Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E
Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.
Khurana, Taruna; Bridgewater, Jennifer L; Rabin, Ronald L
To review allergenic extracts used to diagnose or treat insect allergies, including how the extracts are manufactured and their measurements of potency or concentration. Peer-reviewed articles derived from searching PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) about insect allergies and extract preparation. Encyclopedia of Life (http://www.eol.org/) and http://allergome.org/ were also referenced for background information on insects and associated allergens. Search terms used for the PubMed searches included insect allergens and allergies, Apidae, Vespidae, fire ants, cockroach allergies, insect allergen extract preparation, and standardization. Humans may be sensitized to insect allergens by inhalation or through stings. Cockroaches and moths are predominantly responsible for inhalation insect allergy and are a major indoor allergen in urban settings. Bees, fire ants, and wasps are responsible for sting allergy. In the United States, there are multiple insect allergen products commercially available that are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Of those extracts, honeybee venom and insect venom proteins are standardized with measurements of potency. The remaining insect allergen extracts are nonstandardized products that do not have potency measurements. Sensitization to inhalational and stinging insect allergens is reported worldwide. Crude insect allergen extracts are used for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy. A variety of source materials are used by different manufacturers to prepare these extracts, which may result in qualitative differences that are not reflected in measurements of potency or protein concentration. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
David, Natalie A; Penumarti, Anusha; Burks, A Wesley; Slater, Jay E
To review the manufacturing procedures of food allergen extracts and applicable regulatory requirements from government agencies, potential approaches to standardization, and clinical application of these products. The effects of thermal processing on allergenicity of common food allergens are also considered. A broad literature review was conducted on the natural history of food allergy, the manufacture of allergen extracts, and the allergenicity of heated food. Regulations, guidance documents, and pharmacopoeias related to food allergen extracts from the United States and Europe were also reviewed. Authoritative and peer-reviewed research articles relevant to the topic were chosen for review. Selected regulations and guidance documents are current and relevant to food allergen extracts. Preparation of a food allergen extract may require careful selection and identification of source materials, grinding, defatting, extraction, clarification, sterilization, and product testing. Although extractions for all products licensed in the United States are performed using raw source materials, many foods are not consumed in their raw form. Heating foods may change their allergenicity, and doing so before extraction may change their allergenicity and the composition of the final product. The manufacture of food allergen extracts requires many considerations to achieve the maximal quality of the final product. Allergen extracts for a select number of foods may be inconsistent between manufacturers or unreliable in a clinical setting, indicating a potential area for future improvement. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Codina, Rosa; Crenshaw, Rodger C; Lockey, Richard F
Pollen is a biological product obtained to manufacture tree, weed, and grass allergen extracts, used to diagnose and treat allergies. Genetic and environmental factors affect the composition of pollen, e.g., the plant varieties from which pollen are obtained, weather, and levels of air pollution during plant growth. Therefore, appropriate guidelines and training of personnel to perform the activities associated with pollen are essential to produce appropriate allergen extracts. Various regulatory institutions, which vary in different countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, control how such products should be produced. For example, the FDA regulates the manufacturing of pollen extracts but not the quality of the pollen used to prepare them, relying on each manufacturer to set its own standards to do so. To the contrary, European regulatory agencies, including the European Medicines Agency, control both the quality of the pollen and the manufacturing process to produce pollen extracts. Regulatory agencies, allergen manufacturers, scientific institutions, and pollen collection entities should collaborate to develop and implement guidelines appropriate for worldwide use for both the collection and processing of pollen raw materials. This article provides an overview of the subject of pollen for use in allergen extracts.
...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...
...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in culture...
...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...
...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...
Blyumin, Marianna L; Rouhani, Panta; Avashia, Nidhi J; Jacob, Sharon E
Allergic contact dermatitis from condoms is a problem that carries significant morbidity and that has been increasingly reported due to the use of condoms to prevent sexually transmitted diseases as well as for birth control. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the process by which condom manufacturing companies divulge product allergen information to health care professionals. An interviewer-administered telephone questionnaire eliciting the staff member's knowledge of condom allergens was utilized. Eligible respondents were condom manufacturers' service staff over 18 years of age. Complete surveys were obtained regarding 36 (85.7%) of the 42 subtypes of condoms. Telephoning was the primary (75%) method of obtaining allergen information. The majority (63.9%) of the information was obtained within minutes to hours of the initial contact. Nearly two-thirds of the interviews evaluated the condom manufacturers' service staff as good and effective in their knowledge base and in providing product information. The study determined that the extent of knowledge, helpfulness, and effectiveness of the customer service personnel in relaying product allergen information to clinicians were generally good. The study additionally generated a reference table outlining the common allergens in major manufactured condoms.
Richman, P G; Cissel, D S
A method for total protein determination of allergenic extracts has been developed and evaluated. Samples were hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH followed by colorimetric determination with ninhydrin of the released amino acids using bovine serum albumin as the standard. The entire procedure was carried out in disposable plastic tubes. Substances (glycerol, phenol and mannitol) commonly present in allergenic extracts manufactured for human use did not affect the assay results. Analyses of four different pollen extracts by the method gave good agreement with amino acid analyses. Other methods of analysis (total N, protein N unit assay, Lowry) gave more variable results compared with amino acid analysis. Analysis of the total protein content of 53 different lots of allergenic extracts gave narrow ranges of values for each species. Standardized mite extracts analyzed for total protein by US FDA-licensed manufacturers using this assay showed a good correlation of biological activity with total protein.
Monoclonal antibodies against Olea europaea major allergen: allergenic activity of affinity-purified allergen and depleted extract and development of a radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of the allergen.
Lombardero, M; Quirce, S; Duffort, O; Barber, D; Carpizo, J; Chamorro, M J; Lezaun, A; Carreira, J
Several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against Olea europaea pollen-extract components. Two of these antibodies, named OL 2 and OL 7, recognize two nonoverlapping, nonrepeating epitopes on the olive-allergen Ole e I, as demonstrated by different techniques. The allergen was purified in a single step by MAb-based affinity chromatography, and the allergen revealed a band at molecular weight 20 kd as well as a minor band at 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The contribution of allergen Ole e I to the allergenic activity of O. europaea pollen extracts was determined from the effect of allergen depletion by affinity chromatography on skin reactivity and a histamine-release test. The removal of allergen caused a large reduction in the activity of the preparation in 25 monospecific olive-allergic patients. In agreement, the affinity-purified allergen demonstrated a similar response when it was compared with the whole extract in these assays. The results indicated that Ole e I is by far the most important olive-pollen allergen. A two-site solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the quantitation of the allergen Ole e I in mass units. The assay was based on the MAbs, OL 2 and OL 7, and had a detection limit in the nanogram range. A good correlation was found between allergenic activity, as determined by RAST inhibition, and allergen content in 18 olive-pollen extracts. This result indicates that the assay can be a good alternative to RAST inhibition for the standardization of O. europaea extracts.
Yang, Rui; Wu, Haiqiang; Liu, Zhigang
To extract, identify and purify the major allergens of Pseudosciaena crocea in order to evaluate the immunological activities. Pseudosciaena crocea proteins were extracted by Coca's buffer. Allergens of the Pseudosciaena crocea were identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western-Blotting. Major allergens were isolated by ion exchange chromatagraphy (IEC) and their immunological activities were evaluated by Western-Blotting with the serum of patients as 1st antibody. The molecular weight of the Pseudosciaena crocea protein were between 8-116 kD. The molecular weight of the major allergens of Pseudosciaena crocea were 54, 29, 27, 14 kD. The concentration of allergens of Pseudosciaena crocea after isolated by IEC were highly improved and the immunological activities were kept. The allergens of Pseudosciaena crocea were detected and identified by immunological activity.
Falagiani, P; Mistrello, G; Rapisarda, G; Festa, A; Cislaghi, C; Zanoni, D
The potency of allergenic extracts can be determined in vitro by RAST inhibition, and this has become the preferred method for the standardization of allergens. A disadvantage of this technique is the impossibility of obtaining data about allergens bound to the solid phase, i.e., the counterpart of the inhibiting extract. The REAST (reverse enzyme allergosorbent test) is based on the capture of IgE by a specific antibody bound to microtiter wells, the reaction of captured IgE with biotinylated allergen and the development of a colour reaction by subsequent addition of streptavidin-peroxidase and chromogenic substrate. The addition of an allergen extract in a dose-response fashion competes with the biotinylated allergen and inhibits the test. In the present study REAST inhibition has been evaluated with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Parietaria judaica and mixed grass pollen extracts. The correlation of REAST inhibition with RAST inhibition and both intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility have been evaluated. REAST inhibition is a potentially valuable new tool for the standardization of allergenic extracts.
Morales, María; Gallego, Mayte; Iraola, Victor; Taulés, Marta; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Moya, Raquel; Carnés, Jerónimo
Allergy to cat epithelia is highly prevalent, being the major recommendation for allergy sufferers its avoidance. However, this is not always feasible. Allergen specific immunotherapy is therefore recommended for these patients. The use of polymerized allergen extracts, allergoids, would allow to achieve the high allergen doses suggested to be effective while maintaining safety. Cat native extract and its depigmented allergoid were manufactured and biochemically and immunochemically characterized. Protein and chromatographic profiles showed significant modification of the depigmented allergoid with respect to its corresponding native extract. However, the presence of different allergens (Fel d 1, Fel d 2, Fel d 3, Fel d 4 and Fel d 7) was confirmed in the allergoid. Differences in IgE-binding capacity were observed as loss of biological potency and lower stability of the IgE-allergen complex on surface plasmon resonance. The allergoid induced production of IgG antibodies able to block IgE-binding to native extract. Finally, studies carried out with peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from cat allergic patients showed that the allergoid induced IFN-γ and IL-10 production similar to that induced by native extract. Cat depigmented allergoid induced production of cytokines involved in a Th1 and Treg response, was able to induce production of IgG-antibodies that blocks IgE-binding to cat native extract, and showed reduced interaction with IgE, suggesting greater safety than native extract while maintaining in vitro efficacy.
Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J
In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare
Osimitz, Thomas G; Franzosa, Jill A; Maibach, Howard I
Pyrethrins are the insecticidally active components of pyrethrum extract, derived from flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium and used in commercial and consumer insecticide products. Most dermal testing performed with pyrethrum extracts was done before current refined pyrethrum concentrate became available (before 1967). We analyzed presently commercially available pyrethrum allergen extracts to determine the concentration of pyrethrins and the putative sensitizer pyrethrosin. Six commercial pyrethrum allergen extracts were purchased from four major allergen suppliers and analyzed for pyrethrin I and pyrethrosin by using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The commercial pyrethrum allergen extracts contained no detectable pyrethrins or pyrethrosin. In comparison, the pyrethrum standard provided by the McLaughlin Gormely King Company, a major refiner of pyrethrum, contained 20% pyrethrins and 0.49% pyrethrosin. No compounds observed in the chromatogram of the refined pyrethrum concentrate were present in the allergen extracts. Caution should be used when interpreting the results of tests performed with current pyrethrum allergen extracts because pyrethrins and pyrethrosin may not be present. Moreover, unknown components such as high-molecular-weight proteins or other impurities that may cause dermal reactions could be present in significant amounts.
Svensson, Lena; Rudin, Anna; Wennerås, Christine
Allergic diseases are characterized by the presence of eosinophils, which are recruited to the affected tissues by chemoattractants produced by T cells, mast cells and epithelium. Our objective was to evaluate if allergens can directly activate human eosinophils. The capacity of purified allergen extracts to elicit eosinophil chemotaxis, respiratory burst, degranulation and up-regulation of the adhesion molecule complement receptor 3 (CR3) was determined in eosinophils isolated from healthy blood donors. Eosinophils stimulated with an extract from house dust mite (HDM) released the granule protein major basic protein (MBP) and up-regulated the surface expression of CR3. Cat allergen extracts also induced the up-regulation of CR3, but not the release of MBP; instead cat, as well as birch and grass allergens, elicited the release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). In addition, grass pollen extract caused the secretion of MBP. None of the allergens stimulated eosinophilic cationic protein release, nor production of free oxygen radicals. Both HDM and birch extracts were chemotactic for eosinophils. These findings establish that common aeroallergens can directly activate eosinophils in vitro. We propose that eosinophil activation in vivo is not exclusively mediated by cytokines and chemokines of the allergic inflammatory reaction, but could partly be the result of direct interaction between allergens and eosinophils.
Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo
Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy.
Steinhoff, M; Fischer, M; Paschke-Kratzin, A
The evaluation of recovery rates by extracting milk powder and egg powder using eleven different extractants gave approximately similar results for both foods. Compared with the other extraction solutions investigated, '1% Tween 20® and 0.4% Triton X-100®' and '4% SDS' are the most suitable extractants to isolate proteins of hen's egg or milk. When comparing calculated protein recovery rates of egg and milk powder extracts, the results clearly indicated that the choice of a suitable extractant is of particular importance. Qualitative investigation of the extracts via LDS-PAGE followed by silver staining as well as immunoblotting confirmed the results of protein quantification. Hence, the immunoblots showed that the extraction agents had no negative influence on the antigenicity of the extracted allergenic proteins. In this study, variation of extraction temperature led neither to any benefit in extraction quality nor to degradation. Changing pH did not reveal any trends, but progressive protein hydrolysis under strong alkaline conditions. Evaluation of recovery rates as well as results of unspecific and specific staining of the extracts showed that an extraction time of 1 h is sufficient for an appropriate sample preparation. For investigations with and without food matrix different results were obtained. In summary, wheat starch did not influence the extraction quality within all examined materials and different extractants. In contrast, using fat powder and dry cake mix, respectively, led to different results in the extraction procedure. When fat powder and dry cake mix were used as food matrices, some protein recovery rates decreased and some increased depending on the allergen material. These results highlight the fact that the suitability of the extractant not only depends on the properties of the allergen but furthermore on the type of matrix containing the allergen.
Nielsen, N H; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H; Launbjerg, J; Biering, I; Søborg, M
The aim of this study was to compare skin reactivity to routine allergen prick test with panels of allergens, supplied by three different manufacturers. The allergens comprised ten aero-allergens commonly used for skin prick test in Northern Europe, and included pollen, dander, house dust mites, and moulds. Two hundred consecutive patients were tested. The methods for standardization of allergen extracts, declaration of allergenic potency, and recommended lancets differed. The equipment were Soluprick SQ (Allergologisk Laboratorium A/S, Denmark) (ALK), Alphatest (Dome/Hollister-Stier, U.K.) (DHS), and Phazet (Pharmacia, Sweden) (PHA). The coefficient of variation for the allergen coated PHA (same lancet was applied twice) was 0.31, and for ALK and DHS allergen extracts 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The frequencies of patients with positive reactions to the various allergens were generally similar, although DHS appeared to elicit less positive reactions to Timothy, dog, and Dermatophagoides pteronnyssinus. For the individual physician, it may be important to know the allergenic activity of the different allergens in his routine panel compared to the activity in other similar panels.
PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALLERGENS IN EXTRACTS OF Stachybotrys chartarum. M E Viana1, MJ Selgrade2, and M D Ward2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA. 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.
Exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum has been associated with the development of serious health ...
Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne
Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time
Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a non-thermal food processing technology, is reported to be able to inactivate enzymes and reduce allergen levels from peanut extracts. The objective of this study was to determine if PUV would reduce the allergen levels and allergenic potency of soy extracts. Soy ext...
May, J C; Rains, T C; Maienthal, F J; Biddle, G N; Progar, J J
Approximately 85 samples of injectable biological products regulated by the Center for Drugs and Biologics of the United States Food and Drug Administration were surveyed for the presence of 11 elements, namely aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, thallium and zinc, by flame and flameless methods of atomic absorption spectrometry and flame emission spectrometry. The range of products tested included whole blood, red cells, plasma, normal serum albumin, antihemophilic factor, and other products derived from blood; allergenic extracts including honey bee venom and house dust allergenic extracts; vaccines such as measles virus vaccine and typhoid vaccine; and tetanus toxoid. The metal concentrations found in the majority of these products were low or undetectable. The metal levels varied from manufacturer to manufacturer, product and lot-to-lot of the same manufacturer's products. House dust allergenic extracts had the highest concentrations of arsenic (2.4 ppm), cadmium (0.28 ppm), chromium (0.6 ppm) and lead (1.5 ppm) found in the study. A high zinc concentration (24 ppm) in an immune serum globulin was attributed to the zinc-containing rubber stopper in contact with the product. A range of 0.36-3.30 ppm aluminum was found for seven 25% normal serum albumin samples from seven manufacturers. Values of 8.2, 17 and 18 ppm aluminum were found in one manufacturer's 25% normal serum albumin. These aluminum values appeared to be the result of an anomaly in this manufacturer's production that has not been repeated to date.
Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E
Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.
Xie, Qiang-min; Wu, Ximei; Wu, Hui-min; Deng, Yang-mei; Zhang, Shui-juan; Zhu, Jian-ping; Dong, Xin-wei
Clinically sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) by using allergen extracts effectively alleviates the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Supposed that oral administration of high-dose of allergen extracts imitates SLIT and may prevent IgE-related responses in allergic diseases, we investigated the effects of oral administration of allergen extracts from Dermatophagoides farinae (Derf) on allergen-induced inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a model of asthmatic rat. After administration to the specific Derf-sensitized rats with Derfdrop solution containing Derf1 and Derf2 extracts derived from Derf, the effects of Derfdrop on AHR, inflammatory cell accumulation, cytokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue, as well as serum IgE and IgG levels were investigated. Results indicated that Derfdrop not only dose-dependently prevented the AHR in response to methacholine, but also significantly reduced the serum total and allergen-specific IgE levels, all the maximal effects were achieved at dose of 5 mg/kg/d, and were as comparable as those of dexamethasone at dose of 1.0 mg/kg/d. Furthermore, oral administration of Derfdrop not only dose-dependently elevated allergen-specific serum IgG levels and reduced total and allergen-specific IgE levels, but also normalized the imbalance between the Th1 cytokine, IFN-gamma and Th2 cytokine, IL-4. Finally, oral administration of Derfdrop significantly reduced Goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophilia in the Derf-sensitized allergic rat model. These data suggest that Derfdrop effectively improves specific allergen-induced inflammation and AHR in Derf-sensitized and -challenged rats and provide with the rationale for clinical SLIT by using Derfdrop in a specific allergen-induced asthma.
Common allergens include: Animal proteins and animal dander Dust Drugs (such as antibiotics or medicines you put on your skin) Foods (such as egg, peanut, milk, nuts, soy, fish, animal meat, and wheat) Fungal spores ...
Zurzolo, G A; Peters, R L; Koplin, J J; de Courten, M; Mathai, M L; Tye-Din, J A; Tang, M L K; Campbell, D E; Ponsonby, A-L; Prescott, S L; Gurrin, L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J
The precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) and Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL(®) ) tools were designed by industry to assist consumers with selecting safe foods for consumption. However, a sizeable proportion of food products bear no label, and it is unclear whether these products are free from allergens and therefore safe to consume or have simply not undergone a risk assessment and therefore remain unlabelled for that reason. To assess the prevalence of unlabelled products that have undergone a risk assessment process and to examine the factors influencing industry's uptake of the VITAL(®) process. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to Australasian food and grocery manufacturers. One hundred and thirty-seven Australasian manufacturers were contacted, and 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 43%). The respondents represented 454 different manufacturing sites. Manufacturers reported that 23% (95% CI 19-28) of products (n=102/434) that had been through the VITAL(®) risk assessment process had no PAL statement on the label. 34% (95% CI 30-38), (n=204/600) of products that had undergone another (non-VITAL(®) ) risk assessment process had no PAL statement. In examining the factors that influenced industry's uptake of the VITAL(®) process, 25 manufacturers reported on factors that influenced the uptake of the VITAL(®) process, 76% (CI 95% 55-91) reported that VITAL(®) was an effective tool because it was based on science; 52% (CI 95% 31-72) reported that it was too time-consuming and 36% (CI 95% 18-57) identified a concern with it not being endorsed by the government. Currently, we estimate that at least 30% of products may have been through a risk assessment process and yet bear no PAL statement on the label. Permissive labelling could be incorporated onto these products if they have been assessed to be safe for consumption. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marsh, D. G.; Goodfriend, L.; King, T. P.; Lowenstein, H.; Platts-Mills, T. A.
This article presents a nomenclature system for allergens which has been officially recommended by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The nomenclature is based on proposals of the IUIS Sub-Committee for Allergen Nomenclature and is applicable to highly purified, well-characterized allergens and to non-purified or partially purified allergenic extracts. PMID:3492310
Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...
Augustin, Steffen; Mitulski, Liane; Cromwell, Oliver; Reese, Gerald; Nandy, Andreas
Background More than 40% of type 1-allergic individuals suffer from hypersensitivity to grass pollen. Patients are treated traditionally with specific immunotherapy using pollen extracts derived from one or several different Pooideae species. While for several species the most important allergens (group 1 and group 5) have been identified, other allergens have either not been identified or sequence data are still missing. We have used mass spectrometry (MS) together with genetic and immunological methods to identify allergens in various grass pollen extracts. Methods Pollen extracts of 6 different grass species (Phleum pratense, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Dactylus glomerata, Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis) and a mixture thereof were analyzed. For identification of allergens by MS, extracts were subjected to enzymatic digestion. Resulting peptides were separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching both the NCBIPlant release and an individually designed database. The presence of individual allergens was confirmed with allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies. Unknown sequences were determined following cDNA synthesis from pollen RNA and allergen sequence amplification by PCR. Results Fes p 1 and Fes p 5 were identified by the PCR approach. MS analysis of pollen extracts from the 6 individual species resulted in detection of all known allergens including the newly identified Fes p 1 and Fes p 5. Based on the homology of allergens from different grass species, previously unknown sequences of representatives of groups 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12 and 13 were detected by MS in investigated extracts with high sequence coverage. Group 6 allergens could not be identified in some of the analyzed extracts. These findings are supported by immunological analyses and thus demonstrate the specificity of the applied method. Members of all allergen groups were identified in an extract mix prepared from
Mitobe, Yuko; Yokomoto, Yasuki; Ohashi-Doi, Katsuyo
Japanese cedar (JC) pollinosis is caused by Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) and most common seasonal allergic disease in Japan. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with allergen extract of JCP (JCP-allergen extract) is well established for JC pollinosis treatment with improvement of symptoms. However, major drawbacks for SCIT are repeated painful injections, frequent hospital visits and anaphylactic risk. Currently, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has received much attention as an advanced alternative application with lower incidence of systemic reactions because the liquid or tablet form of allergen is placed under the tongue. The aim of this study was safety evaluation of standardized JCP-allergen extract currently developed for SLIT in JC pollinosis. JCP-allergen extract showed no potential genotoxicity. No systemic effects were observed in rats administered JCP-allergen extract orally for 26 weeks followed by 4-week recovery period. Mild local reactions such as hyperplasia and increased globule leukocytes resulting from vehicle (glycerin)-induced irritation were observed in stomach. No-observed-adverse-effect level was greater than 10,000 JAU/kg/day for systemic toxicity, equivalent to 300-fold the human dose. No local irritation was found in rabbits oral mucosae by 7-day sublingual administration. These results demonstrate the safe profile of standardized JCP-allergen extract, suggesting it is suitable for SLIT in JC pollinosis.
Hildebrandt, S; Steinhart, H; Paschke, A
An important requirement for the correct procedure of allergen analysis in hen's egg is to obtain complete and unaltered protein extracts. Besides the aim of a quantitative extraction of the allergens from the matrix, it is equally important not to alter their allergenic potential during the extraction process. This paper describes and compares six extraction solutions for the analysis of whole-egg proteins and allergens. These requirements were examined via protein determination according to Bradford [Bradford, M. M. (1976). Rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254] and Kjeldahl [Meyer, A. H. (2006). Lebensmittelrecht, Verlag C.H. Beck München, Stand: 1. February 2006, § 64, Lebensmittel- und Futtermittelgesetzbuch, Amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsmethoden, Nr. L 06.00-7] as well as the EAST-inhibition method. It could be demonstrated that the extraction with a urea solution (8M) led to significant interferences during the protein determination, and substantially reduced the allergenic potential of egg proteins. With all other extraction solutions adequate protein contents could be extracted. The highest protein content was achieved by the extraction with phosphate buffered saline followed by a Tween 20 solution, physiological saline, water, and acetate buffer. The results show that none of these extracts - except for the urea solution (8M) - was altered in its' allergenic potential.
Chung, S-Y; Yang, W; Krishnamurthy, K
Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) light, a nonthermal technology, was used to treat both the peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic properties of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated using a Xenon RS-3000C under the following conditions: 3 pulses/s, 14.6 cm from the central axis of the lamp, 4 min (extract) or 3 min (liquid peanut butter). After the treatment, the peanut samples were centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed by SDS-PAGE and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA). For comparison, boiling treatments were also performed. SDS-PAGE showed that while boiling treatment had little effect on the peanut allergens, PUV-light-treated samples displayed a reduced solubility or level of peanut allergens (63 kDa). Solubility of another allergen (18 to 20 kDa) was unaffected. Insoluble aggregates formed were responsible for the reduced level of allergens in PUV-light-treated samples. ciELISA showed that untreated samples exhibited an IgE binding 7-fold higher than the PUV-treated samples. It was concluded that PUV light was effective in reducing IgE binding of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The current study provides an approach to the development of a possibly less allergenic peanut product. However, the reduction in actual allergenicity needs to be confirmed by clinical studies.
Wu, Lisha; Lin, Haixin; Wang, Guoying; Lu, Zongchao; Chen, Guanzhi; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing
Allergen extracts are widely used for allergy diagnosis and treatment. The application of shrimp extract is hampered due to the low protein concentration and the inconsistent allergenicity. Extracting solutions are considered to be the primary limiting factor of protein extraction from crustaceans. This study aimed to select an optimal solution for shrimp protein extraction by comparing the allergenicity of different shrimp extracts. The effect of 7 existing or modified extracting solutions were evaluated, including the glycerol-NaCl solution, the glycerol Cocaine's solution, the buffered saline solution, the Cocaine's solution, the Glucose leaching solution, 1 mol L-1 KCl solution, and 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate buffered saline solution with and without dithiothreitolor (DTT). The quantitative (protein concentration) and qualitative parameters (SDS-PAGE protein patterns and immuno-reactivity) were determined using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting assay. Results showed that the 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DTT was optimal for shrimp protein extraction, which yielded high concentration and allergenicity in the protein extract, including major and minor allergens. The 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DDT is proposed for preparation of shrimp extract and associated allergy diagnosis, as well as potential applications for other crustaceans.
Guzmán-Fulgencio, M; Caballero, R; Lara, B; Mena, M; Tejera, M; Sastre, A; Subiza, J-L; Fernández-Caldas, E; Casanovas, M
Glutaraldehyde-modified natural allergen extracts show significant reduction in the IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity. This allows the administration of higher doses in a shorter period of time, and to mix different allergen extracts. Evaluate the safety of different concentrations and mixtures of glutaraldehyde-modified allergen extracts in a large group of paediatric and adult patients undergoing specific immunotherapy treatment. 1855 patients (1156 adults and 699 children), suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma, participated in an observational multicentre cohort study, to evaluate the safety of immunotherapy using vaccines containing modified allergen extracts. Patients were monosensitised, or polysensitised, and received a therapeutic vaccine containing polymerised allergen extracts adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. Safety was assessed by recording all side reactions related to immunotherapy. The clinically relevant local reactions totalled 120, (90 immediate and 30 delayed) (1.02% of injections). Of them, 31 (0.26% of injections) occurred in children (26 immediate and 5 delayed) and 89 (0.76% of injections) in adults (64 immediate and 25 delayed). There were 38 systemic reactions. Eleven reactions were immediate (9 of grade 1 and 2 of grade 2) and 27 delayed (22 of grade 1 and 5 of grade 2). There were seven grade 2 systemic reactions (0.06% of the injections). No differences (P>0.05) in the number of reactions were observed between adults and children and between treatments were found in systemic reactions. All systemic reactions were mild and resolved spontaneously without the need of medication. Specific immunotherapy using natural modified allergen vaccines is safe to treat allergic patients, even at higher doses and in mixtures of unrelated allergen extracts. The percentage of adverse reactions detected is lower than those reported in the literature with native unmodified allergen extracts. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by
Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Vita, Randi; Tripple, Victoria; McKinney, Denise M.; Southwood, Scott; Brodie, Tess M.; Sallusto, Federica; Grey, Howard; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro
A panel of 133 allergens derived from 28 different sources, including fungi, trees, grasses, weeds and indoor allergens, was surveyed utilizing prediction of HLA class II binding peptides and ELISPOT assays with PBMC from allergic donors, resulting in the identification of 257 T cell epitopes. More than 90% of the epitopes were novel, and for 14 allergen sources were the first ever identified. The epitopes identified in the different allergen sources summed up to a variable fraction of the total extract response. In cases of allergens where the identified T cell epitopes accounted for a minor fraction of the extract response, fewer known protein sequences were available, suggesting that for “low epitope coverage” allergen sources, additional allergen proteins remain to be identified. IL-5 and IFN-γresponses were measured as prototype Th2 and Th1 responses, respectively. While in some cases (e.g., Orchard Grass, Alternaria, Cypress, and Russian Thistle) IL-5 production greatly exceeded IFN-γ, in others (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillum, and Alder) the production of IFN-γ exceeded IL-5. Thus, different allergen sources are associated with variable polarization of the responding T cells. The present study represents the most comprehensive survey to date of human allergen derived T cell epitopes. These epitopes might be used to characterize T cell phenotype/T cell plasticity as a function of seasonality, or as a result of SIT treatment or varying disease severity (asthma or rhinitis). PMID:22786768
Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Joo-Shil; Park, Jung-Won
Preparation of high quality allergen extracts is essential for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Standardization of allergen extracts concerns determination of the allergen unit, development of reference material and measurement of the overall IgE binding capacity of an allergen extract. Recently, quantification of individual allergens has been the main focus of allergen standardization because the allergenicity of most allergen extracts is known to be mainly dependent on the content of a small number of allergen molecules. Therefore, characterization of major allergens will facilitate the standardization of allergens. In this article, we review the current state of allergen standardization. In addition, we briefly summarize the components of allergen extracts that should be under control for the optimization of allergen standardization, since its adjuvant-like activities could play an important role in allergic reactions even though the molecule itself does not bind to the IgE antibodies from subjects.
Rationale: Ara h 1 is one of 3 major allergens in peanut. Removing Ara h 1 from a peanut extract may produce a hypoallergenic peanut extract for immunotherapy and other purposes. Methods: Peanut extracts were treated overnight with and without 10 mM p-aminobenzamidine (pABA, a protease inhibitor) i...
Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Gada, Satyen M
Indoor allergen mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts are commonly used in allergy clinics for subcutaneous immunotherapy, but product-specific stabilities and mixing compatibilities in these complex patient formulas have not been determined. To assess the recoveries of cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach mix allergen activities in 5 component mixtures and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions stored for up to 12 months. Concentrated stock mixtures, 10-fold dilutions of these mixtures in human serum albumin-saline diluent, and analogous single-extract controls were analyzed for major allergen concentrations (cat Fel d 1, dog dander Can f 1) and multiallergen IgE-binding potencies (dog epithelia, D farinae, cockroach mix) after storage for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. The selected immunoassays were specific for individual target extracts in the 5-component mixtures and exhibited analytical sensitivities sufficient for evaluation of both the concentrated and diluted indoor allergen formulas. All control samples except diluted cockroach extract had near-complete stabilities during refrigerated storage. Mixtures that contained cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, and D farinae extracts exhibited favorable mixing compatibilities in 1:1 (vol/vol) concentrates (47.5% glycerin) and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions (4.75% glycerin), relative to corresponding control sample reactivities. Cockroach allergens in both 1:1 (vol/vol) and 1:10 (vol/vol) concentrations were stabilized significantly by mixing with the other 4 indoor allergen extracts. Extracts in mixtures that contained 5 common sources of indoor allergens possess favorable stabilities and mixing compatibilities and support the practice of combining these products in the same patient treatment formulations for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...
Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Cadario, Gianni; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossi, Oliviero; Romano, Antonino; Scala, Enrico; Romano, Catello; Ingrassia, Antonino; Zambito, Marcello; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Frati, Franco
The efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is well supported by evidence from trials and meta-analyses. However, its actual performance in daily practice may be diminished by several pitfalls, including inappropriate patient selection, and, especially, the use of allergen extracts of insufficient quality. We performed a survey, the Allergen Immunotherapy Decision Analysis, to evaluate which criteria specialists use to choose products for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in adult patients suffering from allergic respiratory disease. We surveyed a total of 169 Italian allergists randomly chosen from a database belonging to a market research company (Lexis Ricerche, Milan, Italy). The survey was performed between October and November 2012 under the aegis of the European Center for Allergy Research Foundation and consisted of a questionnaire-based electronic survey prepared by a scientific board of 12 AIT experts. The questionnaire comprised two parts, the first of which contained 14 items to be ranked by each participant according to the importance assigned to each when choosing SLIT products. The physicians' rankings assigned major importance to the level of evidence-based validation of efficacy and safety, standardization of the product, efficacy based on personal experience, and defined content(s) of the major allergen(s) in micrograms. The results of this survey show that Italian allergists rank the quality-related characteristics of allergen extracts as highly important when choosing products for AIT. The allergists' preference for high-quality products should be addressed by regulatory agencies and by producers.
Frati, Franco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; David, Marie; Scurati, Silvia; Seta, Simona; Padua, Guglielmo; Cattaneo, Eleonora; Cavaliere, Carlo; Di Rienzo, Alessia; Dell’Albani, Ilaria; Puccinelli, Paola
The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with mite-induced respiratory allergy. PMID:22654506
Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried
Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675
Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried
Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential.
Khurana, Taruna; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Shartouny, Jessica R.; Slater, Jay E.
Background German cockroach (GCr) allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency. Objective Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts. Methods Single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human) coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA. Results Chicken scFv’s generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv’s recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target. Conclusions An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts. PMID:26444288
Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia
Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874
ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA.
ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA.
Schmidt, Hendrik; Gelhaus, Christoph; Latendorf, Ties; Nebendahl, Melanie; Petersen, Arnd; Krause, Susanne; Leippe, Matthias; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Janssen, Ottmar
Over the last decade, an increasing prevalence of peanut allergies was observed worldwide. Peanuts are meanwhile categorized among the most dangerous food allergens. This is particularly relevant since peanut-derived ingredients are widely used in industrial food production. To minimize the problem of hidden food allergens causing severe anaphylactic reactions, pre-packaged food containing peanut components needs to be classified according to European ruling since 2005. Food companies search for strategies to reduce the allergenicity of peanut-derived food additives either by genetically altering the allergen content or by identifying peanut varieties with low levels of major allergens. In our study, we focused on peanut extracts from Indonesia that apparently contain lower levels of the major Arachis hypogaea allergen 1 (Ara h 1). Basic extracts of Virginia-type and Indonesian peanuts were compared by 1- and 2-DE. We identified more than hundred individual components in these extracts by MS and provide a high-resolution allergen map that also includes so far unknown fragments of major peanut allergens. The reduced level of Ara h 1 associated with a significantly lower abundance of the most potent peanut allergen Ara h 2 in various Indonesian peanuts was also confirmed by Western blotting with monoclonal antibodies and sera of allergic patients.
Costa, Joana; Melo, Vítor S; Santos, Cristina G; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel
The present work aimed at comparing different DNA extraction methods, from chocolate matrices, for the effective application in molecular techniques to detect tree nut allergens. For this study, DNA from almond or hazelnut model chocolates was extracted using seven selected protocols: the in-house methods of CTAB-PVP (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-polyvinylpyrrolidone), Wizard with and without RNase, Wizard-PVP with and without RNase, and the Wizard Magnetic and Nucleospin kits. The extracts were assessed for their suitability for amplification by qualitative PCR and real-time PCR. From the evaluated protocols, Nucleospin presented the best results for almond and hazelnut amplification, achieving a limit of detection of 0.005% (w/w) with high PCR efficiency, linearity and range of amplification. These results highlight the importance of the DNA extraction protocol in the case of food allergens from complex matrices, such as chocolate, in which sensitivity is a key parameter.
Satoh, Rie; Teshima, Reiko; Kitta, Kazumi; Lang, Gang-Hua; Schegg, Kathleen; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Hicks, Leslie; Labory-Carcenac, Bénédicte; Rouquié, David; Herman, Rod A.; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Ladics, Gregory S.; McClain, Scott; Poulsen, Lars K.; Privalle, Laura; Ward, Jason M.; Doerrer, Nancy; Rascle, Jean-Baptiste
In rice, several allergens have been identified such as the non-specific lipid transfer protein-1, the α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors, the α-globulin, the 33 kDa glyoxalase I (Gly I), the 52–63 kDa globulin, and the granule-bound starch synthetase. The goal of the present study was to define optimal rice extraction and detection methods that would allow a sensitive and reproducible measure of several classes of known rice allergens. In a three-laboratory ring-trial experiment, several protein extraction methods were first compared and analyzed by 1D multiplexed SDS-PAGE. In a second phase, an inter-laboratory validation of 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted in five independent laboratories, focusing on three rice allergens (52 kDa globulin, 33 kDa glyoxalase I, and 14–16 kDa α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family members). The results of the present study indicate that a combination of 1D multiplexed SDS-PAGE and 2D-DIGE methods would be recommended to quantify the various rice allergens. PMID:27399872
Crespo Guerrero, V; Alfonso Fernández, L A; Gómez Echevarría, A H
We studied 200 patients assisting at the Allergy Department and the Gastroenterology Department in "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical-Surgical Hospital. They were clinically and immunologically tested for giardiasis through duodenal fortis or gall bladder drainage and total IgE serum levels. All patients underwent intradermal and skin prick tests with Giardine allergenic extract. These skin tests showed high sensitivity and increased specificity. Thus, our procedure in diagnosis is accurate, accessible and economical.
Smoldovskaya, Olga; Feyzkhanova, Guzel; Arefieva, Alla; Voloshin, Sergei; Ivashkina, Olga; Reznikov, Yuriy; Rubina, Alla
Immunological test systems for diagnostics of type I hypersensitivity involve the following types of antigens: whole allergen extracts, individual highly purified proteins and their recombinant analogues. The goal of this study was to compare the results obtained with whole allergen extracts (birch pollen, cat dander, and timothy grass pollen) and their respective recombinant proteins in biochip-based immunoassay. Multiplex fluorescent immunoassay of 139 patients' blood serum samples was carried out using biological microchips (biochips). sIgE concentrations for the chosen allergens and their recombinant components were measured. ROC analysis was used for comparison of the results and determination of diagnostic accuracy. The results for the birch pollen extract and its recombinant allergens have shown that the diagnostic accuracy of the methods utilizing the whole allergen extract, its major component Bet v 1 and the combination of major and minor components (Bet v 1 and Bet v 2) was the same. Values for diagnostic accuracy for the cat dander extract and its major recombinant component Fel d 1 were equal. In contrast with birch pollen and cat dander allergens, using of recombinant components of timothy grass pollen (Phl p 1, Phl p 5, Phl p 7 and Phl p 12) did not allow reaching the diagnostic accuracy of using natural extract. Multiplex analysis of samples obtained from patients with allergy to birch pollen and cat dander using biological microchips has shown that comparable accuracy was observed for the assay with natural extracts and recombinant allergens. In the case of timothy grass allergen, using the recombinant components may be insufficient.
Prester, Ljerka; Kovačić, Jelena; Macan, Jelena
Der p 1 is the main allergen of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which has routinely been detected in residential dust. However, the procedure for extracting Der p 1 from reservoir dust has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to compare Der p 1 mass fractions in dust extracts prepared using the following extraction buffers: phosphate (pH 7.4), borate (pH 8.0), and ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0), all with 0.05 % Tween 20. Twenty-eight dust samples were divided into three aliquots and each portion was extracted with one of the three buffers at room temperature. Der p 1 mass fractions were measured in a total of 84 dust extracts using the enzyme immunoassay (range: 0.1 μg g-1 to 7.53 μg g-1). Statistical methods including intraclass correlation showed a high agreement between Der p 1 mass fractions irrespective of the extracting medium. Our results suggest that all three buffers are suitable for the extraction of mite allergens and routine Der p 1 analysis in dust.
Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B
Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398
Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chungryul; Yong, Tai-Soon
Allergen extracts from dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean homes were used to evaluate their enzymatic activity as they are believed to influence allergenicity. Allergen extracts were prepared from 3 dust mite species (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and 3 cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa) maintained in the Korea National Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank. Proteins were extracted in PBS after homogenization using liquid nitrogen. The activities of various enzymes were investigated using the API Zym system. No significant difference in phosphatase, lipase, or glycosidase activity was observed among the 6 allergen extracts, but much difference was observed in protease activity. Protease activity was assessed in more detail by gelatin zymography and the EnzChek assay. Extract from T. putrescentiae showed the highest protease activity, followed by those of the cockroach extracts. Extracts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed only weak protease activity. Gelatinolytic activity was detected mainly in a 30-kDa protein in D. farinae, a 28-kDa protein in D. pteronyssinus, a > 26-kDa protein in T. putrescentiae, a > 20-kDa protein in B. germanica, and a > 23-kDa protein in P. americana and P. fuliginosa. The information on various enzymatic activities obtained in this study may be useful for future studies. In particular, the strong protease activity found in cockroach extracts could contribute to sensitization to cockroach allergens, which is known to be associated with the development of asthma.
Zargari, A; Eshaghi, H; Bäck, O; Johansson, S; Scheynius, A
IgE reactivity to the opportunistic yeast Malassezia furfur can be found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). We have previously cloned and expressed 6 recombinant allergens (rMal f 1, rMal f 5-9) from M. furfur. In the present study, we used ImmunoCAP to investigate whether these rMal f allergens can be useful in the diagnosis of M. furfur-associated AD compared with the M. furfur extract. A total of 156 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD participated in the study. Sixty-four percent had increased total serum IgE levels, 79% had specific IgE antibodies to common inhalant allergens and 47% had IgE antibodies to M. furfur extract. IgE antibodies to any of the rMal f allergens were detected among 86 (55%) of the patients, 14 (16%) of whom did not react to the M. furfur extract. Any individual rMal f allergen detected between 32% and 89% of the patients ImmunoCAP-positive to the M. furfur extract, with the highest sensitivity for rMal f 9. Therefore, a couple of individual rMal f allergens can improve the diagnosis of M. furfur-associated IgE allergies in patients with AD.
Rans, Tonya S; Hrabak, Todd M; Whisman, Bonnie A; Grier, Thomas J; LeFevre, Dawn M; Kwon, Paul O; Tankersley, Michael S
Recommendations regarding the administration of imported fire ant whole body extract (IFA WBE) combined with aeroallergens or environmental allergens in a single immunotherapy injection are lacking. To evaluate the degradative effect of IFA WBE on cat, ragweed, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and timothy grass allergens. Imported fire ant whole body extract was combined with extracts of cat, ragweed, D pteronyssinus, and timothy grass. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed on each sample after storage for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months at 4 degrees C. In addition, cat and ragweed combinations were evaluated by radial immunodiffusion (RID); D pteronyssinus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition; and timothy grass by ELISA inhibition and Western blot. Imported fire ant whole body extract combined with timothy grass demonstrated degradation of timothy grass allergens by SDS-PAGE, ELISA inhibition, and Western blot results. Cat and ragweed allergens were stable after mixing with IFA WBE, based on SDS-PAGE and RID analyses. Stability of D pteronyssinus allergens with IFA WBE was evident from SDS-PAGE and ELISA inhibition data. Imported fire ant whole body extract combined with timothy grass resulted in significant and rapid timothy protein degradation. Imported fire ant whole body extract mixed with cat, ragweed, or D pteronyssinus revealed aeroallergen stability, yielding the possibility of combining these extracts in a single immunotherapy injection. Compatibilities of IFA WBE with other common aeroallergens remain undetermined and thus are not recommended for single-injection immunotherapy formulations.
Park, Hae-Sim; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Suh, You-Jin; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Soo-Keol; Kim, Sun-Sin; Nahm, Dong-Ho
Porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) are composed of alpha-amylase and lipase, which are common components of digestive enzymes. They have been known to cause occupational asthma in exposed workers in pharmaceutical and baking industries, as well as in a laboratory technician, but there has been no report of PPE-induced occupational asthma in medical personnel and their IgE binding components to each component. Four asthmatic subjects showing positive results on PPE-bronchoprovocation testing were enrolled. All of them were nurses working in a university hospital. Their job included grinding and mixing PPE powder for admitted patients. Serum-specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To confirm specificity of IgE binding and cross-allergenicity among the three extracts, ELISA inhibition tests were performed. In order to characterize allergenic components within these three extracts, SDS-PAGE and IgE immunoblot analysis were done. Specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were detectable by ELISA in all study subjects. An alpha-amylase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by amylase and PPE, and minimal inhibition by lipase. However, a lipase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by alpha-amylase and PPE with a lesser degree of inhibition by lipase. Furthermore, IgE immunoblot analysis showed one IgE binding component (55 kDa) within PPE, six components (55 kDa, 43 kDa, 41 kDa, 32 kDa, 31 kDa, 29 kDa) within alpha-amylase and two components (31 kDa, 29 kDa) within lipase extracts. Thesefindings suggest that inhalation of PPE powder can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed nurses. Alpha-amylase is a major allergenic component within PPE.
Evaluation of the potential for food allergenicity of any given protein is limited by the lack of an appropriate animal model. In this study we examined the intrinsic allergenicity of foods known to be allergenic (peanut, egg) or non-allergenic (spinach) by exposing mice either s...
Evaluation of the potential for food allergenicity of any given protein is limited by the lack of an appropriate animal model. In this study we examined the intrinsic allergenicity of foods known to be allergenic (peanut, egg) or non-allergenic (spinach) by exposing mice either s...
Deckwart, Marina; Carstens, Carsten; Webber-Witt, Manuella; Schäfer, Volker; Eichhorn, Lisa; Schröter, Franziska; Fischer, Markus; Brockow, Knut; Christmann, Monika; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika
Proteinogenic wine fining agents are hidden allergens and could present a risk for consumers with allergies. Therefore, the European Parliament adopted Directive 2003/89/EC amending Directive 2000/13/EC to declare ingredients, contaminations and processing aids that are known to trigger allergic reactions. The Amendment Regulation (EU) 1266/2010 excluded the labelling of wines which are processed with hen's egg and products thereof until 30 June 2012 to get more scientific findings. After 1 July 2012 wine fining agents have to be declared if above 0.25 mg l(-1) (Regulation (EU) 579/2012 in conjunction with article 120 g of Regulation (EU) 1234/2007). The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) advises this limit of detection (LOD) for potential allergenic residues of proteins. Wine fining agents are processing aids and according to the wine producer's knowledge will be removed after coagulation by filtration or other production steps. Due to lack of scientific data, residues of fining agents in the final product could not be excluded. In this risk assessment, highly sensitive ELISA methods for ovalbumin of known origin for wine have been developed. The objective was to investigate the presence of allergen residues in wine after certain technological treatments were applied to remove the wine fining agents. For all developed ELISA methods the LODs are in the low µg l(-1) range between 5 and 10 µg l(-1) fining agent, whereas the LOQ varies between 5 and 80 µg l(-1) fining agent. The results of the investigation of well-known wines and fining agents demonstrate that white wines fined with white or ovalbumin from hen's egg could retain allergens. The use of certain technological procedures during wine processing leads to different results. In white wine, bentonite or sheet filtration followed by sterile filtration lead to wines containing no detectable amounts of ovalbumin. In red wine, especially the final sterile filtration removes the fining agents.
Galicia, Christian; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela
Latex allergy is a health problem that mainly affects medical environments, causing anaphylactic shocks in extreme cases. Sensitization and reactions to this material is closely linked to the use of latex gloves. The objective of this study was to purify two of the major allergens from latex surgical gloves to study the biochemical and structural changes that could be generated during the product manufacture and to compare their IgE recognition with the non-processed allergens. Glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (β-1,3-glucanase) and Hev b 6.02 (hevein) were purified from glove extracts using affinity (Concanavalin A) and reversed-phase chromatographies, respectively. ELISA experiments were performed with both proteins and sera from allergic patients to assess the IgE recognition, which was heterogeneous. Crystallographic methods were used to obtain the 3D structure of Hev b 6.02 from surgical gloves, which did not show evident modification when compared with the protein from the natural non-processed form. Despite having the same crystallographic structure, the IgE from some patients showed different recognition when the glove and the natural allergen were used in ELISA. Furthermore, using electrophoretic techniques, we identified three forms of Hev b 2: one corresponding to the complete polypeptide chain with posttranslational modifications, and two glycosylated fragments. The mixture of these three forms showed stronger recognition by IgE from latex-allergic patients than the pure non-processed allergen. In conclusion, IgE from subjects sensitized to latex products showed different recognition between the allergens obtained from a natural source and the processed material, even when the structure was maintained. This demonstrates the importance of using processed allergens in further investigations of diagnosis, prevalence, product allergenicity, and therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eder, C; Crameri, R; Mayer, C; Eicher, R; Straub, R; Gerber, H; Lazary, S; Marti, E
Immunoglobulin E antibody (IgE) levels against four recombinant (r) mould allergens (r-Aspergillus fumigatus [rAsp f] 7, 8 and 9; r-Alternaria alternata 1 [rAlta1]) and crude mould (Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium notatum) and storage mite extracts were determined by ELISA in sera from 24 pulmonary sound control horses and 26 horses suffering from chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis (CB), also called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serum IgG and IgA titres were also determined against Aspergillus fumigatus extract and rAsp f 8.IgE against the crude extracts could be measured in all sera, but there was no significant difference between CB-affected and control horses. In contrast, only 8-30% of the horses, depending on the r-allergen tested, had detectable IgE levels in serum against the r-allergens. Horses with CB had significantly more often detectable IgE levels than controls against rAlt a 1 (10/26 and 3/24, respectively, p=0. 054), rAsp f 7 (13/26 and 2/24, respectively, p<0.01) and rAsp f 8 (11/26 and 1/24, respectively, p<0.01). Only four horses (three CB-affected and one healthy, p0.05) had detectable IgE levels against rAsp f 9. Furthermore, CB-affected horses were often sensitised against two or more r-allergens (13/26 of the CB-affected horses) while only one of the 24 healthy horses had positive IgE levels against more than one r-allergens. Similarly to IgE levels, no significant differences between CB-affected and healthy horses were found for IgG titres against the Aspergillus fumigatus extract. However, horses with CB had significantly higher serum IgG titres against rAsp f 8 than healthy controls (median=28 versus 10 relative ELISA units [REU], p<0.01). Additionally, horses with detectable IgE titres against rAsp f 8 had significantly higher IgG titres against this r-allergen than horses with undetectable IgE titres (median IgG titres=46 and 13 REU, respectively; p<0.01). For serum IgA titres, neither differences
Bartel, D; Führer, F; Vieths, S
Allergen products for specific immunotherapy of type I allergies were first authorized for the German market in the 1970s. In addition to finished products manufactured in advance and in batches, so-called named patient products have recently been defined as Medicinal Products by the German Medicinal Products Act ("Arzneimittelgesetz", AMG 14th Revision 2005). Some allergen products previously marketed as named patient products are now required to obtain marketing authorization according to the German ordinance for therapy allergens. Products have to be batch released by the competent German Federal Agency, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). Samples of product batches are delivered to the PEI in order to perform experimental quality controls. With regard to named patient products, PEI tests batch samples of the bulk extract preparations used for manufacturing of the respective, named patient products. The institute releases approximately 2,800 allergen product batches annually.
Curin, Mirela; Garib, Viktoriya; Valenta, Rudolf
To review the current knowledge regarding recombinant and purified allergens and allergen-derived peptides. PubMed, homepages relevant to the topic, and the National Institutes of Health clinical trial database were searched. The literature was screened for studies describing purified and recombinant allergens and allergen-derived peptides. Studies relevant to the topic were included in this review. Advantages and drawbacks of pure and defined recombinant allergens and peptides over allergen extracts in the context of allergy research, diagnosis, and allergen immunotherapy are discussed. We describe how these molecules are manufactured, which products are currently available on the market, and what the regulative issues are. We furthermore provide an overview of clinical studies with vaccines based on recombinant allergens and synthetic peptides. The possibility of prophylactic vaccination based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity are also discussed. During the last 25 years more than several hundred allergen sequences were determined, which led to a production of recombinant allergens that mimic biochemically and immunologically their natural counterparts. Especially in Europe, recombinant allergens are increasingly replacing allergen extracts in diagnosis of allergy. Despite many challenges, such as high cost of clinical trials and regulative issues, allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergens and peptides are being developed and will likely soon be available on the market. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young
Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.
Walczyk, Nicole E; Smith, Penelope M C; Tovey, Euan R; Roberts, Thomas H
The clinical importance of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergies demands standardized allergen extraction protocols. We determined the effectiveness of common extraction conditions (20 buffers, defatting reagents, extraction time/temperatures, processing, extraction repeats) on crude protein and Ara h 1 and 2 yields. Despite similar 1D-gel profiles, defatting with n-hexane resulted in significantly higher yields of crude protein, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2 than with diethyl ether. The yields were affected by the composition and pH of the extraction buffers and other conditions, but crude protein yield did not always correlate with Ara h 1 and 2 yields. Denaturants, reducing agents, acidic buffers, and thermal processing of peanuts perturbed allergen quantification in ELISAs, probably via exposure of additional epitopes. Allergen detection in 2D-Western blots with PBS resulted in greater sensitivity than with TBS or Tris. We recommend that allergen extraction conditions be selected based on the research question being investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pfaar, Oliver; Mösges, Ralph; Hörmann, Karl; Klimek, Ludger
In addition to allergen avoidance and pharmaceutical medication, specific immunotherapy (SIT) stands for the third most important mainstay offered to allergic patients. SIT has been widely used in pollen-allergic rhinitis,and clinical efficacy has been validated in several controlled clinical trials. Classic SIT protocols begin with an initial dose-increase period (subcutaneous injections of gradually ascending dosages of the allergen extract in weekly intervals) followed by the dose-maintenance period.However, dosage schedules are not commonly standardized yet. Cluster-SIT is an accelerated procedure to achieve the maintenance dose after a shorter time interval by the application of 2-3 injections per treatment day.A total of 395 pollen-allergic patients (173 females,222 males) aging from 18 to 61 years (mean age 32.6 +/- 5.9 years) have been investigated using a Cluster schedule for Alutard SQ that allows up dosing up to 100,000 SQ-U in six treatment days (within 5 weeks). The schedule was investigated with regard to the side effects during dosage increase. The total number of systemic reactions was n = 148 or 2.05% of all injections. Of these,119 (80%) were classified as immediate reactions, 27(18%) were late-phase reactions and 2 (2%) were both immediate- and late-phase reactions. Of all systemic reactions, 124 (84%) were classified as grade 1 reactions,and 24 (16%) as grade 2. No reactions of grades 3 and 4 occurred. Age, gender and the type of the allergen used had no influence on the frequency or severity of local or systemic reactions. The appearance and amount of adverse side effects in Cluster-SCIT is comparable to those in conventional schedules. With respect to safety aspects, this accelerated dosage schedule could turn into an interesting alternative for dosage increase during subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT).
Sanguanchaiyakrit, Nuthchyawach; Povey, Andrew C.; de Vocht, Frank
Objectives: Latex product manufacturing is an important industry in south-east Asia but has the potential for considerable occupational exposure of workers to latex allergens. Although exposure to latex allergens can result in adverse health reactions, few studies to characterize this exposure have been conducted to date. This study therefore aimed to characterize current airborne inhalable dust and the specific allergen, Hev b 6.02, exposures in this industry in Thailand. Methods: Workers were recruited from three factories in the southern part of Thailand. Full-shift inhalable dust personal air sampling was conducted using IOM sampling heads equipped with polytetrafluoroethylene filters at a 2.0 l min−1 flowrate. After weighing to determine inhalable dust levels, filters were extracted and analysed for Hev b 6.02 using an enzyme immunometric assay. Results: Two hundred and seventy-five workers agreed to participate, resulting in a total of 292 measurements. Geometric mean (GM) personal exposure to inhalable dust was 0.88mg m–3, but individual exposures up to 12.34mg m–3 were measured. The pattern of exposure was similar across factories, with highest exposures in the stripping (GM 2.08–4.05mg m–3 for the 3 factories) and tumbling departments (1.11–2.17mg m–3). Within-worker (day-to-day) variability contributed 92% to total variability. The Hev b 6.02 exposure pattern was similar with time-weighted average GM exposure levels in the oldest factory ranging from 8.7mg m–3 in the laboratory to 30.2mg m–3 in the stripping department. In contrast to inhalable dust exposure, total exposure variability was primary driven by variability between workers (67%). Conclusions: Workers in these latex product factories get routinely exposed to measurable Hev b 6.02 levels, which may give rise to increased incidence of allergic symptoms and occupational asthma. Also, in this measurement campaign a 10mg m–3, but not 15mg m–3, occupational exposure limit for
Sanguanchaiyakrit, Nuthchyawach; Povey, Andrew C; de Vocht, Frank
Latex product manufacturing is an important industry in south-east Asia but has the potential for considerable occupational exposure of workers to latex allergens. Although exposure to latex allergens can result in adverse health reactions, few studies to characterize this exposure have been conducted to date. This study therefore aimed to characterize current airborne inhalable dust and the specific allergen, Hev b 6.02, exposures in this industry in Thailand. Workers were recruited from three factories in the southern part of Thailand. Full-shift inhalable dust personal air sampling was conducted using IOM sampling heads equipped with polytetrafluoroethylene filters at a 2.0 l min(-1) flowrate. After weighing to determine inhalable dust levels, filters were extracted and analysed for Hev b 6.02 using an enzyme immunometric assay. Two hundred and seventy-five workers agreed to participate, resulting in a total of 292 measurements. Geometric mean (GM) personal exposure to inhalable dust was 0.88 mg m(-3), but individual exposures up to 12.34 mg m(-3) were measured. The pattern of exposure was similar across factories, with highest exposures in the stripping (GM 2.08-4.05 mg m(-3) for the 3 factories) and tumbling departments (1.11-2.17 mg m(-3)). Within-worker (day-to-day) variability contributed 92% to total variability. The Hev b 6.02 exposure pattern was similar with time-weighted average GM exposure levels in the oldest factory ranging from 8.7 mg m(-3) in the laboratory to 30.2mg m(-3) in the stripping department. In contrast to inhalable dust exposure, total exposure variability was primary driven by variability between workers (67%). Workers in these latex product factories get routinely exposed to measurable Hev b 6.02 levels, which may give rise to increased incidence of allergic symptoms and occupational asthma. Also, in this measurement campaign a 10mg m(-3), but not 15 mg m(-3), occupational exposure limit for inhalable dust was occasionally exceeded
Mellerup, M T; Hahn, G W; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a well-documented treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and allergy to Hymenoptera venoms. The drawbacks of injection immunotherapy are related to the risk of inducing systemic side-effects (especially during the induction phase), the time used to reach the maintenance dose, and the percentage of patients completing the induction phase). To investigate the practicability and safety of three different patient-friendly induction regimens of clustered immunotherapy (several injections administered during each visit). Since 1990, three different clustered induction regimens (regimen 1 = exclusively aqueous extracts; regimen 2 = a combination of aqueous and alum depot extracts; and regimen 3 = induction using exclusively alum depot extracts) have been investigated in 657 patients (10 369 injections). A total of 454 systemic (immediate and late) reactions were observed in 257 patients corresponding to 4.4% of the injections and 39.1% of the patients. Most of the systemic reactions were of little or no clinical importance (93% grade 1 and grade 2) and < 1% anaphylactic reactions. The 8-week induction regimen using exclusively alum depot extracts showed a statistical significant lower frequency and severity of systemic side-effects. Immunotherapy with cat and mite allergen extracts showed the highest frequency of severe side-effects, which may be related to these extracts being used predominantly in asthmatic patients. The lowest frequency of systemic side-effects was observed in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venoms and these patients furthermore showed the highest number of patients (97%) completing the induction phase. An 8-week clustered induction regimen using alum depot extract seems an acceptable compromise in relation to a reduction in the time used to reach maintenance dose and the risk of inducing clinically relevant systemic side-effects, and consequently imply a reduction in the costs of the treatment.
Chapman, Martin D; Briza, Peter
Molecular approaches to allergen standardization include the development of purified natural or recombinant allergen standards whose structural and allergenic properties have been validated, in tandem with certified immunoassays for allergen measurement. Purified allergens can be used individually or incorporated into multiple allergen standards. Multicenter international collaborative studies are required to validate candidate allergen standards and immunoassays, as a prelude to being approved by regulatory agencies. Mass spectrometry is a sophisticated and powerful proteomics tool that is being developed for allergen analysis. Recent results using pollen allergens show that mass spectrometry can identify and measure specific allergens in a complex mixture and can provide precise information of the variability of natural allergen extracts. In future, the combined use of immunoassays and mass spectrometry will provide complete standardization of allergenic products. Molecular standardization will form the basis of new allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, as well as assessment of environmental exposure, and will improve the quality of treatment options for allergic patients.
Van Gramberg, Jenna L; Bischof, Robert J; O'Hehir, Robyn E; de Veer, Michael J; Meeusen, Els N
The innate response generated after initial allergen exposure is crucial for polarising adaptive immunity, but little is known about how it drives an atopic or type-2 immune response. The present study characterises the response of skin-draining afferent lymph in sheep following injection with peanut (PN) extract in the presence or absence of aluminium hydroxide (AlOH) adjuvant. Lymph was collected and innate cell populations characterised over an 84 h time period. The innate response to PN extract in afferent lymph displayed an early increase in neutrophils and monocytes without any changes in the dendritic cell (DC) population. PN antigen was transported by neutrophils and monocytes for the first 36 h, after which time DCs were the major antigen trafficking cells. AlOH adjuvant gradually increased antigen uptake by DCs at the later time points. Following lymphatic characterisation, sheep were sensitised with PN extract by three subcutaneous injections of PN in AlOH, and the level of PN-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined. Sheep with higher levels of steady-state DCs in afferent lymph showed increased monocytic recruitment in afferent lymph and reduced PN-specific IgE following sensitisation. In addition, DCs from afferent lymph that had ingested PN antigen increased the expression of monocyte chemoattractant mRNA. The results of this study show that the innate response to PN extract involves a dynamic change in cell populations in the afferent lymph over time. In addition, DCs may determine the strength of the initial inflammatory cell response, which in turn may determine the nature of the antigen-specific adaptive response.
specific properties of the whooping cough allergen. However, in view of the low yield of the preparation, some changes in the original procedure were...immunochemical properties of the whooping cough allergen preparations showed that they are complexes of proteins and polysaccharides. Five antigenic components were detected in immunochemical reactions.
Chung, Yong Joo; Copeland, Lisa B; Doerfler, Donald L; Ward, Marsha D W
A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration (IA) at several doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 microg) 4 times over a 4-week period. Three days after the last IA exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The relative allergenicity of the extracts was evaluated based on the lowest dose that induced a significant response compared to control (0 microg) and the linear regression slope analysis across the dose range. SCE induced a more robust response than HDM for BALF some inflammatory cells (macrophage and neutrophils), whereas HDM induced more robust BALF lymphocyte and eosinophil responses. Although SCE induced a more robust serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) response than did HDM, the induction of a similar response in a functional, antigen-specific IgE assay required approximately twice as much SCE as HDM. Even though SCE demonstrates the ability to induce allergic responses in the mouse model, considering the importance and relevance of eosinophil, lymphocyte, and antigen-specific IgE in allergic airway disease, it is concluded that HDM is more potent than SCE in the induction of allergic responses. These data suggest a threshold dose for SCE allergy induction. Furthermore, in damp water-damaged environments, exposure to S. chartarum might easily exceed the sensitization threshold for a susceptible population.
Mansouritorghabeh, Hassan; Jabbari-Azad, Farahzad; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Sankian, Mojtaba; Farid-Hosseini, Reza
Collecting information on influencing factors in developing consistent and high-quality extracts results in accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of type I allergy (IgE mediated). Furthermore, considering that a large number of allergens are currently in practice, any attempt to develop a more effective procedure for preparing extract may be useful. Nowadays, different saline solvents, temperature, incubation time, and PH are being incorporated for preparing allergen extracts. The objective of the current study was to clear and address the commonest of solvent buffers and allied conditions for making extracts of pollens of grasses, trees, and weeds. The literature review was done in Jan 2016 on PubMed and Google Scholar medical search engines without any time limitation. After reading abstracts of 87 articles, finally 37 relevant papers were selected and their full texts were retrieved. In conclusion, 24 full-text papers were recognized appropriate and chosen. The extracted information for papers has been described fully in the text. On the basis of these data, PBS buffer with PH 7.4, temperature of 4 °C and with overnight incubation time, may be the optimized condition in order to have a proper extract for carrying out skin prick tests. PMID:28713519
Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E
Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.
Blanusa, Milan; Perovic, Iva; Popovic, Milica; Polovic, Natalija; Burazer, Lidija; Milovanovic, Mina; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija; Jankov, Ratko; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja
A simple ion-exchange HPLC-UV method was developed for determination of major allergens from mugwort pollen and kiwi fruit extracts in mass-units. The separation of Art v 1 and Act c 1 from other components in the extracts was achieved in one step. The extinction coefficients used in the study were theoretically determined and compared to the extinction coefficients determined by gravimetry. We also reported a close correlation of the major allergen contents with the overall allergenic potency of the extracts determined by inhibition ELISA. This method could be a useful tool for standardization of allergenic extracts for clinical use.
Blank, S; Seismann, H; Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Cifuentes, L; Braren, I; Grunwald, T; Darsow, U; Ring, J; Bredehorst, R; Ollert, M; Spillner, E
Generalized systemic reactions to stinging hymenoptera venom constitute a potentially fatal condition in venom-allergic individuals. Hence, the identification and characterization of all allergens is imperative for improvement of diagnosis and design of effective immunotherapeutic approaches. Our aim was the immunochemical characterization of the carbohydrate-rich protein Api m 10, an Apis mellifera venom component and putative allergen, with focus on the relevance of glycosylation. Furthermore, the presence of Api m 10 in honeybee venom (HBV) and licensed venom immunotherapy preparations was addressed. Api m 10 was produced as soluble, aglycosylated protein in Escherichia coli and as differentially glycosylated protein providing a varying degree of fucosylation in insect cells. IgE reactivity and basophil activation of allergic patients were analyzed. For detection of Api m 10 in different venom preparations, a monoclonal human IgE antibody was generated. Both, the aglycosylated and the glycosylated variant of Api m 10 devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD), exhibited IgE reactivity with approximately 50% of HBV-sensitized patients. A corresponding reactivity could be documented for the activation of basophils. Although the detection of the native protein in crude HBV suggested content comparable to other relevant allergens, three therapeutical HBV extracts lacked detectable amounts of this component. Api m 10 is a genuine allergen of A. mellifera venom with IgE sensitizing potential in a significant fraction of allergic patients independent of CCD reactivity. Thus, Api m 10 could become a key element for component-resolved diagnostic tests and improved immunotherapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Chen, Yeming; Ono, Tomotada
This study supplied a simple extraction method for intact soybean oil body (ISOB) and examined the heating effect on ISOB. ISOB, which just contained its intrinsic protein (oleosin), could be obtained by pH 11 extraction (50000g, 45 min). ISOB suspension was dialyzed to deionized water (1:3600) and named DISOB. DISOB aggregated at pH 5.7, but NaCl pre-addition (5-500 mM) made ISOB disperse well at pH 5.7. The heating (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 degrees C and boiling water baths, 30 min) did not affect the particle size distributions of ISOB. The pH and CaCl(2) effects on DISOB and its surface hydrophobicity were also not affected by heating (>95 degrees C, 5 min). Both unheated and heated ISOB were bound to native soybean protein but were not bound to the heat-denatured one. Thus, it was suggested that ISOB changed little by heating. This study was meaningful in two aspects: (1) pH 11 extraction removed beta-conglycinin, glycinin, and allergenic proteins (such as Gly m Bd 30K), and the obtained ISOB had good stability in an aqueous medium. (2) Heating could denature the contamination allergenic proteins.
Esteve, C; Montealegre, C; Marina, M L; García, M C
Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Besides this, some cases of contact dermatitis and food allergy to the olive fruit and olive oil have been also described. Several scientific studies dealing with olive allergens has been reported, being the information available about them constantly increasing. Up to date, twelve allergens have been identified in olive pollen while just one allergen has been identified in olive fruit. This review article describes considerations about allergen extraction and production, also describing the different methodologies employed in the physicochemical and immunological characterization of olive allergens. Finally, a revision of the most relevant studies in the analysis of both olive pollen and olive fruit allergens is carried out.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...
Phenolic compounds (PCs) are phytochemicals and antioxidants with known health benefits. They are known to bind to proteins as soluble and insoluble complexes. As soluble complexes, with major peanut allergens formed in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), PCs have been shown to be able to redu...
Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexat...
Cashew nuts can cause serious and sometimes life threatening reactions in people that suffer from food allergies. These reactions are mediated by immunoglobulin E binding (IgE) to allergenic cashew proteins. Enzymes from Aspergillus fungal species are used in many industrial and pharmaceutical appli...
The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031
Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Niederberger, Verena
In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the characteristics of recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that have reached clinical evaluation and discuss how molecular vaccine approaches can make AIT more safe and effective and thus more convenient. Furthermore, we discuss how new technologies can facilitate the reproducible manufacturing of vaccines of pharmaceutical grade for inhalant, food, and venom allergens. Allergy vaccines in clinical trials based on recombinant allergens, recombinant allergen derivatives, and synthetic peptides allow us to target selectively different immune mechanisms, and certain of those show features that might make them applicable not only for therapeutic but also for prophylactic vaccination.
Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria
Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between
Le Mao, J; Dandeu, J P; Rabillon, J; Lux, M; David, B
The fractionation of a partially-purified extract of Dermatophagoïdes farinae mite culture has been undertaken by gel filtration. Two fractions were isolated. One, P25, is a protein-rich fraction with mol. wt about 25,000. The other, GP8, is a polysaccharide-rich fraction with mol. wt around 8,000. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis, we detected eleven antigens in the partially-purified dialysed D. farinae extract (Df 80d) as well as in P25 fraction. One of them, ag 11, seems the most important allergen since in crossed-radio immunoelectrophoresis experiments it displays the faster radiostaining, implying that it binds the greatest part of the mite-specific IgE present in a pool of sera from mite-sensitive patients. By crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, we demonstrated the absence of ag 11 in GP8, in which only ag 5 and ag 6 were identifiable. By radioalloergosorbent tests (RAST), it was found that P25- and GP8- coated paper discs can fix specific IgE induced in the majority of D. farinae sensitive patients. Defining a 'major allergen' as an allergen to which the majority of sensitive patients develop specific IgE, both P25 and GP8 do appear to contain at least one major allergen. By RAST inhibition method, using Df 80d as a solid phase, the allergenic activity of P25 appeared as slightly higher than that of Df 80d, whereas GP8 displayed a very weak inhibitor capacity. Thus, the allergic specificity of GP8 differs from that of Df 80d or P25. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7298067
Background Blomia tropicalis is a dust mite and an important source of allergens in tropical regions. Up to now, the assays to diagnose atopy to this mite use whole body extract as antigens. However, anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies cross-react with Ascaris lumbricoides antigens, hindering the diagnosis of allergy to this mite. In this study, B. tropicalis recombinant allergens were evaluated with the purpose of developing an immunodiagnostic assay for allergy to this mite with greater specificity than those commercially available. Methods Two B. tropicalis allergens (Blo t 5 and Blo t 21) were cloned into a plasmidial expression vector, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Sixty-three sera containing anti-B. tropicalis extract (BtE) IgE antibodies were used to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Blot 5 and 21 allergens. Inhibition assays with 20 sera pre-adsorbed with A. lumbricoides extract were performed using rBlo t 5, rBlo t 21, and BtE as antigens. All the assays were carried using indirect ELISA. Results Eighty-two point nine percent and 80.0% of the sera with anti-BtE antibodies from 35 children reacted with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21, respectively, whereas 92.8% and 89.3% of the 28 sera with anti-BtE antibodies from adult asthma patients reacted with the same allergens, and 96.4% of these sera reacted with a mixture of rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21. In an inhibition ELISA, the absorption of sera by A. lumbricoides extract affected less the reaction with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 than with BtE. Conclusions The rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 allergens contain important epitopes recognized by IgE antibodies of individuals allergic to B. tropicalis antigens. Moreover, the assays using the recombinant allergens had lower IgE cross-reactivity with A. lumbricoides antigens, a fact which would confers higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than the crude mite extract. However, additional recombinant allergens should be evaluated in
Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Winter, Marcel Gt; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Summers, Colin; Lebens, Ans; Knulst, André C; Schilte, Piet; Briza, Peter; Gadermaier, Gabriele; van Ree, Ronald
Oil body-associated allergens such as oleosins have been reported for important allergenic foods such as peanut, sesame and hazelnut. Here we investigate whether oil body associated proteins (OAPs) are linked with specific clinical phenotypes and whether they are represented in skin prick test (SPT) reagents. A hazelnut OAP fraction was characterized by mass-spectrometry (MS) to identify its major constituents. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were generated against hazelnut OAPs. The presence of OAPs in commercially available hazelnut SPTs was studied by immunoblot and spiking experiments. OAP-specific IgE antibodies were measured in sera from patients with a convincing history of hazelnut allergy by RAST (n = 91), immunoblot (n = 22) and basophil histamine release (BHR; n = 14). Hazelnut OAPs were analysed by MS and found to be dominated by oleosins at ~14 and ~17 kDa, and a 27 kDa band containing oleosin dimers and unidentified protein. In 36/91 sera specific IgE against hazelnut OAPs was detected, and confirmed to be biologically active by BHR (n = 14). The majority (21/22) recognized the oleosin bands at 17 kDa on immunoblot, of which 11 exclusively. These OAP-specific IgE responses dominated by oleosin were associated with systemic reactions to hazelnut (OR 4.24; p = 0.015) and negative SPT (χ2 6.3, p = 0.012). Immunoblot analysis using OAP-specific rabbit antiserum demonstrated that commercial SPT reagents are virtually devoid of OAPs, sometimes (3/9) resulting in false-negative SPT. Spiking of SPT reagents with OAP restored serum IgE binding of these false-negative patients on immunoblot at mainly 17 kDa. Hazelnut allergens found in oil bodies dominated by oleosin are associated with more severe systemic reactions and negative SPT. Defatted diagnostic extracts are virtually devoid of these allergens, resulting in poor sensitivity for detection of IgE antibodies against these clinically relevant molecules.
Background Oil body-associated allergens such as oleosins have been reported for important allergenic foods such as peanut, sesame and hazelnut. Here we investigate whether oil body associated proteins (OAPs) are linked with specific clinical phenotypes and whether they are represented in skin prick test (SPT) reagents. Methods A hazelnut OAP fraction was characterized by mass-spectrometry (MS) to identify its major constituents. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were generated against hazelnut OAPs. The presence of OAPs in commercially available hazelnut SPTs was studied by immunoblot and spiking experiments. OAP-specific IgE antibodies were measured in sera from patients with a convincing history of hazelnut allergy by RAST (n = 91), immunoblot (n = 22) and basophil histamine release (BHR; n = 14). Results Hazelnut OAPs were analysed by MS and found to be dominated by oleosins at ~14 and ~17 kDa, and a 27 kDa band containing oleosin dimers and unidentified protein. In 36/91 sera specific IgE against hazelnut OAPs was detected, and confirmed to be biologically active by BHR (n = 14). The majority (21/22) recognized the oleosin bands at 17 kDa on immunoblot, of which 11 exclusively. These OAP-specific IgE responses dominated by oleosin were associated with systemic reactions to hazelnut (OR 4.24; p = 0.015) and negative SPT (χ2 6.3, p = 0.012). Immunoblot analysis using OAP-specific rabbit antiserum demonstrated that commercial SPT reagents are virtually devoid of OAPs, sometimes (3/9) resulting in false-negative SPT. Spiking of SPT reagents with OAP restored serum IgE binding of these false-negative patients on immunoblot at mainly 17 kDa. Conclusion Hazelnut allergens found in oil bodies dominated by oleosin are associated with more severe systemic reactions and negative SPT. Defatted diagnostic extracts are virtually devoid of these allergens, resulting in poor sensitivity for detection of IgE antibodies against these clinically relevant
Kim, Myoung-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Sung, Joon-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Choi, Gil-Soon
The safety of accelerated schedules of allergen immunotherapy (ASAI) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) has been reported but there are little data on the safety of ASAI for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we investigated the safety of ASAI in patients with AD. Sixty patients with AD and 18 patients with BA sensitized to house dust mites (HDM) were studied. A maximum maintenance dose of HDM extract, adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, was administered to patients by subcutaneous injection with either a 3-day protocol (rush immunotherapy) or 1-day protocol (ultra-rush immunotherapy). Systemic reactions were observed 4 of 15 patients (26.7%) with AD during rush immunotherapy, 13 of 45 patients (28.9%) with AD during ultra-rush immunotherapy, and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with BA during rush immunotherapy (P > 0.05). No severe or near fatal systemic reactions occurred in 78 subjects of this study. Systemic reactions developed within 4 hr after administration of the maximum allergen dose in 20 of 21 patients (95.2%) with AD and BA who showed systemic reactions during rush or ultra-rush immunotherapy. In conclusion, ASAI was safe and well tolerated in patients with AD. ASAI can be a useful therapeutic option for AD. PMID:21935270
L'Hocine, Lamia; Pitre, Mélanie
A D-optimal design was constructed to optimize allergen extraction efficiency simultaneously from roasted, non-roasted, defatted, and non-defatted almond, hazelnut, peanut, and pistachio flours using three non-denaturing aqueous (phosphate, borate, and carbonate) buffers at various conditions of ionic strength, buffer-to-protein ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction duration. Statistical analysis showed that roasting and non-defatting significantly lowered protein recovery for all nuts. Increasing the temperature and the buffer-to-protein ratio during extraction significantly increased protein recovery, whereas increasing the extraction time had no significant impact. The impact of the three buffers on protein recovery varied significantly among the nuts. Depending on the extraction conditions, protein recovery varied from 19% to 95% for peanut, 31% to 73% for almond, 17% to 64% for pistachio, and 27% to 88% for hazelnut. A modulation by the buffer type and ionic strength of protein and immunoglobuline E binding profiles of extracts was evidenced, where high protein recovery levels did not always correlate with high immunoreactivity.
Foetisch, Kay; Dahl, Lotte; Jansen, Baerbel; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lidholm, Jonas; van Ree, Ronald; Broll, Hermann; Kaul, Susanne; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas
Even though carrot allergy is common in Europe, the amount of different allergens in carrots is still unknown due to a lack of methods for quantitative allergen measurements. The current study aimed at the development of quantitative ELISA tests for the known carrot allergens, namely Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02, and Dau c 4 in pure carrot extracts. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the major carrot allergen isoforms Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02 were generated and combined in sandwich ELISA with rabbit antisera against Api g 1, the celery homologue of Dau c 1. A competitive ELISA for the carrot profilin Dau c 4 was based on a polyclonal rabbit antiserum. The three ELISA tests were allergen-specific and displayed detection limits between 0.4 and 6 ng allergen/ml of carrot extract. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) as a means of intraassay variability of the Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02 and Dau c 4 ELISA tests was 8.1%, 6.9%, and 11.9%, and the mean interassay CV 13.3%, 37.1% and 15.6%, respectively. Target recovery ranged between 93 and 113%. In conclusion, the specific, accurate and reproducible quantification of three important carrot allergens may help to identify less allergenic carrot varieties, as well as to standardize the amount of allergens in extracts used for carrot allergy diagnosis.
Trakultivakorn, Muthita; Nuglor, Tipaporn
Mite surveys in Thailand indicated that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) is predominant, but so far there were no data available on Blomia tropicalis (Bt), which is prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Skin prick testing (SPT) was performed in 40 atopic children, 45 atopic adults and 17 non-atopic volunteers. Skin reactions to Dp were found in 25/40 (62.5%) and 23/45 (51.1%); skin reactions to Bt were found in 15/40 (37.5%) and 18/45 (40%) in atopic children and adults, respectively. SPT to the major sensitizing allergens Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 5, and Blo t 5 showed positive results in 14/40 (35%), 12/40 (30%), 1/40 (2.5%) and 4/40 (10%) of atopic children, and in 12/45 (26.7%), 13/45 (28.9%), 5/45 (11.1%), 6/45 (13.3%) of atopic adults, respectively. The results indicate that Dp is one of the major sources of allergy, while Bt is a minor one and that Der p 1 and Der p 2 are important mite allergens in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr
Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.
Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr
Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5–50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153
Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are “major” allergens and allergens of less importance. “Major allergens” have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract
... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...
Whether for understanding the properties of food allergens or for manufacturing vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy, well characterized pure allergens are required. This often necessitate the use of recombinant technology in obtaining food allergens due to the very low amounts of their natu...
Zhou, Ningling; Li, Wenying; Wu, Zhihua; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing
Quantification of certain protein contents in the matrix is essential in protein analyses. The amount of total protein in the matrix can be determined by the Kjeldahl method. However, few methods can quantify certain protein contents in the matrix without extracting all of them in solution. Extracting all of the contents is difficult for proteins, especially relatively insoluble ones. A five-step sequential extraction method was developed for the quantification of certain proteins in defatted peanut flour based on the relationship between the extracted protein contents and the extraction times. The extracted proteins (i.e., total protein, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2) were quantitatively analyzed in each extraction of the same condition. An exponential equation was obtained between the extraction times and the respective amount of extracted protein as well as both the total protein and a particular protein. In particular, the amount of protein extracted each time can be a geometric sequence. If all proteins can be extracted with sufficient extraction times, the protein contents in the peanut matrix can be calculated using a mathematical summation formula. This sum should be all proteins in the matrix. The five-step sequential extraction method can provide a means to quantify certain proteins in the matrix.
Coloe, Jacquelyn; Zirwas, Matthew J
Whereas allergy to vehicle ingredients (ie, excipients and preservatives) in topical steroid vehicles is well recognized, there are no data regarding which vehicle ingredients are in common use or on which vehicles and active molecules are associated with which ingredients. To produce descriptive data on the use of allergenic vehicle ingredients in prescription topical corticosteroids. The package insert for every steroid in widespread use in the United States was obtained from the manufacturer and used to generate an ingredient list for the product. There are seven vehicle ingredients that are commonly used in topical corticosteroid vehicles that are well-known allergens: propylene glycol, sorbitan sesquioleate, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, lanolin, and fragrance. Of 166 topical corticosteroids, 128 (including all creams) had at least one of these vehicle ingredients. More generic products were free of allergens than were branded products. Solutions and ointments were the least allergenic vehicles. The most commonly present potential allergens were propylene glycol and sorbitan sesquioleate. Most prescription topical corticosteroids have the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis owing to vehicle ingredients. Dermatologists should be aware of this possibility and should consider prescribing agents that do not contain potentially allergenic vehicle ingredients.
Papazian, D; Wagtmann, V R; Hansen, S; Würtzen, P A
Airway epithelial cells (AECs) form a polarized barrier along the respiratory tract. They are the first point of contact with airborne antigens and are able to instruct resident immune cells to mount appropriate immune responses by either soluble or contact-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesize that a healthy, polarized epithelial cell layer inhibits inflammatory responses towards allergens to uphold homeostasis. Using an in-vitro co-culture model of the airway epithelium, where a polarized cell layer of bronchial epithelial cells can interact with dendritic cells (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass and birch pollen. Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation significantly of Bet v 1-specific T cell lines as well as decrease interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 production, whereas inhibition of Phl p 5-specific T cells varied between different donors. Stimulating autologous CD4(+) T cells from allergic patients with AEC-imprinted DCs also inhibited proliferation significantly and decreased production of both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines upon rechallenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had been exposed only to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T cell recall responses towards birch, grass and house dust mite allergens in vitro, suggesting that AECs-DC contact in vivo constitute a key element in mucosal homeostasis in relation to allergic sensitisation.
Becerril Angeles, M H; Pérez López, A; Azuara Pliego, E
This is a method to evaluate both specific sensitivity to allergens in the nasal mucosa, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and antiinflammatory and antiallergic drugs efficacy, whose objectives are for research in diagnosis and treatment. The method is based in allergen extracts delivery in the nasal mucosa and the post-challenge measurement of rhinitis symptoms, vasoactive mediators release quantification and nasal obstruction degree evaluated by rhinomanometry. Nasal allergen challenge is a procedure of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation usefulness, that must be performed in selected patients, in adequate facilities, by experts physicians, with standardised allergen dosages, in an specific nasal area, with objective measurements (rhinomanometry, mediators and secretions of the allergic response) and symptoms scoring that allow get reliable results in patients with allergic rhinitis under study.
Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676
Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis
Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene.
Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Demoly, Pascal; Worm, Margitta; Fokkens, Wytske J; Carrillo, Teresa; Tabar, Ana I; Nguyen, Hélène; Montagut, Armelle; Zeldin, Robert K
Preliminary studies have suggested the efficacy of sublingual tablets of house dust mite (HDM) extracts in adults with allergic rhinitis. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of 2 doses of HDM sublingual tablets over 1 treatment year and the subsequent immunotherapy-free year. Adults with HDM-associated allergic rhinitis were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive 500 index of reactivity (IR) tablets, 300IR tablets, or placebo administered once daily for 1 year and were followed for the subsequent year. The primary efficacy variable was the Average Adjusted Symptom Score over the year 1 primary period (ie, October 1 to December 31). Symptoms and rescue medication scores, onset of action, patient-reported outcomes, and safety were secondary variables. The same end points were evaluated during the immunotherapy-free year. The primary efficacy end point was analyzed by using analysis of covariance. Five hundred nine participants were randomized, and 427 continued in the immunotherapy-free year. Both the 500IR and 300IR HDM sublingual tablets significantly reduced mean Average Adjusted Symptom Scores compared with placebo by -20.2% (P = .0066) and -17.9% (P = .0150), respectively. Efficacy of both doses was maintained during the treatment-free follow-up phase. The onset of action was at 4 months. Participants' global evaluation of treatment success was significantly higher in the 500IR and 300IR groups compared with the placebo group (P = .0206 and P = .0001, respectively). Adverse events were generally application-site reactions. There were no reports of anaphylaxis. Twelve months of treatment with 500IR and 300IR sublingual tablets of HDM allergen extracts was efficacious and well tolerated. Efficacy was maintained during the treatment-free follow-up year. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jenke, Dennis R; Story, James; Lalani, Rukhsana
While the ability of packaging systems to contribute leached substances to finished drug products is well established, increasing interest is being focused on the potential contamination of drug substances by plastic materials encountered during their production. The direct contact of such plastic parts (such as tubing, gaskets, filters and temporary storage containers) with the drug substance at some point in its production raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished drug product. In this study, eight tubing materials potentially encountered in pharmaceutical production facilities, including six silicone materials and two Santoprene materials, were characterized for their extractable substances by static extraction coupled with comprehensive chemical characterization of the resulting extracts. Based on the extractables profiles thus generated, target leachables were identified for each tubing material. The accumulation of these target leachables was studied by subjecting the tubing to dynamic flow, simulated use extractions. The primary organic extractables from the silicone tubing were a homologous series of silicone oligomers, with most of the tubings demonstrating a unique distribution of oligomers. Several of the silicone tubings also possessed extractable dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate. The primary organic extractables from the Santoprene-type tubing included a number of phthalates, a series of alkyl phenols and decomposition products of Irganox-type antioxidants. Inorganic extractables associated with many of the tubings included Ca, Mg, Zn and B. In general, the levels of targeted leachables extracted from the tubing materials under simulated use (flow) conditions was much smaller than the total amount of these leachables in the tubing.
A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to i...
A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to i...
..., perennial rye, Timothy, and Kentucky bluegrass mixed pollens allergen extract tablet for sublingual use... recommendations on the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy grass pollen allergen extract tablet...
... medical literature concerning the use of non-standardized allergen extracts in the diagnosis and treatment... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergen Extracts in the Diagnosis...
Sgorbini, B; Ruosi, M R; Cordero, C; Liberto, E; Rubiolo, P; Bicchi, C
This study describes a method based on direct contact sorptive tape extraction followed by on-line thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DC-STE-GC-MS) to detect and quantify a group of suspected volatile allergens on the European Union (E.U.) list and a related compound on the skin (the stratum corneum) of volunteers treated with a cream of known composition fortified with the reference allergens. The following compounds were tested: citronellol, Z-citral (neral), geraniol, cinnamaldehyde, anisyl alcohol, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, methyleugenol, coumarin, isoeugenol, alpha-isomethylionone, 2-(4-tert-butylbenzyl)propionaldehyde (lilial), alpha-amylcinnamaldehyde, alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde. Sorptive tape extraction (STE) is a sorption-based sampling technique in which a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tape is used to recover analytes by direct contact with the surface of a solid matrix or from the headspace in equilibrium with it. The reliability of the method was confirmed by: (i) allergen recoveries varying from 52.3% for lilial to 95.7% for neral, (ii) linearity in the range 10-150ppm, with regression coefficient R(2) always above 0.97, (iii) repeatability of each analyte, RSD% never exceeding 10%, (iv) intermediate precision, always below 15%, and (v) LOD and LOQ in the ppb range, therefore fully compatible with E.U. prescriptions (ppm). Other parameters such as substantivity analyte, approximate permeation through skin and influence of different nature of stratum corneum on recovery were also investigated. The method was also successfully applied to five commercially available creams declared to contain some of the allergens in question spread on the skin of the same volunteers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Otto, Gaetan; Lamote, Amandine; Deckers, Elise; Dumont, Valery; Delahaut, Philippe; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Pleck, Jessica; Hillairet, Caroline; Gillard, Nathalie
To avoid carry-over contamination with allergens, food manufacturers implement quality control strategies relying primarily on detection of allergenic proteins by ELISA. Although sensitive and specific, this method allowed detection of only one allergen per analysis and effective control policies were thus based on multiplying the number of tests done in order to cover the whole range of allergens. We present in this work an immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of milk, egg, peanut, mustard and crustaceans in cookies samples. The method was based on a combination of flow cytometry with competitive ELISA where microbeads were used as sorbent surface. The test was able to detect the presence of the five allergens with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from 2.5 to 15 mg/kg according to the allergen to be detected. The lowest concentrations of contaminants inducing a significant difference of signal between non-contaminated controls and test samples were 2 mg/kg of peanut, 5 mg/kg of crustaceans, 5 mg/kg of milk, 5 mg/kg of mustard and 10 mg/kg of egg. Assay sensitivity was influenced by the concentration of primary antibodies added to the sample extract for the competition and by the concentration of allergenic proteins bound to the surface of the microbeads.
Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.
Burge, H A; Rogers, C A
Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783
Gendel, Steven M
The efficacy of any specific bioinformatic analysis of the potential allergenicity of new food proteins depends directly on the nature and content of the databases that are used in the analysis. A number of different allergen-related databases have been developed, each designed to meet a different need. These databases differ in content, organization, and accessibility. These differences create barriers for users and prevent data sharing and integration. The development and application of appropriate semantic web technologies, (for example, a food allergen ontology) could help to overcome these barriers and promote the development of more advanced analytic capabilities.
Li, Zhenxing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Limin
The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.
An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren
The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens.
van Ree, R; van Leeuwen, W A; Aalberse, R C
Current diagnostics for grass pollen allergy are composed of mixtures of pollen of different grass species. Their complex composition hampers accurate standardization. The aim of the study was to investigate whether mixtures of grass pollen extracts can be replaced by a single pollen species and whether a single pollen species can be replaced by a limited number of purified natural or recombinant major allergens. Sera (n = 800) were selected on the basis of a general suspicion for inhalant allergy and tested in a RAST for IgE reactivity with pollen from 17 different grass species. Cross-reactivity of IgE responses was studied by means of RAST inhibition. Sera with positive test results for grass pollen were tested in a RAST for natural Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 and recombinant Phl p 1 and Phl p 5. Specific IgE antibodies against one or more of the 17 pollen species were detected in 209 of 800 sera (26.1%). The highest responses were observed against Poa pratensis followed by Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense, and Dactylis glomerata. IgE responses were clearly lower (approximately by a factor of 5) against only three species (Phragmites communis, Cynodon dactylon, and Zea mays). With the exception of a few low-responder sera, no sera were found to have negative test results to the high responder species and positive results to any of the other species. Sera with positive test results for grass pollen (n = 154) were tested with purified Lol p 1 and Lol p 5. IgE anti-Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 accounted for an average of 81% +/- 7% of total anti-grass pollen IgE. For 14 sera (all with low anti-grass pollen IgE titers), a RAST with purified allergens resulted in a false-negative diagnosis for grass pollen allergy. With recombinant Phl p 1 and Phl p 5, the mean IgE reactivity was 57% +/- 6% of the anti-grass pollen IgE response (n = 141), with 13 false-negative results. One grass species is sufficient for in vitro diagnosis of grass pollen allergy. With purified natural Lol p 1 and Lol
Alves, Rita C; Pimentel, Filipa B; Nouws, Henri P A; Silva, Túlio H B; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina
The extraction of Ara h 6 (a peanut allergen) from a complex chocolate-based food matrix was optimized by testing different temperatures, extraction times, and the influence of additives (NaCl and skimmed milk powder) in a total of 36 different conditions. Analyses were carried out using an electrochemical immunosensor. Three conditions were selected since they allowed the extraction of the highest levels of Ara h 6. These extractions were performed using 2g of sample and 20ml of Tris-HNO3 (pH=8) containing: a) 0.1M NaCl and 2g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; b) 1M NaCl and 1g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; and c) 2g of skimmed milk powder at 60°C for 60min. Recoveries were similar or higher than 94.7%. This work highlights the importance to adjust extraction procedures regarding the target analyte and food matrix components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marth, Katharina; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena
Allergic diseases are among the most common health issues worldwide. Specific immunotherapy has remained the only disease-modifying treatment, but it is not effective in all patients and may cause side effects. Over the last 25 years, allergen molecules from most prevalent allergen sources have been isolated and produced as recombinant proteins. Not only are these molecules useful in improved allergy diagnosis, but they also have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of allergic disease by means of immunotherapy. Panels of unmodified recombinant allergens have already been shown to effectively replace natural allergen extracts in therapy. Through genetic engineering, several molecules have been designed with modified immunological properties. Hypoallergens have been produced that have reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T cell reactivity and T cell peptides which stimulate allergen-specific T cells, and these have already been investigated in clinical trials. New vaccines have been recently created with both reduced IgE and T cell reactivity but retained ability to induce protective allergen-specific IgG antibodies. The latter approach works by fusing per se non-IgE reactive peptides derived from IgE binding sites of the allergens to a virus protein, which acts as a carrier and provides the T-cell help necessary for immune stimulation and protective antibody production. In this review, we will highlight the different novel approaches for immunotherapy and will report on prior and ongoing clinical studies.
Teuber, S S; Brown, R L; Haapanen, L A
No information is available on allergenicity of tree nut oils, and information on peanut oils has been conflicting. Many of the nut oils now on the market undergo minimal processing and may contain residual antigen. This study was carried out to determine whether several of the new "gourmet" tree nut oils, as well as peanut oils, contain residual proteins that could bind IgE from sera of patients with allergy. Several brands of walnut, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, and macadamia nut oils were examined. Peanut oils, both unrefined oils (which have been shown to contain allergenic proteins) and refined oils (without previously demonstrable allergens), were also examined to confirm reproducibility of immunoreactivity as reported by other investigators. Oils were extracted with 0.2 mol/L ammonium bicarbonate, and protein concentrations in the aqueous extracts were measured. IgE binding was assayed by slot-blot and Western immunoblotting. Pooled sera from patients with a history of systemic reactions to various tree nuts or peanuts were used as appropriate. The oil extracts known to be from oils that had undergone less processing at lower temperatures tended to demonstrate qualitatively greater IgE binding and higher protein concentrations. Tree nut and peanut oils may pose a threat to patients with allergy, depending on the method of manufacture and processing.
Pomés, A; Vinton, R; Chapman, M D
Inadvertent exposure to peanut in foods poses health risks for peanut-allergic individuals that can be reduced by improving detection systems for allergen contaminants in food products and manufacturing processes. Detection of peanut in chocolate has been especially difficult. We report the optimization of conditions for measuring a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, in chocolate with the use of a two-site monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ara h 1 was extracted from peanut in the presence or absence of chocolate with phosphate buffer, salt, and three dried milks (goat, soy, or nonfat) (0 to 25% wt/vol) for 15 min at 60 degrees C or for 2.5 h at room temperature. The best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction in the presence of chocolate were 5% nonfat dry milk for 2.5 h at room temperature. Spiking experiments of chocolate with peanut confirmed improvement of the extraction: Ara h 1 was detected in extractions of 0.16 to 0.33% peanut in chocolate. Interestingly, the best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction were different for peanut alone than with chocolate, regarding time, temperature, and percentage of nonfat dry milk in the extraction buffer. In chocolate with peanut foods, the total Ara h 1 values were 10-fold higher than when products were extracted with phosphate buffer alone and could be up to 400-fold higher for individual foods. The dramatic improvement of Ara h 1 extraction should allow specific allergen monitoring in chocolate-containing food products and assessment of Ara h 1 exposure.
Yella, Lakshmi; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G
House dust mites are cultured to obtain mite allergen material to produce allergen extracts (vaccines) for diagnostic tests, immunotherapy, and research purposes. Research laboratories and manufacturers have their own culturing protocols to grow these mites and these may vary between manufacturers and between research laboratories. The temperature at which mites are cultured may influence the allergen composition, allergen ratio of Der 1: Der 2 and endotoxin levels in the extracts produced from these cultured mites. In order to produce standardized and uniform extracts, across the industry and in various research laboratories, the influence of culture conditions must be understood. Here we determined how temperature affects mite population growth rates, dynamics of allergen production, Der f 1: Der f 2 ratio and endotoxin levels in extracts made from Dermatophagoides farinae mites cultured at 20 and 25 °C. We found that Der f 1 and Der f 2 accumulated exponentially in the cultures with Der f 1 accumulating faster than Der f 2. When the live mite populations peaked, the ratios for Der f 1: Der f 2 were 4.1 and 4.7 for cultures reared at 20 and 25 °C, respectively. Most of the Der f 1 and Der f 2 allergen in whole cultures is not in mite bodies and is lost when the mite material is washed. Thus, if the ratio of Der f 1 and Der f 2 is an important consideration for commercial and research extracts, then the temperature at which the mites are cultured and the collection procedure are important considerations.
Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.
Frati, F; Incorvaia, C; Cadario, G; Fiocchi, A; Senna, G E; Rossi, O; Romano, A; Scala, E; Romano, C; Ingrassia, A; Zambito, M; Dell'albani, I; Scurati, S; Passalacqua, G; Canonica, G W
The evidence of efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for respiratory allergy has been demonstrated by a number of meta-analyses. However, the daily practice of AIT is quite different from controlled trials, facing challenges in terms of selection of patients, practical performance, and, of particular importance, use of allergen extracts of inadequate quality. We here performed a survey, named the Allergen Immunotherapy Decision Analysis (AIDA), to evaluate which criteria are used by specialists to choose a product for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with respiratory allergy. A questionnaire composed of 14 items to be ranked by each participant according to the importance attributed when choosing SLIT products was submitted to 444 Italian specialists. The responses of the 169 (38.1%) physicians, who answered all questions, were analysed. Most of the respondents were allergists (79%), followed by pulmonologists (10.8%), both allergists and pulmonologists (4.8%), and otorhinolaryngologists (3%); 59.8% of the respondents were males and 40.2% were females. The age distribution showed that 89.9% of the respondents were aged between 35 and 64 years. All respondents usually prescribed AIT products in their clinical practice: 31.4% used only SLIT, whereas 69.2% used both subcutaneous and sublingual administration. The rankings, expressed as means, attributed by physicians for each of the 14 items were as follows: level of evidence-based medicine (EBM ) validation of efficacy (3.44), level of EBM validation of safety (4.30), standardization of the product (5.37), efficacy based on personal experience (5.82), defined content(s) of the major allergen(s) in micrograms (5.96), scientific evidence for each single allergen (6.17), safety based on personal experience (6.32), ease of administration protocol (8.08), cost and terms of payment (e.g. instalments) (9.17), dose personalization (9.24), patient preference (9.25), ease of product storage (9.93), reimbursement
Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z; Krajewska, D; Kozłowska, A; Czerwińska-Dihm, I
In the report new contact allergens and allergen sources detected in Warsaw in the period 1975-1977 are described. They are divided into 3 groups: industrial allergens, remaining occupational allergens and cosmetics. There are given some data concerning the substances present in industrial oils, hardeners and epoxy resin solvents, drugs sensitizing nurses, several new sources of chromium allergens, essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours are discussed as the main allergens in cosmetics.
Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, D; Reindl, J; Anliker, M D; Wüthrich, B; Ballmer-Weber, B K
The aim of this study was to confirm allergy to celery tuber and to zucchini, for the first time, by DBPCFC, and to identify the allergens recognized by IgE from DBPCFC-positive patients. Therefore, raw vegetables were hidden in a broccoli drink, and a DBPCFC-procedure was developed that consisted of a spit and swallow protocol, making sure that the procedure was safe for the patients and that reactions strictly localized to the oral cavity as well as systemic reactions could be reproduced by DBPCFC. The allergens in celery and zucchini extract were identified by immunoblot inhibition using allergen extracts, recombinant allergens and purified N-glycans as inhibitors. Celery allergy was confirmed in 69% (22/32) of subjects with a positive case history. Four subjects with a history of allergic reactions to zucchini had a positive DBPCFC to this vegetable. During DBPCFC, systemic reactions were provoked in 50% (11/22) of the patients to celery, and in 3/4 of the zucchini-allergic patients. The Bet v 1-related major celery allergen was detected by IgE of 59% (13/22) of the patients. Cross-reactive carbohydrate epitopes (CCD) bound IgE of 55% (12/22) of the celery-allergic patients and in 2/4 of the subjects with zucchini allergy. Profilin was a food allergen in celery in 23% (5/22) and in zucchini in 2/4 of the cases. A zucchini-specific allergen was detected by IgE from one patient. We conclude that ubiquitous cross-reactive structures are important in allergy to both, celery and zucchini, and that a specific association to birch pollen allergy exists in allergy to celery (mediated by Api g 1), but not in zucchini allergy.
Adams, T B; Doull, J; Feron, V J; Goodman, J I; Marnett, L J; Munro, I C; Newberne, P M; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Waddell, W J; Wagner, B M
This is the fifth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually taking into account the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of pyrazine derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated.
Natural rubber latex (NRL) and rubber accelerators are well-known causes of occupational skin diseases. The latest epidemiological data on rubber allergy show that rubber additives are still among the allergens most strongly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, however, a decrease in NRL allergy has been confirmed. A review of recent publications on rubber allergens based on the Pubmed database is presented. New glove manufacturing processes have been developed, such as low-protein natural rubber gloves, vulcanisation accelerator-free gloves, or specific-purpose gloves containing antimicrobial agents or moisturisers. Several websites provide information on allergens found in gloves and/or glove choice according to occupation.
Mocellin, J; Mercier, G; Morel, J L; Blais, J F; Simonnot, M O
In this laboratory study, a process has been developed for selectively leaching zinc and manganese from pyrometallurgical sludge produced in the steel manufacturing industry. In the first part, the yield of Zn extraction was studied using four factors and four levels of the Box-Behnken response surface design. The optimum conditions for the step of Zn leaching were determined to be a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.25 mol/L, a pulp density of 10%, an extraction temperature of 20 °C, and three stages of leaching. Under such conditions, 75% of the Zn should be leached. For Mn leaching, the optimum conditions were determined to be a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.25 mol/L, a Na2S2O5/Mn stoichiometry of 1, a leaching time of 120 min and two leaching steps. In this case, 100% of the Mn should be leached.
Dube, Mark; Zunker, Katy; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Steinhart, Hans; Paschke, Angelika
In parallel with the rising popularity of exotic fruits in Europe, allergy against mango is of increasing importance. Because mangoes are also consumed as processed products such as chutneys or beverages, the influences of different process conditions on their allergenicity were investigated. Mango purees and nectars were manufactured at small pilot-plant scale, and the allergenic potencies of the resulting intermediate and final products were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting and inhibitive enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST-inhibition), using a pool serum of 9 individuals with manifest mango allergy. The mango allergens were shown to be very stable during technological processing. Irrespective of enzymatic matrix decomposition, mechanical tissue disintegration and heating during peeling, mash treatment, and pasteurization, significant loss of allergenicity could not be observed in the extracts of mango purees and nectars derived thereof. These results were confirmed by analogous investigation of commercial mango drinks and nectars. Hence, conventional mango processing into pulp-containing products typical for this species obviously does not allow complete elimination of the allergenic potency.
Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans
Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals.
Masiri, Jongkit; Benoit, Lora; Meshgi, Mahzad; Day, Jeffrey; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour
A growing number of plant-based milk substitutes have become commercially available, providing an array of options for consumers with dietary restrictions. Though several of these products rival cow's milk in terms of their nutritional profiles, beverages prepared with soy and tree nuts can be a significant concern to consumers because of potential contamination with food allergens. Adding to this concern is the fact that allergen residues from plant-based beverages are modified during manufacturing, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of antibody-based detection methods. Consequently, many commercially available allergen detection kits are less effective for allergens derived from nondairy milk substitutes. To address this limitation, we developed a panel of polyclonal antibodies directed against the modified proteins present in almond, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, and soy milks and incorporated them into rapid lateral flow immunoassay tests configured in both sandwich and competitive format. The tests had robust detection capabilities when used with a panel of various brand-name products, with a sensitivity of 1 ppm and selectivity values of 3 to 5 ppm in nondairy beverages. Minimal cross-reactivity to extracts prepared from common commodities was observed. The development of a highly sensitive and rapid test specifically designed to detect trace quantities of highly modified allergen residues in plant-based, dairy-free beverages will aid food manufacturers and regulatory agencies in monitoring products for these modified allergens when testing environmental and food samples.
De, Dipankar; Khullar, Geeti; Handa, Sanjeev
Parthenium hysterophorus is the leading cause of phytogenic allergic contact dermatitis in India. The Indian Standard Series currently supplied by Systopic Laboratories Ltd and manufactured by Chemotechnique Diagnostics ® contains parthenolide as the only allergen representing plant allergens. The study was conducted to assess the performance of the Chemotechnique plant series (PL-1000), consisting of 14 allergens, in patients with clinically suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plant allergens. Ninety patients were patch tested with the Chemotechnique plant series from 2011 to 2013. Demographic details, clinical diagnosis and patch test results were recorded in the contact dermatitis clinic proforma. Of 90 patients, 24 (26.7%) showed positive reactions to one or more allergens in the plant series. Positive patch tests were elicited most commonly by sesquiterpene lactone mix in 19 (78.6%) patients, followed by parthenolide in 14 (57.1%), Achillea millefolium in 10 (42.9%) and others in decreasing order. The plant allergen series prepared by Chemotechnique Diagnostics is possibly not optimal for diagnosing suspected allergic contact dermatitis to plants in north Indians. Sesquiterpene lactone mix should replace parthenolide as the plant allergen in the Indian Standard Series until relevant native plant extracts are commercially available for patch testing.
Gafvelin, Guro; Parmley, Stephen; Neimert-Andersson, Theresa; Blank, Ulrich; Eriksson, Tove L J; van Hage, Marianne; Punnonen, Juha
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only treatment that provides long lasting relief of allergic symptoms. Currently, it is based on repeated administration of allergen extracts. To improve the safety and efficacy of allergen extract-based immunotherapy, application of hypoallergens, i.e. modified allergens with reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T-cell reactivity, has been proposed. It may, however, be difficult to predict how to modify an allergen to create a hypoallergen. Directed molecular evolution by DNA shuffling and screening provides a means by which to evolve proteins having novel or improved functional properties without knowledge of structure-function relationships of the target molecules. With the aim to generate hypoallergens we applied multigene DNA shuffling on three group 2 dust mite allergen genes, two isoforms of Lep d 2 and Gly d 2. DNA shuffling yielded a library of genes from which encoded shuffled allergens were expressed and screened. A positive selection was made for full-length, high-expressing clones, and screening for low binding to IgE from mite allergic patients was performed using an IgE bead-based binding assay. Nine selected shuffled allergens revealed 80-fold reduced to completely abolished IgE binding compared with the parental allergens in IgE binding competition experiments. Two hypoallergen candidates stimulated allergen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at comparable levels as the wild-type allergens in patient peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. The two candidates also induced blocking Lep d 2-specific IgG antibodies in immunized mice. We conclude that directed molecular evolution is a powerful approach to generate hypoallergens for potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy.
Heat and pH stability studies and experiments with organic solvents show that the A-antigens discussed in the preceding paper (Augustin, 1959c) are much more labile than the I- (`inner ring') antigens. Breakdown products and/or aggregates are produced which no longer precipitate with antisera to the original extracts, but act as inhibitors. Solutions of pollen allergens, on the other hand, are found to withstand even autoclaving for 15 min. at 20 atm. and vigorous boiling over the naked flame of a bunsen burner. None of the carbohydrates tested has a demonstrable effect on skin reactivity which is, however, destroyed by crystalline pepsin, crystalline trypsin, a crystalline mould protease and a tissue protease (a partially purified extract from rabbit spleen). It follows that the bulk of the allergens—if not all—are proteins. The relation of skin reactivity, immuno-electrophoretic patterns, carbohydrate and protein reactions to the selective destruction of the pollen antigens is investigated. Pollen components prove to have a somewhat wider range of electrophoretic mobilities than serum proteins and are probably as complicated a mixture. The most and least highly negatively charged components are without skin reactivity in allergic subjects. The skin reactive allergens appear to have the mobilities of α- and β-globulins. Not all the hay fever subjects react equally to all the components, and Cocksfoot and Timothy activity patterns vary in different subjects. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:13795119
Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...
Berzhets, V M; Radikova, O V; Khlgatian, S V; Berzhets, A I; Kropotova, I S
Physical, chemical and immunobiological characteristics of allergens from synanthropic insects were studied by tests for anaphylaxis, indirect degranulation of mast cells test and ELISA. Sera from 20 patients with severe and intermediate atopic asthma with sensiblization to common allergens have been studied. All extracts of allergens from synanthropic insects (german cockroach, oriental cockroach, american cockroach, speckled feeder cockroach, cricket, common house fly, brown house moth, confused flour beetle, rice weevil, grain weevil) have specific activity. Extracts of allergens from common house fly, brown house moth, german cockroach and oriental cockroach had the strongest allergenic activity as measured by ELISA. Obtained allergens can be used for insect allergy diagnostics.
Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.
Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the
Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping
The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.
Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R
Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Giannini, E H; Northey, W T; Leathers, C R
The allergenic significance of seven different species of fungi was investigated. Included were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Podaxis pistillaris, Stemonitis ferruginea, Lycogala epidendrum, Fuligo septica, Ustilago maydis and Puccinia cynodontis. All of these fungi have wide distribution patterns and aerially disseminated spores but, because of their unique growth characteristics, are usually not reported in atmospheric fungal surveys. Seventy-eight patients were treated for dermal sensitivity to extracts of the organisms after the spores were extracted in 50% glycerinated Coca's solution. The results represent a six-month test period. Forty-four patients, representing 56% of the total number tested, demonstrated dermal reactivity toward one or more of the extracts.
Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A
The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O
BACKGROUND: Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. METHODS: IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. RESULTS: Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. CONCLUSIONS: Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.
Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I
Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed.
The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...
Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Valenta, Rudolf
Purpose of review The purpose of the review is to summarize and comment on recent developments regarding the safety of engineered immunotherapy vaccines. Recent findings In the last 2 years, several studies were published in which allergy vaccines were developed on the basis of chemical modification of natural allergen extracts, the engineering of allergen molecules by recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry, allergen genes, new application routes and conjugation with immune modulatory molecules. Several studies exemplified the general applicability of hypoallergenic vaccines on the basis of recombinant fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic allergen-derived peptides fused to allergen-unrelated carrier molecules. These vaccines are engineered to reduce both, immunoglobulin E (IgE) as well as allergen-specific T cell epitopes in the vaccines, and thus should provoke less IgE and T-cell-mediated side-effects. They are made to induce allergen-specific IgG antibodies against the IgE-binding sites of allergens with the T-cell help of the carrier molecule. Summary Several interesting examples of allergy vaccines with potentially increased safety profiles have been published. The concept of fusion proteins consisting of allergen-derived hypoallergenic peptides fused to allergen-unrelated proteins that seems to be broadly applicable for a variety of allergens appears to be of particular interest because it promises not only to reduce side-effects but also to increase efficacy and convenience of allergy vaccines. PMID:22885888
Puccinelli, P; Natoli, V; Dell'albani, I; Scurati, S; Incorvaia, C; Barbieri, S; Masieri, S; Frati, F
Many pharmaceutical and biotechnological products are temperature-sensitive and should normally be kept at a controlled temperature, particularly during transport, in order to prevent the loss of their stability and activity. Therefore, stability studies should be performed for temperature-sensitive products, considering product characteristics, typical environmental conditions, and anticipating environmental extremes that may occur during product transport in a specific country. Staloral products for sublingual immunotherapy are temperature sensitive and are labelled for maintenance under refrigerated conditions (2-8°C). Given the peculiar climatic context of Italy and the great temperature fluctuations that may occur during transport, this study was aimed at evaluating the impact of a new engineered thermal insulating packaging for Staloral. In particular, the purpose was to assess whether the new packaging could create a container condition able to preserve the stability and immunological activity of the product during the transport phase throughout Italy. The results showed that the range of temperatures that can affect the product, in the area surrounding the product packaging, may reach a peak of 63°C during transport under the most unfavourable climatic conditions, i.e. in a non-refrigerated van during the summer season, from the site of production in France to the patient's house in Catania, the city with the highest temperatures in Italy. However, the highest temperature reached inside the vaccine did not exceed 45°C over a period of about 2 h. The ELISA inhibition test on samples subjected to the extreme temperature conditions previously defined (45°C) showed an immunological activity higher than 75% of that initially measured and was comparable to those obtained with samples stored at controlled temperature (5°C). This means that, even in the worst case scenario, the structure of the allergen extracts is not influenced and the vaccine potency is
Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent
As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis.
Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija
Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.
Egger, C; Focke, M; Bircher, A J; Scherer, K; Mothes-Luksch, N; Horak, F; Valenta, R
Beech and oak pollen are potential allergen sources with a world-wide distribution. We aimed to characterize the allergen profile of beech and oak pollen and to study cross-reactivities with birch and grass pollen allergens. Sera from tree pollen-allergic patients with evidence for beech and oak pollen sensitization from Basel, Switzerland, (n=23) and sera from birch pollen-allergic patients from Vienna, Austria, (n=26) were compared in immunoblot experiments for IgE reactivity to birch (Betula pendula syn. verrucosa), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oak (Quercus alba) pollen allergens. Subsequently, beech and oak pollen allergens were characterized by IgE inhibition experiments with purified recombinant and natural allergens and with allergen-specific antibody probes. Birch-, beech- and oak pollen-specific IgE levels were determined by ELISA. Beech and oak pollen contain allergens that cross-react with the birch pollen allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4 and with the berberine bridge enzyme-like allergen Phl p 4 from timothy grass pollen. Sera from Swiss and Austrian patients exhibited similar IgE reactivity profiles to birch, beech and oak pollen extracts. IgE levels to beech and oak pollen allergens were lower than those to birch pollen allergens. IgE reactivity to beech pollen is mainly due to cross-reactivity with birch pollen allergens, and a Phl p 4-like molecule represented another predominant IgE-reactive structure in oak pollen. The characterization of beech and oak pollen allergens and their cross-reactivity is important for the diagnosis and treatment of beech and oak pollen allergy.
Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika
Tannic acid (TA) forms insoluble complexes with proteins. The aims here were to remove major peanut allergens as insoluble TA complexes and determine if they would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (gut pH). Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorption and consequently an allergic reaction. TA (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml) was added to a peanut butter extract (5 mg/ml; pH 7.2), stirred, and centrifuged. The precipitates were then suspended in buffer at pH 2, centrifuged, re-suspended at pH 8, and centrifuged. Supernatants from each step were analysed by SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and Western blots. The effect of NaCl (1M) on complexes was also determined. Results showed that complexes formed at a TA concentration >0.5 mg/ml did not release major peanut allergens at pH 2 and 8, regardless of 1M NaCl being present or not. IgE binding of the extracts was reduced substantially, especially at a TA concentration of 1-2 mg/ml. Animal or clinical studies are still needed before TA can find an application in the development of low-allergen peanut products/beverages or the removal of peanut allergens due to accidental ingestion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Delbourg, M F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guilloux, L; Ville, G
Association between allergy to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis, two botanically unrelated plants, was suspected in consequence of two clinical observations. Symptoms were rhinitis and asthma. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo and in vitro cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis allergens. The two patients were asked about use and contact with latex devices and relationship between symptoms and Ficus benjamina exposure. Skin prick tests were performed with Ficus benjamina, Hevea brasiliensis extracts and common allergens. Double-blind nasal and bronchial challenge tests were done using the rinse fluid from a brand of latex gloves. Total and specific IgE antibodies to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis were determined. In vitro cross-reactivity was investigated by means of CAP RAST and immunodot inhibition experiments. We observed that for the first patient the primary phenomenon is probably allergy to latex followed by allergy to Ficus benjamina. For the second patient, allergy to Ficus benjamina was diagnosed (improvement related to the avoidance of exposure to Ficus benjamina allergens) and positivity to latex skin prick tests may be due to the cross-reacting allergens. In vitro assays showed specific IgE antibodies to both allergens and cross-reactivity was confirmed in the two cases by reciprocal inhibition of the two extracts. The increasing risk of sensitization to widely used latex devices and extensive exposure to Ficus species in households and offices indicates increased allergenic risk from this newly recognized cross-reactivity.
Shen, H D; Lin, W L; Tsai, J J; Liaw, S F; Han, S H
Penicillium species have been considered as important causative agents of extrinsic bronchial asthma. However, little is known about the allergens of these ubiquitous airborne fungal species. This study compares the allergenic profiles and allergenic crossreactivity among allergens of three prevalent airborne Penicillium species. IgE-binding Penicillium components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-immunoblotting using sera from 67 asthmatic patients. The presence of allergenic crossreactivity was analysed by immunoblot inhibition. Among the 67 serum samples tested, 15, 14 and 11 samples showed IgE reactivity to components of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum, respectively. All 15 P. citrinum-positive serum samples showed IgE-binding to a 33 kDa extract component of this species. Thirteen (93%) of the 14 P. notatum-positive serum samples and 10 (91%) of the 11 P. brevicompactum-positive sera also showed IgE reactivity to components with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa in individual Penicillium species. All of the 10 P. brevicompactum 33 kDa component-positive serum samples showed IgE reactivity to the 33 kDa components of the other two Penicillium species tested. Dose-dependent inhibition of IgE-binding to these major allergens was observed when the positive serum sample was absorbed with different amounts of individual allergenic extract as well as with different amounts of extracts prepared from the other two Penicillium species. Although different allergenic profiles were observed in the three different Penicillium species tested, results showed that there was an IgE crossreactivity among the 33 kDa group major allergens of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum.
Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo
Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.
Desalegn, Kassahun; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kassu, Afework; Mulu, Andargachew; Yismaw, Gizachew; Yifru, Sisay; Ota, Fusao
The prevalence of allergic diseases to a variety of allergens has only been studied in a few countries and it has never been studied in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of skin sensitivity reactions to allergens in Ethiopian subjects. A total of 216 subjects were tested with a skin scratch test using five types of allergens and also for total and differential white blood cell counts. Positive reaction to one or more allergens was detected in 49.5% of the subjects, the most prevalent allergen being mite extract. Some 27% showed a positive reaction to multiple allergens. The mean eosinophil count was higher in the subjects reacting to at least one of the allergens compared to those with no reaction (p=0.038). The results demonstrate a high prevalence of allergic reactions to the few allergens tested. Further studies using several allergens are recommended to substantiate this finding.
van Kampen, V; de Blay, F; Folletti, I; Kobierski, P; Moscato, G; Olivieri, M; Quirce, S; Sastre, J; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Kotschy-Lang, N; Müsken, H; Mahler, V; Schliemann, S; Ochmann, U; Sültz, J; Worm, M; Sander, I; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T; Merget, R; Raulf-Heimsoth, M
Skin prick testing (SPT) is an important step in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated occupational allergic diseases. The outcome of SPT is related to the quality of allergen extracts. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess different commercially available SPT solutions for selected occupational allergens. SPT was performed in 116 bakers, 47 farmers and 33 subjects exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL), all with work-related allergic symptoms. The SPT solutions from different manufacturers (n = 3-5) for wheat flour, rye flour, soy, cow hair/dander, storage mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Acarus siro) and NRL were analysed with respect to their protein and antigen contents. SPT was carried out in 16 allergy centres in six European countries using standardized procedures. Specific IgE values were used as the gold standard to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of SPT solutions. The optimal cut-point for each SPT solution was determined by Youden Index. Protein and antigen contents and patterns of the SPT solutions varied remarkably depending on the manufacturer. While SPT solutions for wheat flour and soy reached overall low sensitivities, sensitivities of other tested SPT solutions depended on the manufacturer. As a rule, solutions with higher protein and antigen content showed higher sensitivities and test efficiencies. There is a wide variability of SPT solutions for occupational allergens, and the sensitivity of several solutions is low. Thus, improvement and standardization of SPT solutions for occupational allergens is essential. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Li, A P; Royer, R E; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O
The cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane extracts of diesel exhaust particles from passenger cars of different manufactures was studied in cultured chinese hamster ovary cells. While exhaust particles from diesel cars of the same make and model yielded extracts of similar cytotoxicity, those from cars of different manufactures yielded extracts with a 3-fold difference in cytotoxicity. Using data on the percentages of extractable organic chemicals and total exhaust particulate emission rates, the emission rate of cytotoxin into the environment from the different cars were calculated. Of the 3 factors that could affect the emission rate of cytotoxins (cytotoxicity of the extractable chemicals, amount of cytotoxins per particle, and particulate emission rate), the differences in particulate emission rates were found to be the predominant factors leading to the differences in the emission rate of cytotoxins. Our findings indicate the need to consider other chemical and physical data, not just the activities of the extracts, when the potential health risk due to the exhaust emissions of different automobiles are compared.
Vieths, S; Barber, D; Chapman, M; Costanzo, A; Daas, A; Fiebig, H; Hanschmann, K M; Hrabina, M; Kaul, S; Ledesma, A; Moingeon, P; Reese, G; Schörner, C; van Ree, R; Weber, B; Buchheit, K H
The potency of allergen extracts is determined as total allergenic activity without consideration of their composition and the units differ from one manufacturer to another, making it very difficult to compare the different products. Recently, purified major allergens have been obtained by recombinant DNA technology and produced under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. In principle, such recombinant allergens could be established as reference standards and could help for the standardisation of the major allergen content of allergen extracts. Two recombinant major allergens, one from birch pollen, rBet v 1, and one from Timothy grass pollen, Phl p 5a, have been selected at the end of the CREATE programme as a potential starting point for the establishment as European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Reference Standards through a project run by the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). To this end, bulk candidate recombinant materials, produced under GMP conditions, were procured from two European manufacturers and subsequently formulated and lyophilised. Four ELISA systems from three different manufacturers were included in the project, two for Bet v 1 and two for Phl p 5a with the aim of establishing reference methods for determination of the respective major antigens both in natural allergen extracts as well as in recombinant allergen products. The project was run in 3 phases: a preparatory and preliminary testing phase (feasibility phase or Phase 1), an extended feasibility phase carried out in 3 laboratories (Phase 2) to confirm the transferability of the methods and an international collaborative study with a large number of participating laboratories (Phase 3). This article describes the work done in Phase 1 and Phase 2, i.e. the physico-chemical and biological characterisation of the recombinant candidate reference standards, the assessment of their suitability for the
Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large
Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenol (commonly found in tea and coffee) that has been used as a treatment for toxic substances and carpet allergens. The objectives were to determine the efficacy of TA’s binding and removal of peanut allergens from peanut butter extracts as insoluble precipitates, and to...
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...
Valenta, R.; Campana, R.; Marth, K.; van Hage, M.
Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen exposure induces a variety of symptoms in allergic patients, which include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, dermatitis, food allergy and life-threatening systemic anaphylaxis. At present, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergens, is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Current therapeutic allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts. However, with the availability of the structures of the most common allergen molecules, it has become possible to produce well-defined recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that allow specific targeting of the mechanisms of allergic disease. Here we provide a summary of the development and mechanisms of SIT, and then review new forms of therapeutic vaccines that are based on recombinant and synthetic molecules. Finally, we discuss possible allergen-specific strategies for prevention of allergic disease. PMID:22640224
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Hundred years ago therapeutic vaccination with allergen-containing extracts has been introduced as a clinically effective, disease-modifying, allergen-specific and long-lasting form of therapy for allergy, a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Today, the structures of most of the disease-causing allergens have been elucidated and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with reduced allergenic activity have been engineered to reduce side effects during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). These recombinant hypoallergens have been characterized in vitro, in experimental animal models and in clinical trials in allergic patients. This review provides a summary of the molecular, immunological and preclinical evaluation criteria applied for this new generation of allergy vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize the mechanisms underlying SIT with recombinant hypoallergens which are thought to be responsible for their therapeutic effect. PMID:22100888
Pomés, Anna; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander
Allergy diagnosis is based on the patient’s clinical history and can be strengthened by tests that confirm the origin of sensitization. In the past 25 years, these tests have evolved from the exclusive in vivo or in vitro use of allergen extracts, to complementary molecular-based diagnostics that rely on in vitro measurements of IgE reactivity to individual allergens. For this to occur, an increase in our understanding of the molecular structure of allergens, largely due to the development of technologies such as molecular cloning and expression of recombinant allergens, X-ray crystallography, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), has been essential. New in vitro microarray or multiplex systems are now available to measure IgE against a selected panel of purified natural or recombinant allergens. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of allergens has facilitated detailed molecular studies, including the analysis of antigenic determinants for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25750181
Merritt, Anne-Sophie; Emenius, Gunnel; Elfman, Lena; Smedje, Greta
Background. The presence of horse allergen in public places is not well-known, unlike for instance cat and dog allergens, which have been studied extensively. The aim was to investigate the presence of horse allergen in schools and to what extent the influence of number of children with regular horse contact have on indoor allergen levels. Methods. Petri dishes were used to collect airborne dust samples during one week in classrooms. In some cases, vacuumed dust samples were also collected. All samples were extracted, frozen and analysed for Equ cx content shortly after sampling, and some were re-analysed six years later with a more sensitive ELISA assay. Results. Horse allergen levels were significantly higher in classrooms, in which many children had horse contact, regardless of sampling method. Allergen levels in extracts from Petri dish samples, which had been kept frozen, dropped about 53% over a six-year period. Conclusion. Horse allergen was present in classrooms and levels were higher in classrooms where many children had regular horse contact in their leisure time. This suggests that transfer of allergens takes place via contaminated clothing. Measures should be taken to minimize possible transfer and deposition of allergens in pet-free environments, such as schools.
Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines
Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710
Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian
Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Prandi, Barbara; Faccini, Andrea; Tedeschi, Tullia; Galaverna, Gianni; Sforza, Stefano
Food allergy from wheat is triggered by several protein classes, such as LTPs, ω5-gliadins and α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. The latter proteins, belonging to the prolamin superfamily, are mostly involved in baker's asthma, a form of occupational allergy in which the sensitization occurs through the respiratory tract. α-Amylase/trypsin inhibitors were also found to be involved in wheat-related atopic dermatitis. In this work, the allergen Tri a 30 (the CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor) was quantified in durum wheat salt soluble extracts using a peptidomic approach. CM3 protein identification was confirmed by using LTQ-OrbiTrap analysis on peptides obtained from the enzymatically digested protein separated by gel electrophoresis. Then, marker peptides derived from the protein after enzymatic cleavage of the full wheat extracts were identified by LC-MS/MS. One of them was used as marker for quantitative determination on an UPLC/ESI-MS system by using its isotopically labelled analogue as internal standard, allowing to assess the protein content in the different samples. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to greatly vary among different cultivation areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Enberg, R N; Leickly, F E; McCullough, J; Bailey, J; Ownby, D R
A biotin-avidin amplified ELISA was used to measure antigen-specific IgE for ragweed, representative members of the gourd family (watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, zucchini, and cucumber), and banana in the sera of 192 allergic patients, each with an IgE greater than or equal to 180 microns/ml. Sixty-three percent (120/192) of the sera contained antiragweed IgE, and of these patients, 28% to 50% contained IgE specific for any single gourd family member. In contrast, no greater than 11% of the sera positive for a given gourd or banana were negative for ragweed. Correlations between ragweed and gourd-specific IgE levels were significant (p less than 0.001), and correlation coefficients between any two gourds exceeded 0.79. In an ELISA system, the extracts of watermelon and ragweed inhibited each other in a dose-dependent manner; the resulting nonparallel inhibition curves indicate that some, but not all, of the allergens in the two extracts are cross-reactive. Isoelectric focusing of watermelon and ragweed extracts in narrow range gel (pH 4 to 6) followed by immunoblotting demonstrated six watermelon allergen bands with isoelectric points identical to those of ragweed allergens. Several remaining bands in the two extracts had differing isoelectric points, however. Six of 26 patients interviewed with watermelon-specific IgE reported developing oropharyngeal symptoms (itching and/or swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat) after ingesting at least one of the study foods, whereas only one of 25 patients interviewed without detectable watermelon-specific IgE reported similar symptoms (p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid
The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.
Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid
The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332
Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Salamanca, Guillermo
Numerous pollen allergens have been reported over the last few years. Most of them belong to well-known families of proteins but some others constitute the first member of new allergenic families. Some of the factors that can contribute to the detection and identification of new pollen allergens are: a) advances in the technology tools for molecular analysis; and b) the deep knowledge of many allergenic sources. The combination of these factors has provided vast information on the olive pollen allergogram and the identification of minor allergens that become major ones for a significant population. The close taxonomical relationship between olive tree and ash -both Oleaceae- has permitted to identify Fra e 1 (the Ole e 1-like allergen) in ash pollen and to detect the presence of protein homologues of Ole e 3 and Ole e 6. In the other hand, extensive areas of south Europe are suffering an increasing desertification. As a consequence of this, new botanical species are spontaneously growing in these areas or being used in greening ground programs: Chenopodium album and Salsola kali are some examples recently recognized as allergenic woods. The identification of the complete panel of allergens from the hypersensitizing sources might help to develop more accurate diagnosis, and efficient and safer therapy tools for Type-I allergic diseases.
De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G
As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.
Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham
This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.
... and efficacy of Oralair, a Sweet Vernal Grass, Perennial Ryegrass, Timothy Grass, Orchard Grass, and... the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy Grass Pollen Allergen Extract tablet for sublingual use...
Thomas, Wayne R
The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.
Ferrer, Ángel; Huertas, Ángel J; Larramendi, Carlos H; García-Abujeta, Jose L; Bartra, Joan; Lavín, Jose R; Andreu, Carmen; Pagán, Juan A; López-Matas, María A; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Carnés, Jerónimo
Background Commercial available skin prick test with fruits can be negative in sensitized or allergic patients due to a reduction in biological activity during the manufacturing process. Prick-prick tests with fresh foods are often preferred, but they are a non-standardized procedure. The usefulness of freeze-dried extracts of Canary Islands tomatoes, comparing the wheal sizes induced by prick test with the prick-prick method in the diagnosis of tomato sensitization has been analyzed. The objective of the study was to assess the potential diagnostic of freeze-dried extracts of Canary Islands tomatoes, comparing the wheal sizes induced by prick test with the prick-prick method. Methods Two groups of patients were analyzed: Group I: 26 individuals reporting clinical symptoms induced by tomato contact or ingestion. Group II: 71 control individuals with no symptoms induced by tomato: 12 of them were previously skin prick test positive to a tomato extract, 39 were atopic and 20 were non-atopic. All individuals underwent prick-prick with fresh ripe peel Canary tomatoes and skin prick tested with freeze-dried peel and pulp extracts obtained from peel and pulp of Canary tomatoes at 10 mg/ml. Wheal sizes and prick test positivity (≥ 7 mm2) were compared between groups. Results In group I, 21 (81%) out of 26 patients were prick-prick positive. Twenty patients (77%) had positive skin prick test to peel extracts and 12 (46%) to pulp extracts. Prick-prick induced a mean wheal size of 43.81 ± 40.19 mm2 compared with 44.25 ± 36.68 mm2 induced by the peel extract (Not significant), and 17.79 ± 9.39 mm2 induced by the pulp extract (p < 0.01). In group II, 13 (18%) out of 71 control patients were prick-prick positive. Twelve patients (all of them previously positive to peel extract) had positive skin prick test to peel and 3 to pulp. Prick-prick induced a mean wheal size of 28.88 ± 13.12 mm2 compared with 33.17 ± 17.55 mm2 induced by peel extract (Not significant), and 13
Cockcroft, Donald W
It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256
Pomés, A; Wünschmann, S; Hindley, J; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D
Cockroach allergy is a widespread health problem in the world, associated with the development of asthma. The German and American cockroach species are important producers of a wide variety of allergens. Knowledge of their structure and function contributes to understand their role in allergy and to design tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy.
Lou, Ching-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Yun; Wu, Zong-Han; Lin, Jia-Horng
Lithospermum erythrorhizon has been proved to be anti-inflammatory, by recent studies. This study extracts L. erythrorhizon with ethanol at various solid-liquid ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:12), extraction temperatures (40°C, 50°C, and 60°C), and extraction times (4, 24 and 36h) in order to determine the optimal parameters. The optimal parameters are extracted and condensed into L. erythrorhizon extract; then the antibacterial property and cell compatibility of L. erythrorhizon extract are evaluated with various concentrations of L. erythrorhizon extract solution and different weights of L. erythrorhizon extract powder, respectively. The concentrations of solution are 0.1mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml, 1.0mg/ml, and 2.0mg/ml and ethanol is chosen as the solvent, and different weights of powder are varied as 0.1mg, 1.0mg, 2.0mg, and 10mg. The cell viability test and animal study are performed on L. erythrorhizon microcapsules. The experiment results show that sodium alginate/pectin L. erythrorhizon (SPL) microcapsules possess a 120-hour drug release. The results of cell viability and animal study show that the L. erythrorhizon microcapsules (SPL) have good cell viability (99%) and can help in the wound healing process (the wound size reduction reaches 91.3% on Day 11). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E
To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.
Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya
Rice bran is a good source of nutrients that have large amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidants. Conventional rice bran oil production requires many processes that may deteriorate and degrade these valuable substances. Supercritical CO2 extraction is a green alternative method for producing rice bran oil. This work reviews production of rice bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. In addition, the usefulness and advantages of SC-CO2 extracted rice bran oil for edible oil and health purpose is also described.
Fisher, Thomas M.
Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)
Fisher, Thomas M.
Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)
Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B
Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria.
Gupta, Ruchi S; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Kao, Lauren M; Schuster, Erik; Smith, Bridget M
Food allergies affect up to 8% of children in the United States and may occasionally lead to severe life-threatening reactions. Because there is currently no cure for food allergies, strict avoidance of the allergen-containing foods is the only means of preventing an allergic reaction. Consumers rely on food manufacturers to reliably track and declare the presence of food allergens in products. Over the past 10 to 20 years, the food industry has increasingly adopted allergen control approaches in its processing facilities. However, the major industry costs related to food allergen management have not been fully described. The objective of this study was to characterize the factors that contribute to the economic impact of food allergen control practices on the food industry. A focus group (n = 100) was conducted with food industry professionals to identify key areas of cost for food allergen management. A survey based on the domains identified was then developed and disseminated to a convenience sample (n = 50) of quality control food industry specialists with knowledge of their company's food allergen management practices. Nearly all companies (92%) produced food products containing one or more of the top eight allergenic foods recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or sesame seeds. Cleaning procedures, employee training, and the potential for a recall due to allergen cross-contact were most frequently rated as the important factors in food allergen management. Recalls due to food allergen cross-contact, cleaning procedures, equipment and premises design, and employee training were ranked as the greatest allergen management expenses. Although 96% of companies had a food allergen control plan in place, nearly half (42%) had at least one food allergen-related recall within the past 5 years. The industry appears to endorse a willingness to unify precautionary allergen labeling to communicate a clear message more effectively to consumers.
Burge, H.A. )
Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.
Khuda, Sefat E; Jackson, Lauren S; Fu, Tong-Jen; Williams, Kristina M
To alleviate the risk to allergic consumers, it is crucial to improve factors affecting the detection of food allergens in processed chocolate products. This study evaluated processing effects on (1) recovery of peanut, egg, and milk allergens using five different extraction buffers, and (2) identification of specific allergenic proteins from extracts of incurred chocolate using allergen-specific antibodies and human allergic sera. Immunochemical staining with polyclonal antibodies showed that the addition of detergent or reducing agent improved extraction efficiency of peanut proteins, but not of egg and milk proteins. Tempering decreased antibody binding regardless of extractant. Detection of IgE-reactive peanut, egg, and milk allergens was differentially affected by tempering and extractant. Detection problems associated with matrix and processing effects may be overcome by the choice of extraction buffer and detecting antibody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Babu, Bheemanapalli N Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P
: Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. : The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. : Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature by staining/lectinoblots, and in vitro stability in simulated gastric fluid. : All the eggplant-sensitized subjects showed positive skin prick test with peel, pulp, raw, and cooked eggplant extracts; allergen-specific IgE to all these was positive. Raw eggplant contains 5 allergens in the range 36-71 kD. Most allergens are localized in the eggplant peel (9 allergens; 26-71 kD range) than the pulp (3 allergens; 52-71 kD); among these, the 26, 28, 36, and 71 kD allergens seem to be heat-stable. The 43, 45, 64, and 71 kD allergens are detected as glycoproteins; the 26, 64, and 71 kD allergens are stable displaying retention of IgE-binding ability in simulated gastric fluid digestion. : Eggplant is a multiallergenic vegetable in the context of presence of allergens in all edible parts of eggplant having preponderance in the peel.
Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature by staining/lectinoblots, and in vitro stability in simulated gastric fluid. Results All the eggplant-sensitized subjects showed positive skin prick test with peel, pulp, raw, and cooked eggplant extracts; allergen-specific IgE to all these was positive. Raw eggplant contains 5 allergens in the range 36-71 kD. Most allergens are localized in the eggplant peel (9 allergens; 26-71 kD range) than the pulp (3 allergens; 52-71 kD); among these, the 26, 28, 36, and 71 kD allergens seem to be heat-stable. The 43, 45, 64, and 71 kD allergens are detected as glycoproteins; the 26, 64, and 71 kD allergens are stable displaying retention of IgE-binding ability in simulated gastric fluid digestion. Conclusions Eggplant is a multiallergenic vegetable in the context of presence of allergens in all edible parts of eggplant having preponderance in the peel. PMID:23283148
Jenke, Dennis; Carlson, Tage
Demonstrating suitability for intended use is necessary to register packaging, delivery/administration, or manufacturing systems for pharmaceutical products. During their use, such systems may interact with the pharmaceutical product, potentially adding extraneous entities to those products. These extraneous entities, termed leachables, have the potential to affect the product's performance and/or safety. To establish the potential safety impact, drug products and their packaging, delivery, or manufacturing systems are tested for leachables or extractables, respectively. This generally involves testing a sample (either the extract or the drug product) by a means that produces a test method response and then correlating the test method response with the identity and concentration of the entity causing the response. Oftentimes, analytical tests produce responses that cannot readily establish the associated entity's identity. Entities associated with un-interpretable responses are termed unknowns. Scientifically justifiable thresholds are used to establish those individual unknowns that represent an acceptable patient safety risk and thus which do not require further identification and, conversely, those unknowns whose potential safety impact require that they be identified. Such thresholds are typically based on the statistical analysis of datasets containing toxicological information for more or less relevant compounds. This article documents toxicological information for over 540 extractables identified in laboratory testing of polymeric materials used in pharmaceutical applications. Relevant toxicological endpoints, such as NOELs (no observed effects), NOAELs (no adverse effects), TDLOs (lowest published toxic dose), and others were collated for these extractables or their structurally similar surrogates and were systematically assessed to produce a risk index, which represents a daily intake value for life-long intravenous administration. This systematic approach
Charpin, D; Vervloet, D
There is a qualitative as well as a quantitative change in allergen exposure. From a qualitative viewpoint, the relevance of some allergens (domestic allergens i.e. cockroaches, outdoor allergens i.e. plane tree, chestnut and ash tree pollens) has been established. The role of some other allergens has been, strictly speaking, discovered: latex from Hevea and ficus, trichophyton mold, some occupational allergens and very recently transgenic allergens. From a quantitative viewpoint, the concentration and/or distribution of some allergens has increased. Plantation of numerous trees or fortuitous introduction of weeds has led to an increased specific sensitization. In like manner, introduction of new foods or food processing procedures has created new food allergens and allergy. Besides, the distribution of some well-known aero-allergens is better known since discovery of ELISA--technology allowing measurements of minute amounts of these allergens. A burning issue today is to know whether irritant factors could modify allergens. Few data, sometimes contradictory, are available in the field of interaction between air pollutants and allergens.
Ashley, J; Piekarska, M; Segers, C; Trinh, L; Rodgers, T; Willey, R; Tothill, I E
A simple, sensitive and label-free optical sensor method was developed for allergens analysis using α-casein as the biomarker for cow's milk detection, to be used directly in final rinse samples of cleaning in place systems (CIP) of food manufacturers. A Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor chip consisting of four sensing arrays enabling the measurement of samples and control binding events simultaneously on the sensor surface was employed in this work. SPR offers several advantages in terms of label free detection, real time measurements and superior sensitivity when compared to ELISA based techniques. The gold sensor chip was used to immobilise α-casein-polyclonal antibody using EDC/NHS coupling procedure. The performance of the assay and the sensor was first optimised and characterised in pure buffer conditions giving a detection limit of 58ngmL(-1) as a direct binding assay. The assay sensitivity can be further improved by using sandwich assay format and amplified with nanoparticles. However, at this stage this is not required as the detection limit achieved exceeded the required allergens detection levels of 2µgmL(-1) for α-S1-casein. The sensor demonstrated good selectivity towards the α-casein as the target analyte and adequate recoveries from CIP final rinse wash samples. The sensor would be useful tool for monitoring allergen levels after cleaning procedures, providing additional data that may better inform upon wider food allergen risk management decision(s) that are made by food manufacturer. In particular, this sensor could potentially help validate or optimise cleaning practices for a given food manufacturing process.
Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran
Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.
Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Monsalve, Rafael I; Galán, Agustin; Perez-Piñar, Teresa; Umpierrez, Ana; Lluch-Bernal, Magdalena; Polo, Francisco; Caballero, María Luisa
Anisakiasis is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods parasitized by live L3 larvae of nematode Anisakis spp. Larvae anchor to stomach mucosa releasing excretion/secretion products which contain the main allergens. It has been described that nematode larvae release venom allergen-like proteins among their excretion/secretion products. We investigated potential cross-reactivity between Anisakis and wasp venom allergens. Two groups of 25 patients each were studied: wasp venom- and Anisakis-allergic patients. Sera from patients were tested by ImmunoCAP, dot-blotting with recombinant Anisakis allergens and ADVIA-Centaur system with Hymenoptera allergens. Cross-reactivity was assessed by IgE immunoblotting inhibition assays. Role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was studied by inhibition with bromelain and periodate treatment. A total of 40% of wasp venom-allergic patients had specific IgE to Anisakis simplex and 20% detected at least one of the Anisakis recombinant allergens tested. Likewise, 44% of Anisakis-allergic patients had specific IgE to Vespula spp. venom and 16% detected at least one of the Hymenoptera allergens tested. Wasp venom-allergic patients detected CCDs in Anisakis extract and peptide epitopes on Anisakis allergens rAni s 1 and rAni s 9, whereas Anisakis-allergic patients only detected CCDs on nVes v 1 allergen from Vespula spp. venom. The only Anisakis allergen inhibited by Vespula venom was rAni s 9. This is the first time that cross-sensitization between wasp venom and Anisakis is described. CCDs are involved in both cases; however, peptide epitopes are only recognized by wasp venom-allergic patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pham, John; Oseroff, Carla; Hinz, Denise; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Greenbaum, Jason; Vita, Randi; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro
Background Ragweed is a major cause of seasonal allergy, affecting millions of people worldwide. Several allergens have been defined based on IgE reactivity, but their relative immunogenicity in terms of T cell responses has not been studied. Objective We comprehensively characterized T cell responses from atopic, ragweed-allergic subjects to Amb a 1, Amb a 3, Amb a 4, Amb a 5, Amb a 6, Amb a 8, Amb a 9, Amb a 10, Amb a 11, and Amb p 5, and examined their correlation with serological reactivity and sequence conservation in other allergens. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors positive for IgE toward ragweed extracts after in vitro expansion for secretion of IL-5 (a representative Th2 cytokine) and IFNγ (Th1) in response to a panel of overlapping peptides spanning the above listed allergens. Results Three previously identified dominant T cell epitopes (Amb a 1 176–191, 200–215, and 344–359) were confirmed and three novel dominant epitopes (Amb a 1 280–295, 304–319, and 320–335) were identified. Amb a 1, the dominant IgE allergen, was also the dominant T cell allergen, but dominance patterns for T cell and IgE responses for the other ragweed allergens did not correlate. Dominance for T cell responses correlated with conservation of ragweed epitopes with sequences of other well-known allergens. Conclusion and clinical relevance These results provide the first assessment of the hierarchy of T cell reactivity in ragweed allergens, which is distinct from that observed for IgE reactivity and influenced by T cell epitope sequence conservation. The results suggest that ragweed allergens associated with lesser IgE reactivity and significant T cell reactivity may be targeted for T cell immunotherapy, and further support the development of immunotherapies against epitopes conserved across species to generate broad reactivity against many common allergens. PMID:27359111
Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...
Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K
Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
O'Hehir, R E; Sandrini, A; Anderson, G P; Rolland, J M
Allergic diseases constitute a major health issue worldwide. Mainstay treatment constitutes allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy for symptom relief, but allergen immunotherapy offers advantages of specific treatment with long lasting efficacy, and being able to modify the course of the disease. Conventional immunotherapy involves the subcutaneous injection of gradually increasing amounts of allergen extract but the use of current whole allergen extracts is restricted by the risk of adverse IgE-mediated events especially for potent allergens such as peanut and latex and for asthmatics. This has lead to interest in alternative routes of immunotherapy. Oral tolerance is a well-documented immune process and the sublingual route of administration of allergen immunotherapy is attracting interest. Recent meta-analyses show that sublingual allergen immunotherapy for grass pollen and house dust mite allergy is clinically effective and safer than injection immunotherapy. Some studies show SLIT induces changes of T cell anergy, immune deviation, blocking antibodies, and induction of regulatory T cells, as described for injection immunotherapy pointing to the need to target allergen-specific T cells, there is emergent evidence that the oral mucosa presents distinct regulatory features. Evidence suggests that oral dendritic cells play a key role in inducing tolerance especially when allergen is taken up via Fc receptor bound IgE. This suggests that although both would target allergen-specific T cells, allergen formulations may differ with respect to IgE epitopes for optimal SLIT compared with SCIT. Identification of the molecular nature of the allergen-DC receptor interaction is required to determine whether short peptides or recombinant allergen preparations and of suitable adjuvants specifically tailored for the sublingual route will allow the development of improved allergen formulations and delivery strategies for efficacy of treatment whilst decreasing Ig
Li, Shou-Nan; Chang, Chin-Ta; Shih, Hui-Ya; Tang, Andy; Li, Alen; Chen, Yin-Yung
A mobile extractive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was successfully used to locate, identify, and quantify the "odor" sources inside the cleanroom of a semiconductor manufacturing plant. It was found that ozone (O(3)) gas with a peak concentration of 120 ppm was unexpectedly releasing from a headspace of a drain for transporting used ozonized water and that silicon tetrafluoride (SiF(4)) with a peak concentration of 3 ppm was off-gassed from silicon wafers after dry-etching processing. When the sources of the odors was pinpointed by the FTIR, engineering control measures were applied. For O(3) control, a water-sealed pipeline was added to prevent the O(3) gas (emitting from the ozonized water) from entering the mixing unit. A ventilation system also was applied to the mixing unit in case of O(3) release. For SiF(4) mitigation, before the wafer-out chamber was opened, N(2) gas with a flow rate of 150 L/min was used for 100 sec to purge the wafer-out chamber, and a vacuum system was simultaneously activated to pump away the purging N(2). The effectiveness of the control measures was assured by using the FTIR. In addition, the FTIR was used to monitor the potential hazardous gas emissions during preventative maintenance of the semiconductor manufacturing equipment.
Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H
The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.
Klimek, Ludger; Werfel, Thomas; Vogelberg, Christian; Jung, Kirsten
Beside the skin prick test, the intracutaneous test represents the most important skin test method for detecting type-1 allergies. With the incorporation of European directives into national law, test allergens used for allergy diagnosis are deemed medicinal products within the meaning of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz) and therefore require marketing authorisation for distribution in Germany. The high costs of acquiring and maintaining these authorisations have lead to no new finished intracutaneous test products being authorized in Germany for more than 20 years. Instead, most manufacturers have voluntarily withdrawn their existing marketing authorisations for intracutaneous test extracts. The last manufacturer to offer approved finished allergen products for intracutaneous tests recently announced that it would now cease production and distribution of these solutions. Research on the current European and German legislation; selective literature search in Medline, including national and international guidelines and Cochrane meta-analyses; licensing information on the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute homepage (www.pei.de) as well as in the Bundesanzeiger (Federal Gazette). According to information on www.pei.de, marketing authorisations still existed as of 31.01.2015 for intracutaneous test solutions of six grass/cereal/herbal pollens, seven tree pollens, ten food allergens, twelve moulds and yeasts as well as two fungal mixtures, five house dust and storage mites and five animal epithelia/danders, all held by only one company in Germany. These marketing authorisations were granted between 16th March 1987 and 17th January 1992; more recent marketing authorisations do not exist. European legislation and the associated increase in production and licensing costs have already lead to numerous suppliers withdrawing their marketing authorisation for diagnostic test allergens - marketing authorisations for 443 diagnostic allergens were voluntarily withdrawn
Sung, Dongeun; Ahn, Kang Mo; Lim, Seung-Yong; Oh, Sangsuk
This study was performed to examine how the characteristics of soybean 2S protein influence allergenicity after enzymatic hydrolysis. Soybean 2S protein was extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using pepsin and chymotrypsin. Allergenicity was observed using soybean-sensitive patients' sera. Only 13.3% (6/45) of soybean-sensitive patients reacted to soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), known as the major allergen of soybean 2S protein. After peptic hydrolysis for 90 min at pH 1.2, the intensity of SKTI decreased to 25% but was still visible on SDS-PAGE. Chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis at pH 8 for 60 min showed a limited hydrolytic effect on soybean 2S protein. Peptic hydrolysis of soybean 2S protein partially reduced the allergenicity of soybean 2S protein, while chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis increased slightly the allergenicity. Food allergy caused by soybean 2S protein occurred in part of the soybean-sensitive patients. SKTI was partially digested after peptic hydrolysis for 90 min. The allergenicity was decreased with peptic hydrolysis, while subsequent treatment of chymotrypsin increased slightly the allergenicity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Incorvaia, Cristoforo; dell'Albani, Ilaria; Masieri, Simonetta; Cavaliere, Carmine; Puccinelli, Paola; Frati, Franco
Allergic rhinitis (AR) may be cured by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). However, patient characteristics for prescribing AIT are not well defined. This study aimed at evaluating the patient's profile to be a candidate for AIT in a cohort of patients suffering from AR, evaluated in 20 Italian Allergy or Ear, Nose, and Throat Centers. The study has been performed on 198 patients (98 men; mean age, 26.8 years) with AR (assessed by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma [ARIA] criteria). The kind and the number of prescribed allergen extracts, type of diagnosis, severity of symptoms, and patient's perception of symptoms and drug use were evaluated. Patients were subdivided in AIT-treated and without AIT (as controls) subgroups. Most of the patients (69.7%) had persistent AR with moderate–severe symptoms. The mean number of sensitization was 3.4. ARIA classification and sensitization number did not affect AIT choice, but the type of allergen was relevant. AIT-treated patients had milder symptoms than controls if assessed by doctors, but AIT patients perceived more severe symptoms and larger drug use than controls. This study shows that the choice of AIT is based on patient's perception and type of allergen, but number of sensitizations, symptom severity assessed by doctors, and ARIA classification are not relevant factors. The key message might be that it is always relevant to pay attention to the complaints referred by the patient. PMID:24124641
Kurup, Viswanath P; Sussman, Gordon L; Yeang, Hoong Y; Elms, Nancy; Breiteneder, Heimo; Arif, Siti AM; Kelly, Kevin J; Bansal, Naveen K; Fink, Jordan N
Background In recent years, allergy to natural rubber latex has emerged as a major allergy among certain occupational groups and patients with underlying diseases. The sensitization and development of latex allergy has been attributed to exposure to products containing residual latex proteins. Although improved manufacturing procedures resulted in a considerable reduction of new cases, the potential risk for some patient groups is still great. In addition the prevalent cross-reactivity of latex proteins with other food allergens poses a major concern. A number of purified allergens and a few commercial kits are currently available, but no concerted effort was undertaken to evaluate them. Methods We studied 11 purified latex allergens, Hev b 1 to Hev b 10, and Hev b 13 along with several crude allergen extracts and two commercial ImmunoCAP assays to evaluate specific IgE antibody in the sera from latex allergic patients and controls. Health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical symptoms of latex allergy, spina bifida patients without latex allergy, and non-atopic health care workers have been studied. Results The results suggest that Hev b 2, 5, 6, and 13 together identified over 80 percent health care workers with latex allergy, while Hev b 6 along with Hev b 1 or 3 detected specific IgE antibody in all sera studied from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. The ImmunoCAP results using both Hev b 5 amplified and non-amplified closely agreed with the clinical diagnosis of latex allergy in health care workers and in spina bifida. Conclusion Although the purified allergens and crude extracts reacted diversely with IgE from different patient groups, the results indicated that use of certain combinations of purified recombinant antigens will be useful in commercial kits or in in-house assays for detecting specific IgE antibody in the sera. The results suggest that a combination of Hev b 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13 together detected specific IgE in 80% of
Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos
The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Pomés, Anna; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Randall, Thomas A; Chapman, Martin D; Arruda, L Karla
This review addresses the most recent developments on cockroach allergen research in relation to allergic diseases, especially asthma. The number of allergens relevant to cockroach allergy has recently expanded considerably up to 12 groups. New X-ray crystal structures of allergens from groups 1, 2, and 5 revealed interesting features with implications for allergen standardization, sensitization, diagnosis, and therapy. Cockroach allergy is strongly associated with asthma particularly among children and young adults living in inner-city environments, posing challenges for disease control. Environmental interventions targeted at reducing cockroach allergen exposure have provided conflicting results. Immunotherapy may be a way to modify the natural history of cockroach allergy and decrease symptoms and asthma severity among sensitized and exposed individuals. The new information on cockroach allergens is important for the assessment of allergen markers of exposure and disease, and for the design of immunotherapy trials.
Science Teacher, 2005
Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…
Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...
Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek
Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341
Science Teacher, 2005
Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…
Hung, Li-Shiuan; Lin, Bi-Fong
This study was to investigate the effects of different fractions of Perilla frutescens (Pf) leaves extracted by water or ethanol on asthma. BALB/c mice sensitized intraperitoneally and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) were divided into six groups. Each group of mice was tube-feeding with 0 (control), 80 μg (PfWL), or 320 μg (PfWH) water extracts or 80 μg (PfEL) or 320 μg (PfEH) ethanol extracts of perilla leaves daily for 3 weeks. A negative control group (PBS) was neither sensitized nor treated with Pf. The effects of perilla leave extracts on allergic immune response were evaluated. The results showed that OVA-specific IL-5 and IL-13 secretions from OVA-stimulated splenocytes were significantly suppressed in the ethanol extract groups PfEL and PfEH. Serum level of anti-OVA IgE tended to be lower in the PfEH group. The inflammatory mediators, such as eotaxin and histamine, and total cells, particularly eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), were also decreased in the PfEL and the PfEH groups. Therefore, the PfEL and the PfEH groups had significantly lower methacholine-induced hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In conclusion, ethanol extracts, rather than water extract, of perilla leaves could significantly suppress Th2 responses and airway inflammation in allergic murine model of asthma. PMID:26064160
Taala, Leila; Majd, Ahmad; Nourizadeh, Maryam; Pourpak, Zahra
Maize is a member of the Poaceae family, capable of producing large amounts of pollen grains which may constitute important allergens in spring and summer. The aim of this study was to determine the protein content of maize pollen and its allergenicity in guinea pigs. The morphology of maize pollens was determined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The size of separated proteins was obtained by SDS-PAGE. A group of animals were immunized with maize pollen extract and the others were kept as control. After 40 days, the skin prick test was done in animals after blood sampling for counting the eosinophils. The allergenisity of proteins was identified by immunoblotting of transferred bonds using sera from sensitized guinea pigs. Pollen grains showed a spherical, monoporate structure with the scabrate exine surface. The SDS-PAGE indicated a major band of about 50 kD.We also showed increase in flare and wheal diameter following skin prick test in sensitized guinea pigs along with an elevated number of eosinophils. The presence of group 13 allergen (Zea m13) with molecular weight of ~ 50 kD was found in immunoblotting results. This study showed one protein in maize pollen extract that could be considered as an allergen belonging to group 13 of allergen categories. However, further investigations should be scheduled for precise analysis of the proteins. This allergen can be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes (vaccination approaches) in allergic asthma patients.
Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.
Zahradnik, Eva; Sander, Ingrid; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika
Cattle are well-known sources of respiratory allergens in agricultural environments. Breed-specific differences in Bos d 2 (a major bovine allergen) levels in cattle hair have been previously suggested but not fully characterized. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether hair from common cattle breeds differs in protein and allergen content. In total, 80 hair samples from 16 different cattle breeds were analyzed. The protein concentration was determined using the Bradford assay. The allergen content was measured using a sandwich ELISA based on polyclonal antibodies against a bovine hair protein extract and a commercial immunoassay based on monoclonal antibodies against Bos d 2. Results are given in micrograms per gram of hair. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation. A wide variability in all 3 tested parameters was observed between the individual samples. The protein content differed by about 35-fold (0.3-12 mg/g), the bovine hair allergen content differed by about 500-fold (37-18,553 µg/g), and the Bos d 2 content differed by about 1,200-fold (5-6,323 µg/g). Protein, bovine hair allergen, and Bod d 2 values correlated strongly and significantly with one another. The median Bos d 2/bovine hair allergen ratio was 0.28. No significant differences were found between the most common breeds in Germany (Simmental, Holstein, and Braunvieh) and a group of rare breeds or between female and male animals. The results confirm a high variability in allergen levels between individual animals but also indicate that allergen production is related neither to the breed nor to gender. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bhalla, P L; Swoboda, I; Singh, M B
Hay fever and allergic asthma triggered by grass pollen allergens affect approximately 20% of the population in cool temperate climates. Ryegrass is the dominant source of allergens due to its prodigious airborne pollen production. Lol p 5 or group 5 is among the most important and widespread grass pollen allergen because it reacts with IgE antibodies of more than 90% of grass pollen-allergic patients, contains most of the grass pollen-specific IgE epitopes and elicits strong biological responses. Significant efforts have been made in developing diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for designing new and more effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treatment of allergic diseases. An alternative approach to this problem could be to reduce the amount of allergen content in the source plant. High velocity microprojectile bombardment was used to genetically engineer ryegrass. Antisense construct targeted to one of major allergen, Lol p 5, was introduced. The expression of antisense RNA was regulated by a pollen-specific promoter. Pollen was analysed for IgE reactivity. Analysis of proteins with allergen-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies did not detect Lol p 5 in the transgenic pollen. The transgenic pollen showed remarkably reduced allergenicity as reflected by low IgE binding capacity of pollen extract as compared to control pollen. The transgenic ryegrass plants in which Lol p 5 gene expression is perturbed showed normal fertile pollen development. Our studies showed that it is possible to selectively 'switch off' allergen production in pollen of ryegrass demonstrating feasibility of genetic engineering of plants for reduced allergenicity. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
Swanson, Mark C; Ramalingam, Mohan
Starch powders continue to be used as donning agents on natural rubber (NR) gloves. NR aeroallergens are an important aspect of human sensitivity to latex. Asthma, upper airway, and ocular symptoms are associated with these airborne proteins. These bioaerosols feature starch as the carrier. The association of NR allergen and starch is demonstrated in NR glove manufacturing, in laboratory simulation, and as occupational aeroallergens in health care environments. Four aspects of latex allergen affinity for starch powders were examined by using a competitive IgE immunoassay for NR latex. Allergen content was assessed in finished gloves before and after powder process points and related to the allergen content of the raw latex source material. In another manufacturing process, allergen uptake by two different starch powders was quantified. NR allergen affinity for the starches was also determined under laboratory conditions. Finally, NR aeroallergens carried by starch powder in production facilities were measured. This article outlines the sources, mechanisms, and conditions for NR allergens to interact with two different starches. The quantitative airborne allergen data are used to compare and contrast various occupational indices of NR allergen exposure. Powdered NR gloves continue to cause concern; however, the technology used for contemporary glove powder applications may be advanced and improved enough to consistently produce powdered gloves with a low allergen content.
Jackson, Lauren S; Al-Taher, Fadwa M; Moorman, Mark; DeVries, Jonathan W; Tippett, Roger; Swanson, Katherine M J; Fu, Tong-Jen; Salter, Robert; Dunaif, George; Estes, Susan; Albillos, Silvia; Gendel, Steven M
Food allergies affect an estimated 10 to 12 million people in the United States. Some of these individuals can develop life-threatening allergic reactions when exposed to allergenic proteins. At present, the only successful method to manage food allergies is to avoid foods containing allergens. Consumers with food allergies rely on food labels to disclose the presence of allergenic ingredients. However, undeclared allergens can be inadvertently introduced into a food via cross-contact during manufacturing. Although allergen removal through cleaning of shared equipment or processing lines has been identified as one of the critical points for effective allergen control, there is little published information on the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for removing allergenic materials from processing equipment. There also is no consensus on how to validate or verify the efficacy of cleaning procedures. The objectives of this review were (i) to study the incidence and cause of allergen cross-contact, (ii) to assess the science upon which the cleaning of food contact surfaces is based, (iii) to identify best practices for cleaning allergenic foods from food contact surfaces in wet and dry manufacturing environments, and (iv) to present best practices for validating and verifying the efficacy of allergen cleaning protocols.
Caballero, María Luisa; Umpierrez, Ana; Perez-Piñar, Teresa; Moneo, Ignacio; de Burgos, Carmen; Asturias, Juan A; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa
So far, the frequency of Anisakis simplex-specific IgE antibodies has been determined by skin prick tests (SPTs) and the ImmunoCAP system. These commercial methods have good sensitivity, but their specificity is poor because they use complete parasite extracts. Our aim was to determine the frequency of sensitization to A. simplex using recombinant Ani s 1, Ani s 3, Ani s 5, Ani s 9 and Ani s 10 and to evaluate these allergens for diagnosis, comparing their performance with the commercial methods. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional validation study performed in an allergy outpatient hospital clinic. Patients without fish-related allergy (tolerant patients, n = 99), and A. simplex-allergic patients (n = 35) were studied by SPTs, ImmunoCAP assays and detection of specific IgE to A. simplex recombinant allergens by dot blotting. SPTs and ImmunoCAP assays were positive in 18 and 17% of tolerant patients, respectively. All A. simplex-allergic patients had positive SPTs and ImmunoCAP assays. Specific IgE against at least one of the A. simplex recombinant allergens tested was detected in 15% of sera from tolerant patients and in 100% of sera from A. simplex-allergic patients. Detection of at least one A. simplex recombinant allergen by dot blotting and ImmunoCAP assay using complete extract showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% with both methods. However, the specificity of dot blotting with A. simplex recombinant allergens was higher compared with ImmunoCAP (84.85 vs. 82.83%). There are 15% of tolerant patients with specific IgE against important A. simplex allergens. The recombinant allergens studied here increase the specificity of A. simplex diagnosis while keeping the highest sensitivity. A. simplex recombinant allergens should be included with A. simplex allergy diagnostic tests to improve their specificity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed
Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to customers, and the negative impact on business that might result from exposure to trace amounts of food allergen present during cross-contamination during production. This has resulted in near ubiquitous utilisation of a multitude of different precautionary allergen labels with subsequent confusion amongst many consumers as to their significance. The global nature of food production and manufacturing makes harmonisation of allergen labelling regulations across the world a matter of increasing importance. Addressing inconsistencies across countries with regards to labelling legislation, as well as improvement or even banning of precautionary allergy labelling are both likely to be significant steps forward in improved food safety for allergic families. This article outlines the current status of allergen labelling legislation around the world and reviews the value of current existing precautionary allergen labelling for the allergic consumer. We strongly urge for an international framework to be considered to help roadmap a solution to the weaknesses of the current systems, and discuss the role of legislation in facilitating this. PMID:24791183
Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.
Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573
Allen, Katrina J; Turner, Paul J; Pawankar, Ruby; Taylor, Stephen; Sicherer, Scott; Lack, Gideon; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary; Mills, E N Clare; Beyer, Kirsten; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to customers, and the negative impact on business that might result from exposure to trace amounts of food allergen present during cross-contamination during production. This has resulted in near ubiquitous utilisation of a multitude of different precautionary allergen labels with subsequent confusion amongst many consumers as to their significance. The global nature of food production and manufacturing makes harmonisation of allergen labelling regulations across the world a matter of increasing importance. Addressing inconsistencies across countries with regards to labelling legislation, as well as improvement or even banning of precautionary allergy labelling are both likely to be significant steps forward in improved food safety for allergic families. This article outlines the current status of allergen labelling legislation around the world and reviews the value of current existing precautionary allergen labelling for the allergic consumer. We strongly urge for an international framework to be considered to help roadmap a solution to the weaknesses of the current systems, and discuss the role of legislation in facilitating this.
Birmingham, Neil; Thanesvorakul, Sirinart; Gangur, Venu
Food allergies affect 6 to 8% of children and 2% of adults in the United States. For reasons that are not clear, eight types of food account for a vast majority (approximately 90%) of food-induced hypersensitivity reactions. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were used to test the hypothesis that commonly allergenic foods are intrinsically more immunogenic than rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods in allergy-susceptible hosts. Groups of mice (n = 4 to 5) were injected intraperitoneally with the protein extracts (plus alum as an adjuvant) from chicken eggs, peanuts, almonds, filberts-hazelnuts, walnuts, soybeans, and wheat (commonly allergenic foods) and coffee, sweet potatoes, carrots, white potatoes, cherries, lettuce, and spinach (rarely allergenic and nonallergenic foods). Primary and secondary immune responses (as measured by specific IgG1 antibody serum levels) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteins from peanuts, almonds, filberts, sweet potatoes, cherries, and spinach elicited robust primary and/or secondary immune responses. Proteins from eggs, walnuts, and lettuce elicited poor primary responses but significant secondary responses. In contrast, wheat, soybeans, coffee, carrots, and white potatoes elicited barely detectable to poor primary and secondary immune responses. The order of the immunogenicity levels of these foods in mice is as follows: almonds = filberts > spinach (Rubisco) > peanuts > or = sweet potatoes > cherries > lettuce > walnuts > chicken eggs > carrots > or = white potatoes > wheat = coffee = soybeans. In summary, these data demonstrate for the first time that: (i) foods vary widely with regard to their relative immunogenicity in allergy-susceptible hosts and (ii) intrinsic immunogenicity in mice does not distinguish commonly allergenic foods from rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods.
Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J; Sanchez, B A
The contributing role of glove powder in sensitization to natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins has been well documented in laboratory studies and through clinical evaluations. However, the quantitative relationship of the respiratory and topical exposures in the sensitization process remains unknown because the relative levels of protein on the glove powders in relation to the total levels of protein on NRL gloves have not been determined. In NRL allergens--Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 5, and Hev b 6.02--on randomly selected surgical and examination NRL gloves. We also examined the binding pattern of the four allergens to several glove powders that showed a different affinity to NRL proteins. The level of powder-bound protein was determined by the ELISA Inhibition Assay (ASTM D6499 standard method). Two cross-linked corn starch powders, one sample of cooking corn starch and one oat starch sample, were exposed to ammoniated (AL) or nonammoniated (NAL) raw NRL protein extracts. The levels of individual allergens were determined using the NRL allergen kit. In the NRL glove extracts we observed a wide range in the total allergen levels and a great diversity in the proportion of the four allergens. On the other hand, the evaluated starches had similar ratios of four individual allergens, regardless of the differences in their total allergen levels. The exposure of starches to NRL proteins with different allergen profiles did not affect the allergen ratio. All samples demonstrated a selective affinity for binding Hev b 1 and Hev b 5 allergens and a lesser affinity for the Hev b 6.02 allergen. Allergen Hev b 6.02 made up about 60% of the total allergen in the NAL extract, but only 12-30% of Hev b 6.02 was bound to starches. In contrast, there was only 3-7% of Hev b 1 allergen in the NAL extract, but powders had 35-45% of Hev b 1. These findings indicate that allergenic properties of NRL gloves and respective glove powders may be different.
Price, Dwan; Ackland, M Leigh; Suphioglu, Cenk
Peanuts are still one of the highest contributors to anaphylactic deaths after ingestion of a food allergen. At the molecular level, interactions between peanut allergens and the intestinal epithelium are largely unexplored. Previous findings by our research group demonstrated that the major peanut allergens, i.e., Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6, were able to cross the Caco-2 human cell culture model of the intestinal epithelium. This research broadened our investigation to identify the mechanisms by which the Caco-2 monolayers uptake peanut allergens, specifically by endocytosis. Here, we aim to increase our understanding of allergen-epithelial interactions and, more broadly, the pathway from allergen to allergy. The human Caco-2 cell culture model was exposed to peanut extract and a combination of confocal microscopy and inhibition studies were used to identify the endocytotic mechanisms of peanut allergens in intestinal epithelia. Our findings demonstrate that the peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 are transported through intestinal epithelia initially via early endosomes using multiple endocytotic mechanisms. From there, they are then transported to late endosomes and ultimately to lysosomes. These novel findings provide insight into the allergen-epithelial interactions of peanut allergens with the intestinal epithelium. Consequently, this opens the possibility of the use of these endocytotic pathways as targets for inhibitors in therapeutic development and preventative measures for peanut allergy in the future. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Filep, Stephanie; Block, Denise S; Smith, Bryan R E; King, Eva M; Commins, Scott; Kulis, Michael; Vickery, Brian P; Chapman, Martin D
Generic immunoassays for peanut cannot discriminate between allergen levels in peanut-derived food products or therapeutics. Clinical trials of oral immunotherapy (OIT) are strengthened by using standardized peanut preparations with defined doses of major allergens. This article describes measurement of Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 in peanut foods and in peanut flour extracts used for allergy diagnosis and OIT. Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 were used to compare allergen levels in peanut (n = 16) and tree nut (n = 16) butter, peanut flour (n = 11), oils (n = 8), extracts used for diagnosis and OIT (n = 5), and the National Institute for Standards and Technology Peanut Butter Standard Reference Material 2387. Roasted peanut butters contained 991 to 21,406 μg/g Ara h 1 and exceeded Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 levels by 2- to 4-fold. Similarly, National Institute for Standards and Technology Peanut Butter Standard Reference Material 2387 contained 11,275 μg/g Ara h 1, 2,522 μg/g Ara h 2, and 2,036 μg/g Ara h 6. In contrast, peanut flours contained 787 to 14,631 μg/g Ara h 2 and exceeded Ara h 1 levels by 2- to 20-fold. Flour extracts used for OIT contained 394 to 505 μg/mL Ara h 1, 1,187 to 5,270 μg/mL Ara h 2, and 1,104 to 8,092 μg/mL Ara h 6. In most cases specific peanut allergens were not detected in tree nut butters or peanut oils. The results show marked differences in specific peanut allergen profiles in peanut butter and flour and peanut preparations for clinical use. Roasting can increase Ara h 1 levels in peanut butter. Variability in allergen levels could affect the outcome of clinical trials of peanut OIT, especially with respect to Ara h 1. Specific allergen measurements will improve standardization and provide accurate dosing of peanut preparations that are being used for OIT. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Hassan, Mohamad Salah M; Tayeb, Moufag; Amir, Elamir Mahmoud; Wali, Akram Mohammad; Mohamed, Fawaz Sidig
This study determined the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to allergens in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh Area, based on data analysis of skin prick test results. Skin prick tests of 160 Saudi attended Al Nakheel Polyclinic between July, 2012 and April, 2013. Allergen extracts set was used to test them. Out 160 patients, 114 (71%) reacted to one or more allergens, who were 73 (64%) adults and 41(36 %) children. The majority of adults (17.8%) reacted to six allergens and children (19.5%) reacted to five ones. The most frequently reacting allergen was house dust mites followed by Candida albicans then Cladosporium spp. The maximum number of positive tests per patients was 13 in adults, compared to 10 in children. A significantly higher proportion of adults were reacting to house dust mites, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Sensitivity to allergens was common in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh area
Li, Yichen; Mattison, Christopher P
Food allergy negatively impacts quality of life and can be life-threatening. Cashew nuts can cause severe reactions in very small amounts, and they are included in a group of foods most commonly responsible for causing food allergy. Polyphenols and polyphenol rich juices have been demonstrated to complex with peanut allergens. Here, the interaction between cashew nut allergens and polyphenol rich juices is evaluated biochemically and immunologically. Various juices, including pomegranate (POM), blueberry (BB), and concord grape (CG) juices, were evaluated for polyphenol content and formation of polyphenol-cashew allergen complexes. Among the various juices studied, POM juice showed a greater capacity to form complexes with cashew proteins. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated a sharp increase in cashew protein extract particle size to around 3580 nm, and fewer cashew proteins were resolved by electrophoresis after treatment with POM juice. Immunoassays demonstrated reduced IgG and IgE binding to cashew allergens due to allergen precipitation by POM juice. These observations support the formation of complexes between polyphenol and cashew proteins that can prevent antibody recognition of cashew allergens through allergen precipitation. POM juice treatment of cashew extract effectively reduces antibody binding through allergen precipitation, and these findings could be applied to the development of less allergenic cashew nut products and oral immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Oka, K; Saito, F; Yasuhara, T; Sugimoto, A
Dendropanax trifidus Makino (family Araliaceae, syn. Gilibertia trifida Makino) has been reported as causing allergic contact dermatitis in Japan. To identify the major allergen, fractionated extracts of fresh leaves of Dendropanax trifidus were patch tested on 2 patients with hypersensitivity to the plant. Cis-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1, 16-diol (I), an analog of falcarinol, was identified as an active component. 18 normal control subjects were patch tested with the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I diluted to 0.05% in pet. 4 of them showed active sensitization to the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I. Our results suggest that I is the major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus and is a strong sensitizer. The results of patch testing on patients and control subjects with the leaves of Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. and Hedera helix L., which also belong to the Araliaceae family, and urushiol are also shown.
Crippa, Michela; Belleri, Luca; Mistrello, Gianni; Carsana, Teresina; Neri, Gloria; Alessio, Lorenzo
Since the 1980s, there has been increased use of latex gloves by health care workers and a concomitant increase of irritant and allergic reactions. The total protein content and the latex allergenic protein content in different types of medical gloves commonly used in our hospital were evaluated to acquire information useful for preventing latex allergy in our hospital personnel. The total protein content and the allergic latex protein contents were evaluated with Lowry modified method and RAST inhibition assay in samples and extracts of 29 different types of medical gloves. The highest concentrations of total proteins and allergenic latex proteins were found in examination powdered latex gloves and in surgical powdered latex gloves; a significant amount of latex proteins was found in some brands of nitrile gloves. The clear association between the total protein levels and the allergenic latex protein levels suggests that the gloves with highest total protein content have the greatest allergenic potential. Therefore, it is recommended that manufacturing companies should provide package inserts including the total protein contents and possibly allergenic latex protein levels. They should declare whether they have added latex to their nitrile glove formulation. RAST-inhibition assays directly on glove samples instead of glove extract seems to be a good reliable and faster alternative for the evaluation of the allergenic potential of latex gloves. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Gomes Câmara Camacho, Irene
This review aims to present in a simple manner the work performed in Portugal regarding the identification of the most prevalent aeroallergens in the country and the sensitization levels in Portuguese patients. Much of the data was summarized in tables and illustrated on maps, enabling the community of clinicians, researchers, and patient organizations to access the knowledge about the research performed. This study provides an overview about the distribution of aeroallergens in Portugal, signaling regions and critical periods of exposure of the sensitized population. The illustrated data can help the community of allergy specialists to view the temporal and spatial distribution of aeroallergens across the country. In addition, this information can guide clinicians to select the most appropriate allergens for allergy diagnostic testing, treatment, and allergen avoidance.
Harish Babu, Bheemanapalli N; Wilfred, Anthony; Venkatesh, Yeldur P
Although many allergens have been detected in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), their identity have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polyphenol oxidase (PPO), an important eggplant enzyme, acts as an allergen. The proteins of eggplant peel extract were separated on phenyl-Sepharose (PS), and analyzed by skin prick test (SPT), ELISA and IgE-immunoblotting; the components were analyzed for PPO activity, presence of protein-bound copper, and recognition by rabbit polyclonal anti-sweet potato PPO antiserum. LC-MS/MS and in silico analysis were employed to identify the separated allergens and prediction of IgE epitopes. Eggplant allergens were separated into 5 components (PS1-PS5), of which component PS2 exhibited high specific PPO activity. SPT and ELISA with PPO-rich pool (PS2) were positive in all 6 eggplant-allergic subjects; the 43, 64 and 71kDa proteins displayed strong IgE-binding ability. The 64 and 71kDa IgE-binding proteins show PPO activity, presence of copper, and recognition by anti-sweet potato PPO antiserum, clearly identifying them as PPOs; the 43kDa protein appears to be a degradation product of the 64 or 71kDa proteins based on enzymic activity and recognition by PPO antiserum. The 64kDa protein upon further resolution by SDS-PAGE displayed two components (identified as eggplant PPO1 and PPO4 by LC-MS/MS). Based on bioinformatics approaches, PPO4 has been identified as an allergen since it harbors an IgE epitope. This study clearly demonstrates that the 64 and 71kDa allergens in eggplant peel are PPOs based on enzymic activity and recognition by PPO antiserum; the 64kDa copper-containing protein is identified as one of the several eggplant allergens (Sola m PPO4). This is the first instance of polyphenol oxidase being identified as a new food allergen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina
Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.
Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina
Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309
Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram
Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020
Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Misnan, Rosmilah; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Abdullah, Noormalin; Murad, Shahnaz
Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa). In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin. PMID:26413512
Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Misnan, Rosmilah; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Abdullah, Noormalin; Murad, Shahnaz
To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18-150 kDa). In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.
Twaroch, Teresa E.; Curin, Mirela; Sterflinger, Katja; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf
Background The mould Alternaria alternata is an important source of respiratory allergens. A. alternata extracts show great variations regarding allergenic potency. The aim of this study was to generate antibody probes specific for important Alternaria allergens and to use them to study allergen expression, depending on different culture conditions, as well as to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. Methods Synthetic peptides from antigenic regions of A. alternata allergens (Alt a 1, Alt a 2, Alt a 3, Alt a 6 and Alt a 8) were used to raise highly specific rabbit antibodies. These antibodies and IgE from allergic patients were used to detect allergens by immunoblotting in extracts of 4 A. alternata strains grown under varying culturing conditions, in commercial skin-prick extracts and in closely (Cladosporium herbarum and Aureobasidium pullulans) or distantly related (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum) mould species. Results There was a wide variation of expression of the individual A. Alternata allergens, depending on the strain and culture conditions, but the antibody probes allowed us to distinguish strains and culture conditions with low and high allergen expression. In the commercial skin-prick solutions, varying levels of Alt a 1 were found, but no other allergens were detectable. Alt a 1 was identified as species-specific A. Alternata allergen, whereas Alt a 3, 6- and Alt a 8-cross-reactive antigens were found in C. herbarum and/or A. pullulans. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Peptide-specific antibodies are useful to analyze diagnostic and therapeutic mould extracts, to study the presence of A. Alternata allergens in biological samples and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. PMID:27780168
Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel
Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.
Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Zailatul, H M Y; Noormalin, A; Normilah, I
Crab is an important source of food allergen. Tropomyosin represents the main crab allergen and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between various species of crustaceans. Recently, other new crab allergens including arginine kinase have been identified. However, information on allergens of the local Portunidcrab is not available. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab) using the allergenomics approach. Raw and cooked extracts of the crab were prepared from the crab meat. Protein profile and IgE binding pattern were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 30 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens of the crab were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed approximately 20 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while cooked extract demonstrated fewer protein bands. The raw extract also demonstrated a higher number of IgE reactive bands than the cooked extract. A heat-resistant protein of 36 kDa has been identified as the major allergen in both raw and cooked extracts. In addition, a heat-sensitive protein of 41 kDa was also recognized as a major allergen in raw crab. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated about >100 distinct proteins spots and immunoblotting of the 2-DE profile demonstrated at least 12 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses between 13 to 250 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. The 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as the crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively by mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study confirmed that tropomyosin and arginine kinase are the major allergens of the local Portunid crab, P. pelagicus.
Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia; Makrì, Eleni; Montagni, Marcello; Ciprandi, Giorgio
The introduction of new laboratory techniques to detect specific IgE antibodies against single allergen molecules rather than whole extracts represents a significant advance in allergy diagnostics. The advantages of such component-resolved diagnosis can be summarized as follows: (1) the ability to identify the truly responsible allergens in polysensitized patients, whether they be genuine (causing specific sensitization to their corresponding allergen source) or primary (the original sensitizing molecule); (2) distinguishing these allergens from simply cross-reactive components; (3) improving the appropriateness of the prescribed specific immunotherapy; and (4) identifying a risk profile for food allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis is performed using either a singleplex (1 assay per sample) platform or a multiplex (multiple assays per sample) platform. Using an immuno solid-phase allergen chip microarray that falls into the latter category--it currently tests sensitivity to 112 allergens--may lead to a pitfall: detecting IgE to unexpected allergens, such as Hymenoptera venom. In fact, testing insect venom sensitivity in individuals with no history of reactions to stings is contrary to current guidelines and presents the physician with the dilemma of how to manage this information; moreover, this may become a legal issue. Based on what is currently known about venom allergy, it remains likely that a positive sensitization test result will have no clinical significance, but the possibility of reacting to a future sting cannot be completely ruled out. Because this problem has not been previously encountered using the more common allergy tests, no indications are currently available on how to effectively manage these cases.
Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P
Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.
Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent
Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.
Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marléne
There are no data showing that disperse dyes, used to patch test patients, are currently being used for dyeing synthetic garments. It is unknown whether disperse dyes, which are currently routinely patch tested, are in fact present in synthetic textiles on the market. To determine whether eight disperse dyes, hitherto most widely cited as allergenic, are still used in textiles that are sold in various countries. Textiles from 13 countries in Europe, Asia and the United States were analysed. The procedure used for dye identification was thin-layer chromatography. When there were matching spots from the textile extract and reference dye, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Of 121 analysed items, three showed positive results for some of the investigated disperse dyes. Four dyes in these items could be detected and confirmed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. A pair of light brown ladies' tights manufactured and purchased in Italy contained Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Blue 124, and Disperse Blue 106, and a set of black bra and panties purchased in India contained Disperse Orange 1. The eight disperse dyes that are most frequently incriminated in textile dye dermatitis are very rarely used in textiles nowadays. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Yoder, Jay A
The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) has become popular as a pet and as an educational tool in classrooms, zoos, and museums. To determine whether proteins in G. portentosa are allergens and whether these allergens cross-react with those of other cockroach species. Sera from cockroach-sensitive individuals and control subjects were used to probe immunoblots for the presence of circulating IgE that bound to proteins present in extracts of 4 cockroach species. Serum from an individual sensitized to G portentosa had circulating IgE that bound to proteins in extracts of all 4 cockroach species. Eight of 15 Blatella germanica-sensitized patients had IgE that bound to proteins in extracts prepared from G portentosa. Rabbit antiserum to Periplaneta americana and to Bla g 1 also contained antibody that bound to proteins in G. portentosa extract, demonstrating antigenic cross-reactivity among these cockroach species. Allergists, teachers, parents, and patients should be aware that sensitization and allergic reactions to the Madagascar hissing cockroach can occur. Caution should be taken if these exotic cockroaches are used in educational exercises in schools, museums, and zoos to protect predisposed individuals.
Daigle, Barbara J.
Critical aspects of formulating allergy immunotherapy vaccines include the selection, total number, and proportions of each allergen component in therapeutic mixtures. The immunotherapy prescription, determined by a medical provider, details the dosing and schedule for treatment as well as the specific composition of the treatment vials. Allergen extracts are composed of many components such as proteins, glycoproteins, and proteases. Some components in allergen extracts are cross-reactive, meaning that treatment with an extract from one species may confer partial protection against a triggering allergen from another species. Conversely, some allergen extracts are incompatible with other extracts when combined in a mixture for treatment, resulting in lowered therapeutic potential for the patient. Therefore, knowledge of allergen extract cross-reactivities and incompatibilities guides the preparation of subcutaneous immunotherapy prescriptions. In a clinical setting, an understanding of what can and can not be mixed is one critical element in improving treatment outcomes. PMID:25860164
Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan
Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38) and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens.
Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan
Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38) and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens. PMID:24204835
Bassirpour, Gillian; Zoratti, Edward
Purpose of review To provide a summary and discussion of cockroach allergy and clinical trials of cockroach allergen immunotherapy. Recent findings Cockroach allergen exposure among sensitized children is increasingly recognized as a key factor contributing to asthma morbidity. Recent trials suggest that cockroach immunotherapy has promise as a treatment strategy with studies demonstrating immunomodulatory and clinical effects. However, a few obstacles need to be overcome to realize the full potential of this treatment modality as cockroach allergic patients often exhibit complex sensitization patterns to multiple cockroach-associated proteins and an immunodominant allergen has not been identified. These factors have made it difficult to produce standardized cockroach allergen extracts that are potent and provide the broad allergen profiles needed for optimal treatment. There have been important advances in the identification and cloning of cockroach allergens and several strategies are being developed to provide therapeutic cockroach allergen products with enhanced clinical efficacy. Summary Allergen immunotherapy has the capability of modulating the immune response to cockroach allergen and has potential as a valuable treatment modality. Further studies of the clinical efficacy along with the development of improved therapeutic products are needed to advance our knowledge and realize the full potential of this promising therapy. PMID:25144264
Bassirpour, Gillian; Zoratti, Edward
To provide a summary and discussion of cockroach allergy and clinical trials of cockroach allergen immunotherapy. Cockroach allergen exposure among sensitized children is increasingly recognized as a key factor contributing to asthma morbidity. Recent trials suggest that cockroach immunotherapy holds promise as a treatment strategy with studies demonstrating immunomodulatory and clinical effects. However, a few obstacles need to be overcome to realize the full potential of this treatment modality as cockroach-allergic patients often exhibit complex sensitization patterns to multiple cockroach-associated proteins, and an immunodominant allergen has not been identified. These factors have made it difficult to produce standardized cockroach allergen extracts that are potent and provide the broad allergen profiles needed for optimal treatment. There have been important advances in the identification and cloning of cockroach allergens, and several strategies are being developed to provide therapeutic cockroach allergen products with enhanced clinical efficacy. Allergen immunotherapy has the capability of modulating the immune response to cockroach allergen and has potential as a valuable treatment modality. Further studies of the clinical efficacy, along with the development of improved therapeutic products, are needed to advance our knowledge and realize the full potential of this promising therapy.
Bartra, J; Mullol, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Jáuregui, I; Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A
It is well known that the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades in the industrialized world. Exposure to environmental pollutants may partially account for this increased prevalence. In effect, air pollution is a growing public health problem. In Europe, the main source of air pollution due to particles in suspension is represented by motor vehicles--particularly those that use diesel fuel. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are composed of a carbon core upon which high-molecular weight organic chemical components and heavy metals deposit. Over 80% of all DEPs are in the ultrafine particle range (< 0.1 pm in diameter). Air pollutants not only have a direct or indirect effect upon the individual, but also exert important actions upon aeroallergens. Pollen in heavily polluted zones can express a larger amount of proteins described as being allergenic. Through physical contact with the pollen particles, DEPs can disrupt the former, leading to the release of paucimicronic particles and transporting them by air--thus facilitating their penetration of the human airways. Climate change in part gives rise to variations in the temperature pattern characterizing the different seasons of the year. Thus, plants may vary their pollination calendar, advancing and prolonging their pollination period. In addition, in the presence of high CO2 concentrations and temperatures, plants increase their pollen output. Climate change may also lead to the extinction of species, and to the consolidation of non-native species--with the subsequent risk of allergic sensitization among the exposed human population. In conclusion, there is sufficient scientific evidence on the effect of air pollution upon allergens, increasing exposure to the latter, their concentration and/or biological allergenic activity.
Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F
The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance.
Augustin, Steffen; Stock, Marion; Cromwell, Oliver; Nandy, Andreas; Reese, Gerald
Background The prevalence of sensitization to ragweed has risen in North America and across Europe. Although the pectate lyase Amb a 1, the major allergen of ragweed, was identified as long ago as the 1960s, little is known about the allergenicity of the 5 Amb a 1 isoallergens and other allergens present in ragweed pollen. Ragweed extracts and purified Amb a 1 isoallergens have now been characterized for their allergenic potential to determine whether a single Amb a 1 isoallergen, several isoallergens or a combination with other allergens should be included in a recombinant SIT vaccine. Methods Extracts from North American short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen were investigated by mass spectrometry (MS), 2D-PAGE and immunoblotting. Furthermore, Amb a 1 isoallergens were purified and IgE reactivity determined by immunoblotting and IgE inhibition. Results 2D-PAGE and MS of ragweed extract proved the presence of all 5 known Amb a 1 isoallergens, of which Amb a 1.01 represents the dominant form. Additionally all other ragweed allergens known by sequence (Amb a 3, Amb a 4, Amb a 5, Amb a 6, Amb a 8, Amb a 9, Amb a 10) were identified. The highest IgE reactivity by immunoblotting was observed for Amb a 1.01 followed by Amb a 1.03; other Amb a 1 isoallergens as well as other detected ragweed allergens showed only weak IgE reactivity. All isoallergens with the exception of Amb a 1.04, which is only of low abundance in ragweed extract, were purified. Similar to the immunoblot analysis with crude extract, the purified isoallergens Amb a 1.02 and Amb a 1.05 showed weak IgE binding, whereas Amb a 1.01 and Amb a 1.03 had high IgE reactivity. First IgE inhibition experiments suggest that Amb a 1.01 contains all relevant IgE epitopes. Conclusions Amb a 1.01 is the most abundant Amb a 1 isoallergen, and presumably the most important ragweed allergen. However, a larger panel of ragweed-allergic subjects has to be analyzed with regard to IgE and T cell reactivities, to be
Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi
The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luoto, Susanne; Lambert, Wietske; Blomqvist, Anna; Emanuelsson, Cecilia
Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2), and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible. PMID:18694503
Allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is frequently more severe than reaction to peanut ingestion, and food allergens are commonly resistant to digestive proteases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity of cashew proteins to proteolysis. Cashew protein extracts and purified c...
Cui, Yubao; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Guifang; Yang, Li; Wang, Yungang; Shi, Weihong
Crude extracts of house dust mites are used clinically for diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma, perennial rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. However, crude extracts are complexes with non-allergenic antigens and lack effective concentrations of important allergens, resulting in several side effects. Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes; Acari: Pyroglyphidae) is one of the predominant sources of dust mite allergens, which has more than 30 groups of allergen. The cDNA coding for the group 5 allergen of D. farinae from China was cloned, sequenced and expressed. According to alignment using the VECTOR NTI 9.0 software, there were eight mismatched nucleotides in five cDNA clones resulting in seven incompatible amino acid residues, suggesting that the Der f 5 allergen might have sequence polymorphism. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the matured Der f 5 allergen has a molecular mass of 13604.03 Da, a theoretical pI of 5.43 and is probably hydrophobic and cytoplasmic. Similarities in amino acid sequences between Der f 5 and allergens of other domestic mite species, viz. Der p 5, Blo t 5, Sui m 5, and Lep d 5, were 79, 48, 53, and 37%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Der f 5 and Der p 5 clustered together. Blo t 5 and Ale o 5 also clustered together, although Blomia tropicalis and Aleuroglyphus ovatus belong to different mite families, viz. Echimyopodidae and Acaridae, respectively.
Misnan, Rosmilah; Murad, Shahnaz; Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohd; Abdullah, Noormalin
Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as the major allergens in multiple species of crab. Charybdis feriatus is an important commercial crab in this country. To characterize the major allergens of C. feriatus using a proteomics approach and subsequently to identify the allergens involved in cross-reactivity with Portunus pelagicus. Raw and boiled extracts of the crabs were prepared from crab meat. The protein profile of the extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Major allergens were identified by the immunoblotting test using sera from 50 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens were further identified by 2-DE immunoblotting. The major allergenic spots were then excised, digested by trypsin and identified by mass spectrometry analysis. The immunoblotting inhibition test was performed to study the crossreactivity between red crab and blue crab allergens using sera from 20 patients with allergy to both red and blue crabs. At least 20 protein bands between 13 to 250 kDa were detected in the SDS-PAGE gel of raw extract, while boiled extract procuced fewer protein bands. Proteins of 36 kDa and 41 kDa were recognized as the major allergens of the crab. The major allergenic spot sequences of the 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively. All IgE-binding proteins, including both major allergens, were found to be cross-creative with P. pelagicus allergens. In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase was also identified as the major allergen of C. feriatus among our local crab-allergic patients. Cross-reactivity of this crab with P. pelagicus was demonstrated in this study.
Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J
Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).
Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai
Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei
We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.
Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami
Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Shinya; Koike, Soichi; Imamura, Tomoaki
Food allergy patients are known to present with allergic reactions to multiple allergens, but extrapolating these associations is difficult. Data mining, a procedure that analyzes characteristic combinations among large amounts of information, is often used to analyze and predict consumer purchasing behaviour. We applied this technique to the extrapolation of food allergen associations in allergy patients. We sent 1510 families our 'Questionnaire survey for the prevention of food allergies'. Responses noting 6549 allergens came from 878 families with 1383 patients, including 402 with anaphylaxis. Some results of the survey have already been published and here we presented the results of our association analysis of combinations of food allergens. Egg, milk, wheat, peanuts, and buckwheat are the most common food allergens. The most common simultaneous combinations of these allergens were 'egg-milk', 'egg-wheat', and 'milk-wheat'. The occurrence probability of a combination (i.e. one person suffering from a certain allergen also suffers from another) is called 'confidence'. Confidence was higher for 'chicken-egg', 'abalone-salmon eggs', and 'matsutake mushroom-milk'. As well, the combinations of 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', and 'squid-crab' also indicated higher values in a statistical examination of the occurrence probabilities of these allergen combinations (Z-score). From the results of the association analysis, we speculated that some food allergens, such as abalone, orange, salmon, chicken, pork, matsutake mushroom, peach and apple did not independently induce food allergies. We also found that combinations, such as 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', 'squid-crab', 'chicken-beef', and 'salmon-mackerel' had strong associations.
Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Houck, M A
A researcher experienced allergic symptoms while working with the astigmatid mite Hemisarcoptes cooremani cultured on scale insects. This mite is a predator of scale insects that often parasitize many perennial vascular plants in orchards, gardens, and ornamental nurseries worldwide; therefore, orchard and ornamental nursery workers and gardeners may be exposed to this mite. We investigated the possible allergenicity of H. cooremani and the cross-reactivity between it and other allergy-causing astigmatid mites. Serum from a subject who experienced allergic symptoms while working with H. cooremani was analyzed for IgE and IgG to proteins in an extract of this mite and of other astigmatid mites known to cause allergic reactions. The serum was used to probe proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE or precipitated by CIE using rabbit antiserum. In addition, the subject's serum was used to directly precipitate proteins in extracts of H. cooremani and other mite species. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of proteins in an H. cooremani extract showed the reference serum contained IgE directed at 16-kD and 19-kD proteins. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis reaction showed that the subject's serum contained antibody that precipitated a protein in an H. cooremani extract and that IgE bound to this protein. The proteins in an extract of H. cooremani did not precipitate when reacted with rabbit antisera against the dust mites D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and E. maynei, or the storage mites B. tropicalis, L. destructor, and T. putrescentiae. This indicated there was no cross-reactivity between H. cooremani and these mites. These results indicated that an extract of the mite H. cooremani contained at least two prominent IgE binding proteins that were not present in the other astigmatid mites. Thus, H. cooremani is the source of unique allergenic proteins and allergy to this mite may develop in orchard and ornamental nursery workers and gardeners.
Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G
Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.
Krause, Susanne; Latendorf, Ties; Schmidt, Hendrik; Darcan-Nicolaisen, Yasemin; Reese, Gerald; Petersen, Arnd; Janssen, Ottmar; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard
Peanut allergy is a major cause of food-induced severe anaphylactic reactions. To date, no medical care is available to prevent and treat peanut allergy and therefore hypoallergenic peanut varieties are of considerable health political and economic interest. Major allergens that induce IgE-responses in peanut-sensitive patients are Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3/4. In order to identify hypoallergenic peanuts, commercially locally available peanut varieties were screened for their allergen content. Ara h 1-deficient peanuts from Southeast Asia were identified by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, inhibition assays and ELISA. 2-D PAGE analyses demonstrated the different compositions of the tested extracts and revealed a number of variations of the allergen patterns of peanuts from different varieties. Mediator release experiments of these peanut extracts demonstrated similar allergenicities as compared with standard peanut extract. These results indicate that the allergenicity of peanuts with reduced Ara h 1 content might be compensated by the other allergens, and thus do not necessarily cause a reduction of allergenicity.
Dimitrov, Ivan; Naneva, Lyudmila; Doytchinova, Irini; Bangov, Ivan
Allergenicity, like antigenicity and immunogenicity, is a property encoded linearly and non-linearly, and therefore the alignment-based approaches are not able to identify this property unambiguously. A novel alignment-free descriptor-based fingerprint approach is presented here and applied to identify allergens and non-allergens. The approach was implemented into a four step algorithm. Initially, the protein sequences are described by amino acid principal properties as hydrophobicity, size, relative abundance, helix and β-strand forming propensities. Then, the generated strings of different length are converted into vectors with equal length by auto- and cross-covariance (ACC). The vectors were transformed into binary fingerprints and compared in terms of Tanimoto coefficient. The approach was applied to a set of 2427 known allergens and 2427 non-allergens and identified correctly 88% of them with Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.759. The descriptor fingerprint approach presented here is universal. It could be applied for any classification problem in computational biology. The set of E-descriptors is able to capture the main structural and physicochemical properties of amino acids building the proteins. The ACC transformation overcomes the main problem in the alignment-based comparative studies arising from the different length of the aligned protein sequences. The conversion of protein ACC values into binary descriptor fingerprints allows similarity search and classification. The algorithm described in the present study was implemented in a specially designed Web site, named AllergenFP (FP stands for FingerPrint). AllergenFP is written in Python, with GIU in HTML. It is freely accessible at http://ddg-pharmfac.net/Allergen FP. email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kang, B C; Wilson, M; Price, K H; Kambara, T
Antigens/allergens of three common cockroach extracts, crude whole body extract of the American cockroach (CRa-A), crude whole body extract of the German cockroach (CRa-G), and crude whole body extract of the Oriental cockroach (CRa-O), were studied with crossed immunoelectrophoresis, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and Western blot analysis. Sera of cockroach-allergic patients with asthma, 10 from Chicago, Ill. (C group) and six patients from Lexington, Ky. (L group), were used; results were then compared with sera of control subjects with asthma. Qualitative differences in protein bands were noted among CRa-A, CRa-G, and CRa-O by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allergen bands on Western blot were analyzed for distribution by molecular weight (MW) with relative intensity scores. Results were compared by species and by geography. Two to 12 allergenic bands of variable MW (14 kd to greater than 116 kd) were identified by 13 of 16 individual sera from cockroach-allergic patients from all three extracts. CRa-A demonstrated 55 bands with an intensity score of 125; CRa-G, 58 bands with an intensity score of 100; and CRa-O, 51 bands with an intensity score of 108. Allergenic bands of CRa-A were identified by six sera of the C group and one sera of the L group, whereas bands of both CRa-G and CRa-O were noted by nine sera of the C group and four sera of the L group. All three species had an allergen band in MW range of 40 to 45 kd that reacted to most sera from cockroach-allergic patients with asthma.
Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus
Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.
Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar
Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.
Chardin, Hélène; Peltre, Gabriel
Type I hypersensitivity reactions are in constant progression in industrialized countries. The physiopathologic mechanism of these diseases implicates the production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E to allergenic molecules, their binding to the Fcepsilon receptor on the surface of mast cells and basophils, and the release of inflammatory mediators when allergens are introduced into the body and crosslink with the IgE bound to the cell surface. An allergen is defined as a molecule that induces the production of, and binds to, IgE. The identification of the allergenic molecules is an important goal to improve diagnosis and treatment of allergy. This characterization aims to extract proteins from the allergenic source, to analyze IgE specificity by immunoblotting and to identify the proteins that bind IgE.
Orta, J C; Navarro, A M; Bartolomé, B; Delgado, J; Martínez, J; Sánchez, M C; Martínez, A; Valverdú, A; Conde, J; Palacios, R
Tetranychus urticae is a macroscopic mite known as "red spider mite". It is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous mite which parasitizes both fruit trees and herbaceous plants, particularly in greenhouses. Contribution of T. urticae to occupational asthma among greenhouse workers has been studied to identify and describe the main T. urticae allergens. In this study we described and compared the physiochemical characteristics of the main. T. urticae allergens from three different sources, carnation, cucumber and vegetable marrow. Forty-two green-house workers with occupational T. urticae allergy were included. Extracts were prepared from mite bodies collected from the three different sources; skin prick tests, specific IgE, SDS-PAGE and SDS-PAGE immunoblotting were carried out with the three T. urticae extracts. Cross-reactivity was measured by RAST inhibition. These assays were done with each of the three extracts in solid and fluid phases. All patients showed a positive prick test to T. urticae extracts from carnation, 39 (93%) to those from cucumber, and 34 (81%) to those from vegetable marrow. Specific IgE was positive in 80% of patient sera from T. urticae extract from carnation, 58% and 63% in that from cucumber and vegetable marrow, respectively. SDS-PAGE immunoblotting of the extracts showed coincident and relevant allergens. The similar curve obtained by RAST inhibition assays revealed the high epitope similarity from the three extracts. In conclusion, T. urticae extracts from parasitic carnation, cucumber and vegetable marrow cultures showed a high epitope similarity with three relevant allergens with molecular mass of 25, 19 and 15 to 17 kDa.
Tiwari, Ruby; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B
Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.
Hawthorne, Steven B; Miller, David J
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from eight manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils from sites that had been abandoned for several decades. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure carbon dioxide demonstrated the presence of BTEX compounds that were highly sequestered in both coal gas and oil gas MGP soils and soots. Benzene was generally the slowest compound to extract from all samples and was even more difficult to extract than most two- to five-ring PAHs found on the same samples. Since the solubility of benzene in carbon dioxide is 2-5 orders of magnitude higher than the solubilities of PAHs, these results demonstrate that benzene was more tightly sequestered than toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, or the multi-ring PAHs. Additional evidence for very tight binding was based on the fact that BTEX concentrations determined using either SFE or with methylene chloride sonication were much higher than those obtained by the U.S. EPA purge-and-trap method, especially for benzene (whose concentration was underestimated by as much as 1000-fold by the EPA method). However, soil/water desorption showed little benzene mobility, and Kd values for benzene were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated based on literature sorption K(OC) values. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of benzene may be better represented by mild extraction methods than by methods capable of extracting tightly bound benzene.
Moreno, F Javier
This paper reviews the in vitro digestion models developed to assess the stability digestion of food allergens, as well as the factors derived from the methodology and food structure that may affect the assay results. The adequacy of using the digestion stability of food allergens as a criterion for assessing potential allergenicity is also discussed. Data based on the traditional pepsin digestibility test in simulated gastric fluid are discussed in detail, with special attention to the influence of the pH and pepsin: allergen ratio in the pepsinolysis rate. This review points out the importance of using physiologically relevant in vitro digestion systems for evaluating digestibility of allergens. This would imply the sequential use of digestive enzymes in physiological concentrations, simulation of the stomach/small intestine environment (multi-phase models) with addition of surfactants such as phospholipids or bile salts, as well as the consideration of the gastrointestinal transit and the effect of the food matrices on the allergen digestion and subsequent absorption through the intestinal mucosa. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion protocols should be preferably combined with immunological assays in order to elucidate the role of large digestion-resistant fragments and the influence of the food matrix on the stimulation of the immune system.
Cucu, Tatiana; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; De Meulenaer, Bruno
Food allergy represents an important food safety issue because of the potential lethal effects; the only effective treatment is the complete removal of the allergen involved from the diet. However, due to the growing complexity of food formulations and food processing, foods may be unintentionally contaminated via allergen-containing ingredients or cross-contamination. This affects not only consumers' well-being but also food producers and competent authorities involved in inspecting and auditing food companies. To address these issues, the food industry and control agencies rely on available analytical methods to quantify the amount of a particular allergic commodity in a food and thus to decide upon its safety. However, no "gold standard methods" exist for the quantitative detection of food allergens. Nowadays mostly receptor-based methods and in particular commercial kits are used in routine analysis. However, upon evaluation of their performances, commercial assays proved often to be unreliable in processed foods, attributed to the chemical changes in proteins that affect the molecular recognition with the receptor used. Unfortunately, the analytical outcome of other methods, among which are chromatographic combined with mass spectrometric techniques as well as DNA-based methods, seem to be affected in a comparable way by food processing. Several strategies can be employed to improve the quantitative analysis of allergens in foods. Nevertheless, issues related to extractability and matrix effects remain a permanent challenge. In view of the presented results, it is clear that the food industry needs to continue to make extra efforts to provide accurate labeling and to reduce the contamination with allergens to an acceptable level through the use of allergen risk management on a company level, which needs to be supported inevitably by a tailor-validated extraction and detection method.
Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong
Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen-treated AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-)) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice as compared with WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR, and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of i.v.-injected GFP(+) MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared with WT. The AhR-mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium prepared from cockroach extract-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migration, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity.
Lee, Mey-Fann; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Lin, Shyh-Jye; Song, Pei-Pong
Cockroaches are important sources of indoor airborne allergens. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is the second leading inhalant allergen causing allergic airway diseases in Taiwan. We previously reported a difference in pathogenicity of different allergen components from American cockroaches. To analyze the environmental profile of American cockroach allergen components. Polyclonal antibodies were generated to recombinant American cockroach allergens, Per a 1 through Per a 10. The levels of each allergen in (1) whole-body extracts and feces from American cockroaches and in (2) fresh-frozen 6-month-old and 12-month-old dead American cockroaches were evaluated by immunoblotting and quantified. Levels of allergen components from patients' household dust samples were determined by competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Per a 1, 2, and 10 proteins were present predominantly in roach feces, whereas other allergen components were found predominantly in roach bodies. There was a time-dependent decrease in total levels of some allergen proteins. Although levels of Per a 4, 5, 6, and 9 significantly decreased to less 20% of the basal level, there was no significant change in levels of Per a 2, 7, and 10 after 1-year decomposition. The most abundant allergen components in 20 dust samples from patients' houses were Per a 9, Per a 10, and Per a 2. The concentration of 10 American cockroach allergen components differed in the environment. Per a 2 and Per a 10 can be used as markers of long-term environmental cockroach control and Per a 9 as current status of control in patients' houses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hongb, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon
The prevalence of allergic disorders has increased over the past few decades and the quality of life has been significantly influenced at least for the allergic subjects. Allergen avoidance is thought to be the best way of preventing clinical manifestation of the disease, however, it is not possible for some allergens, and other pharmacological and/or immunological treatment has to be made. Repetitive injection of sensitized allergens to the patients (immunotherapy) is the only known curative approach to the disease even though the exact mechanism is not clear to date. Crude extract of allergens has lots of shortcomings which might arouse unexpected results. Genetic engineering and recombinant allergens are thought to be one of the alternative ways to overcome these limitations. Genetic engineering could facilitate the investigation of immune responses of the subjects especially on B cell and T cell epitopes, and produce the therapeutic allergens which might minimize the possible side effects. Furthermore, conjugation of immuno-modulatory molecules such as CpG-ODN, cytokines, or toxins which could act specifically to the given allergens, and maleylation of the allergens could maximize the prophylactic or therapeutic effect. Immunotherapies for the pollen allergy and insect sting allergy have been thought to be successful. House dust mite allergy and cockroach allergy have been reported less beneficial by immunotherapeutic approaches. Cockroaches are one of the most important causes of asthma, and severe complications are often reported in the children in city dwellers with low-incomes. The studies of the biological functions of cockroach allergens and the use of recombinant allergens should allow understanding of mechanisms of cockroach-elicited allergic disorders and development of allergen-specific and sensitive diagnostics and tailored therapeutic approaches in the future.
To develop and justify a Risk Evaluation Matrix for estimating the safety risk associated with extractables from plastic materials used in pharmaceutical applications and to apply that matrix to approximately 510 extractables to assess the risk that they would accumulate in drug products at levels sufficiently high to affect patient safety. The Risk Evaluation Matrix considers toxicological, availability and solubility characteristics of extractables. Safety Risk categories were established based on certain scaled values for these characteristics, Total Risk Scores were calculated for each extractable and the extractables were categorized with respect to their safety risk based on these calculations. The Total Risk Scores were normally distributed around a value of 20 to 23, corresponding to safety risk categories of moderate and intermediate risk. The range in Risk Scores defined by the mean ± one standard deviation encompassed the entire region of moderate and intermediate risk. Approximately 15% of the extractables were categorized as lowest risk while 3% of the extractables were categorized as highest risk. Categorization of extractables could facilitate the selection of materials for use in pharmaceutical systems, the analytical testing of extracts and the selection of target extractables.
Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele
Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.
Tarver, Matthew R.; Florane, Christopher B.; Grimm, Casey C.; Pakala, Suman B.; Cottone, Carrie B.; Riegel, Claudia; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Slater, Jay E.
Cockroach allergens can lead to serious allergy and asthma symptoms. Termites are evolutionarily related to cockroaches, cohabitate in human dwellings, and represent an increasing pest problem in the United States. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is one of the most common species in the southern United States. Several assays were used to determine if C. formosanus termite proteins cross-react with cockroach allergens. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results were searched for homology to cockroach allergens using BLAST 2.2.21 software. Whole termite extracts were analyzed by mass-spectrometry, immunoassay with IgG and scFv antibodies to cockroach allergens, and human IgE from serum samples of cockroach allergic patients. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results indicate greater than 60% similarity between predicted termite proteins and German and American cockroach allergens, including Bla g 2/Per a 2, Bla g 3/Per a 3, Bla g 5, Bla g 6/Per a 6, Bla g 7/Per a 7, Bla g 8, Per a 9, and Per a 10. Peptides from whole termite extract were matched to those of the tropomyosin (Bla g 7), arginine kinase (Per a 9), and myosin (Bla g 8) cockroach allergens by mass-spectrometry. Immunoblot and ELISA testing revealed cross-reaction between several proteins with IgG and IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens. Several termite proteins, including the hemocyanin and tropomyosin orthologs of Blag 3 and Bla g 7, were shown to crossreact with cockroach allergens. This work presents support for the hypothesis that termite proteins may act as allergens and the findings could be applied to future allergen characterization, epitope analysis, and clinical studies. PMID:28767688
Mattison, Christopher P; Khurana, Taruna; Tarver, Matthew R; Florane, Christopher B; Grimm, Casey C; Pakala, Suman B; Cottone, Carrie B; Riegel, Claudia; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Slater, Jay E
Cockroach allergens can lead to serious allergy and asthma symptoms. Termites are evolutionarily related to cockroaches, cohabitate in human dwellings, and represent an increasing pest problem in the United States. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is one of the most common species in the southern United States. Several assays were used to determine if C. formosanus termite proteins cross-react with cockroach allergens. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results were searched for homology to cockroach allergens using BLAST 2.2.21 software. Whole termite extracts were analyzed by mass-spectrometry, immunoassay with IgG and scFv antibodies to cockroach allergens, and human IgE from serum samples of cockroach allergic patients. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results indicate greater than 60% similarity between predicted termite proteins and German and American cockroach allergens, including Bla g 2/Per a 2, Bla g 3/Per a 3, Bla g 5, Bla g 6/Per a 6, Bla g 7/Per a 7, Bla g 8, Per a 9, and Per a 10. Peptides from whole termite extract were matched to those of the tropomyosin (Bla g 7), arginine kinase (Per a 9), and myosin (Bla g 8) cockroach allergens by mass-spectrometry. Immunoblot and ELISA testing revealed cross-reaction between several proteins with IgG and IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens. Several termite proteins, including the hemocyanin and tropomyosin orthologs of Blag 3 and Bla g 7, were shown to crossreact with cockroach allergens. This work presents support for the hypothesis that termite proteins may act as allergens and the findings could be applied to future allergen characterization, epitope analysis, and clinical studies.
Llorente, Berta E; Obregón, Walter David; Avilés, Francesc X; Caffini, Néstor O; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) flower extract was assayed with the aim of replacing animal rennet in the manufacture of Gouda-type cheeses from bovine milk. Floral extract coagulated milk within a suitable time for use on an industrial scale, while the yield of cheese obtained was equal to that achieved with bovine abomasum. Five proteolytic fractions with milk-clotting activity were isolated in a two-step purification protocol, three belonging to the cardosin group. Cheeses made with C. scolymus proteases must be brined for a longer period (40 h) to prevent overproteolysis and avoid the development of a background flavor. The type of coagulant (bovine or vegetable) had no significant effect on the cheeses' chemical parameters analyzed throughout ripening, and no significant organoleptic differences were detected between those manufactured with C. scolymus or animal rennet. The results indicate that C. scolymus flower extract is suitable for replacing animal rennet in the production of Gouda-type cheeses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arilla, M C; Ibarrola, I; Eraso, E; Aguirre, M; Martínez, A; Asturias, J A
Grass pollen extracts currently used for allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy are a complex mixture of proteins of which only a few have allergenic activity. Lol p 1 is one of the most important allergens in grass pollen extracts. To develop a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of Lol p 1 and other group 1 allergens from grass species, and to assess its suitability for quantifying this group of allergens. Balb/c mice immunized with recombinant Lol p 1 were used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Screening of hybridomas was performed by direct ELISA, and selected monoclonal antibodies were immobilized on ELISA plates and incubated with samples containing group 1 allergens. Bound allergens were detected by a combination of biotinylated Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibody and peroxidase-streptavidin conjugate. The assay is based on three Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibodies with different epitope specificities. The optimized ELISA measured Lol p 1 concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000 ng/mL and could quantify group 1 allergen from grass species belonging to the Pooidea subfamily. The assay does not depend on anti-sera production or availability of human sera and thus reactives can be produced in unlimited amounts. This sensitive and specific Lol p 1 assay will be helpful both for quantifying the group 1 allergen content of Pooideae pollen extracts intended for clinical use and for studying cross-reactivities among pollen extracts.
It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting, and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and ...
Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen
Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed.
Parker, Christine H; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Ross, Mark M; Fu, Tong-Jen; Fan, Xuebin; Wu, Yan; Williams, Kristina M; DeVries, Jonathan; Pulvermacher, Brian; Bedford, Binaifer; Zhang, Xi; Jackson, Lauren S
Undeclared food allergens account for 30-40% of food recalls in the United States. Compliance with ingredient labeling regulations and the implementation of effective manufacturing allergen control plans require the use of reliable methods for allergen detection and quantitation in complex food products. The objectives of this work were to (1) produce industry-processed model foods incurred with egg, milk, and peanut allergens, (2) compare analytical method performance for allergen quantitation in thermally processed bakery products, and (3) determine the effects of thermal treatment on allergen detection. Control and allergen-incurred cereal bars and muffins were formulated in a pilot-scale industry processing facility. Quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut in incurred baked goods was compared at various processing stages using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a novel multi-allergen liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Thermal processing was determined to negatively affect the recovery and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut to different extents depending on the allergen, matrix, and analytical test method. The Morinaga ELISA and LC-MS/MS quantitative methods reported the highest recovery across all monitored allergens, whereas the ELISA Systems, Neogen BioKits, Neogen Veratox, and R-Biopharm ELISA Kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of industry-processed bakery products.
Tinghino, R; Barletta, B; Palumbo, S; Afferni, C; Iacovacci, P; Mari, A; Di Felice, G; Pini, C
Species belonging to the Cupressaceae family are a relevant source of allergens that are present in a wide number of countries. We sought to identify, purify, and characterize recombinant allergens from Juniperus oxycedrus, a species belonging to the Cupressaceae family. Double-stranded cDNA was synthesized from mRNA and cloned into the lambda-ZAP expression vector. IgE screening of the library was performed with a pool of sera from subjects allergic to Cupressaceae. A recombinant 6xHis-tagged Juniperus oxycedrus allergen, Jun o 2, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. It was studied further by immunoblotting inhibition with pollen extracts from other Cupressaceae, Oleaceae, Urticaceae, and Graminaceae. The role of protein-bound calcium on the allergen's IgE-binding capacity was tested in a plaque assay in the presence or absence of EGTA. A cDNA coding for a newly identified Juniperus oxycedrus pollen allergen, rJun o 2, was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence contained four typical Ca2+ binding sites and showed a significant sequence similarity to calmodulins. Depletion of Ca2+ in the plaque assay led to a loss of IgE-binding capacity of rJun o 2. Immunoblotting inhibition revealed that J. oxycedrus, J. ashei, Cupressus arizonica, C. sempervirens, Parietaria judaica, Olea europaea, and Lolium perenne pollen extracts were able to inhibit IgE binding to blotted rJun o 2 at different concentrations. rJun o 2 contains IgE-binding epitopes shared by taxonomically unrelated species, and therefore it can be regarded as a new panallergen. These findings could contribute to an explanation for the phenomenon of multiple positive test results in polysensitized patients and the potential symptom-eliciting role of allergenic sources previously not encountered.
Amo, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Blanco, Juan; Villota, Julian; Juste, Sonsoles; Moneo, Ignacio; Caballero, María Luisa
Only one allergen from the egg yolk, alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) has been described thus far. A new egg yolk allergen was detected studying 27 egg allergic patients. The study was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting and IgE-immunoblotting-inhibition assays. An egg yolk extract was fractioned by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the new allergen detected was characterized by N-terminal amino acid analysis. A total of 5 of the 27 patients (18%) detected a yolk allergen of an apparent molecular weight of 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Heating and reduction treatments did not affect its allergenicity, although digestion with simulated gastric fluid diminished the IgE-binding capacity of the allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence corresponded with the YGP42 protein, a fragment of the vitellogenin-1 precursor. Thus, a second egg yolk allergen has been described and designated Gal d 6 by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee.
Pomés, Anna; Arruda, Luisa Karla
Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy.
Pomés, Anna; Arruda, L. Karla
Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy. PMID:23916425
Ma, Dongying; Xu, Xuemei; Xu, Xueqing; He, Shaoheng; Lu, Jia; Lai, Ren
Due to poor diagnostic facilities and a lack of medical alertness, allergy to Vespa wasps may be underestimated. Few allergens have been identified from Vespa wasps. Possible native allergen proteins were purified from the wasp venoms (WV) (Vespa magnifica Smith) by gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, respectively. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests (ELISA-IT), immunoblots, and skin prick tests (SPTs). Their cross allergencities with Tab y 2 and Tab y 5 purified from the horsefly (Tabanus yao Macquart) were also determined. Two native allergens were identified from the WV, respectively. They are a 25-KDa antigen 5 protein (Ag5) (Vesp ma 5) and a 35-KDa hyaluronidase (Vesp ma 2). They represented major allergens in Vespa magnifica by immunoblots and SPTs. ELISA inhibition of pooled sera IgE reactivity to both the WV and the horsefly salivary gland extracts (HSGE) using four purified allergens (Vesp ma 2, Vesp ma 5 and previously purified Tab y 2 and Tab y 5) was significant. Their cross allergenicities were confirmed by ELISA-IT, immunoblots, and SPTs. They represented the cross reactive allergens from wasp and horsefly and proved the so called wasp-horsefly syndrome. PMID:22384100
Davies, Janet Mary; Li, Hongzhuo; Green, Melissa; Towers, Michelle; Upham, John Warrick
Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.
Luzar, Jernej; Molek, Peter; Šilar, Mira; Korošec, Peter; Košnik, Mitja; Štrukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca
Cat allergy is one of the most prevalent allergies worldwide and can lead to the development of rhinitis and asthma. Thus far, only allergen extracts from natural sources have been used for allergen-specific immunotherapy. However, extracts and whole allergens in immunotherapy present an anaphylaxis risk. Identification of allergen epitopes or mimotopes has an important role in development of safe and effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. Moreover, with a suitable immunogenic carrier, the absence of sufficient immune response elicited by short peptides could be surmounted. In this study, we identified five structural mimotopes of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 by immunoscreening with random peptide phage libraries. The mimotopes were computationally mapped to the allergen surface, and their IgE reactivity was confirmed using sera from cat-allergic patients. Importantly, the mimotopes showed no basophil activation of the corresponding cat-allergic patients, which makes them good candidates for the development of hypoallergenic vaccine. As bacteriophage particles are becoming increasingly recognized as immunogenic carriers, we constructed bacteriophage particles displaying multiple copies of each selected mimotope on major phage coat protein. These constructed phages elicited T cell-mediated immune response, which was predominated by the type 1 T cell response. Mimotopes alone contributed to the type 1 T cell response by promoting IL-2 production. Fel d 1 mimotopes, as well as their filamentous phage immunogenic carriers, represent promising candidates in the development of hypoallergenic vaccine against cat allergy.
Caballero, María Luisa; Moneo, Ignacio
Ingestion of raw or undercooked fish can lead to infection with Anisakis simplex. Sensitized patients show specific IgE to proteins from this parasite. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of specific IgE recognition directed to heat and/or pepsin-resistant allergens from A. simplex among sensitized patients. Twenty-seven patients with positive specific IgE and immunoblotting with a crude parasite extract were included in the study. Specific IgE detection against allergens resistant to boiling for 30 min and/or a pepsin digestion of an A. simplex extract was performed by immunoblotting. A total of 81% of the patients showed specific IgE to pepsin-resistant allergens and 67% had specific IgE to heat-resistant allergens. Thirty percent of patients recognized allergens after both treatments, one being the allergen detected by 75% of the patients of this group. Heat- and/or pepsin-resistant allergens from A. simplex could explain reactions and symptoms after the ingestion of well-cooked or canned fish.
Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat
Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; there are various regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers. In the present work a fast real-time PCR, by a LNA probe, was developed. This allows the detection of crustaceans in all kinds of products, including processed products in which very aggressive treatments of temperature and pressure during the manufacturing process are used. This methodology provides greater sensitivity and specificity and reduces the analysis time of real-time PCR to 40 min. This methodology was further validated by means of simulating products likely to contain this allergen. For this, products present on the market were spiked with crustacean cooking water. The assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food security to protect the allergic consumer.
Ghobrial, George; Naser, Saleh A; Sweeney, Michael; White, Roseann
Pollen of Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) represents a major cause of type I allergy in diverse geographical areas, particularly in the southeastern coastal plain area of the United States. The aqueous protein extract of Bahia grass pollen contains the allergenically active components that produce skin-test-positive reactions in sensitive patients. The emphasis of this study included the identification and characterization of the allergenic proteins present in the crude protein aqueous extract of Bahia grass pollen. The crude extract of Bahia grass pollen, partially purified by isoelectric focusing and fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), was electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, probed with sera from patients skin test positive to Bahia grass and detected using anti-human IgE conjugated peroxidase. Four allergenic proteins of Bahia grass pollen with estimated molecular weights of 45, 33, 31 and 28 kD were identified and characterized. Following treatments with deglycosylation enzymes, the 4 allergens retained their antigenic reactivity with Bahia-grass-allergic patient sera containing polyclonal IgE antibodies. The crude extract of Bahia grass pollen contains many proteins but only 4 have allergenic reactivity. Following deglycosylation treatment, Bahia grass allergenic proteins have retained their antigenic reactivity with Bahia-grass-allergic patient sera containing polyclonal IgE antibodies. Four proteins reactive with IgE were detected, but the 33-kD protein (pI of 6.59) was the most reactive. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...
Fasoli, Elisa; Pastorello, Elide A; Farioli, Laura; Scibilia, Joseph; Aldini, Giancarlo; Carini, Marina; Marocco, Adriano; Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio
Up to the present, only one major allergen had been univocally identified by chemical analysis (N-terminal sequencing) in the salt-extractable (cytoplasmic) protein fraction of maize kernels (Zea mays): the lipid transfer protein (Pastorello et al., Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2000;106:744-751). In the present study, two-dimensional maps of kernel flour have been set up, the proteins transferred to nitrocellulose membranes and confronted with sera of various patients allergic to maize proteins. Via spot excision and Orbitrap mass analysis, the following new allergens have been identified: vicilin, globulin-2, 50 kDa gamma-zein, endo-chitinase, thioredoxin and trypsin inhibitor. Vicilin was found to be composed of a string of six spots, all of them allergenic; also globulin-2 was composed of a string of five spots, exhibiting equivalent allergenicity. The 50 kDa gamma-zein, found here in the maize flour soluble fraction, is identical to the 50 kDa allergen reported by Pasini et al. (Allergy 2002; 57:98-106), but present in the insoluble fraction and solubilized via -S-S- reducing agents. However, the form here described might be a truncated species, since it exhibits an apparent Mr, in SDS-PAGE, of ca. 35 kDa. The homology of three of them (vicilin, globulin-2 and thioredoxin) with other vegetable systems has been investigated via BLAST analysis, the ones with highest homology belonging to rice, wheat and barley. The present data add a non-negligible amount of previously unreported allergens to the scanty panorama of maize proteins.
The increasing number of available data on allergenic proteins demanded the establishment of structured, freely accessible allergen databases. In this review article, features and applications of 6 of the most widely used allergen databases are discussed. The WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database is the official resource of allergen designations. Allergome is the most comprehensive collection of data on allergens and allergen sources. AllergenOnline is aimed at providing a peer-reviewed database of allergen sequences for prediction of allergenicity of proteins, such as those planned to be inserted into genetically modified crops. The Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP) provides a database of allergen sequences, structures, and epitopes linked to bioinformatics tools for sequence analysis and comparison. The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) is the largest repository of T-cell, B-cell, and major histocompatibility complex protein epitopes including epitopes of allergens. AllFam classifies allergens into families of evolutionarily related proteins using definitions from the Pfam protein family database. These databases contain mostly overlapping data, but also show differences in terms of their targeted users, the criteria for including allergens, data shown for each allergen, and the availability of bioinformatics tools. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lin, Yu-chih; Lin, Liang-Yi; Gao, Ming-Yi; Fang, Yi-Ping
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized as a promising drug delivery carrier due to the large surface area and porous characteristics. Our previous study successfully recycled wastes from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry as the silica precursor. In this study, we substantiated the possibility of applying this material as a drug carrier. MSNs synthesized from the extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels were characterized as having an average diameter of 100 nm, a surface area of 788 m2/g, a uniform pore size distribution of 3.8 nm, and a pore volume of up to 1.04 cm3/g. Methotrexate and camptothecin were entrapped in MSNs at about 33.88% and 75.12%, respectively. The cell viability assay demonstrated that MSNs at 1 μg/mL had no significant influence on human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells or ovarian cancer (ES-2) cells. A lactate dehydrogenase assay also indicated no inflammation occurred. Moreover, a hemolytic erythrocyte test indicated that the dose range of <100 μg/mL showed that 5% of erythrocytes were affected. After exposure to biofluids, the ordered structure was slightly degraded. The results revealed that MSNs synthesized from extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels had a good entrapment capacity for hydrophobic drugs and controllable safety conditions; they may be applied as a drug delivery carrier. PMID:24143088
Khezri, Seyed Mostafa; Shariat, Seyed Mahmood; Tabibian, Sahar
Almost 2555-4380 tons of paint sludge are produced annually in an auto-manufacturing plant; recycling and reproduction of beneficial materials such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and its application in paint production from paint sludge are evaluated in this article. The disposal of these sludge is environmentally important and is the main and most serious challenge for auto-manufacturing units. Today, these sludge are recognized as toxic wastes, whose disposal is much costly and constrained by environmental standards. Controlled disposal requires spaces, which are expensive and impermeable, because the sludge contains large amounts of hazardous materials such as heavy metals, solvents, and other materials polluting wells, springs, and other water resources. In this research, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy was carried out to determine the types of sludge combinations. Then, chemical digestion and centrifuge was used to extract TiO2, the extracted TiO2 reached 67.41% using these techniques. Next, a powder containing TiO2 in a certain percentage was used for paint production. Here, not only the amount of sludge decreased to as much as 70% but also the fresh paint required annually will be reduced by 21%. Furthermore, all heavy metals and toxic wastes will be removed as an environmental challenge.
Lin, Yu-Chih; Lin, Liang-Yi; Gao, Ming-Yi; Fang, Yi-Ping
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized as a promising drug delivery carrier due to the large surface area and porous characteristics. Our previous study successfully recycled wastes from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry as the silica precursor. In this study, we substantiated the possibility of applying this material as a drug carrier. MSNs synthesized from the extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels were characterized as having an average diameter of 100 nm, a surface area of 788 m(2)/g, a uniform pore size distribution of 3.8 nm, and a pore volume of up to 1.04 cm(3)/g. Methotrexate and camptothecin were entrapped in MSNs at about 33.88% and 75.12%, respectively. The cell viability assay demonstrated that MSNs at 1 μg/mL had no significant influence on human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells or ovarian cancer (ES-2) cells. A lactate dehydrogenase assay also indicated no inflammation occurred. Moreover, a hemolytic erythrocyte test indicated that the dose range of <100 μg/mL showed that 5% of erythrocytes were affected. After exposure to biofluids, the ordered structure was slightly degraded. The results revealed that MSNs synthesized from extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels had a good entrapment capacity for hydrophobic drugs and controllable safety conditions; they may be applied as a drug delivery carrier.
Mondoulet, L; Paty, E; Drumare, M F; Ah-Leung, S; Scheinmann, P; Willemot, R M; Wal, J M; Bernard, H
Peanuts are one of the most common and severe food allergens. Nevertheless, the occurrence of peanut allergy varies between countries and depends on both the exposure and the way peanuts are consumed. Processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thermal processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole peanut protein extracts and of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. Whole proteins, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2 were extracted and purified from raw, roasted and boiled peanuts using selective precipitation and multiple chromatographic steps, and were then characterized by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The immunoreactivity of whole peanut extracts and purified proteins was analyzed by the enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) and EAST inhibition using the sera of 37 peanut-allergic patients. The composition of the whole protein extracts was modified after heat processing, especially after boiling. The electrophoretic pattern showed protein bands of low molecular weight that were less marked in boiled than in raw and roasted peanuts. The same low-molecular-weight proteins were found in the cooking water of peanuts. Whole peanut protein extracts obtained after the different processes were all recognized by the IgE of the 37 patients. The IgE-binding capacity of the whole peanut protein extracts prepared from boiled peanuts was 2-fold lower than that of the extracts prepared from raw and roasted peanuts. No significant difference was observed between protein extracts from raw and roasted peanuts. It is noteworthy that the proteins present in the cooking water were also recognized by the IgE of peanut-allergic patients. IgE immunoreactivity of purified Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 prepared from roasted peanuts was higher than that of their counterparts prepared from raw and boiled peanuts. The IgE-binding capacity of purified Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 was altered by heat treatment and in particular was
Davies, J M
Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both
Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B
Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."
Mousavi, Fateme; Majd, Ahmad; Shahali, Youcef; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Pourpak, Zahra
Ailanthus altissima pollen (AAP) is considered as an emerging cause of respiratory allergy in United States, Italy and Iran. However, the allergenic composition of AAP is still unknown and has yet to be characterized. The present study aimed to identify AAP allergens using a proteomics-based approach. For this purpose, optimized AAP protein extracts were analyzed using 1D- and 2D- gel electrophoresis and confronted to twenty sera from individuals with respiratory allergy during the AAP season. Candidate allergens were detected using the serum from an allergic patient with clinical history of AAP pollinosis. IgE-binding spots were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and database searching. According to our results, AAP extracts were rich in proteins (up to 16.25mg/ml) with a molecular-weight distribution ranging from 10 to 175kDa. Two-D electrophoresis of AAP extracts revealed 125 protein spots from which 13 were IgE reactive. These IgE-binding proteins were identified as enolase, calreticulin, probable pectate lyase 6, conserved hypothetical protein and ras-related protein RHN1-like. By our knowledge, this study is the first report identifying AAP allergens. These findings will open up further avenues for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of the AAP allergy as well as for the cloning and molecular characterization of relevant allergens. Ailanthus altissima colonizes new areas every year in Iran and is spreading aggressively worldwide. According to USDA, the tree of heaven is now present as an invasive plant in 30 states in US (www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/treeheaven.shtml) and come to dominate large areas in many regions. Up to now, several cases of allergy to A. altissima pollen have been reported in United States, Italy and Iran [1-4]. However, there is still no information on the sensitizing allergens and the molecular origin of these clinical symptoms, which constitutes a serious threat to patients suffering from respiratory allergies in these
Cockcroft, Donald W; Hargreave, Fredrick E; O’Byrne, Paul M; Boulet, Louis-Philippe
The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic) airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation), advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma. PMID:17948142
Nelson, Harold S
The purpose is to review the published evidence for the use of multiallergen mixes in subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Data are drawn from published articles and reviews, including a recent complete search of the English and non-English literature for publications on multiallergen immunotherapy.The problems arising from dilution of extracts and degradation of extracts resulting from adding additional extracts to a mixture are confirmed. The published literature of the use of multiallergen extracts in subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy indicates that multiallergen extracts are effective when given by injection, but a similar efficacy has not been established for them when administered sublingually. Multiallergen extract mixes are probably effective for subcutaneous immunotherapy provided attention is paid to the concentration of each allergen in the mix and mixing of protease containing extracts with pollen and dander extracts is avoided. Further studies are needed to determine if multiallergen mixes are effective in sublingual immunotherapy.
Jeong, Kyoung Yong
Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330
Cromwell, Oliver; Häfner, Dietrich; Nandy, Andreas
Recombinant DNA technology provides the means for producing allergens that are equivalent to their natural counterparts and also genetically engineered variants with reduced IgE-binding activity. The proteins are produced as chemically defined molecules with consistent structural and immunologic properties. Several hundred allergens have been cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins, and these provide the means for making a very detailed diagnosis of a patient's sensitization profile. Clinical development programs are now in progress to assess the suitability of recombinant allergens for both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Recombinant hypoallergenic variants, which are developed with the aim of increasing the doses that can be administered while at the same time reducing the risks for therapy-associated side effects, are also in clinical trials for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Grass and birch pollen preparations have been shown to be clinically effective, and studies with various other allergens are in progress. Personalized or patient-tailored immunotherapy is still a very distant prospect, but the first recombinant products based on single allergens or defined mixtures could reach the market within the next 5 years. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bisht, Vandana; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Kumar, Raj; Arora, Naveen; Sridhara, Susheela
Epicoccum nigrum (EN) is an important fungal allergen for nasobronchial allergy. Fungal extracts should contain all the relevant allergen components from spores, mycelium and culture medium for the purpose of allergy diagnosis and therapy. EN extract from spore-mycelial mass has been standardized, but the culture filtrate (CF) allergens of EN have not been studied as EN grows poorly in synthetic medium. The objective of the present study was to obtain a standard CF extract of EN by cultivating the source material in a modified semi-synthetic medium and to compare this with the EN cellular extract. Sabouraud's medium containing yeast extract (50 mg/l) was filtered using 10-kDa cut-off membrane and the lower molecular mass media components were used to cultivate EN. The CF obtained after removing the spore-mycelia was dialyzed to remove media components. The CF extract was characterized by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. It was compared with EN spore-mycelial extract by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ELISA inhibition and by intradermal testing on allergy patients. The CF extract of EN resolved into 30 protein bands on SDS-PAGE. About 27 IgG bands were detected using anti-EN rabbit antibodies and 12 IgE bands by EN-sensitive pooled patients' sera. Periodate modification of CF proteins showed that the carbohydrate moieties are not important for IgE binding. Protein components of 26, 34 and 43 kDa were recognized as the major CF allergens. Three different batches of CF extract required 7.5-9 ng of self protein for 50% inhibition of binding to anti-EN rabbit antibodies in ELISA. Intradermal testing with CF extract showed comparable allergenic potency to standardized EN spore-mycelial extract, although it contained some allergenic proteins in higher amounts as compared to the spore-mycelial extract. In summary, the semi-synthetic medium has been suitably modified for obtaining EN CF antigens. This medium can
Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter
Natural latex gloves are the cause of a severe health problem to an increasing number of healthcare workers or patients due to the presence of protein allergens as Hevein or Rubber Elongation Factor (REF). One of the most challenging problems is the in situ localization of theses allergens in, e.g. gloves, to estimate the allergenic potential of the latex material. A sample preparation protocol applying a binary matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) matrix containing alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA) and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHB) on trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) etched latex glove surfaces allowed the direct determination (exact molecular weight) of Hevein, REF and a truncated form of REF (tREF) within nine different brands of natural latex gloves by means of MALDI-TOF-MS in the linear mode. MALDI mass spectrometry demonstrated that Hevein, tREF and REF were present on the inner surfaces (in direct contact with the skin) of many, but not all, investigated gloves without any prior extraction procedure. Additionally, different isoforms of the allergen Hevein were detected (exhibiting ragged C-termini). tREF and REF could always be detected beside each other, but were not observed on every latex glove sample, which contained Hevein. It was also demonstrated that there is a significant difference in terms of proteins and polymers between inner and outer surfaces of gloves, which helps to explain the different allergenic potential of these.MALDI imaging allowed for the first time the unambiguous localization of all three allergens in parallel and showed that Hevein was present on 36% of the investigated area of a latex glove with a certain localization, whereupon, tREF and REF were only found on 25% of the investigated material.
Zapolanski, Tamar; Maibach, Howard I
Patch testing is an important tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Although this technique can be accurate, occasionally the results may be inconclusive. A previously positive result to an allergen may become negative upon repeat testing, and this may complicate the process of achieving a definitive diagnosis. There are some potential explanations for such inconsistencies, including the Excited Skin Syndrome, irritant reactions, a need to repeat the diagnostic algorithm, "rogue" reactions, and "contact allergy." These explanations should be taken into account when interpreting these results. However, further knowledge is needed to solve the mystery of an allergen that subsequently disappears.
Mani, Blessy Maruthukunnel; Huerta-Ocampo, Jose Angel; Garcia-Sanchez, Jose Ruben; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Teran, Luis M
Ligustrum spp. are members of the Oleaceae family, one of the most prominent allergic families worldwide. The genus Ligustrum contains approximately fifty species, including Ligustrum lucidum, which have been widely cultivated as ornamental plants, and its pollen is a source of inhalant allergens associated with respiratory allergic diseases. Little is known about the presence of allergenic proteins in L. lucidum. The L. lucidum pollen proteins were extracted by a modified phenolic extraction method. A pool of four sera from mono sensitive patients was analyzed by 2DE immunoblotting and mass spectrometric analysis was performed on 6 immunoreactive protein spots. SDS-PAGE of L. lucidum pollen extract revealed proteins in ranges of 15-150 kDa. The 2DE gel profile of the L. lucidum pollen protein extract showed approximately 180 spots, and the 2DE immunoblots obtained using sera from Ligustrum monosensitive patients as the source of IgE antibodies revealed six allergen protein spots, corresponding to Profilin, Enolase, Fra e 9.01 (β-1,3-glucanase), Pollen-specific Polygalacturonases, Alanine aminotransferase, and two ATP synthase beta subunits. We report for the first time the identification of IgE-reactive proteins from L. lucidum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parmiani, S; Fernández Távora, L; Moreno, C; Guardia, P; Rico, P
Injective immunotherapy is traditionally performed with a build-up phase lasting 3 to 4 months. The costs, decreasing compliance from both patients and clinicians and inconveniences due to this schedule may be overcome using different schedules. A revision of the published papers with clustered schedules has been made. Attention has been focussed on tolerance and its relationships with relevant parameters such as kind of extract (aqueous or depot), allergens and their pharmaceutical presentation, schedule followed, use or not of a premedication, clinical manifestations of patients before treatment. For a better revision, papers dealing with clustered schedules have been divided into two groups. The first group includes 20 papers not designed to study the clustered schedule but using it to study other parameters affected by specific immunotherapy. The second group includes 9 papers specifically or mainly designed to study the clustered schedule. A huge difference in the rate of side effects could be assessed among different papers, even in studies run with similar allergens from the same producer and with a similar schedule. Summarizing the results of the revision, the following conditions seem to lead to the optimal tolerance of the clustered schedule: use of a premedication; use of a depot preparation; use of no more than 4 administrations per cluster; administration of 1-2 clusters per week and of 4 to 6 clusters in total. These results seem promising but further efforts are required to better define the optimal clustered schedule.
Viswanathan, Ravi K.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263
Hsieh, L S; Moos, M; Lin, Y
Patients with tree pollinosis frequently report allergic reactions after ingestion of apples. The severity of apple allergy has been related to the variety of apples and their degree of maturity. To generate a serum pool that is representative of various IgE-binding patterns of apple-allergic sera, serum samples from 34 patients allergic to tree pollens were screened. Only 24 serum samples reacted to the apple extract. Pooled serum was used to identify allergens in apples. An efficient and consistent extraction method for apple fruits was used to compare the immunoreactivities of extracts of different varieties (McIntosh, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Golden Delicious) of freshly picked and store-purchased apples. We found that Golden Delicious apples had the greatest amount of the 18 kd allergen, which has been reported to be a potent IgE-binding apple allergen. Store-purchased apples contained higher concentrations of the 18 kd allergen than freshly picked apples. In our study only 37.5% of sera reacted to the 18 kd protein, whereas 75% of the sera reacted to a 31 kd allergen. Other immunoreactive bands in apple extracts included proteins of 50, 38, 16, 14, and 13 kd. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major allergens, 18 kd and 31 kd, were determined. These sequences shared approximately 50% identity with disease resistance proteins of various plants or Bet v 1 in birch tree pollens. The appearance of various allergens was also investigated in mature apples during storage. The amount of 18 kd allergen increased significantly when apples were stored at 4 degrees C. However, under controlled atmospheric conditions in which oxygen- and carbon dioxide-induced ripening were regulated, the amount of 18 kd allergen remained unaffected. Because ripening and maturation were not associated with increases in 18 kd allergen content, the observed changes might be induced by factors related to disease resistance.
Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Ferreira, M B; Santos, A S; Santos, M C; Pedro, E
Nasal allergen challenges, despite not reproducing exactly natural allergen exposure, are a very useful method to understand the complex cellular kinetics and cellular interactions that occur in allergic rhinitis. Cell-specific soluble mediator measurements can give useful diagnostic information. In this paper we present data concerning eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase measurements after nasal allergen challenge.
Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...
Hales, B J; Laing, I A; Pearce, L J; Hazell, L A; Mills, K L; Chua, K Y; Thornton, R B; Richmond, P; Musk, A W; James, A L; Lesouëf, P N; Thomas, W R
There is evidence that the specificity of the IgE binding in allergy tests can vary for different populations. We aimed to examine the allergenic specificity of IgE binding in sera from house dust mite (HDM)-atopic subjects in a tropical Australian Aboriginal community. Sera shown to contain IgE antibodies to an HDM extract of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined for IgE binding to a panel of nine purified HDM allergens from this mite species by quantitative microtitre assays. IgG antibody binding (IgG1 and IgG4) was also measured. The IgE-binding activity in the sera from the Aboriginal community was not directed to the expected major groups 1 and 2 HDM allergens but instead to the group 4 amylase allergen. There was also little IgE binding to the potentially cross-reactive tropomyosin (Der p 10) or arginine kinase (Der p 20) allergens. The IgG4 antibody was rarely detected and limited to the Der p 4 allergen. IgG1 antibody binding was frequently measured to all the allergens regardless of an individual's atopic status, whereas in urban communities it is restricted to the major allergens and to atopic subjects. The high IgE anti-HDM response of Australian Aboriginals predominantly bound Der p 4 and not the Der p 1 and 2 allergens, showing a distinctive allergy that could affect the disease outcome and diagnosis.
Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Patel, G; Lock, J; Rahman, D; Masita, A; Noormalin, A
Royal jelly is widely consumed in the community and has perceived benefits ranging from promoting growth in children and improvement of general health status to enhancement of longevity for the elderly. However, royal jelly consumption has been linked to contact dermatitis, acute asthma, anaphylaxis and death. High prevalence of positive skin tests to royal jelly have been reported among atopic populations in countries with a high rate of royal jelly consumption. The present study is aimed to identify the major allergens of royal jelly. Royal jelly extract was separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D). Immunoblotting of the SDS-PAGE and 2-D profiles were performed to identify the allergenic spots. Spots were then excised from the 2-D gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE of royal jelly extract revealed 18 bands between 10 to 167 kD. Western blot of the fractionated proteins detected 15 IgE-binding bands between 14 to 127 kD with seven major allergens of 32, 40, 42, 49, 55, 60 and 67 kD using serum from 53 subjects with royal jelly allergy. The 2-D gel fractionated the royal jelly proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Out of these, 30 spots demonstrated specific IgE affinity to the sera tested. Eight spots of the major royal jelly allergens were selected for mass-spectrometry analysis. Digested tryptic peptides of the spots were compared to the amino acid sequence search in protein databases which identified the fragments of royal jelly homologus to major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJ1) and major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJ2). In conclusion, the major allergens of royal jelly are MRJ1 and MRJ2 in our patients' population.
Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François
Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients. PMID:24795722
Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François
Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.
Faber, M A; Pascal, M; El Kharbouchi, O; Sabato, V; Hagendorens, M M; Decuyper, I I; Bridts, C H; Ebo, D G
IgE-mediated shellfish allergy constitutes an important cause of food-related adverse reactions. Shellfish are classified into mollusks and crustaceans, the latter belonging to the class of arthropoda. Among crustaceans, shrimps are the most predominant cause of allergic reactions and thus more extensively studied. Several major and minor allergens have been identified and cloned. Among them, invertebrate tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and hemocyanin are the most relevant. This review summarizes our current knowledge about these allergens.
Davies, Rosie F; Johnston, Graham A
Human skin is exposed to a large variety of cosmetic allergens. Most allergic contact dermatitis occurs after exposure to fragrance, preservatives, and hair dyes. Such reactions can often be occult. As a result, a high index of suspicion is needed in assessing the patient with facial or cosmetic dermatitis. This contribution looks at why such a large number of chemicals are in everyday usage, at how dermatologists monitor trends in allergy to cosmetics, and at a number of new and emerging allergens to consider in the assessment of suspected cosmetic allergy.
Sinha, Mau; Singh, Amar; Shokeen, Akshita; Sharma, Pradeep; Kaushik, Sanket; Mitra, Dipendra K; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P
Several plant-derived allergens have been identified which result in the formation of immunoglobulin E antibodies. Primarily, these allergens belong to the protein families including seed storage proteins, structural proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. Several allergens are also reported from flower bulbs which cause contact dermatitis. Such symptoms are highly common with the bulb growers handling different species of Narcissus. Narcissus toxicity is also reported if the bulbs are consumed accidentally. The present study aimed to characterize the protein from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta responsible for its allergenic response. A 13 kDa novel allergenic protein, Narcin was isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The protein was further purified by anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation. The allergenicity of the protein was measured by cytokine production using flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further estimation of total IgE was performed by ELISA method. This novel protein was found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus induce allergy by elevating total IgE level. The novel protein, Narcin isolated from Narcissus tazetta was found to exhibit allergenic properties. PMID:23936740
Sinha, Mau; Singh, Amar; Shokeen, Akshita; Sharma, Pradeep; Kaushik, Sanket; Mitra, Dipendra K; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P
Several plant-derived allergens have been identified which result in the formation of immunoglobulin E antibodies. Primarily, these allergens belong to the protein families including seed storage proteins, structural proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. Several allergens are also reported from flower bulbs which cause contact dermatitis. Such symptoms are highly common with the bulb growers handling different species of Narcissus. Narcissus toxicity is also reported if the bulbs are consumed accidentally. The present study aimed to characterize the protein from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta responsible for its allergenic response. A 13 kDa novel allergenic protein, Narcin was isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The protein was further purified by anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation. The allergenicity of the protein was measured by cytokine production using flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further estimation of total IgE was performed by ELISA method. This novel protein was found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus induce allergy by elevating total IgE level. The novel protein, Narcin isolated from Narcissus tazetta was found to exhibit allergenic properties.
Reyes Moreno, Arturo; Castrejón Vázquez, María Isabel; Miranda Feria, Alfonso Javier
The allergic asthma is the reversible chronic inflammatory process at the airways, secondary to exaggerate reply to the allergens exposition, its treatment includes: avoiding the exposure to allergens, pharmacology therapy and the specific immunotherapy with allergens (ITA), which is based on the growing dosages of the extract allergenic; the objectives are to modify the immune response and to improve the allergic disease. The ITA can fail due to causes attributable to the patient, vaccine-inherent causes and/or factors related to the allergic disease. To determine the main causes of specific immunotherapy with allergens' failure in our hospital. In the present study 126 records of patients with allergic asthma treated in the extern consultation service of the clinical immunology and allergy department of the CMN 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE, were reviewed from January 1996 to December 2001. It was found that specific immunotherapy with allergens, failed in 32 (23%) patients. Main causes of failure were: 1) withdrawal in the vaccine application in 19 (59%) patients; 2) high serum levels of IgE. The co-morbidities that contribute to poor responses to the treatment were: obesity, gastroesofageal reflux and chronic rhynosinusitis. Specific immunotherapy with allergens is an alternative method of allergic asthma's treatment which has been approved by national and international medical consensus. Main causes of failure in our hospital are the abandon of treatment and high serum levels of IgE, as well as the existence of other conditions.
Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal
Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients.
Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Tribouley, Catherine; Diamant, Zuzana; Boot, J. Diderik; Cohen, Adam F.; Van Dyck, K.; De Lepeleire, I.; Rivas, Veronica M.; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Ruddy, Marcella K.
Background Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measured in this study. Methods Thirteen non-smoking, allergic subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 2-period cross-over study following a single-blind placebo run-in period. Each period consisted of three consecutive days, separated by a wash-out period of at least 3 weeks. Subjects randomly received inhaled fluticasone ((FP) MDI; 500 mcg BID×5 doses in total) or placebo. On day 2, house dust mite extract was inhaled and airway response was measured by FEV1 at predefined time points until 7 h post-allergen. Sputum was induced by NaCl 4.5%, processed and analysed at 24 h pre-allergen and 7 and 24 h post-allergen. RNA was isolated from eligible sputum cell pellets (<80% squamous of 500 cells), amplified according to NuGEN technology, and profiled on Affymetrix arrays. Gene expression changes from baseline and fluticasone treatment effects were evaluated using a mixed effects ANCOVA model at 7 and at 24 h post-allergen challenge. Results Inhaled allergen-induced statistically significant gene expression changes in sputum, which were effectively blunted by fluticasone (adjusted p<0.025). Forty-seven RNA signatures were selected from these responses for correlation analyses and further validation. This included Th2 mRNA levels for cytokines, chemokines, high-affinity IgE receptor FCER1A, histamine receptor HRH4, and enzymes and receptors in the arachidonic pathway. Individual messengers from the 47 RNA signatures correlated significantly
Torres, José Alberto; de las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos
The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster. PMID:24993820
Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H
Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications.
Jappe, Uta; Schwager, Christian
The purpose of this review is to provide available data on a new class of allergens, the oleosins, and their diagnostic value. There is evidence that allergen extracts used for in vivo as well as in vitro diagnostic tests do not contain oleosins because these proteins are lipophilic and nearly insoluble in saline or aqueous solutions. So far, only oleosins of peanut, sesame and hazelnut have been registered as allergens. Reports on IgE-binding tests performed with oleosins of different species with sera from allergic patients show that IgE specific for oleosins are associated with severe allergic reactions which is why they should be part of the diagnostic tests in the future. Recent findings showed that oleosins purified from in shell-roasted peanuts revealed a higher IgE-binding capacity when compared to raw ones. Naturally purified as well as recombinantly produced peanut oleosins can be used in basophil activation test. The synopsis of all reports on different thermal processing of several oleosin sources and the respective data obtained with patients sera investigated via immunoblot and basophil activation test points to the recommendation that-if naturally purified oleosins are used, they should mostly be obtained from roasted food allergen sources. For immunoblot and basophil activation test, both, naturally purified oleosins as well as recombinant modified oleosins are valuable diagnostic tools.
Boldogh, Istvan; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Bacsi, Attila; Choudhury, Barun K; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Kruzel, Marian
Colostrinin (CLN), isolated from mothers' pre-milk fluid (colostrum), is a uniform mixture of low-molecular-weight, proline-rich polypeptides. CLN induces neurite outgrowth of pheochromocytoma cells, extends the lifespan of diploid fibroblast cells, inhibits beta-amyloid-induced apoptosis and improves cognitive functions when administered to Alzheimer's disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate potential allergic responses to CLN and its impact on allergic sensitization and inflammation caused by common allergens. We used a well-characterized mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Changes in IgE/IgG1 and mucin levels, airway eosinophilia and hyperreactivity to methacholine were determined by ELISA, differential cell counting and whole-body plethysmography, respectively. CLN did not increase IgE/IgG1 levels or induce cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction, airway inflammation and mucin production. Importantly, CLN significantly (p < 0.001) decreased IgE/IgG1 production, airway eosinophilia, mucin production and hypersensitivity induced by allergenic extracts from ragweed pollen grains and house dust mites. CLN itself is non-allergenic; however, it is effective in preventing allergic responses to known indoor and outdoor allergens. These data support the safe application of CLN and its potential use in the prevention of allergic inflammation in humans. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Batista, Rita; Nunes, Baltazar; Carmo, Manuela; Cardoso, Carlos; José, Helena São; de Almeida, António Bugalho; Manique, Alda; Bento, Leonor; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Oliveira, Maria Margarida
The safety issues regarding foods derived from genetically modified (GM) plants are central to their acceptance into the food supply. The potential allergenicity of proteins newly introduced in GM foods is a major safety concern. We sought to monitor, in potentially sensitive human populations, the allergenicity effects of 5 GM materials obtained from sources with no allergenic potential and already under commercialization in the European Union. We have performed skin prick tests with protein extracts prepared from transgenic maize (MON810, Bt11, T25, Bt176) and soya (Roundup Ready) samples and from nontransgenic control samples in 2 sensitive groups: children with food and inhalant allergy and individuals with asthma-rhinitis. We have also tested IgE immunoblot reactivity of sera from patients with food allergy to soya (Roundup Ready) and maize (MON810, Bt11, Bt176) samples, as well as to the pure transgenic proteins (CryIA[b] and CP4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase). None of the individuals undergoing tests reacted differentially to the transgenic and nontransgenic samples under study. None of the volunteers tested presented detectable IgE antibodies against pure transgenic proteins. The transgenic products under testing seem to be safe in terms of allergenic potential. We propose postmarket testing as an important screening strategy for putative allergic sensitization to proteins introduced in transgenic plants.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785
Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...
Oshima, Naohiro; Maruyama, Takuro; Yamashita, Tadatoshi; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Hyuga, Sumiko; Hyuga, Masashi; Nakamori, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Hanawa, Toshihiko; Goda, Yukihiro
As part of our continuing study of ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) in pursuit of its approval as a crude drug preparation, we identified two quantitative markers for the quality control of the manufacturing process of EFE and sought to establish cost-effective and simple methods for quantitative analyses. We analysed Ephedra Herb extracts grown in different habitats and collection years by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and detected two notable peaks common to each extract. These peaks were identified as vicenin-2 (1) and isovitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside (2). Quantitative analyses using the isocratic condition of LC/MS showed that the content percentages of 1 and 2 in EFE were 0.140-0.146% and 0.350-0.411%, respectively. We concluded that 1 and 2 were adequate quality control markers for quantitative analysis of EFE. Furthermore, we quantitatively analysed apigenin (3), an aglycon common to 1 and 2, and found that the conversion factors of 1 to 3 and 2 to 3 were 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that 3 was a secondary standard for quantifying the contents of 1 and 2 in EFE. A series of results obtained from this study will be valuable for the quality control of EFE.
Yano, H; Sugihara, Y; Shirai, H; Wagatsuma, Y; Kusada, O; Matsuda, T; Kuroda, S; Higaki, S
Phthalocyanine (Pc)-dyed fiber is reported to reduce atopic symptoms in some patients when they use underwear made of the fiber. We investigated the adsorption of allergens on Pc-fiber. Pc-fiber trapped house dust/pollen/food allergens with varied molecular weight and pI. The adsorbed allergens were released in the presence of mild detergent. Pc-fiber did not change the molecular weight or disulfide bonding of the allergens. These observations imply that Pc-fiber is applicable as an "allergen trap" for a wide variety of products.
Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ferreira, Fatima
Purified allergens are named using the systematic nomenclature of the Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee of the World Health Organization and International Union of Immunological Societies. The system uses abbreviated Linnean genus and species names and an Arabic number to indicate the chronology of allergen purification. Most major allergens from mites, animal dander, pollens, insects, and foods have been cloned, and more than 40 three-dimensional allergen structures are in the Protein Database. Allergens are derived from proteins with a variety of biologic functions, including proteases, ligand-binding proteins, structural proteins, pathogenesis-related proteins, lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and calcium-binding proteins. Biologic function, such as the proteolytic enzyme allergens of dust mites, might directly influence the development of IgE responses and might initiate inflammatory responses in the lung that are associated with asthma. Intrinsic structural or biologic properties might also influence the extent to which allergens persist in indoor and outdoor environments or retain their allergenicity in the digestive tract. Analyses of the protein family database suggest that the universe of allergens comprises more than 120 distinct protein families. Structural biology and proteomics define recombinant allergen targets for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and identify motifs, patterns, and structures of immunologic significance.
Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe
Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.
Vasilescu, Alina; Nunes, Gilvanda; Hayat, Akhtar; Latif, Usman; Marty, Jean-Louis
Food allergens are proteins from nuts and tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy, eggs or milk which trigger severe adverse reactions in the human body, involving IgE-type antibodies. Sensitive detection of allergens in a large variety of food matrices has become increasingly important considering the emergence of functional foods and new food manufacturing technologies. For example, proteins such as casein from milk or lysozyme and ovalbumin from eggs are sometimes used as fining agents in the wine industry. Nonetheless, allergen detection in processed foods is a challenging endeavor, as allergen proteins are degraded during food processing steps involving heating or fermentation. Detection of food allergens was primarily achieved via Enzyme-Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA) or by chromatographic methods. With the advent of biosensors, electrochemical affinity-based biosensors such as those incorporating antibodies and aptamers as biorecognition elements were also reported in the literature. In this review paper, we highlight the success achieved in the design of electrochemical affinity biosensors based on disposable screen-printed electrodes towards detection of protein allergens. We will discuss the analytical figures of merit for various disposable screen-printed affinity sensors in relation to methodologies employed for immobilization of bioreceptors on transducer surface. PMID:27827963
Schubert-Ullrich, Patricia; Rudolf, Judith; Ansari, Parisa; Galler, Brigitte; Führer, Manuela; Molinelli, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Sabine
Food allergies have become an important health issue especially in industrialized countries. Undeclared allergenic ingredients or the presence of "hidden" allergens because of contamination during the food production process pose great health risks to sensitised individuals. The EU directive for food labelling lists allergenic foods that have to be declared on food products by the manufacturers. The list includes gluten-containing cereals, crustaceans, eggs, fish, peanuts, soybeans, milk, various nuts (e.g. almond, hazelnut, and walnut, etc.), celery, mustard, sesame seeds, lupin, and molluscs. Reliable methods for detection and quantification of food allergens are needed that can be applied in a fast and easy-to-use manner, are portable, and need only limited technical equipment. This review focuses on the latest developments in food allergen analysis with special emphasis on fast immunoanalytical methods such as rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays (LFA) and dipstick tests. Emerging technologies such as immunochemical microarrays and biosensors are also discussed and their application to food allergen analysis is reviewed. Finally, a comprehensive overview of rapid immunochemical test kits that are currently available commercially is given in tabular form.
Radauer, C; Nandy, A; Ferreira, F; Goodman, R E; Larsen, J N; Lidholm, J; Pomés, A; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Rozynek, P; Thomas, W R; Breiteneder, H
The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee, under the auspices of the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies, maintains the systematic nomenclature of allergenic proteins and publishes a database of approved allergen names on its Web site, www.allergen.org. In this paper, we summarize updates of allergen names approved at the meetings of the committee in 2011 through 2013. These changes reflect recent progress in identification, cloning, and sequencing of allergens. The goals of this update were to increase consistency in the classification of allergens, isoallergens, and variants and in the incorporation of the evolutionary classification of proteins into allergen nomenclature, while keeping changes of established names to a minimum in the interest of continuity. Allergens for which names have been updated include respiratory allergens from birch and ragweed pollen, midge larvae, and horse dander; food allergens from peanut, cow's milk, and tomato; and cereal grain allergens. The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee encourages researchers to use these updated allergen names in future publications.
Khezri, Seyed Mostafa; Shariat, Seyed Mahmood; Tabibian, Sahar
Paint sludge of car manufacturing industries are not disposed in landfills, since they contain hazardous materials with a high concentration of chromium, aluminum, titanium, barium, copper, Iron, magnesium, strontium, and so on. Thus, it is essential to find solutions in order to neutralize them or suggest cost-effective techniques, which are also environmentally acceptable. Because, this sludge contains considerable amounts of Ti pigments and unbaked resins, recycling these pigments--which could be used in a variety of industries such as paint factories--is an appropriate subject for further research. In this article, with the aim of identification of main pollutants in order to eliminate them and suggest a cost-effective solution to recover the sludge, a large number of tests including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, and diffusion thermal analysis are conducted to determine types and concentration of elements, and combinations of paint sludge in car manufacturing industries. As titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is widely used as the main pigment of automobile paints, an optimal technique is suggested for extracting TiO₂ with high purity percentage through adopting scientific methods such as membrane and electrolysis.
Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Torres, Miguel; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner
The identification of potential allergenic proteins is usually done by scanning a database of allergenic proteins and locating known allergens with a high sequence similarity. However, there is no universally accepted cut-off value for sequence similarity to indicate potential IgE cross-reactivity. Further, overall sequence similarity may be less important than discrete areas of similarity in proteins with homologous structure. To identify such areas, we first classified all allergens and their subdomains in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to their closest protein families as defined in Pfam, and identified conserved physicochemical property motifs characteristic of each group of sequences. Allergens populate only a small subset of all known Pfam families, as all allergenic proteins in SDAP could be grouped to only 130 (of 9318 total) Pfams, and 31 families contain more than four allergens. Conserved physicochemical property motifs for the aligned sequences of the most populated Pfam families were identified with the PCPMer program suite and catalogued in the webserver Motif-Mate (http://born.utmb.edu/motifmate/summary.php). We also determined specific motifs for allergenic members of a family that could distinguish them from non-allergenic ones. These allergen specific motifs should be most useful in database searches for potential allergens. We found that sequence motifs unique to the allergens in three families (seed storage proteins, Bet v 1, and tropomyosin) overlap with known IgE epitopes, thus providing evidence that our motif based approach can be used to assess the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. PMID:18951633
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Chen, Xueni; Wang, Qian; El-Mezayen, Rabab; Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen. C.
Background The moderately homologous (~60%) proteins, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are the most potent peanut allergens. This study was designed to define the relative individual contributions of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 to the overall allergenic activity of a crude peanut extract (CPE). Methods Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were removed from CPE by gel filtration chromatography. Ara h 2.01, Ara h 2.02, and Ara h 6 were further purified (>99%). The potency of each allergen and the ability of these allergens to reconstitute the allergenic activity of CPE depleted of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 was measured with RBL SX-38 cells sensitized with IgE from sensitized peanut allergic patients. Results The potency of the native proteins were significantly different (p<0.0001) although not dramatically so, with a rank order of Ara h 2.01 > Ara h 2.02 > Ara h 6. The addition of either purified Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently at their original concentration to CPE depleted of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 restored 80–100% of the original CPE allergenic activity. Addition of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 consistently completely restored the allergenic activity of CPE. Conclusions These studies indicate that either Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently can account for most of the allergenic activity in a CPE and demonstrate important redundancy in the allergenic activity of these related molecules. PMID:23075924
Moreira, Priscila Ferreira de Sousa; Gangl, Katharina; Vieira, Francisco de Assis Machado; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Linhart, Birgit; Flicker, Sabine; Fiebig, Helmut; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena
Background Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet. Objective To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules. Methods We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities. Results Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%), Phl p 5 (82%), Phl p 2 (76%) followed by Phl p 4 (64%), Phl p 6 (45%), Phl p 11 (18%) and Phl p 12 (18%). Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found. Conclusions Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population. PMID:26067084
Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Mishra, Anil
EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3 ± 6.8/mm2 and 33.4 ± 11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3 ± 1.8/mm2 and 2.1 ± 1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease. PMID:20413729
Beck, Isabelle; Jochner, Susanne; Gilles, Stefanie; McIntyre, Mareike; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Menzel, Annette; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia
Background Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. Objectives To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. Methods Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. Results The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. Conclusion It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further. PMID:24278250
Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K; Abonia, J Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E; Mishra, Anil
EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3+/-6.8/mm2 and 33.4+/-11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3+/-1.8/mm2 and 2.1+/-1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease.
Custovic, A; Hallam, C; Woodcock, H; Simpson, B; Houghton, N; Simpson, A; Woodcock, A
The use of non-feather pillows has increased over the last few decades. Recently, we found significantly higher levels of dust mite allergens in synthetic pillows than in feather ones. This study investigated the levels of pet allergens in feather and synthetic pillows. Dust samples were collected from 14 pairs of pillows (consisting of one synthetic fibre-filled and one feather-filled). Each pair of pillows had been on the same bed for at least 2 years. The pillows were vacuumed for 1 min on each side through a 355-microm diameter mesh onto a 5-microm vinyl filter, producing a sample of fine dust. Samples were extracted, and cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens determined using monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were expressed both as total amount of allergen recovered and concentration of allergen per unit weight (ng/g). Total levels of pet allergens were significantly higher in the synthetic pillows (Fel d 1: 6.7-fold difference [95% CI 1.5-29.7], p=0.01; Can f 1: 8-fold difference [95% CI 1.6-39.5], p=0.01). Similarly, when the results were expressed as ng/g, synthetic pillows contained significantly more allergens than feather pillows (Fel d 1: 3.7-fold difference [95% CI 1.3-10.1], p=0.01); Can f 1: 4.4-fold difference [95% CI 1.5-13.2], p=0.01). We have therefore demonstrated that synthetic pillows contain significantly more pet allergens than feather pillows, supporting the view that tightly woven encasements surrounding feather pillows act as a barrier for allergens.
Chen, Xueni; Wang, Qian; El-Mezayen, Rabab; Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C
The moderately homologous (approx. 60%) proteins Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are the most potent peanut allergens. This study was designed to define the relative individual contributions of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 to the overall allergenic activity of a crude peanut extract (CPE). Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were removed from CPE by gel filtration chromatography. Ara h 2.01, Ara h 2.02 and Ara h 6 were further purified (>99%). The potency of each allergen and the ability of these allergens to reconstitute the allergenic activity of CPE depleted of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 was measured with RBL SX-38 cells sensitized with IgE from sensitized peanut allergic patients. The potency of the native proteins were significantly different (p < 0.0001) although not dramatically so, with a rank order of Ara h 2.01 > Ara h 2.02 > Ara h 6. The addition of either purified Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently at their original concentration to CPE depleted of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 restored 80-100% of the original CPE allergenic activity. Addition of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 consistently completely restored the allergenic activity of CPE. These studies indicate that either Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently can account for most of the allergenic activity in a CPE and demonstrate important redundancy in the allergenic activity of these related molecules. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Heydenreich, B; Bellinghausen, I; Lund, L; Henmar, H; Lund, G; Adler Würtzen, P; Saloga, J
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a clinically effective therapy for immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic diseases. To reduce the risk of IgE-mediated side effects, chemically modified allergoids have been introduced. Furthermore, adsorbance of allergens to aluminium hydroxide (alum) is widely used to enhance the immune response. The mechanisms behind the adjuvant effect of alum are still not completely understood. In the present study we analysed the effects of alum-adsorbed allergens and allergoids on their immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo and their ability to activate basophils of allergic donors. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (DC) were incubated with native Phleum pratense or Betula verrucosa allergen extract or formaldehyde- or glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, adsorbed or unadsorbed to alum. After maturation, DC were co-cultivated with autologous CD4(+) T cells. Allergenicity was tested by leukotriene and histamine release of human basophils. Finally, in-vivo immunogenicity was analysed by IgG production of immunized mice. T cell proliferation as well as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ production were strongly decreased using glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, but did not differ between alum-adsorbed allergens or allergoids and the corresponding unadsorbed preparations. Glutaraldehyde modification also led to a decreased leukotriene and histamine release compared to native allergens, being further decreased by adsorption to alum. In vivo, immunogenicity was reduced for allergoids which could be partly restored by adsorption to alum. Our results suggest that adsorption of native allergens or modified allergoids to alum had no consistent adjuvant effect but led to a reduced allergenicity in vitro, while we observed an adjuvant effect regarding IgG production in vivo.
Kespohl, S; Campo, P; Zahradnik, E; Maryska, S; Aranda-Guerrero, A; Rodriguez, J; Brüning, T; Raulf, M
Obeche wood is a prominent cause of allergic occupational asthma. To reduce the risk of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated sensitization it is important to assess airborne obeche wood allergen concentrations at exposed workplaces. Therefore, a highly sensitive obeche wood allergen immunoassay was developed and applicability was proven on airborne passive dust samples in Spanish wood workshops. Obeche wood sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were developed. Test specificity was verified by different wood and mold extracts. Obeche wood allergen monitoring was conducted in four Spanish wood workshops, including wood-dust-exposed and nonexposed areas inside and outside the workplaces, as well as controls. Dust was collected with electrostatic dust collectors (EDC). Measuring range of the obeche wood sandwich-ELISA was between 36 pg/ml and 1.6 µg/ml. The test system showed only marginal reactivity to other hardwoods and no reactivity to softwoods and molds. Obeche allergen was detected in all EDC from workplaces. The highest concentration was measured in the workshop with the longest obeche wood exposure (geometric mean [GM]: 7548 µg/m(2)); shorter obeche wood processing periods resulted in lower amounts of allergen (GM: 29 µg/m(2)). Obeche wood allergen transfer from exposed workplaces to nonexposed areas inside and outside the workshop was assessed. In control EDC from nonexposed facilities/homes no obeche wood allergen was found. The new obeche wood sandwich-ELISA is a valid tool to quantify obeche allergen exposure. Evidence indicates it will be possible to monitor obeche allergen exposure during different processes, as well as transfer effects in nonexposed areas.
Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki
The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.
Alessandro, R; Gallo, A; Barranca, M; Principe, S; Taverna, S; Duro, G; Cassata, G; Becchi, M; Fontana, S; De Leo, G
Specific antibodies are essential tools for studying proteins as well as for diagnostic research in biomedicine. The egg yolk of immunized chicken is an inexpensive source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies. The 12-kDa Parietaria judaica 2 allergen was expressed as a fusion protein and was used to immunize Leghorn chickens. In this paper, we show, using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, that chicken antibodies raised against a recombinant allergen can be used to recognize similar proteins from a pollen raw extract. Allergen identity was confirmed by nanoLC-nanospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Our data demonstrate for the first time that a synergistic combination of molecular biology, 2-dimensional PAGE, and use of nonmammalian antibodies represents a powerful tool for reliable identification of allergens.
Pilolli, Rosa; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Monaci, Linda
Allergenic ingredients in pre-packaged foods are regulated by EU legislation mandating their inclusion on labels. In order to protect allergic consumers, sensitive analytical methods are required for detect allergen traces in different food products. As a follow-up to our previous investigations, an optimized, sensitive, label-free LC-MS/MS method for multiplex detection of five allergenic ingredients in a processed food matrix is proposed. A cookie base was chosen as a complex food matrix and home-made cookies incurred with whole egg, skimmed milk, soy flour, ground hazelnut and ground peanut were prepared at laboratory scale. In order to improve the analytical workflow both protein extraction and purification protocols were optimized and finally a sensitive streamlined SRM based analytical method for allergens detection in incurred cookies was devised. The effect of baking on the detection of selected markers was also investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hummel, Marlene; Wigger, Tina; Höper, Tessa; Westkamp, Imke; Brockmeyer, Jens
The 2S albumins belong to the group of seed storage proteins present in different seeds and nuts. Due to their pronounced allergenic potential, which is often associated with severe allergic reactions, this protein family is of special interest in the field of allergen research. Here we present a simple, rapid, and selective method for the purification of 2S albumins directly from allergenic seeds and nuts. We systematically optimized the parameters "buffer system", "extraction temperature", "buffer molarity", and "pH " and were able to achieve 2S albumin purities of about 99% without further purification and demonstrate transferability of this method to nine different allergenic food matrices. Compared to conventional isolation routines, significant reduction of hands-on time and required laboratory equipment is achieved, but nonetheless higher protein yields are obtained. The presented method allows for the rapid purification of different 2S albumins including the corresponding isoforms from natural material.
Heick, J; Fischer, M; Pöpping, B
The development of a multi-method for the detection of seven allergens based on liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction mode is described. It is based on extraction of the allergenic proteins from a food matrix, followed by enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The chosen marker peptides were implemented into one method that is capable of the simultaneous detection of milk, egg, soy, hazelnut, peanut, walnut and almond. This method has been used to detect all seven allergenic commodities from incurred reference bread material, which was baked according to a standard recipe from the baking industry. Detected concentrations ranged from 10 to 1000 μg/g, demonstrating that the mass spectrometric based method is a useful tool for allergen screening.
Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won
Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm.
Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong
Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm. PMID:26770033
Sharif Shoushtari, Maryam; Majd, Ahmad; Pourpak, Zahra; Shahali, Youcef; Moin, Mostafa; Eslami, Mohammad Bagger
Weed pollen grains belonging to the Asteraceae family contain a variety of allergens inducing type I and IV allergies in susceptible people. The aim of this research was to compare the allergenic properties of immature and mature Shasta daisy pollen grains (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond) to define the potential role of the maturation process on the allergenicity of Asteraceae pollen grains. The immature (IP) and mature pollen (MP) grains were first studied by optical and scanning electron microscopand their protein contents were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Pollen extracts were finally used to sensitize guinea pigs in order to obtain IP and MP specific antibodies. Nasal provocation tests using IP and MP crude extracts were also performed on pre-sensitized guinea pigs. The MP extract induced IgE and eosinophilia in blood and positive skin tests in sensitized guinea pigs. Moreover, high number of eosinophils was found in the nasal mucosa of MP sensitized guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE analysis of the IP and MP protein content showed seven and five apparent bands ranging from 7 to 66kDa respectively. According to immunoblot analysis, MP extract contained a single allergen of 66kDa. The overall results showed developmental processes of Shasta daisy pollen grains towards both morphological and molecular changes increasing their allergenic potency.
Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija; Spasić, Milena; Cirković Velicković, Tanja; Stojanović, Marijana; Inić-Kanada, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Ljiljana; Lindner, Buko; Petersen, Arnd; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jankov, Ratko M
Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) have been established as a new family of fruit and pollen allergens. The aim of this study was to develop a two-site ELISA for the quantification of the thaumatin-like kiwi allergen (Act d 2) in kiwifruit extracts and kiwifruit-containing food products. Genomic DNA (gDNA) of Act d 2 was amplified and the deduced amino acid sequence was determined to obtain a primary structure. Act d 2 purified from kiwifruit extract by HPLC was identified by Edman degradation and MS. Balb/c mice were immunized with Act d 2 for the production of mAbs by hybridoma technology. The optimized ELISA measured Act d 2 concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 9.0 ng/mL, with intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of 3.65 and 10.44%, respectively. The developed ELISA is a useful method for the quantification of the thaumatin-like kiwi allergen in kiwifruit extracts as well as the allergen level in kiwifruit-containing food products. It may be a helpful analytical tool for the evaluation of the stability (integrity) of fruit allergen extracts for in vitro diagnosis.
Prichard, M G; Ryan, G; Walsh, B J; Musk, A W
Interrelationships between skin and humoral tests for immediate hypersensitivity to wheat and indicators of respiratory disease were examined in 176 male bakers. Skin tests were assessed by measuring the diameter of the weal resulting from prick innoculation of allergen extract and circulating allergen-specific IgE by radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Fifteen per cent of subjects showed positive skin-prick test responses to wheat extracts. These subjects demonstrated an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms and of measurable bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Thirty per cent of subjects had positive skin test responses to common allergens but negative responses to whole wheat. Compared to subjects with no positive skin test responses they had an increased prevalence of bronchial responsiveness to methacholine but a similar prevalence of respiratory symptoms. There was a significant association between skin test responses to whole wheat and skin test responses to common allergens suggesting that bakers with pre-existing sensitivity to common allergens are at increased risk of developing wheat flour sensitization. There was no significant difference between skin-prick test and RAST responses to wheat, water-soluble wheat protein and common allergens. Both tests showed similar relationships with indices of respiratory disease. The associations between skin test and RAST responses to wheat extracts and indices of respiratory disease was stronger for the water-soluble wheat proteins than for other wheat grain extracts. These results suggest that immediate hypersensitivity to wheat flour is important in the development of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity in bakers and that the water-soluble fractions of wheat flour are the most important allergenic components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Ryan, T J; Whitehead, L W; Connor, T H; Burau, K D
Sick Building Syndrome remains a prevalent problem with patient complaints similar to typical allergy symptoms. Unlike household allergens typically found in domestic reservoirs, the allergen from a common fungus like Aspergillus fumigatus (i.e., Asp f 1) is conceivably widespread in the work environment. This project surveyed airborne levels of the Asp f 1 allergen in office and non-industrial occupational environments, as well as the dust reservoirs of A. fumigatus believed to be responsible for those levels. Airborne and bulk dust samples were collected, extracted, and assayed for Asp f 1. Concurrently, bulk dusts collected from the same locations were selectively cultured for A. fumigatus, and mesophilic fungi and bacteria. Samples were collected during both wet and dry climatological conditions from paired wet and dry building locations to examine the possibility of Asp f 1 increases due to fungal growth blooms. Very low levels of Asp f 1 were detected but only in the airborne samples (2/120 positive samples, with 3.6 ng/m3 and 1.8 ng/m3; LOD < 1.2 ng/m3). No dust samples showed even detectable traces of the allergen (LOD = 5 ng/g dust). Although A. fumigatus counts from dusts fluctuated significantly with exterior moisture events, analysis of wet versus dry period samples showed no differences in Asp f 1 levels. These results indicate that even in the presence of measurable fungal concentrations, background levels of Asp f 1 are low. Nonindustrial office buildings devoid of indoor air quality issues were not observed to have significant levels of the Asp f 1 allergen in the geographical region studied.
Berzhets, V M; Petrova, N S; Sinitsyna, N E; Emel'ianova, O Iu; Kanchurin, A Kh
The allergenic activities of the laboratory batches of D. farinae allergens have been studied by the methods of indirect mast-cell degranulation, neuroglial cytocrit, electrophoretic mobility changes. D. farinae allergens have been shown to possess specific activity. The method of changes in the electrophoretic mobility of sheep red blood cells has demonstrated that D. pteronyssimus and D. farinae allergens possess common allergenic properties.
Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard
Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion. This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating the allergenic potential of food allergen digestion products. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitizing capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. Therefore, the predictive value of the pepsin resistance test for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins can be questioned.
Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo
Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781
A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627
Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda
Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss updates on research regarding the relationship between indoor allergen exposure and childhood asthma with a focus on clinical effects, locations of exposure, and novel treatments. Recent findings Recent data continue to demonstrate that early life sensitization to indoor allergens is a predictor of asthma development later in life. Furthermore, avoidance of exposure to these allergens continues to be important especially given that the vast majority of children with asthma are sensitized to at least one indoor allergen. New research suggests that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen. Recent evidence reminds us that children are exposed to clinically important levels of indoor allergens in locations away from their home, such as schools and daycare centers. Exposure to increased levels of indoor mold in childhood has been associated with asthma development and exacerbation of current asthma; however, emerging evidence suggests that early exposure to higher fungal diversity may actually be protective for asthma development. Novel treatments have been developed that target TH2 pathways thus decreasing asthmatic responses to allergens. These therapies show promise for the treatment of severe allergic asthma refractory to avoidance strategies and standard therapies. Summary Understanding the relationship between indoor allergens and asthma outcomes is a constantly evolving study of timing, location, and amount of exposure. PMID:27653703
Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D
Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.
Jovanovic, S; Felder-Kennel, A; Gabrio, T; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Piechotowski, I; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schwenk, M; Weidner, U; Zöllner, I
The study examined the exposure to biological indoor air agents and their possible role for allergies and respiratory tract illnesses of children. It was conducted as a case control study (atopic vs non-atopic children) at the four surveillance public health departments in Baden-Württemberg in the winter season 1999/2000 and included 379 children of the fourth class. The concentrations of the house dust mite antigens Der F1, Der p1, and Der Gr2 as well as cat allergen Fel d1 were determined in the children's bedrooms on the ground and in the mattress. Specific IgE-antibodies against allergens from house dust, mites and cat were determined in the serum of the children. For mite allergens the following medians ( micro g/g) were estimated in floor dust: Der p1 = 0.6, Der f1 = 2.3, Gr2 = 0.1; in mattresses: Der p1 = 1.2, Der f1 = 3.4, Gr2 = 0.3. The median of Fel d1 in floor dust was 0.2 microg/g, in mattresses 0.1 microg/g. Sensitisation to dust mite allergen was found to be more prevalent than sensitisation to cat. The distribution of sensitisation among the cases and controls is different. Among the cases, more subjects were sensitised to dust mites (32.9 %) and cat (13.1 %). Among the controls, 17.1 % were sensitised to dust mites and 4.1 % to cat. The results showed no direct association between the prevalence of allergies or respiratory tract illnesses and the indoor concentrations of the allergens. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
Erwin, Elizabeth A; Custis, Natalie J; Satinover, Shama M; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Woodfolk, Judith A; Crane, Julian; Wickens, Kristin; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E
Commercially available assays for IgE antibody provide results in international units per milliliter for many allergen extracts, but this is not easily achieved with purified or novel allergens. To develop assays for IgE antibody suitable for purified or novel allergens by using a commercially available immunosorbent. Streptavidin coupled to a high-capacity immunosorbent (CAP) was used to bind biotinylated purified allergens from mite (Der p 1 and Der p 2), cat (Fel d 1), and dog (Can f 1). Assays for IgE antibody to these allergens were performed on sera from children (asthma and control) as well as adults with atopic dermatitis. The results were validated by serial dilution of sera with high and low levels of IgE antibody and were quantitated in international units per milliliter by using a standard curve. Values for IgE antibody to Der p 1, Der p 2, and Fel d 1 correlated with values obtained with the allergen extracts (r2 = 0.80, 0.84, and 0.95, respectively; P < .001 in each case). Furthermore, the values for IgE antibody in sera from children with high exposure to mite and cat allergens demonstrated 10-fold higher levels of IgE antibody to Der p 1 and Der p 2 than to Fel d 1 (P < .001). The streptavidin immunosorbent technique provides a new method for quantifying IgE antibody to purified proteins. The results provide evidence about the high quantities of IgE antibody to purified inhalant allergens in patients with atopic dermatitis. In addition, the results demonstrate major differences in IgE antibodies specific for mite and cat allergens among children with high exposure to both allergens.
Asman, Marek; Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Ewa; Szilman, Piotr
In the 90's of the XX century, 2 new and important allergens of house dust mites mites were cloned and sequenced: Mag 1 and Mag 3. However, the second allergen has been identified to date only in extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae [DF ]. In this work, we aimed to detect expression of this important allergen and for the first time analyze to the amino acid sequence in other species of house dust mite - Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [DP ]. We were able to confirm the expression of allergen Mag 3 in DF and to exclude it in DP . By sequencing the products of DNA amplification, we revealed the nucleotide sequence encoding allergen Mag 3 in DF . This analysis enabled detection of 9 single base changes. An analysis of encoded amino acid sequence by triplets with substituted nucleotides revealed that 8 changes were polymorphic, and 1 was a mutation substituting GTG (valine) for ATG (methionine) at 236 position. However, the presence of amino acid sequence difference in this allergen might suggest that there exist other isoforms which can make difficult both diagnosis as well as immunotherapy in persons who produce allergic response to this allergen. The variants of allergen Mag 3 (group 14) are still not known beside the very good known allergen variants of the other main groups 1, 2, 4, 5 or 7. Thus, the identification and definition of allergic properties of allergen Mag 3 variants needs to be further investigated.
Akkerdaas, J; Finkina, E I; Balandin, S V; Santos Magadán, S; Knulst, A; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Asero, R; van Ree, R; Ovchinnikova, T V
Lentils are increasingly consumed in many parts of the world.Two allergens, Len c 1 and 2, have been reported previously. Recently, peanut and green bean lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been identified as the first two members of an important group of allergens that might be associated with severe food allergies. To investigate lentil LTP as a potential new allergen. Efficacy of LTP extraction was monitored at different acidic pH values, using immunoblotting with cross-reactive anti-peach LTP antiserum. Natural LTP was purified from lentil extract and expressed as recombinant allergen in Escherichia coli. Sera from 10 lentil-allergic and/or -sensitized patients (Spain: 6, Italy: 1 and the Netherlands: 3) were used to further characterize lentil LTP. Natural lentil LTP, purified from the homogenized germinated seeds and optimally extracted at pH 3, was identified and designated as allergen Len c 3. By CAP, 9/10 sera showed specific IgE to Len c 3. Recombinant (r) Len c 3 was successfully purified. The natural (n) Len c 3 CAP was completely inhibited by rLen c 3/rPru p 3. IgE binding to lentil pH 3 extract blot was completely inhibited by rLen c 3. The availability of immunochemically active nLen/rLen c 3 as a novel legume allergen facilitates further development and implementation of a third (next to peanut and green bean) legume LTP in component-resolved diagnosis strategies and contributes to evaluate the clinical importance of legume LTPs. Preferential extraction of Len c 3 (pH 3) will affect the production of sensitive extract-based diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Singh, Harmit; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Malave, Poonam; Saputra, Denny; Maleki, Soheila
Crude peanut extract (CPE) was analyzed for three major allergens (Ara h 1, h 2, and h 3) using a C12 and a C18 column at two wavelengths (280 and 220nm) and under different solvent conditions. HPLC profiles were compared for retention time, resolution, and peak heights. CPE samples were spiked with pure allergens to identify the peaks corresponding to allergens. The HPLC fractions of corresponding allergens were collected and freeze-dried in order to perform SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting tests. The best method was identified the one with a shorter retention time, better resolution, and greater peak height as compared with the other methods. In general, the peak heights were greater at 220nm than at 280nm. The major disadvantage of the C12 column was the need for two sets of conditions to identify the allergens as compared to the C18 column where all three allergens could be identified in one run.
Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A
Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.
Irañeta, S G; Acosta, D M; Duran, R; Apicella, C; Orlando, U D; Seoane, M A; Alonso, A; Duschak, V G
It is well known that allergen extracts used for specific therapy of allergic disorders are commonly stored as mixtures, causing an alteration of its stability. The aim of this report is to identify pollen allergens susceptible to degradation during storage of mixtures containing different sources of proteases in the absence of glycerol as a preserving agent. Mixes containing Lolium perenne (Lol p) pollen extract with either Aspergillus fumigatus or Periplaneta americana extracts were prepared and co-incubated for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Samples were taken off at fixed times and comparatively tested by in vitro and in vivo assays with atopic patients. Selected pollinic allergens were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. ELISA inhibition evidenced the loss of potency from ryegrass extract, and immunoblotting assays showed the degradation of specific pollinic allergens during storage of mixtures containing protease-rich sources. An in vivo intradermal skin assay confirmed the gradual loss of the biological activity of L. perenne pollen extract co-incubated with non-related protease-rich extracts in comparison with that of the control pollen extract. MALDI-TOF MS analysis allowed us to determine that Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are susceptible to proteolysis whereas Lol p 4 was found to be resistant to degradation during storage. Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 degradation is responsible for the loss of the biological activity of L. perenne pollen extract when co-incubated with protease-rich fungal and cockroach extracts in the same vial for months in the absence of glycerol as a preserving agent. The integrity of these major allergens must be preserved to increase the vaccine stability and to assure efficacy when mixes are used for immunotherapy.
Chapman, Martin D.; Wünschmann, Sabina
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Recent findings Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Summary Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy. PMID:27184001
Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wünschmann, Sabina
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy.
Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan
The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome.
Bertelsen, Randi J.; Fæste, Christiane K.; Granum, Berit; Egaas, Eliann; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup; Løvik, Martinus
Background Sensitization to food allergens and food allergic reactions are mostly caused by ingesting the allergen, but can also occur from exposure via the respiratory tract or the skin. Little is known about exposure to food allergens in the home environment. Objective To describe the frequency of detection of allergens from fish, egg, milk, and peanut in mattress dust collected from homes of 13 year old adolescents, and secondly to identify home characteristics associated with the presence of food allergen contamination in dust. Methods Food allergens were measured by dot blot analysis in mattress dust from 143 homes in Oslo, Norway. We analyzed associations between home characteristics (collected by parental questionnaires and study technicians) and food allergens by multivariate regression models. Results Fish allergen was detected in 46%, peanut in 41%, milk in 39%, and egg allergen in 22% of the mattress dust samples; only three samples contained none of these allergens. All four food allergens were more frequently detected in mattresses in small dwellings (<100m2) than larger dwellings (≥130 m2); 63-71% of the small dwellings (n=24) had milk, peanut, and fish allergens in the samples compared to 33-44% of the larger dwellings (n=95). Milk, peanut, and egg allergens were more frequently detected in homes with bedroom and kitchen on the same floor as compared with different floors; with odds ratios of 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 5.6) for milk, 2.4 (95% CI: 1.0, 6.1) for peanut, and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3, 7.5) for egg allergens. Conclusions and clinical relevance Food allergens occurred frequently in beds in Norwegian homes, with dwelling size and proximity of kitchen and bedroom as the most important determinants. Due to the amount of time children spend in the bedroom, mattress dust may be an important source of exposure to food allergens. PMID:24304208
Micheal, S; Wangorsch, A; Wolfheimer, S; Foetisch, K; Minhas, K; Scheurer, S; Ahmed, A
Paper mulberry (Morus papyrifera) pollen is considered to be one of the most clinically relevant aeroallergens in Pakistan. To date, the allergenicity of the pollen has not been investigated. To characterize the sensitization profile of mulberry-allergic patients and the proteins of paper mulberry pollen contributing to pollinosis in the Pakistani population. Proteins were extracted from mulberry pollen using different protocols. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E binding proteins to mulberry pollen was determined by ImmunoCAP testing and immunoblotting using sera from 29 mulberry pollen-allergic patients with positive skin prick test results to mulberry pollen antigens. The histamine release assay was performed in vitro to determine the allergenic potency of pollen extracts and a partially purified mulberry pollen allergen. The protein was identified using N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). IgE sensitization to mulberry pollen was confirmed by positive ImmunoCAP results to pollen from Morus alba (white mulberry) in 23 out of 29 mulberry pollen-allergic patients. A 10-kDa protein from the paper mulberry pollen extract was considered a major allergen, along with additional IgE-reactive proteins. Sera from 79% of the patients reacted to the 10-kDa allergen, which showed substantial capacity to trigger histamine release in 3 out of 4 patients. N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/TOF yielded an amino acid sequence with no homology to known proteins. Mulberry-allergic patients are sensitized to multiple mulberry pollen allergens. We identified a novel 10-kDa protein that was a major allergen and should be further investigated for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Varasteh, Abdol-Reza; Sankian, Mojtaba; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Moghadam, Malihe; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Brooks, Edward G; Goldblum, Randall M; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna
The cultivation of saffron is expanding through the southeast of Iran, and allergy to saffron pollen occurs in workers involved in processing this plant. We aimed to clone, sequence and express a major allergen involved in saffron pollen allergy, and to compare the recombinant with the natural allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cro s 1, an allergen from saffron pollen, was determined after immunoblotting. The cDNA encoding for this allergen was cloned by PCR utilizing a primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recombinant Cro s 1 (rCro s 1) was expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration. Inhibition of IgE binding to rCro s 1 by pollen extract was analyzed by ELISA. The allergen Cro s 1 was identified from saffron pollen extracts and cloned by PCR. Cro s 1 cDNA defined an acidic polypeptide with homology to pollen proteins from Chenopodium album and Ligastrum vulgaris. The rCro s 1 was expressed in P. pastoris at 28 mg/l. Saffron pollen extract inhibited the binding of patient serum IgE to rCro s 1. We identified and cloned the first Crocus sativus pollen allergen. rCro s 1 cDNA shows a very high homology with Che a 1, the major allergen of lamb's-quarter, Chenopodium album, Caryophyllales, pollen (97%). Cro s 1 is a useful tool for specific diagnosis and structural studies of occupational allergy to saffron.
Wagner, Bettina; Childs, Bronwen A; Erb, Hollis N
Skin hypersensitivity is an allergic disease induced in horses by allergens of Culicoides midges. The condition is typically diagnosed by clinical signs and in some horses in combination with allergy testing such as intradermal skin testing or serological allergen-specific IgE determination. Here, we describe an alternative method for allergy testing: a histamine release assay (HRA) that combines the functional aspects of skin testing with the convenience of submitting a blood sample. The assay is based on the principle that crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE bound via high-affinity IgE receptors to the surfaces of mast cells and basophils induces the release of inflammatory mediators. One of these mediators is histamine. The histamine was then detected by a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histamine assay was used to test 33 horses with skin hypersensitivity and 20 clinically healthy control animals for histamine release from their peripheral blood basophils after stimulation with Culicoides allergen extract or monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. An increased histamine release was observed in the horses with skin hypersensitivity compared to the control group after allergen-specific stimulation with Culicoides extract (p=0.023). In contrast, stimulation with anti-IgE induced similar amounts of released histamine in both groups (p=0.46). For further evaluation of the HRA, we prepared a receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) curve and performed a likelihood-ratio analysis for assay interpretation. Our results suggested that the assay is a valuable diagnostic tool to identify sensitization to Culicoides allergens in horses. Because some of the clinically healthy horses also showed sensitization to Culicoides extract, the assay cannot be used to distinguish allergic from non-allergic animals. The observation that sensitization is sometimes detectable in non-affected animals suggested that clinically healthy horses use immune mechanisms to control the
Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M
The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy
Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M
The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy
Pérot, Maxime; Lupi, Roberta; Guyot, Sylvain; Delayre-Orthez, Carine; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Thébaudin, Jean-Yves; Bodinier, Marie; Larré, Colette
Wheat allergy is an IgE-mediated disorder. Polyphenols, which are known to interact with certain proteins, could be used to reduce allergic reactions. This study screened several polyphenol sources for their ability to interact with gliadins, mask epitopes, and affect basophil degranulation. Polyphenol extracts from artichoke leaves, cranberries, apples, and green tea leaves were examined. Of these extracts, the first three formed insoluble complexes with gliadins. Only the cranberry and apple extracts masked epitopes in dot blot assays using anti-gliadin IgG and IgE antibodies from patients with wheat allergies. The cranberry and artichoke extracts limited cellular degranulation by reducing mouse anti-gliadin IgE recognition. In conclusion, the cranberry extract is the most effective polyphenol source at reducing the immunogenicity and allergenicity of wheat gliadins.
According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…
According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…
dust mixture.6 Dust mite allergens have been associated causatively with asthma, atopic dermatitis , and rhini- tis. 7 Studies from several countries...Asthma: A Controlled Trial. The Lancet 1976; ***:333-335. 10. Tuft L. Importance of Inhalant Allergens in Atopic Dermatitis . The Journal of Investigative...Monoclonal Antibodies to the Major Feline Allergen Fel d 1. 1I. Single Step Affinity Purification of Fel d 1, N-Terminal Sequence Analysis, and Development of
Undigested foods are excreted rather than absorbed and therefore, peanut allergens, if undigested, may not cause an allergic reaction in peanut-allergic individuals. Our objective was to make peanut allergens more resistant to digestion by preparing allergen conjugates and demonstrating that the con...
Cipriani, Francesca; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Ricci, Giampaolo
Allergic asthma is the most frequent disease among the chronic respiratory disorders in pediatric age with an important social impact. In the last years, many efforts have been made to identify effective preventive approaches to get a better control of symptoms and to obtain the best future outcomes for the patients. In patients with allergic asthma triggered by the exposure to indoor allergens, the avoidance is the first intervention to prevent the appearance or the worsening of bronchial symptoms. This review article summarized the most recent evidence from literature about the efficacy of specific control interventions for the most important allergens. Even if a wide spectrum of interventions has been suggested and may help to reduce exposure to trigger allergy for sensitized patients suffering from respiratory allergy, evidence supporting the efficacy of these approaches is still weak and subject of controversy. However, the exposure control to specific airborne allergens is still widely recommended and may be effective as part of a holistic approach to reduce the severity of allergic respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. PMID:28540285
Landa-Pineda, César Manuel; Guidos-Fogelbach, Guillermo; Marchat-Marchau, Laurence; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Arroyo-Becerra, Analilia; Sandino Reyes-López, César Augusto
Profilins are small ubiquitous proteins of 12-19 kDa involved in actin dynamics. These proteins are found in all eukaryotic organisms studied to date. Profilins have aminoacid sequences and tridimensional structure highly conserved. Allergy patients to pollen frequently have symptoms of allergy when ingestion of plant-derived foods like fruits, vegetables, seeds, among others. This phenomenon is known as latex-pollen-fruit allergy and it's the main cause of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) which is attributed to the cross-reactivity. Allergens shared between different sources theses are called panallergens for example are profilins which representing at least 20% of all pollen allergic patients. This cross-reactivity is results from the high amino acid sequence identity of profilin from plants, which is between 70% and 85%, this may explain the exacerbation symptoms of allergic patients to profilins from plants. We described some characteristics which show us the important participation of the profilins in the sensitization of people allergic, especially to plants, fruits and pollen. We looked research aminoacid sequences of all allergenic profilins reported to date and these were analyzed. Profilins are important allergens that are underrated in clinical practice and contribute to cross-reactivity in sensitized individuals by profilins from other sources.
Vidal-Quist, J C; Ortego, F; Lombardero, M; Castañera, P; Hernández-Crespo, P
House dust mites are a major source of allergy worldwide. While diagnosis and treatment based on mite extracts have remarkably advanced, little information exists on the expression of allergens in mites. We have studied gene expression of eight Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) allergens (Der p 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 21). All allergens showed higher transcription in nymphs compared with larvae or adults, with the only exception of Der p 10. The transcription of Der p 4 and Der p 10, together with the transcription and protein ratios Der p 1 to Der p 2, were higher in males than in females. One-week exposure of mite cultures to 16 or 35 °C (versus 24 °C) or low RH (44% versus 76%) significantly influenced the allergen gene transcription profile. Our results demonstrate that allergen expression is quantitatively and/or qualitatively influenced by mite development and sex, as well as by the environment. We suggest that monitoring allergen gene expression may be a useful tool to assist the optimization of mite cultures in the production of standardized allergenic extracts for clinical use.
Do, D C; Zhao, Y; Gao, P
Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins have provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen-presenting cell (APC) function in T-cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often coexist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.
Do, Danh C.; Zhao, Yilin; Gao, Peisong
Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins has provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen presenting cell (APC) function in T cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often co-exist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization. PMID:26706467
Shah, Rachna; Grammer, Leslie C
Most allergens are proteins or glycoproteins that range in molecular weight from 5000 to 100,000 Da, although polysaccharides and low molecular weight substances also may be allergenic. Common allergens include pollens, fungal spores, house-dust mites, and animal epithelial materials but can also include drugs, biological products, and insect venoms. The allergic response is dependent on the route of exposure. If exposure is to an inhaled aeroallergen, the allergic response will be a respiratory reaction in nature. Ingested or injected exposure gives rise to gastrointestinal, cutaneous, or anaphylactic reactions. Size of pollen determines clinical manifestation of allergy. For example, particles between 20 and 60 μm in diameter can be carried in the wind and cause nasal and ocular symptoms (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis). Particles <7 μm can deposit in the airways and cause symptoms of asthma. Animals produce allergens in forms unique to each species. Cat allergen, most importantly Fel d 1, is found mainly in cat saliva, sebaceous glands in the skin, and in urine of male cats. It is buoyant and "sticky," which means it easily remains airborne and may last in a home for up to 6-9 months after the source is removed. Cat allergen adheres to clothes and can be found in public places such as schools. Dog allergen, particularly Can f 1, is present in dander, saliva, urine, and serum. There are allergens specific to dog breeds, but all breeds produce allergenic proteins (even poodles and "hairless" dogs).
Lie, W J; Van Der Veen, M J; Knol, E F; Mul, F P; Jansen, H M; Roos, D; Van Der Zee, J S
Basophils can be primed by cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -3, IL-5 or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). It has been described that the concentrations of these cytokines are enhanced at sites of allergic inflammation as well as systemic in allergic asthma. To investigate the priming status of basophils as detected by thapsigargin-induced histamine release during bronchial allergen challenge. Ten subjects allergic to house dust mite were challenged via an aerosol delivery system. Spontaneous leucocyte histamine release as well as histamine release induced by various stimuli was measured in vitro at several time points. In addition, lung function parameters, serum IL-5 and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated. We found no effect of bronchial allergen challenge upon spontaneous leucocyte histamine release, nor upon histamine release induced by anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) E, house dust mite extract, C5a, fMLP, IL-3, PMA+ thapsigargin or IL-3+ thapsigargin. However, the priming status of basophils as measured by thapsigargin-induced histamine release was enhanced at 24 h after bronchial allergen challenge. Analysis of the individual data showed a heterogeneous initial response (30 min, 6 h) followed by a predominant increase at 24 h after allergen challenge. This increase in the thapsigargin-induced histamine release correlated with the increase in serum IL-5 levels at 24 h after allergen challenge. The priming status of human basophils as measured by thapsigargin-induced histamine release is enhanced 24 h after allergen challenge.
Mourad, W; Bernier, D; Jobin, M; Hébert, J
Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three non-overlapping epitopes of Lol p I allergen were previously produced and subsequently used for purification of the allergen. In the present study, these MAbs were further characterized, and the biological activity of the purified allergen assessed. The three MAbs were of the IgG isotype and carried a kappa light chain. Their affinity constants were in the range of 7.4-15.1 x 10(-9) mol/l. Purified Lol p I kept its biological activity, as shown by its ability to induce histamine release by basophils of Lol p I-sensitive patients. The profiles of histamine release induced by either Lol p I or crude Lolium perenne extracts were comparable. This observation suggests that human IgE bound to basophils are polyspecific which has been confirmed by immunoblot and inhibition assay. Our data indicated also that Lol p I possesses a major allergenic epitope recognized by all human serum IgE tested. This epitope seems to be partially shared by those recognized by the three MAbs. Finally, preincubation of Lol p I with either one of the Mabs did not affect significantly the basophil-histamine release induced by the purified allergen. This suggests that Lol p I possesses allergenic sites other than the one shared by MAbs and IgE Abs.
Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Goldblum, Randall M.; Kurosky, Alexander; Wood, Thomas G.; Brooks, Edward G.
Allergic diseases have been increasing in industrialized countries. The environment is thought to have both direct and indirect modulatory effects on disease pathogenesis, including alterating on the allergenicity of pollens. Certain plant proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins appear to be up-regulated by certain environmental conditions, including pollutants, and some have emerged as important allergens. Thus, the prospect of environmentally regulated expression of plant-derived allergens becomes yet another potential environmental influence on allergic disease. We have identified a novel pathogenesis-related protein allergen, Jun a 3, from mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen. The serum IgE from patients with hypersensitivity to either mountain cedar or Japanese cedar were shown to bind to native and recombinant Jun a 3 in Western blot analysis and ELISA. Jun a 3 is homologous to members of the thaumatin-like pathogenesis-related (PR-5) plant protein family. The amounts of Jun a 3 extracted from mountain cedar pollen varied up to 5-fold in lots of pollen collected from the same region in different years and between different regions during the same year. Thus, Jun a 3 may contribute not only to the overall allergenicity of mountain cedar pollen, but variable levels of Jun a 3 may alter the allergenic potency of pollens produced under different environmental conditions. PMID:10657673
Jairaman, Amit; Maguire, Chelsea H.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Prakriya, Murali
Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca2+ elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca2+ elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca2+ entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway. PMID:27604412
Daengsuwan, Tassalapa; Lee, Bee-Wah; Visitsuntorn, Nualanong; Charoenratanakul, Suchai; Ruangrak, Sirirat; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit
To study prevalence of allergen sensitization among asthmatics in Thailand, skin prick tests (SPT) were performed in 84 pediatric, 71 adult asthmatics and 71 adult volunteers. Allergen extracts used for testing included common allergens in Thailand and in Singapore. The incidence of positive SPT to any allergen among the three groups (childhood, adult patients and adult controls) were 64.3%, 43.7% and 35.2%, respectively. Dermatophagoides were the most common allergens sensitized by both pediatric (58.3%) and adult asthmatics (40.8%). Twenty-four children (28.6%) and 8 adult patients (11.3%) were sensitized to storage mites (Blomia tropicalis and/or Austroglyciphagus malaysiensis). All patients sensitized to Blomia tropicalis were sensitized to Dermatophagoides. Twenty-seven percent and 15.5% of childhood and adult asthmatics were sensitized to cockroach allergens. The rates of sensitization to oil palm pollen in childhood and adult asthmatics were 8.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Sensitization to other pollens and spores were less than 5%. This study confirms the importance of Dermatophagoides among Thai asthmatics.
Bergendorff, Ola; Persson, Christina; Lüdtke, Anna; Hansson, Christer
Allergic contact dermatitis to rubber is caused by residues of chemicals used in manufacturing a rubber product. Several different additives are used to achieve a final product of the desired characteristics. Accelerators such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates, and mercaptobenzothiazoles are often among the additives responsible for allergic reactions recognized by dermatologists. The chemistry of the vulcanization process is complicated; as it occurs at an elevated temperature with a mixture of reactive chemicals, the compositions of the initial and final products differ. This paper investigates the changes in composition of common allergens during vulcanization, doing so by chemically analysing various rubber formulations at different stages of the process. Major changes were found in which added chemicals were consumed and new ones produced. An important observation is that thiuram disulfides rarely appear in the final rubber although they may have been used as additives. Instead, thiurams are often converted to dithiocarbamates or to products formed by addition to mercaptobenzothiazole structures, if these have been used together with thiurams as accelerators.
van de Veen, Willem; Wirz, Oliver F; Globinska, Anna; Akdis, Mübeccel
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for more than 100 years as a clinical tolerance-inducing and immune tolerance-inducing therapy for allergic diseases and represents a potentially curative method of treatment. AIT functions through multiple mechanisms including early desensitization of basophils and mast cells, regulating T-cell and B-cell responses, changing antibody isotypes, and decreasing activation, mediator release and affected tissue migration of eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. Similar molecular and cellular mechanisms have been observed in subcutaneous AIT, sublingual AIT and peptide immunotherapy as well as natural tolerance to high doses of allergen exposure in beekeepers and cat owners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Grasses and olive trees are the most common sources of allergenic pollen worldwide. Although they share some allergens, there are few studies analyzing the in vitro cross-reactivity between them. The aim was to define the cross-reactivity between Olea europaea and Phleum pratense using well-characterized sera of allergic children from Madrid, Spain. Methods 66 patients (mean age 10.32+/−4.07 years) were included in the study. All suffered from rhinoconjuntivitis and/or asthma and had a positive skin test and/or specific IgE determination to olive and grass pollen. Serum sIgE to individual allergens was conducted and sIgE against different grass species and olive was also determined by ELISA. Inhibition assays were performed using two serum sources, containing, or not, sIgE to minor allergens. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed in both extracts. Results 59/66 (89.39%) children had a positive sIgE determination by ELISA to grasses and 57/66 (86.36%) to olive pollen. There was no significant correlation between sIgE levels to grass and olive. Inhibition assays demonstrated no cross-reactivity between P. pratense and olive pollen when using the pool containing mainly sIgE to major allergens, whereas minimal to moderate cross-reactivity was detected when the serum contained high sIgE titers to minor allergens. Proteomic analyses revealed the presence of 42 common proteins in grasses and olive pollens. Conclusion No in vitro cross-reactivity was observed when sIgE was mainly directed to major allergens. In our population, sensitization to olive and grasses is not due to cross-reactivity. The contribution of the major allergens seems to be determinant. PMID:24940475
Kim, Tae-Eun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Nam-Yun; Choi, Seung-Young; Yong, Tai-soon; Nahm, Baek-Hie; Lee, Sangsun; Noh, Geunwoong
Type I allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity disease inflicting more than quarter of the world population. In order to identify allergen sources, skin provocation test and IgE serology was performed using allergen extracts. Such process identifies allergen-containing sources but cannot identify the disease-eliciting allergenic molecules. Recently, microarray technology has been developed for allergen-specific IgE detection using rolling circle amplification. This study was carried out to evaluate protein chip technology for the quantitative measurement and limits of sensitivity of multiple allergen-specific IgE by an immunofluorescence assay. Significance of positive calibrators was tested using purified human IgE. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), egg white, milk, soybean, and wheat were used as allergens and human serum albumin as negative control. Sensitivity and clinical efficacy of protein chip were evaluated using allergy immune serum for Dp. The fluorescent intensities for purified human IgE as calibrator were well correlated with the concentrations of human IgE. Two-fold dilution of serum allowed an optimal reaction with Dp (1 mg/ml) at which serum Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip were compatible with those by UniCap. The sensitivity of protein chip in this study was found at level of 1 IU/ml of IgE. Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip correlated well with those of UniCap by comparing 10 atopic dermatitis. Additional 18 sera were tested for above multiple antigens other than Dp and significant results were obtained for many antigens as well as Dp. These results indicated that spotting of heterogeneous protein mixture on protein chip and the quantitative measurement of serum allergen-specific IgE levels using immunofluorescence assay can be successfully applied in the clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of allergy and could be applied to diagnosis of autoimmune and infectious diseases
Bouley, Julien; Groeme, Rachel; Jain, Karine; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe
Background Allergy to short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen is a serious and expanding health problem in North America and Europe. Whereas only 10 short ragweed pollen allergens are officially recorded, patterns of IgE reactivity observed in ragweed allergic patients suggest that other allergens contribute to allergenicity. The objective of the present study was to identify novel allergens following extensive characterization of the transcriptome and proteome of short ragweed pollen. Methods Following a Proteomics-Informed-by-Transcriptomics approach, a comprehensive transcriptomic data set was built up from RNA-seq analysis of short ragweed pollen. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses and IgE reactivity profiling after high resolution 2D-gel electrophoresis were then combined to identify novel allergens. Results Short ragweed pollen transcripts were assembled after deep RNA sequencing and used to inform proteomic analyses, thus leading to the identification of 573 proteins in the short ragweed pollen. Patterns of IgE reactivity of individual sera from 22 allergic patients were assessed using an aqueous short ragweed pollen extract resolved over 2D-gels. Combined with information derived from the annotated pollen proteome, those analyses revealed the presence of multiple unreported IgE reactive proteins, including new Amb a 1 and Amb a 3 isoallergens as well as 7 novel candidate allergens reacting with IgEs from 20–70% of patients. The latter encompass members of the carbonic anhydrase, enolase, galactose oxidase, GDP dissociation inhibitor, pathogenesis related-17, polygalacturonase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase families. Conclusions We extended the list of allergens identified in short ragweed pollen. These findings have implications for both diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy purposes. PMID:26317427
Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Le Mignon, Maxime; Bouley, Julien; Groeme, Rachel; Jain, Karine; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe
Allergy to short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen is a serious and expanding health problem in North America and Europe. Whereas only 10 short ragweed pollen allergens are officially recorded, patterns of IgE reactivity observed in ragweed allergic patients suggest that other allergens contribute to allergenicity. The objective of the present study was to identify novel allergens following extensive characterization of the transcriptome and proteome of short ragweed pollen. Following a Proteomics-Informed-by-Transcriptomics approach, a comprehensive transcriptomic data set was built up from RNA-seq analysis of short ragweed pollen. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses and IgE reactivity profiling after high resolution 2D-gel electrophoresis were then combined to identify novel allergens. Short ragweed pollen transcripts were assembled after deep RNA sequencing and used to inform proteomic analyses, thus leading to the identification of 573 proteins in the short ragweed pollen. Patterns of IgE reactivity of individual sera from 22 allergic patients were assessed using an aqueous short ragweed pollen extract resolved over 2D-gels. Combined with information derived from the annotated pollen proteome, those analyses revealed the presence of multiple unreported IgE reactive proteins, including new Amb a 1 and Amb a 3 isoallergens as well as 7 novel candidate allergens reacting with IgEs from 20-70% of patients. The latter encompass members of the carbonic anhydrase, enolase, galactose oxidase, GDP dissociation inhibitor, pathogenesis related-17, polygalacturonase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase families. We extended the list of allergens identified in short ragweed pollen. These findings have implications for both diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy purposes.
Davies, Janet M; Voskamp, Astrid; Dang, Thanh D; Pettit, Benjamin; Loo, Dorothy; Petersen, Arnd; Hill, Michelle M; Upham, John W; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E
Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is an important pollen allergen source with a long season of pollination and wide distribution in subtropical and temperate regions. We aimed to characterize the 55 kDa allergen of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) and ascertain its clinical importance. BaGP extract was separated by 2D-PAGE and immunoblotted with serum IgE of a grass pollen-allergic patient. The amino-terminal protein sequence of the predominant allergen isoform at 55 kDa had similarity with the group 13 allergens of Timothy grass and maize pollen, Phl p 13 and Zea m 13. Four sequences obtained by rapid amplification of the allergen cDNA ends represented multiple isoforms of Pas n 13. The predicted full length cDNA for Pas n 13 encoded a 423 amino acid glycoprotein including a signal peptide of 28 residues and with a predicted pI of 7.0. Tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides of 2D gel spots identified peptides specific to the deduced amino acid sequence for each of the four Pas n 13 cDNA, representing 47% of the predicted mature protein sequence of Pas n 13. There was 80.6% and 72.6% amino acid identity with Zea m 13 and Phl p 13, respectively. Reactivity with a Phl p 13-specific monoclonal antibody AF6 supported designation of this allergen as Pas n 13. The allergen was purified from BaGP extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography. Purified Pas n 13 reacted with serum IgE of 34 of 71 (48%) grass pollen-allergic patients and specifically inhibited IgE reactivity with the 55 kDa band of BaGP for two grass pollen-allergic donors. Four isoforms of Pas n 13 from pI 6.3-7.8 had IgE-reactivity with grass pollen allergic sera. The allergenic activity of purified Pas n 13 was demonstrated by activation of basophils from whole blood of three grass pollen-allergic donors tested but not control donors. Pas n 13 is thus a clinically relevant pollen allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass likely to be important in eliciting
Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rodríguez, Julia; González, Angela; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cuadrado, Carmen; Crespo, Jesús F; Burbano, Carmen
Enzymatic hydrolysis and further processing are commonly used to produce hypoallergenic dietary products derived from different protein sources, such as cow's milk. Lentils and chickpeas seem to be an important cause of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in the Mediterranean area and India. Some studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic treatments on the in vitro immunological reactivity of members of the Leguminosae family, such as soybean, chickpea, lentil, and lupine. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies carried out to evaluate the effect on IgE reactivity of these food-hydrolysis products with sera from patients with well-documented allergy to these foods. In this study, lentil protein extract was hydrolyzed by sequential action of an endoprotease (Alcalase) and an exoprotease (Flavourzyme). Immunoreactivity to raw and hydrolyzed lentil extract was evaluated by means of IgE immunoblotting and ELISA using sera from five patients with clinical allergy to lentil. The results indicated that sequential hydrolysis of lentil results in an important proteolytic destruction of IgE-binding epitopes shown by in vitro experiments. However, some allergenic proteins were still detected by sera from four out of five patients in the last step of sequential hydrolyzation.
Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto
Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525
Jiang, Bingjun; Qu, Hong; Hu, Yuanlei; Ni, Ting; Lin, Zhongping
Background Safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) food, with regard to allergenic potential of transgene-encoded xenoproteins, typically involves several different methods, evaluation by digestibility being one thereof. However, there are still debates about whether the allergenicity of food allergens is related to their resistance to digestion by the gastric fluid. The disagreements may in part stem from classification of allergens only by their sources, which we believe is inadequate, and the difficulties in achieving identical experimental conditions for studying digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) so that results can be compared. Here, we reclassify allergenic food allergens into alimentary canal-sensitized (ACS) and non-alimentary canal-sensitized (NACS) allergens and use a computational model that simulates gastric fluid digestion to analyze the digestibilities of these two types. Results The model presented in this paper is as effective as SGF digestion experiments, but more stable and reproducible. On the basis of this model, food allergens are satisfactorily classified as ACS and NACS types by their pathways for sensitization; the former are relatively resistant to gastric fluid digestion while the later are relatively labile. Conclusion The results suggest that it is better to classify allergens into ACS and NACS types when understanding the relationship between their digestibility and allergenicity and the digestibility of a target foreign protein is a parameter for evaluating its allergenicity during safety assessments of GM food. PMID:17922925
Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:22409901
Karp, Christopher L
Why specific, ubiquitous, otherwise innocuous environmental proteins tend to provoke maladaptive, T(H)2-polarized immune responses in susceptible hosts is a fundamental mechanistic question for those interested in the pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention of allergic disease. The current renaissance in the study of innate immunity has provided important insights into this question. The theme emerging from recent studies is that direct (dys)functional interactions with pathways of innate immune activation that evolved to signal the presence of microbial infection are central to the molecular basis for allergenicity. This article reviews these data. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Choopong, Jintarat; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee
Dermatophagoides farinae mite is a predominant source of indoor allergens causing high incidence of allergy worldwide. People with different genetic background respond differently to the mite components, and thus the component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) is preferred to the conventional allergy test based on crude mite extract. In this study, proteome and culprit components in the D. farinae whole body extract that sensitized the allergic patients were studied by using SDS-PAGE (1DE) and 2DE-IgE immunoblotting followed by LC-MS/MS and database search for protein identification. From the 1DE, the mite extract revealed 105 proteins that could be classified into seven functionally different groups: allergens, structural components, enzymes, enzyme inhibitor, receptor proteins, transporters, and binding/regulatory/cell signaling proteins. From the 2DE, the mite extract produced 94 spots; 63 were bound by IgE in sera of 20 D. farinae allergic patients. One more protein that was not revealed by the 2DE and protein staining reacted with IgE in 2 allergic patients. Proteins in 40 spots could be identified as 35 different types. Three of them reacted to IgE of >50% of the allergic patients, and hence they are major allergens: tropomyosin or Der f 10 (75%), aconitate hydratase (70%), and one uncharacterized protein (55%). Aconitate hydratase is a novel D. farinae major allergen unraveled in this study. Several mite minor allergens that have never been previously reported are also identified. The data have clinical applications in the component-resolved diagnosis for tailor-designed allergen-specific immunotherapy.
Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena
Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.
Badran, Ahmed Ali; Morais, Sergi; Maquieira, Ángel
A multiplex competitive microimmunoassay for the simultaneous determination of gliadin, casein, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin is presented. The assay in microarray format is performed on a DVD where the allergens are physisorbed on the polycarbonate surface of the disc. The immunointeraction is detected using a mixture of specific gold-labeled antibodies and the signal amplified with the silver enhancement method. The optical density of the precipitate, read by a DVD drive, is related to the concentration of the four allergens in sample. An optimized protocol for the simultaneous extraction of the allergen proteins from food samples is also addressed. The suitability of the method is demonstrated for the simultaneous quantitative extraction and determination of the targeted allergens in spiked baby foods, juices, and beers. The sensitivity (EC50) of the multiplexed assay was 0.04, 0.40, 0.08, and 0.16 mg L(-1) for gliadin, casein, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin, respectively, and the recovery results from the analysis of food samples ranged from 72 to 117%. A portable, easy-to-use, array-based bioanalytical method is developed for quantification of food allergens with a limit of detection below the accepted levels of the international legislations, which allows promotion of food safety and quality. Graphical abstract GLI Gliadin, CAS Casein, β-LAC β-lactoglobulin, OVA Ovalbumin.
Crops with significant food allergen issues, include legumes, peanut and soybean, cereal grains, such as wheat and maize, and tree nuts (walnut, Brazil nut, among other phylogenetically diverse species) (Teuber et al. 2006). Officially recognized allergenic proteins may include one or multiple prot...
A small number of protein families are responsible for food allergies suffered by the majority of allergy patients. What properties of these proteins make them allergens is not clear at present. Reliable methods for allergen prediction and mitigation are lacking. Most the immediate type of food alle...
Food allergens are a significant worldwide public health issue. Estimates for the prevalence of food allergies are around 1-2 % of the total population and up to 8 % of children; although, the prevalence may vary between populations and age groups. Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods. The...
Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D
Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to
Chew, Ginger L
In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics, much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies for decreasing exposures.
Janković, V.; Popov Raljić, J.; Đorđević, V.
Consumers with potentially fatal food allergies are dependent on correct product labelling to protect their health. The food industry is responsible for providing every detail consumers need to make informed decisions. Considering public health, food suppliers have to monitor the presence of allergens, prevent cross-contamination and label products accurately. Allergen labelling of food products, drinks and non pre-packed food and drink products is clearly defined with legal regulations. To achieve this, a complete understanding of each product’s allergenic ingredients is needed and cross-contamination of food with allergens must be avoided. Raw materials need to be checked, every ingredient must be verified and every single allergen has to be stipulated. A mislabeled product could be recalled at potential cost, financially damaging business and at the same time, negatively impacting brand and reputation.
Schalock, Peter C; Dunnick, Cory A; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce; Warshaw, Erin; Mowad, Christen
Evidence for the effectiveness of patch testing and the need for an expanded series that provides experience and evidence-based suggestions for an extended patch testing series are examined in this review. Many of those testing with shorter allergen series are interested in expanding the spectrum of patch testing. The American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) Core Allergen Series Group has arranged a group of suggested allergen groups that can be logically scaled up or down depending on the needs of the patch tester and the community being tested. This is not an "ACDS 80 Standard." We suggest a core group of allergens similar to the TRUE Test (SmartPractice, Phoenix, Ariz) with subsequent trays providing a greater breadth of coverage in a logical fashion, with more likely allergens being higher in the tray. For more extensive testing, specialty trays (ie, cosmetics, metals, plant, etc) are recommended.
Chew, Ginger L.
In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies to decrease exposures. PMID:22825884
Gendel, Steven M
Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.
Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.
Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approx 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.
Nelson, Harold S
Evidence for one airway continues to accumulate. Nasal allergen challenges increase lower airway inflammation, and nasal corticosteroid treatment reduces lower airway inflammation. Allergic respiratory inflammation might even spread systemically to involve nonrespiratory organs. Eosinophilic enteritis and eosinophilic esophagitis are reported during pollen seasons in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Chronic hypertrophic sinusitis (CHS) is found in the majority of patients with asthma. Like asthma, the histology of CHS is characterized by epithelial damage, basement membrane thickening, and eosinophilic inflammation. The damaged epithelium might explain the acute bacterial exacerbations seen in patients with CHS. Studies have extended evidence of the safety and efficacy of the second- and third-generation antihistamines to younger children and to patients with perennial rhinitis but continue to show improvement of symptom scores over that seen with placebo of less than 20%. Studies on antihistamine use in the first trimester in nearly 500 women (65% taking loratadine) revealed no increase in the complications of pregnancy or congenital anomalies. Positive skin prick test responses to birch in asymptomatic young adults predicted later development of clinical allergic rhinitis. A dose response was demonstrated for immunotherapy with cat dander extract. The best results were in subjects receiving a dose containing 15 microg of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 (equivalent to approximately 2500 bioequivalent allergen units). Both topical intranasal immunotherapy and high-dose sublingual immunotherapy have been repeatedly proved to be safe and effective in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells secreting IL-10, TGF-beta, or both appear important in normal individuals and in patients treated with allergen immunotherapy in maintaining or restoring normal T(H)1/T(H)2 balance and overall suppression of both phenotypes.
High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...
Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R
The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity.
Marinho, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Gaspar, A; Santa-Marta, C; Pires, G; Postigo, I; Guisantes, J; Martínez, J; Rosado-Pinto, J
Barnacles are a type of seafood with worldwide distribution and abundant along the shores of temperate seas. They are particularly appreciated and regularly consumed in Portugal as well as in Spain, France and South America, but barnacle allergy is a rare condition of which there is only one reference in the indexed literature. The molecular allergens and possible cross-reactivity phenomena implicated (namely with mites) have not been established. To demonstrate the IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle and to identify the proteins implicated as well as possible cross-reactivity phenomena with mites. We report the clinical and laboratory data of five patients with documented IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle. The diagnosis was based on a suggestive clinical history combined with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to barnacle--prick to prick method. Two barnacle extracts were prepared (raw and cooked barnacle) and sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting were performed. An immunoblotting inhibition assay with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also done in order to evaluate cross-reactivity. All patients had mite-related asthma and the allergic rhinoconjunctivitis; they all experienced mucocutaneous symptoms. All of them had positive SPT to barnacle, and the immunoblotting showed several allergenic fractions with a wide molecular weight range (19 - 94 kDa). The D. pteronyssinus extract inhibited several IgE-binding protein fractions in the barnacle extract. We describe five patients with IgE-mediated barnacle allergy. We also describe a group of IgE-binding+proteins between 30 and 75 kDa as the allergenic fractions of this type of Crustacea. Cross-reactivity with D. pteronyssinus was demonstrated in two cases.
Mishra, Ankita; Gaur, S N; Singh, B P; Arora, Naveen
Genetically modified (GM) crops require allergenicity and toxicity assessment of the novel protein(s) to ensure complete safety to the consumers. These assessments are performed in accordance with the guidelines proposed by Codex (2003) and ICMR (2008). The guidelines recommend sequence homology analysis as a preliminary step towards allergenicity prediction, later in vitro experiments may be performed to confirm allergenicity. In the present study, an in silico approach is employed to evaluate the allergenic potential of six transgenes routinely used for the development of GM food crops. Among the genes studied, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and osmotin shares greater than 90% identity with Hev b 10 and Cap a 1w, respectively. Chitinase shares greater than 70% identity with allergens namely Pers a 1 and Hev b 11, and fungal chitinase showed significant IgE binding with 7 of 75 patients' sera positive to different food extracts. Glucanases (alfalfa, wheat) and glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene share 50% homology with allergens like - Ole e 9, Cla h 10 and Alt a 10. The results demonstrate the allergenic potential of six genes and can serve as a guide for selection of transgenes to develop GM crops.
Krause, Susanne; Reese, Gerald; Randow, Stefanie; Zennaro, Danila; Quaratino, Donato; Palazzo, Paola; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta; Petersen, Arnd; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Mari, Adriano
Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) represent potent pollen and food allergens. However, the allergenic properties of peanut LTP have not been studied. To identify LTP in peanut extract using sera from subjects with peanut allergy and Pru p 3-sensitized subjects from Southern Europe, clone and express this protein, and obtain information on the importance as allergen for these selected patients. Peanut LTP (Ara h 9) was cloned and sequenced by using a combination of bioinformatic and molecular biology tools (PCR, immunoblotting, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool [BLAST] searches). The immunologic properties of Ara h 9, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 were studied by using sera from subjects with peanut and peach allergy from Italy by immunoblotting and allergen microarray technology. Two Ara h 9 isoforms-Ara h 9.01 and Ara h 9.02-were cloned and expressed. Ara h 9 represented a minor allergen for subjects with peanut allergy. However, including Ara h 9 as single component for serologic detection of sensitization to peanut by component-resolved diagnosis seems crucial, because the frequency of sensitization to the classic major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 was low in these patients from Southern Europe. Ara h 9 is a new member of the LTP allergen family that seems to play an important role in peanut allergy for patients from the Mediterranean area.
Baldo, B A; Baker, R S
Forty-seven subjects diagnosed as having inhalant allergies to fungi were tested for allergic sensitivity to bakers' yeast. Skin prick tests with yeast extract showed that 35 subjects responded with wheal reactions that were at least 3 mm while 32 subjects were regarded as clearly RAST-positive to bakers' yeast antigens. Skin and RAST testing with purified enolase from bakers' yeast and comparisons with the whole yeast extract showed that the enzyme is a major allergenic component of the extract. This conclusion was supported by results of electroblotting studies. RAST inhibition experiments demonstrated allergenic cross-reactivity between bakers' yeast, bakers' yeast enolase and Candida albicans.
The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.
Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter
This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding, or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed. PMID:26870080
Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H
The allergens associated with cashew food allergy have not been well-characterized. We sought to identify the major allergens in cashew nut by performing IgE immunoblots to dissociated and reduced or nonreduced cashew protein extracts, followed by sequencing of the peptides of interest. Sera from 15 subjects with life-threatening reactions to cashews and 8 subjects who tolerate cashews but have life-threatening reactions to other tree nuts were compared. An aqueous cashew protein extract containing albumin/globulin was separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subjected to IgE immunoblotting using patient sera. Selected IgE reactive bands were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Each of the 15 sera from cashew-allergic subjects showed IgE binding to the cashew protein extract. The dominant IgE-binding antigens in the reduced preparations included peptides in the 31-35 kD range, consistent with the large subunits of the major storage 13S globulin (legumin-like protein). Low-molecular-weight polypeptides of the 2S albumin family, with similarity to the major walnut allergen Jug r 1, also bound IgE. The sera from eight patients who tolerate cashew but displayed allergies to other tree nuts showed only minimal or no IgE binding to cashew. Cashew food allergy is associated with the presence of IgE directed against the major seed storage proteins in cashew, including the 13S globulin (legumin group) and 2S albumins, both of which represent major allergen classes in several plant seeds. Thus, the legumin-group proteins and 2S albumins are again identified as major food allergens, which will help further research into seed protein allergenicity.
Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana Isabel; González-Muñoz, Miguel; de las Heras, Cristina; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio
Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses such as Anisakiasis were once limited to people living in countries where raw or undercooked fish is traditionally consumed. Nowadays, several factors, such as the growing international markets, the improved transportation systems, the population movements, and the expansion of ethnic ways of cooking in developed countries, have increased the population exposed to these parasites. Improved diagnosis technology and a better knowledge of the symptoms by clinicians have increased the Anisakiasis cases worldwide. Dietary recommendations to Anisakis-sensitized patients include the consumption of frozen or well-cooked fish, but these probably do not defend sensitized patients from allergen exposure. The aim of our work was to develop a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify Anisakis simplex allergens in fish muscle and its derivatives. Protein extraction was made in saline buffer followed by preparation under acid conditions. A. simplex antigens were detected by IgG immunoblot and quantified by dot blot. The allergenic properties of the extracts were assessed by IgE immunoblotting and basophil activation test. We were able to detect less than 1 ppm of A. simplex antigens, among them the allergen Ani s 4, in fish muscle with no cross-reactions and with a recovery rate of 82.5%. A. simplex antigens were detected in hakes and anchovies but not in sardines, red mullets, or shellfish. We detected A. simplex allergens in cooked hakes and also in hake stock. We proved that A. simplex allergens are preserved in long-term frozen storage (-20 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C for 11 months) of parasitized hakes. Basophil activation tests have proven the capability of the A. simplex-positive fish extracts to induce allergic symptoms.
Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan
The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization (CS) and allergy following increased penetration of potential allergens. However, the relationship between common dermatoses such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and the development of contact allergy (CA) is complex, and depends on immunologic responses and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due to increased levels of Th17 cells and its associated cytokines. As for AD, a positive association to CS has been established in epidemiological studies, but is still unresolved. Experimental studies show, however, an inverse relationship between AD and CS. The opposing and antagonistic influences of Th1 (CS) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen-presenting cells and promotes their migration to local lymph nodes, thus increasing the probability of CS and ultimately the development of CA.
Esposito, W A; Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Chillrud, S N; Miller, R L; Kinney, P L
We designed and tested a sampling and analysis system for quantitative measurement of airborne cockroach allergen with sufficient sensitivity for residential exposure assessment. Integrated 1-week airborne particle samples were collected at 10-15 LPM in 19 New York City apartments in which an asthmatic child who was allergic to cockroach allergen resided. Four simultaneous air samples were collected in each home: at heights of 0.3 and 1 m in the child's bedroom and in the kitchen. Extracts of air samples were analyzed by ELISA for the cockroach allergen Bla g2, modified by amplifying the colorimetric signal generated via use of AMPLI-Q detection system (DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA, USA). Settled dust samples were quantified by conventional ELISA. Of the homes where cockroach allergen was detected in settled dust, Bla g2 also was detected in 87% and 93% of air samples in the bedroom and kitchen, respectively. Airborne Bla g2 levels were highly correlated within and between the bedroom and kitchen locations (P < 0.001). Expressed as picogram per cubic meter, the room average geometric mean for Bla g2 concentrations was 1.9 pg/m³ (95% CI 0.63, 4.57) and 3.8 pg/m³ (95% CI 1.35, 9.25) in bedrooms and kitchens, respectively. This method offers an attractive supplement to settled dust sampling for cockroach allergen exposure health studies. Until now, cockroach allergen exposures have usually been assessed by collection and analysis of settled dust, on the assumption that airborne cockroach allergen cannot be reliably measured. In this study, a sensitive and quantitative method for measuring indoor airborne exposures to cockroach allergens involving a 7-day integrated total suspended particulate (TSP) sample collected at approximately 10-15 l/min was developed. Investigators are now empowered with an alternative exposure assessment method to supplement their studies and the understanding of allergen aerodynamics in the homes of children with asthma. We report
Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad
A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu
The crystallization of peanut allergen Ara h 3 is reported. The peanut is a significant food source, but is responsible for many cases of anaphylaxis. The peanut 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ara h 3 is one of the best characterized allergens. In this study, Ara h 3 was extracted from peanut kernels and purified by sequential anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and gel-filtration chromatography to very high purity to facilitate crystallization and structural studies. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained and refinement of the structure is currently under way.