio, José; Alépée, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    The U-SENS™ assay, formerly known as MUSST (Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitization Test), is an in vitro method to assess skin sensitization. Dendritic cell activation following exposure to sensitizers was modelled in the U937 human myeloid cell line by measuring the induction of the expression of CD86 by flow cytometry. The predictive performance of U-SENS™ was assessed via a comprehensive comparison analysis with the available human and LLNA data of 175 substances. U-SENS™ showed 79% specificity, 90% sensitivity and 88% accuracy. A four laboratory ring study demonstrated the transferability, reliability and reproducibility of U-SENS™, with a reproducibility of 95% within laboratories and 79% between-laboratories, showing that the U-SENS™ assay is a promising tool in a skin sensitization risk assessment testing strategy. PMID:25820135

  1. Langerhans cell migration: not necessarily always at the center of the skin sensitization universe.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Cumberbatch, Marie; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2009-08-01

    Since their discovery in 1868, the role of Langerhans cells (LCs) in skin immunity has been researched extensively. Recent data deriving from transgenic animals that are deficient in LCs have begun to challenge the dogma that there is a universal requirement for these cells in the development of skin sensitization. This Commentary addresses relationships between LC mobilization, draining lymph node activation, and skin sensitization using immunomodulators agonistic for a family of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors.

  2. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization... for the evaluation of alternative skin sensitization test methods and testing strategies. The National... niceatm@niehs.nih.gov are preferred. NICEATM, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  3. [Analysis of contact dermatitis by cytokines 4--Skin sensitization of biphenyl compounds].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, S; Suzuki, K; Ikemoto, T; Kakishima, H

    2000-11-01

    Clove buds oil is one of very important natural essential oil with a typical spicy note and also known as a source of eugenol. These phenol compounds, which have the strong perfume of clove, are widely used not only as an analgesic and antiseptic agent in dentistry. However, the problem is that the phenol compounds caused sensitization on the skin occasionally. We reported that the skin sensitization by eugenol and its derivatives was detected in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and also confirmed that dehydrodi-eugenol, a biphenyl compound of eugenol, did not show the skin sensitization. To discuss more, we examined the skin sensitization by several phenol compounds and its biphenyl ones. Consequently, we confirmed that the skin sensitization by biphenyl compounds more remarkably decreased than that by phenol compounds (monomer).

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p < 0.01). The release of histamine was decreased significantly when sensitized basophils were challenged with hydrolysates as compared to raw extracts. Significant reduction in the biopotency of hydrolysates was also observed in SPT where only 1/10 kidney bean-sensitive individuals, 2/6 black gram-sensitive individuals and 1/7 peanut-sensitive individuals were found positive to their respective hydrolysates. In conclusion, enzymatic hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts.

  5. Transformation of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells increases asthmatic susceptibility in pups from allergen-sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that epinephrine release is impaired in patients with asthma. The pregnancy of female rats (dams) with asthma promotes in their pups the differentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCCs) into sympathetic neurons, mediated by nerve growth factor, which leads to a reduction in epinephrine secretion. However, the relatedness between the alteration of AMCCs and increased asthma susceptibility in such offspring has not been established. Methods In this study, we observed the effects of allergization via ovalbumin on rat pups born of asthmatic dams. Results Compared to the offspring of untreated controls, bronchial hyperreactivity and airway inflammation were more severe in the pups from sensitized (asthmatic) dams. In pups exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF) in utero these effects were aggravated further, but the effects were blocked in pups whose dams had been treated with anti-NGF. Furthermore, alterations in AMCC phenotype corresponded to the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity and lung lesions of the different treatment groups. Such AMCC alterations included degranulation of chromaffin granules, reduction of epinephrine and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase, and elevation of NGF and peripherin levels. Conclusions Our results present evidence that asthma during the pregnancy of rat dams promotes asthma susceptibility in their offspring, and that the transformation of AMCCs to neurons induced by NGF plays an important role in this process. PMID:23137120

  6. The fragrance chemical beta-caryophyllene-air oxidation and skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Maria; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Matura, Mihaly; Börje, Anna

    2006-04-01

    Fragrances are common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. beta-Caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene that is used as a fragrance chemical. Analogous to the monoterpenes R-limonene and linalool, it can be expected to autoxidize when air exposed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autoxidation of beta-caryophyllene and to evaluate the effect on the contact allergenic activity. beta-Caryophyllene started to oxidize immediately when air exposed and after 5 weeks almost 50% of the original compound was consumed. Caryophyllene oxide was found to be the major oxidation product. Hydroperoxides of beta-caryophyllene could not be detected in the oxidation mixture. Caryophyllene oxide was shown to be an allergen of moderate strength and beta-caryophyllene air exposed for 10 weeks showed a weak sensitizing capacity in the local lymph node assay. The study reveals that the allergenic activity of beta-caryophyllene is affected by autoxidation, but to a lesser extent when compared to R-limonene and linalool. The present findings support our results in clinical studies showing oxidized beta-caryophyllene to be a rather rare sensitizer compared to oxidized R-limonene and linalool.

  7. Climate sensitivity of allergenic taxa in Central Europe associated with new climate change related forces.

    PubMed

    Deák, Aron József; Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Muladi, Beáta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse trends of the pollen season with its duration, start and end dates, as well as trends of the annual total pollen count and annual peak pollen concentration for the Szeged agglomeration in Southern Hungary. The data set covered an 11-year period (1997-2007) that included eight taxa and seven daily climate variables. Trend analysis was performed on both annual and daily bases. Trend analysis on a daily basis is a new approach that provides information on the annual cycles of the trends. To quantify the strength of the relationship between the annual cycle of the slope of a pollen concentration trend and the annual cycles of the slopes of the climate variable trends, an association measure and a multiple association measure are introduced. Individual taxa were sorted into three categories according to their climate sensitivities. These were compared with two novel climate change-related forces, namely risk potential and expansion potential due to the climate change. The total annual pollen counts indicated significant trends for 4 taxa and 3 of these 4 trends increased on a daily basis. At the same time, significant changes were detected for the pollen season characteristics of three taxa. The association measures performed well when compared to the climate change-related forces. Significant changes in pollen season characteristics were also in accordance with the risk potential and expansion potential due to the climate change. A novel procedure was applied to separate the effects of the past and current weather conditions that influence the current Ambrosia pollen concentrations. The potential effect of land use changes on pollen release of the given taxa was also discussed using the CORINE Land Cover Database. PMID:23178762

  8. The perception threshold measurement can be a useful tool for evaluation of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Lim, S-U; Won, Y-H; An, S-S; Lee, E-Y; Moon, S-J; Kim, J

    2008-10-01

    Sensitive skin is characterized by subjective symptoms that are hard to quantify. However, a neurobiological approach could improve our understanding of the nature of skin sensitivity. In this study, we measured the sensory perception of well-controlled electric currents on the skin that stimulated sensory nerve fibres such as the myelinated A fibre, A delta fibre and unmyelinated c-fibre. The sensory perception thresholds were obtained quantitatively from subjects with sensitive-prone skin and controls. Application of 0.075% capsaicin, known to stimulate the nociceptor c-fibre, was topically applied; then the sensory perception thresholds were measured to determine whether the exposure to nociceptive stimulation could affect the subsequent sensory perception. The results showed that the perception thresholds of skin sensitive-prone subjects were low for the c-fibre measurements at 5 Hz electric current stimulation. Furthermore, a wide variation in sensory perception was noted in the skin sensitive-prone subjects after topical application of capsaicin. In conclusion, the abnormal sensory perception in individuals with sensitive skin appears to be related to neurological instability, where c-fibre nociception plays a role. Thus, quantitative sensory perception threshold measurement was found to be a useful method for the identification of skin sensitive-prone subjects.

  9. The kinetics of allergen-induced transcription of messenger RNA for monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and RANTES in the skin of human atopic subjects: relationship to eosinophil, T cell, and macrophage recruitment

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The C-C chemokines RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) are potent chemoattractants in vitro for eosinophils and other cell types associated with allergic reactions. We tested the hypothesis that the allergen-induced infiltration of eosinophils, T cells, and macrophages in the skin of atopic subjects is accompanied by the appearance of mRNA+ cells for RANTES and MCP-3. Cryostat sections were obtained from skin biopsies from six subjects 6, 24, and 48 h after allergen challenge. Tissue was processed for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and for in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled riboprobes for RANTES and MCP-3. In contrast to diluent controls, allergen provoked a significant increase in mRNA+ cells for MCP-3, which peaked at 6 h and progressively declined at 24 and 48 h. This paralleled the kinetics of total (major basic protein positive [MBP]+) and activated (cleaved form of eosinophil cationic protein [EG2]+) eosinophil infiltration. The allergen-induced expression of cells mRNA+ for RANTES was also clearly demonstrable at 6 h. However, the numbers were maximal at 24 h and declined slightly at the 48-h time point. The number of mRNA+ cells for RANTES paralleled the kinetics of infiltration of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells whereas the number of CD68+ macrophages was still increasing at 48 h. These data support the view that MCP-3 is involved in the regulation of the early eosinophil response to specific allergen, whereas RANTES may have more relevance to the later accumulation of T cells and macrophages. PMID:7539041

  10. Bronchial biopsy evidence for leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules 6 hours after local allergen challenge of sensitized asthmatic airways.

    PubMed Central

    Montefort, S; Gratziou, C; Goulding, D; Polosa, R; Haskard, D O; Howarth, P H; Holgate, S T; Carroll, M P

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the mucosal changes occurring in bronchial biopsies from six atopic asthmatics 5-6 h after local endobronchial allergen challenge and compared them with biopsies from saline-challenged segments from the same subjects at the same time point. All the subjects developed localized bronchoconstriction in the allergen-challenged segment and had a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (P < 0.01) and a decrease in their methacholine provocative concentration of agonist required to reduce FEV1 from baseline by 20% (P < 0.05) 24 h postchallenge. At 6 h we observed an increase in neutrophils (P = 0.03), eosinophils (P = 0.025), mast cells (P = 0.03), and CD3+ lymphocytes (P = 0.025), but not in CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocyte counts. We also detected an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (P < 0.05) and E-selectin (P < 0.005), but not vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 expression with a correlative increase in submucosal and epithelial LFA+ leucocytes (P < 0.01). Thus, in sensitized asthmatics, local endobronchial allergen instillation leads to an increased inflammatory cell infiltrate of the airway mucosa that involves upregulation of specific adhesion molecules expressed on the microvasculature. Images PMID:7512980

  11. Characterization of a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae—Der f 28

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Li; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yu-Lan; Sun, Bao-Qing; Gao, An-Jian; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are the major sources of indoor allergens which induce asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, and some other allergic diseases. Close to 30 sub-allergens have been identified. Methods Through analyzing the full genome sequence of dust mite, a new allergen whose primary structure belongs to the heat shock protein family was identified. The sequence of this allergen was determined by cDNA cloning. The allergenicity was assayed by skin prick test, Western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results r-Der f 28 bound to serum IgE from mite allergic patients. Positive responses to r-Der f 28 were shown in 11.5% by skin prick testing from 26 DM-allergic patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE and IL-4 were significantly increased in allergic asthma mouse model sensitized to r-Der f 28. Conclusions Der f 28 is a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:26623108

  12. Skin irritation and sensitization: mechanisms and new approaches for risk assessment. 1. Skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, J W; Darlenski, R; Angelova-Fischer, I; Tsankov, N; Basketter, D

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous irritation presents a major health problem with serious social and occupational impact. The interaction between an irritant and the human skin depends on multiple factors: the intrinsic properties and the nature of the irritant itself, and specific individual- and environment-related variables. The main pathological mechanisms of irritancy include skin barrier disruption, induction of a cytokine cascade and involvement of the oxidative stress network; all of them resulting in a visible or subclinical inflammatory reaction. In vivo, different non-invasive parameters for the evaluation of skin irritation and irritant potential of compounds and their specific formulations have been introduced, such as epidermal barrier function, skin hydration, surface pH, lipid composition, skin colour and skin blood flow. The diverse physiological changes caused by irritating agents require implementation of a multiparametric approach in the evaluation of cutaneous irritancy.

  13. Association of House Dust Allergen Concentrations With Residential Conditions in City and in Rural Houses

    PubMed Central

    Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Pełka, Jolanta; Korzon, Leszek; Kaczała, Magdalena; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Gwardys, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between house dust mite, cat and dog allergen levels with household characteristics in the houses of children living in urban and rural areas in central Poland. Methods Dust samples were collected from 141 urban and 191 rural houses. Der f1 + Der p1, Can f 1, and Fel d1 levels were measured and associated with residential conditions and atopy-related health outcomes assessed by clinical examination and skin prick testing. Results Concentrations of mite allergens were lower, and cat and dog allergen levels were higher in urban houses. Fel d1 and Can f1 levels depended on the presence of a respective animal in the house. In urban houses, Der p1 + Der f1 concentration was lower in households with central heating, whereas Can f1 concentration was related to building age. Multivariate analyses revealed that the concentrations of house dust mite and dog allergens were associated with relative humidity, number of people in the household, and the presence of a dog at home. There was no significant association between allergen level and sensitization or atopic diseases. Conclusions Concentrations of indoor allergens in urban and rural houses differ significantly, and residential conditions associated with allergen levels seem to be different in both environments. PMID:23268467

  14. Reactivity measurement in estimation of benzoquinone and benzoquinone derivatives' allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Mbiya, Wilbes; Chipinda, Itai; Simoyi, Reuben H; Siegel, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Benzoquinone (BQ) and benzoquinone derivatives (BQD) are used in the production of dyes and cosmetics. While BQ, an extreme skin sensitizer, is an electrophile known to covalently modify proteins via Michael Addition (MA) reaction whilst halogen substituted BQD undergo nucleophilic vinylic substitution (SNV) mechanism onto amine and thiol moieties on proteins, the allergenic effects of adding substituents on BQ have not been reported. The effects of inserting substituents on the BQ ring has not been studied in animal assays. However, mandated reduction/elimination of animals used in cosmetics testing in Europe has led to an increased need for alternatives for the prediction of skin sensitization potential. Electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents on BQ were assessed for effects on BQ reactivity toward nitrobenzene thiol (NBT). The NBT binding studies demonstrated that addition of EWG to BQ as exemplified by the chlorine substituted BQDs increased reactivity while addition of EDG as in the methyl substituted BQDs reduced reactivity. BQ and BQD skin allerginicity was evaluated in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). BQD with electron withdrawing groups had the highest chemical potency followed by unsubstituted BQ and the least potent were the BQD with electron donating groups. The BQD results demonstrate the impact of inductive effects on both BQ reactivity and allergenicity, and suggest the potential utility of chemical reactivity data for electrophilic allergen identification and potency ranking. PMID:26612505

  15. Allergen databases and allergen semantics.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of any specific bioinformatic analysis of the potential allergenicity of new food proteins depends directly on the nature and content of the databases that are used in the analysis. A number of different allergen-related databases have been developed, each designed to meet a different need. These databases differ in content, organization, and accessibility. These differences create barriers for users and prevent data sharing and integration. The development and application of appropriate semantic web technologies, (for example, a food allergen ontology) could help to overcome these barriers and promote the development of more advanced analytic capabilities.

  16. 'Healthy skin': significance and results of an Italian study on healthy population with particular regard to 'sensitive' skin.

    PubMed

    Sparavigna, A; Di Pietro, A; Setaro, M

    2005-12-01

    There is an increasing demand in general population regarding skin healthiness and improvement of aesthetical appearance, indicating that people require more information about how to treat healthy skin and to prevent skin disease. This study is the result of a campaign on healthy skin organized by the International Society of Plastic Dermatology. This campaign was at the same time an occasion to perform an epidemiological study on Italian population and was conducted during only one month (March 2004) throughout Italy. In total, 462 dermatologists all over Italy joined the project. Study protocol and diagnostic kits were provided to all adhering dermatologists. After signing an informed consent, subjects were assigned to undergo anamnesis, medical examination and stinging test with 10% lactic acid at the level of nasolabial fold. A total of 2101 duly compiled case record forms were sent back by the dermatologists. The analysis of the demographic features and lifestyle of the subjects who were attracted by the campaign allows us to draw the identikit of people interested in the maintenance of a healthy skin, i.e. mainly young women, who already lead a healthy life and took care of their skin. Sensitive skin was common in this healthy population. PMID:18492170

  17. Effect of environmental intervention on mouse allergen levels in homes of inner-city Boston children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Beth; Wood, Robert A.; Eggleston, Peyton A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Song, Leslie; Tachdjian, Raffi; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that mouse allergen exposure and sensitization are common in urban children with asthma. The effectiveness of environmental intervention in reducing mouse allergen exposure has not been established. Objective: To evaluate whether environmental intervention of mouse extermination and cleaning results in a reduction in mouse allergen levels. Methods: Eighteen homes of children with positive mouse allergen skin test results and at least mild persistent asthma in urban Boston, MA, with evidence of mouse infestation or exposure were randomized in a 2:1 ratio (12 intervention and 6 control homes). The intervention homes received an integrated pest management intervention, which consisted of filling holes with copper mesh, vacuuming and cleaning, and using low-toxicity pesticides and traps. Dust samples were collected and analyzed for major mouse allergen (Mus m 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) at baseline and 1, 3, and 5 months after the intervention was started and compared with control homes. Results: Mouse allergen levels were significantly decreased compared with control homes by the end of the intervention period at month 5 in the kitchen and bedroom (kitchen intervention, 78.8% reduction; control, 319% increase; P = .02; bedroom intervention, 77.3% reduction; control, 358% increase; P < .01; and living room intervention, 67.6% reduction; control, 32% reduction; P = .07). Conclusions: Mouse allergen levels were significantly reduced during a 5-month period using an integrated pest management intervention. PMID:15104193

  18. Evaluation and integration of existing methods for computational prediction of allergens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy involves a series of complex reactions and factors that contribute to the development of the disease and triggering of the symptoms, including rhinitis, asthma, atopic eczema, skin sensitivity, even acute and fatal anaphylactic shock. Prediction and evaluation of the potential allergenicity is of importance for safety evaluation of foods and other environment factors. Although several computational approaches for assessing the potential allergenicity of proteins have been developed, their performance and relative merits and shortcomings have not been compared systematically. Results To evaluate and improve the existing methods for allergen prediction, we collected an up-to-date definitive dataset consisting of 989 known allergens and massive putative non-allergens. The three most widely used allergen computational prediction approaches including sequence-, motif- and SVM-based (Support Vector Machine) methods were systematically compared using the defined parameters and we found that SVM-based method outperformed the other two methods with higher accuracy and specificity. The sequence-based method with the criteria defined by FAO/WHO (FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; WHO: World Health Organization) has higher sensitivity of over 98%, but having a low specificity. The advantage of motif-based method is the ability to visualize the key motif within the allergen. Notably, the performances of the sequence-based method defined by FAO/WHO and motif eliciting strategy could be improved by the optimization of parameters. To facilitate the allergen prediction, we integrated these three methods in a web-based application proAP, which provides the global search of the known allergens and a powerful tool for allergen predication. Flexible parameter setting and batch prediction were also implemented. The proAP can be accessed at http://gmobl.sjtu.edu.cn/proAP/main.html. Conclusions This study comprehensively evaluated sequence

  19. Correlation between polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and second harmonic generation microscopy in skin

    PubMed Central

    Le, Viet-Hoan; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Yeoreum; Yoon, Calvin J.; Chung, Wan Kyun; Kim, Ki Hean

    2015-01-01

    Both polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy are 3D optical imaging methods providing information related to collagen in the skin. PS-OCT provides birefringence information which is due to the collagen composition of the skin. SHG microscopy visualizes collagen fibers in the skin based on their SHG property. These two modalities have been applied to the same skin pathologies associated with collagen changes, but their relationship has not been examined. In this study, we tried to find the relationship by imaging the same skin samples with both modalities. Various parts of the normal rat skin and burn damaged skin were imaged ex vivo, and their images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. PS-OCT images were analyzed to obtain tissue birefringence. SHG images were analyzed to obtain collagen orientation indices by applying 2D Fourier transform. The skin samples having higher birefringence values had higher collagen orientation indices, and a linear correlation was found between them. Burn damaged skin showed decreases in both parameters compared to the control skins. This relationship between the bulk and microscopic properties of skin may be useful for further skin studies. PMID:26203380

  20. Correlation between polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and second harmonic generation microscopy in skin.

    PubMed

    Le, Viet-Hoan; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Yeoreum; Yoon, Calvin J; Chung, Wan Kyun; Kim, Ki Hean

    2015-07-01

    Both polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy are 3D optical imaging methods providing information related to collagen in the skin. PS-OCT provides birefringence information which is due to the collagen composition of the skin. SHG microscopy visualizes collagen fibers in the skin based on their SHG property. These two modalities have been applied to the same skin pathologies associated with collagen changes, but their relationship has not been examined. In this study, we tried to find the relationship by imaging the same skin samples with both modalities. Various parts of the normal rat skin and burn damaged skin were imaged ex vivo, and their images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. PS-OCT images were analyzed to obtain tissue birefringence. SHG images were analyzed to obtain collagen orientation indices by applying 2D Fourier transform. The skin samples having higher birefringence values had higher collagen orientation indices, and a linear correlation was found between them. Burn damaged skin showed decreases in both parameters compared to the control skins. This relationship between the bulk and microscopic properties of skin may be useful for further skin studies. PMID:26203380

  1. Thresholds of skin sensitivity are partially influenced by mechanical properties of the skin on the foot sole

    PubMed Central

    Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Triano, John J; Lam, Chris K; Templeton, Cale A; Bent, Leah R

    2015-01-01

    Across the foot sole, there are vibration and monofilament sensory differences despite an alleged even distribution of cutaneous afferents. Mechanical property differences across foot sole sites have been proposed to account for these differences. Vibration (VPT; 3 Hz, 40 Hz, 250 Hz), and monofilament (MF) perception threshold measurements were compared with skin hardness, epidermal thickness, and stretch response across five foot sole locations in young healthy adults (n = 22). Perceptual thresholds were expected to correlate with all mechanical property measurements to help address sensitivity differences between sites. Following this hypothesis, the MedArch was consistently found to be the thinnest and softest site and demonstrated the greatest sensitivity. Conversely, the Heel was found to be the thickest and hardest site, and was relatively insensitive across perceptual tests. Site differences were not observed for epidermal stretch response measures. Despite an apparent trend of elevated sensory threshold at harder and thicker sites, significant correlations between sensitivity measures and skin mechanical properties were not observed. Skin hardness and epidermal thickness appeared to have a negligible influence on VPT and minor influence on MF within this young healthy population. When normalized (% greater or smaller than subject mean) to the subject mean for each variable, significant positive correlations were observed between MF and skin hardness (R2 = 0.422, P < 0.0001) and epidermal thickness (R2 = 0.433, P < 0.0001) providing evidence that skin mechanics can influence MF threshold. In young healthy adults, differences in sensitivity are present across the foot sole, but cannot solely be accounted for by differences in the mechanical properties of the skin. PMID:26059035

  2. Use of the Albino Guinea-pig to Detect the Skin-sensitizing Ability of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M. A.

    1967-01-01

    The guinea-pig has been used for over 20 years to demonstrate skin-sensitizing ability in chemical compounds. Correlation between the results of workers in this field is difficult because of the wide range of conditions under which tests for sensitizing potential have been performed. This has made difficult any attempt to compare the relative abilities of various chemical compounds to produce skin sensitization. In a routine test for skin-sensitizing potential, solutions of suspected sensitizing substance have been applied over three days to the ears of guinea-pigs, and the flanks have been challenged one week later with a range of concentrations of suspected sensitizing substance. The erythematous reaction produced 24 hours after challenge was rated and compared with that in unsensitized controls. Various alternative methods of skin testing have been compared with this ear-flank test. The ear-flank test gives good, reproducible results with many classes of chemical compound, including types of compound not previously described as giving rise to sensitization in the guinea-pig or in man, and including some compounds which are known to have carcinogenic potential. It is also demonstrated that sensitizing potential is found more frequently among aromatic (aryl) than aliphatic (alkyl) compounds. Particularly strong sensitization reactions are produced by certain aryl halides, aryl isocyanates, aryl hydrazines, N-nitroso compounds, and aromatic nitroso-compounds. An attempt is made to relate the results of animal tests to reported cases of human skin sensitization. PMID:6028714

  3. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  4. Analysis of publically available skin sensitization data from REACH registrations 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Maertens, Alexandra; Russo, Daniel P; Rovida, Costanza; Zhu, Hao; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The public data on skin sensitization from REACH registrations already included 19,111 studies on skin sensitization in December 2014, making it the largest repository of such data so far (1,470 substances with mouse LLNA, 2,787 with GPMT, 762 with both in vivo and in vitro and 139 with only in vitro data). 21% were classified as sensitizers. The extracted skin sensitization data was analyzed to identify relationships in skin sensitization guidelines, visualize structural relationships of sensitizers, and build models to predict sensitization. A chemical with molecular weight > 500 Da is generally considered non-sensitizing owing to low bioavailability, but 49 sensitizing chemicals with a molecular weight > 500 Da were found. A chemical similarity map was produced using PubChem's 2D Tanimoto similarity metric and Gephi force layout visualization. Nine clusters of chemicals were identified by Blondel's module recognition algorithm revealing wide module-dependent variation. Approximately 31% of mapped chemicals are Michaell's acceptors but alone this does not imply skin sensitization. A simple sensitization model using molecular weight and five ToxTree structural alerts showed a balanced accuracy of 65.8% (specificity 80.4%, sensitivity 51.4%), demonstrating that structural alerts have information value. A simple variant of k-nearest neighbors outperformed the ToxTree approach even at 75% similarity threshold (82% balanced accuracy at 0.95 threshold). At higher thresholds, the balanced accuracy increased. Lower similarity thresholds decrease sensitivity faster than specificity. This analysis scopes the landscape of chemical skin sensitization, demonstrating the value of large public datasets for health hazard prediction. PMID:26863411

  5. Analysis of rate-sensitive skin in gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, D.N.; Schell, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    This study documents the analysis of rate dependent skin in a gas well. Three build-up tests and an isochronal test are analyzed in some detail. The results indicate the rate dependent skin is due to non-Darcy flow near the well bore. Evidence is presented that suggest the non-Darcy flow results from calcium carbonate scale partially plugging the perforations. Also, the summary of a pressure build-up study is included on the wells recently drilled in Champlin's Stratton-Agua Dulce field.

  6. An analysis of rate-sensitive skin in gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, D.N.; Schell, E.J.

    1983-10-01

    This paper documents the analysis of rate dependent skin in a gas well. Three build-up tests and an isochronal test are analyzed in some detail. The results indicate the rate dependent skin is due to nondarcy flow near the wellbore. Evidence is presented that suggest the non-darcy flow results from calcium carbonate scale partially plugging the perforations. Also, the summary of a pressure build-up study is included on the wells recently drilled in Champlin's Stratton-Agua Dulce Field.

  7. [House dust mite-crustaceans-molluscs syndrome. A rare variant of food allergy in primary sensitization to inhaled allergens].

    PubMed

    Kütting, B; Brehler, R

    2001-08-01

    80% of all cases in food allergy in adults are preceded by a clinical or subclinical sensitisation to inhalative allergens. Food allergy is caused by cross-reactions between ingested food and inhaled particles. We report a patient suffering from the house-dust mite-crustaceans-molluscs-syndrome. Here, house-dust mite is the sensitising agent, therefore even first ingestion of invertebrates such as snails, shrimps, mussels or oysters can lead to severe anaphylaxis.

  8. Dendritic cells and skin sensitization: Biological roles and uses in hazard identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Cindy A.; Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A.; Pallardy, Marc; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank . E-mail: gerberick.gf@pg.com

    2007-06-15

    Recent advances have been made in our understanding of the roles played by cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) in the induction of contact allergy. A number of associated changes in epidermal Langerhans cell phenotype and function required for effective skin sensitization are providing the foundations for the development of cellular assays (using DC and DC-like cells) for skin sensitization hazard identification. These alternative approaches to the identification and characterization of skin sensitizing chemicals were the focus of a Workshop entitled 'Dendritic Cells and Skin Sensitization: Biological Roles and Uses in Hazard Identification' that was given at the annual Society of Toxicology meeting held March 6-9, 2006 in San Diego, California. This paper reports information that was presented during the Workshop.

  9. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  10. Use of genotoxicity information in the development of integrated testing strategies (ITS) for skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Mekenyan, Ovanes; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrova, Gergana; Kuseva, Chanita; Todorov, Milen; Stoeva, Stoyanka; Kotov, Stefan; Donner, E Maria

    2010-10-18

    Skin sensitization is an end point of concern for various legislation in the EU, including the seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and Registration Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Since animal testing is a last resort for REACH or banned (from 2013 onward) for the Cosmetics Directive, the use of intelligent/integrated testing strategies (ITS) as an efficient means of gathering necessary information from alternative sources (e.g., in vitro, (Q)SARs, etc.) is gaining widespread interest. Previous studies have explored correlations between mutagenicity data and skin sensitization data as a means of exploiting information from surrogate end points. The work here compares the underlying chemical mechanisms for mutagenicity and skin sensitization in an effort to evaluate the role mutagenicity information can play as a predictor of skin sensitization potential. The Tissue Metabolism Simulator (TIMES) hybrid expert system was used to compare chemical mechanisms of both end points since it houses a comprehensive set of established structure-activity relationships for both skin sensitization and mutagenicity. The evaluation demonstrated that there is a great deal of overlap between skin sensitization and mutagenicity structural alerts and their underlying chemical mechanisms. The similarities and differences in chemical mechanisms are discussed in light of available experimental data. A number of new alerts for mutagenicity were also postulated for inclusion into TIMES. The results presented show that mutagenicity information can provide useful insights on skin sensitization potential as part of an ITS and should be considered prior to any in vivo skin sensitization testing being initiated.

  11. Allergenicity potential of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins in orally treated BALB/c mice and passively sensitized RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Akanksha; Verma, Alok K; Chaudhari, B P; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-01-01

    Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one the most commonly consumed legumes that requires an in depth understanding of its allergenicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the allergenicity of red kidney bean proteins following oral exposure in BALB/c mice and elucidate the levels of Th1/Th2 transcription factors induced by red kidney bean proteins in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3 cells) passively sensitized with the sera of red kidney bean sensitized mice. Red kidney bean proteins showed enhanced levels of total and specific IgE, anaphylactic symptoms, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and peritoneal albumin over control. Enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase along with up regulated expressions of GATA-3, STAT-6, T-bet, c-MAF and NFAT were observed in the RBL-2H3 cells exposed with red kidney bean proteins when compared to that of the controls. Taken together, exposure of red kidney bean proteins may cause allergic symptoms in mice and the ambivalent effect on Th2/Th1 transcription factors in RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:23916877

  12. A skin sensitization risk assessment approach for evaluation of new ingredients and products.

    PubMed

    Gerberick, G F; Robinson, M K

    2000-06-01

    Skin sensitization risk assessment of new ingredients or products is critical before their introduction into the marketplace. The risk assessment process described in this article involves evaluation of skin sensitization hazard, consideration of all potential human exposures, comparative ingredient/product benchmarking, and, when appropriate, the management of the risk. In this article, a risk assessment process is reviewed along with a description of the risk assessment tools that are employed for evaluating a new ingredient or product. The basic process we use for evaluating the skin sensitization risk of a new product or ingredient is considered a no effect/safety factor approach. The tools used for conducting a risk assessment include structure activity relationship analysis, exposure assessment, preclinical testing (e.g., local lymph node assay [LNNA]) and clinical testing (e.g., human repeat insult patch testing [HRIPT]). The skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this paper has been used successfully for many years for the safe introduction of new products into the marketplace. This process is dynamic--it can be applied to a diversity of product categories (e.g., shampoo, transdermal drug). In summary, the skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this article allows one to carefully assess the skin sensitization potential of a new ingredient or product so that it can be safely introduced into the marketplace.

  13. [Evaluation of the sensitization power of Montenegro skin test].

    PubMed

    José, F F; da Silva, I M; Araújo, M I; Almeida, R P; Bacellar, O; Carvalho, E M

    2001-01-01

    The Montenegro skin test, used to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis, is now being considered to detect immunogenicity after vaccination. In this study, we evaluated the ability of this test to induce immune response and IFN-g production in subjects not previously exposed to Leishmania. The Montenegro skin test was performed using antigens of L. amazonensis produced by our laboratory (group I) or by FIOCRU-RJ (group II). At day 30, 33% of the subjects from group I and 42% from group II were positive, compared to 67% from group I and 50% from group II at day 90. IFN-y was detected in 56 % of subjects from group I and 17% from group II at day 30 (169+/-309 and 11+/-36pg/ml) and in 67% from group I and 58% from group II by day 360 (69+/-107 and 18+/-20pg/ml). These data demonstrate that the Montenegro skin test induces not only a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, but also IFN-y production.

  14. A skin sensitization safety assessment of a new bleach activator technology in detergent applications.

    PubMed

    Roggeband, R; Helmlinger, G; Smith, I; Wilhelm, K-P; Ryan, C A; Gerberick, G F

    2002-04-01

    A new chemical called nonanoyl amido caproylacid oxybenzenesulphonate (NACAOBS) is being developed for use as a bleach activator in laundry detergents. Bleach activators, like NACAOBS, are typically used at levels between 2% and 6% in laundry detergents. NACAOBS is stable in aqueous solutions, but undergoes rapid perhydrolysis when combined with water and peroxygen bleach in laundry detergents. Animal testing demonstrated that NACAOBS, as a raw material, is a weak skin sensitizer. Clinical testing, including extended simulated laundry pretreatment, human repeat insult patch testing and home use testing was then undertaken, following sufficient reassurance of 1) the weak sensitization potential of the substance, 2) its rapid degradation in laundry wash solutions and, consequently, 3) low-to-negligible consumer dermal exposures to the native substance. Results confirmed the skin sensitization safety profile of laundry detergents containing NACAOBS, namely the absence of any reaction suggestive of contact sensitization (even under exaggerated dermal exposure conditions in a detergent matrix), and a skin compatibility profile comparable to that of current detergents. Further confirmation of the skin safety profile was obtained from a successful 12-month market test of a granular detergent containing 3.6% of the new substance, during which not a single adverse skin reaction was reported. In addition, NOBS (an oxybenzenesulphonate structural analogue to NACAOBS) has similar toxicological properties and has been safely marketed in detergents at similar levels for many years. It can be concluded that the likelihood of NACAOBS to induce skin sensitization or even elicit allergic reactions in consumer detergent use scenarios is negligible.

  15. HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy of reconstructed human epidermis: potential for the in situ investigation of the chemical interactions between skin allergens and nucleophilic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Elbayed, Karim; Berl, Valérie; Debeuckelaere, Camille; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Piotto, Martial; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-18

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) is a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique that enables the characterization of metabolic phenotypes/metabolite profiles of cells, tissues, and organs, under both normal and pathological conditions, without resorting to time-consuming extraction techniques. In this article, we explore a new domain of application of HR-MAS, namely, reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) and the in situ observation of chemical interactions between skin sensitizers and nucleophilic amino acids. First, the preparation, storage, and analysis of RHE were optimized, and this work demonstrated that HR-MAS NMR was well adapted for investigating RHE with spectra of good quality allowing qualitative as well as quantitative studies of metabolites. Second, in order to study the response of RHE to chemical sensitizers, the ((13)C)methyldodecanesulfonate was chosen as an NMR probe, and we compared adducts formed on human serum albumin (HSA) in solution and adducts formed in RHE. Thus, while the modification of proteins or peptides in solution takes several days to lead to a significant amount of modification, in RHE the modifications of nucleophilic amino acids were observable already at 24 h. The chemioselectivity also appeared to be different with major modifications taking place on histidine, methionine, and cysteine residues in RHE, while on HSA, significant modifications were observed on lysine residues with the formation of methylated and dimethylated amino groups. We thus demonstrated that RHE could be used to investigate in situ chemical interactions taking place between skin sensitizers and nucleophilic amino acids. This opens perspectives for the molecular understanding of the skin immune system activation by sensitizing chemicals.

  16. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  17. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Börje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  18. Allergen Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rael, Efren

    2016-09-01

    Allergies affect a large proportion of the population. Allergies can adversely affect productivity, sleep, and quality of life and can lead to life-threatening reactions. Allergies can spread to affect multiple organ systems. Allergen immunotherapy is the only therapy that can change the natural history of allergic disease. PMID:27545737

  19. Allergens are not pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Richard; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against infectious diseases has been one of the major breakthroughs in human medical history, saving the lives of millions of people each year. More recently, prophylactic vaccination against non-infectious diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and type I allergy is being investigated. Particularly in case of IgE-driven allergic disorders, which afflict almost a quarter of the population in highly developed countries, preventative measures would represent a major improvement for patients’ health as well as an economic relief for public health services. As an alternative to allergen-specific immunotherapy, prophylactic vaccination against type I allergic diseases could slow down or even stop the progress of the allergy pandemic. Allergen-encoding gene-based vaccines, i.e., plasmid DNA and mRNA vaccines, provide the advantage of purity over crude allergen extracts, which involve the risk of de novo sensitizations. Furthermore, these formulations have been demonstrated to induce T helper 1 as well as T regulatory immune responses—a pre-requisite for prophylactic intervention against allergies. However, prophylactic vaccines against environmental allergens strikingly differ from conventional vaccines against infectious diseases or therapeutic approaches concerning the underlying immunological mechanisms. PMID:24280693

  20. Rapid and sensitive detection of the food allergen glycinin in powdered milk using a lateral flow colloidal gold immunoassay strip test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping; Li, Qingmei; Yang, Jifei; Sun, Yaning; Li, Zhixi; Hu, Xiaofei

    2015-03-01

    A rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow test strip in a sandwich format was developed with the colloidal gold-labeled mouse antiglycinin monoclonal antibody (mAb) and rabbit antiglycinin polyclonal antibody (pAb) to specifically identify glycinin, a soybean allergen. The test strip is composed of a sample pad, a conjugate reagent pad, an absorbent pad, and a test membrane containing a control line and a test line. This test strip has high sensitivity, and results can be obtained within 10 min without sophisticated procedures. The limit of detection (LOD) of the test strip was calculated to be 0.69 mg/kg using an optical density scanner that measures relative optical density. The assay showed high specificity for glycinin, with no cross-reactions with other soybean proteins or other food allergens. The recoveries of the lateral flow test strip in detecting glycinin in powdered milk samples ranged between 80.5 and 89.9% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.29% (intra-assay) and 6.72% (interassay). Therefore, the test strip is useful as a quantitative, semiquantitative, or qualitative detection method for glycinin in powdered milk. In addition, the test strip can be used to detect glycinin in other processed foods and may be a valuable tool in identifying effective approaches for reducing the impact of glycinin.

  1. Peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

  2. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Nejat, Arsalan

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat) and Bla g1 (cockroach) allergens were found in the children's bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms.

  3. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Nejat, Arsalan

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat) and Bla g1 (cockroach) allergens were found in the children's bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms. PMID:27090366

  4. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  5. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  6. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  7. Exercise-induced bronchocontriction, skin sensitivity, and serum IgE in children with eczema.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J F; Cogswell, J J; Joseph, M C; Cochrane, G M

    1976-01-01

    Forty-two children with eczema were studied for exercise-induced astham (EIA), skin sensitivity to prick testing, blood eosinophil count, and immunoglobulins. 29 had a fall in peak expiratory flow rate after exercise greater than 20% and of these, 23 had symptoms of wheezing. 13 of the eczematous children showed a fall of less than 20%. The children with EIA showed greater cutaneous sensitivity (p less than 0.001) and a higher total serum IgE (p less than 0.025). 3 of the group with a fall of less than 20% had allergic rhinitis with skin sensitivity to grass pollen. The remaining 10 had no clinical evidence of allergic disease, other than eczema and skin sensitivity, and total IgE fell within the normal range. It is suggested that in a proportion of chilren with eczema there is little evidence of reaginic allergy. PMID:1015843

  8. Selective skin sensitivity changes and sensory reweighting following short-duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, Catherine R; Perry, Stephen D; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Williams, David R; Wood, Scott J; Bent, Leah R

    2014-03-15

    Skin sensory input from the foot soles is coupled with vestibular input to facilitate body orientation in a gravitational environment. Anecdotal observations suggest that foot sole skin becomes hypersensitive following space flight. The veritable level of skin sensitivity and its impact on postural disequilibrium observed post space flight have not been documented. Skin sensitivity of astronauts (n = 11) was measured as vibration perception at the great toe, fifth metatarsal and heel. Frequencies targeted four classes of receptors: 3 and 25 Hz for slow-adapting (SA) receptors and 60 and 250 Hz for fast-adapting (FA) receptors. Data were collected pre- and post-space flight. We hypothesized that skin sensitivity would increase post-space flight and correlate to balance measures. Decreased skin sensitivity was found on landing day at 3 and 25 Hz on the great toe. Hypersensitivity was found for a subset of astronauts (n = 6) with significantly increased sensitivity to 250 Hz at the heel. This subset displayed a greater reduction in computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) equilibrium (EQ) scores (-54%) on landing vs. non-hypersensitive participants (-11%). Observed hyposensitivity of SA (pressure) receptors may indicate a strategy to reduce pressure input during periods of unloading. Hypersensitivity of FAs coupled with reduced EQ scores may reflect targeted sensory reweighting. Altered gravito-inertial environments reduce vestibular function in balance control which may trigger increased weighting of FAs (that signal foot contact, slips). Understanding modulations to skin sensitivity has translational implications for mitigating postural disequilibrium following space flight and for on-Earth preventative strategies for imbalance in older adults.

  9. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  10. A magneto-sensitive skin for robots in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, D. S.; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a robot arm proximity sensing skin that can sense intruding objects is described. The purpose of the sensor would be to prevent the robot from colliding with objects in space including human beings. Eventually a tri-mode system in envisioned including proximity, tactile, and thermal. To date the primary emphasis was on the proximity sensor which evolved from one based on magneto-inductive principles to the current design which is based on a capacitive-reflector system. The capacitive sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect field lines away from the grounded robot toward the intruding object. This results in an increased sensing range of up to 12 in. with the reflector on compared with only 1 in. with it off. It is believed that this design advances the state-of-the-art in capacitive sensor performance.

  11. Correlation between percutaneous penetration of methyl nicotinate and sensitive skin, using laser Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Issachar, N; Gall, Y; Borrel, M T; Poelman, M C

    1998-10-01

    Cutaneous penetration of methyl nicotinate has been investigated in 20 women divided into reactors and non-reactors on the basis of response to 10% aqueous solution of lactic acid. The vasodilation induced was measured using a laser Doppler perfusion imager (LDPI) every 5 min for 1 h after application of methyl nicotinate. The intensity and duration of inflammation generated by methyl nicotinate were used to assess penetration of this chemical in persons with sensitive skin compared to those with normal skin. Significant differences were found between reactors and non-reactors. Reactors showed a significantly increased intensity of response to methyl nicotinate as early as 5 min after application, and for 30 min afterwards, though the duration of inflammation in these 2 groups was the same. Correlation between increased penetration of methyl nicotinate and skin response to lactic acid may suggest increased penetration of water-soluble chemicals in individuals with sensitive skin.

  12. Papain Degrades Tight Junction Proteins of Human Keratinocytes In Vitro and Sensitizes C57BL/6 Mice via the Skin Independent of its Enzymatic Activity or TLR4 Activation.

    PubMed

    Stremnitzer, Caroline; Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Willensdorfer, Anna; Starkl, Philipp; Pieper, Mario; König, Peter; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Reichart, Ursula; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-07-01

    Papain is commonly used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries and is known to induce occupational allergic asthma. We have previously shown that the papain-like cysteine protease Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 from house dust mite exhibits percutaneous sensitization potential. We aimed here to investigate the potential of papain itself in epicutaneous sensitization. The effects of papain on tight junction (TJ) proteins were tested in vitro in human primary keratinocytes. Using C57BL/6 wild-type and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice, we analyzed the sensitization potential of papain, its effects on the skin barrier, and immune cell recruitment. Our results show that papain affects the skin barrier by increasing transepidermal water loss, degrading TJ proteins and inducing vasodilation. When topically applied, papain exhibited a high epicutaneous inflammatory potential by recruiting neutrophils, mast cells, and CD3-positive cells and by induction of a TH2-biased antibody response. However, its high potency for specific sensitization via the skin was TLR4 independent and, in spite of its capacity to degrade epidermal TJ proteins, does not rely on its enzymatic function. From our data, we conclude that papain has all features to act as a strong allergen via the skin.

  13. Papain Degrades Tight Junction Proteins of Human Keratinocytes In Vitro and Sensitizes C57BL/6 Mice via the Skin Independent of its Enzymatic Activity or TLR4 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Willensdorfer, Anna; Starkl, Philipp; Pieper, Mario; König, Peter; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Reichart, Ursula; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Papain is commonly used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries and is known to induce occupational allergic asthma. We have previously shown that the papain-like cysteine protease Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 from house dust mite exhibits percutaneous sensitization potential. We aimed here to investigate the potential of papain itself in epicutaneous sensitization. The effects of papain on tight junction (TJ) proteins were tested in vitro in human primary keratinocytes. Using C57BL/6 wild-type and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice, we analyzed the sensitization potential of papain, its effects on the skin barrier, and immune cell recruitment. Our results show that papain affects the skin barrier by increasing transepidermal water loss, degrading TJ proteins and inducing vasodilation. When topically applied, papain exhibited a high epicutaneous inflammatory potential by recruiting neutrophils, mast cells, and CD3-positive cells and by induction of a TH2-biased antibody response. However, its high potency for specific sensitization via the skin was TLR4 independent and, in spite of its capacity to degrade epidermal TJ proteins, does not rely on its enzymatic function. From our data, we conclude that papain has all features to act as a strong allergen via the skin. PMID:25705851

  14. A cell-based in vitro alternative to identify skin sensitizers by gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hooyberghs, Jef Schoeters, Elke; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Nelissen, Inge; Witters, Hilda; Schoeters, Greet; Heuvel, Rosette van den

    2008-08-15

    The ethical and economic burden associated with animal testing for assessment of skin sensitization has triggered intensive research effort towards development and validation of alternative methods. In addition, new legislation on the registration and use of cosmetics and chemicals promote the use of suitable alternatives for hazard assessment. Our previous studies demonstrated that human CD34{sup +} progenitor-derived dendritic cells from cord blood express specific gene profiles upon exposure to low molecular weight sensitizing chemicals. This paper presents a classification model based on this cell type which is successful in discriminating sensitizing chemicals from non-sensitizing chemicals based on transcriptome analysis of 13 genes. Expression profiles of a set of 10 sensitizers and 11 non-sensitizers were analyzed by RT-PCR using 9 different exposure conditions and a total of 73 donor samples. Based on these data a predictive dichotomous classifier for skin sensitizers has been constructed, which is referred to as . In a first step the dimensionality of the input data was reduced by selectively rejecting a number of exposure conditions and genes. Next, the generalization of a linear classifier was evaluated by a cross-validation which resulted in a prediction performance with a concordance of 89%, a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 82%. These results show that the present model may be a useful human in vitro alternative for further use in a test strategy towards the reduction of animal use for skin sensitization.

  15. Increased CCL24/Eotaxin-2 with Postnatal Ozone Exposure in Allergen-Sensitized Infant Monkeys Is Not Associated with Recruitment of Eosinophils to Airway Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. PMID:21945493

  16. Allergy to guinea pigs: I. Allergenic activities of extracts derived from the pelt, saliva, urine and other sources.

    PubMed

    Walls, A F; Newman Taylor, A J; Longbottom, J L

    1985-05-01

    Guinea pig-sensitive patients with asthma and rhinitis were skin test positive to extracts of several materials derived from guinea pigs. A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was developed to measure serum IgE specific for the dander, urine, saliva and also for dust from the air-vent filters of a room housing guinea pigs. A strong correlation was found between positive skin test reactions, and raised serum IgE to these extracts. Furthermore, the relative allergenic potency of extracts was similar when determined by skin-prick testing and by inhibition of the RAST to guinea pig dust. Non-guinea pig-derived extracts such as the hay, sawdust and diet had negligible activity in skin testing and RAST inhibition; and preparations of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, house dust and rat dust did not inhibit the RAST for guinea pig room dust. The guinea pig dust, dander, fur, urine and saliva were the more potent extracts; while whole pelt, faeces and serum were considerably less active. Extracts from different sexes were not appreciably different in potency. The results of skin testing, RAST and RAST inhibition suggest cross-allergenicity between the various extracts. Although material shed from the pelt may have been derived from saliva, or even urine, allergenic activities of urinary and salivary preparations were found to be less than those of the dander, fur or dust. This suggests that allergens have become concentrated on the pelt. PMID:4006174

  17. The skin sensitization potential of resorcinol: experience with the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Sanders, David; Jowsey, Ian R

    2007-04-01

    Resorcinol is a simple aromatic chemical (1,3-benzenediol) that has found widespread use, particularly as a coupler in hair dyes. Clinical experience clearly shows that resorcinol is a (albeit uncommon) skin sensitizer. By contrast, predictive methods, both animal and human, have previously failed to identify resorcinol as such. Here, we describe the outcome of a recent local lymph node assay performed in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline 429, which correctly identified resorcinol as a skin sensitizer. Clear evidence of a dose response was apparent, and an EC3 value of approximately 6% was calculated. This suggests that the skin-sensitizing potency of resorcinol is approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of p-phenylenediamine but similar to that of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde. These data show the importance of adherence to test guidelines and aligns the clinical experience with resorcinol with that obtained in predictive animal methods. PMID:17343618

  18. IgG4 inhibits peanut-induced basophil and mast cell activation in peanut-tolerant children sensitized to peanut major allergens

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; James, Louisa K.; Bahnson, Henry T.; Shamji, Mohammed H.; Couto-Francisco, Natália C.; Islam, Sabita; Houghton, Sally; Clark, Andrew T.; Stephens, Alick; Turcanu, Victor; Durham, Stephen R.; Gould, Hannah J.; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background Most children with detectable peanut-specific IgE (P-sIgE) are not allergic to peanut. We addressed 2 non–mutually exclusive hypotheses for the discrepancy between allergy and sensitization: (1) differences in P-sIgE levels between children with peanut allergy (PA) and peanut-sensitized but tolerant (PS) children and (2) the presence of an IgE inhibitor, such as peanut-specific IgG4 (P-sIgG4), in PS patients. Methods Two hundred twenty-eight children (108 patients with PA, 77 PS patients, and 43 nonsensitized nonallergic subjects) were studied. Levels of specific IgE and IgG4 to peanut and its components were determined. IgE-stripped basophils or a mast cell line were used in passive sensitization activation and inhibition assays. Plasma of PS subjects and patients submitted to peanut oral immunotherapy (POIT) were depleted of IgG4 and retested in inhibition assays. Results Basophils and mast cells sensitized with plasma from patients with PA but not PS patients showed dose-dependent activation in response to peanut. Levels of sIgE to peanut and its components could only partially explain differences in clinical reactivity between patients with PA and PS patients. P-sIgG4 levels (P = .023) and P-sIgG4/P-sIgE (P < .001), Ara h 1–sIgG4/Ara h 1–sIgE (P = .050), Ara h 2–sIgG4/Ara h 2–sIgE (P = .004), and Ara h 3–sIgG4/Ara h 3–sIgE (P = .016) ratios were greater in PS children compared with those in children with PA. Peanut-induced activation was inhibited in the presence of plasma from PS children with detectable P-sIgG4 levels and POIT but not from nonsensitized nonallergic children. Depletion of IgG4 from plasma of children with PS (and POIT) sensitized to Ara h 1 to Ara h 3 partially restored peanut-induced mast cell activation (P = .007). Conclusions Differences in sIgE levels and allergen specificity could not justify the clinical phenotype in all children with PA and PS children. Blocking IgG4 antibodies provide an additional

  19. The relative risks of sensitivity to grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander in the development of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Sears, M R; Herbison, G P; Holdaway, M D; Hewitt, C J; Flannery, E M; Silva, P A

    1989-07-01

    The associations between skin sensitivity to various common allergens and the development of childhood asthma were ascertained in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children up to the age of 13 years. Of 714 children skin-tested, 45.8% were sensitive to at least one of 11 allergens, the most common responses being to rye grass pollen (32.5%), house dust mite (30.1%) and cat dander (13.3%). Allergen-specific relative risk analysis, controlled for the effect of sensitivity to other allergens, demonstrated that sensitivity to house dust mite and to cat dander were highly significant independent risk factors associated with the development of asthma (whether defined as recurrent typical respiratory symptoms, increased airway responsiveness, or the concurrent presence of both), whereas grass sensitivity was not a significant independent risk factor for asthma.

  20. Quantitative elastography of skin and skin lesion using phase-sensitive OCT (PhS-OCT) and surface wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the combination of phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) imaging system and surface wave method to achieve quantitative evaluation and elastography of the mechanical properties of in vivo human skin. PhS-OCT measures the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated by impulse stimulation from a home-made shaker, and provide the B-frame images for the sample. The surface wave phase velocity dispersion curves were calculated, from which the elasticity of different skin layers were determined. The combination of phase velocities from adjacent two locations generates a quantitative elastography of sample. The experimental results agree well with theoretical expectations and may offer potential use in clinical situations.

  1. Allergen-free probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mogna, Giovanni; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Mogna, Luca

    2008-09-01

    Food sensitivities are constantly increasing in "westernized" countries and may pose serious health risks to sensitized individuals. Severe allergy episodes have also been reported after the intake of probiotic products containing milk protein residues, especially in children. The need for safe and effective probiotic strains and food supplements, which contain them, is now emerging clearly. The present work describes the way of achieving this aim by the avoidance of any kind of raw materials at risk, both in probiotic strain industrial manufacturing and finished product formulation. Allergen-free probiotics represent, without any doubt, an innovative and safe tool for human health.

  2. Evaluation of skin sensitization potential of jet fuels by murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Kanikkannan, N; Jackson, T; Sudhan Shaik, M; Singh, M

    2000-07-27

    Jet A and JP-8 are the major jet fuels used in civilian and military (US Air Force) flights, respectively. JP-8+100 is a new jet fuel recently introduced by the US Air Force. Besides lung exposure, skin is the potential route of exposure to jet fuels. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the skin sensitization potential of jet fuels (Jet A, JP-8 and JP-8+100) using murine Local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female CBA/Ca mice (8-12-weeks-old) were used in the study. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, 0.25% w/v) and paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA, 2.5% w/v) were used as positive and negative control, respectively and acetone: olive oil (4:1, AOO) was used as the vehicle (control). All three jet fuels caused a proliferative activity significantly greater than the control (P<0.01). Our results demonstrate that JP-8 is a weak skin sensitizer [stimulation index (SI)=3.17]. The SI of Jet A and JP-8+100 were 2.44 and 2.38, respectively, hence are not considered as skin sensitizers. Interestingly, the SI of JP-8 with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was consistently lower than JP-8, though the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). BHT, which is an antioxidant additive of JP-8+100, reduced the skin sensitization potential of JP-8. Furthermore, the lower SI of JP-8+100 could be partially attributed to the presence of BHT. The findings reported here suggest that care should be taken to minimize dermal exposure to jet fuels especially JP-8 to avoid skin sensitization.

  3. The pilosebaceous unit—a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsson, Carl; Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Ericson, Marica B.; Jonsson, Charlotte A.M.

    2012-10-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is caused by low-molecular weight compounds called haptens. It has been shown that the potency of haptens can depend on the formulation in which they are applied on the skin. Specifically the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates, a group of haptens which can be released from e.g. adhesive tapes and neoprene materials, increases with the presence of phthalates; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the potency of haptens is important, e.g. to improve the risk assessment and the formulation of chemicals in consumer products. In this study we have explored phthalate-induced effects on the sensitization potency, skin distribution, and reactivity of fluorescent model isothiocyanate haptens using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to provide new insights regarding vehicle effects in ACD. The data presented in this paper indicate that the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates increases when applied in combination with dibutylphthalate due to a specific uptake via the pilosebaceous units. The results highlight the importance of shunt pathways when evaluating the bioavailability of skin sensitizers. The findings also indicate that vehicle-dependent hapten reactivity towards stratum corneum proteins regulates the bioavailability, and thus the potency, of skin sensitizers. -- Highlights: ► Vehicle effects on sensitization potency were investigated in the LLNA. ► In vivo cutaneous absorption of contact sensitizers was visualized using TPM. ► Sensitizing potency of isothiocyanates depends on the presence of a phthalate. ► Phthalate induced cutaneous absorption via the pilosebaceous units. ► Vehicle-dependent reactivity regulates sensitization potency.

  4. Stable isotope labeling method for the investigation of protein haptenation by electrophilic skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Erika; Boyd, Pete; Aleksic, Maja; Cubberley, Richard; O'Connor, David; Skipp, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The risk of contact sensitization is a major consideration in the development of new formulations for personal care products. However, developing a mechanistic approach for non-animal risk assessment requires further understanding of haptenation of skin proteins by sensitizing chemicals, which is the molecular initiating event causative of skin sensitization. The non-stoichiometric nature of protein haptenation results in relatively low levels of modification, often of low abundant proteins, presenting a major challenge for their assignment in complex biological matrices such as skin. Instrumental advances over the last few years have led to a considerable increase in sensitivity of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. We have combined these advancements with a novel dual-labeling/LC-MS(E) approach to provide an in-depth direct comparison of human serum albumin (HSA), 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB), 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MCI), trans-cinnamaldehyde, and 6-methyl coumarin. These data have revealed novel insights into the differences in protein haptenation between sensitizers with different reaction mechanisms and sensitizing potency; the extreme sensitizers DNCB and MCI were shown to modify a greater number of nucleophilic sites than the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde; and the weak/non-sensitizer 6-methyl coumarin was restricted to only a single nucleophilic residue within HSA. The evaluation of this dual labeling/LC-MS(E) approach using HSA as a model protein has also demonstrated that this strategy could be applied to studying global haptenation in complex mixtures of skin-related proteins by different chemicals.

  5. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-16

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa(-1)) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin. PMID:27250529

  6. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity of guinea pig dorsal skin.

    PubMed

    Buffoni, F; Cambi, S; Banchelli, G; Ignesti, G; Pirisino, R; Raimondi, L

    1994-01-01

    A semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity with a high affinity for benzylamine (Bz.SSAO) (E.C. 1.4.3.6) is present in guinea pig dorsal skin. This enzymic activity oxidized benzylamine, histamine, 1,4-methylhistamine and acetylputrescine and was inhibited by semicarbazide and by B24 (3,5-diethoxy-4-aminomethylpyridine), a selective inhibitor of Bz.SSAO enzymes. It cross reacted with the antibodies raised against pure pig plasma benzylamine oxidase. Immunohistochemistry showed that it was localized in fibroblasts. Bz.SSAO activity of guinea pig dorsal skin increased during the process of skin healing. A treatment of the wounds with 3 micrograms of b-FGF significantly accelerated the process of skin healing and the increase of Bz.SSAO activity. PMID:7931260

  7. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations.

  8. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331

  9. Electrochemical detection of peanut allergen Ara h 1 using a sensitive DNA biosensor based on stem-loop probe.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiulan; Guan, Lu; Shan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yinzhi; Li, Zaijun

    2012-11-01

    A novel electrochemical DNA sensor was developed by using a stem-loop probe for peanut allergen Ara h 1 detection. The probe was modified with a thiol at its 5' end and a biotin at its 3' end. The biotin-tagged "molecular beacon"-like probe was attached to the surface of a gold electrode to form a stem-loop structure by self-assembly through facile gold-thiol affinity. 6-Mercaptohexanol (MCH) was used to cover the remnant bare region. The stem--loop probe was "closed" when the target was absent, and then the hybridization of the target induced the conformational change to "open", along with the biotin at its 3' end moved away from the electrode surface. The probe conformational change process was verified by circular dichroism (CD); meanwhile, electron-transfer efficiency changes between probe and electrode were proved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The detection limit of this method was 0.35 fM with the linear response ranging from 10(-15) to 10(-10) M. Moreover, a complementary target could be discriminated from one-base mismatch and noncomplementarity. The proposed strategy has been successfully applied to detect Ara h 1 in the peanut DNA extracts of peanut milk beverage, and the concentration of it was 3.2 × 10(-13) mol/L.

  10. Orthologous Allergens and Diagnostic Utility of Major Allergen Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781

  11. A review of the Buehler guinea pig skin sensitization test and its use in a risk assessment process for human skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Nusair, T L; Fletcher, E R; Ritz, H L

    1990-04-17

    sensitization data on the benchmark material. These data are then utilized to predict human sensitization risk from topical exposure to the new material. Confirmation of human safety can be derived from human repeat insult patch testing (HRIPT) and other clinical tests such as the product use test and the diagnostic patch test. Utilized in this manner, the Buehler test is an integral component of an overall skin sensitization safety assessment program for a new chemical or product formulation.

  12. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-18

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts. PMID:27286037

  13. In silico risk assessment for skin sensitization using artificial neural network analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsujita-Inoue, Kyoko; Atobe, Tomomi; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Kouzuki, Hirokazu

    2015-04-01

    The sensitizing potential of chemicals is usually identified and characterized using in vivo methods such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Due to regulatory constraints and ethical concerns, alternatives to animal testing are needed to predict the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. For this purpose, an integrated evaluation system employing multiple in vitro and in silico parameters that reflect different aspects of the sensitization process seems promising. We previously reported that LLNA thresholds could be well predicted by using an artificial neural network (ANN) model, designated iSENS ver. 2 (integrating in vitro sensitization tests version 2), to analyze data obtained from in vitro tests focused on different aspects of skin sensitization. Here, we examined whether LLNA thresholds could be predicted by ANN using in silico-calculated descriptors of the three-dimensional structures of chemicals. We obtained a good correlation between predicted LLNA thresholds and reported values. Furthermore, combining the results of the in vitro (iSENS ver. 2) and in silico models reduced the number of chemicals for which the potency category was under-estimated. In conclusion, the ANN model using in silico parameters was shown to be have useful predictive performance. Further, our results indicate that the combination of this model with a predictive model using in vitro data represents a promising approach for integrated risk assessment of skin sensitization potential of chemicals.

  14. Photosensitivity enhancement with TiO2 in semitransparent light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Shahab; Yeltik, Aydan; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-06-25

    We propose and demonstrate light-sensitive nanocrystal skins that exhibit broadband sensitivity enhancement based on electron transfer to a thin TiO2 film grown by atomic layer deposition. In these photosensors, which operate with no external bias, photogenerated electrons remain trapped inside the nanocrystals. These electrons generally recombine with the photogenerated holes that accumulate at the top interfacing contact, which leads to lower photovoltage buildup. Because favorable conduction band offset aids in transferring photoelectrons from CdTe nanocrystals to the TiO2 layer, which decreases the exciton recombination probability, TiO2 has been utilized as the electron-accepting material in these light-sensitive nanocrystal skins. A controlled interface thickness between the TiO2 layer and the monolayer of CdTe nanocrystals enables a photovoltage buildup enhancement in the proposed nanostructure platform. With TiO2 serving as the electron acceptor, we observed broadband sensitivity improvement across 350-475 nm, with an approximately 22% enhancement. Furthermore, time-resolved fluorescence measurements verified the electron transfer from the CdTe nanocrystals to the TiO2 layer in light-sensitive skins. These results could pave the way for engineering nanocrystal-based light-sensing platforms, such as smart transparent windows, light-sensitive walls, and large-area optical detection systems. PMID:24821008

  15. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced VEGF production in normal human

  16. [SENSITIVITY OF THE NEW SKIN TEST DIASKINTEST® FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS].

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    In Russia, an intradermal Diaskintest® drug has been designed, which is a recombinant tuberculosis allergen based on M. tuberculosis-- specific proteins: ESAT-6 and CFP-10 produced by a genetically modified Escherichia coli culture. Diaskintest® test and Mantoux test with 2TE PPD-L were concurrently carried out in 300 children and adolescents with tuberculosis and followed up in risk groups at a tuberculosis dispensary to determine the sensitivity of the new skin test in active tuberculosis infection. Diaskintest® showed a high sensitivity not only in active tuberculosis, but also in occult, the so-called latent, tuberculosis infection. This is suggested by the following evidence. The high percentage (83.8%) of positive responses to Diaskintest® is noted in children and adolescents with tuberculosis, receiving an intensive course of chemotherapy. Negative tests were observed only in minor forms at the resolution stage. In the children who had completed treatment, positive tests were seen in 78.3%, moreover in those with prior tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes; negative tests were observed not earlier than 18 months after start of treatment. The highest sensitivity of Diaskintest® was shown in children with early primary tuberculosis infection and through family contact with bacteria-excreting subjects (91.7%). These children may be judged with the highest assurance to have latent tuberculosis infection, the population of which is in an active state at the moment of the study. The children with early primary tuberculosis infection, but in no family contact with bacteria-excreting individuals, showed a lower percentage of positive responses to Diaskintest® both before (37.5%) and after (10%) treatment, which suggests that there must be a lower bacterial burden in the child. A high percentage of positive responses to Diaskintest® (76.2%) were found in subjects with hyperergic reactions to tuberculin. These were in only 16.7% in the group of patients

  17. Oral sensitization with shrimp tropomyosin induces in mice allergen-specific IgE, T cell response and systemic anaphylactic reactions.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Francescamaria; Butteroni, Cinzia; Barletta, Bianca; Corinti, Silvia; Afferni, Claudia; Tinghino, Raffaella; Boirivant, Monica; Di Felice, Gabriella

    2008-08-01

    Appropriate murine models of shrimp tropomyosin (ST) allergy would be useful in investigating the mechanisms underlying food allergy in human subjects, as well as for the pre-clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety of novel therapeutic approaches. These models should mimic immune and clinical features of human disease, including anaphylactic response. We sensitized C3H/HeJ mice by the oral route with purified ST using cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant. ST-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2a and IgA responses were evaluated by ELISA. Spleen cell proliferation and cytokine production by allergen-specific activation were assessed. Jejunum and colon fragments were collected to evaluate the local expression of cytokine genes by PCR. Local and systemic anaphylactic reactions induced by oral ST challenge were scored according to symptoms observed. Faecal samples were collected to assess local IgA production and histamine levels. Oral sensitization with ST plus CT induced in mice significant levels of serum IgE and IgG1 and faecal IgA. ST-specific cell proliferation and IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-gamma cytokine production were induced in the spleen. After oral challenge, 100% of mice had anaphylactic symptoms while no symptoms were observed in challenged naive mice. Faecal histamine content after ST challenge appeared significantly increased in sensitized mice when compared with that observed in pre-immune mice. Jejunum mRNA expression of T(h)2 cytokines was up-regulated by ST sensitization. These results support the importance of the oral way of sensitization and of the in-depth characterization of the anaphylactic response for the development of a suitable in vivo model of food allergy.

  18. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using random forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers were 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the ScoreCard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. PMID:25560674

  19. Allergen and irritant control: importance and implementation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H S

    1998-01-01

    The Expert Panel Report 2. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (1) begins its section on controlling factors that precipitate or worsen asthma with the statement: "For successful long-term asthma management, it is essential to identify and reduce exposures to relevant allergens and irritants and to control other factors that have been shown to increase asthma symptoms and/or precipitate asthma exacerbations." The presence of allergy to indoor allergens and certain seasonal fungal spores has been found to be a risk factor for asthma in epidemiologic studies around the world. Generally between 70% and 85% of asthmatic populations studied have been reported to have positive skin-prick tests. Exposure of allergic patients to inhalant allergens increases airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, asthma symptoms, need for medication, severe attacks, and even death due to asthma. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure has been shown to increase the prevalence of childhood asthma and to increase asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness while reducing pulmonary function in children chronically exposed. Exposure to other indoor irritants, largely products of unvented combustion, has also been found to increase asthma symptoms. Outdoor air pollution increases asthma symptoms; levels of specific pollutants correlate with emergency room visits and hospitalization for asthma. Rhinitis/sinusitis and gastroesophageal reflux are commonly associated with asthma, and treatment of these conditions has been shown to improve asthma. In patients sensitive to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or metabisulfites, exposure to these agents can precipitate severe attacks of asthma. Viral infections are common causes for exacerbations of asthma. Infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae contribute to acute exacerbations and perhaps to long-term morbidity, as well. This chapter will discuss preventive and therapeutic measures

  20. Advances in allergen-microarray technology for diagnosis and monitoring of allergy: the MeDALL allergen-chip.

    PubMed

    Lupinek, Christian; Wollmann, Eva; Baar, Alexandra; Banerjee, Srinita; Breiteneder, Heimo; Broecker, Barbara M; Bublin, Merima; Curin, Mirela; Flicker, Sabine; Garmatiuk, Tetiana; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Mittermann, Irene; Pahr, Sandra; Resch, Yvonne; Roux, Kenneth H; Srinivasan, Bharani; Stentzel, Sebastian; Vrtala, Susanne; Willison, Leanna N; Wickman, Magnus; Lødrup-Carlsen, Karin C; Antó, Josep Maria; Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Ebner, Daniel; Schlederer, Thomas; Harwanegg, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Allergy diagnosis based on purified allergen molecules provides detailed information regarding the individual sensitization profile of allergic patients, allows monitoring of the development of allergic disease and of the effect of therapies on the immune response to individual allergen molecules. Allergen microarrays contain a large variety of allergen molecules and thus allow the simultaneous detection of allergic patients' antibody reactivity profiles towards each of the allergen molecules with only minute amounts of serum. In this article we summarize recent progress in the field of allergen microarray technology and introduce the MeDALL allergen-chip which has been developed for the specific and sensitive monitoring of IgE and IgG reactivity profiles towards more than 170 allergen molecules in sera collected in European birth cohorts. MeDALL is a European research program in which allergen microarray technology is used for the monitoring of the development of allergic disease in childhood, to draw a geographic map of the recognition of clinically relevant allergens in different populations and to establish reactivity profiles which are associated with and predict certain disease manifestations. We describe technical advances of the MeDALL allergen-chip regarding specificity, sensitivity and its ability to deliver test results which are close to in vivo reactivity. In addition, the usefulness and numerous advantages of allergen microarrays for allergy research, refined allergy diagnosis, monitoring of disease, of the effects of therapies, for improving the prescription of specific immunotherapy and for prevention are discussed.

  1. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    PubMed

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  2. Update in the Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotheraphy

    PubMed Central

    Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a complex innate and adoptive immune response to natural environmental allergens with Th2-type T cells and allergen-specific IgE predominance. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective therapeutic approach for disregulated immune response towards allergens by enhancing immune tolerance mechanisms. The main aim of immunotherapy is the generation of allergen nonresponsive or tolerant T cells in sensitized patients and downregulation of predominant T cell- and IgE-mediated immune responses. During allergen-specific immunotherapy, T regulatory cells are generated, which secrete IL-10 and induce allergen-specific B cells for the production of IgG4 antibodies. These mechanisms induce tolerance to antigens that reduces allergic symptoms. Although current knowledge highlights the role of T regulatory cell-mediated immunetolerance, definite mechanisms that lead to a successful clinical outcomes of allergen-specific immunotherapy still remains an open area of research. PMID:21217920

  3. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals. PMID:24041755

  4. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals.

  5. Cooling-sensitive TRPM8 is thermostat of skin temperature against cooling.

    PubMed

    Tajino, Koji; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Shingo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Dhaka, Ajay; Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2011-03-02

    We have shown that cutaneous cooling-sensitive receptors can work as thermostats of skin temperature against cooling. However, molecule of the thermostat is not known. Here, we studied whether cooling-sensitive TRPM8 channels act as thermostats. TRPM8 in HEK293 cells generated output (y) when temperature (T) was below threshold of 28.4°C. Output (y) is given by two equations: At T >28.4°C, y = 0; At T <28.4°C, y  =  -k(T - 28.4°C). These equations show that TRPM8 is directional comparator to elicits output (y) depending on negative value of thermal difference (ΔT  =  T - 28.4°C). If negative ΔT-dependent output of TRPM8 in the skin induces responses to warm the skin for minimizing ΔT recursively, TRPM8 acts as thermostats against cooling. With TRPM8-deficient mice, we explored whether TRPM8 induces responses to warm the skin against cooling. In behavioral regulation, when room temperature was 10°C, TRPM8 induced behavior to move to heated floor (35°C) for warming the sole skin. In autonomic regulation, TRPM8 induced activities of thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) against cooling. When menthol was applied to the whole trunk skin at neutral room temperature (27°C), TRPM8 induced a rise in core temperature, which warmed the trunk skin slightly. In contrast, when room was cooled from 27 to 10°C, TRPM8 induced a small rise in core temperature, but skin temperature was severely reduced in both TRPM8-deficient and wild-type mice by a large heat leak to the surroundings. This shows that TRPM8-driven endothermic system is less effective for maintenance of skin temperature against cooling. In conclusion, we found that TRPM8 is molecule of thermostat of skin temperature against cooling.

  6. Evidence for an atypical receptor mediating the augmented bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine induced by allergen challenge in actively sensitized Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hannon, J P; Tigani, B; Wolber, C; Williams, I; Mazzoni, L; Howes, C; Fozard, J R

    2002-02-01

    The bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine is markedly and selectively increased following ovalbumin (OA) challenge in actively sensitized, Brown Norway rats. We present a pharmacological analysis of the receptor mediating this response. Like adenosine, the broad-spectrum adenosine receptor agonist, NECA, induced dose-related bronchoconstriction in actively sensitized, OA-challenged animals. In contrast, CPA, CGS 21680 and 2-Cl-IB-MECA, agonists selective for A(1) A(2A) and A(3) receptors, respectively, induced no, or minimal, bronchoconstriction. Neither the selective A(1) receptor antagonist, DPCPX, nor the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, ZM 241385, blocked the bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine. MRS 1754, which has similar affinity for rat A(2B) and A(1) receptors, failed to block the bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine despite blockade of the A(1) receptor-mediated bradycardia induced by NECA. 8-SPT and CGS 15943, antagonists at A(1), A(2A), and A(2B) but not A(3) receptors, inhibited the bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine. However, the degree of blockade (approximately 3 fold) did not reflect the plasma concentrations, which were 139 and 21 times greater than the K(B) value at the rat A(2B) receptor, respectively. Adenosine and NECA, but not CPA, CGS 21680 or 2-Cl-IB-MECA, induced contraction of parenchymal strip preparations from actively sensitized OA-challenged animals. Responses to adenosine could not be antagonized by 8-SPT or MRS 1754 at concentrations >50 times their affinities at the rat A(2B) receptor. The receptor mediating the bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine augmented following allergen challenge in actively sensitized BN rats cannot be categorized as one of the four recognized adenosine receptor subtypes.

  7. Performance of a novel keratinocyte-based reporter cell line to screen skin sensitizers in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham; Natsch, Andreas

    2010-06-15

    In vitro tests are needed to replace animal tests to screen for the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Skin sensitizers are electrophilic molecules and the Nrf2-electrophile-sensing pathway comprising the repressor protein Keap1, the transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) is emerging as a toxicity pathway induced by skin sensitizers. Previously, we screened a large set of chemicals in the reporter cell line AREc32, which contains an eight-fold repeat of the rat GSTA2 ARE-sequence upstream of a luciferase reporter gene in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. This approach was now further developed to bring it closer to the conditions in the human skin and to propose a fully standardized assay. To this end, a luciferase reporter gene under control of a single copy of the ARE-element of the human AKR1C2 gene was stably inserted into HaCaT keratinocytes. A standard operating procedure was developed whereby chemicals are routinely tested at 12 concentrations in triplicate for significant induction of gene activity. We report results from this novel assay on (i) a list of reference chemicals published by ECVAM, (ii) the ICCVAM list of chemicals for validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA and (iii) on a more general list of 67 chemicals derived from the ICCVAM database. For comparison, peptide reactivity data are presented for the same chemicals. The results indicate a good predictive value of this approach for hazard identification. Its technical simplicity, the high-throughput format and the good predictivity may make this assay a candidate for rapid validation to meet the tight deadline to replace animal tests for skin sensitization by 2013 set by the European authorities.

  8. Evaluation of a topical treatment for the relief of sensitive skin

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Ingrid R; Adams, Damian H; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately, 50% of the population claim to have sensitive skin, which has created an important challenge for dermatologists and the cosmetic industry. This study evaluates the properties of QV Face Rescue Gel (Rescue Gel) that contains a combination of moisturizing and anti-irritant ingredients, and which is used to relieve the symptoms of sensitive facial skin. Methods The ability of Rescue Gel to induce collagen types I and III in cultured neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts compared to transforming growth factor beta 1, a known potent inducer of collagen types I and III, was measured using immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, healthy volunteers were recruited to measure the potential for Rescue Gel to reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation on the skin compared to 0.5% hydrocortisone cream (positive control) as well as it’s ability to decrease transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. In addition, the formulation was tested for its potential to be 1) nonstinging using a facial sting/discomfort assay performed on volunteers who reacted positively to lactic acid, 2) nonirritating as determined by repeat insult patch tests, and 3) noncomedogenic. Results Rescue Gel significantly induced collagen types I and III in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts similarly to transforming growth factor beta 1. In volunteers, Rescue Gel was shown to significantly reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation similarly to 0.5% hydrocortisone, and to significantly reduce transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. Further, the formulation was found to be nonstinging, nonirritating, and noncomedogenic. No adverse events were observed. Conclusion In this study, Rescue Gel has been shown to exhibit properties that make it effective for use on sensitive or irritated facial skin, without exacerbation of the symptoms associated with sensitive skin. PMID:26251625

  9. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen.

  10. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana. PMID:15644142

  11. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa-1) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The

  12. Proteomic identification of allergenic seed proteins, napin and cruciferin, from cold-pressed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed

    Puumalainen, T J; Puustinen, A; Poikonen, S; Turjanmaa, K; Palosuo, T; Vaali, K

    2015-05-15

    In Finland and France atopic children commonly react to seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape in skin prick tests (SPT) and open food challenges. These seeds are not as such in dietary use and therefore the routes of sensitization are unknown. Possible allergens were extracted from commercial cold-pressed and refined rapeseed oils and identified by gel-based tandem nanoflow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Napin (a 2S albumin), earlier identified as a major allergen in the seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape, and cruciferin (an 11S globulin), a new potential seed allergen, were detected in cold-pressed oils, but not in refined oils. Pooled sera from five children sensitized or allergic to oilseed rape and turnip rape seeds reacted to these proteins from cold-pressed oil preparations and individual sera from five children reacted to these proteins extracted from the seeds when examined with IgE immunoblotting. Hence cold-pressed rapeseed oil might be one possible route of sensitization for these allergens.

  13. Biology of weed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Dedic, Azra; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Frank, Susanne; Himly, Martin; Ferreira, Fatima

    2004-09-01

    Weeds represent a heterogeneous group of plants, usually defined by no commercial or aesthetic value. Important allergenic weeds belong to the plant families Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Plantaginaceae. Major allergens from ragweed, mugwort, feverfew, pellitory, goosefoot, Russian thistle, plantain, and Mercurialis pollen have been characterized to varying degrees. Four major families of proteins seem to be the major cause of allergic reactions to weed pollen: the ragweed Amb a 1 family of pectate lyases; the defensin-like Art v 1 family from mugwort, feverfew, and probably also from sunflower; the Ole e 1-like allergens Pla l 1 from plantain and Che a 1 from goosefoot; and the nonspecific lipid transfer proteins Par j 1 and Par j 2 from pellitory. As described for other pollens, weed pollen also contains the panallergens profilin and calcium-binding proteins, which are responsible for extensive cross-reactivity among pollen-sensitized patients.

  14. The allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Bos, J D; van der Meeren, H L; van Joost, T; Jagtman, B A; Weyland, J W

    1988-10-01

    The ingredients responsible for allergy to cosmetics were determined in 119 patients suffering from cosmetic-related contact dermatitis. Most reactions (56.3%) were caused by skin care products, followed by nail cosmetics (13.4%), perfumes (8.4%), and hair cosmetics (5.9%). Preservatives were most frequently implicated (32.0%), followed by fragrances (26.5%) and emulsifiers (14.3%). By far the most important cosmetic allergen was Kathon CG, (a preservative system containing, as active ingredients, a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and methyl chloroisothiazolinone) reacting in 33 patients (27.7%). Other frequent causes of cosmetic-related contact allergic reactions were toluenesulfonamide/formaldehyde resin in nail hardener and/or nail lacquer (15 patients [12.6%]), and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, an emulsifier in baby body lotion (13 patients [10.9%]).

  15. Peptide reactivity associated with skin sensitization: The QSAR Toolbox and TIMES compared to the DPRA.

    PubMed

    Urbisch, D; Honarvar, N; Kolle, S N; Mehling, A; Ramirez, T; Teubner, W; Landsiedel, R

    2016-08-01

    The molecular initiating event (MIE) of skin sensitization is the binding of a hapten to dermal proteins. This can be assessed using the in chemico direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) or in silico tools such as the QSAR Toolbox and TIMES SS. In this study, the suitability of these methods was analyzed by comparing their results to in vivo sensitization data of LLNA and human studies. Compared to human data, 84% of non-sensitizers and sensitizers yielded consistent results in the DPRA. In silico tools resulted in 'no alert' for 83%-100% of the non-sensitizers, but alerted only 55%-61% of the sensitizers. The inclusion of biotic and abiotic transformation simulations yielded more alerts for sensitizers, but simultaneously dropped the number of non-alerted non-sensitizers. In contrast to the DPRA, in silico tools were more consistent with results of the LLNA than human data. Interestingly, the new "DPRA profilers" (QSAR Toolbox) provided unsatisfactory results. Additionally, the results were combined in the '2 out of 3' prediction model with in vitro data derived from LuSens and h-CLAT. Using DPRA results, the model identified 90% of human sensitizers and non-sensitizers; using in silico results (including abiotic and biotic activations) instead of DPRA results led to a comparable high predictivity. PMID:27090964

  16. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.

  17. Latex-allergic patients sensitized to the major allergen hevein and hevein-like domains of class I chitinases show no increased frequency of latex-associated plant food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Radauer, Christian; Adhami, Farzaneh; Fürtler, Irene; Wagner, Stefan; Allwardt, Dorothee; Scala, Enrico; Ebner, Christof; Hafner, Christine; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mari, Adriano; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Allergies to certain fruits such as banana, avocado, chestnut and kiwi are described in 30–70% of latex-allergic patients. This association is attributed to the cross-reactivity between the major latex allergen hevein and hevein-like domains (HLDs) from fruit class I chitinases. We aimed to assess the extent of cross-reactivity between hevein and HLDs using sera from latex-allergic patients with and without plant food allergy. Hevein and HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with the maltose-binding protein and purified by affinity chromatography. IgE binding to these proteins was studied in sera from 59 latex-allergic patients and 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy by ELISA and ELISA inhibition. Additionally, 16,408 allergic patients’ sera were tested for IgE binding to hevein, latex chitinase, and wheat germ agglutinin using an allergen microarray. Hevein-specific IgE was detected in 34/59 (58%) latex-allergic patients’ sera. HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were recognized by 21 (36%), 20 (34%), and 9 (15%) sera, respectively. In contrast, only one of 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy was sensitized to chitinase HLDs. In most tested latex-allergic patients’ sera, IgE binding to hevein was only partially reduced by preincubation with HLDs. Among hevein-sensitized, latex-allergic patients, the percentage of plant food allergy (15/34 = 44%) was equal to latex-allergic patients without hevein sensitization (11/25 = 44%). In the general allergic population, 230 of 16,408 sera (1.4%) reacted to hevein and/or a hevein-like allergen. Of these, 128 sera showed an isolated sensitization to hevein, whereas only 17 bound to latex chitinase or wheat germ agglutinin without hevein sensitization. In conclusion, the IgE response to HLDs is elicited by hevein as sensitizing allergen in most cases. Despite considerable cross-reactivity between these allergens, no

  18. Predicting skin sensitization potential and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) in the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) ring trials.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ryan, Cindy; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Klaus R; Ashikaga, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory policies in Europe prohibited the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for a number of toxicological endpoints. Currently no validated non-animal test methods exist for skin sensitization. Evaluation of changes in cell surface marker expression in dendritic cell (DC)-surrogate cell lines represents one non-animal approach. The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) examines the level of CD86 and CD54 expression on the surface of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, following 24h of chemical exposure. To examine protocol transferability, between-lab reproducibility, and predictive capacity, the h-CLAT has been evaluated by five independent laboratories in several ring trials (RTs) coordinated by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA). The results of the first and second RTs demonstrated that the protocol was transferable and basically had good between-lab reproducibility and predictivity, but there were some false negative data. To improve performance, protocol and prediction model were modified. Using the modified prediction model in the first and second RT, accuracy was improved. However, about 15% of the outcomes were not correctly identified, which exposes some of the limitations of the assay. For the chemicals evaluated, the limitation may due to chemical being a weak allergen or having low solubility (ex. alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde). The third RT evaluated the modified prediction model and satisfactory results were obtained. From the RT data, the feasibility of utilizing cell lines as surrogate DC in development of in vitro skin sensitization methods shows promise. The data also support initiating formal pre-validation of the h-CLAT in order to fully understand the capabilities and limitations of the assay.

  19. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R. L. N.; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G. K. R.; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  20. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N T R N; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R L N; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G K R; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  1. Allergen Component Testing in the Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Schussler, Edith; Kattan, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are an important public health problem, affecting 5 % of adults and 8 % of children, with numerous studies indicating that the prevalence is increasing. Food allergic reactions can range in severity from mild to severe and life threatening. Accurate diagnosis of food allergy is necessary not only to provide appropriate and potentially life-saving preventive measures but also to prevent unwarranted dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy has traditionally been based on clinical history and food specific IgE (sIgE) testing, including skin prick testing (SPT), serum tests, or both. These tests tend to be extremely sensitive, but positive test results to foods that are tolerated are common. Studies of allergen component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) show that adjuvant use of this modality may provide a more accurate assessment in the diagnosis of food allergy, though the reported benefits are questionable for a number of major allergens. Furthermore, diagnostic cutoff values have been difficult to determine for allergens where component testing has been demonstrated to be beneficial.

  2. Clinical implications of cross-reactive food allergens.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, S H

    2001-12-01

    As a consequence of the general increase in allergic sensitization, the prevalence of hypersensitivity reactions to multiple foods that share homologous proteins has become a significant clinical problem. A variety of these allergens conserved among plants (eg, profilin and lipid transfer proteins) and animals (eg, tropomyosin and caseins) have been characterized. Although studies with molecular biologic techniques have elucidated the nature of these ubiquitous allergens, clinical studies have lagged behind. The physician is called on to determine the risk of reaction to related foods among legumes, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, cereal grains, mammalian and avian food products, and a variety of other plant-derived foods that may share proteins with pollens, latex, and each other. Clinical evaluations require a careful history, laboratory evaluation, and in some cases oral food challenges. The pitfalls in the evaluation of food allergy-unreliable histories and limitations in laboratory assessment primarily caused by false-positive skin prick test responses/RAST results are magnified when dealing with cross-reactive proteins. This review focuses on the clinical data regarding cross-reacting food allergens with the goal of providing a background for improved risk assessment and a framework on which to approach these difficult clinical questions.

  3. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  4. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group.

  5. Relationship of CD86 surface marker expression and cytotoxicity on dendritic cells exposed to chemical allergen

    SciTech Connect

    Hulette, Ben C.; Ryan, Cindy A.; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank . E-mail: gerberick.gf@pg.com

    2005-12-01

    Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DC) respond to a variety of chemical allergens by up-regulating expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. It has been postulated that this measure might provide the basis for an in vitro alternative approach for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. We recently reported that DC, exposed in culture to the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of various chemical allergens, displayed marginal up-regulation of membrane CD86 expression; the interpretation being that such changes were insufficiently sensitive for the purposes of hazard identification. For the work presented here, immature DC were derived from human monocytes and treated with the chemical allergens 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), Bandrowski's base (BB), hydroquinone (HQ) and propyl gallate (PG) for 48 h at concentrations which induced both no to slight to moderate cytotoxicity. For comparison, DC were treated with the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzoic acid (BA), and benzalkonium chloride (BZC) at concentrations resulting in comparable levels of cytotoxicity. CD86 expression, as measured by flow cytometry, was consistently up-regulated (ranging from 162 to 386% control) on DC treated with concentrations of chemical allergens that induced approximately 10-15% cytotoxicity. The irritants BA and BZC did not induce up-regulation of CD86 expression when tested at concentrations that induced similar levels of cytotoxicity. SDS, however, up-regulated CD86 expression to 125-138% of control in 2/4 preparations when tested at concentrations which induced similar toxicity. Our results confirm that chemical allergens up-regulate CD86 expression on blood-derived DC and illustrate further that up-regulation of CD86 surface marker expression is more robust when DC are treated with concentrations of chemical allergen that induce slight to moderate cytotoxicity.

  6. Evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals using expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, on the naive THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Sakaguchi, H; Ito, Y; Okuda, M; Suzuki, H

    2003-04-01

    It has been known that dendritic cells (DCs) including Langerhans cells (LCs) play a critical role in the skin sensitization process. Many attempts have been made to develop in vitro sensitization tests that employ DCs derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-DC) or CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+ HPC) purified from cord blood or bone marrow. However, the use of the DCs in in vitro methods has been difficult due to the nature of these cells such as low levels in the source and/or donor-to-donor variability. In our studies, we employed the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1, in order to avoid some of these difficulties. At the start, we examined whether treatment of the cells with various cytokines could produce DCs from THP-1. Treatment of THP-1 cells with cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and/or PMA did induce some phenotypic changes in THP-1 cells that were characteristic of DCs. Subsequently, responses to a known sensitizer, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and a non-sensitizer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, were examined between the naive cells and the cytokine-treated cells. Interestingly, the naive THP-1 cells responded only to DNCB and the response to the sensitizer was more distinct than cytokine-treated THP-1 cells. Similar phenomena were also observed in the human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1. Furthermore, with treatment of DNCB, naive THP-1 cells showed augmented expression of HLA, CD80 and secretion of IL-1 beta. The response of THP-1 cells to a sensitizer was similar to that of LCs/DCs. Upon demonstrating the differentiation of monocyte cells in our system, we then evaluated a series of chemicals, including known sensitizers and non-sensitizers, for their potential to augment CD54 and CD86 expression on naive THP-1 cells. Indeed, known sensitizers such as PPD and 2-MBT significantly augmented CD54 and CD86 expression in a

  7. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  8. Allergen structures and epitopes.

    PubMed

    Meno, K H

    2011-07-01

    Human type 1 hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis are characterized by allergen-specific IgE antibodies produced in allergic individuals after allergen exposure. IgE antibodies bound to receptors on the surface of effector cells trigger an allergic response by interacting with three-dimensional (conformational) epitopes on the allergen surface. Crystal structures are available for complexes of antibody specifically bound to five allergens, from birch pollen, bee venom, cockroach, cow's milk and timothy grass pollen. The details of the antibody-allergen interaction extending all the way to atomic resolution are available from such complexes. In vitro investigations using recombinant monoclonal antibodies and human basophils show that binding affinity is a key to triggering the allergic response. Continued molecular characterization of antibody-allergen interactions is paving the way for the use of recombinant allergens in allergen-specific diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:21668845

  9. A strong and stretchable self-healing film with self-activated pressure sensitivity for potential artificial skin applications

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chengyi; Huang, Tao; Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2013-01-01

    Artificial skin, which mimics the functions of natural skin, will be very important in the future for robots used by humans in daily life. However, combining skin's pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing properties in a man-made material remains a challenging task. Here, we show that graphene and polymers can be integrated into a thin film which mimics both the mechanical self-healing and pressure sensitivity behavior of natural skin without any external power supply. Its ultimate strain and tensile strength are even two and ten times larger than the corresponding values of human skin, respectively. It also demonstrates highly stable sensitivity to a very light touch (0.02 kPa), even in bending or stretching states. PMID:24190511

  10. A strong and stretchable self-healing film with self-activated pressure sensitivity for potential artificial skin applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chengyi; Huang, Tao; Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2013-11-01

    Artificial skin, which mimics the functions of natural skin, will be very important in the future for robots used by humans in daily life. However, combining skin's pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing properties in a man-made material remains a challenging task. Here, we show that graphene and polymers can be integrated into a thin film which mimics both the mechanical self-healing and pressure sensitivity behavior of natural skin without any external power supply. Its ultimate strain and tensile strength are even two and ten times larger than the corresponding values of human skin, respectively. It also demonstrates highly stable sensitivity to a very light touch (0.02 kPa), even in bending or stretching states.

  11. A strong and stretchable self-healing film with self-activated pressure sensitivity for potential artificial skin applications.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chengyi; Huang, Tao; Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2013-01-01

    Artificial skin, which mimics the functions of natural skin, will be very important in the future for robots used by humans in daily life. However, combining skin's pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing properties in a man-made material remains a challenging task. Here, we show that graphene and polymers can be integrated into a thin film which mimics both the mechanical self-healing and pressure sensitivity behavior of natural skin without any external power supply. Its ultimate strain and tensile strength are even two and ten times larger than the corresponding values of human skin, respectively. It also demonstrates highly stable sensitivity to a very light touch (0.02 kPa), even in bending or stretching states. PMID:24190511

  12. Structure-activity relationships for selected fragrance allergens.

    PubMed

    Patlewicz, G Y; Wright, Z M; Basketter, D A; Pease, C K; Lepoittevin, J-P; Arnau, E Giménez

    2002-10-01

    Fragrance substances represent a very diverse group of chemicals, a proportion of them providing not only desirable aroma characteristics, but also being associated with adverse effects, notably the ability to cause allergic reactions in the skin. However, efforts to find substitute materials are hampered by the need to undertake animal testing to evaluate both the presence and the degree of skin sensitization hazard. One potential route to avoid such testing is to understand the relationships between chemical structure and skin sensitization. In the present work we have evaluated two groups of fragrance chemicals, saturated aldehydes (aryl substituted and aliphatic aldehydes) and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Data on their skin sensitization potency defined using the local lymph node assay has been evaluated in relation to their physicochemical properties. The initial outcome has been consistent with the concept that alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes react largely via Michael addition, whilst the group of saturated aldehydes form Schiff bases with proteins. Simple models of chemical reactivity based on these mechanisms suggest that it may be possible to predict allergenic potency. Accordingly, the evaluation of an additional group of similar aldehydes is now underway to assess the robustness of these models, with some emphasis being based on ensuring a wider spread of chemical reactivity.

  13. Cardiac urticaria caused by eucleid allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Qianwen

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common allergic diseases, which involve respiratory and digestive system being suffered in some population. Yet, relatively little research has been done on the adverse effect on the heart. We did this research to examine the correlation between the abnormality of ECG in the patients with acute allergic urticaria and the antigen of eucleid. The antigen (allergen of eucleid and other allergens) was used to test the patients with acute allergic urticaria by skin prick test and electrocardiogram was employed to examine the patients with strong positive (moth & caterpillar) eucleid antigen. Strong positive eucleid antigen was identified in 84 cases with abnormal electrocardiographic pattern of diversity. So, the acute allergic skin urticaria caused by eucleid allergen may impose strong effect on the heart and thus lead to allergic cardiac urticaria. PMID:26885121

  14. Cardiac urticaria caused by eucleid allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Qianwen

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common allergic diseases, which involve respiratory and digestive system being suffered in some population. Yet, relatively little research has been done on the adverse effect on the heart. We did this research to examine the correlation between the abnormality of ECG in the patients with acute allergic urticaria and the antigen of eucleid. The antigen (allergen of eucleid and other allergens) was used to test the patients with acute allergic urticaria by skin prick test and electrocardiogram was employed to examine the patients with strong positive (moth & caterpillar) eucleid antigen. Strong positive eucleid antigen was identified in 84 cases with abnormal electrocardiographic pattern of diversity. So, the acute allergic skin urticaria caused by eucleid allergen may impose strong effect on the heart and thus lead to allergic cardiac urticaria. PMID:26885121

  15. Reproducibility of the heat/capsaicin skin sensitization model in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cavallone, Laura F; Frey, Karen; Montana, Michael C; Joyal, Jeremy; Regina, Karen J; Petersen, Karin L; Gereau, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Heat/capsaicin skin sensitization is a well-characterized human experimental model to induce hyperalgesia and allodynia. Using this model, gabapentin, among other drugs, was shown to significantly reduce cutaneous hyperalgesia compared to placebo. Since the larger thermal probes used in the original studies to produce heat sensitization are now commercially unavailable, we decided to assess whether previous findings could be replicated with a currently available smaller probe (heated area 9 cm2 versus 12.5–15.7 cm2). Study design and methods After Institutional Review Board approval, 15 adult healthy volunteers participated in two study sessions, scheduled 1 week apart (Part A). In both sessions, subjects were exposed to the heat/capsaicin cutaneous sensitization model. Areas of hypersensitivity to brush stroke and von Frey (VF) filament stimulation were measured at baseline and after rekindling of skin sensitization. Another group of 15 volunteers was exposed to an identical schedule and set of sensitization procedures, but, in each session, received either gabapentin or placebo (Part B). Results Unlike previous reports, a similar reduction of areas of hyperalgesia was observed in all groups/sessions. Fading of areas of hyperalgesia over time was observed in Part A. In Part B, there was no difference in area reduction after gabapentin compared to placebo. Conclusion When using smaller thermal probes than originally proposed, modifications of other parameters of sensitization and/or rekindling process may be needed to allow the heat/capsaicin sensitization protocol to be used as initially intended. Standardization and validation of experimental pain models is critical to the advancement of translational pain research. PMID:24232380

  16. Evaluation of Phototoxic and Skin Sensitization Potentials of PLA2-Free Bee Venom

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Yunwi; Pyo, Min-Jung; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kwon, Young Chul; Kim, Je Hein; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Choul Goo; Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Euikyung

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has been used in oriental medicine and cosmetic ingredients because of its diverse pharmacological activities. In many studies, among BV components, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is known as a major player in BV-induced allergic reaction. Therefore, we removed PLA2 from BV using ultrafiltration and then investigated in vitro phototoxicity and in vivo skin sensitization of PLA2-free BV (PBV) in comparison with regular BV. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity assay can be appropriated to identify the phototoxic effect of a test substance upon the exposure of ultraviolet A. Chlorpromazine, a positive control, showed high levels of photoirritation factor and mean photo effect values, while BV and PBV had less of these values. Local lymph node assay is an alternative method to evaluate skin sensitization potential of chemicals. BALB/c mice were treated with p-phenylenediamine (PPD, positive control), BV, or PBV. In all of PPD concentrations, stimulation indexes (SI) as sensitizing potential of chemicals were ≥1.6, determined to be sensitizer, while SI levels of BV and PBV were below 1.6. Thus, based on these findings, we propose that both BV and PBV are nonphototoxic compounds and nonsensitizers. PMID:26347784

  17. New tree nut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  18. Paprika rhinoconjunctivitis case reveals new occupational Capsicum allergens.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Liisa; Riekki, Riitta; Vuokko, Aki; Puustinen, Anne

    2015-07-01

    No allergens related to paprika or cayenne respiratory allergy have been identified thus far. We describe a previously healthy 28-year woman who developed work-related rhinoconjunctivitis after four years of kebab-restaurant work. The allergy was studied using skin prick tests, serum specific IgE and nasal provocation tests. Specific IgE protein reactions were studied by Western blot analysis. Paprika, cayenne and curry allergens were identified from the strongest immunoblot bands using tandem mass spectrometry. A positive skin prick test, high specific IgE and positive nasal provocation test confirmed occupational rhinoconjunctivitis from Capsicum spices. Defensin J1 and Vicilin were identified as major paprika and cayenne allergens in this case. Vicilin was detected also from the curry ingredients. Two new occupational respiratory allergens from the Capsicum species were identified. These differ from previously reported bell pepper allergens. We emphasize that substantial spice handling at work poses an allergy risk.

  19. Paprika rhinoconjunctivitis case reveals new occupational Capsicum allergens.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Liisa; Riekki, Riitta; Vuokko, Aki; Puustinen, Anne

    2015-07-01

    No allergens related to paprika or cayenne respiratory allergy have been identified thus far. We describe a previously healthy 28-year woman who developed work-related rhinoconjunctivitis after four years of kebab-restaurant work. The allergy was studied using skin prick tests, serum specific IgE and nasal provocation tests. Specific IgE protein reactions were studied by Western blot analysis. Paprika, cayenne and curry allergens were identified from the strongest immunoblot bands using tandem mass spectrometry. A positive skin prick test, high specific IgE and positive nasal provocation test confirmed occupational rhinoconjunctivitis from Capsicum spices. Defensin J1 and Vicilin were identified as major paprika and cayenne allergens in this case. Vicilin was detected also from the curry ingredients. Two new occupational respiratory allergens from the Capsicum species were identified. These differ from previously reported bell pepper allergens. We emphasize that substantial spice handling at work poses an allergy risk. PMID:25944018

  20. Repeated allergen challenge as a new research model for studying allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    de Bruin-Weller, M S; Weller, F R; De Monchy, J G

    1999-02-01

    Repeated allergen challenge might be a more relevant model for studying symptomatic disease, because it gives more information on the patient's handling of chronic allergen exposure. Thus, this experimental model has more resemblance to the situation of natural allergen exposure, and the allergen load can be standardized. However, the response to repeated allergen challenge in individual patients can show a large variation, that is from a strongly enhanced response to complete diminution of the response. Successful allergen immunotherapy can change the response pattern of repeated allergen challenge in the skin into down-regulation of the late reaction. Chronic or repeated allergen exposure may result in an enhanced allergen-specific allergic response, involving allergen-specific T-cell activation. Different subsets of T cells can exert either activating or suppressive effects on inflammatory cells involved in subsequent allergic reactions. CD8+ T cells might exert suppressive effects, because they seem to be associated with a subsequent down-regulation of the late skin reaction after repeated allergen challenge (Fig. 4). Further studies are needed to compare the responses to repeated allergen challenge with the response to natural seasonal allergen exposure in the same patients and to explore possible underlying mechanisms using, for example, nasal biopsies.

  1. Burn depth determination in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Mark C.; Sheridan, Robert L.; Park, Boris H.; Cense, Barry; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2003-07-01

    Accurate evaluation of the depth of injury in burn victims is of considerable practical value to the surgeon, both for initial determination of resuscitation fluid requirements, and in deciding whether excision and closure of the wound is necessary. Currently, burn depth is most accurately evaluated by visual inspection, though decisions concerning treatment may not be possible for a number of days post-injury. As part of our ongoing efforts to provide an objective, quantitative method for burn depth determination, we present here the results of a study using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to detect and measure thermally induced changes in collagen birefringence in skin excised from burn patients. We find that PS-OCT is capable of imaging and quantifying significantly reduced birefringence in burned human skin.

  2. Analytic Sensitivity and Approximation of Skin Buckling Constraints in Wing-Shape Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livne, Eli; Milosavljevic, Radomir

    1995-01-01

    Explicit expressions for terms of the stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices are derived for the buckling analysis of trapezoidal fiber composite wing skin panels. The formulation is based on Ritz analysis using simple polynomials, and leads to explicit expressions for the analytic sensitivities of the stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices with respect to layer thickness, fiber directions, and panel shape. Integration with wing box analysis using either the equivalent plate approach or the finite element method, makes it possible to obtain sensitivities of panel buckling constraints with respect to wing planform shape or locations of internal ribs and spars. The analytic sensitivities are used to construct approximations of panel buckling constraints for integrated wing/panel design synthesis.

  3. Overview of the status of predictive computer models for skin sensitization (JRC Expert meeting on pre- and pro-haptens )

    EPA Science Inventory

    No abstract was prepared or requested. This is a short presentation aiming to present a status of what in silico models and approaches exists in the prediction of skin sensitization potential and/or potency.

  4. In vivo and in vitro analysis of low level light therapy: a useful therapeutic approach for sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Choi, M; Kim, J E; Cho, K H; Lee, J H

    2013-11-01

    Sensitive skin is a relatively common dermatologic condition and no optimal treatments have been established so far. Low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT) has been used for its biostimulative effect in various clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low-level laser/light therapy can improve sensitive skin clinically and to evaluate the effects of LLLT on skin in vitro. Twenty-eight patients complaining of sensitive skin were treated with low-level polarized light, and clinical results were evaluated using subjective and objective method. To investigate possible working mechanism of LLLT on skin, cultured human keratinocytes pretreated with nontoxic concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used. Cytokines released from irritated keratinocytes after LLLT were analyzed. All patients showed subjective and objective improvement after treatment. No adverse effects were reported. The average number of LLLT sessions required to achieve clinical improvement was 9.9, and cumulative dose of LLLT was 71.3 J/cm(2) on the average. Erythema index decreased significantly after LLLT treatment (p = 0.017). In vitro assay showed that LLLT significantly reduced the release of VEGF from SLS-pretreated keratinocytes (p = 0.021). Our results suggest that LLLT could be a useful and safe treatment modality for sensitive skin, and modification of inflammatory cytokines released from irritated keratinocytes may be considered as one of plausible mechanisms in sensitive skin treated with LLLT.

  5. Peanut allergens: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and, especially, the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always renewed. This article reviews the information currently available on peanut allergens and on the techniques used for their chemical characterization. Moreover, a general overview on the current biotechnological approaches used to reduce or eliminate peanut allergens is also provided. PMID:23638932

  6. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  7. CORSSTOL: Cylinder Optimization of Rings, Skin, and Stringers with Tolerance sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, J.; Bevill, M.

    1995-01-01

    Cylinder Optimization of Rings, Skin, and Stringers with Tolerance (CORSSTOL) sensitivity is a design optimization program incorporating a method to examine the effects of user-provided manufacturing tolerances on weight and failure. CORSSTOL gives designers a tool to determine tolerances based on need. This is a decisive way to choose the best design among several manufacturing methods with differing capabilities and costs. CORSSTOL initially optimizes a stringer-stiffened cylinder for weight without tolerances. The skin and stringer geometry are varied, subject to stress and buckling constraints. Then the same analysis and optimization routines are used to minimize the maximum material condition weight subject to the least favorable combination of tolerances. The adjusted optimum dimensions are provided with the weight and constraint sensitivities of each design variable. The designer can immediately identify critical tolerances. The safety of parts made out of tolerance can also be determined. During design and development of weight-critical systems, design/analysis tools that provide product-oriented results are of vital significance. The development of this program and methodology provides designers with an effective cost- and weight-saving design tool. The tolerance sensitivity method can be applied to any system defined by a set of deterministic equations.

  8. Altered thermal sensitivity in facial skin in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Lampa, Ewa; Nordh, Erik

    2013-09-01

    There is a close functional relationship between the jaw and neck regions and it has been suggested that trigeminal sensory impairment can follow whiplash injury. Inclusion of manageable routines for valid assessment of the facial sensory capacity is thus needed for comprehensive evaluations of patients exposed to such trauma. The present study investigated facial thermal thresholds in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) with both a qualitative method and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Ten women with pain and dysfunction following a whiplash injury were compared to 10 healthy age-matched women. Thermal detection thresholds were assessed by qualitative chair-side testing and by QST according to the method-of-limits. Seven test sites in the facial skin (overlying each trigeminal branch bilaterally, and the midpoint of the chin) were examined. The detection warm and cold thresholds were defined as the mean values of 10 individual thresholds. For the WAD patients, the qualitative assessment demonstrated both reduced and increased sensitivity compared to the healthy, whereas QST systematically showed significantly higher detection thresholds (i.e., decreased sensitivity) for both cold and warm stimuli. For the individuals who were assessed as having increased sensitivity in the qualitative assessment, the QST displayed either normal or higher thresholds, i.e., decreased sensitivity. The results suggest that QST is more sensitive for detecting thermal sensory disturbances in the face than a qualitative method. The impaired thermal sensitivity among the patients corroborates the notion of altered thermal detection capacity induced by WAD-related pain.

  9. Niacin Skin Sensitivity Is Increased in Adolescents at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Miriam R.; Milleit, Berko; Langbein, Kerstin; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Milleit, Christine; Klier, Claudia M.; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Holub, Magdalena; Holzer, Ingrid; Berk, Michael; McGorry, Patrick D.; Sauer, Heinrich; Amminger, G. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Most studies provide evidence that the skin flush response to nicotinic acid (niacin) stimulation is impaired in schizophrenia. However, only little is known about niacin sensitivity in the ultra-high risk (UHR) phase of psychotic disorders. Methods We compared visual ratings of niacin sensitivity between adolescents at UHR for psychosis according to the one year transition outcome (UHR-T n = 11; UHR-NT n = 55) with healthy controls (HC n = 25) and first episode schizophrenia patients (FEP n = 25) treated with atypical antipsychotics. Results Contrary to our hypothesis niacin sensitivity of the entire UHR group was not attenuated, but significantly increased compared to the HC group, whereas no difference could be found between the UHR-T and UHR-NT groups. As expected, niacin sensitivity of FEP was attenuated compared to HC group. In UHR individuals niacin sensitivity was inversely correlated with omega-6 and -9 fatty acids (FA), but positively correlated with phospholipase A2 (inPLA2) activity, a marker of membrane lipid repair/remodelling. Conclusions Increased niacin sensitivity in UHR states likely indicates an impaired balance of eicosanoids and omega-6/-9 FA at a membrane level. Our findings suggest that the emergence of psychosis is associated with an increased mobilisation of eicosanoids prior to the transition to psychosis possibly reflecting a “pro-inflammatory state”, whereas thereafter eicosanoid mobilisation seems to be attenuated. Potential treatment implications for the UHR state should be further investigated. PMID:26894921

  10. Importance of albumin in cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse allergens.

    PubMed

    Cabañas, R; López-Serrano, M C; Carreira, J; Ventas, P; Polo, F; Caballero, M T; Contreras, J; Barranco, P; Moreno-Ancillo, A

    2000-01-01

    Different allergenic proteins have been involved in cross-reactivity among animals. Albumins seem to be cross-sensitizing allergenic components. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of albumin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. One hundred and seventeen patients sensitized to cat were tested for IgE reactivity using skin prick tests and RAST assays with cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts and their purified albumin extracts. RAST-inhibition studies were carried out to assess cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse and among their purified albumins. It was found that 22% of patients exhibited specific IgE to cat albumin; 41% of patients sensitized to cat were also sensitized to dog and horse. Out of these patients, 21% had IgE to three albumins and 17% to two. Reciprocal inhibitions were observed among cat, dog and horse albumins and also among cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts, using in the latter experiment sera from patients not sensitized to albumins. IgE binding to horse extract was inhibited 30% by its homologous albumin and IgE binding to cat and dog extracts in almost 15% by their respective albumins. It was concluded that albumins from these three animals share some epitopes that account for the cross-reactivity observed in around one-third of patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. Nevertheless, more than 50% of specific IgE that cross-reacts among these three animals is directed to allergens other than albumin. PMID:10879993

  11. NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase, a major allergen of Cladosporium herbarum.

    PubMed

    Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Denk, Ursula; Schneider, Peter Bernhard; Radauer, Christian; Teige, Markus; Crameri, Reto; Hawranek, Thomas; Lang, Roland; Richter, Klaus; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Nobbe, Stephan; Hartl, Arnulf; Breitenbach, Michael

    2006-06-16

    Cladosporium herbarum is an important allergenic fungal species that has been reported to cause allergic diseases in nearly all climatic zones. 5-30% of the allergic population displays IgE antibodies against molds. Sensitization to Cladosporium has often been associated with severe asthma and less frequently with chronic urticaria and atopic eczema. However, no dominant major allergen of this species has been found so far. We present cloning, production, and characterization of NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase of C. herbarum (Cla h 8) and show that this protein is a major allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies of approximately 57% of all Cladosporium allergic patients. This is the highest percentage of patients reacting with any Cladosporium allergen characterized so far. Cla h 8 was purified to homogeneity by standard chromatographic methods, and both N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of protein fragments were determined. Enzymatic analysis of the purified natural protein revealed that this allergen represents a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase that interconverts mannitol and d-fructose. It is a soluble, non-glycosylated cytoplasmic protein. Two-dimensional protein analysis indicated that mannitol dehydrogenase is present as a single isoform. The cDNA encoding Cla h 8 was cloned from a lambda-ZAP library constructed from hyphae and spores. The recombinant non-fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Its immunological and biochemical identity with the natural protein was shown by enzyme activity tests, CD spectroscopy, IgE immunoblots with sera of patients, and by skin prick testing of Cladosporium allergic patients. This protein therefore is a new major allergen of C. herbarum.

  12. Sensitivity of different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm to corticosteroid-induced skin blanching.

    PubMed

    Meyer, E; Smith, E W; Haigh, J M

    1992-10-01

    The intensity of corticosteroid-induced blanching has been found to vary at different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm. A retrospective analysis of 38,880 observations of skin blanching in 56 volunteers was conducted to assess the sensitivity of forearm skin to betamethasone 17-valerate. The mid-forearm appears to be more sensitive to the blanching response than do the areas close to the wrist or elbow. These results indicate that each preparation under evaluation should be applied to several sites along the forearm when using the human skin blanching assay in order to obtain an accurate comparative assessment of corticosteroid release from topical delivery vehicles.

  13. Tree pollen allergens-an update from a molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Asam, C; Hofer, H; Wolf, M; Aglas, L; Wallner, M

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that pollen allergies affect approximately 40% of allergic individuals. In general, tree pollen allergies are mainly elicited by allergenic trees belonging to the orders Fagales, Lamiales, Proteales, and Pinales. Over 25 years ago, the gene encoding the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was the first such gene to be cloned and its product characterized. Since that time, 53 tree pollen allergens have been identified and acknowledged by the WHO/IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee. Molecule-based profiling of allergic sensitization has helped to elucidate the immunological connections of allergen cross-reactivity, whereas advances in biochemistry have revealed structural and functional aspects of allergenic proteins. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of the molecular aspects of tree pollen allergens. We analyze the geographic distribution of allergenic trees, discuss factors pivotal for allergic sensitization, and describe the role of tree pollen panallergens. Novel allergenic tree species as well as tree pollen allergens are continually being identified, making research in this field highly competitive and instrumental for clinical applications.

  14. New Trends in Food Allergens Detection: Toward Biosensing Strategies.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita C; Barroso, M Fátima; González-García, María Begoña; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-25

    Food allergens are a real threat to sensitized individuals. Although food labeling is crucial to provide information to consumers with food allergies, accidental exposure to allergenic proteins may result from undeclared allergenic substances by means of food adulteration, fraud or uncontrolled cross-contamination. Allergens detection in foodstuffs can be a very hard task, due to their presence usually in trace amounts, together with the natural interference of the matrix. Methods for allergens analysis can be mainly divided in two large groups: the immunological assays and the DNA-based ones. Mass spectrometry has also been used as a confirmatory tool. Recently, biosensors appeared as innovative, sensitive, selective, environmentally friendly, cheaper and fast techniques (especially when automated and/or miniaturized), able to effectively replace the classical methodologies. In this review, we present the advances in the field of food allergens detection toward the biosensing strategies and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of this technology.

  15. The Role of Skin Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Neema; Luu, Minnelly; Ong, Peck Y.; Tam, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a serious public health problem with an increasing prevalence. Current management is limited to food avoidance and emergency treatment. Research into the pathogenesis of food allergy has helped to shape our understanding of how patients become sensitized to an allergen. Classically, food sensitization was thought to occur through the gastrointestinal tract, but alternative routes of sensitization are being explored, specifically through the skin. Damaged skin barrier may play a crucial role in the development of food sensitization. Better understanding of how patients initially become sensitized may help lead to the development of a safe and effective treatment for food allergies or better prevention strategies. PMID:27417371

  16. Prospective multicentre study of the U-SENS test method for skin sensitization testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Piroird, C; Aujoulat, M; Dreyfuss, S; Hoffmann, S; Hohenstein, A; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Gerbeix, C; Cotovio, J

    2015-12-25

    The U-SENS™ is a test method based on the human myeloid U937 cell line to assess the skin sensitisation potential of substances. To demonstrate its robustness, a multicentre validation study with four laboratories testing 24 coded substances has been conducted according to internationally agreed principles. The primary objective of the study was to enlarge the U-SENS™'s reproducibility database. Secondary objectives were to provide additional evidence on its transferability and its predictive capability. Reproducibility within laboratories was approximately 92%, while the reproducibility between laboratories was 87.5%. Predictivity for the 24 validation substances was high, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy being on average at least 93.8%. Similar performances are obtained for 38 substances when combining the study results with those of an earlier multicentre study, as well as with an automated version of the U-SENS™. With reliability and relevance similar to comparable non-animal skin sensitisation test methods, which have achieved regulatory acceptance, it is concluded that the U-SENS™ is a well reproducible and predictive test method. This profiles the U-SENS™ as a valuable addition to the suite of non-animal testing methods for skin sensitisation with the potential to significantly contribute to the development of integrated testing strategies. PMID:26439184

  17. Prospective multicentre study of the U-SENS test method for skin sensitization testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Piroird, C; Aujoulat, M; Dreyfuss, S; Hoffmann, S; Hohenstein, A; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Gerbeix, C; Cotovio, J

    2015-12-25

    The U-SENS™ is a test method based on the human myeloid U937 cell line to assess the skin sensitisation potential of substances. To demonstrate its robustness, a multicentre validation study with four laboratories testing 24 coded substances has been conducted according to internationally agreed principles. The primary objective of the study was to enlarge the U-SENS™'s reproducibility database. Secondary objectives were to provide additional evidence on its transferability and its predictive capability. Reproducibility within laboratories was approximately 92%, while the reproducibility between laboratories was 87.5%. Predictivity for the 24 validation substances was high, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy being on average at least 93.8%. Similar performances are obtained for 38 substances when combining the study results with those of an earlier multicentre study, as well as with an automated version of the U-SENS™. With reliability and relevance similar to comparable non-animal skin sensitisation test methods, which have achieved regulatory acceptance, it is concluded that the U-SENS™ is a well reproducible and predictive test method. This profiles the U-SENS™ as a valuable addition to the suite of non-animal testing methods for skin sensitisation with the potential to significantly contribute to the development of integrated testing strategies.

  18. Large-area semi-transparent light-sensitive nanocrystal skins.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Shahab; Guzelturk, Burak; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2012-11-01

    We report a large-area, semi-transparent, light-sensitive nanocrystal skin (LS-NS) platform consisting of single monolayer colloidal nanocrystals. LS-NS devices, which were fabricated over areas up to 48 cm(2) using spray-coating and several cm-squares using dip-coating, are operated on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, unlike the conventional charge collection. Implementing proof-of-concept devices using CdTe nanocrystals with ligand removal, we observed a substantial sensitivity enhancement factor of ~73%, accompanied with a 3-fold faster response time (<100 ms). With fully sealed nanocrystal monolayers, LS-NS is found to be highly stable under ambient conditions, promising for low-cost large-area UV/visible sensing in windows and facades of smart buildings. PMID:23187342

  19. Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part II.

    PubMed

    Valér, M

    1975-06-01

    The late type contact sensitizing effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) on the intact human skin has been investigated in the present study. The immune process of sensitisation was induced with "Tenzym prilled" (TP, Grindstedvoerket) and with "Maxatase" (M, Gist-Brocades) protease enzymes in the epicutaneous test (ET), using concentration series and various durations of application. The ETs were made on the intact (symptom-free) skin, as well as under conditions promoting the subcorneal penetration of PE. Challenge was carried out at 21 to 30 days following induction of 2092 subjects, and at 2 to 5 months on 1624 subjects. Despite the large number of subjects tested, contact sensitisation developed in none of the cases, although the inducing exposure took place under conditions promoting the immune process of sensitisation. In 60 individuals suffereing from occupational dermatitis on regular contact with PE and having no symptoms of early type inhalative allergy (mucous membrane changes, bronchial asthma-like symptoms) were challenged also by the intradermal test. No reaction was noted in any of them at 10 and 30 minutes, as well as at 24 and 48 hours following the test. Next the influence of PE is analysed in the induction or increased severity of the irritation caused by bioactive laundry detergents. The studies involved the use of serial dilutions of "Biopon" (Bn) laundry detergent containing TP or M, or not containing PE, respectively, by means of the ET. A total of 740 series (5220 tests) of the three variants were applied in dilution series to intact skin surface, as well as to pathologically and arteficially lsioned skin areas. The Bn variants containing and not containing PE increased the number of irratative reactions in essentially the same degree. This suggests that the irritative effect is not due to the presence of PE, but to the laundry-active detergents (WAS) of Bn in the first place, and to a lesser extent to its other ingredients.

  20. Neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory ingredient for sensitive skin: in vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Adilson; Eberlin, Samara; Polettini, Anelise J; da Costa Pereira, Andreia F; Pereira, Caroline S; Ferreira, Nayara M Cortes; Dolis, Eleonora; Torloni, Liliana B Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of sensitive skin occurs as a consequence of increased permeability of the Stratum corneum, besides the involvement of neuro-immune-endocrine system. In this study, we evaluated the effects of an active ingredient SensC on the production of neuropeptides substance P (SP), enkephalin and β-endorphin; eicosanoids prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4); histamine, transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), and envelope proteins filaggrin and involucrin, using an in vitro model of human cell culture. Our results demonstrated that treatment of keratinocyte cultures with SensC prevented the increase of all evaluated inflammatory mediators induced by interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α). As the same way, SensC provides decrease in the synthesis of TRPV1. Regarding the synthesis of envelope proteins, SensC promoted increases for filaggrin and involucrin levels, when compared to control group. Considering the absence of appropriate treatment, the availability of ingredients, such as SensC, with antiinflammatory and protective barrier properties can be a significant tool for preventing neurosensorial symptoms associated with sensitive skin.

  1. Skin sensitization, false positives and false negatives: experience with guinea pig assays.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2010-07-01

    The advent of the local lymph node assay (LLNA), and efforts to develop in vitro alternatives for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals has focused attention on the issue of false positive and false negative results. In essence, the question becomes 'what is the gold standard?' In this context, attention has focused primarily on the LLNA as this is now the preferred assay for skin sensitization testing. However, for many years prior to introduction of the LLNA, the guinea pig maximization test and the occluded patch test of Buehler were the methods of choice. In order to encourage a more informed dialogue about the relative performance, accuracy and applicability of the LLNA and guinea pig tests, we have here considered the extent to which guinea pig methods were themselves subject to false positives and negative results. We describe and discuss here well-characterized examples of instances where both false negatives (including abietic acid and eugenol) or false positives (including vanillin and sulfanilic acid) have been recorded in guinea pig tests. These and other examples are discussed with particular reference to the fabrication of a gold standard dataset that is required for the validation of in vitro alternatives.

  2. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  3. Changes in the pattern of sensitization to common contact allergens in denmark between 1985-86 and 1997-98, with a special view to the effect of preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J d; Menné, T; Christophersen, J; Kaaber, K; Veien, N

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe any changes in the prevalence of sensitization to common contact allergens in patch-tested patients over a 12-year period. Attention is given to possible effects of preventive strategies introduced in Denmark regarding nickel and chromate sensitization during that period, and particular areas of concern are identified. Members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group collected patch-test results from consecutive eczema patients as well as information about exposures and demographic variables over a 6-month period in 1985-86. The investigation was repeated in 1997-98 in the same clinics, at the same time of year, using identical methods and patch-test substances, including nickel sulphate 5%, potassium dichromate 0.5% and fragrance mix 8%. Nickel was the most common contact allergen in both study periods, followed by the fragrance mix. In children 0-18 years of age, the frequency of nickel allergy decreased from 24.8% in the first study period to 9.2% in the second study period (P < 0. 0008). Fragrance mix allergy doubled in frequency from 4.1% in 1985-86 to 9.9% in 1997-98, an increase that affected all age groups. Contact allergy to potassium dichromate decreased significantly from 3.0% in the first period to 1.2% in the second period (P = 0. 001). The decrease was seen in both sexes and was most pronounced among those of working age. No other significant changes were found in the frequency of sensitization to common allergens over the 12-year observation period.

  4. [Occurrence of allergens on hospital premises].

    PubMed

    Andersen, U M; Osterballe, O

    2000-01-24

    The occurrence of allergens from the house-dust mites Der p 1, Der f 1 and Der m, and from dogs (Can f 1) and cats (Fel d 1) was assessed in Viborg Hospital. Three hundred samples collected in a standardized manner were analysed for allergens by ELISA technique. In only one dust sample was the total occurrence of mite allergens marginally above the sensitization threshold level of 2,000 ng mite allergens/g dust. For Fel d 1 a threshold level for sensitization or symptoms of 8,000 ng Fel d 1/g dust has been proposed; none of the dust samples contained this concentration. A low occurrence of Can f 1 was found. One dust sample contained 8,902 ng Can f 1, while the remainder exhibited lower concentrations. Efficient cleaning and adequate ventilation can reduce allergens in public buildings, but it is impossible to remove all allergens from upholstered furniture. Avoidance of such furniture in wards and outpatient departments which receive allergic patients might be considered.

  5. Passive sensitization of skin and lung by guinea-pig immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, D.; Brocklehurst, W. E.

    1965-01-01

    Guinea-pig γ1- and γ2-globulins have been purified by preparative electrophoresis followed by chromatography. No γ1-globulin was detectable in purified γ2-globulin, but purified γ1-globulin always contained fast γ2-globulin. Normal guinea-pig serum contained much less γ1-globulin than immune serum. Antisera prepared against normal guinea-pig serum did not contain useful amounts of antibody specific for γ1-globulin. Guinea-pig lung tissue was sensitized by very low concentrations of guinea-pig γ1-globulin (of the order of 6×10-10 molar) but γ2-globulin antibodies were almost inactive. No evidence was found that the trace of activity in γ2-globulin was not due to very slight contamination with γ1-globulin antibodies. The finding that γ1-globulin antibodies are far more potent than γ2-globulin antibodies in sensitizing skin has been confirmed, but several lines of evidence suggest that γ2-globulin antibodies may also have weak activity. Thus quantitative passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests showed that whenever the γ2-globulin fraction contained antibody it appeared far more potent relative to γ1-globulin than when the same proteins were tested on lung tissue. The PCA activity of moderate amounts of purified γ2-globulin antibodies disappeared faster than the skin sensitization produced by small amounts of γ1-globulin antibodies, and the γ2-globulin preparations did not contain enough γ1-globulin impurity to account for their PCA activity. No inhibition of skin responses was observed with the largest doses of antigen tested. The most plausible explanation of these results is that, under the conditions of our experiments, γ2-globulin antibody had weak PCA activity. Objections to this hypothesis are discussed. The PCA activity of γ2-globulin antibody probably involves a mechanism different from that of the sensitization produced by the highly potent γ1-globulin antibody. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4159033

  6. Characterization of lymphocyte subtypes in scabietic skin lesions of naive and sensitized dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Rapp, C M; Stemmer, B L; Morgan, M S; Moore, P F

    1997-03-01

    We delineated the density of cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD21 and CD45RA antigens in the cellular infiltrates in the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium in scabietic skin lesions of naive hosts and sensitized hosts that expressed resistance to scabies infestation. No cells expressing CD21 (B-lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells) were present in the epidermis and only a few were occasionally present in the dermis during both the first and second infestations. Naive T-cells (CD45RA+) and CD8+ cells (cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes) were present in varying densities in the infiltrates throughout the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium with no apparent differences in density and the rate of appearance between sensitizing and challenge infestations. CD4+ cells were abundant in fluctuating densities in the dermis, epidermis, and follicular epidermis during the sensitizing infestation and these cells became the dominant cell type early during the challenge infestation. The density of CD4+ cells in the infiltrate was much greater during the challenge than during the sensitization infestation. This population of CD4+ cells consisted of both T-helper/inducer cells and neutrophils and the large increase in their numbers during the challenge suggested they played a key role in the successful immune/inflammatory response that resulted in resistance to scabies infestation.

  7. [Recombinant allergens. For routine use or still only science?].

    PubMed

    Schmid-Grendelmeier, P

    2010-11-01

    Component-resolved diagnosis of allergies allows disease-specific patterns of sensitization in some conditions such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis ABPA). By determination of IgE against important pollen allergens such as Bet v 1, Ole e 1 or Phl p1/Phl p 5, more precise guidance for allergen-specific immunotherapy may be achieved, as pollen extracts contain mostly these major allergens. Sensitizations against minor allergens such as profilins or polcalcins influence the outcome of IgE measurements against full allergen sources, but are often of limited clinical relevance. In food allergy, frequent cross reactivity between pollens such as birch pollen via Bet v 1/PR10 proteins can be identified. Sensitization against some storage proteins such as peanut (Ara h 2) or lipid transfer proteins of peach (Pru p 3) or hazelnut (Cor a 8) may indicate an increased risk of severe anaphylactic reactions. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis, unclear sensitizations against latex or double-positivity in insect allergy are other useful indications for component-resolved diagnosis. Microarray-based allergen chip diagnosis makes possible today the detection of IgE against more than 100 allergens in tiny amounts of serum and is very promising, but still needs evaluation and optimization in regard to allergen selection and sensitivity.

  8. Potential changes in the allergenicity of three forms of peanut after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Cuadrado, Carmen; Rodriguez, Julia; Hart, Juana; Burbano, Carmen; Crespo, Jesus F; Novak, Natalija

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of thermal processing on the IgE binding properties of three forms of peanut, its effects in the content of individual allergens and IgE cross-linking capacity in effector cells of allergy. Three forms of peanut were selected and subjected to thermal processing. Immunoreactivity was evaluated by means of immunoblot or ELISA inhibition assay. Specific antibodies were used to identify changes in the content of the main allergens in peanut samples. The ability of treated peanut to cross-link IgE was evaluated in a basophil activation assay and Skin Prick Testing (SPT). The results showed that thermal/pressure treatments at specific conditions had the capacity to decrease IgE binding properties of protein extracts from peanut. This effect went along with an altered capacity to activate basophils sensitized with IgE from patients with peanut allergy and the wheal size in SPT. PMID:25863604

  9. Potential changes in the allergenicity of three forms of peanut after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Cuadrado, Carmen; Rodriguez, Julia; Hart, Juana; Burbano, Carmen; Crespo, Jesus F; Novak, Natalija

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of thermal processing on the IgE binding properties of three forms of peanut, its effects in the content of individual allergens and IgE cross-linking capacity in effector cells of allergy. Three forms of peanut were selected and subjected to thermal processing. Immunoreactivity was evaluated by means of immunoblot or ELISA inhibition assay. Specific antibodies were used to identify changes in the content of the main allergens in peanut samples. The ability of treated peanut to cross-link IgE was evaluated in a basophil activation assay and Skin Prick Testing (SPT). The results showed that thermal/pressure treatments at specific conditions had the capacity to decrease IgE binding properties of protein extracts from peanut. This effect went along with an altered capacity to activate basophils sensitized with IgE from patients with peanut allergy and the wheal size in SPT.

  10. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  11. Biological activity of recombinant Der p 2, Der p 5 and Der p 7 allergens of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Lynch, N R; Thomas, W R; Garcia, N M; Di Prisco, M C; Puccio, F A; L'opez, R I; Hazell, L A; Shen, H D; Lin, K L; Chua, K Y

    1997-09-01

    Der p 2, Der p 5 and Der p 7 are three allergens of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus that have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with glutathione-S-transferase (GST). We showed that these recombinant allergens produced immediate hypersensitivity skin-test reactions in 70, 60 and 52% respectively of a group of mite-sensitive allergic patients who were strongly positive to whole mite extract (WME). Comparable positivities were found for serum levels of specific IgE antibody against these allergens, as measured by the radioallergosorbant test (RAST). Overall, for the group of allergic patients that we evaluated, the serum IgE antibody concentrations against Der p 2, 5 and 7 were calculated to represent about one third, one quarter and one fifth respectively of the levels measured against the WME. However, for some patients the activity determined against the separate allergens was far higher than that detected against the WME, thus indicating that the concentration of these can be limiting in the WME. We found no significant correlations between the RAST levels against Derp 2 and either Derp 5 or 7, and RAST-inhibition tests indicated a lack of cross-reactivity between Der p 2 and the other two allergens. In contrast, the RAST results revealed the existence of a significant immunological relationship between Der p 5 and 7. Although a certain degree of reactivity against the GST fusion partner was found in the allergic patients studied, this was not a significant influence in determining the positivity against the recombinant allergens. These results confirm the in vivo biological activity of recombinant Der p 2, 5 and 7, and indicate that whilst Der p 2 is undoubtedly a major mite allergen, both Der p 5 and 7 make important contributions toward the overall allergenic activity of house-dust mites. PMID:9303332

  12. Developing a preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity using recombinant allergens: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Hamza, Eman; Janda, Jozef; Rhyner, Claudio; Meinke, Andreas; Marti, Eliane; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2015-07-15

    there was no indication of induction of IgE-mediated reactions, as horses neither responded to Culicoides extract stimulation in a sulfidoleukotriene release test, nor developed a relevant immediate hypersensitivity reaction to the recombinant allergens in skin test. IL-4 expression was significantly higher in horses vaccinated intralymphatically without IC31(®), as compared to horses intradermally vaccinated with IC31(®). Both routes gave higher IL-10 expression with IC31(®). Both intralymphatic and intradermal vaccination of horses with recombinant allergens in IC31(®) adjuvant induced an immune response without adverse effects and without IgE production. The horses were not sensitized and produced IgG that could inhibit allergen-specific IgE binding. We therefore conclude that both the injection routes and the IC31(®) adjuvant are strong candidates for further development of immunoprophylaxis and therapy in horses.

  13. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  14. Interfaces Between Allergen Structure and Diagnosis: Know Your Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Pomés, Anna; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Allergy diagnosis is based on the patient’s clinical history and can be strengthened by tests that confirm the origin of sensitization. In the past 25 years, these tests have evolved from the exclusive in vivo or in vitro use of allergen extracts, to complementary molecular-based diagnostics that rely on in vitro measurements of IgE reactivity to individual allergens. For this to occur, an increase in our understanding of the molecular structure of allergens, largely due to the development of technologies such as molecular cloning and expression of recombinant allergens, X-ray crystallography, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), has been essential. New in vitro microarray or multiplex systems are now available to measure IgE against a selected panel of purified natural or recombinant allergens. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of allergens has facilitated detailed molecular studies, including the analysis of antigenic determinants for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25750181

  15. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  16. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  17. Decision trees for evaluating skin and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals in accordance with European regulations.

    PubMed

    Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sullivan, Katherine S; Boyles, Rebecca R; Dederick, Elizabeth; Serex, Tessa L; Loveless, Scott E

    2012-08-01

    Guidance for determining the sensitizing potential of chemicals is available in EC Regulation No. 1272/2008 Classification, Labeling, and Packaging of Substances; REACH guidance from the European Chemicals Agency; and the United Nations Globally Harmonized System (GHS). We created decision trees for evaluating potential skin and respiratory sensitizers. Our approach (1) brings all the regulatory information into one brief document, providing a step-by-step method to evaluate evidence that individual chemicals or mixtures have sensitizing potential; (2) provides an efficient, uniform approach that promotes consistency when evaluations are done by different reviewers; (3) provides a standard way to convey the rationale and information used to classify chemicals. We applied this approach to more than 50 chemicals distributed among 11 evaluators with varying expertise. Evaluators found the decision trees easy to use and recipients (product stewards) of the analyses found that the resulting documentation was consistent across users and met their regulatory needs. Our approach allows for transparency, process management (e.g., documentation, change management, version control), as well as consistency in chemical hazard assessment for REACH, EC Regulation No. 1272/2008 Classification, Labeling, and Packaging of Substances and the GHS. PMID:22584521

  18. Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Facco, E; Pasquali, S; Zanette, G; Casiglia, E

    2013-09-01

    A female patient with multiple chemical sensitivity and previous anaphylactoid reactions to local anaesthetics was admitted for removal of a thigh skin tumour under hypnosis as sole anaesthesia. The hypnotic protocol included hypnotic focused analgesia and a pre-operative pain threshold test. After inducing hypnosis, a wide excision was performed, preserving the deep fascia, and the tumour was removed; the patient's heart rate and blood pressure did not increase during the procedure. When the patient was de-hypnotised, she reported no pain and was discharged immediately. Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.

  19. Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin.

  20. Visualization of Water Distribution in the Facial Epidermal Layers of Skin Using High-Sensitivity Near-Infrared (NIR) Imaging.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Mariko; Yanai, Motohiro; Maruyama, Nao; Fukaya, Yukitaka; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-04-01

    Skin moisturization is an important function of cosmetics in dermatology, and acquisition of two-dimensional information about the water content of facial skin is of great interest. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging using the water OH band centered near 1460 nm has been applied to the evaluation of water in skin. However, detection of small changes in the water content of skin water is difficult using this band because of the low absorption coefficient of water at that wavelength and inadequate optical units. We developed a high-sensitivity water imaging system using strong water bands centered near 1920 nm. This system can be used for the entire face. With the water imaging system, time-dependent changes in the water content of moisturizer-treated skin and hair were visualized with high sensitivity. In this study, we performed a water distribution analysis, with the aim of understanding the water distribution in facial skin under different environmental conditions. The water imaging system combines a diffuse illumination unit and an extended-range indium-gallium arsenide NIR camera with a detection range of 1100-2200 nm. The skin water distributions for multiple subjects with different facial shapes and sizes were compared using averaged NIR image data and a mesh partition analysis using a developed algorithm. Changes in the facial skin water content with season and humidity were visualized by the algorithm. The water content decreased in autumn, especially near the eyes and upper-cheek. Compared to other areas on the face, the water content around the eyes decreased more during an 85 min stay in a room at 10% relative humidity. The proposed method for water distribution analysis provides a powerful tool for facial skin hydration research in dermatological and cosmetics fields.

  1. Ultra-high-sensitive optical micro-angiography provides depth resolved visualization of microcirculations within human skin under psoriatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jia; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang

    2011-03-01

    Adequate functioning of the peripheral micro vascular in human skin is necessary to maintain optimal tissue perfusion and preserve normal hemodynamic function. There is a growing body of evidence suggests that vascular abnormalities may directly related to several dermatologic diseases, such as psoriasis, port-wine stain, skin cancer, etc. New in vivo imaging modalities to aid volumetric microvascular blood perfusion imaging are there for highly desirable. To address this need, we demonstrate the capability of ultra-high sensitive optical micro angiography to allow blood flow visualization and quantification of vascular densities of lesional psoriasis area in human subject in vivo. The microcirculation networks of lesion and non-lesion skin were obtained after post processing the data sets captured by the system. With our image resolution (~20 μm), we could compare these two types of microcirculation networks both qualitatively and quantitatively. The B-scan (lateral or x direction) cross section images, en-face (x-y plane) images and the volumetric in vivo perfusion map of lesion and non-lesion skin areas were obtained using UHS-OMAG. Characteristic perfusion map features were identified between lesional and non-lesional skin area. A statistically significant difference between vascular densities of lesion and non-lesion skin area was also found using a histogram based analysis. UHS-OMAG has the potential to differentiate the normal skin microcirculation from abnormal human skin microcirculation non-invasively with high speed and sensitivity. The presented data demonstrates the great potential of UHS-OMAG for detecting and diagnosing skin disease such as psoriasis in human subjects.

  2. Lipocalins as allergens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, R; Rautiainen, J; Virtanen, T

    2000-10-18

    The term allergy refers to clinical conditions caused by an inappropriate immune response to innocuous proteins in genetically predisposed persons. Allergens of animal origin are responsible for a significant proportion of allergies. In recent years, it has become evident that practically all respiratory animal allergens characterized at the molecular level belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. The current list comprises the major allergens of horse, cow, dog, mouse, rat and cockroach as well as beta-lactoglobulin of cow's milk. While the molecular structure of all these allergens is known, far less information is available regarding their immunological characteristics. Knowing the way the immune system recognizes these allergens and reacts to them might, however, be the key for discovering the common denominator of the allergenicity of lipocalins. The human body contains numerous endogenous lipocalins, and the immune system has to adapt to their presence. We have proposed that under these conditions the immune response against the lipocalin allergens which are structurally related to endogenous lipocalins might be the pathway to allergy in genetically predisposed persons. The same might well apply also to other allergens with homologous endogenous counterparts. PMID:11058771

  3. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  4. Dimerization of lipocalin allergens

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Merja H.; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Miettinen, Ilja; Jänis, Janne; Virtanen, Tuomas; Rouvinen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalins are one of the most important groups of inhalant animal allergens. The analysis of structural features of these proteins is important to get insights into their allergenicity. We have determined two different dimeric crystal structures for bovine dander lipocalin Bos d 2, which was earlier described as a monomeric allergen. The crystal structure analysis of all other determined lipocalin allergens also revealed oligomeric structures which broadly utilize inherent structural features of the β-sheet in dimer formation. According to the moderate size of monomer-monomer interfaces, most of these dimers would be transient in solution. Native mass spectrometry was employed to characterize quantitatively transient dimerization of two lipocalin allergens, Bos d 2 and Bos d 5, in solution. PMID:26346541

  5. [Cross reactivity of food allergens and its clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, Denise Anne

    2005-10-01

    Cross-reactions between food allergens and other allergens are a major focus of interest. They include cross-allergies between Betulaceae and Compositae pollen, and also between fruits and vegetables (Prunoideae and Apiaceae). Cross-allergies between animal allergens include mites, cockroaches and crustaceans, milk and meat, animal epithelia, meat and egg. Cross-reactivity results from homology between protein sequences, and is highly likely when this homology reaches about 70%. Phylogenetically similar proteins occur in all species and are known as pan allergens. Profilins, Bet v1 homologues, and lipid transfer proteins have varying degrees of clinical relevance. The involvement of cross-reactivity in the persistence of sensitization and in allergic disorders is unclear. The consequences of cross-reactivity during specific immunotherapy with total allergenic extracts are random. Interpretation of biological tests of IgE binding is also biased by cross-reactivity. The use of panels of major recombinant allergens should help to identify specific sensitization profiles as well as clinically relevant sensitization. Cross-reactivity between epitopes of inhalants and of food allergens may perpetuate and intensify allergic disorders. The consequences of cross-reactivity between allergens and autologous proteins are unknown. PMID:16669147

  6. KCNQ Potassium Channels Modulate Sensitivity of Skin Down-hair (D-hair) Mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Sebastian; Orozco, Ian J; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-03-11

    M-current-mediating KCNQ (Kv7) channels play an important role in regulating the excitability of neuronal cells, as highlighted by mutations in Kcnq2 and Kcnq3 that underlie certain forms of epilepsy. In addition to their expression in brain, KCNQ2 and -3 are also found in the somatosensory system. We have now detected both KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons that correspond to D-hair Aδ-fibers and demonstrate KCNQ3 expression in peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous D-hair follicles. Electrophysiological recordings from single D-hair afferents from Kcnq3(-/-) mice showed increased firing frequencies in response to mechanical ramp-and-hold stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced at slow indentation velocities. Additional reduction of KCNQ2 expression further increased D-hair sensitivity. Together with previous work on the specific role of KCNQ4 in rapidly adapting skin mechanoreceptors, our results show that different KCNQ isoforms are specifically expressed in particular subsets of mechanosensory neurons and modulate their sensitivity directly in sensory nerve endings.

  7. What Happens after Activation of Ascaridole? Reactive Compounds and Their Implications for Skin Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-19

    To replace animal testing and improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of alternative methods. The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the regulatory agencies' approved alternative in chemico method, has been applied for understanding the sensitization capacity of activated ascaridole. Ascaridole, the oxidative metabolite of α-terpinene, is considered to be one of the components responsible for the contact allergy associated with essential oils derived from Chenopodium and Melaleuca species. The recently developed high-throughput screening based on the dansyl cysteamine (HTS-DCYA) method was applied to understand the reported enhanced reactivity of activated ascaridole and possibly to identify the resulting elusive radical or other reactive species. For the first time, a substituted cyclohexenone was identified as a potential electrophilic intermediate resulting in higher depletion of nucleophilic DCYA, along with several nonreactive byproducts of ascaridole via a radical degradation mechanism. Formation of electrophilic species via radical degradation is one of the possible pathways should be considered for the peptide reactivity of in aged tea tree oil or oils rich in terpinenes along with commonly believed reactants, allylic-epoxides and allylic-peroxides. PMID:27513446

  8. Development, fabrication, and modeling of highly sensitive conjugated polymer based piezoresistive sensors in electronic skin applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Nazanin; Naguib, Hani E.; Kwon, Roy H.

    2016-04-01

    Human intervention can be replaced through development of tools resulted from utilizing sensing devices possessing a wide range of applications including humanoid robots or remote and minimally invasive surgeries. Similar to the five human senses, sensors interface with their surroundings to stimulate a suitable response or action. The sense of touch which arises in human skin is among the most challenging senses to emulate due to its ultra high sensitivity. This has brought forth novel challenging issues to consider in the field of biomimetic robotics. In this work, using a multiphase reaction, a polypyrrole (PPy) based hydrogel is developed as a resistive type pressure sensor with an intrinsically elastic microstructure stemming from three dimensional hollow spheres. Furthermore, a semi-analytical constriction resistance model accounting for the real contact area between the PPy hydrogel sensors and the electrode along with the dependency of the contact resistance change on the applied load is developed. The model is then solved using a Monte Carlo technique and the sensitivity of the sensor is obtained. The experimental results showed the good tracking ability of the proposed model.

  9. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of <10 ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1 mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  10. KCNQ Potassium Channels Modulate Sensitivity of Skin Down-hair (D-hair) Mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Sebastian; Orozco, Ian J; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-03-11

    M-current-mediating KCNQ (Kv7) channels play an important role in regulating the excitability of neuronal cells, as highlighted by mutations in Kcnq2 and Kcnq3 that underlie certain forms of epilepsy. In addition to their expression in brain, KCNQ2 and -3 are also found in the somatosensory system. We have now detected both KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons that correspond to D-hair Aδ-fibers and demonstrate KCNQ3 expression in peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous D-hair follicles. Electrophysiological recordings from single D-hair afferents from Kcnq3(-/-) mice showed increased firing frequencies in response to mechanical ramp-and-hold stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced at slow indentation velocities. Additional reduction of KCNQ2 expression further increased D-hair sensitivity. Together with previous work on the specific role of KCNQ4 in rapidly adapting skin mechanoreceptors, our results show that different KCNQ isoforms are specifically expressed in particular subsets of mechanosensory neurons and modulate their sensitivity directly in sensory nerve endings. PMID:26733196

  11. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulator for optimization of imaging parameters for high sensitivity detection of skin cancer at the THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Michael; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Skin cancer detection at its early stages has been the focus of a large number of experimental and theoretical studies during the past decades. Among these studies two prominent approaches presenting high potential are reflectometric sensing at the THz wavelengths region and polarimetric imaging techniques in the visible wavelengths. While THz radiation contrast agent and source of sensitivity to cancer related tissue alterations was considered to be mainly the elevated water content in the cancerous tissue, the polarimetric approach has been verified to enable cancerous tissue differentiation based on cancer induced structural alterations to the tissue. Combining THz with the polarimetric approach, which is considered in this study, is examined in order to enable higher detection sensitivity than previously pure reflectometric THz measurements. For this, a comprehensive MC simulation of radiative transfer in a complex skin tissue model fitted for the THz domain that considers the skin`s stratified structure, tissue material optical dispersion modeling, surface roughness, scatterers, and substructure organelles has been developed. Additionally, a narrow beam Mueller matrix differential analysis technique is suggested for assessing skin cancer induced changes in the polarimetric image, enabling the tissue model and MC simulation to be utilized for determining the imaging parameters resulting in maximal detection sensitivity.

  12. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  13. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  14. [Antigenicity and allergenicity of hypoallergenic hydrolysate for infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Görtler, I; Urbanek, R

    1990-09-01

    The antigenicity/allergenicity of protein components in hypoallergenic formulae is altered by hydrolysis. Two different hydrolysate formulae, hydrolysate 1 = cow milk based; hydrolysate 2 = soya/beef collagen based, were investigated with respect to their specific IgG/IgE binding capacities using the sera of 41 healthy controls, 40 atopic and 12 cow milk allergic subjects. Furthermore, histamine liberation from basophils on incubation with milk proteins and the hydrolysates was measured in 5 healthy and 3 cow milk allergic individuals. Nearly all probands demonstrated specific IgG binding with hypoallergenic formulae. Anti-hydrolysate 1 IgG titres were higher than titres against hydrolysate 2 in the cow milk allergic and healthy populations. Nonhydrolyzed cow milk elicited IgE binding in all cow milk allergic sera. IgE-antibody for hydrolysate 2 could only be demonstrated in one atopic subject. Hydrolysate 1 showed binding capacity for the IgE-antibody of one atopic and 3/12 cow milk allergic patients. Histamine liberation followed in-vitro incubation with both hydrolysates in one out of 3 cow milk allergic subjects and two out of these cases following incubation to unprocessed cow milk protein. A decreased antigenicity/allergenicity can be demonstrated for the two hydrolysates investigated, however antigenic/allergenic reactivity is still present to some degree. Therefore, the therapeutic application of hypoallergenic formulae in patients with specific sensitization to cow milk should be based on the results of the above-mentioned in-vitro parameters and if necessary skin tests and oral challenges.

  15. Tyrophagus putrescentiae: an allergenically important mite.

    PubMed

    Green, W F; Woolcock, A J

    1978-03-01

    The incidence of positive skin tests to the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae was measured and compared with skin reactions to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and other allergens in Australian and New Guinean populations, and mite counts were determined in Sydney and New Guinea houses. Positive reactions to T. putrescentiae were as frequent as those for D. pteronyssinus in asthmatics in Sydney and were the commonest positive reactions in the normal New Guinea population. T. putrescentiae-specific serum IgE levels were determined and some IgG cross-reactions of D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae antigens were demonstrated. It is suggested that T. putrescentiae is an important source of allergen and should be considered whenever D. pteronyssinus is thought to be a problem. A convenient method for culturing and isolating T. putrescentiae is described. PMID:647897

  16. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in cells used for testing skin sensitization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Vogel, D; Blatz, V; Ramirez, T; Kolle, S; Eltze, T; van Ravenzwaay, B; Oesch, F; Landsiedel, R

    2013-09-01

    For ethical and regulatory reasons, in vitro tests for scoring potential toxicities of cosmetics are essential. A test strategy for investigating potential skin sensitization using two human keratinocytic and two human dendritic cell lines has been developed (Mehling et al. Arch Toxicol 86:1273–1295, 2012). Since prohaptens may be metabolically activated in the skin, information on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in these cell lines is of high interest. In this study, XME activity assays, monitoring metabolite or cofactor, showed the following: all three passages of keratinocytic (KeratinoSens® and LuSens) and dendritic (U937 und THP-1) cells displayed N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) activities (about 6–60 nmol/min/mg S9-protein for acetylation of para-aminobenzoic acid). This is relevant since reactive species of many cosmetics are metabolically controlled by cutaneous NAT1. Esterase activities of about 1–4 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein were observed in all passages of investigated keratinocytic and about 1 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein in dendritic cell lines. This is also of practical relevance since many esters and amides are detoxified and others activated by cutaneous esterases. In both keratinocytic cell lines, activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were observed (5–17 nmol product/min/mg cytosolic protein). ALDH is relevant for the detoxication of reactive aldehydes. Activities of several other XME were below detection, namely the investigated cytochrome P450-dependent alkylresorufin O-dealkylases 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase, 7-benzylresorufin O-debenzylase and 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase (while NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities were much above the limit of quantification), the flavin-containing monooxygenase, the alcohol dehydrogenase as well as the UDP glucuronosyl transferase activities.

  17. A dataset on 145 chemicals tested in alternative assays for skin sensitization undergoing prevalidation.

    PubMed

    Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy A; Foertsch, Leslie; Emter, Roger; Jaworska, Joanna; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Skin sensitization is a key endpoint for cosmetic ingredients, with a forthcoming ban for animal testing in Europe. Four alternative tests have so far been submitted to ECVAM prevalidation: (i) MUSST and (ii) h-Clat assess surface markers on dendritic cell lines, (iii) the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) measures reactivity with model peptides and (iv) the KeratinoSens(TM) assay which is based on detection of Nrf2-induced luciferase. It is anticipated that only an integrated testing strategy (ITS) based on a battery of tests might give a full replacement providing also a sensitization potency assessment, but this concept should be tested with a data-driven analysis. Here we report a database on 145 chemicals reporting the quantitative endpoints measured in a U937- test, the DPRA and KeratinoSens(TM) . It can serve to develop data-driven ITS approaches as we show in a parallel paper and provides a view as to the current ability to predict with in vitro tests as we are entering 2013. It may also serve as reference database when benchmarking new molecules with in vitro based read-across and find use as a reference database when evaluating new tests. The tests and combinations thereof were evaluated for predictivity, and overall a similar predictivity was found as before on three-fold smaller datasets. Analysis of the dose-response parameters of the individual tests indicates a correlation to sensitization potency. Detailed analysis of chemicals false-negative and false-positive in two tests helped to define limitations in the tests but also in the database derived from animal studies. PMID:23576290

  18. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  19. Early Exposure to Respiratory Allergens by Placental Transfer and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Macchiaverni, Patricia; Ynoue, Leandro H.; Arslanian, Christina; Verhasselt, Valérie; Condino-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between allergen exposure and the onset of or protection from allergic diseases remains unclear. Many factors could be related to immunological responses, such as the age when the exposure occurs, type of allergen, timing, dose, and allergen route. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to respiratory allergens could occur in pregnancy or early life. In particular, we assessed whether Der p 1 and Blo t 5, as well as specific antibodies against these allergens, could be detected in 90 paired cord blood and colostrum samples. Der p 1 was detected in 58.6% of colostrum and 29% of cord blood samples, whereas Blot 5 was positive in 41.3% and 9.6% of the samples, respectively. Similar to specific IgA, which could be detected in all samples for both mites, specific IgG was found in a high number of colostrum samples, 93.5% and 94.8% for Dp and Bt, respectively. Although allergens were not detected in all cord blood samples, a high percentage of them (≥95%) were positive for specific IgM to both mites in cord blood samples, suggesting that neonates can be exposed and sensitized to airborne allergens during pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to correlate allergen exposure or its prevention in early infancy with the onset of or protection from allergic diseases. However, conflicting and inconsistent data do not show a clear correlation with or suggest a way to prevent allergen sensitization. Nevertheless, these unconvincing results could be better understood if the relationship with many aspects of allergen exposure after pregnancy could be clarified. Thus, it is necessary to address basic issues related to allergen exposure, including the development of reproducible, standardized and reliable methods, and to determine how and where the exposure occurs. PMID:26398234

  20. Topical tocopherol acetate reduces post-UVB, sunburn-associated erythema, edema, and skin sensitivity in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Trevithick, J R; Xiong, H; Lee, S; Shum, D T; Sanford, S E; Karlik, S J; Norley, C; Dilworth, G R

    1992-08-01

    Exposure of the skin of the back of skh-1 hairless mice to UVB (310 nm peak) irradiation at doses of 0.115-0.23 J/cm2 results after 24-48 h in an erythema which can be quantified using an erythema meter, providing a useful model of sunburn. Application of pure d-alpha-tocopherol acetate, a thick oil, to the skin immediately following the exposure to UVB significantly reduces the increase in erythema index, by 40-55%. At the lower dose (0.115 J/cm2), skin thickness (associated with edematous swelling of the sunburned skin) was measured by a novel non-invasive technique not previously reported for this purpose--magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In two experiments the UVB-induced increase in skin thickness was significantly reduced at 24 hr by 29 and 54%, and at 48 hr by 26 and 61%. After 8 days the untreated irradiated mouse skin still showed a significant increase in thickness (24%) compared to the untreated unirradiated control, while the treated irradiated control was not significantly thicker than the unexposed control. Skin sensitivity was tested using a modification of the technique of esthesiometry, by observing rapid avoidance responses of the mouse to a pressure of 0.96 g/cm2 exerted by applying to the skin the tip of a nylon esthesiometer fiber extended to 60 mm in length. The untreated irradiated mice were more sensitive (p less than 0.07, Wilcoxon test) than the treated irradiated mice, and also significantly different from the untreated unirradiated control mice (p less than 0.04, Wilcoxon test), but the treated irradiated mice were not significantly differently sensitive when compared to the unirradiated controls (p less than 0.32). Taken together these data indicate that the erythema, edema, and skin sensitivity commonly associated with UVB-induced sunburn are significantly reduced by topical application of tocopherol acetate even after the exposure has occurred. This observation suggests that treatment of sunburn may be possible even after the

  1. Comparative nasal absorption of allergens in atopic and nonatopic subjects.

    PubMed

    Kontou-Karakitsos, K; Salvaggio, J E; Mathews, K P

    1975-04-01

    Based on sensitization following intranasal antigen administration, previous investigations have suggested greater absorption of allergens through the nasal mucous membranes of atopic than of nonatopic subjects. In this study mucosal absorption was assessed more directly by determining the capacity of allergens applied intranasally to elicit cutaneous Prausnitz-Küstner (P-K) reactions in nonatopic persons as compared with asymptomatic atopic subjects sensitive to other allergens. Two series of reaginic human serum dilutions were injected intracutaneously in recipients backs, and 48 hours later one series was challenged intracutaneously with test allergen. After the responses had been recorded, concentrated allergenic extract was sprayed into the nose and the second series of P-K sites observed for reactivity. Sometimes these P-K sites were rechallenged intracutaneously the following day to determine passive transfer neutralization. Two allergens were studied: bovine ribonuclease (RNase) and peanut extract. Two sera containing peanut reagins and one with RNase antibodies were each used in 10 to 11 atopic and 9 to 11 nonatopic recipients. The atopic group failed to show greater or more rapid absorption of either allergen through the nose based on the highest serum dilution reacting after nasal challenge. the speed of the reaction, the ratio of the titer by nasal challenge to the intracutaneous titer, or passive transfer neutralization. Controls showed that the results were not influenced by systemic absorption of allergen employed for intracutaneous tests. Drinking the amount of peanut extract applied intranasally did not elicit P-K reactions.

  2. [Allergen management in the food industry].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Due to the lack of causative immunotherapies, individuals with food allergies have to rely on correct labelling for even minute amounts of allergenic constituents. It is not relevant to the allergic whether the source of the culprit food is an ingredient or an allergen that entered the food unintentionally, as is the case with so-called cross-contacts or hidden allergens.Efficient allergen management is the manufacturer's prerequisite for coping with allergenic foods in the food production environment and handling them in a way that avoids cross-contact. If it is technically not feasible to eliminate cross-contacts entirely, it must be ensured that these cross-contacts do not enter the final product without being detected.This article discusses measures that should be considered in allergen management. Examples include recording all relevant allergens in the production facility, staff sensitization and training, and taking into account all areas of production from incoming raw materials to outgoing goods.For the evaluation of unavoidable cross-contacts, it is possible today to draw on data from clinical trials for many of the substances that are subject to labelling. This data can be used to assess the risk of the final product.However, the data from threshold studies is not legally binding, so it is left to the manufacturer to assess the level up to which the food is safe for the allergic. In particular the non-harmonized approach of the EU member countries' food safety authorities currently represents a major obstacle, as this can lead to food recalls even though existing levels were evaluated as being safe according to the risk assessments performed. PMID:27299344

  3. Optimization of spectral sensitivities of mosaic five-band camera for estimating chromophore densities from skin images including shading and surface reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Misa; Akaho, Rina; Maita, Chikashi; Sugawara, Mai; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the spectral sensitivities of a mosaic five-band camera were optimized using a numerical skin phantom to perform the separation of chromophore densities, shading and surface reflection. To simulate the numerical skin phantom, the spectral reflectance of skin was first calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration for different concentrations of melanin, blood and oxygen saturation levels. The melanin and hemoglobin concentration distributions used in the numerical skin phantom were obtained from actual skin images by independent component analysis. The calculated components were assigned as concentration distributions. The spectral sensitivities of the camera were then optimized using a nonlinear technique to estimate the spectral reflectance for skin separation. In this optimization, the spectral sensitivities were assumed to be normally distributed, and the sensor arrangement was identical to that of a conventional mosaic five-band camera. Our findings demonstrated that spectral estimation could be significantly improved by optimizing the spectral sensitivities.

  4. 240 Mold Sensitization in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2012-01-01

    Background It is estimated that about 10% of the population have IgE antibodies to common inhalant molds. Exposure to fungal allergens could be linked to the presence and persistence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Mold sensitization is a risk factor for development and deterioration of upper airway allergy, especially chronic rhinosinusitis. We addressed the incidence of mold allergy measured as specific IgE to molds and skin prick tests in chronic sinusitis patients. We assessed prevalence of allergic reactions to mould among surgery treated chronic sinusitis patients. Methods A group of 28 chronic sinusitis patients after surgery were included into the study. Routine medical examination, skin prick tests with common inhaled allergens and extended mold panel (Alternaria alternate, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergilus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Mucor mucedo, Botrytis cinerea, Rhisopus nigricans, Penicilliumi notatum, Fusarum moniliforme Pullularia pullulans (Allergopharma, Germany), tIgE, asIgE measurement were performed (Phadia, Sweden). All investigated patients were consulted by laryngologist and mycological examination was performed. Results We found that sensitization to at least one allergen was present in 43.8(14/32) of sinusitis patients. The most prevalent was sensitization to house dust mite Dermatophagoides pt., found in 21.8 % (7/32) patients. Positive results of skin prick tests with Candida albicans we observed in 18.8% (6/32), with Alternaria alternate in 15,6% (5/32), Cladosporium herbarium in 6,3% (2/32), Aspergilus fumigatus in 3,13 % (1/32). None of investigated patients presented sensitization to other mold allergens. Microbiological methods demonstrated fungal infection only in 2 patients. Conclusions Almost half of chronic sinusitis patients presented sensitization to at least one allergen. Fungal allergy is relatively rare in chronic sinusitis patients.

  5. Highly sensitive spectrometric method for determination of hydroquinone in skin lightening creams: application in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Rauf, A; Kazi, T G; Afridi, H I; Lutfullah, G

    2011-04-01

    A highly sensitive, simpler, faster and economical UV/visible spectrophotometric method has been established for the estimation of hydroquinone (HQ) in dilute organic matrices. The method is based on using ammonium meta-vanadate as an oxidizing catalyst for conversion of HQ to p-benzoquinone (BQ) in the presence of oxygen. As a result of higher absorption of UV light by BQ than by HQ, its signal has been utilized for determining HQ at the trace level. The effect of various parameters such as amount of oxidizing agent, stability time, temperature, acids and bases, solvents and interference by various compounds has been studied upon the absorption of BQ as HQ. Under optimized conditions, Beer's Law was obeyed in the range of 0.025-2.00 μg ml(-1) HQ at 245.5 nm using 1 : 1 (V/V) 2-propanol/water system with a lower detection limit of 7 ng ml(-1) and linear regression coefficient of 0.9998. Relative standard deviation of 1.5% was observed for 0.5 μg ml(-1) HQ solution (n = 11). The newly developed method has been successfully applied to diluted samples of various skin lightening creams for free HQ determination at the trace level. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed method with those by a previously reported method proved its validity.

  6. Effects of adjuvants on the immune response to allergens in a murine model of allergen inhalation: cholera toxin induces a Th1-like response to Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, U; Jahn-Schmid, B; Fritsch, R; Bauer, L; Renz, H; Kraft, D; Ebner, C

    1998-01-01

    Based on the fact that type I allergies are frequently elicited by inhalant allergens, we have established a model of aerosol inhalation leading to allergic sensitization in BALB/c mice. Using this model we studied the effects of aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3), known to enhance IgE antibody responses, compared with cholera toxin (CT), a potent mucosal adjuvant, on the immune response to birch pollen (BP) and its major allergen Bet v 1. Two groups of BALB/c mice were either systemically immunized with recombinant Bet v 1 in Al(OH)3 and subsequently aerosol exposed to BP allergen, or aerosolized with BP and CT. IgE-mediated skin reactions were only elicited in the mice which had received Bet v 1/Al(OH)3. Allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG1 antibodies dominated in the Al(OH)3 group, IgG2a antibody levels to BP and rBet v 1 were markedly higher in the sera of mice exposed to CT with the allergen. IgA antibodies were only detected in the bronchial lavage of the CT-treated group. Moreover, the latter group displayed consistently higher T cell proliferative responses to BP and interferon-gamma production in vitro. Thus, the systemic immunization with rBet v 1 in Al(OH)3 before inhalation of the BP extract promoted a Th2-like immune response, while CT mixed with the aerosolized BP extract rather induced a Th1-like immune response. In an attempt to reverse these ongoing immune responses we could achieve a shift towards a Th0 response. Immunization with BP extract without adjuvant treatment led to undetectable antibody or cellular immune responses. We conclude from the present study that the induction of an immune response to BP allergen after aerosol inhalation can be directed towards a Th1- or a Th2-like response. Once established, the immune response can be modulated.

  7. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  8. Allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Harold S; Norman, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy was introduced for the treatment of grass pollen-induced hay fever in 1911. The treatment was soon extended to other pollens as well as perennial allergens, and to the treatment of bronchial asthma. Definitive studies of its efficacy for both rhinitis and asthma came only many decades later. Understanding gradually emerged of the underlying immunologic mechanisms that include the generation of regulatory T lymphocytes, immune deviation from allergen-specific Th2 to Th1 responses, and a shift in allergen-specific antibody production from immunoglobulin (Ig) E to IgG4. Along with understanding of the immune basis came an appreciation that immunotherapy modifies allergic disease expression, producing protection against disease progression and symptomatic improvement that persists for years after the treatment is discontinued. Recent new directions for immunotherapy include sublingual administration of inhalant allergens and use of the oral route to treat food allergy.

  9. In vivo imaging of dermal collagen in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Optical assessment of skin burns is possible with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy due to its high sensitivity to thermal denaturation of collagen molecules. In contrast to previous studies that were performed using excised tissue specimens ex vivo, in this study, we demonstrated in vivo observation of dermal collagen fibers in living rat burn models with SHG microscopy. We confirmed that changes in SHG vanishing patterns in the SHG images depended on the burn degree. The results imply that SHG microscopy can be used as a low-invasiveness, highly quantitative tool for skin burn assessment.

  10. Lyral: a fragrance allergen.

    PubMed

    Militello, Giuseppe; James, William

    2005-03-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of contact dermatitis and account for a large percentage of reactions to cosmetic products. Novel fragrance compounds that may not be detected by the common fragrance screening agents (including balsam of Peru and fragrance mix) are continually being produced. Lyral is one of those allergens found in many cosmetic and household products. This review will discuss the recent literature and the significance of this allergen to allergic contact dermatitis.

  11. Monitoring for airborne allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, H.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.

  12. Heat-rekindling in UVB-irradiated skin above NGF-sensitized muscle: experimental models of prolonged mechanical hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Silvia Lo; Finocchietti, Sara; Gazerani, Parisa; Petersen, Lars J; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Experimental models of prolonged pain hypersensitivity in humans are desirable for screening novel analgesic compounds. In this study, heat stimuli were applied in ultraviolet-B (UVB)-irradiated skin and in the UVB-irradiated skin combined with nerve growth factor (NGF)-injected muscle to investigate 1) whether the evoked mechanical hypersensitivity by UVB irradiation would be prolonged or enhanced following heat rekindling, and 2) whether the combination between cutaneous and muscle hypersensitivity may influence the rekindling effects. Skin sensitization was induced in 25 volunteers by UVB irradiation in areas above the upper-trapezius muscle, low-back or forearm. Muscle sensitization was induced in the low back by bilateral injections of NGF. The area of cutaneous hyperalgesia was evaluated 3 days after the irradiation by mechanical pin-prick stimulation whereas the areas of allodynia were evaluated 1, 2 and 3 days after irradiation by von Frey hair assessments. Cutaneous heat stimulation (40°C for 5 min) was performed on the 3(rd) day to investigate its effect on the areas of cutaneous allodynia and hyperalgesia. Findings revealed that 1) allodynia and hyperalgesia developed following UVB irradiation, 2) heat stimulation of the UVB-irradiated skin enlarged both hyperalgesic and allodynic areas (P < 0.01), and 3) muscle sensitization did not influence the effect of UVB on allodynia or the response to heat rekindling. These data suggest that heat rekindling applied to an UVB-sensitized skin can maintain or facilitate allodynia and hyperalgesia for a longer period offering a suitable model for testing analgesic compounds when sufficient duration of time is needed for investigation of drug efficacy. PMID:25349637

  13. Rapid one-step assays for on-site monitoring of mouse and rat urinary allergens.

    PubMed

    Koets, Marjo; Renström, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Bogdanovic, Jelena; Wouters, Inge M; van Amerongen, Aart

    2011-12-01

    Allergy to rodent proteins is common among laboratory animal workers. Sensitive methods to measure exposure to these allergens have been developed. These assays are, however, expensive, time-consuming, and require a laboratory facility and methodological expertise. A simple method to screen for allergen spread, or to test whether hygiene standards are maintained, would be useful. Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are especially suited for field settings; the tests are simple and results are visible within minutes. LFIAs were developed for detection of the rodent urinary allergens Mus m 1 and Rat n 1. Pilot studies were performed in animal facilities in three countries using both extracts from airborne dust samples and samples collected by wiping surfaces. For comparison and determination of sensitivity, the concentrations of rodent urinary allergens in the samples were also measured using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The LFIAs for rat and mouse urinary allergens had a detection limit of 31 pg allergen per mL in a buffer system with purified allergen standards. Results of environmental dust extracts tested in LFIAs correlated well with levels obtained using EIAs. Spread of rodent allergens, or non-adherence to hygiene around laboratory animal facilities, may aggravate rodent allergy. Using a simple, sensitive one-step assay, allergens can be detected to prevent allergen exposure. The results reveal that the rapid assays are suited for on-site demonstration of exposure to rodent allergens, and thus, useful in occupational hygiene practice.

  14. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman(®) real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg(-1) almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg(-1). We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman(®) probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg(-1). Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman(®) real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n=5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  15. Low back skin sensitivity has minimal impact on active lumbar spine proprioception and stability in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Beaudette, Shawn M; Larson, Katelyn J; Larson, Dennis J; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the current work was to (1) determine whether low back cutaneous sensitivity could be reduced through the use of a topical lidocaine-prilocaine anesthetic (EMLA(®)) to mirror reductions reported in chronic lower back pain (CLBP) patients, as well as to (2) identify whether reductions in cutaneous sensitivity resulted in decreased lumbar spine proprioception, neuromuscular control and dynamic stability. Twenty-eight healthy participants were divided equally into matched EMLA and PLACEBO treatment groups. Groups completed cutaneous minimum monofilament and two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold tests, as well as tests of sagittal and axial lumbar spine active repositioning error, seated balance and repeated lifting dynamic stability. These tests were administered both before and after the application of an EMLA or PLACEBO treatment. Results show that low back minimum monofilament and TPD thresholds were significantly increased within the EMLA group. Skin sensitivity remained unchanged in the PLACEBO group. In the EMLA group, decreases in low back cutaneous sensitivity had minimal effect on low back proprioception (active sagittal and axial repositioning) and dynamic stability (seated balance and repeated lifting). These findings demonstrate that treating the skin of the low back with an EMLA anesthetic can effectively decrease the cutaneous sensitivity of low back region. Further, these decreases in peripheral cutaneous sensitivity are similar in magnitude to those reported in CLBP patients. Within this healthy population, decreased cutaneous sensitivity of the low back region has minimal influence on active lumbar spine proprioception, neuromuscular control and dynamic stability.

  16. Imaging of skin birefringence for human scar assessment using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography aided by vascular masking.

    PubMed

    Gong, Peijun; Chin, Lixin; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Liew, Yih Miin; Wood, Fiona M; Sampson, David D; McLaughlin, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the in vivo assessment of human scars by parametric imaging of birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Such in vivo assessment is subject to artifacts in the detected birefringence caused by scattering from blood vessels. To reduce these artifacts, we preprocessed the PS-OCT data using a vascular masking technique. The birefringence of the remaining tissue regions was then automatically quantified. Results from the scars and contralateral or adjacent normal skin of 13 patients show a correspondence of birefringence with scar type: the ratio of birefringence of hypertrophic scars to corresponding normal skin is 2.2 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard deviation ), while the ratio of birefringence of normotrophic scars to normal skin is 1.1 ± 0.4 . This method represents a new clinically applicable means for objective, quantitative human scar assessment. PMID:25539060

  17. Recombinant allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy: 10 years anniversary of immunotherapy with recombinant allergens.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, B; Swoboda, I; Niederberger, V

    2011-06-01

    The broad applicability of allergen-specific immunotherapy for the treatment and eventually prevention of IgE-mediated allergy is limited by the poor quality and allergenic activity of natural allergen extracts that are used for the production of current allergy vaccines. Today, the genetic code of the most important allergens has been deciphered; recombinant allergens equalling their natural counterparts have been produced for diagnosis and immunotherapy, and a large panel of genetically modified allergens with reduced allergenic activity has been characterized to improve safety of immunotherapy and explore allergen-specific prevention strategies. Successful immunotherapy studies have been performed with recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and will lead to the registration of the first recombinant allergen-based vaccines in the near future. There is no doubt that recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies will be generally applicable to most allergen sources, including respiratory, food and venom allergens and allow to produce safe allergy vaccines for the treatment of the most common forms of IgE-mediated allergies.

  18. Exposure to airborne allergens: a review of sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Renström, Anne

    2002-10-01

    A number of methods are used to assess exposure to high-molecular weight allergens. In the occupational setting, airborne dust is often collected on filters using pumps, the filters are eluted and allergen content in the eluate analysed using immunoassays. Collecting inhalable dust using person-carried pumps may be considered the gold standard. Other allergen sampling methods are available. Recently, a method that collects nasally inhaled dust on adhesive surfaces within nasal samplers has been developed. Allergen content can be analysed in eluates using sensitive enzyme immunoassays, or allergen-bearing particles can be immunostained using antibodies, and studied under the microscope. Settling airborne dust can be collected in petri dishes, a cheap and simple method that has been utilised in large-scale exposure studies. Collection of reservoir dust from surfaces using vacuum cleaners with a dust collector is commonly used to measure pet or mite allergens in homes. The sampling methods differ in properties and relevance to personal allergen exposure. Since methods for all steps from sampling to analysis differ between laboratories, determining occupational exposure limits for protein allergens is today unfeasible. A general standardisation of methods is needed.

  19. Stability of food allergens to digestion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Astwood, J D; Leach, J N; Fuchs, R L

    1996-10-01

    An integral part of the safety assessment of genetically modified plants is consideration of possible human health effects, especially food allergy. Prospective testing for allergenicity of proteins obtained from sources with no prior history of causing allergy has been difficult because of the absence of valid methods and models. Food allergens may share physicochemical properties that distinguish them from nonallergens, properties that may be used as a tool to predict the inherent allergenicity of proteins newly introduced into the food supply by genetic engineering. One candidate property is stability to digestion. We have systematically evaluated the stability of food allergens that are active via the gastrointestinal tract in a simple model of gastric digestion, emphasizing the major allergens of plant-derived foods such as legumes (peanuts and soybean). Important food allergens were stable to digestion in the gastric model (simulated gastric fluid). For example, soybean beta-conglycinin was stable for 60 min. In contrast, nonallergenic food proteins, such as spinach ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, were digested in simulated gastric fluid within 15 sec. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that food allergens must exhibit sufficient gastric stability to reach the intestinal mucosa where absorption and sensitization (development of atopy) can occur. Thus, the stability to digestion is a significant and valid parameter that distinguishes food allergens from nonallergens.

  20. Content of Asthmagen Natural Rubber Latex Allergens in Commercial Disposable Gloves.

    PubMed

    Bittner, C; Garrido, M V; Krach, L H; Harth, V

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves in many occupations may lead to latex sensitization, allergic asthma, and skin reactions. Due to their good properties and environmental safety NRL gloves are still being used in the healthcare setting, but also in the food industry, by hairdressers, cleaners, etc. The aim of our study was to assess the protein and NRL allergen content in commercial gloves by different methods, including a new assay. Twenty commercially available NRL gloves were analyzed. Protein extraction was performed according to the international standard ASTM D-5712. Total protein content was measured with a modified Lowry method, NRL content with the CAP Inhibition Assay, the Beezhold ELISA Inhibition Assay, and an innovative ELISA with IgY-antibodies extracted from eggs of NRL-immunized hens (IgY Inhibition Assay). We found a high protein content in a range of 215.0-1304.7 μg/g in 8 out of the 20 NRL gloves. Seven of the 20 gloves were powdered, four of them with a high protein content. In gloves with high protein content, the immunological tests detected congruently high levels of NRL allergen. We conclude that a high percentage of commercially available NRL gloves still represent a risk for NRL allergy, including asthma. The modified Lowry Method allows to infer on the latex allergen content. PMID:27241513

  1. Clinical effects of nedocromil sodium on allergen-related mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, E R; Mason, P L; Moore, W C

    1996-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the ability of nedocromil sodium to block the acute response to allergen in persons who are sensitive to allergen. One study with subjects sensitive to ragweed showed a significant protective effect after a single 4 mg dose of nedocromil sodium, with no further protection achieved at higher doses. Numerous studies have also shown the ability of the drug to reduce or abolish the late asthmatic response in sensitive subjects when it was given before allergen challenge. Nedocromil sodium has also been shown to prevent the subsequent development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In addition, nedocromil sodium prevented the late asthmatic response when given after allergen challenge and an intact early response. These findings suggest that nedocromil sodium may be preventing the inflammatory events initiated by mast cell mediator and cytokine release.

  2. Overexpressed TRPV3 ion channels in skin keratinocytes modulate pain sensitivity via prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susan M.; Lee, Hyosang; Chung, Man-Kyo; Park, Una; Yu, Yin Yin; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Coulombe, Pierre A.; Walker, J. Michael; Caterina, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to sense changes in the environment is essential for survival because it permits responses such as withdrawal from noxious stimuli and regulation of body temperature. Keratinocytes, which occupy much of the skin epidermis, are situated at the interface between the external environment and the body's internal milieu, and have long been appreciated for their barrier function against external insults. The recent discovery of temperature-sensitive TRPV ion channels in keratinocytes has raised the possibility that these cells also actively participate in acute temperature and pain sensation. To address this notion, we generated and characterized transgenic mice that overexpress TRPV3 in epidermal keratinocytes under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. Compared to wild-type controls, keratinocytes overexpressing TRPV3 exhibited larger currents as well as augmented prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in response to two TRPV3 agonists, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) and heat. Thermal selection behavior and heat-evoked withdrawal behavior of naïve mice overexpressing TRPV3 were not consistently altered. Upon selective pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 with JNJ-7203212, however, the keratinocyte-specific TRPV3 transgenic mice showed increased escape responses to noxious heat relative to their wild-type littermates. Co-administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, with the TRPV1 antagonist decreased inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia in transgenic but not wild-type animals. Our results reveal a previously undescribed mechanism for keratinocyte participation in thermal pain transduction through keratinocyte TRPV3 ion channels and the intercellular messenger PGE2. PMID:19091963

  3. An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Tee, Benjamin C-K; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-12-01

    Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm(-1). On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ∼90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ∼10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems.

  4. An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-12-01

    Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm-1. On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ~90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ~10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems.

  5. Buckwheat anaphylaxis: an unusual allergen in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsung-Chi; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Wen, Da-Chin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Li-Hsin

    2006-01-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to buckwheat is common in Korea, Japan, and some other Asian countries. However, buckwheat is not a common allergen in Taiwan. We report a woman with asthma who had anaphylactic shock, generalized urticaria, and an acute exacerbation of asthma five minutes after ingesting buckwheat. The patient underwent skin prick and Pharmacia CAP testing (Uppsala, Sweden) for specific IgE to buckwheat, white sesame and soybean as well as other common allergens in Taiwan including Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), D. farinae (Df), cat and dog dander, cockroach, egg white, cow milk and codfish. The patient had a strongly positive skin prick test response to buckwheat and positive reactions to Dp and latex. Specific IgE results were class 6 for buckwheat, class 4 for Dp and Df, and class 2 for dog dander, wheat, sesame and soybean. Results of an open food challenge with white sesame and soybean were negative. Although buckwheat is a rare allergen in Taiwan, it can cause extremely serious reactions and should be considered in patients presenting with anaphylaxis after exposure to buckwheat. PMID:17136883

  6. Sensitivity of the electric dipole polarizability to the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Roca-Maza, X.; Agrawal, B. K.; Colo, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Paar, N.; Piekarewicz, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Vretenar, D.

    2012-10-20

    The static dipole polarizability, {alpha}{sub D}, in {sup 208}Pb has been recently measured with highresolution via proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) [1]. This observable is thought to be intimately connected with the neutron skin thickness, r{sub skin}, of the same nucleus and, more fundamentally, it is believed to be associated with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of r{sub skin} on {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb is investigated and discussed on the basis of a large and representative set of relativistic and non-relativistic nuclear energy density functionals (EDF) [2].

  7. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

  9. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    PubMed

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  10. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-05-01

    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists.

  11. Prevention of allergy by a recombinant multi-allergen vaccine with reduced IgE binding and preserved T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Karamloo, Fariba; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Kussebi, Fatimah; Akdis, Mübeccel; Salagianni, Maria; von Beust, Barbara R; Reimers, Andrea; Zumkehr, Judith; Soldatova, Lyudmilla; Housley-Markovic, Zora; Müller, Ulrich; Kündig, Thomas; Kemeny, David M; Spangfort, Michael D; Blaser, Kurt; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2005-11-01

    Novel approaches for the prevention of allergy are required, because of the inevitably increasing prevalence of allergic diseases during the last 30 years. Here, a recombinant chimeric protein, which comprises the whole amino acid sequences of three bee venom major allergens has been engineered and used in prevention of bee venom sensitization in mice. Phospholipase A2 (Api m 1), hyaluronidase (Api m 2) and melittin (Api m 3) fragments with overlapping amino acids were assembled in a different order in the Api m (1/2/3) chimeric protein, which preserved entire T cell epitopes, whereas B cell epitopes of all three allergens were abrogated. Accordingly, IgE cross-linking leading to mast cell and basophil mediator release was profoundly reduced in humans. Supporting these findings, the Api m (1/2/3) induced 100 to 1000 times less type-1 skin test reactivity in allergic patients. Treatment of mice with Api m (1/2/3) led to a significant reduction of specific IgE development towards native allergen, representing a protective vaccine effect in vivo. These results demonstrate a novel prototype of a preventive allergy vaccine, which preserves the entire T cell epitope repertoire, but bypasses induction of IgE against native allergen, and side effects related to mast cell/basophil IgE FcepsilonRI cross-linking in sensitized individuals. PMID:16206231

  12. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA).

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics.

  13. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

  14. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  15. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available. PMID

  16. Living with food allergy: allergen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-04-01

    The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.

  17. Skin testing and food challenges for the evaluation of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Williams, L W

    2001-01-01

    Skin testing by prick technique has an excellent safety record in the evaluation of food hypersensitivity. Skin prick tests for the common food allergens are excellent tools for identifying those at very low risk of reaction on eating the food but are of variable value in identifying patients who will be positive on challenge. Intradermal skin tests to foods are less safe and appear to add no predictive information. Skin tests to less common food allergens, especially fruits, are less well characterized and may require use of the food item itself as the source of allergen rather than a commercial extract. For a few foods, the CAP system fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (Pharmacia, Peapack, NJ) recently has been shown to have good ability to identify patients at very high probability of reaction on oral challenge. Oral challenge remains the definitive method of demonstrating sensitivity or tolerance to a food. The double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard of diagnosis, but in many situations, simpler open or single-blind challenge procedures may be substituted. With careful, incremental dosing and a low starting dose, oral challenges for food hypersensitivity have an excellent safety record. Skin prick tests are of little value in the evaluation of adverse food reactions not mediated by IgE. Oral challenge is relied upon in this situation for definitive diagnosis, but challenges may be cumbersome if the time course of the presumed reaction is not rapid.

  18. Evaluation of combinations of in vitro sensitization test descriptors for the artificial neural network-based risk assessment model of skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Morihiko; Fukui, Shiho; Okamoto, Kenji; Kurotani, Satoru; Imai, Noriyasu; Fujishiro, Miyuki; Kyotani, Daiki; Kato, Yoshinao; Kasahara, Toshihiko; Fujita, Masaharu; Toyoda, Akemi; Sekiya, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shinichi; Seto, Hirokazu; Takenouchi, Osamu; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-11-01

    The skin sensitization potential of chemicals has been determined with the use of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, in recent years public concern about animal welfare has led to a requirement for non-animal risk assessment systems for the prediction of skin sensitization potential, to replace LLNA. Selection of an appropriate in vitro test or in silico model descriptors is critical to obtain good predictive performance. Here, we investigated the utility of artificial neural network (ANN) prediction models using various combinations of descriptors from several in vitro sensitization tests. The dataset, collected from published data and from experiments carried out in collaboration with the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA), consisted of values from the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), SH test and antioxidant response element (ARE) assay for chemicals whose LLNA thresholds have been reported. After confirming the relationship between individual in vitro test descriptors and the LLNA threshold (e.g. EC3 value), we used the subsets of chemicals for which the requisite test values were available to evaluate the predictive performance of ANN models using combinations of h-CLAT/DPRA (N = 139 chemicals), the DPRA/ARE assay (N = 69), the SH test/ARE assay (N = 73), the h-CLAT/DPRA/ARE assay (N = 69) and the h-CLAT/SH test/ARE assay (N = 73). The h-CLAT/DPRA, h-CLAT/DPRA/ARE assay and h-CLAT/SH test/ARE assay combinations showed a better predictive performance than the DPRA/ARE assay and the SH test/ARE assay. Our data indicates that the descriptors evaluated in this study were all useful for predicting human skin sensitization potential, although combinations containing h-CLAT (reflecting dendritic cell-activating ability) were most effective for ANN-based prediction. PMID:25824844

  19. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen.

  20. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  1. Allergen-Specific Cytokine Polarization Protects Shetland Ponies against Culicoides obsoletus-Induced Insect Bite Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van der Lugt, Jaco J.; van der Meide, Nathalie M. A.; Willemse, Ton; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Zaiss, Dietmar M. W.

    2015-01-01

    The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds, which is caused by bites of the insect Culicoides obsoletus (C. obsoletus). We investigated the allergen-specific immune status of individual horses that had either been diagnosed to be healthy or to suffer of IBH. Following intradermal allergen injection, skin biopsies were taken of IBH-affected and healthy ponies and cytokine expression was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, allergen-specific antibody titers were measured and cytokine expression of in vitro stimulated, allergen-specific CD4 T-cells was determined. 24 hrs after allergen injection, a significant increase in mRNA expression of the type-2 cytokine IL-4 was observed in the skin of IBH-affected Shetland ponies. In the skin of healthy ponies, however, an increase in IFNγ mRNA expression was found. Analysis of allergen-specific antibody titers revealed that all animals produced allergen-specific antibodies, and allergen-specific stimulation of CD4 T-cells revealed a significant higher percentage of IFNγ-expressing CD4 T-cells in healthy ponies compared to IBH-affected ponies. These data indicate that horses not affected by IBH, in contrast to the so far established dogma, are not immunologically ignorant but have a Th1-skewed allergen-specific immune response that appears to protect against IBH-associated symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a natural situation, in which an allergen-specific immune skewing is protective in an allergic disorder. PMID:25901733

  2. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (rye I and rye II). I. Prevalence of reactivity to the allergens and correlations among skin test, IgE antibody, and IgG antibody data.

    PubMed

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Grant, J H; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 320 white adults, the prevalence of puncture skin test positivity (ST +) to Lolium perenne (rye grass)-pollen extract (LPE) was 16%. Fifteen percent of all subjects (or 84% of subjects classified LPE IgE antibody positive [Ab +]) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p I (Rye I), and 4% of all subjects (or 26% of subjects classified LPE IgE Ab +) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p II (Rye II). These data and similar results obtained in an allergy-enriched group of 361 subjects are consistent with previous studies that Lol I is a major allergen and Lol II is a minor allergen of LPE. Whether we studied LPE, Lol I, or Lol II, responder subjects were younger than nonresponder subjects and more male than female subjects were responders. We then investigated the quantitative interrelationships among ST, IgE, and IgG Ab responsiveness to LPE, Lol I, and Lol II in the allergy-enriched group. For each allergen, log-log correlations were strong and significant for ST versus IgE Ab and for IgE Ab versus IgG Ab. All subjects IgE Ab + to Lol I or Lol II were IgG Ab + to that allergen, supporting other evidence for a commonality in the genetic control influencing the production of IgE and IgG Abs to a given allergen. Log-log correlations among ST end points, IgE Ab levels, or IgG Ab levels were strong for LPE versus either Lol I or Lol II but weak between Lol I and Lol II, consistent with the reported lack of cross-reactivity between Lol I and Lol II. Despite these findings, almost all Lol II + subjects were Lol I + by ST (98%), IgE Ab (91%), and IgG Ab (83%), suggesting that the Ia-restricted immune recognition of both these molecules is at least in part under a common genetic control.

  3. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  4. Perfume dermatitis in children sensitized to balsam of Peru in topical agents.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A

    1990-01-01

    Hjorth in his classic monogram "Eczematous Allergy to Balsams" emphasized that sensitization to balsam of Peru is most important since secondary allergens such as "fragrances" are ubiquitous. The application of a topical medication containing balsam of Peru to the skin of an infant, particularly in the occluded diaper area, seems a great way to sensitize the infant not only to balsam of Peru but also to our fragrant environment.

  5. Absence of skin sensitivity to oxides of aluminium, silicon, titanium or zirconium in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J C; Halpern, S; Lowe, D G; Forbes, A; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some metallic compounds, especially of zirconium, can cause cell mediated granulomatous inflammation of the skin. Pigment granules containing compounds of aluminium, silicon, and titanium have been observed within macrophages in the wall of the small intestine in health and in Crohn's disease. Zirconium compounds can be ingested in toothpaste. AIM: To determine in a pilot study if granulomatous sensitivity can be detected to compounds of these metals or silicon after injection into the skin of patients with Crohn's disease. SUBJECTS: Eight patients with Crohn's disease known to have had granulomata in the intestine and not currently treated with corticosteroids, and two healthy controls. METHOD: Two intradermal injections each of 0.1 ml of a 0.02% suspension of one of the compounds made in the abdominal wall of each subject. The site was marked and full thickness skin biopsy performed six weeks later. RESULT: A foreign body granuloma was observed on histological examination of two biopsy specimens but no evidence of a cell mediated response in any subject. CONCLUSION: No support was found for the hypothesis that Crohn's disease is due to a specific sensitivity to ingested metallic or silicon compounds. PMID:8977338

  6. IL-12p40 gene-deficient BALB/c mice exhibit lower weight loss, reduced lung pathology and decreased sensitization to allergen in response to infection with pneumonia virus of mice.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Pratima; Sarkar, Indranil; Atanley, Ethel; Gomis, Susantha; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) causes similar disease. BALB/c mice are highly susceptible, while C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to PVM. IL-12 was significantly more up-regulated in response to PVM infection in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice. IL-12p40-deficient neonatal and adult BALB/c mice showed significantly less weight loss than wild-type mice after PVM challenge. The percentage of regulatory T cells, as well as IFN-β and IL-18 expression, was higher in the lungs of both neonatal and adult IL-12p40-/- mice. Adult IL-12p40-/- mice also showed enhanced TGF-β and IL-10 expression and reduced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, IL-12p40-/- mice showed decreased sensitization to inhaled cockroach antigen after PVM infection when compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that a depressed regulatory capacity in BALB/c mice to PVM infection results in enhanced immunopathology and sensitization to allergen. PMID:27400340

  7. Immunotherapy for house dust mite sensitivity: where are the knowledge gaps?

    PubMed

    Biagtan, Mark; Viswanathan, Ravi; Bush, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) are found in the environments where human habitation exists. Their density is dependent on environmental relative humidity; therefore, higher populations are present in areas of the world with higher humidity levels, e.g., coastal areas and tropics. To date, 24 HDM allergens have been identified. Many of these represent digestive enzymes since HDM feces are the major source of allergen exposure. IgE- medicated sensitization to HDM allergens is an important factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases since it is the most common aeroallergen detected by skin testing or in vitro IgE assays. Sensitization to HDM allergens often occurs early in life and appears to play an important role in the progression from allergic rhinitis to asthma (the so-called Allergic March) in children. HDM sensitization is also associated with asthma across all age groups. Efforts to control environmental exposure to HDM allergens have often proven to be unsuccessful. While medications can improve symptoms, only immunotherapy currently provides disease-modifying effects in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Several systemic reviews and meta-analysis indicate that both subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma for HDM sensitivity. In this report, we review recent studies and the evidence for the use of HDM SCIT and SLIT. Fundamental gaps in knowledge are identified which could lead to improved approaches to HDM allergy. PMID:25354663

  8. [Shrimp as an allergen source].

    PubMed

    Múnera, Marlon; Gómez, Luis; Puerta, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to shellfish is one of the most prevalent food allergies in several countries, especially the one induced by consuming or having contact with shrimp. Several shrimp species are known to induce allergy diseases. However, the whole spectrum of allergens they contain is unknown and few of them have been completely characterized. This study was done in order to know the recent advances in the characterization of shrimp allergens and its relationship with allergens from other arthropods of importance in allergic diseases. We emphasize the species Litopenaeus vannamei , the most consumed shrimp in Colombia. Well characterized shrimp allergens are named following an official classification; nevertheless, they are better known according to the biological function associated with them. Tropomiosin, the main and most studied allergen in different shrimp species, is involved in crossreactivity among shrimp and other arthropods like domestic mites. The other characterized allergens seem to have a minor participation in this cross-reactivity. The allergenic potential of L. vannamei is not well known and few of its allergens have been characterized, whilst others that were recently identified such as the hemocyanin and the fatty acid binding proteins are beginning to be studied. Preliminary results suggest that these allergens are involved in the cross-reactivity between shrimp and domestic mites, which deserves further evaluation. The molecular and immunological characterization of all allergens present in shrimp would help understanding its allergenic role.

  9. Use of in vitro testing to identify an unexpected skin sensitizing impurity in a commercial product: a case study.

    PubMed

    Natsch, Andreas; Gfeller, Hans; Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham

    2010-03-01

    Due to regulatory constraints and ethical considerations, the quest for alternatives to animal testing has gained a new momentum. In general, animal welfare considerations and compliance with regulations are the key drivers for this research. Mechanistically based in vitro tests addressing specific toxicological questions can yield new information, for example on reactive components, and thus in certain cases the in vitro tests are not only second choice replacements of a 'gold standard' animal test but can also be used to develop safer products. Here we report a case study from the in vitro investigation on the commercial fragrance chemical Azurone. This compound was found to be a moderate skin sensitizer in the LLNA, whereas the structurally closely similar compound Calone is a non-sensitizer. A peptide reactivity assay indicated, that indeed Azurone yields peptide depletion, thus the in vitro assays confirmed the animal test result. LC-MS analysis of the peptide reactivity sample showed the presence of peptide adducts of unexpected molecular weight. They were consistent with the reaction of the peptide with a catechol related to Azurone. Detailed analytics indicated that indeed this catechol is present in the original batches as an impurity, but it has escaped quality control analysis, as it is not detectable in routine GC-analysis. A new purified batch was prepared, re-tested in the in vitro assays and predicted by the tests to be a non-sensitizer. A confirmatory LLNA test indeed yielded a significantly (10-fold) higher EC3 value of the new batch, but the LLNA was still positive. A dose-response study in the EpiSkin assay indicated that this molecule still has a significant skin irritation potential, which may generate the weak positive signal in the LLNA. This case study illustrates how the mechanistically based in vitro LC-MS peptide reactivity assay can be used to contribute to the understanding of the sensitization mechanism of a commercial product and help

  10. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  11. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures: clinical and experimental data and consideration of structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Lidén, Carola; Rastogi, Suresh; Roberts, David; White, Ian R

    2013-10-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization of substances as contact allergens. A total of 54 individual chemicals and 28 natural extracts (essential oils) can be categorized as established contact allergens in humans, including all 26 substances previously identified as contact allergens (SCCNFP/0017/98). Twelve of the 54 individual chemicals are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (>100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed to the categorization of a further 26 substances as likely contact allergens. In conclusion, the presence of 127 single fragrance substances and natural mixtures should, owing to their skin sensitizing properties, be disclosed, for example on the label. As an additional preventive measure, the maximum use concentration of 11 substances of special concern should be limited to 100 ppm. The substance hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and the two ingredients chloroatranol and atranol in the natural extracts Evernia prunastri and Evernia furfuracea should not be present in cosmetic products.

  12. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  13. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  14. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  15. In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ryosuke; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Sasaki, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Optical assessment of skin burns is possible with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy due to its high sensitivity to thermal denaturation of collagen molecules. In contrast to previous studies that were performed using excised tissue specimens ex vivo, in vivo observation of dermal collagen fibers in living rat burn models with SHG microscopy is demonstrated. Changes in signal vanishing patterns in the SHG images are confirmed to be dependent on the burn degree. Comparison of the SHG images with Masson's trichrome-stained images indicated that the observed patterns were caused by the coexistence of molten and fibrous structures of dermal collagen fibers. Furthermore, a quantitative parameter for burn assessment based on the depth profile of the mean SHG intensity across the entire SHG image is proposed. These results and discussions imply a potential of SHG microscopy as a minimally invasive, highly quantitative tool for skin burn assessment.

  16. Walnut allergens: molecular characterization, detection and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, J; Carrapatoso, I; Oliveira, M B P P; Mafra, I

    2014-03-01

    Food-induced allergies have been regarded as an emergent problem of public health. Classified as important allergenic ingredients, the presence of walnut and other nuts as hidden allergens in processed foods constitutes a risk for sensitized individuals, being a real problem of allergen management. Attending to the increasing importance dedicated to walnut allergy, this review intends to provide the relevant and up-to-date information on main issues such as the prevalence of walnut allergy, the clinical threshold levels, the molecular characterization of walnut allergens and their clinical relevance, as well as the methodologies for walnut allergen detection in foods. As the walnut used in human diet comes from Juglans regia and Juglans nigra, the molecular characterization of the allergens from both species included in the prolamins (Jug r 1, Jug n 1 and Jug r 3), cupins (Jug r 2, Jug n 2 and Jug r 4) and profilins (Jug r 5), together with respective clinical relevance, were compiled in this review. The most recent progresses on walnut allergen detection techniques (protein- and DNA-based) are described and critically compared, including the emergent multitarget approaches.

  17. Immunological aspects of the immune response induced by mosquito allergens.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, José Fernando; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals.

  18. Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 recombinant allergens are able to differentiate distinct Anisakis simplex-associated allergic clinical disorders.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, C; Daschner, A; Valls, A; De Frutos, C; Fernández-Fígares, V; Anadón, A M; Rodríguez, E; Gárate, T; Rodero, M; Ubeira, F M

    2012-05-01

    Diagnosis in gastro-allergic anisakiasis (GAA) is straightforward, when clinical history is combined with further allergological evaluation of specific IgE by means of skin prick test and serum specific IgE. In Anisakis simplex sensit