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Sample records for allergenic molecules recognized

  1. Characterization of maize chitinase-A, a tough allergenic molecule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergy is recognized as a major health concern with a steady increasing trend in Western countries. Food allergens are proteins belonging to a small group of about 30 families, with restricted biochemical functions. This leads to the assumption that allergens must meet specific, but not yet co...

  2. Allergen

    MedlinePlus

    Common allergens include: Animal proteins and animal dander Dust Drugs (such as antibiotics or medicines you put on your skin) Foods (such as egg, peanut, milk, nuts, soy, fish, animal meat, and wheat) Fungal spores ...

  3. Testing small molecule analogues of the Acanthocheilonema viteae immunomodulator ES-62 against clinically relevant allergens.

    PubMed

    Janicova, L; Rzepecka, J; Rodgers, D T; Doonan, J; Bell, K S; Lumb, F E; Suckling, C J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2016-06-01

    ES-62 is a glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae that protects against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in mice by virtue of covalently attached anti-inflammatory phosphorylcholine (PC) residues. We have recently generated a library of small molecule analogues (SMAs) of ES-62 based around its active PC moiety as a starting point in novel drug development for asthma and identified two compounds - termed 11a and 12b - that mirror ES-62's protective effects. In this study, we have moved away from OVA, a model allergen, to test the SMAs against two clinically relevant allergens - house dust mite (HDM) and cockroach allergen (CR) extract. We show that both SMAs offer some protection against development of lung allergic responses to CR, in particular reducing eosinophil infiltration, whereas only SMA 12b is effective in protecting against eosinophil-dependent HDM-induced allergy. These data therefore suggest that helminth molecule-induced protection against model allergens may not necessarily translate to clinically relevant allergens. Nevertheless, in this study, we have managed to demonstrate that it is possible to produce synthetic drug-like molecules based on a parasitic worm product that show therapeutic potential with respect to asthma resulting from known triggers in humans.

  4. Allergen Micro-Bead Array for IgE Detection: A Feasibility Study Using Allergenic Molecules Tested on a Flexible Multiplex Flow Cytometric Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Pomponi, Debora; Bernardi, Maria Livia; Liso, Marina; Palazzo, Paola; Tuppo, Lisa; Rafaiani, Chiara; Santoro, Mario; Labrada, Alexis; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Adriano; Scala, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergies represent the most prevalent non infective diseases worldwide. Approaching IgE-mediated sensitizations improved much by adopting allergenic molecules instead of extracts, and by using the micro-technology for multiplex testing. Objective and Methods To provide a proof-of-concept that a flow cytometric bead array is a feasible mean for the detection of specific IgE reactivity to allergenic molecules in a multiplex-like way. A flow cytometry Allergenic Molecule-based micro-bead Array system (ABA) was set by coupling allergenic molecules with commercially available micro-beads. Allergen specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, as well as samples from 167 allergic patients, characterized by means of the ISAC microarray system, were used as means to show the feasibility of the ABA. Three hundred and thirty-six sera were tested for 1 or more of the 16 selected allergens, for a total number of 1,519 tests on each of the two systems. Results Successful coupling was initially verified by detecting the binding of rabbit polyclonal IgG, mouse monoclonal, and pooled human IgE toward three allergens, namely nDer s 1, nPen m 1, and nPru p 3. The ABA assay showed to detect IgE to nAct d 1, nAct d 11, rAln g 1, nAmb a 1, nArt v 3, rBet v 1, rCor a 1, nCup a 1, nDer p 1, nDer s 1, rHev b 5, nOle e 1, rPar j 2, nPen m 1, rPhl p 1, and nPru p 3. Results obtained by ABA IgE testing were highly correlated to ISAC testing (r = 0.87, p<0.0001). No unspecific binding was recorded because of high total IgE values. Conclusion The ABA assay represents a useful and flexible method for multiplex IgE detection using allergenic molecules. As also shown by our initial experiments with monoclonals and polyclonals, ABA is suitable for detecting other human and non-human immunoglobulins. PMID:22530068

  5. Allergens of weed pollen: an overview on recombinant and natural molecules.

    PubMed

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    Weeds represent a botanically unrelated group of plants that usually lack commercial or aesthetical value. Pollen of allergenic weeds are able to trigger type I reactions in allergic patients and can be found in the plant families of Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Plantaginaceae, Urticaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. To date, 34 weed pollen allergens are listed in the IUIS allergen nomenclature database, which were physicochemically and immunologically characterized to varying degrees. Relevant allergens of weeds belong to the pectate lyase family, defensin-like family, Ole e 1-like family, non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 family and the pan-allergens profilin and polcalcins. This review provides an overview on weed pollen allergens primarily focusing on the molecular level. In particular, the characteristics and properties of purified recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic derivatives are described and their potential use in diagnosis and therapy of weed pollen allergy is discussed.

  6. Allergens, sources, particles, and molecules: Why do we make IgE responses?

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Commins, Scott P; Schuyler, Alexander J; Erwin, Elizabeth A; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-10-01

    Allergens are foreign proteins or glycoproteins that are the target of IgE antibody responses in humans. The relationship between subsequent exposure and the allergic symptoms is often or usually obvious; however, there is increasing evidence that in asthma, atopic dermatitis and some forms of food allergy the induction of symptoms is delayed or chronic. The primary exposure to inhaled allergens is to the particles, which are capable of carrying allergens in the air. Thus, the response reflects not only the properties of the proteins, but also the biological properties of the other constituents of the particle. This is best understood in relation to the mite fecal particles in which the contents include many different immunologically active substances. Allergic disease first became a major problem over 100 years ago, and for many years sensitization to pollens was the dominant form of these diseases. The rise in pediatric asthma correlates best with the move of children indoors, which started in 1960 and was primarily driven by indoor entertainment for children. While the causes of the increase are not simple they include both a major increase in sensitization to indoor allergens and the complex consequences of inactivity. Most recently, there has also been an increase in food allergy. Understanding this has required a reappraisal of the importance of the skin as a route for sensitization. Overall, understanding allergic diseases requires knowing about the sources, the particles and the routes of exposure as well as the properties of the individual allergens.

  7. A B Cell Epitope Peptide Derived from the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Boosts Allergen-Specific Secondary Antibody Responses without Allergen-Specific T Cell Help

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Meena; Freidl, Raphaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Baranyi, Ulrike; Wekerle, Thomas; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Phl p 1, the major timothy grass pollen allergen, belongs to the cross-reactive group 1 grass pollen allergens that are thought to initiate allergic sensitization to grass pollen. Repeated allergen encounter boosts allergen-specific IgE production and enhances clinical sensitivity in patients. To investigate immunological mechanisms underlying the boosting of allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses and the allergen epitopes involved, a murine model for Phl p 1 was established. A B cell epitope–derived peptide of Phl p 1 devoid of allergen-specific T cell epitopes, as recognized by BALB/c mice, was fused to an allergen-unrelated carrier in the form of a recombinant fusion protein and used for sensitization. This fusion protein allowed the induction of allergen-specific IgE Ab responses without allergen-specific T cell help. Allergen-specific Ab responses were subsequently boosted with molecules containing the B cell epitope–derived peptide without carrier or linked to other allergen-unrelated carriers. Oligomeric peptide bound to a carrier different from that which had been used for sensitization boosted allergen-specific secondary IgE responses without a detectable allergen-specific T cell response. Our results indicate that allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses can be boosted by repetitive B cell epitopes without allergen-specific T cell help by cross-linking of the B cell epitope receptor. This finding has important implications for the design of new allergy vaccines. PMID:28093528

  8. A B Cell Epitope Peptide Derived from the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Boosts Allergen-Specific Secondary Antibody Responses without Allergen-Specific T Cell Help.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Meena; Freidl, Raphaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Baranyi, Ulrike; Wekerle, Thomas; Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, Birgit

    2017-02-15

    More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Phl p 1, the major timothy grass pollen allergen, belongs to the cross-reactive group 1 grass pollen allergens that are thought to initiate allergic sensitization to grass pollen. Repeated allergen encounter boosts allergen-specific IgE production and enhances clinical sensitivity in patients. To investigate immunological mechanisms underlying the boosting of allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses and the allergen epitopes involved, a murine model for Phl p 1 was established. A B cell epitope-derived peptide of Phl p 1 devoid of allergen-specific T cell epitopes, as recognized by BALB/c mice, was fused to an allergen-unrelated carrier in the form of a recombinant fusion protein and used for sensitization. This fusion protein allowed the induction of allergen-specific IgE Ab responses without allergen-specific T cell help. Allergen-specific Ab responses were subsequently boosted with molecules containing the B cell epitope-derived peptide without carrier or linked to other allergen-unrelated carriers. Oligomeric peptide bound to a carrier different from that which had been used for sensitization boosted allergen-specific secondary IgE responses without a detectable allergen-specific T cell response. Our results indicate that allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses can be boosted by repetitive B cell epitopes without allergen-specific T cell help by cross-linking of the B cell epitope receptor. This finding has important implications for the design of new allergy vaccines.

  9. The galactose-recognizing system of rat peritoneal macrophages; identification and characterization of the receptor molecule.

    PubMed

    Kelm, S; Schauer, R

    1988-08-01

    Resident rat peritoneal macrophages express a galactose-recognizing system, which mediates binding and uptake of cells and glycoproteins exposing terminal galactose residues. Here we describe the identification, isolation, and characterization of the corresponding receptor molecule. Using photoaffinity labelling of adherent peritoneal macrophages with the 4-azido-6-125I-salicylic acid derivative of anti-freeze glycoprotein 8 followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, we identified the receptor of these cells as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa. Furthermore, cell surface receptors were radioiodinated by an affinity-supported labelling technique using the conjugate of asialoorosomucoid and lactoperoxidase, followed by extraction and isolation by affinity chromatography. Finally, the native receptor was isolated and analysed. To estimate its binding activity in solutions, a suitable binding assay was developed, using the precipitation of receptor-ligand complex with polyethylene glycol to separate bound from unbound 125I-asialoorosomucoid, which was used as ligand. It is shown that the isolated receptor binds to galactose-exposing particles and distinguishes between sialidase-treated and -untreated erythrocytes, similar to peritoneal macrophages. The binding characteristics of the membrane-bound and the solubilized receptor are described in the following paper of Lee et al.

  10. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    PubMed

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance.

  11. Bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrins: host membranes that recognize guest molecules.

    PubMed

    Falvey, Patrick; Lim, Choon Woo; Darcy, Raphael; Revermann, Tobias; Karst, Uwe; Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Lazar, Adina; Coleman, Anthony W; Reinhoudt, David N; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2005-02-04

    A family of amphiphilic cyclodextrins (6, 7) has been prepared through 6-S-alkylation (alkyl=n-dodecyl and n-hexadecyl) of the primary side and 2-O-PEGylation of the secondary side of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)). These cyclodextrins form nonionic bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. The bilayer vesicles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, dye encapsulation, and capillary electrophoresis. The molecular packing of the amphiphilic cyclodextrins was investigated by using small-angle X-ray diffraction of bilayers deposited on glass and pressure-area isotherms obtained from Langmuir monolayers on the air-water interface. The bilayer thickness is dependent on the chain length, whereas the average molecular surface area scales with the cyclodextrin ring size. The alkyl chains of the cyclodextrins in the bilayer are deeply interdigitated. Molecular recognition of a hydrophobic anion (adamantane carboxylate) by the cyclodextrin vesicles was investigated by using capillary electrophoresis, thereby exploiting the increase in electrophoretic mobility that occurs when the hydrophobic anions bind to the nonionic cyclodextrin vesicles. It was found that in spite of the presence of oligo(ethylene glycol) substituents, the beta-cyclodextrin vesicles retain their characteristic affinity for adamantane carboxylate (association constant K(a)=7.1 x 10(3) M(-1)), whereas gamma-cyclodextrin vesicles have less affinity (K(a)=3.2 x 10(3) M(-1)), and alpha-cyclodextrin or non-cyclodextrin, nonionic vesicles have very little affinity (K(a) approximately 100 M(-1)). Specific binding of the adamantane carboxylate to beta-cyclodextrin vesicles was also evident in competition experiments with beta-cyclodextrin in solution. Hence, the cyclodextrin vesicles can function as host bilayer membranes that recognize small guest molecules by specific noncovalent interaction.

  12. Phage displayed peptide recognizing porcine aminopeptidase N is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PEDV entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phage-displayed peptides designated H, S and F that recognize porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN), the cellular receptor of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were able to inhibit cell infection by TGEV. These same peptides had no inhibitory effects on infection of Vero cells by po...

  13. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  14. LVIS553 Transcriptional Regulator Specifically Recognizes Novobiocin as an Effector Molecule*

    PubMed Central

    Pagliai, Fernando A.; Gardner, Christopher L.; Pande, Santosh G.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify small molecules with high affinity involved in the allosteric regulation of LVIS553, a MarR member from Lactobacillus brevis ATCC367. Using high throughput screening, novobiocin was found to specifically bind LVIS553 with a KD = 33.8 ± 2.9 μm consistent with a biologically relevant ligand. Structure guided site-directed mutagenesis identified Lys9 as a key residue in novobiocin recognition. The results found in vitro were correlated in vivo. An increased tolerance to the antibiotic was observed when LVIS553 and the downstream putative transport protein LVIS552 were either expressed in a low copy plasmid in L. brevis or as a single copy chromosomal insertion in Bacillus subtilis. We provide evidence that LVIS553 is involved in the specific regulation of a new mechanism of tolerance to novobiocin. PMID:20308066

  15. Allergen-induced resistin-like molecule-α promotes esophageal epithelial cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Mavi, Parm; Niranjan, Rituraj; Dutt, Parmesh; Zaidi, Asifa; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Korfhagen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Resistin-like molecule (Relm)-α is a secreted, cysteine-rich protein belonging to a newly defined family of proteins, including resistin, Relm-β, and Relm-γ. Although resistin was initially defined based on its insulin-resistance activity, the family members are highly induced in various inflammatory states. Earlier studies implicated Relm-α in insulin resistance, asthmatic responses, and intestinal inflammation; however, its function still remains an enigma. We now report that Relm-α is strongly induced in the esophagus in an allergen-challenged murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Furthermore, to understand the in vivo role of Relm-α, we generated Relm-α gene-inducible bitransgenic mice by using lung-specific CC-10 promoter (CC10-rtTA-Relm-α). We found Relm-α protein is significantly induced in the esophagus of CC10-rtTA-Relm-α bitransgenic mice exposed to doxycycline food. The most prominent effect observed by the induction of Relm-α is epithelial cell hyperplasia, basal layer thickness, accumulation of activated CD4+ and CD4− T cell subsets, and eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus. The in vitro experiments further confirm that Relm-α promotes primary epithelial cell proliferation but has no chemotactic activity for eosinophils. Taken together, our studies report for the first time that Relm-α induction in the esophagus has a major role in promoting epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness, and the accumulation of activated CD4+ and CD4− T cell subsets may be responsible for partial esophageal eosinophilia in the mouse models of EoE. Notably, the epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness are the characteristic features commonly observed in human EoE. PMID:24994859

  16. Allergen-induced resistin-like molecule-α promotes esophageal epithelial cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Mavi, Parm; Niranjan, Rituraj; Dutt, Parmesh; Zaidi, Asifa; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Korfhagen, Thomas; Mishra, Anil

    2014-09-01

    Resistin-like molecule (Relm)-α is a secreted, cysteine-rich protein belonging to a newly defined family of proteins, including resistin, Relm-β, and Relm-γ. Although resistin was initially defined based on its insulin-resistance activity, the family members are highly induced in various inflammatory states. Earlier studies implicated Relm-α in insulin resistance, asthmatic responses, and intestinal inflammation; however, its function still remains an enigma. We now report that Relm-α is strongly induced in the esophagus in an allergen-challenged murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Furthermore, to understand the in vivo role of Relm-α, we generated Relm-α gene-inducible bitransgenic mice by using lung-specific CC-10 promoter (CC10-rtTA-Relm-α). We found Relm-α protein is significantly induced in the esophagus of CC10-rtTA-Relm-α bitransgenic mice exposed to doxycycline food. The most prominent effect observed by the induction of Relm-α is epithelial cell hyperplasia, basal layer thickness, accumulation of activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) T cell subsets, and eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus. The in vitro experiments further confirm that Relm-α promotes primary epithelial cell proliferation but has no chemotactic activity for eosinophils. Taken together, our studies report for the first time that Relm-α induction in the esophagus has a major role in promoting epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness, and the accumulation of activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) T cell subsets may be responsible for partial esophageal eosinophilia in the mouse models of EoE. Notably, the epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness are the characteristic features commonly observed in human EoE.

  17. [New aero-allergens].

    PubMed

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Emerging pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Salamanca, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Numerous pollen allergens have been reported over the last few years. Most of them belong to well-known families of proteins but some others constitute the first member of new allergenic families. Some of the factors that can contribute to the detection and identification of new pollen allergens are: a) advances in the technology tools for molecular analysis; and b) the deep knowledge of many allergenic sources. The combination of these factors has provided vast information on the olive pollen allergogram and the identification of minor allergens that become major ones for a significant population. The close taxonomical relationship between olive tree and ash -both Oleaceae- has permitted to identify Fra e 1 (the Ole e 1-like allergen) in ash pollen and to detect the presence of protein homologues of Ole e 3 and Ole e 6. In the other hand, extensive areas of south Europe are suffering an increasing desertification. As a consequence of this, new botanical species are spontaneously growing in these areas or being used in greening ground programs: Chenopodium album and Salsola kali are some examples recently recognized as allergenic woods. The identification of the complete panel of allergens from the hypersensitizing sources might help to develop more accurate diagnosis, and efficient and safer therapy tools for Type-I allergic diseases.

  19. Allergen nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D. G.; Goodfriend, L.; King, T. P.; Lowenstein, H.; Platts-Mills, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a nomenclature system for allergens which has been officially recommended by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The nomenclature is based on proposals of the IUIS Sub-Committee for Allergen Nomenclature and is applicable to highly purified, well-characterized allergens and to non-purified or partially purified allergenic extracts. PMID:3492310

  20. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  1. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria.

  2. Recombinant allergens

    PubMed Central

    Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874

  3. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Priscila Ferreira de Sousa; Gangl, Katharina; Vieira, Francisco de Assis Machado; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Linhart, Birgit; Flicker, Sabine; Fiebig, Helmut; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet. Objective To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules. Methods We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities. Results Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%), Phl p 5 (82%), Phl p 2 (76%) followed by Phl p 4 (64%), Phl p 6 (45%), Phl p 11 (18%) and Phl p 12 (18%). Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found. Conclusions Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population. PMID:26067084

  4. Allergen Peptides, Recombinant Allergens and Hypoallergens for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are among the most common health issues worldwide. Specific immunotherapy has remained the only disease-modifying treatment, but it is not effective in all patients and may cause side effects. Over the last 25 years, allergen molecules from most prevalent allergen sources have been isolated and produced as recombinant proteins. Not only are these molecules useful in improved allergy diagnosis, but they also have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of allergic disease by means of immunotherapy. Panels of unmodified recombinant allergens have already been shown to effectively replace natural allergen extracts in therapy. Through genetic engineering, several molecules have been designed with modified immunological properties. Hypoallergens have been produced that have reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T cell reactivity and T cell peptides which stimulate allergen-specific T cells, and these have already been investigated in clinical trials. New vaccines have been recently created with both reduced IgE and T cell reactivity but retained ability to induce protective allergen-specific IgG antibodies. The latter approach works by fusing per se non-IgE reactive peptides derived from IgE binding sites of the allergens to a virus protein, which acts as a carrier and provides the T-cell help necessary for immune stimulation and protective antibody production. In this review, we will highlight the different novel approaches for immunotherapy and will report on prior and ongoing clinical studies.

  5. 50 The Allergic March Resolved at Allergen Component Level

    PubMed Central

    Melioli, Giovanni; Marcomini, Laura; Agazzi, Alessia; Bazurro, Gyada; Rossi, Lucilla; Tosca, Mariangela; Minale, Paola; Rossi, Renato; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background The allergic march is well known at the level of pattern of sensitisation, but there is no information of its evolution in term of sensitzation to single allergenic molecules. We investigated the evolution of the IgE repertoire by means of a microarray allergen assay. Methods Serum samples from allergic patients of a wide age range were analyzed by a micorarray chip, which allow to identify in a single assay the presence of specific IgE towards 103 allergenic molecules. Total IgE were also evaluated as an internal control. Patients were stratified in 6 groups according to their age (0–2; 3–5; 6–9; 10–13; 14–17 and >17 years). Results Samples from 609 patients were analysed. The behaviour of total IgE according to age strictly paralleled that of the sum of specific IgE. Food-related components were the more frequently recognized in the first ages, whereas specific IgE to plant allergens appeared later. Nonetheless, mite-specific IgE were the most represented in all age classes. Specific IgE against cross-reacting allergens were virtually absent in the first years and tended to appear after the age of 6. Conclusions The molecular pattern of allergen recognition according to age well reflects the clinical characteristics of the allergic march.

  6. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  7. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  8. Evaluating variability of allergens in commodity crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops with significant food allergen issues, include legumes, peanut and soybean, cereal grains, such as wheat and maize, and tree nuts (walnut, Brazil nut, among other phylogenetically diverse species) (Teuber et al. 2006). Officially recognized allergenic proteins may include one or multiple prot...

  9. Advances in allergen-microarray technology for diagnosis and monitoring of allergy: the MeDALL allergen-chip.

    PubMed

    Lupinek, Christian; Wollmann, Eva; Baar, Alexandra; Banerjee, Srinita; Breiteneder, Heimo; Broecker, Barbara M; Bublin, Merima; Curin, Mirela; Flicker, Sabine; Garmatiuk, Tetiana; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Mittermann, Irene; Pahr, Sandra; Resch, Yvonne; Roux, Kenneth H; Srinivasan, Bharani; Stentzel, Sebastian; Vrtala, Susanne; Willison, Leanna N; Wickman, Magnus; Lødrup-Carlsen, Karin C; Antó, Josep Maria; Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Ebner, Daniel; Schlederer, Thomas; Harwanegg, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Allergy diagnosis based on purified allergen molecules provides detailed information regarding the individual sensitization profile of allergic patients, allows monitoring of the development of allergic disease and of the effect of therapies on the immune response to individual allergen molecules. Allergen microarrays contain a large variety of allergen molecules and thus allow the simultaneous detection of allergic patients' antibody reactivity profiles towards each of the allergen molecules with only minute amounts of serum. In this article we summarize recent progress in the field of allergen microarray technology and introduce the MeDALL allergen-chip which has been developed for the specific and sensitive monitoring of IgE and IgG reactivity profiles towards more than 170 allergen molecules in sera collected in European birth cohorts. MeDALL is a European research program in which allergen microarray technology is used for the monitoring of the development of allergic disease in childhood, to draw a geographic map of the recognition of clinically relevant allergens in different populations and to establish reactivity profiles which are associated with and predict certain disease manifestations. We describe technical advances of the MeDALL allergen-chip regarding specificity, sensitivity and its ability to deliver test results which are close to in vivo reactivity. In addition, the usefulness and numerous advantages of allergen microarrays for allergy research, refined allergy diagnosis, monitoring of disease, of the effects of therapies, for improving the prescription of specific immunotherapy and for prevention are discussed.

  10. [Allergens causing respiratory allergy: the aeroallergens].

    PubMed

    Deschildre, A

    1999-01-01

    Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.

  11. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  12. Creation of RNA molecules that recognize the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rink, Stacia M.; Shen, Jiang-Cheng; Loeb, Lawrence A.

    1998-01-01

    We used in vitro evolution to obtain RNA molecules that specifically recognize and bind with high affinity to the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in DNA. A pool of ≈1015 RNA molecules containing a random insert of 45 nucleotides in length was subject to 10 successive rounds of chromatographic enrichment using an 8-oxodG affinity matrix, reverse transcription, PCR amplification, and RNA synthesis. Selected RNA molecules bind to 8-oxodG located at the 3′ terminus (Kd ≤ 270 nM) or in the center (Kd ≤ 2.8 μM) of a 19-nt strand of DNA, with no detectable affinity for the corresponding dG-containing DNA sequences. These 8-oxodG-binding RNAs will be used to monitor levels of 8-oxodG in DNA from biological sources and should provide a unique method for evaluating oxygen-mediated DNA damage. This approach should be applicable for the creation of RNA molecules that can bind to and identify the different modifications of DNA produced by a variety of environmental agents. PMID:9751715

  13. Characterization of mutants of a highly cross-reactive calcium-binding protein from Brassica pollen for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Garmatiuk, Tetiana; Swoboda, Ines; Twardosz-Kropfmüller, Anna; Dall'antonia, Fabio; Keller, Walter; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L; Okada, Takashi; Toriyama, Kinya; Weber, Milena; Ghannadan, Minoo; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Blatt, Katharina; Valent, Peter; Klein, Brigitte; Niederberger, Verena; Curin, Mirela; Balic, Nadja; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    The major turnip (Brassica rapa) pollen allergen, belongs to a family of calcium-binding proteins (i.e., two EF-hand proteins), which occur as highly cross-reactive allergens in pollen of weeds, grasses and trees. In this study, the IgE binding capacity and allergenic activity of three recombinant allergen variants containing mutations in their calcium-binding sites were analyzed in sensitized patients with the aim to identify the most suitable hypoallergenic molecule for specific immunotherapy. Analysis of the wildtype allergen and the mutants regarding IgE reactivity and activation of basophils in allergic patients indicated that the allergen derivative mutated in both calcium-binding domains had the lowest allergenic activity. Gel filtration and circular dichroism experiments showed that both, the wildtype and the double mutant, occurred as dimers in solution and assumed alpha-helical fold, respectively. However, both fold and thermal stability were considerably reduced in the double mutant. The use of bioinformatic tools for evaluation of the solvent accessibility and charge distribution suggested that the reduced IgE reactivity and different structural properties of the double mutant may be due to a loss of negatively charged amino acids on the surface. Interestingly, immunization of rabbits showed that only the double mutant but not the wildtype allergen induced IgG antibodies which recognized the allergen and blocked binding of allergic patients IgE. Due to the extensive structural similarity and cross-reactivity between calcium-binding pollen allergens the hypoallergenic double mutant may be useful not only for immunotherapy of turnip pollen allergy, but also for the treatment of allergies to other two EF-hand pollen allergens.

  14. Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.

    PubMed

    Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants.

  15. Structural aspects of dog allergies: the crystal structure of a dog dander allergen Can f 4.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Merja H; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Jänis, Janne; Virtanen, Tuomas; Rouvinen, Juha

    2014-09-01

    Four out of six officially recognized dog allergens are members of the lipocalin protein family. So far, a three-dimensional structure has been determined for only one dog allergen, Can f 2, which is a lipocalin protein. We present here the crystal structure of a second lipocalin allergen from dog, a variant of Can f 4. Moreover, we have compared and analyzed the structures of these two weakly homologous (amino acid identity 21%) dog allergens. The size and the amino acid composition of the ligand-binding pocket indicate that Can f 4 is capable of binding only relatively small hydrophobic molecules which are different from those that Can f 2 is able to bind. The crystal structure of Can f 4 contained both monomeric and dimeric forms of the allergen, suggesting that Can f 4 is able to form transient (weak) dimers. The existence of transient dimers in solution was confirmed by use of native mass spectrometry. The dimeric structure of Can f 4 is formed when the ends of four β-strands are packed against the same strands from the second monomer. The residues in the interface are mainly hydrophobic and the formation of the dimer is similar to the major horse allergen Equ c 1. Interestingly, the crystal structure of dog Can f 2 has been reported to show a different type of dimer formation. The capability of these allergens to form dimers may be important for the development of immediate allergic reaction (mast cell activation) because oligomeric allergens can effectively present multivalent epitopes.

  16. Safety of engineered allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of the review is to summarize and comment on recent developments regarding the safety of engineered immunotherapy vaccines. Recent findings In the last 2 years, several studies were published in which allergy vaccines were developed on the basis of chemical modification of natural allergen extracts, the engineering of allergen molecules by recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry, allergen genes, new application routes and conjugation with immune modulatory molecules. Several studies exemplified the general applicability of hypoallergenic vaccines on the basis of recombinant fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic allergen-derived peptides fused to allergen-unrelated carrier molecules. These vaccines are engineered to reduce both, immunoglobulin E (IgE) as well as allergen-specific T cell epitopes in the vaccines, and thus should provoke less IgE and T-cell-mediated side-effects. They are made to induce allergen-specific IgG antibodies against the IgE-binding sites of allergens with the T-cell help of the carrier molecule. Summary Several interesting examples of allergy vaccines with potentially increased safety profiles have been published. The concept of fusion proteins consisting of allergen-derived hypoallergenic peptides fused to allergen-unrelated proteins that seems to be broadly applicable for a variety of allergens appears to be of particular interest because it promises not only to reduce side-effects but also to increase efficacy and convenience of allergy vaccines. PMID:22885888

  17. New contact allergens and allergen sources.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z; Krajewska, D; Kozłowska, A; Czerwińska-Dihm, I

    1978-01-01

    In the report new contact allergens and allergen sources detected in Warsaw in the period 1975-1977 are described. They are divided into 3 groups: industrial allergens, remaining occupational allergens and cosmetics. There are given some data concerning the substances present in industrial oils, hardeners and epoxy resin solvents, drugs sensitizing nurses, several new sources of chromium allergens, essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours are discussed as the main allergens in cosmetics.

  18. Collagen-binding Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecule (MSCRAMM) of Gram-positive Bacteria Inhibit Complement Activation via the Classical Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mingsong; Ko, Ya-Ping; Liang, Xiaowen; Ross, Caná L.; Liu, Qing; Murray, Barbara E.; Höök, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Members of a family of collagen-binding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) from Gram-positive bacteria are established virulence factors in several infectious diseases models. Here, we report that these adhesins also can bind C1q and act as inhibitors of the classical complement pathway. Molecular analyses of Cna from Staphylococcus aureus suggested that this prototype MSCRAMM bound to the collagenous domain of C1q and interfered with the interactions of C1r with C1q. As a result, C1r2C1s2 was displaced from C1q, and the C1 complex was deactivated. This novel function of the Cna-like MSCRAMMs represents a potential immune evasion strategy that could be used by numerous Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:23720782

  19. Allergenic fragments of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen Lol p IV.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate studies on establishing the nature of structure/function relationships of allergens, ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p IV, was cleaved into smaller fragments by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and the resulting peptides were further digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 reverse phase column. The allergenic activity of the HPLC fractions was evaluated in terms of their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Lol p IV to serum IgE antibodies of a grass-allergic patient. Many of these fractions inhibited the binding between the native allergen and IgE antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitions were specific, i.e., the fractions did not inhibit the binding between 125I-Lol p I (a group-I ryegrass pollen allergen) and the IgE antibodies present in the allergic human serum. The possibility that the allergenic peptide fractions were contaminated by the native undegraded allergen, which might have accounted for the observed inhibition, was ruled out by the fact that the native allergen could not be detected by SDS-PAGE and the elution profiles of allergenically active peptides did not coincide with that of native allergen. One of the allergenic sites recognized by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 90, i.e., site A, was located in HPLC fractions 90-100 while another allergenic site B (recognized by Mab 12) appeared to be lost following the sequential digestion of Lol p IV with CNBr and trypsin.

  20. Allospecific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize an H-2 peptide in the context of a murine major histocompatibility complex class I molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Song, E S; Linsk, R; Olson, C A; McMillan, M; Goodenow, R S

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) preferentially reactive with the alpha 1 external domain of the H-2Ld antigen by selecting for T cells capable of recognizing a variant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen sharing alpha 1 sequences with H-2Ld. Using these CTL, we demonstrate that a synthetic alpha 1 peptide corresponding to one of the helices derived from the H-2Ld molecule can be presented by a class I restriction element to reconstitute a CTL determinant borne by intact H-2Ld. Moreover, several other H-2L-reactive CTL generated independently were also able to recognize H-2Ld either as an intact alloantigen or as a peptide in conjunction with appropriate class I restriction elements. These data demonstrate that an H-2 peptide can reconstitute a CTL target structure and suggest that some alloreactive T cells in fact might be directed against allogeneic class I peptides in the context of a class I framework. PMID:3258067

  1. Allergens in celery and zucchini.

    PubMed

    Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, D; Reindl, J; Anliker, M D; Wüthrich, B; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm allergy to celery tuber and to zucchini, for the first time, by DBPCFC, and to identify the allergens recognized by IgE from DBPCFC-positive patients. Therefore, raw vegetables were hidden in a broccoli drink, and a DBPCFC-procedure was developed that consisted of a spit and swallow protocol, making sure that the procedure was safe for the patients and that reactions strictly localized to the oral cavity as well as systemic reactions could be reproduced by DBPCFC. The allergens in celery and zucchini extract were identified by immunoblot inhibition using allergen extracts, recombinant allergens and purified N-glycans as inhibitors. Celery allergy was confirmed in 69% (22/32) of subjects with a positive case history. Four subjects with a history of allergic reactions to zucchini had a positive DBPCFC to this vegetable. During DBPCFC, systemic reactions were provoked in 50% (11/22) of the patients to celery, and in 3/4 of the zucchini-allergic patients. The Bet v 1-related major celery allergen was detected by IgE of 59% (13/22) of the patients. Cross-reactive carbohydrate epitopes (CCD) bound IgE of 55% (12/22) of the celery-allergic patients and in 2/4 of the subjects with zucchini allergy. Profilin was a food allergen in celery in 23% (5/22) and in zucchini in 2/4 of the cases. A zucchini-specific allergen was detected by IgE from one patient. We conclude that ubiquitous cross-reactive structures are important in allergy to both, celery and zucchini, and that a specific association to birch pollen allergy exists in allergy to celery (mediated by Api g 1), but not in zucchini allergy.

  2. Immunization with a mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces CD8+ T cells that recognize cell adhesion molecules on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Gil, Margaret; Ciesielski, Michael; Fenstermaker, Robert A; Kaneko, Yutaro; Rokita, Hanna; Lau, Joseph T; Kozbor, Danuta

    2008-11-01

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermal tumor cells has been used as a target for passive and active immunotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. We have reported that immunization of mice with a 47-LDA mimotope of GD2, isolated from a phage display peptide library with anti-GD2 mAb 14G2a, induces MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses to syngeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells. The cytotoxic activity of the vaccine-induced CTLs was independent of GD2 expression, suggesting recognition of a novel tumor-associated Ag cross-reacting with 47-LDA. Glycan microarray and immunoblotting studies using 14G2a mAb demonstrated that this Ab is highly specific for the entire carbohydrate motif of GD2 but also cross-reacts with a 105 kDa glycoprotein expressed by GD2(+) and GD2(-) neuroblastoma and melanoma cells. Functional studies of tumor cells grown in three-dimensional collagen cultures with 14G2a mAb showed decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, a process regulated by the 105 kDa-activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166). A recombinant CD166 glycoprotein was shown to be recognized by 14G2a Ab and inhibition of CD166 expression by RNA interference ablated the cell sensitivity to lysis by 47-LDA-induced CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo. The binding of 14G2a to CD166 was not disruptable by a variety of exo- and endo-glycosidases, implying recognition of a non-glycan epitope on CD166. These results suggest that the vaccine-induced CTLs recognize a 47-LDA cross-reactive epitope expressed by CD166, and reveal a novel mechanism of induction of potent tumor-specific cellular responses by mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags.

  3. Hypoallergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy by directed molecular evolution of mite group 2 allergens.

    PubMed

    Gafvelin, Guro; Parmley, Stephen; Neimert-Andersson, Theresa; Blank, Ulrich; Eriksson, Tove L J; van Hage, Marianne; Punnonen, Juha

    2007-02-09

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only treatment that provides long lasting relief of allergic symptoms. Currently, it is based on repeated administration of allergen extracts. To improve the safety and efficacy of allergen extract-based immunotherapy, application of hypoallergens, i.e. modified allergens with reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T-cell reactivity, has been proposed. It may, however, be difficult to predict how to modify an allergen to create a hypoallergen. Directed molecular evolution by DNA shuffling and screening provides a means by which to evolve proteins having novel or improved functional properties without knowledge of structure-function relationships of the target molecules. With the aim to generate hypoallergens we applied multigene DNA shuffling on three group 2 dust mite allergen genes, two isoforms of Lep d 2 and Gly d 2. DNA shuffling yielded a library of genes from which encoded shuffled allergens were expressed and screened. A positive selection was made for full-length, high-expressing clones, and screening for low binding to IgE from mite allergic patients was performed using an IgE bead-based binding assay. Nine selected shuffled allergens revealed 80-fold reduced to completely abolished IgE binding compared with the parental allergens in IgE binding competition experiments. Two hypoallergen candidates stimulated allergen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at comparable levels as the wild-type allergens in patient peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. The two candidates also induced blocking Lep d 2-specific IgG antibodies in immunized mice. We conclude that directed molecular evolution is a powerful approach to generate hypoallergens for potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  4. Sensitive detection of major food allergens in breast milk: first gateway for allergenic contact during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Vargas, C; Maroto, A S; Díaz-Perales, A; Villaba, M; Casillas Diaz, N; Vivanco, F; Cuesta-Herranz, J

    2015-08-01

    Food allergy is recognized as a major public health issue, especially in early childhood. It has been hypothesized that early sensitization to food allergens maybe due to their ingestion as components dissolved in the milk during the breastfeeding, explaining reaction to a food, which has never been taken before. Thus, the aim of this work has been to detect the presence of the food allergens in breast milk by microarray technology. We produced a homemade microarray with antibodies produced against major food allergens. The antibody microarray was incubated with breast milk from 14 women collected from Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital. In this way, we demonstrated the presence of major foods allergens in breast milk. The analysis of allergens presented in breast milk could be a useful tool in allergy prevention and could provide us a key data on the role of this feeding in tolerance induction or sensitization in children.

  5. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: from therapeutic vaccines to prophylactic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, R.; Campana, R.; Marth, K.; van Hage, M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen exposure induces a variety of symptoms in allergic patients, which include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, dermatitis, food allergy and life-threatening systemic anaphylaxis. At present, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergens, is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Current therapeutic allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts. However, with the availability of the structures of the most common allergen molecules, it has become possible to produce well-defined recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that allow specific targeting of the mechanisms of allergic disease. Here we provide a summary of the development and mechanisms of SIT, and then review new forms of therapeutic vaccines that are based on recombinant and synthetic molecules. Finally, we discuss possible allergen-specific strategies for prevention of allergic disease. PMID:22640224

  6. Human plasma enhances the expression of Staphylococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules promoting biofilm formation and increases antimicrobial tolerance In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microbial biofilms have been associated with the development of chronic human infections and represent a clinical challenge given their increased antimicrobial tolerance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing a diverse range of diseases, of which biofilms are often involved. Staphylococcal attachment and the formation of biofilms have been shown to be facilitated by host factors that accumulate on surfaces. To better understand how host factors enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation, we evaluated the effect of whole human plasma on biofilm formation in clinical isolates of S. aureus and the expression of seven microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) known to be involved in biofilm formation by quantitative real-time PCR. We also evaluated whether plasma augmented changes in S. aureus biofilm morphology and antimicrobial resistance. Results Exposure of clinical isolates of S. aureus to human plasma (10%) within media, and to a lesser extent when coated onto plates, significantly enhanced biofilm formation in all of the clinical isolates tested. Compared to biofilms grown under non-supplemented conditions, plasma-augmented biofilms displayed significant changes in both the biofilm phenotype and cell morphology as determined by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Exposure of bacteria to plasma resulted in a significant fold-increase in MSCRAMM expression in both a time and isolate-dependent manner. Additionally, plasma-augmented biofilms displayed an increased tolerance to vancomycin compared to biofilms grown in non-supplemented media. Conclusions Collectively, these studies support previous findings demonstrating a role for host factors in biofilm formation and provide further insight into how plasma, a preferred growth medium for staphylococcal biofilm formation enhances as well as augments other intrinsic properties of S. aureus biofilms

  7. Carrier-bound Alt a 1 peptides without allergenic activity for vaccination against Alternaria alternata allergy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, T. E.; Focke, M.; Fleischmann, K.; Balic, N.; Lupinek, C.; Blatt, K.; Ferrara, R.; Mari, A.; Ebner, C.; Valent, P.; Spitzauer, S.; Swoboda, I.; Valenta, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The mould Alternaria alternata is a major elicitor of allergic asthma. Diagnosis and specific immunotherapy (SIT) of Alternaria allergy are often limited by the insufficient quality of natural mould extracts. Objective To investigate whether recombinant Alt a 1 can be used for reliable diagnosis of Alternaria alternata allergy and to develop a safe, non-allergenic vaccine for SIT of Alternaria allergy. Methods The qualitative sensitization profile of 80 Alternaria-allergic patients from Austria and Italy was investigated using an allergen micro-array and the amount of Alternaria-specific IgE directed to rAlt a 1 was quantified by ImmunoCAP measurements. Peptides spanning regions of predicted high surface accessibility of Alt a 1 were synthesized and tested for IgE reactivity and allergenic activity, using sera and basophils from allergic patients. Carrier-bound peptides were studied for their ability to induce IgG antibodies in rabbits which recognize Alt a 1 and inhibit allergic patients’ IgE reactivity to Alt a 1. Results rAlt a 1 allowed diagnosis of Alternaria allergy in all tested patients, bound the vast majority (i.e. >95%) of Alternaria-specific IgE and elicited basophil activation already at a concentration of 0.1 ng/mL. Four non-allergenic peptides were synthesized which, after coupling to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin, induced Alt a 1-specific IgG and inhibited allergic patients’ IgE binding to Alt a 1. Conclusions and clinical relevance rAlt a 1 is a highly allergenic molecule allowing sensitive diagnosis of Alternaria allergy. Carrier-bound non-allergenic Alt a 1 peptides are candidates for safe SIT of Alternaria allergy. PMID:22909168

  8. New tree nut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  9. Genetic engineering of allergens for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bonura, Angela; Colombo, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy was introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the 20(th) century and its efficacy in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis has been confirmed in many clinical studies which have shown that it can prevent the onset of new sensitizations to different allergens and reduces the development of asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis. Progress in molecular cloning and characterization of allergens have made it possible to produce single recombinant allergens whose immunological properties have been tested in vitro and in vivo and have demonstrated that they retain properties resembling their natural counterpart. Several rational approaches are being developed to improve the efficacy of SIT by reducing immunoglobulin IgE-mediated adverse reactions. Some of these molecules have been tested in the clinic, demonstrating the feasibility of using biotechnology-derived products as new standardized, improved and safer therapeutic compositions.

  10. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.

  11. Tree pollen allergens-an update from a molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Asam, C; Hofer, H; Wolf, M; Aglas, L; Wallner, M

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that pollen allergies affect approximately 40% of allergic individuals. In general, tree pollen allergies are mainly elicited by allergenic trees belonging to the orders Fagales, Lamiales, Proteales, and Pinales. Over 25 years ago, the gene encoding the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was the first such gene to be cloned and its product characterized. Since that time, 53 tree pollen allergens have been identified and acknowledged by the WHO/IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee. Molecule-based profiling of allergic sensitization has helped to elucidate the immunological connections of allergen cross-reactivity, whereas advances in biochemistry have revealed structural and functional aspects of allergenic proteins. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of the molecular aspects of tree pollen allergens. We analyze the geographic distribution of allergenic trees, discuss factors pivotal for allergic sensitization, and describe the role of tree pollen panallergens. Novel allergenic tree species as well as tree pollen allergens are continually being identified, making research in this field highly competitive and instrumental for clinical applications.

  12. Allergen immunotherapy for birch pollen-allergic patients: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis.

  13. Structure and function of milk allergens.

    PubMed

    Wal, J M

    2001-01-01

    Proteins (CMP) involved in milk allergy are numerous and heterogeneous, with very few structural or functional common features. This heterogeneity is complicated by their genetic polymorphism, resulting in several variants for each protein. These variants are characterized by point substitutions of amino acids or by deletions of peptide fragments of varying size or by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or glycosylation. All of these modifications may affect allergenicity. No common molecular structure can be associated with allergenicity, although some homologous regions such as casein phospho-peptides can explain an IgE cross-reactivity. Three-dimensional structure is an important feature in CMP allergenicity but denatured and linear epitopes are also involved. Epitopes are numerous and widely spread along the CMP molecule. They may be located in hydrophobic parts of the molecule where they are inaccessible for IgE antibodies in the native conformation of the protein but become bioavailable after digestive processes. Peptides as short as ca. 12-14 amino acid residues may account for a significant part of the allergenicity of the whole molecule, which justifies the need to be careful before proposing any CMP hydrolysate for highly allergenic children.

  14. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  15. Analysis of olive allergens.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Montealegre, C; Marina, M L; García, M C

    2012-04-15

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Besides this, some cases of contact dermatitis and food allergy to the olive fruit and olive oil have been also described. Several scientific studies dealing with olive allergens has been reported, being the information available about them constantly increasing. Up to date, twelve allergens have been identified in olive pollen while just one allergen has been identified in olive fruit. This review article describes considerations about allergen extraction and production, also describing the different methodologies employed in the physicochemical and immunological characterization of olive allergens. Finally, a revision of the most relevant studies in the analysis of both olive pollen and olive fruit allergens is carried out.

  16. Cloning, expression, and immunological characterization of recombinant Lolium perenne allergen Lol p II.

    PubMed

    Sidoli, A; Tamborini, E; Giuntini, I; Levi, S; Volonté, G; Paini, C; De Lalla, C; Siccardi, A G; Baralle, F E; Galliani, S

    1993-10-15

    The molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding for an isoallergenic form of Lol p II, a major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification on mRNA extracted from pollen. The amino acid sequence derived from the cDNA was truncated by 4 and 5 residues at the NH2- and COOH-terminal ends, respectively, and differed only in one position from that previously reported. This cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion to the carboxyl terminus of the human ferritin H-chain. The molecule was produced in high yields as a soluble protein and was easily purified. The protein retains the multimeric quaternary structure of ferritin, and it exposes on the surface the allergenic moiety, which can be recognized in Western blotting and in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments by specific IgE from allergic patients. The recombinant allergen was used to analyze the sera of 26 patients allergic to L. perenne compared with control sera. The results were in good agreement with the values obtained with the radioallergosorbent test assay. In addition, histamine release experiments in whole blood from an allergic patient and skin prick tests showed that the recombinant allergen retains some of the biological properties of the natural compound. These findings indicate that the availability of homogeneous recombinant allergens may be useful for the development of more specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Moreover, this expression system may be of more general interest for producing large amounts of soluble protein domains in E. coli.

  17. Allergenic proteins of natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Yeang, H Y; Arif, Siti Arija M; Yusof, Faridah; Sunderasan, E

    2002-05-01

    As the living cytoplasm of laticiferous cells, Hevea brasiliensis latex is a rich blend of organic substances that include a mélange of proteins. A small number of these proteins have given rise to the problem of latex allergy. The salient characteristics of H. brasiliensis latex allergens that are recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) are reviewed. These are the proteins associated with the rubber particles, the cytosolic C-serum proteins and the B-serum proteins that originate mainly from the lutoids. Procedures for the isolation and purification of latex allergens are discussed, from latex collection in the field to various preparative approaches adopted in the laboratory. As interest in recombinant latex allergens increases, there is a need to validate recombinant proteins to ascertain equivalence with their native counterparts when used in immunological studies, diagnostics, and immunotherapy.

  18. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  19. New molecular motif for recognizing sialic acid using emissive lanthanide-macrocyclic polyazacarboxylate complexes: deprotonation of a coordinated water molecule controls specific binding.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazuki; Saito, Shingo; Shibukawa, Masami

    2013-06-03

    A new molecular motif--lanthanide-macrocyclic polyazacarboxylate hexadentate complexes, Ln(3+)-ABNOTA--was found to specifically bind to sialic acid with strong emission enhancement and high affinity. The selectivity toward sialic acid over other monosaccharides was one of the highest among artificial receptors. Also, the novel binding mechanism was investigated in detail; binding selectivity is controlled by interactions between sialic acid and both the central metal and a hydroxyl group produced by deprotonation of a coordinated water molecule in the Ln(3+) complex.

  20. Cockroach allergens: function, structure and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Pomés, A; Wünschmann, S; Hindley, J; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D

    2007-01-01

    Cockroach allergy is a widespread health problem in the world, associated with the development of asthma. The German and American cockroach species are important producers of a wide variety of allergens. Knowledge of their structure and function contributes to understand their role in allergy and to design tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  1. Current Overview of Allergens of Plant Pathogenesis Related Protein Families

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mau; Singh, Rashmi Prabha; Kushwaha, Gajraj Singh; Iqbal, Naseer; Singh, Avinash; Kaushik, Sanket; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are one of the major sources of plant derived allergens. These proteins are induced by the plants as a defense response system in stress conditions like microbial and insect infections, wounding, exposure to harsh chemicals, and atmospheric conditions. However, some plant tissues that are more exposed to environmental conditions like UV irradiation and insect or fungal attacks express these proteins constitutively. These proteins are mostly resistant to proteases and most of them show considerable stability at low pH. Many of these plant pathogenesis related proteins are found to act as food allergens, latex allergens, and pollen allergens. Proteins having similar amino acid sequences among the members of PR proteins may be responsible for cross-reactivity among allergens from diverse plants. This review analyzes the different pathogenesis related protein families that have been reported as allergens. Proteins of these families have been characterized in regard to their biological functions, amino acid sequence, and cross-reactivity. The three-dimensional structures of some of these allergens have also been evaluated to elucidate the antigenic determinants of these molecules and to explain the cross-reactivity among the various allergens. PMID:24696647

  2. [Nasal allergenic provocation test].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, M H; Pérez López, A; Azuara Pliego, E

    2000-01-01

    This is a method to evaluate both specific sensitivity to allergens in the nasal mucosa, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and antiinflammatory and antiallergic drugs efficacy, whose objectives are for research in diagnosis and treatment. The method is based in allergen extracts delivery in the nasal mucosa and the post-challenge measurement of rhinitis symptoms, vasoactive mediators release quantification and nasal obstruction degree evaluated by rhinomanometry. Nasal allergen challenge is a procedure of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation usefulness, that must be performed in selected patients, in adequate facilities, by experts physicians, with standardised allergen dosages, in an specific nasal area, with objective measurements (rhinomanometry, mediators and secretions of the allergic response) and symptoms scoring that allow get reliable results in patients with allergic rhinitis under study.

  3. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  4. Role of Allergen Source-Derived Proteases in Sensitization via Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Protease activity is a characteristic common to many allergens. Allergen source-derived proteases interact with lung epithelial cells, which are now thought to play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Allergen source-derived proteases act on airway epithelial cells to induce disruption of the tight junctions between epithelial cells, activation of protease-activated receptor-2, and the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin. These facilitate allergen delivery across epithelial layers and enhance allergenicity or directly activate the immune system through a nonallergic mechanism. Furthermore, they cleave regulatory cell surface molecules involved in allergic reactions. Thus, allergen source-derived proteases are a potentially critical factor in the development of allergic sensitization and appear to be strongly associated with heightened allergenicity. PMID:22523502

  5. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    PubMed

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  6. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  7. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  8. Allergome: the characterization of allergens based on a 2D gel electrophoresis approach.

    PubMed

    Chardin, Hélène; Peltre, Gabriel

    2005-10-01

    Type I hypersensitivity reactions are in constant progression in industrialized countries. The physiopathologic mechanism of these diseases implicates the production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E to allergenic molecules, their binding to the Fcepsilon receptor on the surface of mast cells and basophils, and the release of inflammatory mediators when allergens are introduced into the body and crosslink with the IgE bound to the cell surface. An allergen is defined as a molecule that induces the production of, and binds to, IgE. The identification of the allergenic molecules is an important goal to improve diagnosis and treatment of allergy. This characterization aims to extract proteins from the allergenic source, to analyze IgE specificity by immunoblotting and to identify the proteins that bind IgE.

  9. Molecular profiles: a new tool to substantiate serum banks for evaluation of potential allergenicity of GMO.

    PubMed

    Barber, D; Rodríguez, R; Salcedo, G

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of the allergenicity of GMOs involves performing a test with a panel of sera obtained from allergic donors. However, there is no clear indication of how to characterize the above-mentioned panel. The patient selection criteria should take into account the geographical location of patients, the intensity and nature of the environmental allergens in the area and the potential cross-reactivity among allergenic molecules. Sera for serum banks, obtained from patients with demonstrated food allergy, should be subjected to a further characterization by screening with a panel of relevant allergenic molecules. A representative panel of these sera should be used in the allergenicity assessment. Finally, the "in vitro" methodologies should have the adequate specificity and sensitivity, and the integrity of the molecules tested should be guaranteed.

  10. Mitogenicity and down-regulation of high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor by YTA-1 and YTA-2, monoclonal antibodies that recognize 75-kDa molecules on human large granular lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Y; Inamoto, T; Sugie, K; Masutani, H; Shindo, T; Tagaya, Y; Yamauchi, A; Ozawa, K; Yodoi, J

    1989-01-01

    A large number of interleukin 2 receptors lacking the Tac epitope (IL-2R/p75) were found to be constitutively expressed on the human large granular lymphocyte/natural killer cell line YT, which bears inducible IL-2R/p55 associated with Tac antigen. Two anti-YT IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, YTA-1 and YTA-2, recognizing different epitopes of the same 75- to 80-kDa molecule, were established. The 75-kDa antigen recognized by these monoclonal antibodies was strongly expressed on the large granular lymphocytes of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells and on various lymphoid cell lines bearing IL-2R/p75. The YTA-1 and YTA-2 antibodies were mitogenic and were different from other mitogenic monoclonal antibodies such as anti-T3 (CD3), anti-T11 (CD2), and KOLT-2 (CD28). Further, they down-regulated the high-affinity IL-2R of peripheral blood mononuclear cells within 24 hr in culture. The relationship between the YTA-1/2 antigen and the IL-2R system is discussed. Images PMID:2465549

  11. Redefining the major peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are “major” allergens and allergens of less importance. “Major allergens” have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract

  12. Immune recognition of novel isoforms and domains of the mugwort pollen major allergen Art v 1.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Azra; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Vogel, Lothar; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Ferreira, Fátima; Egger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Allergen isoforms can differ in their IgE and T cell recognition patterns, and thus might have an impact on the selection of candidates for molecule-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The present study aimed at the identification and characterization of isoforms of Art v 1, the mugwort pollen major allergen. In addition, single Art v 1 domains were physicochemically and immunologically characterized. For this purpose, the Art v 1 cDNA was radiolabeled and used to screen a mugwort pollen cDNA library. Positive clones were sequenced and used for the production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using the pHIS-Parallel2 vector. Protein purification was performed by affinity- and ion exchange chromatography. Antibody binding to the recombinant proteins was determined by immunoblot, ELISA, cross-inhibition experiments, and mediator release assays. We could identify 7 Art v 1 isoforms differing in 1-6 amino acid residues. Interestingly, all amino acid variations were restricted to the proline domain carrying the molecule's post-translational modifications. No significant difference in IgG or IgE reactivity could be observed between Art v 1 isoforms and the defensin domain produced in E. coli. When expressed in E. coli, the proline domain was not recognized by Art v 1-specific antibodies. Our results demonstrated that the relevant IgE epitopes of Art v 1 are located on the defensin domain and suggest the involvement of carbohydrates in the allergenicity of natural Art v 1. Plant-based expression systems could help to reveal possibly different glycosylation patterns and IgE binding properties of Art v 1 isoforms. These findings have direct implications on the development of novel tools for mugwort pollen allergy diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Developing bifunctional beta-lactamase molecules with built-in target-recognizing module for prodrug therapy: identification of Enterobacter Cloacae P99 cephalosporinase loops suitable for randomization and phage-display selection.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Girja S; Krag, David N

    2009-01-01

    This study was focused on developing catalytically active beta-lactamase enzyme molecules that have target-recognizing sites built within their scaffold. Using phage-display approach, nine libraries were constructed by inserting the randomized linear or cysteine-constrained heptapeptides in the five different loops on the outer surface of P99 beta-lactamase molecule. The pIII signal peptide of Sec-pathway was employed for a periplasmic translocation of the beta-lactamase fusion protein, which we found more efficient than the DsbA signal peptide of SRP-pathway. The randomized heptapeptide loops replaced native amino acids between positions (34)Y-(37)K, (238)M-(246)A, (275)N-(280)A, (305)A-(311)S, or (329)I-(334)I of the P99 beta-lactamase molecules for generating the loop-1 to -5 libraries, respectively. The diversity of each loop library was judged by counting the primary and beta-lactamase-active clones. The linear peptide inserts in the loop-2 library showed the maximum number of the beta-lactamase-active clones, followed by the loop-5, loop-3, and loop-4. The insertion of the cysteine-constrained loops exhibited a dramatic loss of the enzyme-active beta-lactamase clones. The complexity of the loop-2 linear library, as determined by the frequency and diversity of amino acid distributions in the randomized region, appears consistent with the standards of other types of phage display library systems. The selection of the loop-2 linear library on streptavidin protein as a test target identified several beta-lactamase clones that specifically bound to streptavidin. In conclusion, this study identified the suitability of the loop-2 of P99 beta-lactamase for constructing a phage-display library of the beta-lactamase enzyme-active molecules that can be selected against a target. This is an enabling step in our long-term goal of developing bifunctional beta-lactamase molecules against cancer-specific targets for enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer.

  14. A Pitfall to Avoid When Using an Allergen Microarray: The Incidental Detection of IgE to Unexpected Allergens.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia; Makrì, Eleni; Montagni, Marcello; Ciprandi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new laboratory techniques to detect specific IgE antibodies against single allergen molecules rather than whole extracts represents a significant advance in allergy diagnostics. The advantages of such component-resolved diagnosis can be summarized as follows: (1) the ability to identify the truly responsible allergens in polysensitized patients, whether they be genuine (causing specific sensitization to their corresponding allergen source) or primary (the original sensitizing molecule); (2) distinguishing these allergens from simply cross-reactive components; (3) improving the appropriateness of the prescribed specific immunotherapy; and (4) identifying a risk profile for food allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis is performed using either a singleplex (1 assay per sample) platform or a multiplex (multiple assays per sample) platform. Using an immuno solid-phase allergen chip microarray that falls into the latter category--it currently tests sensitivity to 112 allergens--may lead to a pitfall: detecting IgE to unexpected allergens, such as Hymenoptera venom. In fact, testing insect venom sensitivity in individuals with no history of reactions to stings is contrary to current guidelines and presents the physician with the dilemma of how to manage this information; moreover, this may become a legal issue. Based on what is currently known about venom allergy, it remains likely that a positive sensitization test result will have no clinical significance, but the possibility of reacting to a future sting cannot be completely ruled out. Because this problem has not been previously encountered using the more common allergy tests, no indications are currently available on how to effectively manage these cases.

  15. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  16. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676

  17. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  18. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  19. T cell responses induced by allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, E

    2010-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is recognized as a highly effective practice in the treatment of patients with severe allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and is recommended by World Health Organization as an integrated part of allergy management strategy. Several studies have shown that allergen-specific immunotherapy, based on the administration of increasing doses of allergen, achieves a hyposensitization and reduces both early and late responses occurring during the natural exposure to the allergen itself. This is the unique antigen-specific immunomodulatory treatment in current use for human diseases. Successful immunotherapy is associated with reductions in symptoms and medication scores and improved quality of life. After interruption it usually confers long-term remission of symptoms and prevents the onset of new sensitizations in children up to a number of years. Subcutaneous immunotherapy usually suppresses the allergen-induced late response in target organs, likely due to the reduction of the infiltration of T cells, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and neutrophils. In addition to the reduction of cells of allergic inflammation, immunotherapy also decreases inflammatory mediators at the site of allergen exposure. This review provides an update on the immunological T cell responses induced by conventional subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy, and gives a unifying view to reconciling the old dualism between immunoredirecting and immunoregulating mechanisms. PMID:20408857

  20. Biotransformation Strategy To Reduce Allergens in Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Gardana, Claudio; Barbieri, Andrea; Simonetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous, sticky, dark-colored material produced by honeybees. Propolis today, due to its medicinal properties, is increasingly popular and is extensively used in food, beverages, and cosmetic products. Besides its numerous positive properties, propolis may also have adverse effects, such as, principally, allergic eczematous contact dermatitis in apiarists and in consumers with an allergic predisposition. In this study, we found appropriate conditions for removing caffeate esters, which are the main allergenic components, from raw propolis. The proposed method consists of the resuspension of propolis in a food grade solvent, followed by a biotransformation based on the cinnamoyl esterase activity of Lactobacillus helveticus. We showed that the reduction of caffeate esters by L. helveticus did not affect the content of flavonoids, which are the main bioactive molecules of propolis. Furthermore, we verified that the biotransformation of propolis did not cause a loss of antimicrobial activity. Finally, we demonstrated that the ability of L. helveticus to hydrolyze caffeate esters in propolis is strain specific. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is simple, employs food grade materials, and is effective in selectively removing allergenic molecules without affecting the bioactive fraction of propolis. This is the first study demonstrating that the allergenic caffeate esters of propolis can be eliminated by means of a bacterial biotransformation procedure. PMID:22522681

  1. Glycosylation site of the major allergen from olive tree pollen. Allergenic implications of the carbohydrate moiety.

    PubMed

    Batanero, E; Villalba, M; Rodríguez, R

    1994-01-01

    The electrophoretic analysis of purified Ole e I, the major allergen from Olea europaea pollen, reveals the presence of two main variants, glycosylated (20.0 kDa) and non-glycosylated (18.5 kDa) components. The glycosylated variant has been identified as a concanavalin A-binding glycoprotein. Its carbohydrate moiety has a molecular mass of about 1.3 kDa (5% weight of the glycosylated allergen), based on mass spectrometry analysis. Enzymatic treatment of native Ole e I with the specific glycosidase PNGase F accounts for an oligosaccharide N-linked to the polypeptide chain. This treatment does not sensibly modify the secondary structure of the protein but diminishes the affinity of the allergen for specific IgE antibodies. Tryptic digestion of Ole e I reveals the presence of a single carbohydrate-containing peptide. This peptide was recognized by the sera of hypersensitive individuals. The amino acid sequence of this peptide is Phe-Lys-Leu-Asn-Thr-Val-Asn-Gly-Thr-Thr-Arg, asparagine at the seventh being the carbohydrate attaching site. The obtained data are discussed in terms of the potential role of the sugar moiety in the allergenic activity of Ole e I.

  2. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  3. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides.

  4. Allergen extracts directly mobilize and activate human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Lena; Rudin, Anna; Wennerås, Christine

    2004-06-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by the presence of eosinophils, which are recruited to the affected tissues by chemoattractants produced by T cells, mast cells and epithelium. Our objective was to evaluate if allergens can directly activate human eosinophils. The capacity of purified allergen extracts to elicit eosinophil chemotaxis, respiratory burst, degranulation and up-regulation of the adhesion molecule complement receptor 3 (CR3) was determined in eosinophils isolated from healthy blood donors. Eosinophils stimulated with an extract from house dust mite (HDM) released the granule protein major basic protein (MBP) and up-regulated the surface expression of CR3. Cat allergen extracts also induced the up-regulation of CR3, but not the release of MBP; instead cat, as well as birch and grass allergens, elicited the release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). In addition, grass pollen extract caused the secretion of MBP. None of the allergens stimulated eosinophilic cationic protein release, nor production of free oxygen radicals. Both HDM and birch extracts were chemotactic for eosinophils. These findings establish that common aeroallergens can directly activate eosinophils in vitro. We propose that eosinophil activation in vivo is not exclusively mediated by cytokines and chemokines of the allergic inflammatory reaction, but could partly be the result of direct interaction between allergens and eosinophils.

  5. Mining Novel Allergens from Coconut Pollen Employing Manual De Novo Sequencing and Homology-Driven Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Sircar, Gaurab; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-11-06

    Coconut pollen, one of the major palm pollen grains is an important constituent among vectors of inhalant allergens in India and a major sensitizer for respiratory allergy in susceptible patients. To gain insight into its allergenic components, pollen proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotted with coconut pollen sensitive patient sera, followed by mass spectrometry of IgE reactive proteins. Coconut being largely unsequenced, a proteomic workflow has been devised that combines the conventional database-dependent analysis of tandem mass spectral data and manual de novo sequencing followed by a homology-based search for identifying the allergenic proteins. N-terminal acetylation helped to distinguish "b" ions from others, facilitating reliable sequencing. This led to the identification of 12 allergenic proteins. Cluster analysis with individual patient sera recognized vicilin-like protein as a major allergen, which was purified to assess its in vitro allergenicity and then partially sequenced. Other IgE-sensitive spots showed significant homology with well-known allergenic proteins such as 11S globulin, enolase, and isoflavone reductase along with a few which are reported as novel allergens. The allergens identified can be used as potential candidates to develop hypoallergenic vaccines, to design specific immunotherapy trials, and to enrich the repertoire of existing IgE reactive proteins.

  6. Inhalant Allergens in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes Câmara Camacho, Irene

    2017-02-23

    This review aims to present in a simple manner the work performed in Portugal regarding the identification of the most prevalent aeroallergens in the country and the sensitization levels in Portuguese patients. Much of the data was summarized in tables and illustrated on maps, enabling the community of clinicians, researchers, and patient organizations to access the knowledge about the research performed. This study provides an overview about the distribution of aeroallergens in Portugal, signaling regions and critical periods of exposure of the sensitized population. The illustrated data can help the community of allergy specialists to view the temporal and spatial distribution of aeroallergens across the country. In addition, this information can guide clinicians to select the most appropriate allergens for allergy diagnostic testing, treatment, and allergen avoidance.

  7. Identification of two distinct allergenic sites on ryegrass-pollen allergen, Lol p IV.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H

    1989-04-01

    Lol p IV is an important allergen of ryegrass pollen. For the immunochemical identification of antigenic and/or allergenic site(s), murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against Lol p IV. The hybridoma cell-culture supernatants were screened for anti-Lol p IV antibodies by a combination of ELISA and Western immunoblot analyses. The MAbs were finally purified from ascites on a Mono Q ion-exchange column. In a competitive radioimmunoassay with Lol p IV as the solid phase and 125I-labeled MAbs, it was established that MAbs 90, 91, 92, 93, and 94, although they differed in their relative affinities, recognized in common with one another an epitope designated as antigenic site A, whereas MAb 12 recognized a different epitope referred to as site B. Sites A and B were also demonstrated to constitute allergenic determinants of Lol p IV. Differences in the repertoire of specificities of the human IgE antibodies directed to Lol p IV were also demonstrated. Interestingly, it was found that sera from both allergic as well as from nonatopic individuals had IgG antibodies to sites A and/or B.

  8. Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 recombinant allergens are able to differentiate distinct Anisakis simplex-associated allergic clinical disorders.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, C; Daschner, A; Valls, A; De Frutos, C; Fernández-Fígares, V; Anadón, A M; Rodríguez, E; Gárate, T; Rodero, M; Ubeira, F M

    2012-05-01

    Diagnosis in gastro-allergic anisakiasis (GAA) is straightforward, when clinical history is combined with further allergological evaluation of specific IgE by means of skin prick test and serum specific IgE. In Anisakis simplex sensitisation associated chronic urticaria (CU+), clinical evaluation of possible previous parasitism is difficult, and positive serum specific IgE could be due to cross-reactivity or other unknown factors. In this study, we evaluated the association between IgE seropositivity to the recombinant allergens Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 and several A. simplex-associated allergic disorders. Twenty-eight patients with GAA and 40 patients with CU+ were studied and their IgE responses were compared with a control group composed of patients with chronic urticaria not sensitized to A. simplex (CU-) according to the skin prick test, as well as a group of 15 healthy subjects not referring urticaria or currently A. simplex associated symptoms. 82.1% of GAA patients and 42.5% of CU+ patients were positive for Ani s 1 (P < 0.001), while the Ani s 7 allergen was recognized by 92.9 and 92.5% of sera from patients with GAA and CU+, respectively. The combined positivity obtained for both allergens reached 100% in GAA, and 95% in CU+. IgE determinations to Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 allergens are useful to diagnose the Anisakis infections and to differentiate among several A. simplex-associated allergic disorders. The IgE responses to Ani s 1 are mainly associated with GAA, while this molecule cannot be considered a major allergen in CU+ patients.

  9. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  10. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  11. Allergen diagnosis microarray with high-density immobilization capacity using diamond-like carbon-coated chips for profiling allergen-specific IgE and other immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-14

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample.

  12. Antigens and allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae mite

    PubMed Central

    Dandeu, J.-P.; Le Mao, J.; Lux, M.; Rabillon, J.; David, B.

    1982-01-01

    Ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE chromatography is an efficient way of purifying Ag 11, the main allergen in Dermatophagoïdes farinae mites, which has already been characterized by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis. At 60% of saturation in ammonium sulphate, a precipitate is formed which, dissolved and dialysed has been named fraction A 60. It is mainly composed of Ag 11. In the fraction DE obtained by DEAE chromatography of the ammonium sulphate fraction A 60, Ag 11 appears homogeneous on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Isoelectrofocusing results indicate an average isoelectric point near neutrality in agreement with the non-absorbtion of Ag 11 on the DEAE cellulose at a weak ionic strength (0.01, at pH 7.2). By sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration Ag 11 has a molecular weight of 28,000. Ag 11 appears as a single polypeptidic chain with numerous dithio-bonds implying a highly folded and resistant structure. Oligosaccharides could be present as constituting molecules as well as contaminating ones as was assumed for hexosamines. These results are discussed with reference to a similar study performed on the major allergen of Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus. The allergenic properties of Ag 11 as present in fraction DE were tested by RAST-based methods. Fraction DE is an inhibitor as good as Df 80d and when it is coated on paper discs it can bind specific IgE in sera from the majority of mite sensitive patients. The results suggest that Ag 11 is a major allergen from D. farinae. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7106841

  13. Current codex guidelines for assessment of potential protein allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Ladics, G S

    2008-10-01

    A rigorous safety assessment process exists for GM crops. It includes evaluation of the introduced protein as well as the crop containing such protein with the goal of demonstrating the GM crop is "as-safe-as" non-transgenic crops in the food supply. One of the major issues for GM crops is the assessment of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. Currently, no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity. Therefore, a weight-of-evidence approach, which takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential, is conducted [Codex Alimentarious Commission, 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, Codex Alimentarious Commission, Twenty-Fifth Session, Rome, Italy, 30 June-5 July, 2003. Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity, pp. 47-60]. This assessment is based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; protein structure (e.g., amino acid sequence identity to human allergens); stability to pepsin digestion in vitro [Thomas, K. et al., 2004. A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 39, 87-98]; an estimate of exposure of the novel protein(s) to the gastrointestinal tract where absorption occurs (e.g., protein abundance in the crop, processing effects); and when appropriate, specific IgE binding studies or skin prick testing. Additional approaches may be considered (e.g., animal models; targeted sera screening) as the science evolves; however, such approaches have not been thoroughly evaluated or validated for predicting protein allergenicity.

  14. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  15. CD23 surface density on B cells is associated with IgE levels and determines IgE-facilitated allergen uptake, as well as activation of allergen-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Selb, Regina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Neunkirchner, Alina; Schmetterer, Klaus; Marth, Katharina; Gamper, Jutta; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Pickl, Winfried F.; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that the low-affinity receptor for IgE, CD23, plays an important role in controlling the activity of allergen-specific T cells through IgE-facilitated allergen presentation. Objective We sought to determine the number of CD23 molecules on immune cells in allergic patients and to investigate whether the number of CD23 molecules on antigen-presenting cells is associated with IgE levels and influences allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation. Methods Numbers of CD23 molecules on immune cells of allergic patients were quantified by using flow cytometry with QuantiBRITE beads and compared with total and allergen-specific IgE levels, as well as with allergen-induced immediate skin reactivity. Allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation in relation to CD23 surface density were determined by using flow cytometry in combination with confocal microscopy and T cells transfected with the T-cell receptor specific for the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, respectively. Defined IgE-allergen immune complexes were formed with human monoclonal allergen-specific IgE and Bet v 1. Results In allergic patients the vast majority of CD23 molecules were expressed on naive IgD+ B cells. The density of CD23 molecules on B cells but not the number of CD23+ cells correlated with total IgE levels (RS = 0.53, P = .03) and allergen-induced skin reactions (RS = 0.63, P = .008). Uptake of allergen-IgE complexes into B cells and activation of allergen-specific T cells depended on IgE binding to CD23 and were associated with CD23 surface density. Addition of monoclonal IgE to cultured PBMCs significantly (P = .04) increased CD23 expression on B cells. Conclusion CD23 surface density on B cells of allergic patients is correlated with allergen-specific IgE levels and determines allergen uptake and subsequent activation of T cells. PMID:27372566

  16. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  17. Characterization of a new oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) allergen, Bra j IE: detection of an allergenic epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, R I; Gonzalez de la Peña, M A; Menendez-Arias, L; Lopez-Otin, C; Villalba, M; Rodriguez, R

    1993-01-01

    Bra j IE, a major allergen from oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds, has been isolated and characterized. Its primary structure has been elucidated. This protein is composed of two chains (37 and 92 amino acids) linked by disulphide bridges. The amino acid sequence obtained is closely related to that previously determined for Sin a I, an allergen isolated from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). A common epitope has been detected in the large chain of both Bra j IE and Sin a I by means of electroblotting and immunodetection with 2B3, which is a monoclonal antibody raised against the yellow-mustard allergen. A histidine residue of the large chain of both mustard allergens has been found to be essential for the recognition by 2B3 antibody. A synthetic multiantigenic peptide containing this His was recognized by 2B3 as well as by sera of mustard-hypersensitive individuals. Therefore this antigenic determinant must be involved in the allergenicity of these proteins. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7688955

  18. [The isolation and characteristics of a chemically modified allergen (allergoid) from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites].

    PubMed

    Petrunov, B; Nikolov, G; Konstantinova, D; Antonova, T; Iankova, R

    1996-01-01

    Chemically modified allergens (allergoids) were obtained from house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus). The allergenicity of allergoids in comparison with commercial mite allergen was determined by the skin prick test and by the in vitro test of degranulation of passively sensitized rat mast cells. Changes in allergoid molecules were determined with the use of gel filtration in a column packed with Sephadex G-75, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel, the determination of the concentration of end amino groups and the enzymatic activity of preparations, as well as HPLC. The possibility of using these methods for controlling the process of modification was studied. The results confirmed the fact that the modification on the allergenic preparation really occurred and the allergenic activity of allergoids was low.

  19. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Heat and pH stability studies and experiments with organic solvents show that the A-antigens discussed in the preceding paper (Augustin, 1959c) are much more labile than the I- (`inner ring') antigens. Breakdown products and/or aggregates are produced which no longer precipitate with antisera to the original extracts, but act as inhibitors. Solutions of pollen allergens, on the other hand, are found to withstand even autoclaving for 15 min. at 20 atm. and vigorous boiling over the naked flame of a bunsen burner. None of the carbohydrates tested has a demonstrable effect on skin reactivity which is, however, destroyed by crystalline pepsin, crystalline trypsin, a crystalline mould protease and a tissue protease (a partially purified extract from rabbit spleen). It follows that the bulk of the allergens—if not all—are proteins. The relation of skin reactivity, immuno-electrophoretic patterns, carbohydrate and protein reactions to the selective destruction of the pollen antigens is investigated. Pollen components prove to have a somewhat wider range of electrophoretic mobilities than serum proteins and are probably as complicated a mixture. The most and least highly negatively charged components are without skin reactivity in allergic subjects. The skin reactive allergens appear to have the mobilities of α- and β-globulins. Not all the hay fever subjects react equally to all the components, and Cocksfoot and Timothy activity patterns vary in different subjects. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:13795119

  20. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  1. Recombinant allergens for diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic disorders, with emphasis on cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hongb, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-02-01

    The prevalence of allergic disorders has increased over the past few decades and the quality of life has been significantly influenced at least for the allergic subjects. Allergen avoidance is thought to be the best way of preventing clinical manifestation of the disease, however, it is not possible for some allergens, and other pharmacological and/or immunological treatment has to be made. Repetitive injection of sensitized allergens to the patients (immunotherapy) is the only known curative approach to the disease even though the exact mechanism is not clear to date. Crude extract of allergens has lots of shortcomings which might arouse unexpected results. Genetic engineering and recombinant allergens are thought to be one of the alternative ways to overcome these limitations. Genetic engineering could facilitate the investigation of immune responses of the subjects especially on B cell and T cell epitopes, and produce the therapeutic allergens which might minimize the possible side effects. Furthermore, conjugation of immuno-modulatory molecules such as CpG-ODN, cytokines, or toxins which could act specifically to the given allergens, and maleylation of the allergens could maximize the prophylactic or therapeutic effect. Immunotherapies for the pollen allergy and insect sting allergy have been thought to be successful. House dust mite allergy and cockroach allergy have been reported less beneficial by immunotherapeutic approaches. Cockroaches are one of the most important causes of asthma, and severe complications are often reported in the children in city dwellers with low-incomes. The studies of the biological functions of cockroach allergens and the use of recombinant allergens should allow understanding of mechanisms of cockroach-elicited allergic disorders and development of allergen-specific and sensitive diagnostics and tailored therapeutic approaches in the future.

  2. Association analysis of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Shinya; Koike, Soichi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2009-06-01

    Food allergy patients are known to present with allergic reactions to multiple allergens, but extrapolating these associations is difficult. Data mining, a procedure that analyzes characteristic combinations among large amounts of information, is often used to analyze and predict consumer purchasing behaviour. We applied this technique to the extrapolation of food allergen associations in allergy patients. We sent 1510 families our 'Questionnaire survey for the prevention of food allergies'. Responses noting 6549 allergens came from 878 families with 1383 patients, including 402 with anaphylaxis. Some results of the survey have already been published and here we presented the results of our association analysis of combinations of food allergens. Egg, milk, wheat, peanuts, and buckwheat are the most common food allergens. The most common simultaneous combinations of these allergens were 'egg-milk', 'egg-wheat', and 'milk-wheat'. The occurrence probability of a combination (i.e. one person suffering from a certain allergen also suffers from another) is called 'confidence'. Confidence was higher for 'chicken-egg', 'abalone-salmon eggs', and 'matsutake mushroom-milk'. As well, the combinations of 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', and 'squid-crab' also indicated higher values in a statistical examination of the occurrence probabilities of these allergen combinations (Z-score). From the results of the association analysis, we speculated that some food allergens, such as abalone, orange, salmon, chicken, pork, matsutake mushroom, peach and apple did not independently induce food allergies. We also found that combinations, such as 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', 'squid-crab', 'chicken-beef', and 'salmon-mackerel' had strong associations.

  3. A revisit to cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed.

  4. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  5. Orthologous Allergens and Diagnostic Utility of Major Allergen Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781

  6. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen 1 activates the innate immune response of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Warmbold, Christine; Uliczka, Karin; Rus, Fiorentina; Suck, Roland; Petersen, Arnd; Silverman, Neal; Ulmer, Artur J; Heine, Holger; Roeder, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Some allergens with relevant protease activity have the potential to directly interact with host structures. It remains to be elucidated whether this activity is relevant for developing their allergenic properties. The major goal of this study was to elucidate whether allergens with a strong protease activity directly interact with modules of the innate immune system, thereby inducing an immune response. We chose Drosophila melanogaster for our experiments to prevent the results from being influenced by the adaptive immune system and used the armamentarium of methods available for the fly to study the underlying mechanisms. We show that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen 1 (Der p 1), the major allergen of the house dust mite, efficiently activates various facets of the Drosophila innate-immune system, including both epithelial and systemic responses. These responses depend on the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor Relish. In addition, the major pathogen associated molecular pattern recognizing receptor of the IMD pathway, peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC, was necessary for this response. We showed that Der p 1, which has cysteine protease activity, cleaves the ectodomain of peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC and, thus, activates the IMD pathway to induce a profound immune response. We conclude that the innate immune response to this allergen-mediated proteolytic cleavage represents an ancient type of danger signaling that may be highly relevant for the primary allergenicity of compounds such as Der p 1.

  7. Identification and characterization of major cat allergen Fel d 1 mimotopes on filamentous phage carriers.

    PubMed

    Luzar, Jernej; Molek, Peter; Šilar, Mira; Korošec, Peter; Košnik, Mitja; Štrukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2016-03-01

    Cat allergy is one of the most prevalent allergies worldwide and can lead to the development of rhinitis and asthma. Thus far, only allergen extracts from natural sources have been used for allergen-specific immunotherapy. However, extracts and whole allergens in immunotherapy present an anaphylaxis risk. Identification of allergen epitopes or mimotopes has an important role in development of safe and effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. Moreover, with a suitable immunogenic carrier, the absence of sufficient immune response elicited by short peptides could be surmounted. In this study, we identified five structural mimotopes of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 by immunoscreening with random peptide phage libraries. The mimotopes were computationally mapped to the allergen surface, and their IgE reactivity was confirmed using sera from cat-allergic patients. Importantly, the mimotopes showed no basophil activation of the corresponding cat-allergic patients, which makes them good candidates for the development of hypoallergenic vaccine. As bacteriophage particles are becoming increasingly recognized as immunogenic carriers, we constructed bacteriophage particles displaying multiple copies of each selected mimotope on major phage coat protein. These constructed phages elicited T cell-mediated immune response, which was predominated by the type 1 T cell response. Mimotopes alone contributed to the type 1 T cell response by promoting IL-2 production. Fel d 1 mimotopes, as well as their filamentous phage immunogenic carriers, represent promising candidates in the development of hypoallergenic vaccine against cat allergy.

  8. [Hidden allergens in processed food : An update from the consumer's point of view].

    PubMed

    Schnadt, Sabine; Pfaff, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    Despite improved allergen labelling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food remain a substantial risk for unintended reactions for consumers with food allergies. New data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund - DAAB) shows a slight decrease in the number of consumers that report allergic reactions to prepacked food. Still, 75 % (compared to 85 % in 2008) have experienced at least one allergic reaction after eating a prepacked food. In more than half of the cases, the reaction was classified as severe (with airway and/or cardiovascular symptoms such as respiratory distress, loss of blood pressure or anaphylactic shock). Again, more than 40 % (2008: 47 %, 2015: 42 %) reported that no information on the presence of the food allergens had been present on the label either as ingredients or as precautionary allergen labelling (PAL). Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens may not be recognized or recognizable by consumers with food allergies, such as allergen labelling that is not easy to understand, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as recipe changes in known foods. Examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation in order to better meet the goals of food information regulations to enable consumers with food allergies to make "informed choices which are safe for them" (Quote Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 - Reason 24).

  9. Several allergens from Anisakis simplex are highly resistant to heat and pepsin treatments.

    PubMed

    Caballero, María Luisa; Moneo, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked fish can lead to infection with Anisakis simplex. Sensitized patients show specific IgE to proteins from this parasite. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of specific IgE recognition directed to heat and/or pepsin-resistant allergens from A. simplex among sensitized patients. Twenty-seven patients with positive specific IgE and immunoblotting with a crude parasite extract were included in the study. Specific IgE detection against allergens resistant to boiling for 30 min and/or a pepsin digestion of an A. simplex extract was performed by immunoblotting. A total of 81% of the patients showed specific IgE to pepsin-resistant allergens and 67% had specific IgE to heat-resistant allergens. Thirty percent of patients recognized allergens after both treatments, one being the allergen detected by 75% of the patients of this group. Heat- and/or pepsin-resistant allergens from A. simplex could explain reactions and symptoms after the ingestion of well-cooked or canned fish.

  10. House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the

  11. Mapping of Lol p I allergenic epitopes by using murine monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mourad, W; Bernier, D; Jobin, M; Hébert, J

    1989-11-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three non-overlapping epitopes of Lol p I allergen were previously produced and subsequently used for purification of the allergen. In the present study, these MAbs were further characterized, and the biological activity of the purified allergen assessed. The three MAbs were of the IgG isotype and carried a kappa light chain. Their affinity constants were in the range of 7.4-15.1 x 10(-9) mol/l. Purified Lol p I kept its biological activity, as shown by its ability to induce histamine release by basophils of Lol p I-sensitive patients. The profiles of histamine release induced by either Lol p I or crude Lolium perenne extracts were comparable. This observation suggests that human IgE bound to basophils are polyspecific which has been confirmed by immunoblot and inhibition assay. Our data indicated also that Lol p I possesses a major allergenic epitope recognized by all human serum IgE tested. This epitope seems to be partially shared by those recognized by the three MAbs. Finally, preincubation of Lol p I with either one of the Mabs did not affect significantly the basophil-histamine release induced by the purified allergen. This suggests that Lol p I possesses allergenic sites other than the one shared by MAbs and IgE Abs.

  12. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  13. Virus/Allergen Interaction in Asthma Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Allergy and viral respiratory infections have long been recognized as two of the most important risk factors for exacerbations of asthma. These observations have raised questions regarding potential interactions between these two important risk factors. For example, does allergy diminish the antiviral response, thereby promoting exacerbations of asthma? Alternately, do viral respiratory infections potentiate ongoing allergic inflammation in the airway? The answers to these questions are likely to have implications regarding the prevention and treatment of exacerbations of asthma. This article reviews that clinical evidence linking viral infections and allergy to exacerbations of asthma, reviews potential interactions between these two risk factors, and discusses possible application of new insights in virus/allergen interactions to the prevention and treatment of exacerbations of asthma. PMID:26595729

  14. Production of an egg yolk antibody against Parietaria judaica 2 allergen.

    PubMed

    Alessandro, R; Gallo, A; Barranca, M; Principe, S; Taverna, S; Duro, G; Cassata, G; Becchi, M; Fontana, S; De Leo, G

    2009-08-01

    Specific antibodies are essential tools for studying proteins as well as for diagnostic research in biomedicine. The egg yolk of immunized chicken is an inexpensive source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies. The 12-kDa Parietaria judaica 2 allergen was expressed as a fusion protein and was used to immunize Leghorn chickens. In this paper, we show, using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, that chicken antibodies raised against a recombinant allergen can be used to recognize similar proteins from a pollen raw extract. Allergen identity was confirmed by nanoLC-nanospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Our data demonstrate for the first time that a synergistic combination of molecular biology, 2-dimensional PAGE, and use of nonmammalian antibodies represents a powerful tool for reliable identification of allergens.

  15. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    PubMed Central

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  16. Understanding allergic asthma from allergen inhalation tests

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W; Hargreave, Fredrick E; O’Byrne, Paul M; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic) airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation), advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma. PMID:17948142

  17. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  18. Identification of tropomyosin and arginine kinase as major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab).

    PubMed

    Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Zailatul, H M Y; Noormalin, A; Normilah, I

    2012-09-01

    Crab is an important source of food allergen. Tropomyosin represents the main crab allergen and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between various species of crustaceans. Recently, other new crab allergens including arginine kinase have been identified. However, information on allergens of the local Portunidcrab is not available. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab) using the allergenomics approach. Raw and cooked extracts of the crab were prepared from the crab meat. Protein profile and IgE binding pattern were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 30 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens of the crab were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed approximately 20 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while cooked extract demonstrated fewer protein bands. The raw extract also demonstrated a higher number of IgE reactive bands than the cooked extract. A heat-resistant protein of 36 kDa has been identified as the major allergen in both raw and cooked extracts. In addition, a heat-sensitive protein of 41 kDa was also recognized as a major allergen in raw crab. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated about >100 distinct proteins spots and immunoblotting of the 2-DE profile demonstrated at least 12 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses between 13 to 250 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. The 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as the crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively by mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study confirmed that tropomyosin and arginine kinase are the major allergens of the local Portunid crab, P. pelagicus.

  19. Mystery of the disappearing allergen: published allergens rarely seen again.

    PubMed

    Zapolanski, Tamar; Maibach, Howard I

    2008-01-01

    Patch testing is an important tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Although this technique can be accurate, occasionally the results may be inconclusive. A previously positive result to an allergen may become negative upon repeat testing, and this may complicate the process of achieving a definitive diagnosis. There are some potential explanations for such inconsistencies, including the Excited Skin Syndrome, irritant reactions, a need to repeat the diagnostic algorithm, "rogue" reactions, and "contact allergy." These explanations should be taken into account when interpreting these results. However, further knowledge is needed to solve the mystery of an allergen that subsequently disappears.

  20. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Jang, Sungchan; Kerley, Monty S

    2009-02-11

    Soybeans are recognized as one of the "big 8" food allergens. IgE antibodies from soybean-sensitive patients recognize more than 15 soybean proteins. Among these proteins only the alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, but not the highly homologous alpha'- and beta-subunits, has been shown to be a major allergenic protein. The objective of this study was to examine if the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin can also serve as potential allergens. Immunoblot analysis using sera collected from soybean-allergic patients revealed the presence of IgE antibodies that recognized several soy proteins including 72, 70, 52, 34, and 21 kDa proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis of trypsin-digested 72, 70, and 52 kDa proteins indicated that these proteins were the alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin, respectively. Additionally, purified alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin were recognized by IgE antibodies present in the soybean-allergic patients. The IgE reactivity to the beta-subunit of beta-conglycinin was not abolished when this glycoprotein was either deglycosylated using glycosidases or expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli . The results suggest that in addition to the previously recognized alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin also are potential food allergens.

  1. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...

  2. Nasal allergen challenge and mediators release.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Ferreira, M B; Santos, A S; Santos, M C; Pedro, E

    1997-11-01

    Nasal allergen challenges, despite not reproducing exactly natural allergen exposure, are a very useful method to understand the complex cellular kinetics and cellular interactions that occur in allergic rhinitis. Cell-specific soluble mediator measurements can give useful diagnostic information. In this paper we present data concerning eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase measurements after nasal allergen challenge.

  3. Characterization of plant food allergens: an overview on physicochemical and immunological techniques.

    PubMed

    Harrer, Andrea; Egger, Matthias; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Erler, Anja; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Himly, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Allergy to plant-derived foods is a highly complex disorder with clinical manifestations ranging from mild oral, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening systemic conditions. This heterogeneity in clinical manifestations has been attributed to different properties of allergenic molecules. Based on this fact, symptom elicitors were grouped into class I and pollinosis-associated class II food allergens, but clear distinction is rather ambiguous. Moreover, mechanisms underlying food sensitization are not fully understood yet, and food allergy management most often relies on patient's compliance to avoid suspected foods. Therefore, recent efforts aim at the investigation of plant food allergies at the molecular level. This review provides an overview on currently available techniques for allergen characterization and discusses their application for investigation of plant food allergens. Data obtained by an array of physicochemical analyses, such as allergen structure, integrity, aggregation, and stability, need to be linked to results from immunological methods at the level of IgE and T-cell reactivity. Such knowledge allows the development of computational algorithms to predict allergenicity of novel foods being introduced by biotechnological industry. Furthermore, molecular characterization is an indispensable tool for molecule-based diagnosis and future development of safer patient-tailored specific immunotherapy in plant food allergy.

  4. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients. PMID:24795722

  5. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  6. Immunological characteristics in cattle of allergens derived from smooth Brucella abortus S99.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, B; Miler, J J; Dolan, L; McKeon, F; O'Meara, M

    1980-10-18

    Allergens prepared from a smooth strain of Brucella abortus (S99) were used in an intradermal test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle. The development and testing of the allergen from the initial less purified stages is described. The removal of serological activity noted in some of the earlier preparations can be related to the elimination of molecules of high molecular weight. The final allergen is of a high order of sensitivity and specificity and does not cause production of complement fixing or agglutinating antibodies. Intradermal testing with such an allergen could be a most useful addition to present serological procedures as it could be carried out at the same time as tuberculin testing. As a routine surveillance test, particularly in low prevalence areas, it would eliminate the necessity for extensive blood sampling and in many cases detect the infected herd before serological tests would have become positive.

  7. New and emerging cosmetic allergens.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rosie F; Johnston, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    Human skin is exposed to a large variety of cosmetic allergens. Most allergic contact dermatitis occurs after exposure to fragrance, preservatives, and hair dyes. Such reactions can often be occult. As a result, a high index of suspicion is needed in assessing the patient with facial or cosmetic dermatitis. This contribution looks at why such a large number of chemicals are in everyday usage, at how dermatologists monitor trends in allergy to cosmetics, and at a number of new and emerging allergens to consider in the assessment of suspected cosmetic allergy.

  8. Shellfish allergens: tropomyosin and beyond.

    PubMed

    Faber, M A; Pascal, M; El Kharbouchi, O; Sabato, V; Hagendorens, M M; Decuyper, I I; Bridts, C H; Ebo, D G

    2016-12-27

    IgE-mediated shellfish allergy constitutes an important cause of food-related adverse reactions. Shellfish are classified into mollusks and crustaceans, the latter belonging to the class of arthropoda. Among crustaceans, shrimps are the most predominant cause of allergic reactions and thus more extensively studied. Several major and minor allergens have been identified and cloned. Among them, invertebrate tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and hemocyanin are the most relevant. This review summarizes our current knowledge about these allergens.

  9. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene.

  10. Dermatophagoides farinae allergens diversity identification by proteomics.

    PubMed

    An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-07-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens.

  11. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  12. Update of the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database based on analysis of allergen sequences.

    PubMed

    Radauer, C; Nandy, A; Ferreira, F; Goodman, R E; Larsen, J N; Lidholm, J; Pomés, A; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Rozynek, P; Thomas, W R; Breiteneder, H

    2014-04-01

    The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee, under the auspices of the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies, maintains the systematic nomenclature of allergenic proteins and publishes a database of approved allergen names on its Web site, www.allergen.org. In this paper, we summarize updates of allergen names approved at the meetings of the committee in 2011 through 2013. These changes reflect recent progress in identification, cloning, and sequencing of allergens. The goals of this update were to increase consistency in the classification of allergens, isoallergens, and variants and in the incorporation of the evolutionary classification of proteins into allergen nomenclature, while keeping changes of established names to a minimum in the interest of continuity. Allergens for which names have been updated include respiratory allergens from birch and ragweed pollen, midge larvae, and horse dander; food allergens from peanut, cow's milk, and tomato; and cereal grain allergens. The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee encourages researchers to use these updated allergen names in future publications.

  13. Characteristic motifs for families of allergenic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Torres, Miguel; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner

    2008-01-01

    The identification of potential allergenic proteins is usually done by scanning a database of allergenic proteins and locating known allergens with a high sequence similarity. However, there is no universally accepted cut-off value for sequence similarity to indicate potential IgE cross-reactivity. Further, overall sequence similarity may be less important than discrete areas of similarity in proteins with homologous structure. To identify such areas, we first classified all allergens and their subdomains in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to their closest protein families as defined in Pfam, and identified conserved physicochemical property motifs characteristic of each group of sequences. Allergens populate only a small subset of all known Pfam families, as all allergenic proteins in SDAP could be grouped to only 130 (of 9318 total) Pfams, and 31 families contain more than four allergens. Conserved physicochemical property motifs for the aligned sequences of the most populated Pfam families were identified with the PCPMer program suite and catalogued in the webserver Motif-Mate (http://born.utmb.edu/motifmate/summary.php). We also determined specific motifs for allergenic members of a family that could distinguish them from non-allergenic ones. These allergen specific motifs should be most useful in database searches for potential allergens. We found that sequence motifs unique to the allergens in three families (seed storage proteins, Bet v 1, and tropomyosin) overlap with known IgE epitopes, thus providing evidence that our motif based approach can be used to assess the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. PMID:18951633

  14. TSLP produced by keratinocytes promotes allergen sensitization through skin and thereby triggers atopic march in mice.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Castillo, Juan Manuel; Hener, Pierre; Jiang, Hua; Li, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis often precedes the development of asthma, a phenomenon known as "atopic march". An important role of allergen sensitization developed through barrier-defective skin has been recognized in the onset of atopic march; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we use an experimental atopic march mouse model, in which the sensitization to allergen is achieved through barrier-impaired skin, followed by allergen challenge in the airway. By using thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)(iep-/-) mice in which the cytokine TSLP is selectively and inducibly ablated in epidermal keratinocytes, we demonstrate that keratinocytic TSLP, the expression of which is induced by skin barrier impairment, is essential for generating skin allergic inflammation and allergen-induced T helper type 2 response, for developing sensitization to allergen, and for triggering a subsequent allergic asthma. Furthermore, using TSLP(over) mice in which overexpression of keratinocytic TSLP is induced by skin topical application of MC903 (a vitamin D3 analog) in a dose-dependent manner, we show that keratinocytic TSLP levels are correlated with skin sensitization strength and asthma severity. Taken together, our study uncovers a crucial role of keratinocytic TSLP in the "atopic march" by promoting allergen sensitization occurring in barrier-impaired skin, which ultimately leads to allergic asthma.

  15. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    PubMed

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-07-03

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion. This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating the allergenic potential of food allergen digestion products. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitizing capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. Therefore, the predictive value of the pepsin resistance test for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins can be questioned.

  16. Indoor allergen exposure and asthma outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss updates on research regarding the relationship between indoor allergen exposure and childhood asthma with a focus on clinical effects, locations of exposure, and novel treatments. Recent findings Recent data continue to demonstrate that early life sensitization to indoor allergens is a predictor of asthma development later in life. Furthermore, avoidance of exposure to these allergens continues to be important especially given that the vast majority of children with asthma are sensitized to at least one indoor allergen. New research suggests that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen. Recent evidence reminds us that children are exposed to clinically important levels of indoor allergens in locations away from their home, such as schools and daycare centers. Exposure to increased levels of indoor mold in childhood has been associated with asthma development and exacerbation of current asthma; however, emerging evidence suggests that early exposure to higher fungal diversity may actually be protective for asthma development. Novel treatments have been developed that target TH2 pathways thus decreasing asthmatic responses to allergens. These therapies show promise for the treatment of severe allergic asthma refractory to avoidance strategies and standard therapies. Summary Understanding the relationship between indoor allergens and asthma outcomes is a constantly evolving study of timing, location, and amount of exposure. PMID:27653703

  17. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  18. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  19. High-Density IgE Recognition of the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Revealed with Single-Chain IgE Antibody Fragments Obtained by Combinatorial Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Madritsch, Christoph; Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Roder, Uwe W.; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Flicker, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 1 belongs to the group 1 of highly cross-reactive grass pollen allergens with a molecular mass of ~25–30 kDa. Group 1 allergens are recognized by >95% of grass pollen allergic patients. We investigated the IgE recognition of Phl p 1 using allergen-specific IgE-derived single-chain variable Ab fragments (IgE-ScFvs) isolated from a combinatorial library constructed from PBMCs of a grass pollen–allergic patient. IgE-ScFvs reacted with recombinant Phl p 1 and natural group 1 grass pollen allergens. Using synthetic Phl p 1–derived peptides, the binding sites of two ScFvs were mapped to the N terminus of the allergen. In surface plasmon resonance experiments they showed comparable high-affinity binding to Phl p 1 as a complete human IgE-derived Ab recognizing the allergens’ C terminus. In a set of surface plasmon resonance experiments simultaneous allergen recognition of all three binders was demonstrated. Even in the presence of the three binders, allergic patients’ polyclonal IgE reacted with Phl p 1, indicating high-density IgE recognition of the Phl p 1 allergen. Our results show that multiple IgE Abs can bind with high density to Phl p 1, which may explain the high allergenic activity and sensitizing capacity of this allergen. PMID:25637023

  20. [Exposition and sensitisation to indoor allergens, house dust mite allergen and cat allergens].

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, S; Felder-Kennel, A; Gabrio, T; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Piechotowski, I; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schwenk, M; Weidner, U; Zöllner, I

    2003-07-01

    The study examined the exposure to biological indoor air agents and their possible role for allergies and respiratory tract illnesses of children. It was conducted as a case control study (atopic vs non-atopic children) at the four surveillance public health departments in Baden-Württemberg in the winter season 1999/2000 and included 379 children of the fourth class. The concentrations of the house dust mite antigens Der F1, Der p1, and Der Gr2 as well as cat allergen Fel d1 were determined in the children's bedrooms on the ground and in the mattress. Specific IgE-antibodies against allergens from house dust, mites and cat were determined in the serum of the children. For mite allergens the following medians ( micro g/g) were estimated in floor dust: Der p1 = 0.6, Der f1 = 2.3, Gr2 = 0.1; in mattresses: Der p1 = 1.2, Der f1 = 3.4, Gr2 = 0.3. The median of Fel d1 in floor dust was 0.2 microg/g, in mattresses 0.1 microg/g. Sensitisation to dust mite allergen was found to be more prevalent than sensitisation to cat. The distribution of sensitisation among the cases and controls is different. Among the cases, more subjects were sensitised to dust mites (32.9 %) and cat (13.1 %). Among the controls, 17.1 % were sensitised to dust mites and 4.1 % to cat. The results showed no direct association between the prevalence of allergies or respiratory tract illnesses and the indoor concentrations of the allergens. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.

  1. Ligand binding modulates the structural dynamics and compactness of the major birch pollen allergen.

    PubMed

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Freier, Regina; Kofler, Stefan; Bibi, Marium; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2014-12-16

    Pathogenesis-related plant proteins of class-10 (PR-10) are essential for storage and transport of small molecules. A prominent member of the PR-10 family, the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, is the main cause of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the northern hemisphere. Bet v 1 binds various ligand molecules to its internal cavity, and immunologic effects of the presence of ligand have been discussed. However, the mechanism of binding has remained elusive. In this study, we show that in solution Bet v 1.0101 is conformationally heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single structure. NMR relaxation data suggest that structural dynamics are fundamental for ligand access to the protein interior. Complex formation then leads to significant rigidification of the protein along with a compaction of its 3D structure. The data presented herein provide a structural basis for understanding the immunogenic and allergenic potential of ligand binding to Bet v 1 allergens.

  2. "Recognizing Numerical Constants"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive, high performance computer and new efficient algorithms have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants of mathematics. In this presentation, some of the recently discovered techniques for constant recognition, notably integer relation detection algorithms, will be presented. As an application of these methods, the author's recent work in recognizing "Euler sums" will be described in some detail.

  3. Allergens/Antigens, toxins and polyketides of important Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Bhetariya, Preetida J; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P

    2011-04-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important species relevant to human, agricultural and biotechnological applications. The potential of Aspergillus species to produce highly diversified complex biomolecules such as multifunctional proteins (allergens, antigens, enzymes) and polyketides is fascinating and demands greater insight into the understanding of these fungal species for application to human health. Recently a regulator gene for secondary metabolites, LaeA has been identified. Gene mining based on LaeA has facilitated new metabolites with antimicrobial activity such as emericellamides and antitumor activity such as terrequinone A from A. nidulans. Immunoproteomic approach was reported for identification of few novel allergens for A. fumigatus. In this context, the review is focused on recent developments in allergens, antigens, structural and functional diversity of the polyketide synthases that produce polyketides of pharmaceutical and biological importance. Possible antifungal drug targets for development of effective antifungal drugs and new strategies for development of molecular diagnostics are considered.

  4. The antigenicity and allergenicity of microparticulated proteins: Simplesse.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H A; Cooke, S

    1992-10-01

    New technologies are allowing the food industry to develop products from standard foods which may not be recognized in its modified form by food allergic patients. One such product, Simplesse, has been formulated by microparticulation of egg white and/or cows' milk proteins and is used as a fat substitute in many fat-laden foods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the process of microparticulation altered the allergenicity/antigenicity of egg white and cows' milk proteins compared to the starting materials. Soluble protein fractions of Simplesse and its respective starting materials were compared to egg white, cows' milk protein, an ultra-filtered egg white/condensed milk mixture, and/or a whey concentrate by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, sera from 16 patients with documented egg and/or cows' milk hypersensitivity and two controls who were not allergic to egg or milk were used to assess potential allergenicity/antigenicity of these products by immunoblot (Western blot) analysis. There were heterogeneous IgE and IgG binding patterns to the food fractions among these food allergic patients suggesting differing sensitivity patterns among the individuals tested. However, utilizing both SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses, the major allergens in the microparticulated products were the same as those found in the starting materials, egg and cows' milk. In addition, there was no evidence of 'novel' protein fractions in the Simplesse test materials compared to the starting materials.

  5. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  6. Food allergens: molecular and immunological aspects, allergen databases and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome.

  7. Influence of thermal processing on the allergenicity of peanut proteins.

    PubMed

    Mondoulet, L; Paty, E; Drumare, M F; Ah-Leung, S; Scheinmann, P; Willemot, R M; Wal, J M; Bernard, H

    2005-06-01

    Peanuts are one of the most common and severe food allergens. Nevertheless, the occurrence of peanut allergy varies between countries and depends on both the exposure and the way peanuts are consumed. Processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thermal processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole peanut protein extracts and of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. Whole proteins, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2 were extracted and purified from raw, roasted and boiled peanuts using selective precipitation and multiple chromatographic steps, and were then characterized by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The immunoreactivity of whole peanut extracts and purified proteins was analyzed by the enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) and EAST inhibition using the sera of 37 peanut-allergic patients. The composition of the whole protein extracts was modified after heat processing, especially after boiling. The electrophoretic pattern showed protein bands of low molecular weight that were less marked in boiled than in raw and roasted peanuts. The same low-molecular-weight proteins were found in the cooking water of peanuts. Whole peanut protein extracts obtained after the different processes were all recognized by the IgE of the 37 patients. The IgE-binding capacity of the whole peanut protein extracts prepared from boiled peanuts was 2-fold lower than that of the extracts prepared from raw and roasted peanuts. No significant difference was observed between protein extracts from raw and roasted peanuts. It is noteworthy that the proteins present in the cooking water were also recognized by the IgE of peanut-allergic patients. IgE immunoreactivity of purified Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 prepared from roasted peanuts was higher than that of their counterparts prepared from raw and boiled peanuts. The IgE-binding capacity of purified Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 was altered by heat treatment and in particular was

  8. Allergenic Characterization of 27-kDa Glycoprotein, a Novel Heat Stable Allergen, from the Pupa of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm.

  9. Characterization of Allergen Exposure in Homes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-17

    dust mixture.6 Dust mite allergens have been associated causatively with asthma, atopic dermatitis , and rhini- tis. 7 Studies from several countries...Asthma: A Controlled Trial. The Lancet 1976; ***:333-335. 10. Tuft L. Importance of Inhalant Allergens in Atopic Dermatitis . The Journal of Investigative...Monoclonal Antibodies to the Major Feline Allergen Fel d 1. 1I. Single Step Affinity Purification of Fel d 1, N-Terminal Sequence Analysis, and Development of

  10. Peanut Allergens Attached With p-Aminobenzamidine Are More Resistant to Digestion than Native Allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Undigested foods are excreted rather than absorbed and therefore, peanut allergens, if undigested, may not cause an allergic reaction in peanut-allergic individuals. Our objective was to make peanut allergens more resistant to digestion by preparing allergen conjugates and demonstrating that the con...

  11. Periplaneta americana arginine kinase as a major cockroach allergen among Thai patients with major cockroach allergies.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Vichyanond, Pakit; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Tapchaisri, Pramuan

    2006-06-01

    Periplaneta americana is the predominant cockroach (CR) species and a major source of indoor allergens in Thailand. Nevertheless, data on the nature and molecular characteristics of its allergenic components are rare. We conducted this study to identify and characterize the P. americana allergenic protein. A random heptapeptide phage display library and monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to a the P. americana component previously shown to be an allergenic molecule were used to identify the MAb-bound mimotope and its phylogenic distribution. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, peptide mass fingerprinting, and BLAST search were used to identify the P. americana protein containing the MAb-specific epitope. We studied the allergenicity of the native protein using sera of CR-allergic Thai patients in immunoassays. The mimotope peptide that bound to the MAb specific to P. americana was LTPCRNK. The peptide has an 83-100% identity with proteins of Anopheles gambiae, notch homolog scalloped wings of Lucilia cuprina, delta protein of Apis mellifera; neu5Ac synthase and tyrosine phosphatase of Drosophila melanogaster, and a putative protein of Drosophila pseudoobscura. This finding implies that the mimotope-containing molecule of P. americana is a pan-insect protein. The MAb-bound protein of P. americana was shown to be arginine kinase that reacted to IgE in the sera of all of the CR-allergic Thai patients by immunoblotting, implying its high allergenicity. In conclusion, our results revealed that P. americana arginine kinase is a pan-insect protein and a major CR allergen for CR-allergic Thai patients.

  12. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  13. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  14. Cockroach allergen exposure and risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Do, D C; Zhao, Y; Gao, P

    2016-04-01

    Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins have provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen-presenting cell (APC) function in T-cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often coexist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.

  15. Recognizing complex patterns.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pawan

    2002-11-01

    How the brain recognizes complex patterns in the environment is a central, but little understood question in neuroscience. The problem is of great significance for a host of applications such as biometric-based access control, autonomous robots and content-based information management. Although some headway in these directions has been made, the current artificial systems do not match the robustness and versatility of their biological counterparts. Here I examine recognition tasks drawn from two different sensory modalities--face recognition and speaker/speech recognition. The goal is to characterize the present state of artificial recognition technologies for these tasks, the influence of neuroscience on the design of these systems and the key challenges they face.

  16. Study of the epitope structure of purified Dac G I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne pollens, using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mourad, W; Mécheri, S; Peltre, G; David, B; Hébert, J

    1988-11-15

    The use of mAb allowed us to further analyze the cross-reactivity between purified Dac g I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) and Lolium perenne (Rye grass), respectively. It was first shown, using IEF, followed by immunoprinting, that serum IgE antibodies from most grass-sensitive patients recognize both Dac g I and Lol p I. Second, three different anti-Lol p I mAb, 290A-167, 348A-6, and 539A-6, and one anti-Dac g I mAb, P3B2 were all shown to react with Dac g I and Lol p I, indicating that the two molecules share common epitopes. Epitope specificity of the mAb was determined by competitive binding inhibition of a given labeled mAb to solid phase fixed Dac g I or Lol p I by the mAb. The results indicated that the four mAb are directed against four different and non-overlapping epitopes present on both allergens. Using double-binding RIA, our data strongly suggest that the common epitopes are not repetitive on both molecules. In addition to their similar physicochemical characteristics, such as isolectric points and m.w., Dac g I and Lol p I share four identical epitopes. Binding inhibition of human IgE to Lol p I and Dac g I by the mAb was also assessed. The results indicated that each mAb was able to inhibit such reactions to variable degree but no additive inhibition was observed when two mAb of different specificities were used in combination, suggesting that the human IgE binding site is partially shared by each epitope recognized by the four mAb.

  17. 78 FR 54658 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Kentucky Bluegrass Mixed Pollens Allergen Extract tablet for sublingual use, manufactured by Stallergenes... the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy Grass Pollen Allergen Extract tablet for sublingual...

  18. Towards Defining Molecular Determinants Recognized by Adaptive Immunity in Allergic Disease: An Inventory of the Available Data

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Kerrie; Greenbaum, Jason; Kim, Yohan; Vita, Randi; Chung, Jo; Peters, Bjoern; Broide, David; Goodman, Richard; Grey, Howard; Sette, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses associated with allergic reactions recognize antigens from a broad spectrum of plants and animals. Herein a meta-analysis was performed on allergy-related data from the immune epitope database (IEDB) to provide a current inventory and highlight knowledge gaps and areas for future work. The analysis identified over 4,500 allergy-related epitopes derived from 270 different allergens. Overall, the distribution of the data followed expectations based on the nature of allergic responses. Namely, the majority of epitopes were defined for B cells/antibodies and IgE-mediated reactivity, and relatively fewer T-cell epitopes, mostly CD4+/class II. Interestingly, the majority of food allergen epitopes were B-cells epitopes whereas a fairly even number of B- and T-cell epitopes were defined for airborne allergens. In addition, epitopes from nonhumans hosts were mostly T-cell epitopes. Overall, coverage of known allergens is sparse with data available for only ~17% of all allergens listed by the IUIS database. Thus, further research would be required to provide a more balanced representation across different allergen categories. Furthermore, inclusion of nonpeptidic epitopes in the IEDB also allows for inventory and analysis of immunological data associated with drug and contact allergen epitopes. Finally, our analysis also underscores that only a handful of epitopes have thus far been investigated for their immunotherapeutic potential. PMID:21403821

  19. Chemical changes in rubber allergens during vulcanization.

    PubMed

    Bergendorff, Ola; Persson, Christina; Lüdtke, Anna; Hansson, Christer

    2007-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to rubber is caused by residues of chemicals used in manufacturing a rubber product. Several different additives are used to achieve a final product of the desired characteristics. Accelerators such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates, and mercaptobenzothiazoles are often among the additives responsible for allergic reactions recognized by dermatologists. The chemistry of the vulcanization process is complicated; as it occurs at an elevated temperature with a mixture of reactive chemicals, the compositions of the initial and final products differ. This paper investigates the changes in composition of common allergens during vulcanization, doing so by chemically analysing various rubber formulations at different stages of the process. Major changes were found in which added chemicals were consumed and new ones produced. An important observation is that thiuram disulfides rarely appear in the final rubber although they may have been used as additives. Instead, thiurams are often converted to dithiocarbamates or to products formed by addition to mercaptobenzothiazole structures, if these have been used together with thiurams as accelerators.

  20. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  1. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenxing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Limin

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  2. Reactivity of IgE to the allergen hyaluronidase from Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) venom.

    PubMed

    Justo Jacomini, Débora Laís; Gomes Moreira, Susana Margarida; Campos Pereira, Franco Dani; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto Braga, Márcia Regina

    2014-05-01

    To date, there are no allergenic extracts or components available in Brazil to diagnosis and treatment of patients with venom allergy from social wasp (Vespidae Family; Polistinae Subfamily) despite of the great number of existing species. We evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Hyal recombinant protein (Pp-Hyal-rec) which was expressed in an insoluble form in comparison with the allergenic native protein (Pp-Hyal-nat) for recognition of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the serum of allergic patients to venom of the endemic social wasp Polybia paulista from São Paulo State, Brazil. Hyal cDNA from the venom of the social wasp P. paulista (Pp-Hyal) (GI: 302201582) was cloned into the expression vector pET-28a in Escherichia coli DE3 (BL21) cells. Solubilization and purification of Pp-Hyal-rec from inclusion bodies were performed using Ni(2+) affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA-Agarose) under denaturing conditions. Both the native (Pp-Hyal-nat) and the recombinant (Pp-Hyal-rec) purified allergens were used for Western blotting to assess the levels of Pp-Hyal-IgE specific in the serum of 10 patients exclusively reactive to the venom of the social wasp P. paulista. The immune sera specifically recognized the band corresponding to the Pp-Hyal-rec protein (40 kDa) at a higher intensity than the native allergen (39 kDa). The sera recognized other proteins in P. paulista crude venom extract to a lesser extent, likely corresponding to other venom allergens such as phospholipase (34 kDa), Antigen 5 (25 kDa), and proteases. The recognition pattern of the immune sera to the Pp-Hyal-rec allergen strongly suggests that this recombinant antigen could be used for developing a diagnostic allergy test as well as for specific immunotherapy (IT).

  3. Guilt by intimate association: what makes an allergen an allergen?

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L

    2010-05-01

    Why specific, ubiquitous, otherwise innocuous environmental proteins tend to provoke maladaptive, T(H)2-polarized immune responses in susceptible hosts is a fundamental mechanistic question for those interested in the pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention of allergic disease. The current renaissance in the study of innate immunity has provided important insights into this question. The theme emerging from recent studies is that direct (dys)functional interactions with pathways of innate immune activation that evolved to signal the presence of microbial infection are central to the molecular basis for allergenicity. This article reviews these data.

  4. The allergenic significance of certain fungi rarely reported as allergens.

    PubMed

    Giannini, E H; Northey, W T; Leathers, C R

    1975-12-01

    The allergenic significance of seven different species of fungi was investigated. Included were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Podaxis pistillaris, Stemonitis ferruginea, Lycogala epidendrum, Fuligo septica, Ustilago maydis and Puccinia cynodontis. All of these fungi have wide distribution patterns and aerially disseminated spores but, because of their unique growth characteristics, are usually not reported in atmospheric fungal surveys. Seventy-eight patients were treated for dermal sensitivity to extracts of the organisms after the spores were extracted in 50% glycerinated Coca's solution. The results represent a six-month test period. Forty-four patients, representing 56% of the total number tested, demonstrated dermal reactivity toward one or more of the extracts.

  5. Kiwifruit Allergy in Children: Characterization of Main Allergens and Patterns of Recognition.

    PubMed

    Moreno Álvarez, Ana; Sexto, Leticia Vila; Bardina, Luda; Grishina, Galina; Sampson, Hugh A

    2015-10-19

    Kiwifruit allergy has been described mostly in the adult population, but immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic reactions to kiwifruit appear to be occurring more frequently in children. To date, 13 allergens from kiwifruit have been identified. Our aim was to identify kiwifruit allergens in a kiwifruit allergic-pediatric population, describing clinical manifestations and patterns of recognition. Twenty-four children were included. Diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy was based on compatible clinical manifestations and demonstration of specific IgE by skin prick test (SPT) and/or serum-specific IgE determination. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting were performed with kiwifruit extract, and proteins of interest were further analyzed by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. For component-resolved in vitro diagnosis, sera of kiwifruit-allergic patients were analyzed by an allergen microarray assay. Act d 1 and Act d 2 were bound by IgE from 15 of 24 children. Two children with systemic manifestations recognized a protein of 15 kDa, homologous to Act d 5. Act d 1 was the allergen with the highest frequency of recognition on microarray chip, followed by Act d 2 and Act d 8. Kiwifruit allergic children develop systemic reactions most frequently following ingestion compared to adults. Act d 1 and Act d 2 are major allergens in the pediatric age group.

  6. Purification and Characterization of a Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Allergen, Jug n 4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Du, Wen-Xian; Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Nadeau, Kari C; Thomas, Andrew L; McHugh, Tara

    2017-01-18

    Tree nuts as a group cause a significant number of fatal anaphylactic reactions to foods. Walnuts (Juglans spp.) are one of the leading causes of allergic reactions to tree nuts in the U.S. and Japan. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize potential food allergens from black walnut. Here, we report the isolation of the black walnuts allergen Jug n 4 (an 11S globulin) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Reducing SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that purified Jug n 4 consists of three major bands. N-Terminal sequencing data of these bands indicated that they were the results of a post-transcriptional protease cleavage of the mature protein at a site that consists of a known conserved protease recognition motif, NGXEET. Western blot experiments revealed that 32% of the sera from 25 patients with double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical walnut allergy contained IgE antibodies that recognized Jug n 4, indicating that it is a walnut allergen. Identifying this and additional allergens may facilitate the understanding of the allergenicity of seed storage proteins in tree nuts and their cross-reactivity.

  7. Reducing food allergenicity at the molecular level.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergens are a significant worldwide public health issue. Estimates for the prevalence of food allergies are around 1-2 % of the total population and up to 8 % of children; although, the prevalence may vary between populations and age groups. Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods. The...

  8. New structural information on food allergens (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small number of protein families are responsible for food allergies suffered by the majority of allergy patients. What properties of these proteins make them allergens is not clear at present. Reliable methods for allergen prediction and mitigation are lacking. Most the immediate type of food alle...

  9. Assessment of environmental cockroach allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ginger L

    2012-10-01

    In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics, much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies for decreasing exposures.

  10. Watermelon and ragweed share allergens.

    PubMed

    Enberg, R N; Leickly, F E; McCullough, J; Bailey, J; Ownby, D R

    1987-06-01

    A biotin-avidin amplified ELISA was used to measure antigen-specific IgE for ragweed, representative members of the gourd family (watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, zucchini, and cucumber), and banana in the sera of 192 allergic patients, each with an IgE greater than or equal to 180 microns/ml. Sixty-three percent (120/192) of the sera contained antiragweed IgE, and of these patients, 28% to 50% contained IgE specific for any single gourd family member. In contrast, no greater than 11% of the sera positive for a given gourd or banana were negative for ragweed. Correlations between ragweed and gourd-specific IgE levels were significant (p less than 0.001), and correlation coefficients between any two gourds exceeded 0.79. In an ELISA system, the extracts of watermelon and ragweed inhibited each other in a dose-dependent manner; the resulting nonparallel inhibition curves indicate that some, but not all, of the allergens in the two extracts are cross-reactive. Isoelectric focusing of watermelon and ragweed extracts in narrow range gel (pH 4 to 6) followed by immunoblotting demonstrated six watermelon allergen bands with isoelectric points identical to those of ragweed allergens. Several remaining bands in the two extracts had differing isoelectric points, however. Six of 26 patients interviewed with watermelon-specific IgE reported developing oropharyngeal symptoms (itching and/or swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat) after ingesting at least one of the study foods, whereas only one of 25 patients interviewed without detectable watermelon-specific IgE reported similar symptoms (p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  12. Effects of extrusion, boiling, autoclaving, and microwave heating on lupine allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alvarez, Javier; Guillamón, Eva; Crespo, Jesús F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Rodríguez, Julia; Fernández, Consuelo; Muzquiz, Mercedes

    2005-02-23

    Lupine flour has been reported as a causative agent of allergic reactions. However, the allergenicity of lupine after thermal processing is not well-known. For this purpose, the allergenic characteristics of lupine seeds after boiling (up to 60 min), autoclaving (121 degrees C, 1.18 atm, up to 20 min and 138 degrees C, 2.56 atm, up to 30 min), microwave heating (30 min), and extrusion cooking were studied. The IgE-binding capacity was analyzed by IgE-immunoblotting and CAP inhibition using a serum pool from 23 patients with lupine-specific IgE. Skin testing was carried out in four patients. An important reduction in allergenicity after autoclaving at 138 degrees C for 20 min was observed. IgE antibodies from two individual sera recognized bands at 23 and 29 kDa in autoclaved samples at 138 degrees C for 20 min. Autoclaving for 30 min abolished the IgE binding to these two components. A previously undetected band at 70 kDa was recognized by an individual serum. Therefore, prolonged autoclaving might have an important effect on the allergenicity of lupine with the majority of patients lacking IgE reactivity to these processed samples.

  13. Identification of the antigenic determinants of the American cockroach allergen Per a 1 by error-prone PCR.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Jen; Liu, Ching-Hang; Chen, Shu-Tsung; Yang, Chiou-Ying

    2003-05-01

    The group I allergen of cockroach is found in both American and German cockroaches, designated as Per a 1 and Bla g 1, respectively. Members of these allergens so far identified are composed of tandem repeats that may cause the high allergenicity of Per a 1 allergen. In this study, we used monoclonal antibodies HW-8 and HW-19, which can inhibit the binding of patient IgE to Per a 1 allergen, to define the structure of the antigenic determinants in Per a 1.0103 (designated C3), an isoallergen of Per a 1 allergen. Two recognition sites are present, one in the N-terminus (aa 1-208) and the other in the C-terminus (aa 208-395). The N-terminal epitope is not accessible to antibody molecules on the pET-expressed C3 protein. The C-terminal epitope was further localized to the aa 267-354 region (C3E) by colony immunoscreening of the cDNA epitope library. By negative screening of the mutated C3E expression library generated by error-prone PCR (ER-PCR), an approach which has rarely been applied in epitope mapping, the functional epitope was identified to lie in aa 318-337 with aa 323-331 being the core motif. The minimal region of the functional epitope was further delineated, by sequence alignment, to be D-x-[I, L]-A-[I, L]-L-P-V-D-E-[L, I]-x-A-[L, I], where x represents any amino acids. This motif is found in all Per a 1 allergens and may serve as a basis for designing a peptide vaccine for allergen-specific immunotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report for (1) detailed mapping of the cockroach allergens and (2) use of error-prone PCR random mutagenesis and negative selection in molecular allergology.

  14. Recent development in recombinant food allergen production (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether for understanding the properties of food allergens or for manufacturing vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy, well characterized pure allergens are required. This often necessitate the use of recombinant technology in obtaining food allergens due to the very low amounts of their natu...

  15. Effects of NO2 and Ozone on Pollen Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding, or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed. PMID:26870080

  16. The spectrum of olive pollen allergens. From structures to diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2014-03-01

    Olive tree is one of the main allergy sources in Mediterranean countries. The identification of the allergenic repertoire from olive pollen has been essential for the development of rational strategies of standardization, diagnosis, and immunotherapy, all of them focused to increase the life quality of the patients. From its complex allergogram, twelve allergens - Ole e 1 to Ole e 12 - have been identified and characterized to date. Most of them have been cloned and produced as recombinant forms, whose availability have allowed analyzing their three-dimensional structures, mapping their T-cell and B-cell epitopes, and determining the precise allergenic profile of patients for a subsequent patient-tailored immunotherapy. Protein mutant, hypoallergenic derivatives, or recombinant fragments have been also useful experimental tools to analyze the immune recognition of allergens. To test these molecules before using them for clinic purposes, a mouse model of allergic sensitizations has been used. This model has been helpful for assaying different prophylactic approaches based on tolerance induction by intranasal administration of allergens or hypoallergens, used as free or integrated in different delivery systems, and their findings suggest a promising utilization as nasal vaccines. Exosomes - nanovesicles isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of tolerogenic mice - have shown immunomodulatory properties, being able to protect mice against sensitization to Ole e 1.

  17. Potential of molecular based diagnostics and its impact on allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Melioli, Giovanni; Savi, Eleonora; Crivellaro, Maria Angiola; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Molecular based in vitro technologies greatly changed the diagnostic approaches in allergy. At present, sensitization profiles can be dissected according to IgE subsets, which are specific for genuine or cross-reacting components and potentially dangerous or virtually harmless components. The identification of IgE in components with specific characteristics has a direct impact on the accuracy of the diagnosis (indeed, it is possible at present to not only identify the allergen derived from a given allergen source but also the family of molecules to which the patient is sensitized), on the prognosis of the patient's allergy, and on the prevention activities to be implemented. More interestingly, during the last few years, and thanks to the tools of molecular diagnostics, the indications for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) have also be modified, and novel strategies for the selection of the allergens to be administered have been better defined. Indeed, protocols indicating how Molecular Based Diagnosis (MBD) can be used to identify the best AIT approach have been recently published. In this review, the rationale for the use of MBD tools is discussed, and the recent strategies for the choice of allergens to be used in AIT are reported.

  18. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization (CS) and allergy following increased penetration of potential allergens. However, the relationship between common dermatoses such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and the development of contact allergy (CA) is complex, and depends on immunologic responses and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due to increased levels of Th17 cells and its associated cytokines. As for AD, a positive association to CS has been established in epidemiological studies, but is still unresolved. Experimental studies show, however, an inverse relationship between AD and CS. The opposing and antagonistic influences of Th1 (CS) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen-presenting cells and promotes their migration to local lymph nodes, thus increasing the probability of CS and ultimately the development of CA.

  19. Comparisons of Allergenic and Metazoan Parasite Proteins: Allergy the Price of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Nidhi; Farnell, Edward J; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Ryan, Stephanie; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Maizels, Rick M; Dunne, David W; Thornton, Janet M; Furnham, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions can be considered as maladaptive IgE immune responses towards environmental antigens. Intriguingly, these mechanisms are observed to be very similar to those implicated in the acquisition of an important degree of immunity against metazoan parasites (helminths and arthropods) in mammalian hosts. Based on the hypothesis that IgE-mediated immune responses evolved in mammals to provide extra protection against metazoan parasites rather than to cause allergy, we predict that the environmental allergens will share key properties with the metazoan parasite antigens that are specifically targeted by IgE in infected human populations. We seek to test this prediction by examining if significant similarity exists between molecular features of allergens and helminth proteins that induce an IgE response in the human host. By employing various computational approaches, 2712 unique protein molecules that are known IgE antigens were searched against a dataset of proteins from helminths and parasitic arthropods, resulting in a comprehensive list of 2445 parasite proteins that show significant similarity through sequence and structure with allergenic proteins. Nearly half of these parasite proteins from 31 species fall within the 10 most abundant allergenic protein domain families (EF-hand, Tropomyosin, CAP, Profilin, Lipocalin, Trypsin-like serine protease, Cupin, BetV1, Expansin and Prolamin). We identified epitopic-like regions in 206 parasite proteins and present the first example of a plant protein (BetV1) that is the commonest allergen in pollen in a worm, and confirming it as the target of IgE in schistosomiasis infected humans. The identification of significant similarity, inclusive of the epitopic regions, between allergens and helminth proteins against which IgE is an observed marker of protective immunity explains the ‘off-target’ effects of the IgE-mediated immune system in allergy. All these findings can impact the discovery and design of

  20. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  1. The hammock: a reservoir of allergens

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Francisca X M; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Kalil, Jorge; Arruda, L. Karla; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5%) had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%), B. tropicalis (53.4%), T. putrescentiae (15.0%), E. maynei (12.3%), L. destructor (8.2%), B. germanica (20.5%), P. americana (21.9%), Felis catus (10.9%), C. herbarium (2.7%), A. alternata (4.1%), and P. notatun (1.3%). The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks. PMID:21876974

  2. Allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis: false beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large

  3. Beneficial cross-protection of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway eosinophilia using unrelated or a partial repertoire of allergen(s) implicated in experimental feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Reinero, Carol; Lee-Fowler, Tekla; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Cohn, Leah; Declue, Amy

    2012-06-01

    The study hypothesis was that in experimentally asthmatic cats rush immunotherapy (RIT) using allergens not completely matched with sensitizing allergen(s) would at least partially attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and modulate the aberrant immune response. In phase I, cats sensitized to Bermuda grass allergen (BGA), house dust mite allergen (HDMA) or placebo received BGA RIT. In phase II, cats dually sensitized to BGA and HDMA received RIT using BGA, HDMA or placebo. Efficacy of RIT was assessed using percentage bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophils. Additionally, a variety of immunologic assays were performed. Eosinophilic airway inflammation significantly decreased over time in asthmatic cats given RIT using sensitizing allergen or unrelated allergen (P<0.001). In dually sensitized cats, single allergen RIT but not placebo reduced airway eosinophilia (P=0.038). Differences in allergen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, in the number of IL-10 producing cells and in the percentage T regulatory cells were detected between asthmatic cats getting RIT and controls. Cross-protection manifested by reduced airway eosinophilia was noted in cats treated with RIT allergens which did not completely match allergen used in asthma induction. However, the mechanism of immunologic tolerance may differ when improperly matched allergens to the sensitizing allergens are used in RIT.

  4. Selection of recombinant IgE antibodies binding the beta-lactoglobulin allergen in a conformation-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Sirpa; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili; Haahtela, Tari; Söderlund, Hans; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena

    2009-10-31

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is a common food allergy, especially among infants and young children. Approximately 85% of milk-allergic children outgrow their allergy by the age of three but the remaining 15% remain allergic. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is one of the major allergens in cow's milk. There is a definite need for the specific and sensitive detection of allergenic substances. Validated methods are obligatory to demonstrate allergen contamination and even fatal hidden allergens and, thus, to prevent life-threatening conditions of allergic persons. In this study, we constructed human IgE scFv libraries from an adult milk-allergic patient and isolated the first recombinant IgE antibodies specific to a food allergen, BLG. The selection of the IgE antibody libraries with two distinct panning procedures resulted in the enrichment of four clones having different BLG-binding profiles; two of the clones recognize the native BLG whereas the other two recognize only the heat-denatured form of BLG. For further characterization, the scFv fragments were converted to Fab fragments with human IgG1 isotype. The D1 Fab fragment, binding native BLG with nanomolar affinity, also partially inhibited serum IgE binding to BLG. These BLG-specific IgE antibodies can be applied for the detection of both native and denatured BLG in cow's milk products and furthermore, for the optimization of manufacturing processes to develop safe hypoallergenic milk products.

  5. In silico epitope prediction, expression and functional analysis of Per a 10 allergen from the American cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xunliang; Guo, Miao; Jin, Min; Chen, Hao; Li, Yanming; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Cockroach (CR) allergies caused by the American cockroach hyave been recognized to be repsonsible for IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. Per a 10 is one of the recognized main allergens of the American CR. In a previous study, we examined another American CR allergen, Per a 9 in patients with CR allergies and examined epitope sequences in this allergen. In the present study, we aimed to examine epitope sequences in the Per a 10 allergen. for this purpose, the Per a 10 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. Our results revealed that 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sera from patients with American CR allergies reacted to Per a10, as assessed by ELISA, confirming that Per a 10 is a major allergen of the American CR. Our results also revealed that the expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized basophils (obtained sera of patients with American CR allergies) was increased by approximately 2.3-fold, indicating that recombinant Per a 10 is functionally active. In addition, 3 immunoinformatics tools, namely the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the peptides and the results revealed 8 peptides (2–12, 55–67, 98–120, 125–133, 149–160, 170–182, 201–208 and 223–227) as potential B cell epitopes of the Per a 10 allergen. Moreover, Per a 10 was predicted to have 3 T cell epitope sequences, namely 83–92, 139–147 and 162–170. The findings of our study on the CR allergen may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccine for the prevention and/or treatment of CR allergies. PMID:27840898

  6. Giant magnetoresistive sensor array for sensitive and specific multiplexed food allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari C; Wang, Shan X

    2016-06-15

    Current common allergen detection methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dip-stick methods, do not provide adequate levels of sensitivity and specificity for at-risk allergic patients. A method for performing highly sensitive and specific detection of multiple food allergens is thus imperative as food allergies are becoming increasingly recognized as a major healthcare concern, affecting an estimated 4% of the total population. We demonstrate first instance of sensitive and specific multiplexed detection of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and wheat allergen Gliadin using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor arrays. Commercialized ELISA kits for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 report limits of detection (LODs) at 31.5 ng/mL and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the 96-well-based ELISA developed in-house for Gliadin was found to have a LOD of 40 ng/mL. Our multiplexed GMR-based assay demonstrates the ability to perform all three assays on the same chip specifically and with sensitivities at LODs about an order of magnitude lower than those of 96-well-based ELISAs. LODs of GMR-based assays developed for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Gliadin were 7.0 ng/mL, 0.2 ng/mL, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little to no cross-reactivity. These LODs are clinically important as some patients could react strongly against such low allergen levels. Given the limitations of current industrial detection technology, multiplexed GMR-based assays provide a method for highly sensitive and specific simultaneous detection of any combination of food-product allergens, thus protecting allergic patients from life-threatening events, including anaphylaxis, by unintentional consumption.

  7. Fraxinus pollen and allergen concentrations in Ourense (South-western Europe).

    PubMed

    Vara, A; Fernández-González, M; Aira, M J; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J

    2016-05-01

    In temperate zones of North-Central Europe the sensitization to ash pollen is a recognized problem, also extended to the Northern areas of the Mediterranean basin. Some observations in Switzerland suggest that ash pollen season could be as important as birch pollen period. The allergenic significance of this pollen has been poorly studied in Southern Europe as the amounts of ash pollen are low. Due to the high degree of family relationship with the olive pollen major allergen (backed by a sequence identity of 88%), the Fraxinus pollen could be a significant cause of early respiratory allergy in sensitized people to olive pollen as consequence of cross-reactivity processes. Ash tree flowers in the Northwestern Spain during the winter months. The atmospheric presence of Ole e 1-like proteins (which could be related with the Fra a 1 presence) can be accurately detected using Ole e 1 antibodies. The correlation analysis showed high Spearman correlation coefficients between pollen content and rainfall (R(2)=-0.333, p<0.01) or allergen concentration and maximum temperature (R(2)=-0.271, p<0.01). In addiction CCA analysis showed not significant differences (p<0.05) between the component 1 and 2 variables. PCFA analysis plots showed that the allergen concentrations are related to the presence of the Fraxinus pollen in the air, facilitating the wind speed its submicronic allergen proteins dispersion. In order to forecast the Fraxinus allergy risk periods, two regression equations were developed with Adjusted R(2) values around 0.48-0.49. The t-test for dependent samples shows no significant differences between the observed data and the estimated by the equations. The combination of the airborne pollen content and the allergen quantification must be assessed in the epidemiologic study of allergic respiratory diseases.

  8. Multiplex Assay for Protein Profiling and Potency Measurement of German Cockroach Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Taruna; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Shartouny, Jessica R.; Slater, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Background German cockroach (GCr) allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency. Objective Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts. Methods Single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human) coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA. Results Chicken scFv’s generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv’s recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target. Conclusions An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts. PMID:26444288

  9. High-Throughput NMR Assessment of the Tertiary Structure of Food Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Stefano; Sancho, Ana; Vieths, Stefan; Mills, Clare E. N.; Wal, Jean-Michel; Shewry, Peter R.; Rigby, Neil; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background In vitro component-resolved diagnosis of food allergy requires purified allergens that have to meet high standards of quality. These include the authentication of their conformation, which is relevant for the recognition by specific IgE antibodies from allergic patients. Therefore, highly sensitive and reliable screening methods for the analysis of proteins/allergens are required to assess their structural integrity. In the present study one-dimensional 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1D 1H-NMR) analysis was adopted for the assessment of overall structural and dynamic properties and authentication of a set of relevant food allergens, including non-specific lipid transfer proteins from apple, peach and hazelnut, 7/8S seed storage globulins from hazelnut and peanut, 11S seed storage globulins from hazelnut and peanut, caseins from cows' and goats' milk and tropomyosin from shrimp. Methodology/Principal Findings Two sets of 1D 1H-NMR experiments, using 700 MHz and 600 MHz instruments at 298 K were carried out to determine the presence and the extent of tertiary structure. Structural similarity among members of the individual allergen families was also assessed and changes under thermal stress investigated. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results were compared with structural information available either from the literature, Protein Data Bank entries, or derived from molecular models. Conclusions/Significance 1D 1H-NMR analysis of food allergens allowed their classification into molecules with rigid, extended and ordered tertiary structures, molecules without a rigid tertiary structure and molecules which displayed both features. Differences in thermal stability were also detected. In summary, 1D 1H-NMR gives insights into molecular fold of proteins and offers an independent method for assessing structural properties of proteins. PMID:22768312

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy.

  11. Anterior rhinomanometry in nasal allergen challenges.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G

    1998-11-01

    Even simple and relatively safe provocation procedures like nasal allergen challenges, should aim to allow detection of positivity with the less possible discomfort to the patient. The objective of this work was to evaluate if the use of rhinomanometric measurements during nasal provocation procedures could allow a decrease in the total administered allergen dose, causing less symptoms to the patients but without increasing the number of false-negatives, comparatively to clinical scores or nasal peak-flow measurements. Our results showed that performing rhinomanometric measurements during nasal HDM challenge procedures can lead in many patients to a reduction in the total dose of allergen administered during the challenge, without loss of sensitivity or specificity. This allergen dose reduction translates in less time consumed during the provocation and less patients' discomfort.

  12. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  13. Next generation of food allergen quantification using mass spectrometric systems.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Martina; Clarke, Dean; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    Food allergies are increasing worldwide and becoming a public health concern. Food legislation requires detailed declarations of potential allergens in food products and therefore an increased capability to analyze for the presence of food allergens. Currently, antibody-based methods are mainly utilized to quantify allergens; however, these methods have several disadvantages. Recently, mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have been developed and applied to food allergen analysis. At present, 46 allergens from 11 different food sources have been characterized using different MS approaches and some specific signature peptides have been published. However, quantification of allergens using MS is not routinely employed. This review compares the different aspects of food allergen quantification using advanced MS techniques including multiple reaction monitoring. The latter provides low limits of quantification for multiple allergens in simple or complex food matrices, while being robust and reproducible. This review provides an overview of current approaches to analyze food allergens, with specific focus on MS systems and applications.

  14. Creation of an engineered APC system to explore and optimize the presentation of immunodominant peptides of major allergens

    PubMed Central

    Rosskopf, Sandra; Jutz, Sabrina; Neunkirchner, Alina; Candia, Martín R.; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Bohle, Barbara; Pickl, Winfried F.; Steinberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have generated engineered APC to present immunodominant peptides derived from the major aero-allergens of birch and mugwort pollen, Bet v 1142–153 and Art v 125–36, respectively. Jurkat-based T cell reporter lines expressing the cognate allergen-specific T cell receptors were used to read out the presentation of allergenic peptides on the engineered APC. Different modalities of peptide loading and presentation on MHC class II molecules were compared. Upon exogenous loading with allergenic peptides, the engineered APC elicited a dose-dependent response in the reporter T cells and the presence of chemical loading enhancers strongly increased reporter activation. Invariant chain-based MHC class II targeting strategies of endogenously expressed peptides resulted in stronger activation of the reporters than exogenous loading. Moreover, we used Bet v 1 as model allergen to study the ability of K562 cells to present antigenic peptides derived from whole proteins either taken up or endogenously expressed as LAMP-1 fusion protein. In both cases the ability of these cells to process and present peptides derived from whole proteins critically depended on the expression of HLA-DM. We have identified strategies to achieve efficient presentation of allergenic peptides on engineered APC and demonstrate their use to stimulate T cells from allergic individuals. PMID:27539532

  15. Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.

    PubMed

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-12-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia spp., and Pachycondyla spp.) cause allergic reactions. Ant species are identified by evaluating the morphologic structures of worker ants or by molecular techniques. Ant venom contains substances, including acids and alkaloids, that cause toxic reactions, and those from Solenopsis invicta or the imported fire ant have been widely studied. Piperidine alkaloids and low protein contents can cause local reactions (sterile pustules) and systemic reactions (anaphylaxis). Imported fire ant venoms are cross-reactive; for example, the Sol i 1 allergen from S. invicta has cross-reactivity with yellow jacket phospholipase. The Sol i 3 allergen is a member of the antigen 5 family that has amino acid sequence identity with vespid antigen 5. The clinical presentations of ant hypersensitivity are categorized into immediate and delayed reactions: immediate reactions, such as small local reactions, large local reactions, and systemic reactions, occur within 1-4 hours after the ant stings, whereas delayed reactions, such as serum sickness and vasculitis, usually occur more than 4 hours after the stings. Tools for the diagnosis of ant hypersensitivity are skin testing, serum specific IgE, and sting challenge tests. Management of ant hypersensitivity can be divided into immediate (epinephrine, corticosteroids), symptomatic (antihistamines, bronchodilators), supportive (fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy), and preventive (re-sting avoidance and immunotherapy) treatments.

  16. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Brock; Barnes, Charles S; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions.

  17. Proteomic analysis of wheat flour allergens.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Handoyo, Tri; Ishii, Takeshi; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Morita, Naofumi; Suyama, Kyozo

    2007-08-22

    Wheat can cause severe IgE-mediated systematic reactions, but knowledge on relevant wheat allergens at the molecular level is scanty. The aim of the present study was to achieve a more detailed and comprehensive characterization of the wheat allergens involved in food allergy to wheat using proteomic strategies, referred to as "allergenomics". Whole flour proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with isoelectric focusing and lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting with sera of patients with a food allergy to wheat. After tryptic digestion, the peptides of IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In this study, we identified four previously reported wheat allergens or their sequentially homologous proteins [serpin, alpha-amylase inhibitor, gamma-gliadin, and low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin] by a database search. As a result of the high resolution of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, nine subunits of LMW glutenins were identified as the most predominant IgE-binding antigens. The two-dimensional allergen map can be beneficial in many ways. It could be used, for example, for precise diagnosis of wheat-allergic patients and assessment of wheat allergens in food. Additionally, we compared allergenomics to conventional biochemical methods and evaluated the usefulness of a proteomic strategy for identifying putative allergens to wheat allergy.

  18. Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I

    1988-08-01

    Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed.

  19. Criteria to determine food allergen priority.

    PubMed

    Yeung, J M; Applebaum, R S; Hildwine, R

    2000-07-01

    The emergent health issue of food allergens presents an important challenge to the food industry. More than 170 foods have been reported in the scientific literature as causing allergic reactions. Clearly, it would be impossible to deal with the presence of trace amounts of all these in the context of food labeling. If the decision to classify major allergens is based solely on the knowledge and experience of allergists and food scientists in the field, without scientifically defined criteria, it is likely to lead to a proliferation of lists. Such practices may lead to an unnecessary elimination of foods containing important nutrients. This paper defines food allergy, food intolerance, and food anaphylaxis and identifies criteria for classifying food allergens associated with frequent allergic reactions. A practical list of food allergens that may result in potentially life-threatening allergic reactions is provided. A mechanism-based (i.e., immunoglobulin E mediated), acute life-threatening anaphylaxis that is standardized and measurable and reflects the severity of health risk is proposed as the principal inclusion criterion for food allergen labeling. Where available, prevalence in the population and threshold levels of allergens should be used as an additional guide to identify possible future labeling needs.

  20. Recombinant allergens for diagnosis of cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Arruda, L Karla; Barbosa, Michelle C R; Santos, Ana Beatriz R; Moreno, Adriana S; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease. Recombinant cockroach allergens have been used for skin testing or in vitro methods to measure IgE antibody levels in serum. Early studies evaluating selected U.S. patients revealed that a cocktail of four cockroach allergens, Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5, would identify 95 % of cockroach allergic patients. More recent studies pointed to an important role of sensitization to tropomyosin among certain populations, and suggested that a cocktail of five allergens Bla g 1 and/or Per a 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5, and Bla g 7, and/or Per a 7, would be expected to diagnose 50- 64 % of cockroach-allergic patients worldwide. Variation in IgE reactivity profiles could be in part due to IgE responses to cross-reactive homologous allergens from different origins. The availability of purified natural or recombinant cockroach allergens provides the capacity to improve diagnosis of cockroach allergy and to develop novel forms of immunotherapy for cockroach-allergic patients.

  1. AllerML: markup language for allergens.

    PubMed

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Gendel, Steven M; Power, Trevor D; Schein, Catherine H; Braun, Werner

    2011-06-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the potential allergenicity of novel, recombinant proteins into food crops. Guidelines, proposed by WHO/FAO and EFSA, include the use of bioinformatics screening to assess the risk of potential allergenicity or cross-reactivities of all proteins introduced, for example, to improve nutritional value or promote crop resistance. However, there are no universally accepted standards that can be used to encode data on the biology of allergens to facilitate using data from multiple databases in this screening. Therefore, we developed AllerML a markup language for allergens to assist in the automated exchange of information between databases and in the integration of the bioinformatics tools that are used to investigate allergenicity and cross-reactivity. As proof of concept, AllerML was implemented using the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP; http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) database. General implementation of AllerML will promote automatic flow of validated data that will aid in allergy research and regulatory analysis.

  2. Vacuolar Serine Protease Is a Major Allergen of Fusarium proliferatum and an IgE-Cross Reactive Pan-Fungal Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chang-Ching; Tai, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Hong; Wu, Keh-Gong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fusarium species are among prevalent airborne fungi and causative agents of human respiratory atopic disorders. We previously identified a 36.5-kDa F. proliferatum component recognized by IgE antibodies in 9 (53%) of the 17 F. proliferatum-sensitized atopic serum samples. The purpose of this study is to characterize the 36.5-kDa allergen of F. proliferatum. Methods Characterization of allergens and determination of IgE cross-reactivity were performed by cDNA cloning/expression and immunoblot inhibition studies. Results Based on the finding that the 36.5-kDa IgE-binding component reacted with the mouse monoclonal antibody FUM20 against fungal vacuolar serine protease allergens, the cDNA of F. proliferatum vacuolar serine protease (Fus p 9.0101) was subsequently cloned. Nine serum samples from respiratory atopic patients with IgE binding to the vacuolar serine protease allergen of Penicillium chrysogenum (Pen ch 18) also showed IgE-immunoblot reactivity to rFus p 9.0101. The purified rFus p 9.0101 can inhibit IgE and FUM20 binding to the 36.5-kDa component of F. proliferatum. Thus, a novel and important Fus p 9.0101 was identified. The rPen ch 18 can inhibit IgE binding to Fus p 9.0101. It indicates that IgE cross-reactivity between Fus p 9.0101 and Pen ch 18 also exists. Furthermore, neither rFus p 9.0101 K88A nor rPen ch 18 K89A mutants inhibited IgE binding to rFus p 9.0101. Lys88 was considered a critical core amino acid in IgE binding to r Fus p 9.0101 and a residue responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between Fus p 9.0101 and Pen ch 18 allergens. Conclusions Results obtained from this study indicate that vacuolar serine protease may be a major allergen of F. proliferatum and an important IgE cross-reactive pan-fungal allergen, and provide important bases for clinical diagnosis of fungal allergy. PMID:27334782

  3. Relationship of CD86 surface marker expression and cytotoxicity on dendritic cells exposed to chemical allergen

    SciTech Connect

    Hulette, Ben C.; Ryan, Cindy A.; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank . E-mail: gerberick.gf@pg.com

    2005-12-01

    Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DC) respond to a variety of chemical allergens by up-regulating expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. It has been postulated that this measure might provide the basis for an in vitro alternative approach for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. We recently reported that DC, exposed in culture to the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of various chemical allergens, displayed marginal up-regulation of membrane CD86 expression; the interpretation being that such changes were insufficiently sensitive for the purposes of hazard identification. For the work presented here, immature DC were derived from human monocytes and treated with the chemical allergens 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), Bandrowski's base (BB), hydroquinone (HQ) and propyl gallate (PG) for 48 h at concentrations which induced both no to slight to moderate cytotoxicity. For comparison, DC were treated with the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzoic acid (BA), and benzalkonium chloride (BZC) at concentrations resulting in comparable levels of cytotoxicity. CD86 expression, as measured by flow cytometry, was consistently up-regulated (ranging from 162 to 386% control) on DC treated with concentrations of chemical allergens that induced approximately 10-15% cytotoxicity. The irritants BA and BZC did not induce up-regulation of CD86 expression when tested at concentrations that induced similar levels of cytotoxicity. SDS, however, up-regulated CD86 expression to 125-138% of control in 2/4 preparations when tested at concentrations which induced similar toxicity. Our results confirm that chemical allergens up-regulate CD86 expression on blood-derived DC and illustrate further that up-regulation of CD86 surface marker expression is more robust when DC are treated with concentrations of chemical allergen that induce slight to moderate cytotoxicity.

  4. The Role of Allergen Exposure and Avoidance in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Sachin N.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Allergy testing and avoidance of allergens plays an important role in asthma control. Increased allergen exposure, in genetically susceptible individuals, can lead to allergic sensitization. Continued allergen exposure can increase the risk of asthma and other allergic diseases. In a patient with persistent asthma, identification of indoor and outdoor allergens and subsequent avoidance can improve symptoms. Often times, a patient will have multiple allergies and the avoidance plan should target all positive allergens. Several studies have shown that successful allergen remediation includes a comprehensive approach including education, cleaning, physical barriers and maintaining these practices. PMID:20568555

  5. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  6. Inhibiting Peanut Allergen Digestion with p-Aminobenzamidine Attached to the Allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can be digested into peptide fragments despite being known as resistant proteins. Once absorbed, the peptide fragments from digested allergens could bind to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and cause an allergic reaction in allergic individuals. To reduce peanut allergy, one approa...

  7. Culture filtrate antigens and allergens of Epicoccum nigrum cultivated in modified semi-synthetic medium.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Vandana; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Kumar, Raj; Arora, Naveen; Sridhara, Susheela

    2002-05-01

    Epicoccum nigrum (EN) is an important fungal allergen for nasobronchial allergy. Fungal extracts should contain all the relevant allergen components from spores, mycelium and culture medium for the purpose of allergy diagnosis and therapy. EN extract from spore-mycelial mass has been standardized, but the culture filtrate (CF) allergens of EN have not been studied as EN grows poorly in synthetic medium. The objective of the present study was to obtain a standard CF extract of EN by cultivating the source material in a modified semi-synthetic medium and to compare this with the EN cellular extract. Sabouraud's medium containing yeast extract (50 mg/l) was filtered using 10-kDa cut-off membrane and the lower molecular mass media components were used to cultivate EN. The CF obtained after removing the spore-mycelia was dialyzed to remove media components. The CF extract was characterized by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. It was compared with EN spore-mycelial extract by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ELISA inhibition and by intradermal testing on allergy patients. The CF extract of EN resolved into 30 protein bands on SDS-PAGE. About 27 IgG bands were detected using anti-EN rabbit antibodies and 12 IgE bands by EN-sensitive pooled patients' sera. Periodate modification of CF proteins showed that the carbohydrate moieties are not important for IgE binding. Protein components of 26, 34 and 43 kDa were recognized as the major CF allergens. Three different batches of CF extract required 7.5-9 ng of self protein for 50% inhibition of binding to anti-EN rabbit antibodies in ELISA. Intradermal testing with CF extract showed comparable allergenic potency to standardized EN spore-mycelial extract, although it contained some allergenic proteins in higher amounts as compared to the spore-mycelial extract. In summary, the semi-synthetic medium has been suitably modified for obtaining EN CF antigens. This medium can

  8. Molecules Best Paper Award 2013.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Derek J

    2013-02-05

    Molecules has started to institute a "Best Paper" award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of natural products, medicinal chemistry and molecular diversity published in Molecules. We are pleased to announce the second "Molecules Best Paper Award" for 2013.

  9. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahali, Y.; Pourpak, Z.; Moin, M.; Zare, A.; Majd, A.

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  10. Multiple B- and T-cell epitopes on a major allergen of Kentucky Bluegrass pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Yang, M; Chong, P; Mohapatra, S S

    1996-01-01

    The B- and T-cell epitopes of a recombinant grass allergen, rKBG60, were delineated using a set of overlapping synthetic peptides. Direct binding by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing serum pools led to the identification of 13 murine immunoglobulin-, and nine to 13 human IgG- and five to seven human IgE-reactive overlapping peptides. Of the peptides which bound to human IgE antibodies, all but three peptides bound to human and/or murine IgG antibodies. Furthermore, eight out of 12 synthetic peptides induced antigen-specific antibodies in mice, suggesting that these peptides contained epitopes that recognized and/or induced T cells. These results, in conjunction with cross-recognition of different peptides at the C-terminus of rKBG60 by antibodies to neighbouring or non-overlapping peptides suggest that the C-terminus of this antigen represents a dominant antigenic and allergenic site. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation studies using these synthetic peptides for 13 grass allergic individuals indicated that seven potential human T-cell epitopes exist on this allergen. Taken together, the results demonstrate that multiple B- and T-cell epitopes exist on this major group of grass allergens, the majority of which are localized at the C-terminus of this antigen. PMID:8698392

  11. Expression, purification, and characterization of almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen Pru du 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical characterizations of food allergens are required for understanding the allergenicity of food allergens. Such studies require a relatively large amount of highly purified allergens. Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as almond (Prunus...

  12. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured.

  13. Is high pressure treatment able to modify the allergenicity of the largemouth bass allergens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Tao, Sha; Liu, Rong; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xue, Wen-Tong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of high pressure treatment on the structural changes and allergenicity of largemouth bass. We treated the allergens at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa for 15 min and at 300 MPa for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min at 20 °C. The treated samples from largemouth bass were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. In summary, we can determine that the greatest structure changes were found for samples treated by 400 MPa for 15 min. High pressure treatment did change the structure, subunit composition and molecular weight of largemouth bass allergens, but it did not change the allergenicity of the allergens.

  14. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-01-11

    BACKGROUND: Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. METHODS: IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. RESULTS: Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. CONCLUSIONS: Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  15. The spectrum of olive pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Villalba, M; Monsalve, R I; Batanero, E

    2001-07-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 - Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 - have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than 70% of the patients suffering of olive pollinosis, although others, such as Ole e 4 and Ole e 7, have also been shown to be major allergens. In this context, the prevalence of many olive pollen allergens seems to be dependent on the geographical area where the sensitized patients live. Some of the olive allergens have been revealed as members of known protein families: profilin (Ole e 2), Ca(2+)-binding proteins (Ole e 3 and Ole e 8), superoxide dismutase (Ole e 5) and lipid transfer protein (Ole e 7). No biological function has been demonstrated for Ole e 1, whereas Ole e 4 and Ole e 6 are new proteins without homology to known sequences from databases. cDNAs encoding for Ole e 1, Ole e 3 and Ole e 8 have been overproduced in heterologous systems. The recombinant products were correctly folded and exhibited the functional activities of the natural allergens. In addition to the Oleaceae family, other species, such as Gramineae or Betulaceae, contain pollen allergens structurally or immunologically related to those of the olive tree. This fact allows to detect and evaluate antigenic cross-reactivities involving olive allergens. The aim of this research is the development of new diagnostic tools for olive pollinosis and new approaches to improve the classical immunotherapy.

  16. Recombinant expression and epitope mapping of grass pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Smith, P M; Ong, E K; Knox, R B; Singh, M B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the expression of recombinant forms of Group 1 allergens from rye-grass and Bermuda grass pollens. Recombinant Lol p 1 expressed in bacteria bound serum IgE from allergic patients. Based on analysis of fragments of the Lol p 1 cDNA clone, the major IgE-reactive epitope has been mapped to the C-terminus. However, although SDS-denatured natural Cyn d 1 (from Bermuda grass) bound IgE, the full or partial recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria did not bind IgE. We have since expressed Cyn d 1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris and restored IgE binding. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of Lol p 5, Lol p 5A and Lol p 5B, have been expressed in bacteria and resulting polypeptides show IgE-binding. Random fragments of these clones have been generated and when expressed as partial recombinant proteins in bacteria, allowed us to identify the major IgE-binding epitopes. The allergenic epitopes were localised towards the C-terminal half of the molecule. Although both isoforms shared similar IgE-reactive epitopes, Lol p 5B did not recognise the Lol p 5A-specific monoclonal antibody A7. At sequence level, there appear to be several amino acid differences between the antigenic epitopes of these two isoallergens. These results aid in the design of diagnostics and in grass pollen immunotherapy.

  17. Recombinant allergen Lol p II: expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, E; Brandazza, A; De Lalla, C; Musco, G; Siccardi, A G; Arosio, P; Sidoli, A

    1995-05-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) is a major cause of type I allergies worldwide. It contains complex mixtures of proteins, among which Lol p II is a major allergen. Previously, we have reported the cloning and sequencing of Lol p II and its expression in fusion with the heavy chain of human ferritin as carrier polypeptide (Sidoli et al., 1993, J. biol. Chem. 268, 21819-21825). Here, we describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p II overproduced as a non-fusion protein in the periplasm of E. coli. The recombinant allergen was expressed in high yields and was easily purified in milligram amounts. It competed with the natural Lol p II for binding to specific IgE, and it induced allergic responses in skin prick tests, indicating to be immunologically analogous to the natural protein. Biochemical analyses indicate that recombinant Lol p II is a highly stable and soluble monomeric molecule which behaves like a small globular protein.

  18. 76 FR 59406 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... medical literature concerning the use of non-standardized allergen extracts in the diagnosis and treatment... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergen Extracts in the Diagnosis...

  19. 78 FR 66011 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ..., perennial rye, Timothy, and Kentucky bluegrass mixed pollens allergen extract tablet for sublingual use... recommendations on the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy grass pollen allergen extract tablet...

  20. Update in the Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotheraphy

    PubMed Central

    Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a complex innate and adoptive immune response to natural environmental allergens with Th2-type T cells and allergen-specific IgE predominance. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective therapeutic approach for disregulated immune response towards allergens by enhancing immune tolerance mechanisms. The main aim of immunotherapy is the generation of allergen nonresponsive or tolerant T cells in sensitized patients and downregulation of predominant T cell- and IgE-mediated immune responses. During allergen-specific immunotherapy, T regulatory cells are generated, which secrete IL-10 and induce allergen-specific B cells for the production of IgG4 antibodies. These mechanisms induce tolerance to antigens that reduces allergic symptoms. Although current knowledge highlights the role of T regulatory cell-mediated immunetolerance, definite mechanisms that lead to a successful clinical outcomes of allergen-specific immunotherapy still remains an open area of research. PMID:21217920

  1. Immune Responses in Healthy and Allergic Individuals Are Characterized by a Fine Balance between Allergen-specific T Regulatory 1 and T Helper 2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akdis, Mübeccel; Verhagen, Johan; Taylor, Alison; Karamloo, Fariba; Karagiannidis, Christian; Crameri, Reto; Thunberg, Sarah; Deniz, Günnur; Valenta, Rudolf; Fiebig, Helmut; Kegel, Christian; Disch, Rainer; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B.; Blaser, Kurt; Akdis, Cezmi A.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which immune responses to nonpathogenic environmental antigens lead to either allergy or nonharmful immunity are unknown. Single allergen-specific T cells constitute a very small fraction of the whole CD4+ T cell repertoire and can be isolated from the peripheral blood of humans according to their cytokine profile. Freshly purified interferon-γ–, interleukin (IL)-4–, and IL-10–producing allergen-specific CD4+ T cells display characteristics of T helper cell (Th)1-, Th2-, and T regulatory (Tr)1–like cells, respectively. Tr1 cells consistently represent the dominant subset specific for common environmental allergens in healthy individuals; in contrast, there is a high frequency of allergen-specific IL-4–secreting T cells in allergic individuals. Tr1 cells use multiple suppressive mechanisms, IL-10 and TGF-β as secreted cytokines, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death 1 as surface molecules. Healthy and allergic individuals exhibit all three allergen-specific subsets in different proportions, indicating that a change in the dominant subset may lead to allergy development or recovery. Accordingly, blocking the suppressor activity of Tr1 cells or increasing Th2 cell frequency enhances allergen-specific Th2 cell activation ex vivo. These results indicate that the balance between allergen-specific Tr1 cells and Th2 cells may be decisive in the development of allergy. PMID:15173208

  2. Molecular basis of cross-reactivity among allergen-specific human T cells: T-cell receptor V alpha gene usage and epitope structure.

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, S S; Mohapatra, S; Yang, M; Ansari, A A; Parronchi, P; Maggi, E; Romagnani, S

    1994-01-01

    Cross-reactivities between the major grass pollen allergens, at the level of T-cell recognition was examined employing several Lolium perenne I (Lol p I)-specific human T-cell clones. Nine of these Lol p I-specific T-cell clones exhibited cross-recognition of the recombinant Poa pratensis IX (Poa p IX) allergen, rKBG7.2, indicating that these two major antigens of a grass pollen share T-cell epitopes. Furthermore, proliferative responses of two other T-cell clones demonstrated that individual allergens of diverse grass pollens also possess common T-cell epitopes. Examination of the T-cell receptor (TcR) V alpha genes of these T-cell clones indicated that these cloned cells utilized distinct J alpha genes and that nine out of 10 clones possessed V alpha 13 gene. Furthermore, sequence comparisons of several allergenic molecules indicated that this cross-reactivity may be due to the presence of epitope(s) with structure(s) similar to the major T-cell epitope of Poa p IX allergens. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that the major grass pollen allergens share cross-reacting T-cell epitope(s), and that this cross-reactivity is due to the structural homologies among allergens and restricted usage of TcR V alpha genes. PMID:7510663

  3. Pollensomes as Natural Vehicles for Pollen Allergens.

    PubMed

    Prado, Noela; De Linares, Concepción; Sanz, María L; Gamboa, Pedro; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Olive (Olea europaea) pollen constitutes one of the most important allergen sources in the Mediterranean countries and some areas of the United States, South Africa, and Australia. Recently, we provided evidence that olive pollen releases nanovesicles of respirable size, named generically pollensomes, during in vitro germination. Olive pollensomes contain allergens, such as Ole e 1, Ole e 11, and Ole e 12, suggesting a possible role in allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of pollensomes to the allergic reaction. We show that pollensomes exhibit allergenic activity in terms of patients' IgE-binding capacity, human basophil activation, and positive skin reaction in sensitized patients. Furthermore, allergen-containing pollensomes have been isolated from three clinically relevant nonphylogenetically related species: birch (Betula verrucosa), pine (Pinus sylvestris), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Most interesting, pollensomes were isolated from aerobiological samples collected with an eight-stage cascade impactor collector, indicating that pollensomes secretion is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Our findings indicate that pollensomes may represent widespread vehicles for pollen allergens, with potential implications in the allergic reaction.

  4. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases. PMID:22409879

  5. Modifications of allergenicity linked to food technologies.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergies (FA) has increased over the past fifteen years. The reasons suggested are changes in dietary behaviour and the evolution of food technologies. New cases of FA have been described with chayote, rambutan, arguta, pumpkin seeds, custard apple, and with mycoproteins from Fusarium.... Additives using food proteins are at high risk: caseinates, lysozyme, cochineal red, papaïn, alpha-amylase, lactase etc. Heating can reduce allergenicity or create neo-allergens, as well as storage, inducing the synthesis of allergenic stress or PR proteins. Aeroallergens (miles, moulds) contaminate foods and can induce allergic reactions. Involuntary contamination by peanut proteins on production lines is a problem which is not yet solved. Genetically modified plants are at risk of allergenicity, requiring methodological steps of investigations: the comparison of the amino-acid sequence of the transferred protein with the sequence of known allergens, the evaluation of thermo degradability and of the denaturation by pepsin and trypsin are required, as well as the study with sera from patients allergic to the plant producing the gene. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis, heating, or the development of genetically modified plants may offer new alternatives towards hypoallergenic foods (57 references).

  6. Allergenic potential and enzymatic resistance of buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sujin; Han, Youngshin; Do, Jeong-Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat is known as a health food but is one of the major food allergens triggering potentially fatal anaphylaxis in Asia, especially in Japan and Korea. This study was conducted to investigate the characteristic of enzymatic resistance of buckwheat protein and allergenic potential. Enzymatic resistance of buckwheat protein was performed with in vitro digestibility test in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), pH 1.2, using pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) using chymotrypsin. Reactivity of buckwheat proteins to human IgE was performed using six allergic patients sensitized to buckwheat. Buckwheat's IgE levels were measured using the Phadia UniCAP-system. Buckwheat protein, 16 kDa, still remained after 30 min treatment of pepsin on SDS-PAGE. Even though 16 kDa almost disappeared after 60 min treatment, two out of the six buckwheat patients' sera showed reactivity to hydrolysate after 60 min treatment, indicating that allergenicity still remained. In simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) using chymotrypsin, buckwheat protein, 24 kDa, showed resistance to hydrolysis with chymotrypsin on SDS-PAGE, and still had allergenicity based on the result of ELISA. Our results suggest that buckwheat proteins have strong resistance to enzyme degradation. This may be attributed in part to the allergenic potential of buckwheat. Further study should be continued regarding buckwheat allergy. PMID:23423876

  7. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning.

  8. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sever, Michelle L.; Sly, Peter D.; London, Stephanie J.; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  9. Partial characterization of allergens associated with hypersensitivity to the 'green nimitti' midge (Cladotanytarsus lewisi, Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Tee, R D; Cromwell, O; Longbottom, J L; Cranston, P S; Kay, A B

    1984-03-01

    Allergens in extracts of the 'green nimitti' midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae), a cause of widespread hypersensitivity in the Sudan, were isolated and partially characterized by assays which depend on the binding of 125I-anti-IgE to allergen-IgE complexes. These methods included RAST inhibition, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) and rocket radioimmunoelectrophoresis (RRIE). Following Sephadex G100 chromatography the 'major peak' of allergenicity as determined by RAST inhibition, RRIE and SDS-PAGE was associated with molecules of approximately 17 000 daltons. The peak eluting at Vo contained material of molecular weight 66 000 daltons which also bound 125I-anti-IgE, but had only 61% of the activity of the 'major peak' by RAST inhibition. By isoelectric focusing and RRIE of fractions obtained by chromatofocusing with polybuffer exchanger 94, the 'major peak' was associated with multiple bands with a pI range of 3.5-5.5. These results indicate that the major allergens from C. lewisi are a group of closely related acidic peptides.

  10. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    PubMed

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin.

  11. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  12. Pin p 1 is a major allergen in pine nut and the first food allergen described in the plant group of gymnosperms.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Crespo, Jesus F; Maleki, Soheila J; Rodriguez, Julia; Novak, Natalija

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to report the complete sequence of a 2S albumin purified from pine nut and to analyze its allergenic properties. Individual recognition of this protein by serum IgE from pine nut-allergic patients was assessed. IgE cross-linking capacity was analyzed in a basophil activation test. Inhibition of IgE-binding and stability to heating was also assessed. The complete nucleotide sequence was obtained and a phylogenetic study was carried out. 2S albumin from pine nut (registered as Pin p 1.0101) was recognized by IgE of 75% of sera. The allergen was heat-stable and had a robust capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to whole pine nut extract. The IgE cross-linking capacity of Pin p 1 on basophils was also demonstrated. Despite the low homology of Pin p 1 sequence with other allergenic 2S albumins from angiosperms, Pin p 1 contains the typical skeleton of 8 cysteine residues, important for its α-helixes enriched structure.

  13. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Food Anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) protocols for nutritional allergens have only recently been established with a focus on oral allergy syndrome because of pollen cross-reacting antibodies. For these patients, a substantial number of studies have been published suggesting benefits from SIT. The situation in true anaphylaxis to food allergens such as peanut allergy is more complex, and therapeutic strategies are based on individual protocols rather than controlled studies. However, in defined cases, SIT represents a promising approach for a durable protection from life-threatening risks after accidental ingestion. PMID:23283385

  14. Characterisation of Alternaria alternata manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, a cross-reactive allergen homologue to Asp f 6.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Suñén, Ester; Guisantes, Jorge; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    It is well known that Alternaria alternata presents a significant level of allergenic cross-reactivity with several other phylogenetically related and non-related allergenic moulds. To improve the molecular diagnosis, the identification and characterisation of all clinically relevant allergens, including both species-specific and cross-reacting proteins, is required. In this study we report the molecular and immunological characterisation of the A. alternata manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (Alt a MnSOD) and its cross-reactivity with Asp f 6, a diagnostic marker allergen in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The cDNA coding for Alt a MnSOD sequence was isolated by RACE and PCR. Alt a MnSOD is a protein of 191 amino acids that presented significant homology and potential cross-reactive epitopes with Asp f 6. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and the immunoreactivity was evaluated in patient sera. Immunoblotting analyses showed that seven of sixty-one A. alternata-sensitised patient sera and two ABPA patient sera reacted with the recombinant Alt a MnSOD. The native counterpart contained in both A. alternata and Aspergillus fumigatus extracts inhibited IgE binding to the recombinant molecule. The allergen was named Alt a 14 by the official Allergen nomenclature subcommittee. Thus, Alt a 14 is a relevant allergen in A. alternata sensitisation that may be used to improve diagnostic procedures. Evidence of cross-reactivity between Asp f 6 and Alt a 14-recognition by ABPA patient sera suggest the existence of an Alt a 14-mediated mechanism that, similar to Asp f 6, may be related to the pathogenesis of ABPA.

  15. Measurement of airborne mite allergen exposure in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Sasaki, R; Hashimoto, M; Kobayashi, C; Yasueda, H

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the extent of personal exposure to airborne mite allergens, subjects were asked to carry a personal air sampler when in their houses. The level of Der 1 allergen trapped by the sampler was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay. There were great variations in airborne Der 1 exposure in each subject. When used bedding was replaced with new allergen-free bedding, we detected a decrease in the allergen level. The use of new bedding seems to be an effective measure for reducing airborne mite allergen exposure.

  16. Structural basis for epitope sharing between group 1 allergens of cedar pollen

    PubMed Central

    Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Schein, Catherine H.; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Braun, Werner; Czerwinski, Edmund W.; Togawa, Akihisa; Kondo, Yasuto; Oka, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Masanao; Goldblum, Randall M.

    2008-01-01

    The group 1 allergens are a major cause of cedar pollen hypersensitivity in several geographic areas. Allergens from several taxa have been shown to cross-react. The goal of these studies was to compare the structural features of the shared and unique epitopes of the group 1 allergen from mountain cedar (Jun a 1) and Japanese cedar (Cry j 1). An array of overlapping peptides from the sequence of Jun a 1 and a panel of monoclonal anti-Cry j 1 antibodies were used to identify the IgE epitopes recognized by cedar-sensitive patients from Texas and Japan. IgE from Japanese patients reacted with peptides representing one of the two linear epitopes within the highly conserved β-helical core structure and both epitopes within less ordered loops and turns near the N- and C-termini of Jun a 1. A three-dimensional (3D) model of the Cry j 1, based on the crystal structure of Jun a 1, indicated a similar surface exposure for the four described epitopes of Jun a 1 and the homologous regions of Cry j 1. The monoclonal antibodies identified another shared epitope, which is most likely conformational and a unique Cry j 1 epitope that may be the previously recognized glycopeptide IgE epitope. Defining the structural basis for shared and unique epitopes will help to identify critical features of IgE epitopes that can be used to develop mimotopes or identify allergen homologues for vaccine development. PMID:15975657

  17. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  18. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  19. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  20. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Tong-Jen; Howard, Andrew; Kothary, Mahendra H; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yuzhu

    2013-02-20

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will allow a better understanding of the allergenicity of food allergens and their cross-reactivities. The three-dimensional structures of most known food allergens remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the first crystallographic study of a food allergen in the profilin family. The structure of peanut allergen Ara h 5 was determined, and the resolution of the final refined structure was 1.1 Å. Structure alignment revealed that Ara h 5 is more similar to Bet v 2 than to Hev b 8, although sequence alignment suggested that Ara h 5 is more closely related to Hev b 8 than to Bet v 2, indicating that homology-model-based prediction of immunoglobulin E epitopes needs to be interpreted with caution.

  1. [Elimination of airborne allergens from the household environment].

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Casel, S; Colas, F; Spirlet, F; Pauli, G

    2000-02-01

    Exposure to allergens could be either a risk factor of sensitization and nonspecific hyperresponsiveness in genetically predisposed patients or a risk of onset of asthma attack in certain allergic asthma. During the past 20 years, in western countries the houses have become higher and the number of furred pets have increased and have been more kept inside the house which makes probable that exposure to indoor aeroallergen has increased. The development of new methods of allergen measurements allows a more precise identification of allergen source and reservoirs, an assessment of allergen exposure and a monitoring of allergen eviction methods. Concerning mite allergens, controlled studies which showed a clinical efficacy are those with a global mite eviction and at least a 6 months follow-up for cat and dog allergens, high efficiency-filters air cleaners or vacuum-cleaners are able to reduce airborne cat or dog allergen levels. According to the increasing number of papers about allergen eviction, it seems logical to propose allergen eviction as "first line treatment" of allergic asthma. In the future, it would be interesting to develop biological markers to identify more accurately patients who have a clinical improvement after allergen eviction.

  2. Diesel exhaust particles and allergenicity of pollen grains of Lilium martagon.

    PubMed

    Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Kouhkan, Fatemeh

    2008-03-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are considered as the most important parts of air pollutants. Diesel exhaust particles have been shown to express both adjuvant activity for sensitization against common allergens and enhancing effects on allergic symptoms in sensitized individuals. In this research, pollen grains of Lilium martagon that are known as a non-allergic substance were collected and exposed to DEP 5 and 10 days. The allergy potency of different pollen extracts were compared by means of skin test, as well as analyses blood eosinophil numbers and IgE levels in the treated animals. Normal and DEP-exposed pollen grains were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Pollen extracts were also studied by SDS-PAGE for DEP-induced changes in protein profiles. Allergic bands were also studied and checked by using immunoblotting method. The results of the investigated allergy tests showed that DEP-exposed pollen grains are effective in inducing allergic symptoms. According to our microscopic observations, organic substances that exist in the DEP, mediate agglomeration of particles on the pollen surface. In appropriate conditions, water-soluble components of DEP may induce changes that affect the release of pollen proteins. SDS-PAGE showed protein profiles of pollen grains were changed and some new bands appeared in DEP-exposed pollen grains. Immunoblotting studies showed a new band in DEP-exposed pollen grains that react strongly with anti-IgE, but there is no allergenic band in normal pollen grains. On the other hand, diesel exhaust particles can carry pollen allergen molecules, induce new proteins (allergens), and also act as adjuvant for allergens.

  3. Pepino mosaic virus Infection of Tomato Affects Allergen Expression, but Not the Allergenic Potential of Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Welter, Saskia; Dölle, Sabine; Lehmann, Karola; Schwarz, Dietmar; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Worm, Margitta; Franken, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogen Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a major disease of greenhouse tomato crops worldwide. Plant pathogens can induce expression of defence- or pathogenesis-related proteins, including identified allergens. Therefore we hypothesised that PepMV infection results in the expression of allergens leading to a higher allergenic potential of tomato fruits. Transcript level analyses showed differential expression of 17 known and putative tomato fruit allergen encoding genes at early and late time points after PepMV inoculation, but no general induction was detected. Immunoblot analyses were conducted and IgEs from a serum pool of tomato allergic subjects reacted with 20 proteins, of which ten have not yet been described. In parallel, skin prick tests with a group of tomato allergic subjects did not show a general difference between PepMV infected and non-infected tomato fruits and basophil activation tests confirmed these results. In summary, PepMV infection of tomato plants can lead to long-lasting up-regulation of particular allergens in fruits, but the hypothesis that this results in a higher allergenic potential of the fruits proved invalid. PMID:23762294

  4. Pepino mosaic virus infection of tomato affects allergen expression, but not the allergenic potential of fruits.

    PubMed

    Welter, Saskia; Dölle, Sabine; Lehmann, Karola; Schwarz, Dietmar; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Worm, Margitta; Franken, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogen Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a major disease of greenhouse tomato crops worldwide. Plant pathogens can induce expression of defence- or pathogenesis-related proteins, including identified allergens. Therefore we hypothesised that PepMV infection results in the expression of allergens leading to a higher allergenic potential of tomato fruits. Transcript level analyses showed differential expression of 17 known and putative tomato fruit allergen encoding genes at early and late time points after PepMV inoculation, but no general induction was detected. Immunoblot analyses were conducted and IgEs from a serum pool of tomato allergic subjects reacted with 20 proteins, of which ten have not yet been described. In parallel, skin prick tests with a group of tomato allergic subjects did not show a general difference between PepMV infected and non-infected tomato fruits and basophil activation tests confirmed these results. In summary, PepMV infection of tomato plants can lead to long-lasting up-regulation of particular allergens in fruits, but the hypothesis that this results in a higher allergenic potential of the fruits proved invalid.

  5. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  6. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  7. Optical fiber sensor for allergen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendoula, R.; Wacogne, B.; Giust, R.; Cherioux, F.; Sandoz, P.; Gharbi, T.

    2005-08-01

    The sensor is dedicated to the detection of allergens. We use a biochemical reaction in the vicinity of the core of an optical fiber which modifies the propagation conditions of the optical wave by evanescent coupling. The detection involves a intrinsic optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  8. Toxicology of protein allergenicity: prediction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kimber, I; Kerkvliet, N I; Taylor, S L; Astwood, J D; Sarlo, K; Dearman, R J

    1999-04-01

    The ability of exogenous proteins to cause respiratory and gastrointestinal allergy, and sometimes systemic anaphylactic reactions, is well known. What is not clear however, are the properties that confer on proteins the ability to induce allergic sensitization. With an expansion in the use of enzymes for industrial applications and consumer products, and a substantial and growing investment in the development of transgenic crop plants that express novel proteins introduced from other sources, the issue of protein allergenicity has assumed considerable toxicological significance. There is a need now for methods that will allow the accurate identification and characterization of potential protein allergens and for estimation of relative potency as a first step towards risk assessment. To address some of these issues, and to review progress that has been made in the toxicological investigation of respiratory and gastrointestinal allergy induced by proteins, a workshop, entitled the Toxicology of Protein Allergenicity: Prediction and Characterization, was convened at the 37th Annual Conference of the Society of Toxicology in Seattle, Washington (1998). The subject of protein allergenicity is considered here in the context of presentations made at that workshop.

  9. Characteristics of candidates for allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; dell'Albani, Ilaria; Masieri, Simonetta; Cavaliere, Carmine; Puccinelli, Paola; Frati, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) may be cured by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). However, patient characteristics for prescribing AIT are not well defined. This study aimed at evaluating the patient's profile to be a candidate for AIT in a cohort of patients suffering from AR, evaluated in 20 Italian Allergy or Ear, Nose, and Throat Centers. The study has been performed on 198 patients (98 men; mean age, 26.8 years) with AR (assessed by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma [ARIA] criteria). The kind and the number of prescribed allergen extracts, type of diagnosis, severity of symptoms, and patient's perception of symptoms and drug use were evaluated. Patients were subdivided in AIT-treated and without AIT (as controls) subgroups. Most of the patients (69.7%) had persistent AR with moderate–severe symptoms. The mean number of sensitization was 3.4. ARIA classification and sensitization number did not affect AIT choice, but the type of allergen was relevant. AIT-treated patients had milder symptoms than controls if assessed by doctors, but AIT patients perceived more severe symptoms and larger drug use than controls. This study shows that the choice of AIT is based on patient's perception and type of allergen, but number of sensitizations, symptom severity assessed by doctors, and ARIA classification are not relevant factors. The key message might be that it is always relevant to pay attention to the complaints referred by the patient. PMID:24124641

  10. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  11. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allergenic Products. 680.1 Section 680.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... pelts, feathers, hairs, and danders shall be collected in a manner that will minimize contamination...

  12. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allergenic Products. 680.1 Section 680.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... pelts, feathers, hairs, and danders shall be collected in a manner that will minimize contamination...

  13. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allergenic Products. 680.1 Section 680.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... pelts, feathers, hairs, and danders shall be collected in a manner that will minimize contamination...

  14. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allergenic Products. 680.1 Section 680.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... pelts, feathers, hairs, and danders shall be collected in a manner that will minimize contamination...

  15. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  16. Exposure to Indoor Allergens in Different Residential Settings and Its Influence on IgE Sensitization in a Geographically Confined Austrian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Schweidler, Bettina; Doppler, Patrick; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lueftenegger, Lisa; Himly, Martin; Lang, Roland; Zumbach, Joerg; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Hawranek, Thomas; Bathke, Arne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to indoor allergens is crucial for IgE sensitization and development of allergic symptoms. Residential settings influence the allergen amount in house dust and hence allergic sensitization. Within this study, we investigated allergen exposure and molecule-based IgE levels in a geographically confined region and evaluated the impact of housing, pets and cleaning. Methods 501 adolescents from Salzburg, Austria participated in this cross-sectional study. House dust samples were examined regarding major mite, cat, dog, and mold allergens using a multiplex assay. Serum samples of participants were analyzed for specific IgE to Der p 1, Der p 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Alt a 1 using the multiplex array ImmunoCAP ISAC. Information on allergies, living areas, dwelling form (house, flat, farm), pets, and household cleanliness were obtained by a questionnaire. Results In investigated house dust samples, the concentration of cat allergen was highest while the prevalence of mold allergens was very low. Participants showed IgE sensitization to Der p 1 (13.2%), Der p 2 (18.2%), Fel d 1 (14.4%), Can f 1 (2.4%) and Alt a 1 (2.0%). In alpine regions, lower mite allergen concentrations were detected which correlated with reduced IgE levels. A trend for increased sensitization prevalence from rural to alpine to urban regions was noted. Living on farms resulted in lower sensitization prevalence to mite and cat allergens, even though exposure to mites was significantly elevated. The presence of cats was associated with a lower sensitization rate and IgE levels to cat and mite allergens, and less frequent allergic diseases. Cleaning did not impact allergen concentrations, while IgE reactivity to mites and allergic diseases were more pronounced when living in cleaner homes. Conclusion Allergen exposure to indoor allergens was influenced by setting of homes. Living in a farm environment and having a cat at home showed a protective effect for IgE sensitization and allergies

  17. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  18. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  19. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  20. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. Conclusions/Significance Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Pollen

  1. Allergenicity of two Anisakis simplex allergens evaluated in vivo using an experimental mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Caballero, Maria Luisa; Perez-Pinar, Teresa; Rodriguez-Perez, Rosa; Ock, Mee Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Hong, Yeon Chul; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-11-01

    Anisakis (Anisakidae) is one of the most important causes of helminth-induced allergic reactions and elicits clinical responses that include urticaria, rhinitis, bronco-constriction, cough, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. More than 13 reactive allergens have been identified in the serum of Anisakis allergy patients, but the allergenicity of only a few of these have been evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. To evaluate the allergenicity of two important allergens, Ani s 1 and Ani s 9, we induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model by repeated intranasal administration of the allergens. Both recombinant proteins (rAni s 1 and rAni s 9) elicited increased airway hyperresponsivity, airway infiltration by inflammatory cells (especially eosinophils), bronchial epithelial cell hyperplasia, all of which are characteristic of allergic airway inflammation. These allergens significantly increased the levels of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-25) and Th17 related cytokines (IL-6 and IL-17) in both splenocytes and airway (except IL-17 in airway by rAni s 9). OVA-specific IgE and total IgE were increased in rAni s 1 and rAni s 9 treated mice as compared with controls treated with OVA alone. In addition, these two allergens induced gene expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 (initiators of the Th2 response), as well as CXCL1 (initiator of the Th17 response) in mouse lung epithelial cells. In conclusion, repeated intranasal treatments with rAni s 1 and rAni s 9 induced airway inflammation in mice by elevating of Th2 and Th17 responses in the lung.

  2. Label-free Protein Detection Based on the Heat-Transfer Method--A Case Study with the Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 and Aptamer-Based Synthetic Receptors.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Marloes; van Grinsven, Bart; Cleij, Thomas J; Jiménez-Monroy, Kathia Lorena; Cornelis, Peter; Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Wackers, Gideon; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Wagner, Patrick

    2015-05-20

    Aptamers are an emerging class of molecules that, because of the development of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, can recognize virtually every target ranging from ions, to proteins, and even whole cells. Although there are many techniques capable of detecting template molecules with aptamer-based systems with high specificity and selectivity, they lack the possibility of integrating them into a compact and portable biosensor setup. Therefore, we will present the heat-transfer method (HTM) as an interesting alternative because this offers detection in a fast and low-cost manner and has the possibility of performing experiments with a fully integrated device. This concept has been demonstrated for a variety of applications including DNA mutation analysis and screening of cancer cells. To the best our knowledge, this is the first report on HTM-based detection of proteins, in this case specifically with aptamer-type receptors. For proof-of-principle purposes, measurements will be performed with the peanut allergen Ara h 1 and results indicate detection limits in the lower nanomolar regime in buffer liquid. As a first proof-of-application, spiked Ara h 1 solutions will be studied in a food matrix of dissolved peanut butter. Reference experiments with the quartz-crystal microbalance will allow for an estimate of the areal density of aptamer molecules on the sensor-chip surface.

  3. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takashi; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP), and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3) was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  4. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  5. Perception and practice regarding allergen labeling: focus on food-related employees

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun; Kwon, Yong-Seok; Paik, Jin-Kyoung; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Most consumers are able to recognize allergenic foods. However, the frequency of checking such foods is reportedly low, resulting in higher prevalence of food-related allergic reactions in Korea compared to other countries. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the overall perception of allergenic food labeling and its practice level in food manufacturing company employees. SUBJECTS/METHODS The survey was administered to food safety employees and food development teams at food companies located in metropolitan areas. A total of 399 (93.8%) valid samples were used in the final analysis. Statistical analyses, including Frequency Analysis, t-test, Anova, PCA (Principal Component Analysis), and Pearson Correlation Analysis using SPSS ver. 21.0, were performed. RESULTS The correct answer rate in the analysis of allergy-related knowledge level ranged from 15.0% to 89.7%. Analysis of differences in allergy-related perception by knowledge level showed significant differences in introduction of a food recall system, strengthening of relevant laws and regulations, content labeling, description of substitutional food, and differentiated package by age. CONCLUSIONS It can be concluded that labeling of allergenic foods should be made easier and more convenient for checking by employees, developers, and consumers, and it is necessary to provide contents through the development of publicity, guidelines, or APP along with labeling. PMID:27478550

  6. Characterization of the allergen filarial tropomyosin with an invertebrate specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Michal J; Hartmann, Susanne; Büttner, Dietrich W; Volkmer, Rudolf; Hovestädt, Marc; Brattig, Norbert; Lucius, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Tropomyosins of invertebrates are pan-allergens responsible for wide spread allergic reactions against seafood and arthropods. As invertebrate tropomyosins are highly conserved, helminth tropomyosins are likely to show properties similar to these medically important allergens. Studies with a monoclonal antibody, NR1, raised against tropomyosin of the rodent filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae revealed a B cell epitope common to helminths and marine mollusks, which does not occur in vertebrate tropomyosin. This antibody detected tropomyosin of A. viteae, other filariids, nematodes, trematodes and a cestode, and recognized as well tropomyosin of oyster, squid and octopus, but not of arthropods and vertebrates. Immunohistological analyses of A. viteae, Onchocerca volvulus and other nematodes using NR1 showed that tropomyosin is located in the fibrillar part of the body wall muscles and the uterus, and is also conspicuous in muscles of the pharynx, the vagina and other organs of the nematodes. The abundance of a pan-allergen like tropomyosin in parasitic worms and the counterintuitive, but well documented protection against allergic reactivity by some chronic helminth infections is discussed.

  7. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  8. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    PubMed

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  9. Recognizing new medical knowledge computationally.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. J.; Cole, W. G.; Tuttle, M. S.; Olson, N. E.; Sherertz, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Can new medical knowledge be recognized computationally? We know knowledge is changing, and our knowledge-based systems will need to accommodate that change in knowledge on a regular basis if they are to stay successful. Computational recognition of these changes seems desirable. It is unlikely that low level objects in the computational universe, bits and characters, will change much over time, higher level objects of language, where meaning begins to emerge, may show change. An analysis of ten arbitrarily selected paragraphs from the Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program of the American College of Physicians was used as a test bed for nominal phrase recognition. While there were words not known to Meta-1.2, only 8 of the 32 concepts new to the primary author were pointed to by new words. Use of a barrier word method was successful in identifying 23 of the 32 new concepts. Use of co-occurrence (in sentences) of putative nominal phrases may reduce the amount of human effort involved in recognizing the emergence of new relationships. PMID:8130505

  10. Recognizing and treating secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Walker-Bone, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Osteoporosis, through its association with fragility fracture, is a major public health problem, costing an estimated $34.8 billion worldwide per annum. With projected demographic changes, the burden looks set to grow. Therefore, the prevention of osteoporosis, as well as its identification and treatment once established, are becoming increasingly important. Osteoporosis is secondary when a drug, disease or deficiency is the underlying cause. Glucocorticoids, hypogonadism, alcohol abuse and malnutrition are among the most frequently recognized causes of secondary osteoporosis but the list of implicated diseases and drugs is growing and some of the more recently recognized associations, such as those with haematological conditions and acid-suppressing medications, are less well publicized. In some cases, advancement in treatment of the primary disease has led to people living long enough to develop secondary osteoporosis; for example, successful treatment for breast and prostate malignancies by hormonal manipulation, improved survival in HIV with the advent of anti-retroviral therapies, and improved treatment for cystic fibrosis. This Review emphasizes the importance of secondary osteoporosis, discusses familiar and less well-known causes and what is known of their mechanisms, provides guidance as to the pragmatic identification of secondary osteoporosis and summarizes treatment options, where available.

  11. New Trends in Food Allergens Detection: Toward Biosensing Strategies.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita C; Barroso, M Fátima; González-García, María Begoña; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-25

    Food allergens are a real threat to sensitized individuals. Although food labeling is crucial to provide information to consumers with food allergies, accidental exposure to allergenic proteins may result from undeclared allergenic substances by means of food adulteration, fraud or uncontrolled cross-contamination. Allergens detection in foodstuffs can be a very hard task, due to their presence usually in trace amounts, together with the natural interference of the matrix. Methods for allergens analysis can be mainly divided in two large groups: the immunological assays and the DNA-based ones. Mass spectrometry has also been used as a confirmatory tool. Recently, biosensors appeared as innovative, sensitive, selective, environmentally friendly, cheaper and fast techniques (especially when automated and/or miniaturized), able to effectively replace the classical methodologies. In this review, we present the advances in the field of food allergens detection toward the biosensing strategies and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of this technology.

  12. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Taogoshi, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut.

  13. Interfaces Between Allergen Structure and Diagnosis: Know Your Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Pomés, Anna; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Allergy diagnosis is based on the patient’s clinical history and can be strengthened by tests that confirm the origin of sensitization. In the past 25 years, these tests have evolved from the exclusive in vivo or in vitro use of allergen extracts, to complementary molecular-based diagnostics that rely on in vitro measurements of IgE reactivity to individual allergens. For this to occur, an increase in our understanding of the molecular structure of allergens, largely due to the development of technologies such as molecular cloning and expression of recombinant allergens, X-ray crystallography, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), has been essential. New in vitro microarray or multiplex systems are now available to measure IgE against a selected panel of purified natural or recombinant allergens. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of allergens has facilitated detailed molecular studies, including the analysis of antigenic determinants for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25750181

  14. Mechanisms underlying allergy vaccination with recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Hundred years ago therapeutic vaccination with allergen-containing extracts has been introduced as a clinically effective, disease-modifying, allergen-specific and long-lasting form of therapy for allergy, a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Today, the structures of most of the disease-causing allergens have been elucidated and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with reduced allergenic activity have been engineered to reduce side effects during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). These recombinant hypoallergens have been characterized in vitro, in experimental animal models and in clinical trials in allergic patients. This review provides a summary of the molecular, immunological and preclinical evaluation criteria applied for this new generation of allergy vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize the mechanisms underlying SIT with recombinant hypoallergens which are thought to be responsible for their therapeutic effect. PMID:22100888

  15. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  16. The major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus Makino.

    PubMed

    Oka, K; Saito, F; Yasuhara, T; Sugimoto, A

    1997-05-01

    Dendropanax trifidus Makino (family Araliaceae, syn. Gilibertia trifida Makino) has been reported as causing allergic contact dermatitis in Japan. To identify the major allergen, fractionated extracts of fresh leaves of Dendropanax trifidus were patch tested on 2 patients with hypersensitivity to the plant. Cis-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1, 16-diol (I), an analog of falcarinol, was identified as an active component. 18 normal control subjects were patch tested with the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I diluted to 0.05% in pet. 4 of them showed active sensitization to the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I. Our results suggest that I is the major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus and is a strong sensitizer. The results of patch testing on patients and control subjects with the leaves of Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. and Hedera helix L., which also belong to the Araliaceae family, and urushiol are also shown.

  17. Living with food allergy: allergen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-04-01

    The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.

  18. Protein and allergen content of various natural latex articles.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Chen, Z; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Degens, P

    1997-06-01

    Proteins remaining in products made of natural rubber latex are potential sensitizers. In the present work, we quantified the releasable protein and allergen contents in 37 brands of latex gloves and 26 other latex products. Our results demonstrate the presence of widely varied protein and allergen contents in various latex articles and the lack of a correlation between the protein and allergen values. These findings may assist hospital management and medical staff to take effective preventive measures.

  19. In silico epitope prediction, expression and functional analysis of Per a 10 allergen from the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xunliang; Guo, Miao; Jin, Min; Chen, Hao; Li, Yanming; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Cockroach (CR) allergies caused by the American cockroach hyave been recognized to be repsonsible for IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. Per a 10 is one of the recognized main allergens of the American CR. In a previous study, we examined another American CR allergen, Per a 9 in patients with CR allergies and examined epitope sequences in this allergen. In the present study, we aimed to examine epitope sequences in the Per a 10 allergen. for this purpose, the Per a 10 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. Our results revealed that 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sera from patients with American CR allergies reacted to Per a10, as assessed by ELISA, confirming that Per a 10 is a major allergen of the American CR. Our results also revealed that the expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized basophils (obtained sera of patients with American CR allergies) was increased by approximately 2.3-fold, indicating that recombinant Per a 10 is functionally active. In addition, 3 immunoinformatics tools, namely the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the peptides and the results revealed 8 peptides (2-12, 55-67, 98-120, 125-133, 149-160, 170-182, 201-208 and 223-227) as potential B cell epitopes of the Per a 10 allergen. Moreover, Per a 10 was predicted to have 3 T cell epitope sequences, namely 83-92, 139-147 and 162-170. The findings of our study on the CR allergen may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccine for the prevention and/or treatment of CR allergies.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Allergen of Acacia farnesiana (Aca f 2).

    PubMed

    Sepahi, Najmeh; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Amini, Akram; Zarinhadideh, Farnoosh; Ali-Sadeghi, Hosein

    2015-08-01

    Inhalation of pollens from different species of Acacia is a common cause of respiratory allergy in tropical areas of the world. Acacia farnesiana is commonly used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semi-arid regions of Asia. This study aimed to produce and purify the A. farnesiana pollen profilin (Aca f 2) and evaluate its nucleotide sequence homology with profilins of common allergenic plants to predict allergenic cross-reactivity. Thirty-nine patients who were allergic to Acacia pollens were included in the study. Cloning of Acacia profilin-coding sequence was performed by polymerase chain reaction using primers from Acacia pollen RNA. The cDNA of Acacia pollen profilin was then expressed in Escherichia coli using pET-21b(+) vector and purified by metal affinity chromatography. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant Acacia profilin (rAca f 2) was evaluated by specific ELISA, immunoblotting, and inhibition assays. The coding sequence of the Acacia profilin cDNA was recognized as a 399-bp open reading frame encoding 133 amino acid residues. Eighteen patients (18/39, 46.15%) had significant specific IgE levels against Aca f 2. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that purified Aca f 2 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Aca f2, the first allergen from A. farnesiana pollen, was identified as belonging to the family of profilins. The amino acid sequence homology analysis showed high cross-reactivity between Aca f 2 and other profilins from botanically unrelated common allergenic plants.

  1. Contact Allergens in a Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Aparche; Herro, Elise; Zhang, Chi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to retrospectively identify associations between allergen sensitization frequencies and specific comorbidities in a patient population in Miami, Florida, tested between November 2004 and July 2006 with a pediatric standard series and to compare their findings to recent pediatric and adult patch testing data published by other North American referral centers. Design: The authors performed a retrospective chart review evaluating the most common, clinically relevant contact allergens against the frequency of specific comorbidities, such as atopic dermatitis. The results were compared with the patch testing data from the Ottawan Contact Dermatitis Group's 1996–2006 study, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 2001–2004 study, and the Mayo Clinic 1998–2000 study and the 2000–2006 study. Setting: University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Participants: Sixty-nine Miami children and adolescents between age six months and 18 years, having been referred for comprehensive patch testing. Measurements: The frequency of positive patch test reactions and clinical relevance was evaluated against the frequency of comorbidities. Results: Forty-five patients met all the inclusion criteria. Of these, 95.6 percent (43 patients) had at least one positive patch test reaction, with 76.7 percent of them having a personal history of atopic dermatitis. The most common pediatric allergens were found to significantly overlap with those of other North American referral centers. Conclusions: Allergic contact dermatitis is prevalent in atopic dermatitis; however, the authors were not able to demonstrate a statistically significant association, as the majority of patients referred had atopic dermatitis, and thus the control group was inadequate. Furthermore, allergens at the Miami center paralleled those seen at different centers within North America. PMID:20967193

  2. An SPR based sensor for allergens detection.

    PubMed

    Ashley, J; Piekarska, M; Segers, C; Trinh, L; Rodgers, T; Willey, R; Tothill, I E

    2017-02-15

    A simple, sensitive and label-free optical sensor method was developed for allergens analysis using α-casein as the biomarker for cow's milk detection, to be used directly in final rinse samples of cleaning in place systems (CIP) of food manufacturers. A Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor chip consisting of four sensing arrays enabling the measurement of samples and control binding events simultaneously on the sensor surface was employed in this work. SPR offers several advantages in terms of label free detection, real time measurements and superior sensitivity when compared to ELISA based techniques. The gold sensor chip was used to immobilise α-casein-polyclonal antibody using EDC/NHS coupling procedure. The performance of the assay and the sensor was first optimised and characterised in pure buffer conditions giving a detection limit of 58ngmL(-1) as a direct binding assay. The assay sensitivity can be further improved by using sandwich assay format and amplified with nanoparticles. However, at this stage this is not required as the detection limit achieved exceeded the required allergens detection levels of 2µgmL(-1) for α-S1-casein. The sensor demonstrated good selectivity towards the α-casein as the target analyte and adequate recoveries from CIP final rinse wash samples. The sensor would be useful tool for monitoring allergen levels after cleaning procedures, providing additional data that may better inform upon wider food allergen risk management decision(s) that are made by food manufacturer. In particular, this sensor could potentially help validate or optimise cleaning practices for a given food manufacturing process.

  3. Human T cell priming assay: depletion of peripheral blood lymphocytes in CD25(+) cells improves the in vitro detection of weak allergen-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Vocanson, Marc; Achachi, Amine; Mutez, Virginie; Cluzel-Tailhardat, Magalie; Varlet, Béatrice Le; Rozières, Aurore; Fournier, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    possible to induce T cell priming to most of the moderate/weak allergens, including lipophilic molecules highly insoluble in culture media. Therefore, the present optimized in vitro human T cell priming assay is a valuable method to detect the sensitizing properties of chemical allergens.

  4. Markers of tolerance development to food allergens.

    PubMed

    Ponce, M; Diesner, S C; Szépfalusi, Z; Eiwegger, T

    2016-10-01

    IgE-mediated reactions to food allergens are the most common cause of anaphylaxis in childhood. Although allergies to cow's milk, egg, or soy proteins, in contrast to peanut and tree nut allergens, resolve within the first 6 years of life in up to 60% due to natural tolerance development, this process is not well understood. At present, there is no cure or treatment for food allergy that would result in an induction of tolerance to the symptom-eliciting food. Avoidance, providing an emergency plan and education, is the standard of treatment. Oral immunotherapeutic approaches have been proven reasonable efficacy; however, they are associated with high rates of side-effects and low numbers of patients achieving tolerance. Nevertheless, mechanisms that take place during oral immunotherapy may help to understand tolerance development. On the basis of these therapeutic interventions, events like loss of basophil activation and induction of regulatory lymphocyte subsets and of blocking antibodies have been described. Their functional importance at a clinical level, however, remains to be investigated in detail. Consequently, there is eminent need to understand the process of tolerance development to food allergens and define biomarkers to develop and monitor new treatment strategies for food allergy.

  5. Analysis of regulated suspected allergens in waters.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Elias; Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Llompart, Maria; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2010-12-15

    Fragrance suspected allergens including those regulated by the EU Directive 76/768/EEC have been determined in different types of waters using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure was based on headspace sampling (HS-SPME) using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibers and has been optimized by an experimental design approach. The method performance has been studied showing good linearity (R ≥ 0.994) as well as good intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD ≤ 12%). Detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 0.001 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Reliability was demonstrated through the quantitative recoveries of the compounds in real water samples, including baby bathwaters, swimming pool waters, and wastewaters. The absence of matrix effects allowed quantification of the compounds by external aqueous calibration. The analysis of 35 samples of different types of waters showed the presence of suspected allergens in all the analyzed samples. All targets were found in the samples, with the exception of methyl eugenol and amyl cinnamic alcohol. Highest concentrations of suspected allergens were present in baby bathwaters, containing from 5 to 15 of the compounds at concentrations ranging from few pg mL(-1) to several hundreds of ng mL(-1).

  6. 78 FR 78368 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... efficacy of RAGWITEK, a short ragweed pollen allergen extract tablet for sublingual use, manufactured by Merck, indicated for immunotherapy for diagnosed ragweed pollen induced allergic rhinitis, with...

  7. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    PubMed

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  8. Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710

  9. Complete primary structure of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III: comparison with known Lol p I and II sequences.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-10-17

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III, determined by the automated Edman degradation of the protein and its selected fragments, is reported in this paper. Cleavage by enzymatic and chemical techniques established unambiguously the sequence for this 97-residue protein (Mr = 10,909), which lacks cysteine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. The sequence of Lol p III is very similar to that of another L. perenne allergen, Lol p II, which was sequenced recently; of the 97 positions in the two proteins, 57 are occupied by identical amino acids (59% identity). In addition, both allergens share a similar structure with an antibody-binding fragment of a third L. perenne allergen, Lol p I. Since human antibody responsiveness to all these three allergens is associated with HLA-DR3, and since the structure common to the three molecules shows high degrees of amphipathicity in Lol p II and III, we speculate that this common segment in the three molecules might contain or contribute to the respectively Ia/T-cell sites.

  10. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa1

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K.; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M.; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    While type 2 immune responses to environmental antigens are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. Here we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were produced quickly in the lungs of naïve mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and TSLP sensitized naïve animals to an innocuous airway antigen OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE antibody and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same antigen. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naïve animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa. PMID:24663677

  11. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-05-01

    Although type 2 immune responses to environmental Ags are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. In this article, we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin were produced quickly in the lungs of naive mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin sensitized naive animals to an innocuous airway Ag OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE Ab, and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same Ag. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naive animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils: A literature-based database on contact allergens used for safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C

    2016-10-01

    The risks related to the use of essential oils are difficult to ascertain at present, due in part to the large number of different oils available on the market, making it difficult for the risk assessor. Essential oils may contain skin allergens in significant amounts, and could thus pose a risk to the consumer. The aim of our study was to collect as much qualitative and quantitative data as possible on allergens present in essential oils. 11 types of essential oils, with 25 respective subspecies, were taken into account based on a previous survey. Based on the literature, 517 dosages were recorded from 112 publications, providing precious information for probabilistic exposure assessment purposes. 22 substances recognized as established allergens were found in the essential oils we included. Of these, 11 are also found in cosmetics as fragrance components. These results are of major importance regarding co-exposure to fragrance allergens. Moreover, this could lead to regulatory measures for essential oils in the future, as it is the case for cosmetic products, in order to better protect consumers against skin allergy.

  13. Relative immunogenicity of commonly allergenic foods versus rarely allergenic and nonallergenic foods in mice.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Neil; Thanesvorakul, Sirinart; Gangur, Venu

    2002-12-01

    Food allergies affect 6 to 8% of children and 2% of adults in the United States. For reasons that are not clear, eight types of food account for a vast majority (approximately 90%) of food-induced hypersensitivity reactions. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were used to test the hypothesis that commonly allergenic foods are intrinsically more immunogenic than rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods in allergy-susceptible hosts. Groups of mice (n = 4 to 5) were injected intraperitoneally with the protein extracts (plus alum as an adjuvant) from chicken eggs, peanuts, almonds, filberts-hazelnuts, walnuts, soybeans, and wheat (commonly allergenic foods) and coffee, sweet potatoes, carrots, white potatoes, cherries, lettuce, and spinach (rarely allergenic and nonallergenic foods). Primary and secondary immune responses (as measured by specific IgG1 antibody serum levels) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteins from peanuts, almonds, filberts, sweet potatoes, cherries, and spinach elicited robust primary and/or secondary immune responses. Proteins from eggs, walnuts, and lettuce elicited poor primary responses but significant secondary responses. In contrast, wheat, soybeans, coffee, carrots, and white potatoes elicited barely detectable to poor primary and secondary immune responses. The order of the immunogenicity levels of these foods in mice is as follows: almonds = filberts > spinach (Rubisco) > peanuts > or = sweet potatoes > cherries > lettuce > walnuts > chicken eggs > carrots > or = white potatoes > wheat = coffee = soybeans. In summary, these data demonstrate for the first time that: (i) foods vary widely with regard to their relative immunogenicity in allergy-susceptible hosts and (ii) intrinsic immunogenicity in mice does not distinguish commonly allergenic foods from rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods.

  14. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals.

  15. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels.

  16. Emerging food allergens: Identification of polyphenol oxidase as an important allergen in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Harish Babu, Bheemanapalli N; Wilfred, Anthony; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2017-02-01

    Although many allergens have been detected in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), their identity have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polyphenol oxidase (PPO), an important eggplant enzyme, acts as an allergen. The proteins of eggplant peel extract were separated on phenyl-Sepharose (PS), and analyzed by skin prick test (SPT), ELISA and IgE-immunoblotting; the components were analyzed for PPO activity, presence of protein-bound copper, and recognition by rabbit polyclonal anti-sweet potato PPO antiserum. LC-MS/MS and in silico analysis were employed to identify the separated allergens and prediction of IgE epitopes. Eggplant allergens were separated into 5 components (PS1-PS5), of which component PS2 exhibited high specific PPO activity. SPT and ELISA with PPO-rich pool (PS2) were positive in all 6 eggplant-allergic subjects; the 43, 64 and 71kDa proteins displayed strong IgE-binding ability. The 64 and 71kDa IgE-binding proteins show PPO activity, presence of copper, and recognition by anti-sweet potato PPO antiserum, clearly identifying them as PPOs; the 43kDa protein appears to be a degradation product of the 64 or 71kDa proteins based on enzymic activity and recognition by PPO antiserum. The 64kDa protein upon further resolution by SDS-PAGE displayed two components (identified as eggplant PPO1 and PPO4 by LC-MS/MS). Based on bioinformatics approaches, PPO4 has been identified as an allergen since it harbors an IgE epitope. This study clearly demonstrates that the 64 and 71kDa allergens in eggplant peel are PPOs based on enzymic activity and recognition by PPO antiserum; the 64kDa copper-containing protein is identified as one of the several eggplant allergens (Sola m PPO4). This is the first instance of polyphenol oxidase being identified as a new food allergen.

  17. Characterization of arginine kinase, anovel allergen of dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 20)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Peng; Yu, Haiqiong; Li, Meng; Xiao, Xiaojun; Jiang, Congli; Mo, Lihua; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize a novel allergen, the Dermatophagoides farinae-derived arginine kinase (Der f 20). Methods: The protein of Der f 20 was synthesized by genetic engineering approaches. The allergenicity of Der f 20 was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an airway allergy mouse model. Results: The Der f 20 gene was cloned andpresented in the Gene Bank with an accession number of AAP57094. The Der f 20 is an arginine kinase (AK), whichshowed a close relationship with D. pteronyssinus AK and Aleuroglyphusovatus AK. Western-blot and ELISA studies showed the IgE binding capacity of Der f 20 was 66.7% in the sera from 6 dust mite allergic patients. Immune inhibition assayresults showed the IgE cross-reactivity between Der f 20 and DME (Dust mite extract). Positive responses to Der f 20 were 41.2% as shown by skin prick tests in 17 DME-allergic patients. In vitro experimental results showed that Der f 20 induced Th2 cell differentiation and the expression of T cell Ig mucin domain molecule-4 (TIM4) in DCs. Conclusions; The Der f 20 protein is a novel subtype of thedust mite allergen. PMID:26885278

  18. Induction of colitis in mice with food allergen-specific immune response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Zeng, Lu; Li, Xiao-Xi; Mo, Li-Hua; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of intestinal chronic inflammation is unclear. Food allergy plays an important role in the induction of intestinal inflammation. This study aims to test a hypothesis that food allergy initiates colitis. In this study, BALB/c mice were sensitized to a common food allergen, ovalbumin (OVA) with cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. The colon epithelial barrier function was assessed with Ussing chamber technique. Expression of T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain molecule-4 (TIM4) in dendritic cells was evaluated by flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that allergen-related colitis was induced in mice as shown by heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells in the colon mucosa, loss of body weight of mice, increases in myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, OVA-specific IgE in the colon tissue. The colon epithelial barrier function was markedly compromised in colitis group mice, which was mimicked by exposure the colon mucosa to CT in Ussing chamber. High frequency of TIM4+ dendritic cells was detected in the colon mucosa of colitis mice. Exposure of dendritic cells to CT markedly increased the expression of TIM4. We conclude that IBD-like inflammation can be induced in the mouse colon by the food allergen-related immune response. PMID:27604348

  19. Molecule nanoweaver

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  20. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  1. Early Exposure to Respiratory Allergens by Placental Transfer and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Macchiaverni, Patricia; Ynoue, Leandro H.; Arslanian, Christina; Verhasselt, Valérie; Condino-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between allergen exposure and the onset of or protection from allergic diseases remains unclear. Many factors could be related to immunological responses, such as the age when the exposure occurs, type of allergen, timing, dose, and allergen route. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to respiratory allergens could occur in pregnancy or early life. In particular, we assessed whether Der p 1 and Blo t 5, as well as specific antibodies against these allergens, could be detected in 90 paired cord blood and colostrum samples. Der p 1 was detected in 58.6% of colostrum and 29% of cord blood samples, whereas Blot 5 was positive in 41.3% and 9.6% of the samples, respectively. Similar to specific IgA, which could be detected in all samples for both mites, specific IgG was found in a high number of colostrum samples, 93.5% and 94.8% for Dp and Bt, respectively. Although allergens were not detected in all cord blood samples, a high percentage of them (≥95%) were positive for specific IgM to both mites in cord blood samples, suggesting that neonates can be exposed and sensitized to airborne allergens during pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to correlate allergen exposure or its prevention in early infancy with the onset of or protection from allergic diseases. However, conflicting and inconsistent data do not show a clear correlation with or suggest a way to prevent allergen sensitization. Nevertheless, these unconvincing results could be better understood if the relationship with many aspects of allergen exposure after pregnancy could be clarified. Thus, it is necessary to address basic issues related to allergen exposure, including the development of reproducible, standardized and reliable methods, and to determine how and where the exposure occurs. PMID:26398234

  2. Recognizing characters of ancient manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Considering printed Latin text, the main issues of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems are solved. However, for degraded handwritten document images, basic preprocessing steps such as binarization, gain poor results with state-of-the-art methods. In this paper ancient Slavonic manuscripts from the 11th century are investigated. In order to minimize the consequences of false character segmentation, a binarization-free approach based on local descriptors is proposed. Additionally local information allows the recognition of partially visible or washed out characters. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: character classification and character localization. Initially Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are extracted which are subsequently classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Afterwards, the interest points are clustered according to their spatial information. Thereby, characters are localized and finally recognized based on a weighted voting scheme of pre-classified local descriptors. Preliminary results show that the proposed system can handle highly degraded manuscript images with background clutter (e.g. stains, tears) and faded out characters.

  3. Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report.

    PubMed

    Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Bernardini, Roberto; Peroni, Diego; Arasi, Stefania; Martelli, Alberto; Landi, Massimo; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Muraro, Antonella; La Grutta, Stefania; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Caffarelli, Carlo; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Comberiati, Pasquale; Duse, Marzia

    2017-01-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one century ago, and performed in the early years with allergenic extracts of poor quality and definition. After the mechanism of allergic reaction were recognized, the practice of AIT was refined, leading to remarkable improvement in the efficacy and safety profile of the treatment. Currently AIT is accepted and routinely prescribed worldwide for respiratory allergies and hymenoptera venom allergy. Both the subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) routes of administration are used in the pediatric population.AIT is recommended in allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with/without allergic asthma, with an evidence of specific IgE-sensitization towards clinically relevant inhalant allergens. Long-term studies provided evidence that AIT can also prevent the onset of asthma and of new sensitizations. The favorable response to AIT is strictly linked to adherence to treatment, that lasts 3-5 years. Therefore, several factors should be carefully evaluated before starting this intervention, including the severity of symptoms, pharmacotherapy requirements and children and caregivers' preference and compliance.In recent years, there have been increasing interest in the role of AIT for the treatment of IgE-associated food allergy and extrinsic atopic dermatitis. A growing body of evidence shows that oral immunotherapy represents a promising treatment option for IgE-associated food allergy. On the contrary, there are still controversies on the effectiveness of AIT for patients with atopic dermatitis.This consensus document was promoted by the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) to provide evidence-based recommendations on AIT in order to implement and optimize current prescription practices of this treatment for allergic children.

  4. The amino acid sequence of Ole e I, the major allergen from olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen.

    PubMed

    Villalba, M; Batanero, E; López-Otín, C; Sánchez, L M; Monsalve, R I; González de la Peña, M A; Lahoz, C; Rodríguez, R

    1993-09-15

    The complete primary structure of the major allergen from Olea europaea (olive tree) pollen, Ole e I (IUIS nomenclature), has been determined. The amino acid sequence was established by automated Edman degradation of the reduced and alkylated molecule as well as of selected fragments obtained by proteolytic digestions. Ole e I contains a single polypeptide chain of 145 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 16331 Da. No free sulfhydryl groups have been detected in the native protein. The molecule contains a putative glycosylation site. A high degree of microheterogeneity has been observed, mainly centered in the first 33% of the molecule. Comparison of Ole e I sequence with protein sequence databases showed no similarity with other known allergens. However, it has a 36% and 38% sequence identity with the putative polypeptide structures, deduced, respectively, from nucleotide sequences of genes isolated from tomato anthers and corn pollen, which have been suggested to be involved in the growing of the pollen tube. Therefore, the olive tree allergen may be a constitutive protein of the pollen involved in reproductive functions.

  5. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  6. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Current Aspects of a Recently Recognized Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lucendo, Alfredo J.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Sonia; Guagnozzi, Danila; Yague-Compadre, Jose Luis; Arias, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic clinicopathological entity characterized by large numbers of intraepithelial eosinophils infiltrating the esophageal mucosa. The inflammation leads to alterations in the caliber and the motility of the organ, which determines esophageal symptoms, especially dysphagia and frequent food impaction. Firstly described in 1978, EoE represents today an increasingly recognized disease, with cases coming from all developed countries and rising epidemiology. The origin of EoE has been related to allergy to food components or inhalants, and a number of studies support a Th2-type reaction in the origin of the disease. Thus, several treatment strategies based on controlling the exposition to triggering allergens or therapies using anti-allergic drugs have demonstrated efficacy in EoE. Since EoE frequently presents with esophageal stenosis, endoscopic dilation has been also used in treating these patients, but a high risk of complications has been documented. However, single treatment strategies have not been compared to a placebo group in most of studies, and we do not know the long-term consequences of eosinophilic inflammation, esophageal fibrous remodeling or its possible modifications using different therapies. Furthermore, we lack of a common accepted therapeutic end-point to assess the efficacy of the treatment: from mere resolution of symptoms to full control of esophageal inflammation. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the epidemiology, origin and pathogenesis of the disease, and discuses several practical questions, especially those related to how the affected patients should be treated. PMID:27956987

  7. Density functionals that recognize covalent, metallic, and weak bonds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianwei; Xiao, Bing; Fang, Yuan; Haunschild, Robin; Hao, Pan; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Csonka, Gábor I; Scuseria, Gustavo E; Perdew, John P

    2013-09-06

    Computationally efficient semilocal approximations of density functional theory at the level of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) or generalized gradient approximation (GGA) poorly describe weak interactions. We show improved descriptions for weak bonds (without loss of accuracy for strong ones) from a newly developed semilocal meta-GGA (MGGA), by applying it to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We argue that this improvement comes from using the right MGGA dimensionless ingredient to recognize all types of orbital overlap.

  8. Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Allergen Exposure: Screening For Sensitization Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An in vitro assay to identify respiratory sensitizers will provide a rapid screen and reduce animal use. The study goal was to identify biomarkers that differentiate allergen versus non-allergen responses following an acute exposure. Methods: Female BALB/c mice rec...

  9. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-03-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the /sup 133/Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated.

  10. Update on hidden food allergens and food labeling.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Gregory; Frieri, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article is intended to review the current literature on "hidden" food allergens and the various ways in which sensitized individuals may be exposed to these allergens. A focus on advances in food labeling, and the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) is also included, because it assists food-allergic consumers in the strict avoidance of specific foods. Article information was gathered primarily through a computer search of relevant data relating to human subjects. Our findings indicate that sensitized individuals can unknowingly be exposed to allergenic proteins in foods through cross-contact, food containing allergenic nonfood products, food additives, and cross-reactivity. Furthermore, food packaging and formulation errors, ingredient switching, and foods not covered under the FALCPA were also found to be sources of hidden food allergens. There are many ways in which hypersensitive individuals can be exposed to potentially dangerous allergens despite careful avoidance. Furthermore, health care providers should consider various sources of hidden allergens in food-allergic individuals with an unclear etiology. Food hypersensitivity has been identified as a significant medical dilemma in our society. Recent efforts to increase public awareness and strides made in labeling of food products are encouraging.

  11. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  12. Tannic acid as a means to remove peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenol (commonly found in tea and coffee) that has been used as a treatment for toxic substances and carpet allergens. The objectives were to determine the efficacy of TA’s binding and removal of peanut allergens from peanut butter extracts as insoluble precipitates, and to...

  13. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  14. *Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens fol...

  15. Stability of food allergens to digestion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Astwood, J D; Leach, J N; Fuchs, R L

    1996-10-01

    An integral part of the safety assessment of genetically modified plants is consideration of possible human health effects, especially food allergy. Prospective testing for allergenicity of proteins obtained from sources with no prior history of causing allergy has been difficult because of the absence of valid methods and models. Food allergens may share physicochemical properties that distinguish them from nonallergens, properties that may be used as a tool to predict the inherent allergenicity of proteins newly introduced into the food supply by genetic engineering. One candidate property is stability to digestion. We have systematically evaluated the stability of food allergens that are active via the gastrointestinal tract in a simple model of gastric digestion, emphasizing the major allergens of plant-derived foods such as legumes (peanuts and soybean). Important food allergens were stable to digestion in the gastric model (simulated gastric fluid). For example, soybean beta-conglycinin was stable for 60 min. In contrast, nonallergenic food proteins, such as spinach ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, were digested in simulated gastric fluid within 15 sec. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that food allergens must exhibit sufficient gastric stability to reach the intestinal mucosa where absorption and sensitization (development of atopy) can occur. Thus, the stability to digestion is a significant and valid parameter that distinguishes food allergens from nonallergens.

  16. Mimotopes for Api g 5, a Relevant Cross-reactive Allergen, in the Celery-Mugwort-Birch-Spice Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lukschal, Anna; Wallmann, Julia; Bublin, Merima; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Breiteneder, Heimo; Pali-Schöll, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome, a significant proportion of IgE is directed against high molecular weight (HMW) glycoproteins, including the celery allergen Api g 5. BIP3, a monoclonal antibody originally raised against birch pollen, recognizes HMW allergens in birch and mugwort pollens, celery, and Apiaceae spices. Our aim was to generate mimotopes using BIP3 for immunization against the HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice cross reactivity syndrome. Methods Mimotopes were selected from a random-peptide display library by BIP3 and applied in IgE inhibition assays. The 3 phage clones with the highest inhibitory capacity were chosen for immunization of BALB/c mice. Mouse immune sera were tested for IgG binding to blotted birch pollen extract and used for inhibiting patients' IgE binding. Furthermore, sera were tested for binding to Api g 5, to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a second glycoprotein, or to non-glycosylated control allergen Phl p 5 in ELISA, and the specific Api g 5-specific IgG titers were determined. Results Three rounds of biopanning resulted in phage clones exhibiting 7 different sequences including 1 dominant, 1-6-cyclo-CHKLRCDKAIA. Three phage clones had the capacity to inhibit human IgE binding and induced IgG to the HMW antigen when used for immunizing BALB/c mice. The induced BIP3-mimotope IgG reached titers of 1:500 specifically to Api g 5, but hardly reacted to glycoprotein HRP, revealing a minor role of carbohydrates in their epitope. Conclusions The mimotopes characterized in this study mimic the epitope of BIP3 relevant for Api g 5, one of the cross-reactive HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome. BIP3 mimotopes may be used in the future for hyposensitization in this clinical syndrome by virtue of good and specific immunogenicity. PMID:26739405

  17. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production.

  18. [Outdoor and indoor allergens and the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macán, B; Macan, J; Plavec, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of common outdoor and indoor allergens which cause sensitisation of the respiratory tract and considers relevant biological and ecological hallmarks and symptoms of allergies. Grass, tree, and weed pollens as well as moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria species) are a major source of allergens in the outdoor environment whereas mites (Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae), animals (pets, rodents, and insects), and moulds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor species) are a major source in the indoor environment. The paper pays attention to the seasonal, geographical, and climatic influence on the concentration of allergen in the environment. The authors discuss differences between exposure to outdoor and indoor allergens, as well as the impact of pollutants on sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The paper proceeds with a short description of the primary prevention measures such as avoidance of the allergens and the secondary measures which are intended to prevent the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory symptoms in sensitised persons.

  19. Paprika rhinoconjunctivitis case reveals new occupational Capsicum allergens.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Liisa; Riekki, Riitta; Vuokko, Aki; Puustinen, Anne

    2015-07-01

    No allergens related to paprika or cayenne respiratory allergy have been identified thus far. We describe a previously healthy 28-year woman who developed work-related rhinoconjunctivitis after four years of kebab-restaurant work. The allergy was studied using skin prick tests, serum specific IgE and nasal provocation tests. Specific IgE protein reactions were studied by Western blot analysis. Paprika, cayenne and curry allergens were identified from the strongest immunoblot bands using tandem mass spectrometry. A positive skin prick test, high specific IgE and positive nasal provocation test confirmed occupational rhinoconjunctivitis from Capsicum spices. Defensin J1 and Vicilin were identified as major paprika and cayenne allergens in this case. Vicilin was detected also from the curry ingredients. Two new occupational respiratory allergens from the Capsicum species were identified. These differ from previously reported bell pepper allergens. We emphasize that substantial spice handling at work poses an allergy risk.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  1. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  2. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  3. Analysis of T cell responses to the major allergens from German cockroach: epitope specificity and relationship to IgE production.

    PubMed

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Tripple, Victoria; Grey, Howard; Wood, Robert; Broide, David H; Greenbaum, Jason; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Pomés, Anna; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-07-15

    Bla g allergens are major targets of IgE responses associated with cockroach allergies. However, little is known about corresponding T cell responses, despite their potential involvement in immunopathology and the clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy. Bioinformatic predictions of the capacity of Bla g 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 peptides to bind HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ molecules, and PBMC responses from 30 allergic donors, identified 25 T cell epitopes. Five immunodominant epitopes accounted for more than half of the response. Bla g 5, the most dominant allergen, accounted for 65% of the response, and Bla g 6 accounted for 20%. Bla g 5 induced both IL-5 and IFN-γ responses, whereas Bla g 6 induced mostly IL-5, and, conversely, Bla g 2 induced only IFN-γ. Thus, responses to allergens within a source are independently regulated, suggesting a critical role for the allergen itself, and not extraneous stimulation from other allergens or copresented immunomodulators. In comparing Ab with T cell responses for several donor/allergen combinations, we detected IgE titers in the absence of detectable T cell responses, suggesting that unlinked T cell-B cell help might support development of IgE responses. Finally, specific immunotherapy resulted in IL-5 down modulation, which was not associated with development of IFN-γ or IL-10 responses to any of the Bla g-derived peptides. In summary, the characteristics of T cell responses to Bla g allergens appear uncorrelated with IgE responses. Monitoring these responses may therefore yield important information relevant to understanding cockroach allergies and their treatment.

  4. Inhibition of an Allergen–Antibody Reaction Related to Japanese Cedar Pollinosis Using DNA Aptamers Against the Cry j 2 Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Kazumasa; Savory, Nasa; Abe, Koichi; Yoshida, Wataru; Arakawa, Mitsuru; Asahi, Masahiko; Kamohara, Seika

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis is one of the most prevalent allergies in Japan. Reducing the allergen content of pollen plays a major role in the alleviation of allergy symptoms. Aptamers, oligonucleotides with an affinity for specific molecules, have great potential for reducing allergic activity. In this study, we report that the anti-Cry j 2 aptamers, CJ2-04 and CJ2-08, inhibited allergen–antibody reactions between Cry j 2, one of the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen, and immunoglobulin E in serum collected from a patient with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, the suppression of Ca2+ mobilization in basophils, which is related to degranulation, was observed in samples preincubated with either of these DNA aptamers. This study indicates that anti-Cry j 2 aptamers may inhibit allergen–antibody reactions and suppress the induction of Japanese cedar pollinosis, possibly leading to a novel external defense against this and other types of allergens. PMID:26484654

  5. Making peanut allergens indigestible: a model system for reducing or preventing an allergic reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens are not totally resistant to digestion as previously known. Creating peanut allergen conjugates that are more resistant to digestion may prevent absorption of the allergens into the bloodstream, and thereby, an allergic reaction. Peanut allergen conjugates were prepared by covalen...

  6. Non-allergenic native and cultivated plants in Oklahoma: landscaping without hay fever.

    PubMed

    Levetin, E; Buck, P

    1984-03-01

    Many common landscaping plants produce allergenic pollen. Hay fever patients can reduce their exposure to aeroallergens by selecting non-allergenic species for yards, lawns and streets. The plants listed here are non-allergenic (hypo-allergenic) and possess characteristics desired for landscaping. Categories described include trees, shrubs, vines, perennial herbs and grasses.

  7. COMPARISON OF SUBCUTANEOUS AND ORAL ROUTES OF EXPOSURE FOR EVALUATING ALLERGENICITY OF FOOD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the potential for food allergenicity of any given protein is limited by the lack of an appropriate animal model. In this study we examined the intrinsic allergenicity of foods known to be allergenic (peanut, egg) or non-allergenic (spinach) by exposing mice either s...

  8. Vaccine development for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant allergens and synthetic allergen peptides: Lessons from the past and novel mechanisms of action for the future.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Niederberger, Verena

    2016-02-01

    In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the characteristics of recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that have reached clinical evaluation and discuss how molecular vaccine approaches can make AIT more safe and effective and thus more convenient. Furthermore, we discuss how new technologies can facilitate the reproducible manufacturing of vaccines of pharmaceutical grade for inhalant, food, and venom allergens. Allergy vaccines in clinical trials based on recombinant allergens, recombinant allergen derivatives, and synthetic peptides allow us to target selectively different immune mechanisms, and certain of those show features that might make them applicable not only for therapeutic but also for prophylactic vaccination.

  9. Expression of surface markers on the blood cells during the delayed asthmatic response to allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bronchial asthma develop various types of asthmatic response to bronchial challenge with allergen, such as immediate/early asthmatic response (IAR), late asthmatic response (LAR) or delayed asthmatic response (DYAR), because of different immunologic mechanisms. The DYAR, occurring between 24 and 56 hours after the bronchial allergen challenge (p < 0.01), differs from IAR and LAR in clinical as well as immunologic features. This study investigates the expression of CD molecules (markers) on the surface of particular cell populations in the peripheral blood and their changes during the DYAR. In 17 patients developing the DYAR (p < 0.01), the bronchial challenge with allergen was repeated 2–6 weeks later. The repeated DYAR (p < 0.001) was combined with recording of CD molecule expression on various types of blood cells by means of flow cytometry up to 72 hours after the challenge. The results were expressed in percent of the mean relative fluorescence intensity. The DYAR was accompanied by (a) increased expression of CD11b, CD11b/18, CD16,CD32, CD35, CD62E, CD62L, CD64, and CD66b on neutrophils; CD203C on basophils; CD25 and CD62L on eosinophils; CD14, CD16, CD64, and CD86 on monocytes; CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11a, CD18, and CD69 on lymphocytes; CD16, CD56, CD57, and CD94 on natural killer (NK) cells; and CD31, CD41, CD61, CD62P, and CD63 on thrombocytes and (b) decreased expression of CD18 and CD62L on eosinophils, CD15 on neutrophils, and CD40 on lymphocytes. These results suggest involvement of cell-mediated hypersensitivity mechanism, on participation of Th1- lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, NK cells, and thrombocytes in the DYAR. PMID:24988283

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  11. Structural insights into the IgE mediated responses induced by the allergens Hev b 8 and Zea m 12 in their dimeric forms

    PubMed Central

    Mares-Mejía, Israel; Martínez-Caballero, Siseth; Garay-Canales, Claudia; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Lara-González, Samuel; Ortega, Enrique; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of allergens plays an important role in IgE-mediated reactions, as effective crosslinking of IgE- FcεRI complexes on the cell membrane is dependent on the number of exposed B-cell epitopes in a single allergen molecule or on the occurrence of identical epitopes in a symmetrical arrangement. Few studies have attempted to experimentally demonstrate the connection between allergen dimerization and the ability to trigger allergic reactions. Here we studied plant allergenic profilins rHev b 8 (rubber tree) and rZea m 12 (maize) because they represent an important example of cross-reactivity in the latex-pollen-food syndrome. Both allergens in their monomeric and dimeric states were isolated and characterized by exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry and were used in immunological in vitro experiments. Their crystal structures were solved, and for Hev b 8 a disulfide-linked homodimer was found. Comparing the structures we established that the longest loop is relevant for recognition by IgE antibodies, whereas the conserved regions are important for cross-reactivity. We produced a novel monoclonal murine IgE (mAb 2F5), specific for rHev b 8, which was useful to provide evidence that profilin dimerization considerably increases the IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. PMID:27586352

  12. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  13. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  14. Novel Approaches and Perspectives in Allergen Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Valovirta, Erkka; Pfaar, Oliver; Moingeon, Philippe; Schmid, Johannes Martin; Skaarup, Søren Helbo; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Simonsen, Kim; Larche, Mark; Durham, Stephen R; Sørensen, Poul

    2017-01-25

    In this review we report on relevant current topics in allergen immunotherapy (AIT) which were broadly discussed during the 1(st) Aarhus Immunotherapy Symposium (Aarhus, Denmark) in December, 2015 by leading clinicians, scientists and industry representatives in the field. The aim of this symposium was to highlight AIT-related aspects of public health, clinical efficacy evaluation, mechanisms, development of new biomarkers and an overview of novel therapeutic approaches. Allergy is a public health issue of high socioeconomic relevance, and development of evidence-based action plans to address allergy as a public health issue ought to be on national and regional agendae. The underlying mechanisms are in the focus of current research that lays the ground for innovative therapies. Standardization and harmonization of clinical endpoints in AIT trials as well as current knowledge about potential biomarkers have substantiated proof of effectiveness of this disease-modifying therapeutic option. Novel treatments like peptide immunotherapy, intralymphatic immunotherapy and use of recombinant allergens herald a new age in which AIT may address treatment of allergy as a public health issue by reaching a large fraction of patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors influencing the prescription of allergen immunotherapy: the allergen immunotherapy decision analysis (AIDA) study.

    PubMed

    Frati, F; Incorvaia, C; Cadario, G; Fiocchi, A; Senna, G E; Rossi, O; Romano, A; Scala, E; Romano, C; Ingrassia, A; Zambito, M; Dell'albani, I; Scurati, S; Passalacqua, G; Canonica, G W

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for respiratory allergy has been demonstrated by a number of meta-analyses. However, the daily practice of AIT is quite different from controlled trials, facing challenges in terms of selection of patients, practical performance, and, of particular importance, use of allergen extracts of inadequate quality. We here performed a survey, named the Allergen Immunotherapy Decision Analysis (AIDA), to evaluate which criteria are used by specialists to choose a product for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with respiratory allergy. A questionnaire composed of 14 items to be ranked by each participant according to the importance attributed when choosing SLIT products was submitted to 444 Italian specialists. The responses of the 169 (38.1%) physicians, who answered all questions, were analysed. Most of the respondents were allergists (79%), followed by pulmonologists (10.8%), both allergists and pulmonologists (4.8%), and otorhinolaryngologists (3%); 59.8% of the respondents were males and 40.2% were females. The age distribution showed that 89.9% of the respondents were aged between 35 and 64 years. All respondents usually prescribed AIT products in their clinical practice: 31.4% used only SLIT, whereas 69.2% used both subcutaneous and sublingual administration. The rankings, expressed as means, attributed by physicians for each of the 14 items were as follows: level of evidence-based medicine (EBM ) validation of efficacy (3.44), level of EBM validation of safety (4.30), standardization of the product (5.37), efficacy based on personal experience (5.82), defined content(s) of the major allergen(s) in micrograms (5.96), scientific evidence for each single allergen (6.17), safety based on personal experience (6.32), ease of administration protocol (8.08), cost and terms of payment (e.g. instalments) (9.17), dose personalization (9.24), patient preference (9.25), ease of product storage (9.93), reimbursement

  16. Can pan-allergens affect the sensitization pattern?

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Comite, Paola; Bruzzone, Marco; Fontana, Vincenzo

    2017-01-28

    The present study tested the hypothesis that a pan-allergen sensitization may affect the sensitization pattern. For this reason, 22 sensitization pattern allergens (SPA), common in Genoa (Italy), were selected for analyses. Successively, five of them, such as Pru p 3 as representative for LTP family, Bet v 1 and Pru p 1 for PR-10, and Bet v 2 and Pru p 4 for Profilin, were used as target allergens (TA). This retrospective study included 1059 subjects, (396 males and 663 females, mean age 42.8 years). The current study showed that sensitization to a pan-allergen entails higher odds to have other sensitizations. In addition, the co-sensitization pattern depends on the basis of the sensitizing pan-allergen family. LTP-sensitization is strongly associated with peanut sensitization, PR10 and profiling sensitization with hazelnut positivity. This study shows that a pan-allergen sensitization is frequently associated with co-sensitizations and the sensitization pattern depends on the sensitizing pan-allergen.

  17. Seed-based oral vaccines as allergen-specific immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-based vaccines have advantages over conventional vaccines in terms of scalability, lack of requirement for cold chain logistics, stability, safety, cost-effectiveness and needle-free administration. In particular, when antigen is expressed in seeds, high production is possible and immunogenicity is not lost even if stocked at ambient temperature for several years. Induction of immune tolerance (desensitization) to allergen is a principle strategy for controlling allergic diseases, and is generally carried out by subcutaneous injection. Seed-based oral administration offers a straightforward and inexpensive alternative approach to deliver vaccines effectively to the GALT without loss of activity. Consumption of transgenic seeds containing modified hypo-allergenic tolerogen or T-cell epitope peptides derived from allergens has no or very few severe side effects and can induce immune tolerance leading to reduction of allergen-specific IgE production, T-cell proliferation and release of histamine. Suppression of allergen-specific clinical symptoms results. Thus, seed-based allergy vaccines offer an innovative and convenient allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approach as an alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  18. [Hidden allergens in processed food. The consumer perspective].

    PubMed

    Schnadt, S

    2012-03-01

    Despite improved allergen-labeling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food are a substantial risk for unintended reactions in food allergy sufferers. Unpublished data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) show that 85% of 738 questioned food allergic patients have experienced at least one allergic reaction from each prepacked products as well as food sold loose. Almost half of the participants said to have not received information of a food allergen as an ingredient or possible trace on the label. Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens can be hidden in processed products, like incomprehensible labeling, labeling gaps, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as cross contaminations or allergens in loose products. To each of the seven highlighted sources of hidden allergens in food, practical examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation from consumer view. The aim is to indicate possibilities and measures for politics and industry by which allergic consumers and their social circle are able to make an informed choice concerning the safe consumption of a certain product and to protect themselves from unintentional reactions.

  19. Walnut allergens: molecular characterization, detection and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, J; Carrapatoso, I; Oliveira, M B P P; Mafra, I

    2014-03-01

    Food-induced allergies have been regarded as an emergent problem of public health. Classified as important allergenic ingredients, the presence of walnut and other nuts as hidden allergens in processed foods constitutes a risk for sensitized individuals, being a real problem of allergen management. Attending to the increasing importance dedicated to walnut allergy, this review intends to provide the relevant and up-to-date information on main issues such as the prevalence of walnut allergy, the clinical threshold levels, the molecular characterization of walnut allergens and their clinical relevance, as well as the methodologies for walnut allergen detection in foods. As the walnut used in human diet comes from Juglans regia and Juglans nigra, the molecular characterization of the allergens from both species included in the prolamins (Jug r 1, Jug n 1 and Jug r 3), cupins (Jug r 2, Jug n 2 and Jug r 4) and profilins (Jug r 5), together with respective clinical relevance, were compiled in this review. The most recent progresses on walnut allergen detection techniques (protein- and DNA-based) are described and critically compared, including the emergent multitarget approaches.

  20. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor Act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Milica M; Milovanovic, Mina; Burazer, Lidija; Vuckovic, Olga; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Knulst, Andre C; Lindner, Buko; Petersen, Arnd; Jankov, Ratko; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Kiwifruit has become a frequent cause of fruit allergy in the recent years. The molecular basis of type I hypersensitivity to kiwifruit is attributed to 11 IUIS allergens, with Act d 1, Act d 2 and Act d 5 characterized in extenso. Evaluation of the allergenic properties of Act d 4, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) was performed in this study. Identity of the purified glycoprotein was determined by Edman degradation and by mass fingerprint whereby more than 90% of the primary structure of the mature kiwifruit cystatin was confirmed. Using MALDI TOF analysis, molecular masses of 10902.5 and 11055.2 Da were detected for Act d 4, respectively. Positive skin prick reactivity with Act d 4 was induced in three kiwifruit allergic patients, as well as the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c molecules in the basophile activation assay. The IgE reactivity was detected in dot blot analysis while Western blot analysis was negative using sera from six kiwifruit patients, suggesting the presence of conformational IgE epitopes on the Act d 4 molecule. As activator of effector cells in type I hypersensitivity Act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.

  1. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lesa R; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-07-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. Accession numbers: The atomic coordinates and the structure factors have been deposited to the Protein Data Band under accession codes: 4N7C for native Bla g 4 and 4N7D for the Se-Met Bla g 4 structure.

  2. Sublingual vaccines based on wild-type recombinant allergens.

    PubMed

    Van Overtvelt, L; Razafindratsita, A; St-Lu, N; Didierlaurent, A; Batard, Th; Lombardi, V; Martin, E; Moingeon, Ph

    2006-09-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents a non invasive alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy in order to treat type I allergies. Vaccines based on recombinant allergens expressed in a native (i.e. wild-type) configuration, formulated with ad hoc adjuvants designed to target Langerhans cells in the sublingual mucosa should allow to induce allergen-specific regulatory T cells. In this context, we have developed animal and human preclinical models to test the capacity of candidate vaccines to modulate selectively allergen-specific T helper lymphocyte polarization following sublingual vaccination.

  3. Allergen immunotherapy, routes of administration and cytokine networks: an update.

    PubMed

    Cuppari, Caterina; Leonardi, Salvatore; Manti, Sara; Filippelli, Martina; Alterio, Tommaso; Spicuzza, Lucia; Rigoli, Luciana; Arrigo, Teresa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Salpietro, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a disease-modifying therapy, effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis or stinging insect allergy. Allergen immunotherapy involves the administration of increasing doses of allergens with the aim of ameliorating the allergic response. Although precise underlying mechanisms of the induction of immune tolerance remain unclear, immunotherapy has been associated with the induction of distinct subsets of Tregs that eventually lead to peripheral tolerance by inducing a deviation from Th2 to Th1 immune responses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms of immunotherapy in relationship to different routes of administration and also provides a unifying view.

  4. Oral administration of allergen extracts from Dermatophagoides farinae desensitizes specific allergen-induced inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiang-min; Wu, Ximei; Wu, Hui-min; Deng, Yang-mei; Zhang, Shui-juan; Zhu, Jian-ping; Dong, Xin-wei

    2008-12-10

    Clinically sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) by using allergen extracts effectively alleviates the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Supposed that oral administration of high-dose of allergen extracts imitates SLIT and may prevent IgE-related responses in allergic diseases, we investigated the effects of oral administration of allergen extracts from Dermatophagoides farinae (Derf) on allergen-induced inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a model of asthmatic rat. After administration to the specific Derf-sensitized rats with Derfdrop solution containing Derf1 and Derf2 extracts derived from Derf, the effects of Derfdrop on AHR, inflammatory cell accumulation, cytokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue, as well as serum IgE and IgG levels were investigated. Results indicated that Derfdrop not only dose-dependently prevented the AHR in response to methacholine, but also significantly reduced the serum total and allergen-specific IgE levels, all the maximal effects were achieved at dose of 5 mg/kg/d, and were as comparable as those of dexamethasone at dose of 1.0 mg/kg/d. Furthermore, oral administration of Derfdrop not only dose-dependently elevated allergen-specific serum IgG levels and reduced total and allergen-specific IgE levels, but also normalized the imbalance between the Th1 cytokine, IFN-gamma and Th2 cytokine, IL-4. Finally, oral administration of Derfdrop significantly reduced Goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophilia in the Derf-sensitized allergic rat model. These data suggest that Derfdrop effectively improves specific allergen-induced inflammation and AHR in Derf-sensitized and -challenged rats and provide with the rationale for clinical SLIT by using Derfdrop in a specific allergen-induced asthma.

  5. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  6. Modeling Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.

  7. Mobius Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses formation of chemical molecules via Mobius strip intermediates, and concludes that many special physics-chemical properties of the fully closed circular form (1) of polyoma DNA are explainable by this topological feature. (CC)

  8. Cloning and characterization of an 11S legumin, Car i 4, a major allergen in pecan.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Irsigler, Andre; Dhanarajan, Pushparani; Ayuso, Rosalia; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-09-14

    Among tree nut allergens, pecan allergens remain to be identified and characterized. The objective was to demonstrate the IgE-binding ability of pecan 11S legumin and characterize its sequential IgE-binding epitopes. The 11S legumin gene was amplified from a pecan cDNA library and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The native 11S legumin in pecan extract was identified by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Sequential epitopes were determined by probing the overlapping peptides with three serum pools prepared from different patients' sera. A three-dimensional model was generated using almond legumin as a template and compared with known sequential epitopes on other allergenic tree nut homologues. Of 28 patients tested by dot blot, 16 (57%) bound to 11S legumin, designated Car i 4. MS/MS sequencing of native 11S legumin identified 33 kDa acidic and 20-22 kDa basic subunits. Both pecan and walnut seed protein extracts inhibited IgE binding to recombinant Car i 4, suggesting cross-reactivity with Jug r 4. Sequential epitope mapping results of Car i 4 revealed weak, moderate, and strong reactivity of serum pools against 10, 5, and 4 peptides, respectively. Seven peptides were recognized by all three serum pools, of which two were strongly reactive. The strongly reactive peptides were located in three discrete regions of the Car i 4 acidic subunit sequence (residues 118-132, 208-219, and 238-249). Homology modeling of Car i 4 revealed significant overlapping regions shared in common with other tree nut legumins.

  9. Enumerating molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  10. Nucleic Acids as Information Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that aims at enabling students to recognize that DNA and RNA are information molecules whose function is to store, copy, and make available the information in biological systems, without feeling overwhelmed by the specialized vocabulary and the minutia of the central dogma. (JRH)

  11. Cross-Reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni Antigens and the Latex Allergen Hev b 7: Putative Implication of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants (CCDs)

    PubMed Central

    Doenhoff, Michael J.; El-Faham, Marwa; Liddell, Susan; Fuller, Heidi R.; Stanley, Ronald G.; Schramm, Gabriele; Igetei, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    IgG antibodies produced by rabbits immunized against S. mansoni antigens cross-reacted with aqueous soluble constituents of a variety of allergens. The antibody cross-reactivity was largely sensitive to degradation by treatment of the target antigens with sodium meta-periodate, suggesting the cross-reactivity was due to carbohydrate determinants that were common to both the schistosome and the allergens (CCDs). The reaction between the rabbit antibodies and a 43 kDa molecule in a rubber latex extract was analysed further: tandem mass spectrometry identified the latex molecule as allergen Hev b 7. Rabbit anti-schistosome IgG antibodies purified by acid-elution from solid-phase latex Hev b 7 reacted with the S. mansoni egg antigens IPSE/alpha-1 and kappa-5 and cercarial antigens SPO-1 and a fatty acid-binding protein. Moreover, purified anti-S. mansoni egg, latex cross-reactive antibodies reacted with antigenic constituents of some fruits, a result of potential relevance to the latex-fruit syndrome of allergic reactions. We propose that IgG anti-schistosome antibodies that cross-react with allergens may be able to block IgE-induced allergic reactions and thus provide a possible explanation for the hygiene hypothesis. PMID:27467385

  12. Biomarkers for Allergen Immunotherapy: A "Panoromic" View.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Biomarkers (BMKs) are biological parameters that can be measured to predict or monitor disease severity or treatment efficacy. The induction of regulatory dendritic cells (DCs) concomitantly with a downregulation of proallergic DC2s (ie, DCs supporting the differentiation of T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells) in the blood of patients allergic to grass pollen has been correlated with the early onset of allergen immunotherapy efficacy. The combined use of omics technologies to compare biological samples from clinical responders and nonresponders is being implemented in the context of nonhypothesis-driven approaches. Such comprehensive "panoromic" strategies help identify completely novel candidate BMKs, to be subsequently validated as companion diagnostics in large-scale clinical trials.

  13. Thresholds of allergenic proteins in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B. . E-mail: J.Hourihane@soton.ac.uk; Knulst, Andre C.

    2005-09-01

    Threshold doses or Estimated Eliciting Doses (EEDs) represent an important new field of research in food allergy. Clinicians and regulators have embraced some toxicological concepts such as LOAEL and NOAEL and applied them to an area of significant clinical uncertainty and interest. The impact of intrinsic human factors (e.g., asthma and exercise) and extrinsic event factors (e.g., season, location and especially dose of allergen) on a future allergic reaction in the community needs to be considered carefully when interpreting results of clinical and research low-dose food challenges. The ongoing cooperation of food allergy research groups in medicine, food science and government will surely deliver results of the highest importance to the wider communities of allergology, food science and technology and the increasing number of allergic consumers.

  14. Structure of allergens and structure based epitope predictions☆

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Antonia, Fabio; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Zangger, Klaus; Keller, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The structure determination of major allergens is a prerequisite for analyzing surface exposed areas of the allergen and for mapping conformational epitopes. These may be determined by experimental methods including crystallographic and NMR-based approaches or predicted by computational methods. In this review we summarize the existing structural information on allergens and their classification in protein fold families. The currently available allergen-antibody complexes are described and the experimentally obtained epitopes compared. Furthermore we discuss established methods for linear and conformational epitope mapping, putting special emphasis on a recently developed approach, which uses the structural similarity of proteins in combination with the experimental cross-reactivity data for epitope prediction. PMID:23891546

  15. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  16. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  17. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  18. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  19. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  20. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture... requirement. Neither horse protein nor any allergenic derivative of horse protein shall be used in...

  1. Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on The Cheap

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163963.html Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on the Cheap Do-it- ... pest management may not be needed to control asthma in kids with a mouse allergy, researchers say. ...

  2. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  3. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  4. Vitrification: Machines learn to recognize glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of a viscous liquid undergo a dramatic slowdown when it is cooled to form a solid glass. Recognizing the structural changes across such a transition remains a major challenge. Machine-learning methods, similar to those Facebook uses to recognize groups of friends, have now been applied to this problem.

  5. MALDI based identification of soybean protein markers--possible analytical targets for allergen detection in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devreese, Bart

    2012-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is extensively used all over the world due to its nutritional qualities. However, soybean is included in the "big eight" list of food allergens. According to the EU directive 2007/68/EC, food products containing soybeans have to be labeled in order to protect the allergic consumers. Nevertheless, soybeans can still inadvertently be present in food products. The development of analytical methods for the detection of traces of allergens is important for the protection of allergic consumers. Mass spectrometry of marker proteolytical fragments of protein allergens is growingly recognized as a detection method in food control. However, quantification of soybean at the peptide level is hindered due to limited information regarding specific stable markers derived after proteolytic digestion. The aim of this study was to use MALDI-TOF/MS and MS/MS as a fast screening tool for the identification of stable soybean derived tryptic markers which were still identifiable even if the proteins were subjected to various changes at the molecular level through a number of reactions typically occurring during food processing (denaturation, the Maillard reaction and oxidation). The peptides (401)Val-Arg(410) from the G1 glycinin (Gly m 6) and the (518)Gln-Arg(528) from the α' chain of the β-conglycinin (Gly m 5) proved to be the most stable. These peptides hold potential to be used as targets for the development of new analytical methods for the detection of soybean protein traces in processed foods.

  6. Sensitization to food and airborne allergens in children with atopic dermatitis followed up to 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Dan; Sjöberg, Olof; Foucard, Tony

    2003-12-01

    Previously we investigated the eczema prognosis and the risk of developing allergic asthma and rhinitis in a cohort of 94 children with atopic dermatitis. In this second study on the same cohort we address the development of sensitization to foods and airborne allergens, risk factors and, the question whether children with atopic dermatitis who will not become sensitized can be recognized early. Children with atopic dermatitis were followed up regularly from infancy or early childhood to 7 years of age with clinical examination and blood sampling. After age 3, skin prick tests with inhalation allergens were performed yearly. In most children both clinical allergy and sensitization to egg and milk were transient but those to peanut were persistent. Eighty per cent of the children became sensitized to airborne allergens and 75% of them noticed symptoms when exposed. Heredity for atopy and eczema, sensitization to hen's egg, and early onset of eczema entailed an increased risk of becoming sensitized. Children never sensitized had late onset of eczema and less heredity for atopic disease but did not differ in other respects from the sensitized children.

  7. Hazelnut Allergens: Molecular Characterization, Detection, and Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Carrapatoso, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2016-11-17

    In last few years, special attention has been given to food-induced allergies, in which hazelnut allergy is highlighted. Hazelnut is one of the most commonly consumed tree nuts, being largely used by the food industry in a variety of processed foods. It has been regarded as a food with potential health benefits, but also as a source of allergens capable of inducing mild to severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. Considering the great number of reports addressing hazelnut allergens, with an estimated increasing trend, this review intends to assemble all the relevant information available so far on the following main issues: prevalence of tree nut allergy, clinical threshold levels, molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens (Cor a 1, Cor a 2, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, Cor a 10, Cor a 11, Cor a 12, Cor a 14, and Cor a TLP) and their clinical relevance, and methodologies for detection of hazelnut allergens in foods. A comprehensive overview of the current data about the molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens is presented, relating to biochemical classification and biological function with clinical importance. Recent advances in hazelnut allergen detection methodologies are summarized and compared, including all the novel protein-based and DNA-based approaches.

  8. A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Wong, Justin; Khodadadi, Delaram; Nagi, Richie; Tey, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-02-21

    We demonstrate a personalized food allergen testing platform, termed iTube, running on a cellphone that images and automatically analyses colorimetric assays performed in test tubes toward sensitive and specific detection of allergens in food samples. This cost-effective and compact iTube attachment, weighing approximately 40 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where the test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are vertically illuminated by two separate light-emitting-diodes. The illumination light is absorbed by the allergen assay, which is activated within the tubes, causing an intensity change in the acquired images by the cellphone camera. These transmission images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within 1 s using a smart application running on the same cellphone for detection and quantification of allergen contamination in food products. We evaluated the performance of this cellphone-based iTube platform using different types of commercially available cookies, where the existence of peanuts was accurately quantified after a sample preparation and incubation time of ~20 min per test. This automated and cost-effective personalized food allergen testing tool running on cellphones can also permit uploading of test results to secure servers to create personal and/or public spatio-temporal allergen maps, which can be useful for public health in various settings.

  9. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309

  10. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  11. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  12. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    PubMed

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  13. Endogenous allergens in the regulatory assessment of genetically engineered crops.

    PubMed

    Graf, Lynda; Hayder, Hikmat; Mueller, Utz

    2014-11-01

    A scientific approach to the assessment of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) crops is critical to maintaining objectivity and public confidence in regulatory decisions. Principles developed at the international level support regulators and enable robust and transparent safety assessments. A comparison of key constituents in the GE crop with a suitable comparator is an important element of an assessment. In Europe, endogenous allergens would be included in the comparative analysis, however this approach has been hindered by technical limitations on the ability to accurately measure identified allergenic proteins. Over recent years, improved proteomic methods have enabled researchers to focus on major allergenic proteins in conventional food crops, as information on natural variability is largely lacking. Emerging data for soybean indicate that variability in levels of major allergens already in the food supply is broad. This raises questions about the biological interpretation of differences between a GE plant and its conventional counterpart, in particular, whether any conclusions about altered allergenicity could be inferred. This paper discusses the scientific justification for requiring proteomic analysis of endogenous allergens as part of the evaluation. Ongoing scientific review and corresponding international discussion are integral to ensuring that data requirements address legitimate risk assessment questions.

  14. [Evaluation of specific activity of preparations of allergens from synanthropic insects].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Radikova, O V; Khlgatian, S V; Berzhets, A I; Kropotova, I S

    2006-01-01

    Physical, chemical and immunobiological characteristics of allergens from synanthropic insects were studied by tests for anaphylaxis, indirect degranulation of mast cells test and ELISA. Sera from 20 patients with severe and intermediate atopic asthma with sensiblization to common allergens have been studied. All extracts of allergens from synanthropic insects (german cockroach, oriental cockroach, american cockroach, speckled feeder cockroach, cricket, common house fly, brown house moth, confused flour beetle, rice weevil, grain weevil) have specific activity. Extracts of allergens from common house fly, brown house moth, german cockroach and oriental cockroach had the strongest allergenic activity as measured by ELISA. Obtained allergens can be used for insect allergy diagnostics.

  15. Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

  16. Blomia tropicalis Blo t 5 and Blo t 21 recombinant allergens might confer higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than whole mite extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blomia tropicalis is a dust mite and an important source of allergens in tropical regions. Up to now, the assays to diagnose atopy to this mite use whole body extract as antigens. However, anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies cross-react with Ascaris lumbricoides antigens, hindering the diagnosis of allergy to this mite. In this study, B. tropicalis recombinant allergens were evaluated with the purpose of developing an immunodiagnostic assay for allergy to this mite with greater specificity than those commercially available. Methods Two B. tropicalis allergens (Blo t 5 and Blo t 21) were cloned into a plasmidial expression vector, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Sixty-three sera containing anti-B. tropicalis extract (BtE) IgE antibodies were used to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Blot 5 and 21 allergens. Inhibition assays with 20 sera pre-adsorbed with A. lumbricoides extract were performed using rBlo t 5, rBlo t 21, and BtE as antigens. All the assays were carried using indirect ELISA. Results Eighty-two point nine percent and 80.0% of the sera with anti-BtE antibodies from 35 children reacted with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21, respectively, whereas 92.8% and 89.3% of the 28 sera with anti-BtE antibodies from adult asthma patients reacted with the same allergens, and 96.4% of these sera reacted with a mixture of rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21. In an inhibition ELISA, the absorption of sera by A. lumbricoides extract affected less the reaction with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 than with BtE. Conclusions The rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 allergens contain important epitopes recognized by IgE antibodies of individuals allergic to B. tropicalis antigens. Moreover, the assays using the recombinant allergens had lower IgE cross-reactivity with A. lumbricoides antigens, a fact which would confers higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than the crude mite extract. However, additional recombinant allergens should be evaluated in

  17. Self-Amplified Optical Pattern Recognizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1993-01-01

    Self-amplified optical pattern recognizers developed for use in recognition of patterns, in optical computing, and in optoelectronic neural networks. In recognizer, photorefractive crystal serves as medium in which one holographically records diffraction-grating filter representing pattern with which recognition sought. Apparatus "self-amplified" because signal amplified within filter to many orders of magnitude greater than in prior optical pattern recognizers. Basic principle of operation applicable to many types of correlation filters, including (but not limited to) Vander Lugt matched filters, joint-transform filters, and phase-only filters.

  18. The structural requirements of epitopes with IgE binding capacity demonstrated by three major allergens from fish, egg and tree pollen.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, S; Apold, J; Holen, E; Vik, H; Florvaag, E; Dybendal, T

    1991-01-01

    be valuable in studies of T-cell recognition of protein antigens. Three analogous peptides of this region were prepared and clearly shown to be immunogenic in rabbits and to bind specific IgE from patients allergic to egg. OA 323-339 was concluded to encompass an allergenic and antigenic epitope which was recognized by human and rabbit B-lymphocytes. Eight peptides in the region 11-122 were similarly synthesized. A test battery was performed to study this region using rabbit polyclonal antibodies and human specific IgE. Some of these sites were involved in binding of particular Ig paratopes. Five immunogenic peptides from the major allergens of tree pollen extracts (segment 23-38), were synthesized. The selection of those peptides was setteled using two algorithms for providing the optimal hydrophobicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  19. Avoidance Behavior against Positive Allergens Detected with a Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Test Immunoblot Assay in Patients with Urticaria: Factors Associated with Avoidance Success/Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kwon, In Ho; Kim, Han Su; Kim, Heung Yeol; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Gyeong Hun; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Avoidance behavior against positive allergens detected by using multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST)-immunoblot assay in patients with urticaria has been rarely reported. Objective We aimed to assess the avoidance behavior of patients with urticaria against positive allergens detected with a MAST. Methods One hundred and one urticaria patients who showed positivity to at least one allergen on a MAST completed a questionnaire regarding their test results. The avoidance behavior of the patients was evaluated, and relevant determining factors of avoidance success/failure were statistically assessed. Results We detected 144 different data (n=51, food allergens; n=17, pollen allergens; and n=76, aeroallergens) from 101 patients with urticaria. The avoidance failure rates were 33.3% for food allergens, 70.6% for pollen allergens, and 30.3% for aeroallergens. The pollen group showed a significantly higher avoidance failure rate than the food and aeroallergen groups (p<0.05). The patients with higher educational levels or more severe urticaria tended to successfully avoid allergens (p<0.05). The monthly household income level and patients' reliability to the test showed borderline correlations (p=0.057 and p=0.075, respectively). Conclusion We believe that the results of this study could be helpful in predicting avoidance success or failure against allergens in patients with urticaria when clinicians conduct allergen-specific immunoglobulin E tests. PMID:26848222

  20. Social cognition: feeling voices to recognize emotions.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-12-21

    Our understanding of how we simulate other people's actions and feelings to recognize their emotional states is extended by a new study which finds that premotor and somatosensory cortices are required to process the emotional meaning of sounds.

  1. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  2. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  3. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  4. Placental immune response to apple allergen in allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Enke, Uta; Varosi, Frauke; Hoyer, Heike; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Jenmalm, Maria C; Markert, Udo R

    2014-12-01

    The immunological milieu in the placenta may be crucial for priming the developing foetal immune system. Early imbalances may promote the establishment of immune-mediated diseases in later life, including allergies. The initial exposure to allergens seems to occur in utero, but little is known about allergen-induced placental cytokine and chemokine release. The release of several cytokines and chemokines from placenta tissue after exposure to mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 or apple allergen in placentas from allergic and healthy mothers was to be analysed. Four placentas from women with apple allergy and three controls were applied in a placental perfusion model with two separate cotyledons simultaneously perfused with and without apple allergen (Mal d 1). Two control placentas were perfused with compound 48/80. In outflow, histamine was quantified spectrophotofluorometrically, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ by a cytometric multiplex bead array and IL-13 and CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22 with an in-house multiplex Luminex assay. Compound 48/80 induced a rapid release of histamine, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22, but not of the other factors. Apple allergen induced a time-dependent release of IL-6 and TNF, but not of histamine, in placentas of women with apple allergy compared with the unstimulated cotyledon. CCL17 levels were slightly increased after allergen stimulation in control placentas. Allergens can induce placental cytokines and chemokines distinctly in allergic and healthy mothers. These mediators may affect the prenatal development of the immune system and modify the risk of diseases related to immune disorders in childhood such as allergies.

  5. Chapter 3: Allergen immunotherapy: definition, indication, and reactions.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Mary S; Saltoun, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy is the administration of increasing amounts of specific allergens to which the patient has type I immediate hypersensitivity. It is a disease modifying therapy, indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and hymenoptera hypersensitivity. Specific IgE antibodies for appropriate allergens for immunotherapy must be documented. Indications for allergen immunotherapy include (1) inadequate symptom control despite pharmacotherapy and avoidance measures, (2) a desire to reduce the morbidity from allergic rhinitis and/or asthma or reduce the risk of anaphylaxis from a future insect sting, (3) when the patient experiences undesirable side effects from pharmacotherapy, and (4) when avoidance is not possible. Furthermore, patients may seek to benefit from economic savings of allergen immunotherapy compared with pharmacotherapy over time. Several studies have reported that immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis appears to prevent the development of new allergic sensitizations and/or new-onset asthma. Humoral, cellular, and tissue level changes occur with allergen immunotherapy including large increases in antiallergen IgG(4) antibodies, a decrease in the postseasonal rise of antiallergen IgE antibodies, reduced numbers of nasal mucosal mast cells and eosinophils, induction of Treg cells, and suppression of Th2 more than Th1 lymphocytes. There is a corresponding increase in IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta. In the United States, allergen immunotherapy is administered by the subcutaneous route in the physician's office, whereas primarily in some countries in Europe, it is administered for allergic rhinitis and asthma by the sublingual route by the patient at home.

  6. High-dose allergen exposure leads to tolerance.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A

    2005-02-01

    Reports of decreased sensitization to cat allergen (Fel d 1) among individuals living with a cat or subjects exposed to high-dose cat allergen may be explained by the development of a form of high-dose tolerance resulting from natural exposure to an inhalant allergen. Although the epidemiological data regarding the relationship between exposure and sensitization to Fel d 1 are conflicting, the ability for high-dose Fel d 1 to induce a characteristic nonallergic immune response with a distinctive serum antibody profile has been established. Definition of this modified T-helper (Th)2 response to cat allergen, coupled with the renewed interest in regulatory T cells within the immunology field, has provided an avenue for exploring the mechanism by which IgE antibody-mediated responses are controlled. There is mounting evidence to suggest that the modified Th2 response is a variation of the allergic response and that the modified Th2-allergic axis is influenced by allergen dose and genetics. This article discusses putative immune mechanisms of tolerance within the context of an allergen-specific system. The relevance of high-dose allergen exposure and alternate factors such as endotoxin to the development of tolerance is considered. Fel d 1 exhibits unique molecular and immunological characteristics that may contribute to its tolerogenic properties. Major T-cell epitopes of Fel d 1 that preferentially induce regulatory factors have been defined. Furthermore, high-titer IgE antibody responses associated with atopic dermatitis are characterized by a defect in the T-cell repertoire that is specific to these epitopes. Identification of Fel d 1 epitopes that induce interleukin-10 may provide new targets for treatment.

  7. Ligand binding to an allergenic lipid transfer protein enhances conformational flexibility resulting in an increase in susceptibility to gastroduodenal proteolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E.; ...

    2016-07-26

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residuesmore » 39–40, 56–57 and 79–80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. As a result, such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs.« less

  8. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Mackie, Alan R.; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2016-07-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39–40, 56–57 and 79–80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs.

  9. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Mackie, Alan R.; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39–40, 56–57 and 79–80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs. PMID:27458082

  10. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E; Rigby, Neil M; Mackie, Alan R; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-07-26

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39-40, 56-57 and 79-80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs.

  11. Ligand binding to an allergenic lipid transfer protein enhances conformational flexibility resulting in an increase in susceptibility to gastroduodenal proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Mackie, Alan R.; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2016-07-26

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39–40, 56–57 and 79–80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. As a result, such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs.

  12. Allergenic characterization of new mutant forms of Pru p 3 as new immunotherapy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, C; Garrido-Arandia, M; Gamboa, P; Blanca-López, N; Canto, G; Varela, J; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Pacios, L F; Díaz-Perales, A; Tordesillas, L

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, treatment of food allergy only considered the avoidance of the specific food. However, the possibility of cross-reactivity makes this practice not very effective. Immunotherapy may exhibit as a good alternative to food allergy treatment. The use of hypoallergenic molecules with reduced IgE binding capacity but with ability to stimulate the immune system is a promising tool which could be developed for immunotherapy. In this study, three mutants of Pru p 3, the principal allergen of peach, were produced based on the described mimotope and T cell epitopes, by changing the specific residues to alanine, named as Pru p 3.01, Pru p 3.02, and Pru p 3.03. Pru p 3.01 showed very similar allergenic activity as the wild type by in vitro assays. However, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 presented reduced IgE binding with respect to the native form, by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. In addition, Pru p 3.03 had affected the IgG4 binding capacity and presented a random circular dichroism, which was reflected in the nonrecognition by specific antibodies anti-Pru p 3. Nevertheless, both Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 maintained the binding to IgG1 and their ability to activate T lymphocytes. Thus, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 could be good candidates for potential immunotherapy in peach-allergic patients.

  13. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY.

  14. Allergen avoidance approaches in food allergy management.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Sibylle; Koletzko, Berthold

    2009-01-01

    Dietary elimination of causative food ingredients, usually food proteins, is the basis of treating food hypersensitivity. Proper diagnostic assessment is essential to avoid burdening children with unnecessary dietary restrictions with potential adverse effects. Diagnosis requires a detailed history, allergen elimination, and re-challenge with suspected foods. Complete elimination of causative food components depends on professional counseling and training of the patient and family, and transparent labeling of food products. Elimination diets carry the risk of inducing insufficient supplies of critical nutrients with adverse effects on health and wellbeing, particularly in children with exclusion of foods that provide a major part of dietary supply and patients with multiple food allergies. Infants and young children with cow's milk allergy, who have not been fully breastfed, require milk substitutes based on extensively hydrolyzed protein or amino acids. Elimination diets must be supervised and monitored to a similar degree as drug treatments, and the need for continued dietary elimination should be reviewed on a regular basis and re-challenges considered.

  15. IgE-Binding Epitope Mapping and Tissue Localization of the Major American Cockroach Allergen Per a 2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mey-Fann; Chang, Chia-Wei; Song, Pei-Pong; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Lin, Shyh-Jye

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cockroaches are the second leading allergen in Taiwan. Sensitization to Per a 2, the major American cockroach allergen, correlates with clinical severity among patients with airway allergy, but there is limited information on IgE epitopes and tissue localization of Per a 2. This study aimed to identify Per a 2 linear IgE-binding epitopes and its distribution in the body of a cockroach. Methods The cDNA of Per a 2 was used as a template and combined with oligonucleotide primers specific to the target areas with appropriate restriction enzyme sites. Eleven overlapping fragments of Per a 2 covering the whole allergen molecule, except 20 residues of signal peptide, were generated by PCR. Mature Per a 2 and overlapping deletion mutants were affinity-purified and assayed for IgE reactivity by immunoblotting. Three synthetic peptides comprising the B cell epitopes were evaluated by direct binding ELISA. Rabbit anti-Per a 2 antibody was used for immunohistochemistry. Results Human linear IgE-binding epitopes of Per a 2 were located at the amino acid sequences 57-86, 200-211, and 299-309. There was positive IgE binding to 10 tested Per a 2-allergic sera in 3 synthetic peptides, but none in the controls. Immunostaining revealed that Per a 2 was localized partly in the mouth and midgut of the cockroach, with the most intense staining observed in the hindgut, suggesting that the Per a 2 allergen might be excreted through the feces. Conclusions Information on the IgE-binding epitope of Per a 2 may be used for designing more specific diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cockroach allergy. PMID:25749772

  16. Molecule-hugging graphene nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Garaj, Slaven; Liu, Song; Golovchenko, Jene A.; Branton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that solid-state nanopores in single-atomic-layer graphene membranes can be used to electronically detect and characterize single long charged polymer molecules. We have now fabricated nanopores in single-layer graphene that are closely matched to the diameter of a double-stranded DNA molecule. Ionic current signals during electrophoretically driven translocation of DNA through these nanopores were experimentally explored and theoretically modeled. Our experiments show that these nanopores have unusually high sensitivity (0.65 nA/Å) to extremely small changes in the translocating molecule’s outer diameter. Such atomically short graphene nanopores can also resolve nanoscale-spaced molecular structures along the length of a polymer, but do so with greatest sensitivity only when the pore and molecule diameters are closely matched. Modeling confirms that our most closely matched pores have an inherent resolution of ≤0.6 nm along the length of the molecule. PMID:23836648

  17. Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT): a prototype of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Canonica, G W; Bachert, C; Hellings, P; Ryan, D; Valovirta, E; Wickman, M; De Beaumont, O; Bousquet, J

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine is a medical model aiming to deliver customised healthcare - with medical decisions, practices, and/or products tailored to the individual patient informed but not directed by guidelines. Allergen immunotherapy has unique immunological rationale, since the approach is tailored to the specific IgE spectrum of an individual and modifies the natural course of the disease as it has a persistent efficacy after completion of treatment. In this perspective Allergen Immunotherapy - AIT has to be presently considered a prototype of Precision Medicine. Precise information and biomarkers provided by systems medicine and network medicine will address the discovery of Allergen immunotherapy biomarkers for (i) identification of the causes, (ii) stratification of eligible patients for AIT and (iii) the assessment of AIT efficacy. This area of medical technology is evolving rapidly and, compelemented by e-health, will change the way we practice medicine. It will help to monitor patients' disease control and data for (i) patient stratification, (ii) clinical trials, (iii) monitoring the efficacy and safety of targeted therapies which are critical for reaching an appropriate reimbursement. Biomarkers associated with e-health combined with a clinical decision support system (CDSS) will change the scope of Allergen immunotherapy. The cost/effectiveness of Allergen immunotherapy is a key issue for successful implementation. It should include the long-term benefits in the pharmaco-economic evaluation, since no other allergy treatment has this specific characteristic. AIT is the prototype of current and future precision medicine.

  18. Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853

  19. Isolated colophony allergens as screening substances for contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, A T; Gäfvert, E

    1996-10-01

    Rosin has a complex chemical composition. The aim of this study was to investigate if it is possible to define 1 or 2 compounds as the rosin allergens. 2 compounds, 13, 14(beta)-epoxyabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, identified in gum rosin and tall oil rosin, were used as screening substances for patch testing in addition to the standard series. The rosin patch detected more cases of contact allergy than the isolated allergens did. Our suggestion is to patch test with a preparation of gum rosin, as well-defined as possible, for screening. The content of oxidation products should be kept at a constant and rather high level, since these are the main allergens. A rosin series for additional testing of patients with allergic contact dermatits suspected to be caused by rosin could be a valuable tool. Gum rosin and tall oil rosin from different countries should be included, since the amounts of allergens in rosin varies due to source and mode of production. Testing with identified allergens from modified rosin products and with modified rosins could also be performed.

  20. Does allergen-specific immunotherapy induce contact allergy to aluminium?

    PubMed

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.

  1. Immunoproteomics of tree of heaven (Ailanthus atltissima) pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Fateme; Majd, Ahmad; Shahali, Youcef; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Pourpak, Zahra

    2017-02-10

    Ailanthus altissima pollen (AAP) is considered as an emerging cause of respiratory allergy in United States, Italy and Iran. However, the allergenic composition of AAP is still unknown and has yet to be characterized. The present study aimed to identify AAP allergens using a proteomics-based approach. For this purpose, optimized AAP protein extracts were analyzed using 1D- and 2D- gel electrophoresis and confronted to twenty sera from individuals with respiratory allergy during the AAP season. Candidate allergens were detected using the serum from an allergic patient with clinical history of AAP pollinosis. IgE-binding spots were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and database searching. According to our results, AAP extracts were rich in proteins (up to 16.25mg/ml) with a molecular-weight distribution ranging from 10 to 175kDa. Two-D electrophoresis of AAP extracts revealed 125 protein spots from which 13 were IgE reactive. These IgE-binding proteins were identified as enolase, calreticulin, probable pectate lyase 6, conserved hypothetical protein and ras-related protein RHN1-like. By our knowledge, this study is the first report identifying AAP allergens. These findings will open up further avenues for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of the AAP allergy as well as for the cloning and molecular characterization of relevant allergens.

  2. Two new types of allergens from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Long, C; Bai, X; Liu, W; Rong, M; Lai, R; An, S

    2015-12-01

    Periplaneta americana cockroach is an important source of inhalant indoor allergen resource, and there are more than twenty IgE-binding components identified in P. americana, but only nine allergens were characterized. Our knowledge about cockroach allergens remains poor. In this work, two novel allergen proteins Per a 11 (alpha-amylase) and Per a 12 (chitinase) with molecular weight around 55 and 45 kDa, respectively, were purified and characterized from the midgut of cockroaches. Their primary sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning. Sera from 39 and 30 of 47 (83.0% and 63.8%) patients reacted to Per a 11 and Per a 12 on immunoblots, respectively. The allergenicity of Per a 11 and Per a 12 was further confirmed by competitive ELISA, basophil activation test (BAT), and skin prick test (SPT). They appear to be of importance for the allergic reactions induced by cockroach and have a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy.

  3. Sensitization to Cockroach Allergen: Immune Regulation and Genetic Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peisong

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health concern. Cockroach allergen exposure and cockroach allergic sensitization could contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. However, the underlying immune mechanism and the genetic etiology remain unclear. Recent advances have demonstrated that several receptors (PAR-2, TLRs, CLRs) and their pathways mediate antigen uptake from the environment and induce allergies by signaling T cells to activate an inappropriate immune response. Cockroach-derived protease can disturb airway epithelial integrity via PAR-2 and leads to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen, resulting in activation of innate immune cells (e.g., DCs) via binding to either TLRs or CLRs. The activated DCs can direct cells of the adaptive immune system to facilitate promotion of Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization. Mannose receptor (MR), as a CLR, has been shown to mediate Bla g2 (purified cockroach allergen) uptake by DCs and to determine allergen-induced T cell polarization. Additionally, genetic factors may play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and related phenotypes (HLA-D, TSLP, IL-12A, MBL2). In this review, we have focused on studies on the cockroach allergen induced immunologic responses and genetic basis for cockroach sensitization. PMID:22272212

  4. Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy.

  5. Almond allergens: molecular characterization, detection, and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Carrapatoso, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2012-02-15

    Almond ( Prunus dulcis ) has been widely used in all sorts of food products (bakery, pastry, snacks), mostly due to its pleasant flavor and health benefits. However, it is also classified as a potential allergenic seed known to be responsible for triggering several mild to life-threatening immune reactions in sensitized and allergic individuals. Presently, eight groups of allergenic proteins have been identified and characterized in almond, namely, PR-10 (Pru du 1), TLP (Pru du 2), prolamins (Pru du 2S albumin, Pru du 3), profilins (Pru du 4), 60sRP (Pru du 5), and cupin (Pru du 6, Pru du γ-conglutin), although only a few of them have been tested for reactivity with almond-allergic sera. To protect sensitized individuals, labeling regulations have been implemented for foods containing potential allergenic ingredients, impelling the development of adequate analytical methods. This work aims to present an updated and critical overview of the molecular characterization and clinical relevance of almond allergens, as well as review the main methodologies used to detect and quantitate food allergens with special emphasis on almond.

  6. Sensitization to cockroach allergen: immune regulation and genetic determinants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peisong

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health concern. Cockroach allergen exposure and cockroach allergic sensitization could contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. However, the underlying immune mechanism and the genetic etiology remain unclear. Recent advances have demonstrated that several receptors (PAR-2, TLRs, CLRs) and their pathways mediate antigen uptake from the environment and induce allergies by signaling T cells to activate an inappropriate immune response. Cockroach-derived protease can disturb airway epithelial integrity via PAR-2 and leads to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen, resulting in activation of innate immune cells (e.g., DCs) via binding to either TLRs or CLRs. The activated DCs can direct cells of the adaptive immune system to facilitate promotion of Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization. Mannose receptor (MR), as a CLR, has been shown to mediate Bla g2 (purified cockroach allergen) uptake by DCs and to determine allergen-induced T cell polarization. Additionally, genetic factors may play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and related phenotypes (HLA-D, TSLP, IL-12A, MBL2). In this review, we have focused on studies on the cockroach allergen induced immunologic responses and genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.

  7. Passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies for treatment and prevention of allergy

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sabine; Linhart, Birgit; Wild, Carmen; Wiedermann, Ursula; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    IgE antibody-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. To investigate therapeutic and preventive effects of passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies on allergy in mouse models we used clinically relevant pollen allergens. In a treatment model, mice were sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and to the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 and then received passive immunization with rabbit IgG antibodies specific for the sensitizing or an unrelated allergen. In a prevention model, mice obtained passive immunization with allergen-specific rabbit IgG before sensitization. Kinetics of the levels of administered IgG antibodies, effects of administered allergen-specific IgG on allergen-specific IgE reactivity, the development of IgE and IgG responses and on immediate allergic reactions were studied by ELISA, rat basophil leukaemia degranulation assays and skin testing, respectively. Treated mice showed an approximately 80% reduction of allergen-specific IgE binding and basophil degranulation which was associated with the levels of administered allergen-specific IgG antibodies. Preventive administration of allergen-specific IgG antibodies suppressed the development of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibody responses as well as allergen-induced basophil degranulation and skin reactivity. Our results show that passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies is effective for treatment and prevention of allergy to clinically important pollen allergens in a mouse model and thus may pave the road for the clinical application of allergen-specific antibodies in humans. PMID:23182706

  8. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. PMID:27436829

  9. Marker allergens of weed pollen - basic considerations and diagnostic benefits in the clinical routine: Part 16 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    PubMed

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    The term weed is referring to plants used as culinary herbs and medicinal plants as well as ecologically adaptive and invasive segetal plants. In Europe, pollen of ragweed, mugwort, English plantain and pellitory are the main elicitors of weed pollen allergies. Presently, 35 weed pollen allergens have been identified. The most relevant belong to the protein families of pectate lyases, defensin-like proteins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and Ole e 1-like proteins. The sensitization frequency depends on geographic regions and might affect more than 50 % of pollen allergic patients in distinct regions. Due to overlapping flowering seasons, similar habitats, polysensitizations and cross-reactive (pan)-allergens, it is difficult to diagnose genuine weed pollen sensitization using pollen extracts. Marker allergens for component-resolved diagnostics are available for the important weed pollen. These are Amb a 1 (ragweed), Art v 1 (mugwort), Pla l 1 (English plantain) and Par j 2 (pellitory). Molecule-based approaches can be used to identify the primary sensitizer and thus enable selection of the appropriate weed pollen extracts for allergen immunotherapy.

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the Bet v 1-homologous allergen Fra a 1 in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) shows the presence of an intron and little variability in amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Musidlowska-Persson, Anna; Alm, Rikard; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2007-02-01

    The Fra a 1 allergen in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which has numerous isoforms differing in terms of amino acid sequence and immunological impact. To map the extent of sequence differences in the Fra a 1 allergen, PCR cloning and sequencing was applied. Several genomic sequences of Fra a 1, with a length of either 584, 591 or 594 nucleotides, were obtained from three different strawberry varieties. All contained one intron, with the length of either 101 or 110 nucleotides. By sequencing 30 different clones, eight different DNA sequences were obtained, giving in total five potential Fra a 1 protein isoforms, with high sequence similarity (>97% sequence identity) and only seven positions of amino acid variability, which were largely confirmed by mass spectrometry of expressed proteins. We conclude that the sequence variability in the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 is small, within and between strawberry varieties, and that multiple spots, previously detected in 2DE, are presumably due to differences in post-translational modification rather than differences in amino acid sequence. The most abundant Fra a 1 isoform sequence, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli after removal of the intron, was recognized by IgE from strawberry allergic patients. It cross-reacted with antibodies to Bet v 1 and the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1 (61 and 78% sequence identity, respectively), and will be used in further analyses of variation in Fra a 1-expression.

  11. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  12. 27 CFR 7.22b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 7.22b Section 7.22b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.22b Petitions for exemption from major food allergen... contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in § 7.22(a)(1)(i), even though...

  13. 27 CFR 5.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 5.32b Section 5.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... food allergen labeling. (a) Submission of petition. Any person may petition the appropriate TTB officer... human health; or (2) Does not contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in §...

  14. 27 CFR 5.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 5.32b Section 5.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... food allergen labeling. (a) Submission of petition. Any person may petition the appropriate TTB officer... human health; or (2) Does not contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in §...

  15. 27 CFR 7.22b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 7.22b Section 7.22b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.22b Petitions for exemption from major food allergen... contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in § 7.22(a)(1)(i), even though...

  16. 27 CFR 7.22b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 7.22b Section 7.22b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.22b Petitions for exemption from major food allergen... contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in § 7.22(a)(1)(i), even though...

  17. 27 CFR 7.22b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 7.22b Section 7.22b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.22b Petitions for exemption from major food allergen... contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in § 7.22(a)(1)(i), even though...

  18. 27 CFR 5.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 5.32b Section 5.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... food allergen labeling. (a) Submission of petition. Any person may petition the appropriate TTB officer... human health; or (2) Does not contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in §...

  19. 27 CFR 5.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from major food allergen labeling. 5.32b Section 5.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... food allergen labeling. (a) Submission of petition. Any person may petition the appropriate TTB officer... human health; or (2) Does not contain allergenic protein derived from one of the foods identified in §...

  20. Identification and characterization of a new pecan [Cara illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] allergen, Car i 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7S and 11S seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many foods that are constitutors to the “big eight” groups of food allergen sources. Here, pecan vicilin was found to be a new food allergen. The vicilin protein consists a low-complexity re...

  1. Use of pulsed ultraviolet light to reduce the allergenic potency of soybean extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a non-thermal food processing technology, is reported to be able to inactivate enzymes and reduce allergen levels from peanut extracts. The objective of this study was to determine if PUV would reduce the allergen levels and allergenic potency of soy extracts. Soy ext...

  2. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  3. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  4. The allergen of Ficus benjamina in house dust.

    PubMed

    Bircher, A J; Langauer, S; Levy, F; Wahl, R

    1995-03-01

    Ficus benjamina, a member of the Moraceae family, is a tropical, non-flowering green plant which is widely used for ornamental purposes. It is an occupational allergen in plant keepers but sensitization is also increasingly found in non-occupationally exposed atopic and non-atopic patients. The allergen of Ficus benjamina is located in the plant sap, a so-called latex. By radioallergosorbent test-(RAST)-inhibition studies allergen could also be demonstrated in the dust collected from the leaf surface and in dust samples from the floor of rooms where the plant was placed. These findings could result in more extensive preventive measures in patients sensitized to Ficus benjamina. In addition there is some evidence that possibly a crossreactivity between latex of Ficus benjamina and latex from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, may exist.

  5. Induction of allergen-specific tolerance via mucosal routes.

    PubMed

    Mascarell, Laurent; Zimmer, Aline; Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Tourdot, Sophie; Moingeon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of allergies against insect venom, house dust mites, tree/grass pollens, or cat dander. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is successful to reorient the immune system and re-establish long-term tolerance. However, major drawbacks for using this route include: repeated injections, as well as the risk of anaphylaxis. In this context, alternative mucosal routes of administration are being considered together with the combined use of adjuvants/vector systems and recombinant allergens or peptide fragments. Herein, we review the current status in the use of mucosal routes (i.e., sublingual, oral, intranasal) for allergen-specific immunotherapy, as well as the latest understanding with respect to underlying mechanisms of action.

  6. Recognizing the Presidents: Was Alexander Hamilton President?

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Studies over the past 40 years have shown that Americans can recall about half the U.S. presidents. Do people know the presidents even though they are unable to access them for recall? We investigated this question using the powerful cues of a recognition test. Specifically, we tested the ability of 326 online subjects to recognize U.S. presidents when presented with their full names among various types of lures. The hit rate for presidential recognition was .88, well above the proportion produced in free recall but far from perfect. Presidents Franklin Pierce and Chester Arthur were recognized less than 60% of the time. Interestingly, four nonpresidents were falsely recognized at relatively high rates, and Alexander Hamilton was more frequently identified as president than were several actual presidents. Even on a recognition test, knowledge of American presidents is imperfect and prone to error. The false alarm data support the theory that false fame can arise from contextual familiarity.

  7. Lack of Detectable Allergenicity in Genetically Modified Maize Containing “Cry” Proteins as Compared to Native Maize Based on In Silico & In Vitro Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Chandni; Kathuria, Pooran C.; Dahiya, Pushpa; Singh, Anand B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetically modified, (GM) crops with potential allergens must be evaluated for safety and endogenous IgE binding pattern compared to native variety, prior to market release. Objective To compare endogenous IgE binding proteins of three GM maize seeds containing Cry 1Ab,1Ac,1C transgenic proteins with non GM maize. Methods An integrated approach of in silico & in vitro methods was employed. Cry proteins were tested for presence of allergen sequence by FASTA in allergen databases. Biochemical assays for maize extracts were performed. Specific IgE (sIgE) and Immunoblot using food sensitized patients sera (n = 39) to non GM and GM maize antigens was performed. Results In silico approaches, confirmed for non sequence similarity of stated transgenic proteins in allergen databases. An insignificant (p> 0.05) variation in protein content between GM and non GM maize was observed. Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) revealed reduced number of stable protein fractions in GM then non GM maize which might be due to shift of constituent protein expression. Specific IgE values from patients showed insignificant difference in non GM and GM maize extracts. Five maize sensitized cases, recognized same 7 protein fractions of 88-28 kD as IgE bindng in both GM and non-GM maize, signifying absence of variation. Four of the reported IgE binding proteins were also found to be stable by SGF. Conclusion Cry proteins did not indicate any significant similarity of >35% in allergen databases. Immunoassays also did not identify appreciable differences in endogenous IgE binding in GM and non GM maize. PMID:25706412

  8. Allergens from Brazil nut: immunochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R

    1997-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity.

  9. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  10. Recognizing and responding to hyperglycaemic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, Maria; Marsons, Lorraine

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are both diabetic emergencies associated with hyperglycaemia and can be fatal if healthcare professionals fail to recognize and intervene appropriately. While many students and qualified nurses may be able to recall common signs and symptoms related to DKA and HHS - for example polyuria, polydipsia and elevated blood sugars - understanding the physiological mechanisms behind abnormal observations and restoring homeostasis through appropriate management is far more complex. Health educators can play a significant role in contextualizing difficult concepts, such as DKA and HHS, so that these complex conditions can be recognized with greater confidence and competence in clinical practice.

  11. Recognizing and treating anxiety disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Maria N

    2005-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are a common group of disorders that must be recognized more frequently by pediatricians. Outcomes can be very successful with prompt recognition and early treatment. For this reason, it is important that pediatricians recognize their central role in integrating sociological, psychological, and biological approaches to treatment. Pediatricians are vital for initial assessment, interventions, management of psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic treatments, and referral to psychiatrists and psychologists when necessary. An improved understanding of anxiety disorders by pediatricians will lead to improved diagnosis and improved quality of life for many undiagnosed pediatric patients suffering from anxiety.

  12. Immune mechanisms of allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, P; Batard, T; Fadel, R; Frati, F; Sieber, J; Van Overtvelt, L

    2006-02-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy has been shown in some clinical studies to modulate allergen-specific antibody responses [with a decrease in the immunoglobulin E/immunoglobulin G4 (IgE/IgG4) ratio] and to reduce the recruitment and activation of proinflammatory cells in target mucosa. Whereas a central paradigm for successful immunotherapy has been to reorient the pattern of allergen-specific T-cell responses in atopic patients from a T helper (Th)2 to Th1 profile, there is currently a growing interest in eliciting regulatory T cells, capable of downregulating both Th1 and Th2 responses through the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and/or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. We discuss herein immune mechanisms involved during allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), in comparison with subcutaneous immunotherapy. During SLIT, the allergen is captured within the oral mucosa by Langerhans-like dendritic cells expressing high-affinity IgE receptors, producing IL-10 and TGF-beta, and upregulating indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO), suggesting that such cells are prone to induce tolerance. The oral mucosa contains limited number of proinflammatory cells, such as mast cells, thereby explaining the well-established safety profile of SLIT. In this context, second-generation vaccines based on recombinant allergens in a native conformation formulated with adjuvants are designed to target Langerhans-like cells in the sublingual mucosa, with the aim to induce allergen-specific regulatory T cells. Importantly, such recombinant vaccines should facilitate the identification of biological markers of SLIT efficacy in humans.

  13. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  14. Cross‑reactivity between group-5 and -21 mite allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Blomia tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Ryul; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo; Shin, Ho-Joon; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2015-10-01

    Group-5 and group-21 allergens, produced by house dust mites and storage mites are 36.6-55.8% identical in their sequences and are recognized by at least 50% of immunoglobulin (Ig)E from the sera of individuals allergic to dust mites. In the present study, recombinant group-5 and ‑21 allergens from three mite species, Dermatophagoides farinae (rDer f 5 and 21), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (rTyr p 5 and 21), and Blomia tropicalis (rBlo t 5 and 21), were purified from Escherichia coli, and the IgE reactivities and cross‑reactivities of these allergen variants were assessed. The IgE binding frequencies of rDer f 5, rDer f 21, rTyr p 5, rTyr p 21, rBlo t and rBlo t 21 proteins were 64.95, 65.98, 30.41, 41.24, 30.93 and 21.65%, respectively. The IgE reactivity of rDer f 5 correlated highly with that of rDer f 21 (r=0.733). rTyr p 5 exhibited the highest level of correlation with rTyr p 21 (r=0.950), while the correlation of rBlo t 5 with rBlo t 21 was the lowest observed (r=0.104). The binding of IgE to rDer f 5 and rDer f 21 was not inhibited by any allergens but themselves. While rDer f 5 inhibited only 60.3% of IgE binding to rBlo t 5, rDer f 21 exhibited a high inhibitory effect against rTyr p 5 (93.01%), rTyr p 21 (92.12%), rBlo t 5 (86.97%) and rBlo t 21 (70.30%), implying cross‑reactivity among mite species. The results of the present study demonstrated that the majority of the IgE reactivity to group-5 and -21 storage mite allergens is due to cross‑reaction. It is therefore imperative to develop an accurate, component‑resolved diagnosis for dust mite allergies.

  15. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  16. Exposure to multiple indoor allergens in US homes and relationship to asthma

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Crockett, Patrick W.; Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing was the first population-based study to measure indoor allergen levels in US homes. Objective We characterized the overall burden to multiple allergens and examined whether elevated allergen levels were associated with occupants’ asthma status. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed a nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the US. Information was collected by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Allergen concentrations in dust samples were assessed by immunoassays. The following cut points were used to define elevated allergen levels: 10 μg/g for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Can f 1; 8 μg/g for Fel d 1; 8 U/g Bla g 1; 1.6 μg/g for mouse urinary protein; and 7 μg/g for Alternaria antigens. Allergen burden was considered high when 4 or more allergens exceeded elevated levels in any of the sampling locations. Results Exposure to multiple allergens was common in US homes. Of the surveyed homes, 51.5% had at least 6 detectable allergens and 45.8% had at least 3 allergens exceeding elevated levels. Occupants’ race, income, housing type, absence of children, and presence of smokers, pets, cockroaches, rodents and mold/moisture related problems were independent predictors of high allergen burden. Among atopics, high allergen burden increased the odds of having asthma symptoms (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.04-3.15). Conclusion Elevated allergen levels in the home are associated with asthma symptoms in allergic individuals. Clinical implication In allergic asthma, indoor allergen exposures play an important role in asthma exacerbations. PMID:18255132

  17. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies.

  18. ¹H, ¹³C and ¹⁵N resonance assignments and second structure information of Gad m 1: a β-parvalbumin allergen from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Moraes, A H; Ackerbauer, D; Kostadinova, M; Bublin, M; Ferreira, F; Almeida, F C L; Breiteneder, H; Valente, A P

    2013-10-01

    Gad m 1 is the major allergen from Atlantic cod. It belongs to β-parvalbumin protein family and is characterized by the presence of two calcium-binding sites so called EF-hand motifs. β-Parvalbumins such as Gad m 1 are the most important fish allergens and their high cross-reactivity is the cause of the observed polysensitization to various fish species in allergic patients. Despite extensive efforts, the complete elucidation of β-parvalbumin-IgE complexes has not been achieved yet. Allergen structural studies are essential for the development of novel immunotherapy strategies, including vaccination with hypoallergenic derivatives and chimeric molecules. Here, we report for the first time the NMR study of a β-parvalbumin: Gad m 1. This report includes: (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of Gad m 1 as well as the second structure information based on the (13)C chemical shifts.

  19. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  20. 26 CFR 601.502 - Recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognized representative. 601.502 Section 601.502 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE... before the Internal Revenue Service and is in active status pursuant to the requirements of Circular...

  1. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Attack? Updated:Sep 16,2016 Begin the quiz Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary ... in Women “Can you recognize a heart attack?” Quiz • Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack ...

  2. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  3. Stent Fracture: How Frequently Is It Recognized?

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Mohammed Khalil; Alqahtani, Awad; Al suwaidi, Jassim

    2013-01-01

    In spite of there being several case reports, coronary stent fracture is not a well-recognized entity and incidence rates are likely to be underestimated. In this article, we review different aspects of stent fracture, including incidence, classification, predictors, outcome, diagnosis, and management. PMID:23983912

  4. Recently recognized chromosomal defects of clinical importance.

    PubMed Central

    Pembrey, M.; Baraitser, M.

    1986-01-01

    We review those conditions which have recently been recognized to be associated with small, sometimes difficult to detect, chromosomal abnormalities. These include the Prader-Willi syndrome and X-linked mental retardation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3540928

  5. Recognizing and Responding to a Suicide Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T.; Lipschitz, Alan; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Kyle, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Data from therapists who were treating 26 patients when they committed suicide were utilized to identify warning signs. Problems in communication between patient and therapist were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. (BF)

  6. EPA recognizes Texas AandM Agrilife

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 13, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently recognized Texas A&M Agrilife Research Extension Center at Dallas during the 2015 WaterSmart Innovations Conference and Exposition in Las Vegas, Nev. The center rec

  7. Allergenic compounds on the inner and outer surfaces of natural latex gloves: MALDI mass spectrometry and imaging of proteinous allergens.

    PubMed

    Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Natural latex gloves are the cause of a severe health problem to an increasing number of healthcare workers or patients due to the presence of protein allergens as Hevein or Rubber Elongation Factor (REF). One of the most challenging problems is the in situ localization of theses allergens in, e.g. gloves, to estimate the allergenic potential of the latex material. A sample preparation protocol applying a binary matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) matrix containing alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA) and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHB) on trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) etched latex glove surfaces allowed the direct determination (exact molecular weight) of Hevein, REF and a truncated form of REF (tREF) within nine different brands of natural latex gloves by means of MALDI-TOF-MS in the linear mode. MALDI mass spectrometry demonstrated that Hevein, tREF and REF were present on the inner surfaces (in direct contact with the skin) of many, but not all, investigated gloves without any prior extraction procedure. Additionally, different isoforms of the allergen Hevein were detected (exhibiting ragged C-termini). tREF and REF could always be detected beside each other, but were not observed on every latex glove sample, which contained Hevein. It was also demonstrated that there is a significant difference in terms of proteins and polymers between inner and outer surfaces of gloves, which helps to explain the different allergenic potential of these.MALDI imaging allowed for the first time the unambiguous localization of all three allergens in parallel and showed that Hevein was present on 36% of the investigated area of a latex glove with a certain localization, whereupon, tREF and REF were only found on 25% of the investigated material.

  8. Ole e 13 is the unique food allergen in olive: Structure-functional, substrates docking, and molecular allergenicity comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Lopez, J C; Robles-Bolivar, P; Lopez-Valverde, F J; Lima-Cabello, E; Kotchoni, S O; Alché, J D

    2016-05-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are enzymes with important functions in pathogens defense and in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Last identified olive allergen (Ole e 13) is a TLP, which may also importantly contribute to food allergy and cross-allergenicity to pollen allergen proteins. The goals of this study are the characterization of the structural-functionality of Ole e 13 with a focus in its catalytic mechanism, and its molecular allergenicity by extensive analysis using different molecular computer-aided approaches covering a) functional-regulatory motifs, b) comparative study of linear sequence, 2-D and 3D structural homology modeling, c) molecular docking with two different β-D-glucans, d) conservational and evolutionary analysis, e) catalytic mechanism modeling, and f) IgE-binding, B- and T-cell epitopes identification and comparison to other allergenic TLPs. Sequence comparison, structure-based features, and phylogenetic analysis identified Ole e 13 as a thaumatin-like protein. 3D structural characterization revealed a conserved overall folding among plants TLPs, with mayor differences in the acidic (catalytic) cleft. Molecular docking analysis using two β-(1,3)-glucans allowed to identify fundamental residues involved in the endo-1,3-β-glucanase activity, and defining E84 as one of the conserved residues of the TLPs responsible of the nucleophilic attack to initiate the enzymatic reaction and D107 as proton donor, thus proposing a catalytic mechanism for Ole e 13. Identification of IgE-binding, B- and T-cell epitopes may help designing strategies to improve diagnosis and immunotherapy to food allergy and cross-allergenic pollen TLPs.

  9. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    PubMed

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop.

  10. Computational allergenicity prediction of transgenic proteins expressed in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Misra, Amita; Subash, Swarna; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-09-01

    Development of genetically modified (GM) crops is on increase to improve food quality, increase harvest yields, and reduce the dependency on chemical pesticides. Before their release in marketplace, they should be scrutinized for their safety. Several guidelines of different regulatory agencies like ILSI, WHO Codex, OECD, and so on for allergenicity evaluation of transgenics are available and sequence homology analysis is the first test to determine the allergenic potential of inserted proteins. Therefore, to test and validate, 312 allergenic, 100 non-allergenic, and 48 inserted proteins were assessed for sequence similarity using 8-mer, 80-mer, and full FASTA search. On performing sequence homology studies, ~94% the allergenic proteins gave exact matches for 8-mer and 80-mer homology. However, 20 allergenic proteins showed non-allergenic behavior. Out of 100 non-allergenic proteins, seven qualified as allergens. None of the inserted proteins demonstrated allergenic behavior. In order to improve the predictability, proteins showing anomalous behavior were tested by Algpred and ADFS separately. Use of Algpred and ADFS softwares reduced the tendency of false prediction to a great extent (74-78%). In conclusion, routine sequence homology needs to be coupled with some other bioinformatic method like ADFS/Algpred to reduce false allergenicity prediction of novel proteins.

  11. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT.

  12. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: immunological mechanisms and prospects for refined vaccine preparation.

    PubMed

    O'Hehir, R E; Sandrini, A; Anderson, G P; Rolland, J M

    2007-01-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a major health issue worldwide. Mainstay treatment constitutes allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy for symptom relief, but allergen immunotherapy offers advantages of specific treatment with long lasting efficacy, and being able to modify the course of the disease. Conventional immunotherapy involves the subcutaneous injection of gradually increasing amounts of allergen extract but the use of current whole allergen extracts is restricted by the risk of adverse IgE-mediated events especially for potent allergens such as peanut and latex and for asthmatics. This has lead to interest in alternative routes of immunotherapy. Oral tolerance is a well-documented immune process and the sublingual route of administration of allergen immunotherapy is attracting interest. Recent meta-analyses show that sublingual allergen immunotherapy for grass pollen and house dust mite allergy is clinically effective and safer than injection immunotherapy. Some studies show SLIT induces changes of T cell anergy, immune deviation, blocking antibodies, and induction of regulatory T cells, as described for injection immunotherapy pointing to the need to target allergen-specific T cells, there is emergent evidence that the oral mucosa presents distinct regulatory features. Evidence suggests that oral dendritic cells play a key role in inducing tolerance especially when allergen is taken up via Fc receptor bound IgE. This suggests that although both would target allergen-specific T cells, allergen formulations may differ with respect to IgE epitopes for optimal SLIT compared with SCIT. Identification of the molecular nature of the allergen-DC receptor interaction is required to determine whether short peptides or recombinant allergen preparations and of suitable adjuvants specifically tailored for the sublingual route will allow the development of improved allergen formulations and delivery strategies for efficacy of treatment whilst decreasing Ig

  13. Production and analysis of recombinant tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications.

  14. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in pediatric allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785

  15. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  16. Considerations About Pollen Used for the Production of Allergen Extracts.

    PubMed

    Codina, Rosa; Crenshaw, Rodger C; Lockey, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a biological product obtained to manufacture tree, weed, and grass allergen extracts, used to diagnose and treat allergies. Genetic and environmental factors affect the composition of pollen, e.g., the plant varieties from which pollen are obtained, weather, and levels of air pollution during plant growth. Therefore, appropriate guidelines and training of personnel to perform the activities associated with pollen are essential to produce appropriate allergen extracts. Various regulatory institutions, which vary in different countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, control how such products should be produced. For example, the FDA regulates the manufacturing of pollen extracts but not the quality of the pollen used to prepare them, relying on each manufacturer to set its own standards to do so. To the contrary, European regulatory agencies, including the European Medicines Agency, control both the quality of the pollen and the manufacturing process to produce pollen extracts. Regulatory agencies, allergen manufacturers, scientific institutions, and pollen collection entities should collaborate to develop and implement guidelines appropriate for worldwide use for both the collection and processing of pollen raw materials. This article provides an overview of the subject of pollen for use in allergen extracts.

  17. Effects of reduction and proteolysis on cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is frequently more severe than reaction to peanut ingestion, and food allergens are commonly resistant to digestive proteases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity of cashew proteins to proteolysis. Cashew protein extracts and purified c...

  18. Categorisation of protein respiratory allergens: the case of Subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A

    2014-04-01

    Characterisation of the relative sensitizing potency of protein and chemical allergens remains challenging, particularly for materials causing allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract. There nevertheless remains an appetite, for priority setting and risk management, to develop paradigms that distinguish between individual respiratory allergens according to perceptions of the hazards and risks posed to human health. One manifestation thereof is recent listing of certain respiratory allergens as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) under the provisions of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). Although priority setting is a laudable ambition, it is important the process is predicated on evidence-based criteria that are transparent, understood and owned. The danger is that in the absence of rigorous criteria unwanted precedents can be created, and confidence in the process is compromised. A default categorisation of sensitisers as SVHC requiring assessment under the authorisation process is not desirable. We therefore consider here the value and limitations of selective assignment of certain respiratory allergens as being SVHC. The difficulties of sustaining such designations in a sound and equitable way is discussed in the context of the challenges that exist with respect to assessment of potency, and information available regarding the effectiveness of exposure-based risk management.

  19. Effect of Non-Thermal Processing on Peanut Allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is on the rise, and the reason is still unclear. Previously, roasting by thermal method has been shown to increase the allergenic potency of peanuts. In this study, we determined if non-thermal methods, such as, pulsed electric fields (PEF) and pulsed UV lights (PUV) affect peanut all...

  20. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources.

  1. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized non-allergenic urushiol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Park, Keun Young; Kim, Seon-Jae; Oh, Sejong; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Synthesized urushiol derivatives possessing different carbon atomic length in the alkyl side chain inhibited the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Particularly, non-allergenic 3-pentylcatechol showed a broad antimicrobial spectrum on an agar plate. Most food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were sensitive to urushiol derivatives in the liquid culture. The morphologies of the microorganisms were changed after treatment of 3-pentylcatechol.

  3. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  4. Cashew Nut Allergy: Clinical Relevance and Allergen Characterisation.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cíntia; Costa, Joana; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is the most relevant species of the Anacardium genus. It presents high economic value since it is widely used in human nutrition and in several industrial applications. Cashew nut is a well-appreciated food (belongs to the tree nut group), being widely consumed as snacks and in processed foods by the majority of world's population. However, cashew nut is also classified as a potent allergenic food known to be responsible for triggering severe and systemic immune reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis) in sensitised/allergic individuals that often demand epinephrine treatment and hospitalisation. So far, three groups of allergenic proteins have been identified and characterised in cashew nut: Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 (cupin superfamily) and Ana o 3 (prolamin superfamily), which are all classified as major allergens. The prevalence of cashew nut allergy seems to be rising in industrialised countries with the increasing consumption of this nut. There is still no cure for cashew nut allergy, as well as for other food allergies; thus, the allergic patients are advised to eliminate it from their diets. Accordingly, when carefully choosing processed foods that are commercially available, the allergic consumers have to rely on proper food labelling. In this sense, the control of labelling compliance is much needed, which has prompted the development of proficient analytical methods for allergen analysis. In the recent years, significant research advances in cashew nut allergy have been accomplished, which are highlighted and discussed in this review.

  5. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    Major aeroallergens in Anchorage are birch, alder, poplar, spruce, grass pollen, Cladosporium, and unspecified fungus spores. Lesser pollens are sorrel, willow, pine, juniper, sedge, lamb's-quarters, wormwood, plantain, and others. The aero-flora is discussed in terms of the frequency of allergenically significant events and within-season and year-to-year dynamics.

  6. Allergen Fractions of Bacteria of the Intestinal Family,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The extracellular fraction obtained by the Ando - Verzhikovskiy method from the bacterial species Enterobacteria cloacae possessed the activity of an...revealed immunoelectrophoretically. Allergens from different strains of Enterobacteria cloacae had a close antigenic structure and caused cross allergic reactions in experiments on sensitized animals.

  7. Mind Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific styles vary tremendously. For me, research is largely about the unfettered pursuit of novel ideas and experiments that can test multiple ideas in a day, not a year, an approach that I learned from my mentor Julius “Julie” Axelrod. This focus on creative conceptualizations has been my métier since working in the summers during medical school at the National Institutes of Health, during my two years in the Axelrod laboratory, and throughout my forty-five years at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Equally important has been the “high” that emerges from brainstorming with my students. Nothing can compare with the eureka moments when, together, we sense new insights and, better yet, when high-risk, high-payoff experiments succeed. Although I have studied many different questions over the years, a common theme emerges: simple biochemical approaches to understanding molecular messengers, usually small molecules. Equally important has been identifying, purifying, and cloning the messengers' relevant biosynthetic, degradative, or target proteins, at all times seeking potential therapeutic relevance in the form of drugs. In the interests of brevity, this Reflections article is highly selective, and, with a few exceptions, literature citations are only of findings of our laboratory that illustrate notable themes. PMID:21543333

  8. Cloning and characterization of 2S albumin, Car i 1, a major allergen in pecan.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Irsigler, Andre; Dhanarajan, Pushparani; Ayuso, Rosalia; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-04-27

    Although pecans are associated with IgE-mediated food allergies, the allergens responsible remain to be identified and characterized. The 2S albumin gene was amplified from the pecan cDNA library. Dot-blots were used to screen the recombinant protein with pecan allergic patients' serum. The affinity purified native protein was analyzed by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Cross-reactivity with walnut was determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sequential epitopes were determined by probing the overlapping peptides with three different patients' serum pool. The 3-dimensional homology model was generated, and the locations of the pecan epitopes were compared with those of known sequential epitopes on other allergenic tree nut homologues. Of 28 patients tested by dot-blot, 22 (79%) bound to 2S albumin, designated as Car i 1. Edman sequencing and the MS/MS sequencing of native 2S albumin confirmed the identity of recombinant (r) Car i 1. Both pecan and walnut protein extracts inhibited the IgE-binding to rCar i 1. Sequential epitope mapping indicated weak, moderate, and strong reactivity against 12, 7, and 5 peptides, respectively. Of the 11 peptides recognized by all serum pools, 5 peptides were strongly reactive and located in 3 discrete regions of the Car i 1 (amino acids 43-57, 67-78, and 106-120). Three-dimensional modeling revealed IgE-reactive epitopes to be solvent accessible and share significant homology with other tree nuts providing a possible basis for previously observed cross-reactivity.

  9. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    PubMed Central

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Tribouley, Catherine; Diamant, Zuzana; Boot, J. Diderik; Cohen, Adam F.; Van Dyck, K.; De Lepeleire, I.; Rivas, Veronica M.; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Ruddy, Marcella K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measured in this study. Methods Thirteen non-smoking, allergic subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 2-period cross-over study following a single-blind placebo run-in period. Each period consisted of three consecutive days, separated by a wash-out period of at least 3 weeks. Subjects randomly received inhaled fluticasone ((FP) MDI; 500 mcg BID×5 doses in total) or placebo. On day 2, house dust mite extract was inhaled and airway response was measured by FEV1 at predefined time points until 7 h post-allergen. Sputum was induced by NaCl 4.5%, processed and analysed at 24 h pre-allergen and 7 and 24 h post-allergen. RNA was isolated from eligible sputum cell pellets (<80% squamous of 500 cells), amplified according to NuGEN technology, and profiled on Affymetrix arrays. Gene expression changes from baseline and fluticasone treatment effects were evaluated using a mixed effects ANCOVA model at 7 and at 24 h post-allergen challenge. Results Inhaled allergen-induced statistically significant gene expression changes in sputum, which were effectively blunted by fluticasone (adjusted p<0.025). Forty-seven RNA signatures were selected from these responses for correlation analyses and further validation. This included Th2 mRNA levels for cytokines, chemokines, high-affinity IgE receptor FCER1A, histamine receptor HRH4, and enzymes and receptors in the arachidonic pathway. Individual messengers from the 47 RNA signatures correlated significantly

  10. Purification, Cloning and Immuno-Biochemical Characterization of a Fungal Aspartic Protease Allergen Rhi o 1 from the Airborne Mold Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Pandey, Naren; Saha, Sudipto; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal allergy is considered as serious health problem worldwide and is increasing at an alarming rate in the industrialized areas. Rhizopus oyzae is a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mold and an important source of inhalant allergens for the atopic population of India. Here, we report the biochemical and immunological features of its 44 kDa sero-reactive aspartic protease allergen, which is given the official designation ‘Rhi o 1’. Method The natural Rhi o 1 was purified by sequential column chromatography and its amino acid sequence was determined by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Based on its amino acid sequence, the cDNA sequence was identified, cloned and expressed to produce recombinant Rhi o 1. The allergenic activity of rRhi o 1 was assessed by means of its IgE reactivity and histamine release ability. The biochemical property of Rhi o 1 was studied by enzyme assay. IgE-inhibition experiments were performed to identify its cross-reactivity with the German cockroach aspartic protease allergen Bla g 2. For precise characterization of the cross-reactive epitope, we used anti-Bla g 2 monoclonal antibodies for their antigenic specificity towards Rhi o 1. A homology based model of Rhi o 1 was built and mapping of the cross-reactive conformational epitope was done using certain in silico structural studies. Results The purified natural nRhi o 1 was identified as an endopeptidase. The full length allergen cDNA was expressed and purified as recombinant rRhi o 1. Purified rRhi o 1 displayed complete allergenicity similar to the native nRhi o 1. It was recognized by the serum IgE of the selected mold allergy patients and efficiently induced histamine release from the sensitized PBMC cells. This allergen was identified as an active aspartic protease functional in low pH. The Rhi o 1 showed cross reactivity with the cockroach allergen Bla g 2, as it can inhibit IgE binding to rBla g 2 up to certain level. The rBla g 2 was also found

  11. Recognize sex work as legitimate work.

    PubMed

    Reynaga, Elena

    2008-12-01

    It is not sex work per se that makes sex workers vulnerable to HIV, but rather the policies that repress them. In this article, based on her presentation at a plenary session at the conference, Elena Reynaga, who is a sex worker, describes how these policies deprive sex workers of their rights and subject them to physical and sexual violence. The author concludes that at the heart of the problem lies the fact that sex work is not recognized as legitimate work.

  12. Recognizing and reporting adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, L. M.; Colley, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Although physicians in practice are most likely to see patients with adverse drug reactions, they may fail to recognize an adverse effect or to attribute it to a drug effect and, when recognized, they may fail to report serious reactions to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To recognize and attribute an adverse event to a drug effect, physicians should review the patient's clinical course, looking at patient risk factors, the known adverse reactions to the suspected drug, and the likelihood of a causal relationship between the drug and the adverse event-based on the temporal relationship, response to stopping or restarting the drug, and whether other factors could explain the reaction. Once an adverse drug reaction has been identified, the patient should be informed and appropriate documentation made in the patient's medical record. Serious known reactions and all reactions to newly released drugs or those not previously known to occur (even if the certainty is low) should be reported to the FDA. PMID:1536067

  13. Recognizing specialized terminology presented through different modes.

    PubMed

    Commons-Miller, Lucas Alexander Hayleigh; Commons, Michael Lamport

    2003-11-01

    In the present study, the authors examined how previous experience and modes of presenting information affect the recognition of terms in new, specialized terminologies. The specialized terminology used was related to orienteering. Orienteering concepts representing features found in the woods may be communicated verbally (as definitions or words) or symbolically. There were 225 participants (101 reported no orienteering experience and 122 reported varying amounts of orienteering experience; 2 did not respond to that question) who tried to identify which of 5 entities was an orienteering definition, word, or symbol. Those with orienteering experience found that recognizing the specialized terminology was significantly easier than for those without experience. Recognizing symbols was significantly more difficult than recognizing definitions or words, particularly for non-orienteers. Performance of the orienteers was similar for the three modes. Within the orienteering group, the number of years of experience and usual course difficulty attempted were significant predictors of overall test success. Applications to training of both low-level specialized terminology (e.g., used in algebra), and higher level terminology (e.g., used in computer science) are discussed.

  14. Recognizing Materials using Perceptually Inspired Features

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Lavanya; Liu, Ce; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Our world consists not only of objects and scenes but also of materials of various kinds. Being able to recognize the materials that surround us (e.g., plastic, glass, concrete) is important for humans as well as for computer vision systems. Unfortunately, materials have received little attention in the visual recognition literature, and very few computer vision systems have been designed specifically to recognize materials. In this paper, we present a system for recognizing material categories from single images. We propose a set of low and mid-level image features that are based on studies of human material recognition, and we combine these features using an SVM classifier. Our system outperforms a state-of-the-art system [Varma and Zisserman, 2009] on a challenging database of real-world material categories [Sharan et al., 2009]. When the performance of our system is compared directly to that of human observers, humans outperform our system quite easily. However, when we account for the local nature of our image features and the surface properties they measure (e.g., color, texture, local shape), our system rivals human performance. We suggest that future progress in material recognition will come from: (1) a deeper understanding of the role of non-local surface properties (e.g., extended highlights, object identity); and (2) efforts to model such non-local surface properties in images. PMID:23914070

  15. Exploring the recognized bio-mimicry materials for gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, T Z; Lo, Y R; Chan, E C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to synthesize peptides that are partially similar to the binding sites of human olfactory receptor protein. First, a putative 3-D model structure of human olfactory receptor protein (P30953) was modeled using a molecular simulation method. The computer docking simulation was then performed to determine the most plausible binding sites between the model structure and target gases, trimethylamine, ammonia, acetic acid, and o-xylene. According to the simulation result, a series of polypeptide sequences, horp61 for TMA, horp103 for o-xylene, horp109 for ammonia, and horp193 for acetic acid as recognized molecules were designed for gas sensing purposes. Preparing these peptides as corresponding gas sensing probes, the results showed a high relative sensitivity response of 6.7 for TMA (probe horp61), 5.1 for o-xylene (probe horp103), 11 for ammonia (probe horp109), and 28 for acetic acid (probe horp193), respectively. These results indicate that peptide mimicking of binding domain on olfactory receptor opens a new window and offers a novel strategy for the further development of recognized materials for gas sensing.

  16. Characterization of major allergens of royal jelly Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Patel, G; Lock, J; Rahman, D; Masita, A; Noormalin, A

    2008-12-01

    Royal jelly is widely consumed in the community and has perceived benefits ranging from promoting growth in children and improvement of general health status to enhancement of longevity for the elderly. However, royal jelly consumption has been linked to contact dermatitis, acute asthma, anaphylaxis and death. High prevalence of positive skin tests to royal jelly have been reported among atopic populations in countries with a high rate of royal jelly consumption. The present study is aimed to identify the major allergens of royal jelly. Royal jelly extract was separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D). Immunoblotting of the SDS-PAGE and 2-D profiles were performed to identify the allergenic spots. Spots were then excised from the 2-D gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE of royal jelly extract revealed 18 bands between 10 to 167 kD. Western blot of the fractionated proteins detected 15 IgE-binding bands between 14 to 127 kD with seven major allergens of 32, 40, 42, 49, 55, 60 and 67 kD using serum from 53 subjects with royal jelly allergy. The 2-D gel fractionated the royal jelly proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Out of these, 30 spots demonstrated specific IgE affinity to the sera tested. Eight spots of the major royal jelly allergens were selected for mass-spectrometry analysis. Digested tryptic peptides of the spots were compared to the amino acid sequence search in protein databases which identified the fragments of royal jelly homologus to major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJ1) and major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJ2). In conclusion, the major allergens of royal jelly are MRJ1 and MRJ2 in our patients' population.

  17. Cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and food allergens

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2015-01-01

    In patients with respiratory allergy, cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and foods may induce food allergy, symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to severe anaphylaxis. Clinical entities due to IgE sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are described for many sources of plant origin (pollen-food syndromes and associations, such as birch-apple, cypress-peach and celery-mugwort-spice syndromes, and mugwort-peach, mugwort-chamomile, mugwort-mustard, ragweed-melon-banana, goosefoot-melon associations), fungal origin (Alternaria-spinach syndrome), and invertebrate, mammalian or avian origin (mite-shrimp, cat-pork, and bird-egg syndromes). Clinical cases of allergic reactions to ingestion of food products containing pollen grains of specific plants, in patients with respiratory allergy to Asteraceae pollen, especially mugwort and ragweed, are also mentioned, for honey, royal jelly and bee polen dietary supplements, along with allergic reactions to foods contaminated with mites or fungi in patients with respiratory allergy to these aeroallergens. Medical history and diagnosis approach may be guided by the knowledge about the diverse cross-reacting allergens involved, and by the understanding of these clinical entities which may vary significantly or may be overlapping. The association between primary IgE sensitization with respiratory symptoms to inhaled allergens and food allergy due to cross-reactive allergen components is important to assess in allergy practice. The use of molecular-based diagnosis improves the understanding of clinically relevant IgE sensitization to cross-reactive allergen components from aeroallergen sources and foods. PMID:26140270

  18. Survey of the Asp f 1 allergen in office environments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, T J; Whitehead, L W; Connor, T H; Burau, K D

    2001-06-01

    Sick Building Syndrome remains a prevalent problem with patient complaints similar to typical allergy symptoms. Unlike household allergens typically found in domestic reservoirs, the allergen from a common fungus like Aspergillus fumigatus (i.e., Asp f 1) is conceivably widespread in the work environment. This project surveyed airborne levels of the Asp f 1 allergen in office and non-industrial occupational environments, as well as the dust reservoirs of A. fumigatus believed to be responsible for those levels. Airborne and bulk dust samples were collected, extracted, and assayed for Asp f 1. Concurrently, bulk dusts collected from the same locations were selectively cultured for A. fumigatus, and mesophilic fungi and bacteria. Samples were collected during both wet and dry climatological conditions from paired wet and dry building locations to examine the possibility of Asp f 1 increases due to fungal growth blooms. Very low levels of Asp f 1 were detected but only in the airborne samples (2/120 positive samples, with 3.6 ng/m3 and 1.8 ng/m3; LOD < 1.2 ng/m3). No dust samples showed even detectable traces of the allergen (LOD = 5 ng/g dust). Although A. fumigatus counts from dusts fluctuated significantly with exterior moisture events, analysis of wet versus dry period samples showed no differences in Asp f 1 levels. These results indicate that even in the presence of measurable fungal concentrations, background levels of Asp f 1 are low. Nonindustrial office buildings devoid of indoor air quality issues were not observed to have significant levels of the Asp f 1 allergen in the geographical region studied.

  19. Cloning, expression and characterization of mugwort pollen allergen Art v 2, a pathogenesis-related protein from family group 1.

    PubMed

    Arilla, M C; Ibarrola, I; Puente, Y; Daza, J C; Martínez, A; Asturias, J A

    2007-07-01

    Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) belongs to the Compositae family, and is one of the main causes of allergy in late summer and autumn. The aim of the study was to characterize the allergen Art v 2 from mugwort pollen. Skin prick tests, performed in 19 patients allergic to mugwort and 10 control patients, showed an Art v 2 sensitization prevalence of 58%, whereas none false-positives were detected among control patients. Art v 2 was purified by standard chromatography and binding to Concanavalin A column and had an apparent molecular mass of 33 and 20 kDa, calculated by gel permeation and SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions, respectively, showing that the allergen is composed of two identical subunits. Art v 2-encoding cDNA was amplified by PCR using degenerate primers based on reported partial amino acid sequences. Cloned cDNA encoding Art v 2 contains 140 bp that codify for a polypeptide of 15.8 kDa, with a predicted pI value of 5.2, and one potential N-glycosylation site. Protein homology search demonstrated that Art v 2 share 55-42% identical residues with pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 of tomato, potato, rape, wheat and rice. Homology was also found to Ves v 5 (41% identical residues). Bacterial-expressed recombinant Art v 2 was recognized only by 21% of mugwort-allergic patients. In conclusion, Art v 2 from mugwort is the first weed pollen allergen that belongs to the pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 and its recombinant form could help molecular diagnosis of mugwort associated allergy.

  20. Cloning and expression of Ole e I, the major allergen from olive tree pollen. Polymorphism analysis and tissue specificity.

    PubMed

    Villalba, M; Batanero, E; Monsalve, R I; González de la Peña, M A; Lahoz, C; Rodríguez, R

    1994-05-27

    Ole e I, the major allergen from the olive tree (Olea europaea), is one of the main causes of allergy in Mediterranean countries and some areas of North America. The cloning and sequencing of several cDNAs coding for the olive allergen have been achieved. cDNA has been synthesized from total pollen RNA and amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence data demonstrate the existence of microheterogeneities in at least 37 positions out of the 145 amino acids of Ole e I, thus explaining the high degree of polymorphism exhibited by the natural protein. One of the sequenced cDNAs encoding a full-length isoform was inserted into the plasmid vector pGEX-2T and overexpressed. The recombinant Ole e I has been produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum. This chimeric protein was purified by affinity chromatography on a glutathione-Sepharose 4B column and digested with thrombin to release the recombinant allergen. Both the fusion protein and the recombinant Ole e I were recognized in Western blot analysis by rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antisera raised against native Ole e I as well as by the IgE of olive pollen-sensitive human sera. This indicates that the recombinant production of individual isoforms may be useful for the improvement of reagents to be used in diagnosis and therapy of IgE-mediated disorders. In addition, Ole e I mRNA has been observed to be pollen-specific as shown in a Northern blot analysis.

  1. AlgPred: prediction of allergenic proteins and mapping of IgE epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sudipto; Raghava, G. P. S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study a systematic attempt has been made to integrate various approaches in order to predict allergenic proteins with high accuracy. The dataset used for testing and training consists of 578 allergens and 700 non-allergens obtained from A. K. Bjorklund, D. Soeria-Atmadja, A. Zorzet, U. Hammerling and M. G. Gustafsson (2005) Bioinformatics, 21, 39–50. First, we developed methods based on support vector machine using amino acid and dipeptide composition and achieved an accuracy of 85.02 and 84.00%, respectively. Second, a motif-based method has been developed using MEME/MAST software that achieved sensitivity of 93.94 with 33.34% specificity. Third, a database of known IgE epitopes was searched and this predicted allergenic proteins with 17.47% sensitivity at specificity of 98.14%. Fourth, we predicted allergenic proteins by performing BLAST search against allergen representative peptides. Finally hybrid approaches have been developed, which combine two or more than two approaches. The performance of all these algorithms has been evaluated on an independent dataset of 323 allergens and on 101 725 non-allergens obtained from Swiss-Prot. A web server AlgPred has been developed for the predicting allergenic proteins and for mapping IgE epitopes on allergenic proteins (). AlgPred is available at . PMID:16844994

  2. Cockroach-allergen study: allergen patterns of three common cockroach species probed by allergic sera collected in two cities.

    PubMed

    Kang, B C; Wilson, M; Price, K H; Kambara, T

    1991-06-01

    Antigens/allergens of three common cockroach extracts, crude whole body extract of the American cockroach (CRa-A), crude whole body extract of the German cockroach (CRa-G), and crude whole body extract of the Oriental cockroach (CRa-O), were studied with crossed immunoelectrophoresis, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and Western blot analysis. Sera of cockroach-allergic patients with asthma, 10 from Chicago, Ill. (C group) and six patients from Lexington, Ky. (L group), were used; results were then compared with sera of control subjects with asthma. Qualitative differences in protein bands were noted among CRa-A, CRa-G, and CRa-O by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allergen bands on Western blot were analyzed for distribution by molecular weight (MW) with relative intensity scores. Results were compared by species and by geography. Two to 12 allergenic bands of variable MW (14 kd to greater than 116 kd) were identified by 13 of 16 individual sera from cockroach-allergic patients from all three extracts. CRa-A demonstrated 55 bands with an intensity score of 125; CRa-G, 58 bands with an intensity score of 100; and CRa-O, 51 bands with an intensity score of 108. Allergenic bands of CRa-A were identified by six sera of the C group and one sera of the L group, whereas bands of both CRa-G and CRa-O were noted by nine sera of the C group and four sera of the L group. All three species had an allergen band in MW range of 40 to 45 kd that reacted to most sera from cockroach-allergic patients with asthma.

  3. Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning affect the allergenicity of Pru av 1, the major allergen from cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Gruber, Patrick; Vieths, Stefan; Wangorsch, Andrea; Nerkamp, Jörg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2004-06-16

    The influence of thermal processing and nonenymatic as well as polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed browning reaction on the allergenicity of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1 was investigated. After thermal treatment of the recombinant protein rPru av 1 in the absence or presence of carbohydrates, SDS-PAGE, enzyme allergosorbent tests, and inhibition assays revealed that thermal treatment of rPru av 1 alone did not show any influence on the IgE-binding activity of the protein at least for 30 min, thus correlating well with the refolding of the allergen in buffer solution as demonstrated by CD spectroscopic experiments. Incubation of the protein with starch and maltose also showed no effect on IgE-binding activity, whereas reaction with glucose and ribose and, even more pronounced, with the carbohydrate breakdown products glyceraldehyde and glyoxal induced a strong decrease of the IgE-binding capacity of rPru av 1. In the second part of the study, the effect of polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed oxidation of polyphenols on food allergen activity was investigated. Incubation of rPru av 1 with epicatechin in the presence of tyrosinase led to a drastic decrease in IgE-binding activity of the protein. Variations of the phenolic compound revealed caffeic acid and epicatechin as the most active inhibitors of the IgE-binding activity of rPru av 1, followed by catechin and gallic acid, and, finally, by quercetin and rutin, showing significantly lower activity. On the basis of these data, reactive intermediates formed during thermal carbohydrate degradation as well as during enzymatic polyphenol oxidation are suggested as the active chemical species responsible for modifying nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins, thus inducing an irreversible change in the tertiary structure of the protein and resulting in a loss of conformational epitopes of the allergen.

  4. [The study of profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens in the Moscow region].

    PubMed

    Akhapkina, I G; Krakhanenkova, S N; Dobronravova, E V; Shushpanova, E N

    2014-05-01

    The profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens is an important element of common pattern of immune diseases needed for development of effective pharmaceuticals. The purpose of the study was to analyze the rate of detection of combined forms of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens (pollen of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood, fungi A. alternata, C. herbarum, R. nigricans, P. notatum, C. albicans, A. fumigatus) in the Moscow region on the basis of data of scarification skin samples. The mono-sensibilization was established in 23.36% of all cases of hypersensitivity. At that, among leading allergens turned out A. alternata and cocksfoot pollen (6.54% and 4.67%), followed by allergens of wormwood pollen, P. notatum, R. nigricans, birch pollen and C. albicans (3.74%, 3.74%, 1.87%, 1.87% and 0.93% correspondingly). The polysensibilization was established in 51.40% of cases. Besides, the combined hypersensitivity to pollen allergens of plants (20.26%) and to pollen and fungal allergens (20.56%) occurred more frequently In the group of patients with polysensibilization predominated combined allergic reactions to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergens (36.36%). On the whole, most frequently occurred sensitization to allergens of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood and A. alternata allergen (76.14%, 69.32%, 57.95%, 55.68%, 39.77% and 56.82% correspondingly). In the Moscow region predominate combined forms of hypersensitivity to two and more pollen and fungal allergens. The polysensitization to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergen occurs more frequently.

  5. Rodent allergen in Los Angeles inner city homes of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jill; McConnell, Rob; Milam, Joel; Galvan, Judith; Kotlerman, Jenny; Thorne, Peter; Jones, Craig; Ferdman, Ronald; Eggleston, Peyton; Rand, Cynthia; Lewis, Mary Ann; Peters, John; Richardson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the presence of mouse allergen in inner city children with asthma. Researchers have found high levels of rodent allergen in homes sampled in the northeast and midwest United States, but there has been considerable variation between cities, and there have been few studies conducted in western states. We evaluated the frequency of rodent sightings and detectable mouse allergen and the housing conditions associated with these outcomes in inner city homes in Los Angeles. Two hundred and two families of school children, ages 6-16 living in inner city neighborhoods, participated in the study. Families were predominantly Latino (94%), and Spanish speaking (92%). At study entry, parents completed a home assessment questionnaire, and staff conducted a home evaluation and collected kitchen dust, which was analyzed for the presence of mouse allergen. Fifty-one percent of homes had detectable allergen in kitchen dust. All 33 families who reported the presence of rodents had detectable allergen in the home and were also more likely to have increased levels of allergen compared to those who did not report rodents. Unwashed dishes or food crumbs, lack of a working vacuum, and a caretaker report of a smoker in the home were all significantly associated with a greater risk of rodent sightings or detectable allergen (P<0.05). Detached homes were significantly more likely to have detectable allergen. The prevalence of allergen is common enough that it may have public health implications for asthmatic children, and detectable allergen was not routinely identified based on rodent sightings. Many of the predictors of rodent allergen are amenable to low-cost interventions that can be integrated with other measures to reduce exposure to indoor allergens.

  6. Control of airborne and liquid-borne fungal and pet allergens using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the dog, cat allergens (Can f 1 and Fel d 1) and fungal allergens (Alt a 1 and Asp f 1) were aerosolized and exposed to the microwave irradiation (2450 MHz) at different output powers for up to 2 min. The allergen bioaerosols were collected by a BioSampler, and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control and microwave-irradiated Asp f 1 allergens were also tested with IgEs in human blood sera samples. For airborne Asp f 1 and Alt a 1 allergens, the allergenicity was shown to decrease about 50% when exposed to microwave irradiation at 385 and 119 W and relatively no change at 700 W. For airborne Can f 1 allergen, the allergenicity was shown to increase about 70% when exposed to the irradiation at 385 W, but remained relatively unchanged at 700 and 119 W. In contrast, airborne Fel d 1 allergen was observed to lose allergenicity completely at 700 W, and retained about 40% and 80% at 385 and 119 W, respectively. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests showed that changes detected in IgE levels in human blood sera mixtures were not statistically significant for the control and microwave-irradiated waterborne Asp f 1 allergens. This study implies that although certain allergenicity reductions were observed for some allergens in certain cases, particular care should be taken when the microwave irradiation is used to disinfect food, water, and air because of its complex effects.

  7. IgE cross-reactivity between the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and the non-homologous allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ara h 1, a vicilin, Ara h 2, a 2S albumin, and Ara h 3, a legumin, are major33 peanut allergens. Ara h 2 is an important predictor of clinical reactivity to peanut, but co-sensitization to all three allergens is correlated with the severity of patients’ symptoms. We investigated whether co-sensitiza...

  8. Large particulate allergens can elicit mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis without exit from blood vessels as efficiently as do small soluble allergens.

    PubMed

    LiHua, Li; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Ohta, Takuya; Horiguchi, Kayo; Kawano, Yohei; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2015-11-06

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid-onset, life-threatening allergic reaction in that IgE, mast cells and histamine are commonly involved. It can be experimentally induced in IgE-sensitized animals by intravenous injection of corresponding allergens, and the sign of anaphylactic reaction can be detected within minutes after allergen challenge. However, it remains puzzling why the anaphylactic reaction can be initiated in vivo so quickly, considering that allergens are delivered into the blood circulation while mast cells reside within peripheral tissues but not in the blood circulation. To address this issue, we compared two different forms of the same allergen, small soluble and large particulate ones, in their ability to induce anaphylaxis in IgE-sensitized mice. In contrast to our expectation, particulate allergens could induce anaphylaxis as quickly and efficiently as did soluble allergens, even though they remained inside of blood vessels. In vivo imaging analysis suggested the direct interaction of intravascular particulate allergens and perivascular mast cells across the capillary wall. Taken together with previous report that perivascular mast cells can capture IgE in the blood circulation by extending cell processes across the vessel wall, our findings imply that blood-circulating allergens, regardless of their size, can stimulate mast cells without exit from blood vessels, by means of cross-linking IgE on mast cell processes inserted into the vessel lumen, and hence initiate anaphylactic reaction so quickly.

  9. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    PubMed

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  10. Allergenic Characterization of New Mutant Forms of Pru p 3 as New Immunotherapy Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Casado, C.; Garrido-Arandia, M.; Gamboa, P.; Blanca-López, N.; Canto, G.; Varela, J.; Cuesta-Herranz, J.; Pacios, L. F.; Díaz-Perales, A.; Tordesillas, L.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, treatment of food allergy only considered the avoidance of the specific food. However, the possibility of cross-reactivity makes this practice not very effective. Immunotherapy may exhibit as a good alternative to food allergy treatment. The use of hypoallergenic molecules with reduced IgE binding capacity but with ability to stimulate the immune system is a promising tool which could be developed for immunotherapy. In this study, three mutants of Pru p 3, the principal allergen of peach, were produced based on the described mimotope and T cell epitopes, by changing the specific residues to alanine, named as Pru p 3.01, Pru p 3.02, and Pru p 3.03. Pru p 3.01 showed very similar allergenic activity as the wild type by in vitro assays. However, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 presented reduced IgE binding with respect to the native form, by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. In addition, Pru p 3.03 had affected the IgG4 binding capacity and presented a random circular dichroism, which was reflected in the nonrecognition by specific antibodies anti-Pru p 3. Nevertheless, both Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 maintained the binding to IgG1 and their ability to activate T lymphocytes. Thus, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 could be good candidates for potential immunotherapy in peach-allergic patients. PMID:24324505

  11. Recognizing women in the archaeological record

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Primary sexual characteristics are usually absent in the archaeological record. The recovered secondary sex markers in bone morphology or mortuary context reflect the lifelong integrated biocultural experience of the individual man or woman. Internal patterns of variability within and between sexes can be recognized but are too frequently masked by traditional descriptive and univariate analyses. Fortunately, a more detailed picture of life experience is gained by analyzing chemical composition (isotopic and elemental) of hard tissues using an analytical anthropology approach and by examining the variation in novel ways. 7 figs.

  12. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans Recognizes a Bacterial Quorum-sensing Signal Molecule through the AWCON Neuron*

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kristen M.; Perez, Lark J.; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria use chemicals called autoinducers for cell-cell communication. Population-wide detection of autoinducers enables bacteria to orchestrate collective behaviors. In the animal kingdom detection of chemicals is vital for success in locating food, finding hosts, and avoiding predators. This behavior, termed chemotaxis, is especially well studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one, termed CAI-1, influences chemotaxis in C. elegans. C. elegans prefers V. cholerae that produces CAI-1 over a V. cholerae mutant defective for CAI-1 production. The position of the CAI-1 ketone moiety is the key feature driving CAI-1-directed nematode behavior. CAI-1 is detected by the C. elegans amphid sensory neuron AWCON. Laser ablation of the AWCON cell, but not other amphid sensory neurons, abolished chemoattraction to CAI-1. These analyses define the structural features of a bacterial-produced signal and the nematode chemosensory neuron that permit cross-kingdom interaction. PMID:25092291

  14. Mapping of epitopes on Poa p I and Lol p I allergens with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z W; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Jaggi, K S; Dzuba-Fischer, J; Rector, E; Kisil, F T

    1990-01-01

    Allergen Poa p I isolated from the dialysed aqueous extract of Kentucky blue grass pollen by affinity chromatography with an anti-Lol p I murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 290A-167 was previously shown to consist of a 35.8-kilodalton (kD) component with a pI of 6.4, designated as Poa p Ia, and a 33-kD component with a pI of 9.1, designated as Poa p Ib. The present study reports on the comparative antigenic analyses of these two components, using MAbs produced separately against Poa p I and Lol p I. Thus, anti-Poa p I MAbs 60 and 61 and anti-Lol p I MAb 290A-167 recognized Poa p Ia and Poa p Ib whereas anti-Poa p I MAbs 62, 63 and 64 and anti-Lol p I MAb 348A-6 recognized only Poa p Ia. The specificities of the MAbs were further resolved by comparing their respective abilities to inhibit the binding of 125I-Poa p I or 125I-Lol p I to the different MAbs prepared in the form of solid phase. These studies revealed that at least 4 distinct epitopes (designated as E1, E2, E3 and E4) were shared by both Poa p I and Lol p I. All 4 epitopes were present on Poa p Ia whereas only E1 and E3 were detected on Poa p Ib. E1 was recognized by MAbs 60 and 61, E2 by MAbs 62, 63 and 64, E3 by MAb 290A-167 and E4 by MAb 348A-6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Role of the polypeptide backbone and post-translational modifications in cross-reactivity of Art v 1, the major mugwort pollen allergen.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Petra; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Bauer, Roman; Weiss, Richard; Wagner, Stefan; Leonard, Renaud; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ebner, Christof; Ferreira, Fatima; Egger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort) is one of the main causes of late summer pollinosis in Europe, with >95% of patients sensitized to the glycoallergen Art v 1. Despite the importance of this allergen, little is known about its cross-reactive behavior. Here we investigated the occurrence of conserved Art v 1 antigenic determinants in sources known to display clinically relevant cross-reactivity with mugwort pollen. For this purpose, monoclonal antibodies specific for a cysteine-stabilized epitope of the Art v 1 defensin domain and for carbohydrates attached to the proline domain were produced by hybridoma and phage display technologies. Using polyclonal Art v 1-specific rabbit sera and antibodies against both the Art v 1 carbohydrate and polypeptide moieties, we could identify cross-reactive structures in pollen from botanically related Asteraceae weeds (Artemisia absinthium, Helianthus annuus and Ambrosia sp.). Homologous allergens were also recognized by IgE from mugwort-sensitized patients and the reactivity could be decreased by serum pre-incubation with natural and recombinant Art v 1. As no cross-reactive structures could be found in foods associated with mugwort pollinosis, we conclude that Art v 1 is poorly involved in mugwort cross-reactivity to food allergens.

  16. Development of sandwich ELISA for testing bovine β-lactoglobulin allergenic residues by specific polyclonal antibody against human IgE binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    He, Shengfa; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinyan; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-07-15

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main allergen in cows' milk, and the most commonly used method for detecting BLG is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, antibodies used in commercial ELISA kits do not recognize specifically BLG IgE epitopes. Here, an antibody specific to IgE linear epitopes for BLG was used to develop a sandwich ELISA using a rabbit anti-BLG polyclonal antibody. The linear range for BLG detection was 31.25-8000ng/mL and limit of detection was 1.96ng/mL. BLG content in dairy samples was determined, and there was a good agreement between this immunoassay and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high recovery. Additionally, BLG content in food samples had an average recovery of 104.25%. Allergenic residues were also detected in hydrolyzed infant formulas. The method developed could be a practical approach to determine BLG and its allergenic residues in food with a high degree of sensitivity, reliability and recovery.

  17. Cor a 14, the allergenic 2S albumin from hazelnut, is highly thermostable and resistant to gastrointestinal digestion

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Sabine; Bublin, Merima; Dubiela, Pawel; Hummel, Karin; Wortmann, Judith; Hofer, Gerhard; Keller, Walter; Radauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Scope Allergens from nuts frequently induce severe allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physicochemical characteristics of natural Cor a 14, the 2S albumin from hazelnut. Methods and results Cor a 14 was purified from raw hazelnuts using a combination of precipitation and chromatographic techniques. The protein was analyzed using gel electrophoresis, MS, and far‐UV circular dichroism (CD) analyses. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding of native, heat‐treated, and in vitro digested Cor a 14 was studied. We identified two different Cor a 14 isoforms and showed microclipping at the C‐terminus. CD spectra at room temperature showed the typical characteristics of 2S albumins, and temperatures of more than 80°C were required to start unfolding of Cor a 14 demonstrating its high stability to heat treatment. In vitro digestion experiments revealed that Cor a 14 is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Native and heat‐treated protein was recognized by sera from hazelnut allergic patients. However, denaturation of the allergen led to significantly reduced IgE binding. Conclusion We identified two different isoforms of Cor a 14 displaying high stability under heating and gastric and duodenal conditions. Data from IgE‐binding experiments revealed the existence of both, linear and conformational epitopes. PMID:26178695

  18. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention.

  19. A survey of food allergen control practices in the U.S. food industry.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Khan, Nazleen; Yajnik, Monali

    2013-02-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of food allergy as a public health issue, recalls and adverse reactions linked to undeclared allergens in foods continue to occur with high frequency. To reduce the overall incidence of such problems and to ensure that food-allergic consumers have the information they need to prevent adverse reactions, it is important to understand which allergen control practices are currently used by the food industry. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration carried out directed inspections of registered food facilities in 2010 to obtain a broader understanding of industry allergen control practices in the United States. The results of these inspections show that allergen awareness and the use of allergen controls have increased greatly in the last decade, but that small facilities lag in implementing allergen controls.

  20. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history--based eivdence of asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen lev...