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Sample records for allergic airway responses

  1. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  2. Role of Rho kinase isoforms in murine allergic airway responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Liu, P-Y; Kasahara, D I; Williams, A S; Verbout, N G; Halayko, A J; Fedulov, A; Shoji, T; Williams, E S; Noma, K; Shore, S A; Liao, J K

    2011-10-01

    Inhibition of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinases (ROCKs) reduces allergic airway responses in mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of the two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, in these responses. Wildtype (WT) mice and heterozygous ROCK1 and ROCK2 knockout mice (ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-), respectively) were sensitised and challenged with ovalbumin. ROCK expression and activation were assessed by western blotting. Airway responsiveness was measured by forced oscillation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the lungs were fixed for histological assessment. Compared with WT mice, ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression were 50% lower in lungs of ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-) mice, respectively, without changes in the other isoform. In WT lungs, ROCK activation increased after ovalbumin challenge and was sustained for several hours. This activation was reduced in ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-) lungs. Airway responsiveness was comparable in WT, ROCK1(+/-), and ROCK2(+/-) mice challenged with PBS. Ovalbumin challenge caused airway hyperresponsiveness in WT, but not ROCK1(+/-) or ROCK2(+/-) mice. Lavage eosinophils and goblet cell hyperplasia were significantly reduced in ovalbumin-challenged ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-) versus WT mice. Ovalbumin-induced changes in lavage interleukin-13, interleukin-5 and lymphocytes were also reduced in ROCK1(+/-) mice. In conclusion, both ROCK1 and ROCK2 are important in regulating allergic airway responses. PMID:21565918

  3. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  4. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  5. BLOCKADE OF TRKA OR P75 NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTORS ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway resistance. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates allergic airways responses. We tested t...

  6. SYNTHETIC COPPER-CONTAINING PARTICLES ENHANCE ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SYNTHETIC COPPER-CONTAINING PARTICLES ENHANCE ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN MICE. SH Gavett, MI Gilmour, and N Haykal-Coates. National Health and Environ Effects Research Lab, USEPA, Res Triangle Park, NC USA
    Respiratory morbidity and mortality associated with increases in ...

  7. Adoptive transfer of allergic airway responses with sensitized lymphocytes in BN rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Rossi, P; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Guttmann, R D; Martin, J G

    1995-07-01

    To evaluate the role of lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of allergic bronchoconstriction, we investigated whether allergic airway responses are adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in Brown Norway (BN) rats. Animals were actively sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) or sham sensitized, and 14 d later mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from intrathoracic lymph nodes, passed through a nylon wool column, and transferred to naive syngeneic rats. Recipients were challenged with aerosolized OA or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (5% wt/vol) and analyzed for changes in lung resistance (RL), airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (MCh), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. Recipients of MNCs from sensitized rats responded to OA inhalation and exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the 8-h observation period, but without usual early airway responses. Recipients of sham-sensitized MNCs or BSA-challenged recipients failed to respond to antigen challenge. At 32 h after OA exposure, airway responsiveness to MCh was increased in four of seven rats that had received sensitized MNCs (p = 0.035). BAL eosinophils increased at 32 h in the recipients of both sensitized and sham-sensitized MNCs. However, eosinophil numbers in BAL were inversely correlated with airway responsiveness in the recipients of sensitized MNCs (r = -0.788, p = 0.036). OA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) was undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in recipient rats following adoptive transfer. In conclusion, allergic late airway responses (LAR) and cholinergic airway hyperresponsiveness, but not antigen-specific IgE and early responses, were adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in BN rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599864

  8. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid Moraes; da Silva Mendes, Diego; Melo, Christianne Bandeira; Martins, Marco Aurélio; da Silva Dias, Celidarque; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca(++) influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. PMID:23994558

  9. Lipopolysaccharide exposure makes allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness less responsive to dexamethasone and inhibition of iNOS.

    PubMed

    Komlósi, Z I; Pozsonyi, E; Tábi, T; Szöko, E; Nagy, A; Bartos, B; Kozma, G T; Tamási, L; Orosz, M; Magyar, P; Losonczy, G

    2006-07-01

    Allergic airway disease can be refractory to anti-inflammatory treatment, whose cause is unclarified. Therefore, in the present experiment, we have tested the hypothesis that co-exposure to lipopolysacharide (Lps) and allergen results in glucocorticoid-resistant eosinophil airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Ovalbumin (Ova)-sensitized BALB/c mice were primed with 10 microg intranasal Lps 24 h before the start of Ova challenges (20 min on 3 consecutive days). Dexamethasone (5 mg/kg/day) was given on the last 2 days of Ova challenges. AHR, cellular build-up, cytokine and nitrite concentrations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung histology were examined. To assess the role of iNOS-derived NO in airway responsiveness, mice were treated with a selective inhibitor of this enzyme (1400W) 2 h before AHR measurements. More severe eosinophil inflammation and higher nitrite formation were found in Lps-primed than in non-primed allergized mice. After Lps priming, AHR and concentrations of T-helper type 2 cytokines in BALF were decreased, but still remained significantly higher than in controls. Eosinophil inflammation was partially, while nitrite production and AHR were observed to be largely dexamethasone resistant in Lps-primed allergized animals. 1400W effectively and rapidly diminished the AHR in Ova-sensitized and challenged mice, but failed to affect it after Lps priming plus allergization. In conclusion, Lps inhalation may exaggerate eosinophil inflammation and reduce responsiveness to anti-inflammatory treatment in allergic airway disease. PMID:16839411

  10. Residual oil fly ash amplifies allergic cytokines, airway responsiveness, and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gavett, S H; Madison, S L; Stevens, M A; Costa, D L

    1999-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution may increase symptom severity in allergic asthmatics. To examine possible interaction, or greater than additive responses, between PM effects and allergic responses, an ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged (OVA) mouse model of allergic airways disease was utilized. After challenge, mice were intratracheally instilled with saline vehicle or 3 mg/kg (approximately 60 microg) residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a transition metal-rich emission source PM sample. Physiological and inflammatory responses were examined 1, 3, 8, and 15 d later. In response to intravenously administered methacholine, ROFA increased total respiratory system resistance and decreased compliance 1 d after exposure, whereas effects of OVA lasted at least 15 d after exposure. Significant interactions between OVA and ROFA were mainly observed 8 d after challenge and exposure, especially with respect to compliance. A strong interaction (p < 0.01) between OVA and ROFA exposure resulted in 8-fold (1 d) and 3-fold (3 d) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid eosinophil numbers. A similarly strong interaction (8-fold) was observed in BAL fluid interleukin-4 (IL-4) 1 d after challenge and exposure. Significant though less strong interactions were also found with respect to IL-4 and IL-5 by 3 d postchallenge/exposure. This study shows that allergen challenge and exposure to emission source particulate matter containing relatively high levels of transitions metals can interact to increase Th2 cytokine production, eosinophil recruitment, and airway hyperresponsiveness in previously sensitized mice. PMID:10588603

  11. Invasive versus noninvasive measurement of allergic and cholinergic airway responsiveness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Glaab, Thomas; Ziegert, Michaela; Baelder, Ralf; Korolewitz, Regina; Braun, Armin; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Mitzner, Wayne; Krug, Norbert; Hoymann, Heinz G

    2005-01-01

    Background This study seeks to compare the ability of repeatable invasive and noninvasive lung function methods to assess allergen-specific and cholinergic airway responsiveness (AR) in intact, spontaneously breathing BALB/c mice. Methods Using noninvasive head-out body plethysmography and the decrease in tidal midexpiratory flow (EF50), we determined early AR (EAR) to inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens in conscious mice. These measurements were paralleled by invasive determination of pulmonary conductance (GL), dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and EF50 in another group of anesthetized, orotracheally intubated mice. Results With both methods, allergic mice, sensitized and boosted with A. fumigatus, elicited allergen-specific EAR to A. fumigatus (p < 0.05 versus controls). Dose-response studies to aerosolized methacholine (MCh) were performed in the same animals 48 h later, showing that allergic mice relative to controls were distinctly more responsive (p < 0.05) and revealed acute airway inflammation as evidenced from increased eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. Conclusion We conclude that invasive and noninvasive pulmonary function tests are capable of detecting both allergen-specific and cholinergic AR in intact, allergic mice. The invasive determination of GL and Cdyn is superior in sensitivity, whereas the noninvasive EF50 method is particularly appropriate for quick and repeatable screening of respiratory function in large numbers of conscious mice. PMID:16309547

  12. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid; Silva Mendes, Diego da; Melo, Christianne Bandeira; Martins, Marco Aurélio; Silva Dias, Celidarque da; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina; and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  13. Surfactant and allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Carla; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of unique proteins and lipids that covers the airway lumen. Surfactant prevents alveolar collapse and maintains airway patency by reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, it provides a defence against antigen uptake by binding foreign particles and enhancing cellular immune responses. Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway inflammation and presents with episodes of airway narrowing. The pulmonary inflammation and bronchoconstriction can be triggered by exposure to allergens or pathogens present in the inhaled air. Pulmonary surfactant has the potential to interact with various immune cells which orchestrate allergen- or pathogen-driven episodes of airway inflammation. The complex nature of surfactant allows multiple sites of interaction, but also makes it susceptible to external alterations, which potentially impair its function. This duality of modulating airway physiology and immunology during inflammatory conditions, while at the same time being prone to alterations accompanied by restricted function, has stimulated numerous studies in recent decades, which are reviewed in this article. PMID:23896983

  14. Respiratory responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and their relationship to nonspecific airway reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, W.F.; Horstman, D.H.; Abdul-Salaam, S.; Raggio, L.J.; Green, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    Ozone exposure in man produces changes in respiratory function and symptoms. There is a large degree of unexplained intersubject variability in the magnitude of these responses. There is concern that individuals with chronic respiratory diseases may also be more responsive to ozone than normal individuals. The purpose of this study was to describe the responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and to compare these responses to those previously observed in normal individuals. A further purpose was to measure the association of baseline nonspecific airway reactivity with changes in lung function and respiratory symptoms following ozone exposure. A group of 26 nonasthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis performed a bronchial inhalation challenge with histamine and subsequently underwent two hour exposures to both clean air and to 0.18 part per million ozone with alternating periods of rest and heavy exercise. The airway reactivity of this group of subjects was no greater than that of a comparable group of subjects without allergic rhinitis. The respiratory responses of these subjects to ozone exposure were similar to those previously reported for subjects without allergic rhinitis with the exception that the allergic rhinitis subjects appeared to have a modestly increased bronchoconstrictor response compared to normals. Furthermore, we observed no significant relationships between nonspecific airway reactivity and response to ozone as measured by changes in lung function or the induction of symptoms.

  15. A GM-CSF/IL-33 pathway facilitates allergic airway responses to sub-threshold house dust mite exposure.

    PubMed

    Llop-Guevara, Alba; Chu, Derek K; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Fattouh, Ramzi; Silver, Jonathan S; Moore, Cheryl Lynn; Xie, Juliana L; O'Byrne, Paul M; Coyle, Anthony J; Kolbeck, Roland; Humbles, Alison A; Stämpfli, Martin R; Jordana, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM), we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b(+) DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1α. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1α. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway. PMID:24551140

  16. A GM-CSF/IL-33 Pathway Facilitates Allergic Airway Responses to Sub-Threshold House Dust Mite Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Llop-Guevara, Alba; Chu, Derek K.; Walker, Tina D.; Goncharova, Susanna; Fattouh, Ramzi; Silver, Jonathan S.; Moore, Cheryl Lynn; Xie, Juliana L.; O’Byrne, Paul M.; Coyle, Anthony J.; Kolbeck, Roland; Humbles, Alison A.; Stämpfli, Martin R.; Jordana, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM), we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b+ DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1α. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1α. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway. PMID:24551140

  17. The Endogenous Th17 Response in NO2-Promoted Allergic Airway Disease Is Dispensable for Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Distinct from Th17 Adoptive Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rebecca A.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Daggett, Rebecca; Hoyt, Laura; Alcorn, John F.; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Lundblad, Lennart K. A.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Severe, glucocorticoid-resistant asthma comprises 5-7% of patients with asthma. IL-17 is a biomarker of severe asthma, and the adoptive transfer of Th17 cells in mice is sufficient to induce glucocorticoid-resistant allergic airway disease. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental toxin that correlates with asthma severity, exacerbation, and risk of adverse outcomes. Mice that are allergically sensitized to the antigen ovalbumin by exposure to NO2 exhibit a mixed Th2/Th17 adaptive immune response and eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment to the airway following antigen challenge, a phenotype reminiscent of severe clinical asthma. Because IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical in the generation of the Th17 response in vivo, we hypothesized that the IL-1R/Th17 axis contributes to pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease and manifests in glucocorticoid-resistant cytokine production. IL-17A neutralization at the time of antigen challenge or genetic deficiency in IL-1R resulted in decreased neutrophil recruitment to the airway following antigen challenge but did not protect against the development of AHR. Instead, IL-1R-/- mice developed exacerbated AHR compared to WT mice. Lung cells from NO2-allergically inflamed mice that were treated in vitro with dexamethasone (Dex) during antigen restimulation exhibited reduced Th17 cytokine production, whereas Th17 cytokine production by lung cells from recipient mice of in vitro Th17-polarized OTII T-cells was resistant to Dex. These results demonstrate that the IL-1R/Th17 axis does not contribute to AHR development in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease, that Th17 adoptive transfer does not necessarily reflect an endogenously-generated Th17 response, and that functions of Th17 responses are contingent on the experimental conditions in which they are generated. PMID:24069338

  18. Alterations of the Lung Methylome in Allergic Airway Hyper-Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Robert YS; Shang, Yan; Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Dao, Tyna; Das, Sandhya; Rabold, Richard; Sham, James SK; Mitzner, Wayne; Tang, Wan-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, affecting 300 million people around the world (available at: www.who.int). To date, genetic factors associated with asthma susceptibility have been unable to explain the full etiology of asthma. Recent studies have demonstrated that the epigenetic disruption of gene expression plays an equally important role in the development of asthma through interaction with our environment. We sensitized 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice with house-dust-mite (HDM) extracts intraperitoneally followed by 5 weeks of exposure to HDM challenges (three times a week) intratracheally. HDM-exposed mice showed an increase in airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and inflammation together with structural remodeling of the airways. We applied methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-next generation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) for profiling of DNA methylation changes in the lungs in response to HDM. We observed about 20 million reads by a single-run of massive parallel sequencing. We performed bioinformatics and pathway analysis on the raw sequencing data to identify differentially methylated candidate genes in HDM-exposed mice. Specifically, we have revealed that the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway is epigenetically modulated by chronic exposure to HDM. Here, we demonstrated that a specific allergen may play a role in AHR through an epigenetic mechanism by disrupting the expression of genes in lungs that might be involved in airway inflammation and remodeling. Our findings provide new insights into the potential mechanisms by which environmental allergens induce allergic asthma and such insights may assist in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic options for this debilitative disease. PMID:24446183

  19. Alterations of the lung methylome in allergic airway hyper-responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Robert Ys; Shang, Yan; Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Dao, Tyna; Das, Sandhya; Rabold, Richard; Sham, James Sk; Mitzner, Wayne; Tang, Wan-Yee

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, affecting 300 million people around the world (available at: www.who.int). To date, genetic factors associated with asthma susceptibility have been unable to explain the full etiology of asthma. Recent studies have demonstrated that the epigenetic disruption of gene expression plays an equally important role in the development of asthma through interaction with our environment. We sensitized 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice with house-dust-mite (HDM) extracts intraperitoneally followed by 5 weeks of exposure to HDM challenges (three times a week) intratracheally. HDM-exposed mice showed an increase in airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and inflammation together with structural remodeling of the airways. We applied methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-next generation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) for profiling of DNA methylation changes in the lungs in response to HDM. We observed about 20 million reads by a single-run of massive parallel sequencing. We performed bioinformatics and pathway analysis on the raw sequencing data to identify differentially methylated candidate genes in HDM-exposed mice. Specifically, we have revealed that the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway is epigenetically modulated by chronic exposure to HDM. Here, we demonstrated that a specific allergen may play a role in AHR through an epigenetic mechanism by disrupting the expression of genes in lungs that might be involved in airway inflammation and remodeling. Our findings provide new insights into the potential mechanisms by which environmental allergens induce allergic asthma and such insights may assist in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic options for this debilitative disease. PMID:24446183

  20. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  1. The immunomodulatory actions of prostaglandin E2 on allergic airway responses in the rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, James G; Suzuki, Masaru; Maghni, Karim; Pantano, Rosa; Ramos-Barbón, David; Ihaku, Daizo; Nantel, François; Denis, Danielle; Hamid, Qutayba; Powell, William S

    2002-10-01

    PGE(2) has been reported to inhibit allergen-induced airway responses in sensitized human subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory actions of PGE(2) in an animal model of allergic asthma. BN rats were sensitized to OVA using Bordetella pertussis as an adjuvant. One week later, an aerosol of OVA was administered. After a further week, animals were anesthetized with urethan, intubated, and subjected to measurements of pulmonary resistance (R(L)) for a period of 8 h after OVA challenge. PGE(2) (1 and 3 micro g in 100 micro l of saline) was administered by insufflation intratracheally 30 min before OVA challenge. The early response was inhibited by PGE(2) (3 micro g). The late response was inhibited by both PGE(2) (1 and 3 micro g). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from OVA-challenged rats showed eosinophilia and an increase in the number of cells expressing IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. These responses were inhibited by PGE(2). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes were elevated after OVA challenge and were reduced after PGE(2) to levels comparable with those of sham challenged animals. We conclude that PGE(2) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that may act by reducing allergen-induced Th2 cell activation and cysteinyl-leukotriene synthesis in the rat. PMID:12244197

  2. Recruited alveolar macrophages, in response to airway epithelial-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCl2, regulate airway inflammation and remodeling in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Gyu; Jeong, Jong Jin; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Chung, Sangwoon; Ranjan, Ravi; Karpurapu, Manjula; Deng, Jing; Qian, Feng; Kelly, Elizabeth A B; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ackerman, Steven J; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Christman, John W; Park, Gye Young

    2015-06-01

    Although alveolar macrophages (AMs) from patients with asthma are known to be functionally different from those of healthy individuals, the mechanism by which this transformation occurs has not been fully elucidated in asthma. The goal of this study was to define the mechanisms that control AM phenotypic and functional transformation in response to acute allergic airway inflammation. The phenotype and functional characteristics of AMs obtained from human subjects with asthma after subsegmental bronchoprovocation with allergen was studied. Using macrophage-depleted mice, the role and trafficking of AM populations was determined using an acute allergic lung inflammation model. We observed that depletion of AMs in a mouse allergic asthma model attenuates Th2-type allergic lung inflammation and its consequent airway remodeling. In both human and mouse, endobronchial challenge with allergen induced a marked increase in monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs) in bronchoalveolar fluid, concomitant with the rapid appearance of a monocyte-derived population of AMs. Furthermore, airway allergen challenge of allergic subjects with mild asthma skewed the pattern of AM gene expression toward high levels of the receptor for MCP1 (CCR2/MCP1R) and expression of M2 phenotypic proteins, whereas most proinflammatory genes were highly suppressed. CCL2/MCP-1 gene expression was prominent in bronchial epithelial cells in a mouse allergic asthma model, and in vitro studies indicate that bronchial epithelial cells produced abundant MCP-1 in response to house dust mite allergen. Thus, our study indicates that bronchial allergen challenge induces the recruitment of blood monocytes along a chemotactic gradient generated by allergen-exposed bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:25360868

  3. Increased Mast Cell Density and Airway Responses to Allergic and Non-Allergic Stimuli in a Sheep Model of Chronic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Van der Velden, Joanne; Barker, Donna; Barcham, Garry; Koumoundouros, Emmanuel; Snibson, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased mast cell (MC) density and changes in their distribution in airway tissues is thought to contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the time sequence for these changes and how they impact small airway function in asthma is not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to characterise temporal changes in airway MC density and correlate these changes with functional airway responses in sheep chronically challenged with house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Methodology/Principal Findings MC density was examined on lung tissue from four spatially separate lung segments of allergic sheep which received weekly challenges with HDM allergen for 0, 8, 16 or 24 weeks. Lung tissue was collected from each segment 7 days following the final challenge. The density of tryptase-positive and chymase-positive MCs (MCT and MCTC respectively) was assessed by morphometric analysis of airway sections immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against MC tryptase and chymase. MCT and MCTC density was increased in small bronchi following 24 weeks of HDM challenges compared with controls (P<0.05). The MCTC/MCT ratio was significantly increased in HDM challenged sheep compared to controls (P<0.05). MCT and MCTC density was inversely correlated with allergen-induced increases in peripheral airway resistance after 24 weeks of allergen exposure (P<0.05). MCT density was also negatively correlated with airway responsiveness after 24 challenges (P<0.01). Conclusions MCT and MCTC density in the small airways correlates with better lung function in this sheep model of chronic asthma. Whether this finding indicates that under some conditions mast cells have protective activities in asthma, or that other explanations are to be considered requires further investigation. PMID:22606346

  4. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

  5. Respiratory responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and their relationship to nonspecific airway reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, W.F.; Horstman, D.H.; Abdul-Salaam, S.; Raggio, L.J.; Green, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone exposure in man produces changes in respiratory function and symptoms. There is a large degree of unexplained intersubject variability in the magnitude of these responses. There is concern that individuals with chronic respiratory diseases may also be more responsive to ozone than normal individuals. The purpose of this study was to describe the responses of subjects with allergic rhinitis to ozone exposure and to compare these responses to those previously observed in normal individuals. A further purpose was to measure the association between baseline nonspecific airway reactivity and changes in lung function and respiratory symptoms following ozone exposure.

  6. Divergent effects of urban particulate air pollution on allergic airway responses in experimental asthma: a comparison of field exposure studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increases in ambient particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that PM2.5 derived from two distinct urban U.S. communities would induce variable responses to aggravate airway symptoms during experimental asthma. Methods We used a mobile laboratory to conduct community-based inhalation exposures to laboratory rats with ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease. In Grand Rapids exposures were conducted within 60 m of a major roadway, whereas the Detroit was located in an industrial area more than 400 m from roadways. Immediately after nasal allergen challenge, Brown Norway rats were exposed by whole body inhalation to either concentrated air particles (CAPs) or filtered air for 8 h (7:00 AM - 3:00 PM). Both ambient and concentrated PM2.5 was assessed for mass, size fractionation, and major component analyses, and trace element content. Sixteen hours after exposures, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung lobes were collected and evaluated for airway inflammatory and mucus responses. Results Similar CAPs mass concentrations were generated in Detroit (542 μg/m3) and Grand Rapids (519 μg/m3). Exposure to CAPs at either site had no effects in lungs of non-allergic rats. In contrast, asthmatic rats had 200% increases in airway mucus and had more BALF neutrophils (250% increase), eosinophils (90%), and total protein (300%) compared to controls. Exposure to Detroit CAPs enhanced all allergic inflammatory endpoints by 30-100%, whereas inhalation of Grand Rapids CAPs suppressed all allergic responses by 50%. Detroit CAPs were characterized by high sulfate, smaller sized particles and were derived from local combustion sources. Conversely Grand Rapids CAPs were derived primarily from motor vehicle sources. Conclusions Despite inhalation exposure to the same mass concentration of urban PM2.5, disparate health

  7. A bug's view of allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter S; Campbell, Dianne E

    2016-06-01

    The increase in allergic airways disease has been linked to modern urbanization and lifestyle. Recent evidence suggests that the associated reduction in microbial exposure, reduction in dietary fibre intake and increased antibiotic use may cause early dysbiosis in infancy, which predisposes to immune dysregulation and allergic airways disease later in life. This implies that there may be a window of opportunity for primary prevention strategies aimed to protect or restore the microbiome early in life and thereby decrease the risk of developing allergic airways disease. Alternatively, strategies that correct dysbiosis may aid in the treatment of established allergic airways disease. PMID:27012478

  8. Silencing Nociceptor Neurons Reduces Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E; Burkett, Patrick R; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J F; Pascal, Maud A; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L; Tran, Johnathan V; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Bean, Bruce P; Levy, Bruce D; Woolf, Clifford J

    2015-07-15

    Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation, we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8(+) sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large-pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin- or house-dust-mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4(+) and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  9. Differential Activation of Airway Eosinophils Induces IL-13 Mediated Allergic Th2 Pulmonary Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, EA; Doyle, AD; Colbert, DC; Zellner, KR; Protheroe, CA; LeSuer, WE; Lee, NA.; Lee, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Methods Wild type or cytokine deficient (IL-13−/− or IL-4−/−) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. Results In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophildeficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLNs. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4+ T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13 whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. Conclusion The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. PMID:26009788

  10. Carbon Nanofibers Have IgE Adjuvant Capacity but Are Less Potent Than Nanotubes in Promoting Allergic Airway Responses

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Mari; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Løvik, Martinus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the possible health impact of nanoparticles. The main objective of this study was to investigate the allergy-promoting capacity of four different carbon nanofiber (CNF) samples in an injection and an airway mouse model of allergy. Secondly, the potency of the CNF was compared to the previously reported allergy-promoting capacity of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the airway model. Ultrafine carbon black particles (ufCBP) were used as a positive control. Particles were given together with the allergen ovalbumin (OVA) either by subcutaneous injection into the footpad or intranasally to BALB/cA mice. After allergen booster, OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were measured. In the airway model, inflammation was determined as influx of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages) and by mediators (MCP-1 and TNF-α present in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF)). CNF and CNT both increased OVA-specific IgE levels in the two models, but in the airway model, the CNT gave a significantly stronger IgE response than the CNF. Furthermore, the CNT and not the CNF promoted eosinophil lung inflammation. Our data therefore suggest that nanotube-associated properties are particularly potent in promoting allergic responses. PMID:24024193

  11. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  12. Airway Fibrinogenolysis and the Initiation of Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Mak, Garbo; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Knight, J. Morgan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    The past 15 years of allergic disease research have produced extraordinary improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway allergic diseases such as asthma. Whereas it was previously viewed as largely an immunoglobulin E-mediated process, the gradual recognition that T cells, especially Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells and Th17 cells, play a major role in asthma and related afflictions has inspired clinical trials targeting cytokine-based inflammatory pathways that show great promise. What has yet to be clarified about the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders, however, are the fundamental initiating factors, both exogenous and endogenous, that drive and sustain B- and T-cell responses that underlie the expression of chronic disease. Here we review how proteinases derived from diverse sources drive allergic responses. A central discovery supporting the proteinase hypothesis of allergic disease pathophysiology is the role played by airway fibrinogen, which in part appears to serve as a sensor of unregulated proteinase activity and which, when cleaved, both participates in a novel allergic signaling pathway through Toll-like receptor 4 and forms fibrin clots that contribute to airway obstruction. Unresolved at present is the ultimate source of airway allergenic proteinases. From among many potential candidates, perhaps the most intriguing is the possibility such enzymes derive from airway fungi. Together, these new findings expand both our knowledge of allergic disease pathophysiology and options for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25525732

  13. T cell-derived Act1 is necessary for IL-25-mediated Th2 responses and allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Swaidani, Shadi; Bulek, Katarzyna; Kang, Zizhen; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Liu, Caini; Yin, Weiguo; Abbadi, Amina; Aronica, Mark; Li, Xiaoxia

    2011-09-15

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms driven by IL-25 and its cognate receptor IL-17RB necessary for the promotion of Th2-mediating pathogenic pulmonary inflammation remains to be defined. We have previously reported the critical role of the U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Act1 (1) for the downstream signaling of the IL-17 cytokine family including the Th2-promoting cytokine IL-25 (IL-17E) (2). In this study, we report that IL-25-driven but not conventional IL-4-driven Th2 polarization and cytokine production is impaired in Act1-deficient T cells. Also, Act1 deficiency in the T cell compartment results in the abrogation of eosinophilic airway infiltration as well as airway hyperresponsiveness in mouse models of Ag-induced airway inflammation. The in vivo generation of Ag-specific Th2 cytokine-producing cells is defective in the absence of Act1 expression in T cells after OVA/aluminum hydroxide immunization. Notably, the production of OVA-specific IgG(1) but not IgG(2a) or IgE is also impaired. At the molecular level, we report that IL-25-mediated induction of Th2 master regulator GATA-3 and the transcription factor GFI-1 is attenuated in Act1-deficient T cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that Act1 expression in T cells is required for cellular and humoral Th2-mediated allergic responses and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, in part, through Act1's function in IL-25-induced development of Th2 T cells. PMID:21856933

  14. Role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Idzko, Marco; Pitchford, Simon; Page, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role for platelets and their products (e.g., platelet factor 4, β-thromboglobulin, RANTES, thromboxane, or serotonin) in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. A variety of changes in platelet function have been observed in patients with asthma, such as alterations in platelet secretion, expression of surface molecules, aggregation, and adhesion. Moreover, platelets have been found to actively contribute to most of the characteristic features of asthma, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. This review brings together the current available data from both experimental and clinical studies that have investigated the role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation and asthma. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of asthma might lead to novel promising therapeutic approaches in the treatment of allergic airway diseases. PMID:26051948

  15. TIMING OF DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION AND MAGNITUDE OF DOSE INFLUENCE THE SEVERITY OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) arising from the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates asthma. Several studies have shown that particulate and allergen co-exposure leads to an exacerbation of the hallmark features of allergic airways disease relative to allergen exp...

  16. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26086549

  17. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Chawes, Bo L K

    2011-05-01

    of the nasal mucosa in children already at age 6 years. Non-allergic rhinitis exhibited no change in the nasal airway patency, but some nasal eosinophilia albeit less than children with allergic rhinitis. These findings suggest different pathology in allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis which may have important clinical implications for early pharmacological treatment of rhinitis in young children. In paper II, we utilized the nasal airway patency end-points derived from paper I to examine whether upper and lower airway patency are associated. Upper airway patency was assessed by acoustic rhinometry before and after intranasal α-agonist and lower airway patency by spirometry before and after inhaled β2-agonist. Upper and lower airway patencies were strongly associated and independent of body size, rhinitis and asthma. The association was consistent for both baseline values and for decongested nasal airway patency and post-β2 FEV1. Blood and nasal eosinophilia were also associated with nasal airway obstruction. This suggests generalized diminished airway dimensions as a novel susceptibility factor for concurrent symptoms of asthma and rhinitis in early childhood and supports the notion of a common pathophysiology in asthma and rhinitis. The clinical interpretation of these findings is that all children presenting either rhinitis or asthma should be considered inflamed in the entire respiratory tract. In paper III, we aimed to describe asthma and intermediary asthma end-points associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in preschool-aged children. At age 7 years, we evaluated prevalence of asthma, eczema, food sensitization, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy associated inflammation. Only children

  18. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  19. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C(+)TCRβ(+) NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C(+)TCRβ(+) NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  20. Interleukin-1 Receptor and Caspase-1 Are Required for the Th17 Response in Nitrogen Dioxide–Promoted Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rebecca A.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Lundblad, Lennart K. A.; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Budd, Ralph C.; Alcorn, John F.; Flavell, Richard A.; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental pollutant and endogenously generated oxidant associated with the development, severity, and exacerbation of asthma. NO2 exposure is capable of allergically sensitizing mice to the innocuous inhaled antigen ovalbumin (OVA), promoting neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment, and a mixed Th2/Th17 response upon antigen challenge that is reminiscent of severe asthma. However, the identity of IL-17A–producing cells and the mechanisms governing their ontogeny in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease remain unstudied. We measured the kinetics of lung inflammation after antigen challenge in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease, including inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage and antigen-specific IL-17A production from the lung. We determined that IL-17A+ cells were predominately CD4+T cell receptor (TCR)β+ Th17 cells, and that a functional IL-1 receptor was required for Th17, but not Th2, cytokine production after in vitro antigen restimulation of lung cells. The absence of natural killer T cells, γδ T cells, or the inflammasome scaffold nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain (Nlrp)3 did not affect the development of NO2-promoted allergic inflammation or IL-17A production. Similarly, neutrophil depletion or the neutralization of IL-1α during sensitization exerted no effect on these parameters. However, the absence of caspase-1 significantly reduced IL-17A production from lung cells without affecting Th2 cytokines or lung inflammation. Finally, the intranasal administration of IL-1β and the inhalation of antigen promoted allergic sensitization that was reflected by neutrophilic airway inflammation and IL-17A production from CD4+TCRβ+ Th17 cells subsequent to antigen challenge. These data implicate a role for caspase-1 and IL-1β in the IL-1 receptor–dependent Th17 response manifest in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease. PMID:23371061

  1. Alveolar macrophages from allergic lungs are not committed to a pro-allergic response and can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness following ex vivo culture

    PubMed Central

    Pouliot, P.; Spahr, A.; Careau, É.; Turmel, V.; Bissonnette, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background We already demonstrated that adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages (AMs) from non-allergic rats into AM-depleted allergic rats prevents airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We also showed that AMs from non-sensitized, but not from sensitized, allergy-prone rats can prevent AHR following allergen challenge in sensitized allergic animals, establishing the importance of rat immunological status on the modulation of AM functions and suggesting that an allergic lung environment alters AM functions. Objective We investigated how the activation of allergic AMs can be modulated to reinstitute them with their capacity to reduce AHR. Methods AMs from sensitized Brown Norway rats were cultured ex vivo for up to 18 h in culture media to deprogram them from the influence of the allergic lung before being reintroduced into the lung of AM-depleted sensitized recipient. AHR and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were measured following allergen challenge. AMs stimulated ex vivo with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) were used as positive controls as BCG induces a T-helper type 1 activation in AMs. Results AMs ex vivo cultured for 4–18 h reduced AHR to normal level. Interestingly, pro-allergic functions of AMs were dampened by 18 h culture and they reduced AHR even after spending 48 h in an allergic lung microenvironment. Furthermore, transfer of cultured AMs caused an increase in the levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in BAL when compared with their ovalbumin control. After 18 h of ex vivo culture, AMs expressed reduced levels of TNF, IL-1α, IL-6, and Arginase-2 mRNAs compared with freshly isolated AMs, suggesting that ex vivo culture exempted AMs from lung stimuli that affected their functions. Conclusions There is a significant crosstalk between lung microenvironment and AMs, affecting their functions. It is also the first report showing that sensitized AMs can be modulated ex vivo to reduce lung pro-allergic environment, opening the way to therapies targetting

  2. Allergic airways disease develops after an increase in allergen capture and processing in the airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    von Garnier, Christophe; Wikstrom, Matthew E; Zosky, Graeme; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D; Smith, Miranda; Thomas, Jennifer A; Judd, Samantha R; Strickland, Deborah H; Holt, Patrick G; Stumbles, Philip A

    2007-11-01

    Airway mucosal dendritic cells (AMDC) and other airway APCs continuously sample inhaled Ags and regulate the nature of any resulting T cell-mediated immune response. Although immunity develops to harmful pathogens, tolerance arises to nonpathogenic Ags in healthy individuals. This homeostasis is thought to be disrupted in allergic respiratory disorders such as allergic asthma, such that a potentially damaging Th2-biased, CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory response develops against intrinsically nonpathogenic allergens. Using a mouse model of experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD), we have investigated the functional changes occurring in AMDC and other airway APC populations during disease onset. Onset of EAAD was characterized by early and transient activation of airway CD4(+) T cells coinciding with up-regulation of CD40 expression exclusively on CD11b(-) AMDC. Concurrent enhanced allergen uptake and processing occurred within all airway APC populations, including B cells, macrophages, and both CD11b(+) and CD11b(-) AMDC subsets. Immune serum transfer into naive animals recapitulated the enhanced allergen uptake observed in airway APC populations and mediated activation of naive allergen-specific, airway CD4(+) T cells following inhaled allergen challenge. These data suggest that the onset of EAAD is initiated by enhanced allergen capture and processing by a number of airway APC populations and that allergen-specific Igs play a role in the conversion of normally quiescent AMDC subsets into those capable of inducing airway CD4(+) T cell activation. PMID:17947647

  3. Effect of diesel exhaust particles on allergic reactions and airway responsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caroline C; Yin, Xuejun J; Ma, Jane Y C; Millecchia, Lyndell; Wu, Zhong-Xin; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Antonini, James M; Dey, Richard D; Ma, Joseph K H

    2005-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in rats reduced OVA-induced airway inflammation. In the present study, Brown Norway rats were first sensitized to OVA (42.3 +/- 5.7 mg/m3) for 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15, then exposed to filtered air or DEP (22.7 +/- 2.5 mg/m3) for 4 h/day on days 24-28, and challenged with OVA on day 29. Airway responsiveness was examined on day 30, and animals were sacrificed on day 31. Ovalbumin sensitization and challenge resulted in a significant infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils into the lung, elevated presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in lung draining lymph nodes, and increased production of serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG. Diesel exhaust particles pre-exposure augmented OVA-induced production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG and pulmonary inflammation characterized by marked increases in T lymphocytes and infiltration of eosinophils after OVA challenge, whereas DEP alone did not have these effects. Although OVA-sensitized rats showed modest response to methacholine challenge, it was the combined DEP and OVA exposure that produced significant airway hyperresponsiveness in this animal model. The effect of DEP pre-exposure on OVA-induced immune responses correlated with an interactive effect of DEP with OVA on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells, NO levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the induction of inducible NO synthase expression in AM and ATII cells, and a depletion of total intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes. These results show that DEP pre-exposure exacerbates the allergic responses to the subsequent challenge with OVA in OVA-sensitized rats. This DEP effect may be, at least partially, attributed to the elevated generation of ROS in AM and ATII cells, a depletion of GSH in AM and

  4. Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulate the allergic response in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L S; Oliveira, S C; Góes, A M; Oliveira, R R; Pacífico, L G; Marinho, F V; Fonseca, C T; Cardoso, F C; Carvalho, E M; Araujo, M I

    2010-05-01

    Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with protection against allergies. The mechanisms underlying this association may involve regulatory cells and cytokines. We evaluated the immune response induced by the S. mansoni antigens Sm22.6, PIII and Sm29 in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation. BALB/c mice were sensitized with subcutaneously injected OVA-alum and challenged with aerolized OVA. Mice were given three doses of the different S. mansoni antigens. Lung histopathology, cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and eosinophil peroxidase activity in lung were evaluated. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in serum and cytokines in BAL were also measured. Additionally, we evaluated the frequency of CD4+forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ T cells in cultures stimulated with OVA and the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 by these cells. The number of total cells and eosinophils in BAL and the levels of OVA-specific IgE were reduced in the immunized mice. Also, the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the BAL of mice immunized with PIII and Sm22.6 were decreased, while the levels of IL-10 were higher in mice immunized with Sm22.6 compared to the non-immunized mice. The frequency of CD4+FoxP3+ T cells was higher in the groups of mice who received Sm22.6, Sm29 and PIII, being the expression of IL-10 by these cells only higher in mice immunized with Sm22.6. We concluded that the S. mansoni antigens used in this study are able to down-modulate allergic inflammatory mediators in a murine model of airway inflammation and that the CD4+FoxP3+ T cells, even in the absence of IL-10 expression, might play an important role in this process. PMID:20132231

  5. Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulate the allergic response in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, L S; Oliveira, S C; Góes, A M; Oliveira, R R; Pacífico, L G; Marinho, F V; Fonseca, C T; Cardoso, F C; Carvalho, E M; Araujo, M I

    2010-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with protection against allergies. The mechanisms underlying this association may involve regulatory cells and cytokines. We evaluated the immune response induced by the S. mansoni antigens Sm22·6, PIII and Sm29 in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation. BALB/c mice were sensitized with subcutaneously injected OVA-alum and challenged with aerolized OVA. Mice were given three doses of the different S. mansoni antigens. Lung histopathology, cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and eosinophil peroxidase activity in lung were evaluated. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in serum and cytokines in BAL were also measured. Additionally, we evaluated the frequency of CD4+forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ T cells in cultures stimulated with OVA and the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 by these cells. The number of total cells and eosinophils in BAL and the levels of OVA-specific IgE were reduced in the immunized mice. Also, the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the BAL of mice immunized with PIII and Sm22·6 were decreased, while the levels of IL-10 were higher in mice immunized with Sm22·6 compared to the non-immunized mice. The frequency of CD4+FoxP3+ T cells was higher in the groups of mice who received Sm22·6, Sm29 and PIII, being the expression of IL-10 by these cells only higher in mice immunized with Sm22·6. We concluded that the S. mansoni antigens used in this study are able to down-modulate allergic inflammatory mediators in a murine model of airway inflammation and that the CD4+FoxP3+ T cells, even in the absence of IL-10 expression, might play an important role in this process. PMID:20132231

  6. Differential effects of endogenous and exogenous interferon-gamma on immunoglobulin E, cellular infiltration, and airway responsiveness in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, C L; Van Ark, I; Hofman, G; Nijkamp, F P; Jardieu, P M; Van Oosterhout, A J

    1998-11-01

    The inflammatory response as seen in human allergic asthma is thought to be regulated by Th2 cells. It has been shown that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) can downregulate the proliferation of Th2 cells and therefore might be of therapeutic use. In the present study we have investigated the in vivo role of endogenous and exogenous IFN-gamma in a murine model with features reminiscent of human allergic asthma. IFN-gamma gene knockout (GKO) and wild-type mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and exposed to repeated ovalbumin aerosol challenges. In addition, wild-type mice were treated with intraperitoneal or nebulized recombinant murine IFN-gamma during the challenge period. Sensitized wild-type mice exhibited upregulated ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum, and airway hyperresponsiveness and infiltration of eosinophils and mononuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after ovalbumin challenge. In contrast, in GKO mice only reduced eosinophilic infiltration in the BALF was observed after ovalbumin challenge. In wild-type mice, parenteral IFN-gamma treatment downregulated ovalbumin-specific IgE levels in serum, and airway hyperresponsiveness and cellular infiltration in the BALF, whereas aerosolized IFN-gamma treatment only suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness. In vitro experiments showed that these effects of IFN-gamma appear not to be mediated via a direct effect on the cytokine production of antigen-specific Th2 cells. These data indicate that airway hyperresponsiveness can be downregulated by IFN-gamma locally in the airways, whereas for downregulation of IgE and cellular infiltration systemic IFN-gamma is needed. The present study shows that exogenous IFN-gamma can downregulate the allergic response via an antigen-specific T-cell independent mechanism, but at the same time endogenous IFN-gamma plays a role in an optimal response. PMID:9806748

  7. Dual oxidase regulates neutrophil recruitment in allergic airways.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sandra; Linderholm, Angela; Franzi, Lisa; Kenyon, Nicholas; Grasberger, Helmut; Harper, Richart

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced reactive oxygen species production in allergic airways is well described and correlates with increased airway contractions, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia, and mucus hypersecretion. There is also an abundance of interleukin-4/interleukin-13 (IL-4/IL-13)- or interleukin-5-secreting cells that are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We postulated that the dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2), members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family that release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the respiratory tract, are critical proteins in the pathogenesis of allergic airways. DUOX activity is regulated by cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13, and DUOX-mediated H2O2 influences several important features of allergic asthma: mucin production, IL-8 secretion, and wound healing. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of DUOXs to the development of allergic asthma in a murine model. To accomplish this goal, we utilized a DUOXA-deficient mouse model (Duoxa(-/-)) that lacked maturation factors for both DUOX1 and DUOX2. Our results are the first to demonstrate evidence of DUOX protein and DUOX functional activity in murine airway epithelium. We also demonstrate that DUOXA maturation factors are required for airway-specific H2O2 production and localization of DUOX to cilia of fully differentiated airway epithelial cells. We compared wild-type and Duoxa(-/-) mice in an ovalbumin exposure model to determine the role of DUOX in allergic asthma. In comparison to DUOX-intact mice, Duoxa(-/-) mice had reduced mucous cell metaplasia and lower levels of TH2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, increased airway resistance in response to methacholine was observed in Duoxa(+/+) mice, as expected, but was absent in Duoxa(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, Duoxa(-/-) mice had decreased influx of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue sections associated with a lower level of the

  8. Dual Oxidase Regulates Neutrophil Recruitment in Allergic Airways

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sandra; Linderholm, Angela; Franzi, Lisa; Kenyon, Nicholas; Grasberger, Helmut; Harper, Richart

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced reactive oxygen species production in allergic airways is well described, and correlates with increased airway contractions, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia, and mucus hypersecretion. There is also an abundance of interleukin-4/interleukin-13 (IL-4/IL-13) or interleukin-5-secreting cells that are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We postulated that dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2), members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family that release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the respiratory tract, are critical proteins in the pathogenesis of allergic airways. DUOX activity is regulated by cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13, and DUOX-mediated H2O2 influences several important features of allergic asthma: mucin production, IL-8 secretion, and wound healing. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of DUOX to the development of allergic asthma in a murine model. To accomplish this goal, we utilized a DUOXA-deficient mouse model (Duoxa−/−) that lacked maturation factors for both DUOX1 and DUOX2. Our results are the first to demonstrate evidence of DUOX protein and DUOX functional activity in murine airway epithelium. We also demonstrate that DUOXA maturation factors are required for airway-specific H2O2 production and localization of DUOX to cilia of fully differentiated airway epithelial cells. We compared wild-type and Duoxa−/− mice in an ovalbumin exposure model to determine the role of DUOX in allergic asthma. In comparison to DUOX-intact mice, Duoxa−/− mice had reduced mucous cell metaplasia, and lower levels of TH2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, increased airway resistance in response to methacholine was observed in Duoxa+/+ mice as expected, but was absent in Duoxa−/− mice. Surprisingly, Duoxa−/− mice had decreased influx of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue sections associated with a lower level of

  9. Transfer of allergic airway responses with antigen-primed CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, A; Mishima, H; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Hamid, Q; Martin, J G

    1995-01-01

    Activated CD4+ helper T cells have been demonstrated in asthmatic airways and postulated to play a central role in eliciting allergic inflammation; direct evidence of their involvement seems to be lacking. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells have the potential to induce allergic responses to antigen challenge, and tested this hypothesis in a model of allergic bronchoconstriction, the Brown Norway rat, using the approach of adoptive transfer. Animals were actively sensitized to either ovalbumin (OVA) or BSA and were used as donors of T cells. W3/25(CD4)+ or OX8(CD8)+ T cells were isolated from the cervical lymph nodes of sensitized donors and transferred to naive BN rats. 2 d after adoptive transfer recipient rats were challenged by OVA inhalation, and changes in lung resistance (RL), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and serum levels of antigen-specific IgE were studied. After OVA challenge recipients of OVA-primed W3/25+ T cells exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the entire 8-h observation period and had significant bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia, which was detected by immunocytochemistry using an antimajor basic protein mAb. Recipients of BSA-primed W3/25+ T cells or OVA-primed OX8+ T cells failed to respond to inhaled OVA. OVA-specific immunoglobulin E was undetectable by ELISA or skin testing in any of the recipient rats after adoptive transfer. In conclusion, antigen-induced airway bronchoconstriction and eosinophilia were successfully transferred by antigen-specific W3/25+ T cells in Brown Norway rats. These responses were dependent on antigen-primed W3/25+ T cells and appeared to be independent of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. This study provides clear evidence for T cell mediated immune mechanisms in allergic airway responses in this experimental model. Images PMID:7657805

  10. Trefoil factor-2 reverses airway remodeling changes in allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Royce, Simon G; Lim, Clarice; Muljadi, Ruth C; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C; Giraud, Andrew S; Tang, Mimi L K

    2013-01-01

    Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) is a small peptide with an important role in mucosal repair. TFF2 is up-regulated in asthma, suggesting a role in asthma pathogenesis. Given its known biological role in promoting epithelial repair, TFF2 might be expected to exert a protective function in limiting the progression of airway remodeling in asthma. The contribution of TFF2 to airway remodeling in asthma was investigated by examining the expression of TFF2 in the airway and lung, and evaluating the effects of recombinant TFF2 treatment on established airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic airways disease (AAD). BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline for 9 weeks, whereas mice with established OVA-induced AAD were treated with TFF2 or vehicle control (intranasally for 14 d). Effects on airway remodeling, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness were then assessed, whereas TFF2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. TFF2 expression was significantly increased in the airways of mice with AAD, compared with expression levels in control mice. TFF2 treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickening, subepithelial collagen deposition, goblet-cell metaplasia, bronchial epithelium apoptosis, and airway hyperresponsiveness (all P < 0.05, versus vehicle control), but TFF2 treatment did not influence airway inflammation. The increased expression of endogenous TFF2 in response to chronic allergic inflammation is insufficient to prevent the progression of airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic AAD. However, exogenous TFF2 treatment is effective in reversing aspects of established airway remodeling. TFF2 has potential as a novel treatment for airway remodeling in asthma. PMID:22652198

  11. Effects of environmental pollutants on airways, allergic inflammation, and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Handzel, Z T

    2000-01-01

    Particulate and gaseous air pollutants are capable of damaging the airway epithelial lining and of shifting the local immune balance, thereby facilitating the induction of persistent inflammation. Epidemiological studies are inconclusive regarding whether air pollution increases the incidence of asthma and chronic bronchitis in the population. Clearly, environmental pollution can, however, precipitate attacks and emergency-room admissions in those already suffering from such conditions. The catastrophic potential of airborne pollution was demonstrated in the 1960s and 1970s, when inverted atmospheric pressure conditions trapped smog over cities on the Eastern coast of the United States and over Europe. This smog resulted in thousands of hospital admissions and dozens of deaths. With the general rise in the incidence of atopy and asthma in the Western population, it is of major public health interest to reduce, as much as possible, the exposure of such populations to anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. PMID:11048334

  12. ICOS ligand expression is essential for allergic airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Kadkhoda, Kamran; Wang, Shuhe; Fan, Yijun; Qiu, Hongyu; Basu, Sujata; Halayko, Andrew J; Yang, Xi

    2011-04-01

    Inducible co-stimulator ligand (ICOSL) is a rather newly defined co-stimulatory molecule, which, through interaction with ICOS expressed on T cells, plays an important role in T-cell activation, differentiation and function. T(h)2-type immune responses are critical for the development and maintenance of allergic responses including asthma. Using knockout (KO) mice, we have assessed the role of ICOSL in allergic airway inflammation and responsiveness using a standard mouse asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Our data show that OVA-treated ICOSL KO mice exhibit significantly less lung eosinophilic infiltration, histopathology, mucus production and virtually no airway hyperresponsiveness in contrast to wild-type (Wt) counterparts. Serum antibody analysis showed that antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgE titers in ICOSL KO mice were significantly lower than those of Wt controls. Also, CD4(+) T cells isolated from ICOSL KO mice produced less T(h)2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) but more T(h)1 (IFN-γ) and IL-17 than their Wt controls. Taken together, we conclude that ICOSL plays an important role in predisposing individuals to allergic airway hyperresponsiveness by enhancing IgE antibody class switching and T(h)2 cytokine production and diminishing the T(h)17 response and airway eosinophilia. PMID:21402623

  13. PHENOTYPIC COMPARISON OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE IN THREE RAT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Brown Norway (BN) rats develop a robust response to antigens in the lung characterized by a large increase in allergen-specific immune function and pulmonary eosinophilia. The objective of this study was to investigate alternative models by determining if other rat s...

  14. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. Results In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. Conclusions We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:20487574

  15. Effect of a chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, on HDM-induced allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Siddesha, Jalahalli M; Nakada, Emily M; Mihavics, Bethany R; Hoffman, Sidra M; Rattu, Gurkiranjit K; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Cahoon, Jonathon M; Lahue, Karolyn G; Daphtary, Nirav; Aliyeva, Minara; Chapman, David G; Desai, Dhimant H; Poynter, Matthew E; Anathy, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response plays a critical role in inflammatory diseases, including allergic airway disease. However, the benefits of inhibiting ER stress in the treatment of allergic airway disease are not well known. Herein, we tested the therapeutic potential of a chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), in combating allergic asthma, using a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway disease. TUDCA was administered during the HDM-challenge phase (preventive regimen), after the HDM-challenge phase (therapeutic regimen), or therapeutically during a subsequent HDM rechallenge (rechallenge regimen). In the preventive regimen, TUDCA significantly decreased HDM-induced inflammation, markers of ER stress, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and fibrosis. Similarly, in the therapeutic regimen, TUDCA administration efficiently decreased HDM-induced airway inflammation, mucus metaplasia, ER stress markers, and AHR, but not airway remodeling. Interestingly, TUDCA administered therapeutically in the HDM rechallenge regimen markedly attenuated HDM-induced airway inflammation, mucus metaplasia, ER stress markers, methacholine-induced AHR, and airway fibrotic remodeling. These results indicate that the inhibition of ER stress in the lungs through the administration of chemical chaperones could be a valuable strategy in the treatment of allergic airway diseases. PMID:27154200

  16. Non-Invasive Optical Imaging of Eosinophilia during the Course of an Experimental Allergic Airways Disease Model and in Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Markus, M. Andrea; Dullin, Christian; Mitkovski, Miso; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Epstein, Michelle M.; Alves, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular imaging of lung diseases, including asthma, is limited and either invasive or non-specific. Central to the inflammatory process in asthma is the recruitment of eosinophils to the airways, which release proteases and proinflammatory factors and contribute to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to establish a new approach to non-invasively assess lung eosinophilia during the course of experimental asthma by combining non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging with the specific detection of Siglec-F, a lectin found predominantly on eosinophils. Methodology/Principal Findings An ovalbumin (OVA)-based model was used to induce asthma-like experimental allergic airway disease (EAAD) in BALB/c mice. By means of a NIRF imager, we demonstrate that 48 h–72 h after intravenous (i.v.) application of a NIRF-labeled anti-Siglec-F antibody, mice with EAAD exhibited up to 2 times higher fluorescence intensities compared to lungs of control mice. Furthermore, average lung intensities of dexamethasone-treated as well as beta-escin-treated mice were 1.8 and 2 times lower than those of untreated, EAAD mice, respectively and correlated with the reduction of cell infiltration in the lung. Average fluorescence intensities measured in explanted lungs confirmed the in vivo findings of significantly higher values in inflamed lungs as compared to controls. Fluorescence microscopy of lung cryosections localized the i.v. applied NIRF-labeled anti-Siglec-F antibody predominantly to eosinophils in the peribronchial areas of EAAD lungs as opposed to control lungs. Conclusion/Significance We show that monitoring the occurrence of eosinophils, a prominent feature of allergic asthma, by means of a NIRF-labeled antibody directed against Siglec-F is a novel and powerful non-invasive optical imaging approach to assess EAAD and therapeutic response in mice over time. PMID:24587190

  17. DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

  18. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  19. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  20. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  1. Allergic airway inflammation disrupts interleukin-17 mediated host defense against streptococcus pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Wu, Liang-Xia; Jones, Can-Xin; Chen, Ling; Hao, Chun-Li; He, Li; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Despite decreasing rates of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes, the prevalence of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia in asthmatic patients remains high. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of the asthmatic airway to bacterial infections. In this study, we used a combined model of allergic airway inflammation and Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection to investigate the association between persistent allergic inflammation in the airway and antibacterial host defenses against S. pneumoniae. When challenged with S. pneumoniae, allergic mice exhibited higher airway bacterial burdens, greater eosinophil infiltration, lower neutrophil infiltration, and more severe structural damage than non-allergic mice. In sensitized mice, S. pneumoniae infection elicited higher IL-4 but lower IFN-γ, IL-17 and defensin-β2 expression than in control mice. These results indicate that persistent allergic inflammation impaired airway host defense against S. pneumoniae is associated with the insufficient IL-17 responses. To elicit IL-17 induced-anti-bacterial immune responses, mice were intranasally immunized with rIL-17. Immunized mice exhibited fewer bacterial colonies in the respiratory tract and less severe lung pathology than unimmunized mice. rIL-17 contributed to airway host defense enhancement and innate immune response promotion, which was associated with increased IL-23, MIP-2 and defensin-β2 expression. Administration of exogenous IL-17 (2μg/mouse) suppressed eosinophil-related immune responses. The results demonstrate IL-17 plays a key role in host defenses against bacterial infection in allergic airways and suggest that exogenous IL-17 administration promotes the anti-becterial immune responses and attenuates the existed allergic inflammation. PMID:26699848

  2. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet. PMID:18173213

  3. Integrated innate mechanisms involved in airway allergic inflammation to the serine protease subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Florsheim, Esther; Yu, Shuang; Bragatto, Ivan; Faustino, Lucas; Gomes, Eliane; Ramos, Rodrigo N; Barbuto, José Alexandre M; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-05-15

    Proteases are recognized environmental allergens, but little is known about the mechanisms responsible for sensing enzyme activity and initiating the development of allergic inflammation. Because usage of the serine protease subtilisin in the detergent industry resulted in an outbreak of occupational asthma in workers, we sought to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation to subtilisin and to determine the immunological mechanisms involved in type 2 responses. By using a mouse model of allergic airway disease, we have defined in this study that s.c. or intranasal sensitization followed by airway challenge to subtilisin induces prototypic allergic lung inflammation, characterized by airway eosinophilia, type 2 cytokine release, mucus production, high levels of serum IgE, and airway reactivity. These allergic responses were dependent on subtilisin protease activity, protease-activated receptor-2, IL-33R ST2, and MyD88 signaling. Also, subtilisin stimulated the expression of the proallergic cytokines IL-1α, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the growth factor amphiregulin in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Notably, acute administration of subtilisin into the airways increased lung IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells, which required protease-activated receptor-2 expression. Finally, subtilisin activity acted as a Th2 adjuvant to an unrelated airborne Ag-promoting allergic inflammation to inhaled OVA. Therefore, we established a murine model of occupational asthma to a serine protease and characterized the main molecular pathways involved in allergic sensitization to subtilisin that potentially contribute to initiate allergic airway disease. PMID:25876764

  4. Vehicular Exhaust Particles Promote Allergic Airway Inflammation via an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Notch Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mingcan; Viera-Hutchins, Loida; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Rivas, Magali Noval; Wise, Petra; MGhee, Sean A.; Chatila, Zena K.; Daher, Nancy; Sioutas, Constantinos; Chatila, Talal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) has been linked to heightened incidence of asthma and allergic diseases. However, molecular mechanisms by which PM exposure promote allergic diseases remain elusive. Objective We sought to determine the expression, function and regulation of pathways involved in the promotion by PM of allergic airway inflammation. Methods We employed gene expression transcriptional profiling, in vitro culture assays, and vivo murine models of allergic airway inflammation. Results We identified genes of the Notch pathway, most notably Jagged 1 (Jag1), as targets of PM induction in human monocytes and murine dendritic cells (DCs). PM, especially ultrafine particles (UFP), upregulated T helper cytokine, IgE production and allergic airway inflammation in mice in a Jag1 and Notch-dependent manner especially in the context of the pro-asthmatic IL-4 receptor allele Il4raR576. PM-induced Jag1 expression was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which bound to and activated AhR response elements in the Jag1 promoter. Pharmacological antagonism of AhR or its lineage-specific deletion in CD11c+ cells abrogated the augmentation of airway inflammation by PM. Conclusion PM activate an AhR-Jag1-Notch cascade to promote allergic airway inflammation in concert with pro-asthmatic alleles. PMID:25825216

  5. The active contribution of Toll-like receptors to allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keqiang; Xiang, Yi; Yao, Xiaohong; Liu, Ying; Gong, Wanghua; Yoshimura, Teizo; Wang, Ji Ming

    2011-10-01

    Epithelia lining the respiratory tract represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms and allergens and are equipped with innate and adaptive immune signaling receptors for host protection. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize microbial components and evoke diverse responses in cells of the respiratory system. TLR stimulation by microorganism-derived molecules activates antigen presenting cells, control T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 immune cell differentiation, cytokine production by mast cells, and activation of eosinophils. It is clear that TLR are involved in the pathophysiology of allergic airway diseases such as asthma. Dendritic cells (DCs), a kind of antigen presenting cells, which play a key role in the induction of allergic airway inflammation, are privileged targets for pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). During the allergic responses, engagement of TLRs on DCs determines the Th2 polarization of the T cells. TLR signaling in mast cells increases the release of IL-5, and TLR activation of airway epithelial cells forces the generation of proallergic Th2 type of cytokines. Although these responses aim to protect the host, they may also result in inflammatory tissue damage in the airway. Under certain conditions, stimulation of TLRs, in particular, TLR9, may reduce Th2-dependent allergic inflammation by induction of Th1 responses. Therefore, understanding the complex regulatory roles of TLRs in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation should facilitate the development of preventive and therapeutic measures for asthmatic patients. PMID:21624504

  6. Pneumococcal components induce regulatory T cells that attenuate the development of allergic airways disease by deviating and suppressing the immune response to allergen.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, Alison N; Brown, Alexandra C; Nair, Prema M; Chevalier, Nina; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2013-10-15

    The induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to suppress aberrant inflammation and immunity has potential as a therapeutic strategy for asthma. Recently, we identified key immunoregulatory components of Streptococcus pneumoniae, type 3 polysaccharide and pneumolysoid (T+P), which suppress allergic airways disease (AAD) in mouse models of asthma. To elucidate the mechanisms of suppression, we have now performed a thorough examination of the role of Tregs. BALB/c mice were sensitized to OVA (day 0) i.p. and challenged intranasal (12-15 d later) to induce AAD. T+P was administered intratracheally at the time of sensitization in three doses (0, 12, and 24 h). T+P treatment induced an early (36 h-4 d) expansion of Tregs in the mediastinal lymph nodes, and later (12-16 d) increases in these cells in the lungs, compared with untreated allergic controls. Anti-CD25 treatment showed that Treg-priming events involving CD25, CCR7, IL-2, and TGF-β were required for the suppression of AAD. During AAD, T+P-induced Tregs in the lungs displayed a highly suppressive phenotype and had an increased functional capacity. T+P also blocked the induction of IL-6 to prevent the Th17 response, attenuated the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 on myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and reduced the number of DCs carrying OVA in the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes. Therefore, bacterial components (T+P) drive the differentiation of highly suppressive Tregs, which suppress the Th2 response, prevent the Th17 response and disable the DC response resulting in the effective suppression of AAD. PMID:24048894

  7. The united allergic airway: Connections between allergic rhinitis, asthma, and chronic sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michaela D.; Simon, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The united allergic airway is a theory that connects allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma, in which seemingly disparate diseases, instead of being thought of separately, are instead viewed as arising from a common atopic entity. Objective: This article describes patients with such diseases; explores ideas suggesting a unified pathogenesis; elucidates the various treatment modalities available, emphasizing nasal corticosteroids and antihistamines; and provides an update of the literature. Methods: A literature review was conducted. Conclusion: The aggregation of research suggests that AR, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis are linked by the united allergic airway, a notion that encompasses commonalities in pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment. PMID:22643942

  8. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  9. Adoptive transfer of induced-Treg cells effectively attenuates murine airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Lan, Qin; Chen, Maogen; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Julie; Fan, Huimin; Yan, Chun-Song; Kuang, Jiu-Long; Warburton, David; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Ryffel, Bernhard; Zheng, Song-Guo; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Both nature and induced regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are potent regulators of autoimmune and allergic disorders. Defects in endogenous Treg cells have been reported in patients with allergic asthma, suggesting that disrupted Treg cell-mediated immunological regulation may play an important role in airway allergic inflammation. In order to determine whether adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells generated in vitro can be used as an effective therapeutic approach to suppress airway allergic inflammation, exogenously induced Treg cells were infused into ovalbumin-sensitized mice prior to or during intranasal ovalbumin challenge. The results showed that adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells prior to allergen challenge markedly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, mucus hyper-production, airway remodeling, and IgE levels. This effect was associated with increase of Treg cells (CD4(+)FoxP3(+)) and decrease of dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, and with reduction of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell response as compared to the controls. Moreover, adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells during allergen challenge also effectively attenuate airway inflammation and improve airway function, which are comparable to those by natural Treg cell infusion. Therefore, adoptive transfer of in vitro induced Treg cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent and treat severe asthma. PMID:22792275

  10. CRAC ion channels and airway defense reflexes in experimental allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sutovska, M; Adamkov, M; Kocmalova, M; Mesarosova, L; Oravec, M; Franova, S

    2013-01-01

    Calcium release-activated calcium channels (CRAC) play unambiguous role in secretory functions of mast cells, T cells, and eosinophils. Less knowledge exists about the role of CRAC, widely distributed in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, in airway contractility. The presented study seeks to determine the possible participation of CRAC in ASM-based inflammatory airway disorders in guinea pigs. The acute and long-term administration (14 days) of the CRAC antagonist 3-fluoropyridine-4-carboxylic acid was used to examine the ASM contractility and associated reflexes in the guinea pig model of allergic airway inflammation by the following methods: (i) evaluation of specific airway resistance in vivo; (ii) evaluation of the contractile response of isolated ASM strips in vitro; and (iii) citric acid-induced cough reflex; (iv) measurement of exhaled NO levels (E(NO)). Allergic airway inflammation was induced by repetitive exposure of guinea pigs to ovalbumin (10(-6) M). The CRAC antagonist administered in a single dose to guinea pigs with confirmed allergic inflammation significantly reduced the cough response and the airway resistance, which corresponded with the findings in vitro. Long-term application of the CRAC antagonist had more strongly expressed effects. The results confirm the role of CRAC in the pathophysiology of experimental animal asthma and have a potential meaning for anti-asthma therapy. PMID:22836617

  11. Hyperresponsiveness in the human nasal airway: new targets for the treatment of allergic airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, P J; Foreman, J C

    1999-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a condition which affects over 15% of the population in the United Kingdom. The pathological process involves two stages: nasal inflammation, and the development of nasal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen and a number of other stimuli. This results in the amplification of any subsequent allergic reaction, contributing to the chronic allergic state. A number of different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of AHR, including a role for eosinophil-derived proteins, free radicals and neuropeptides. While there may be a number of independent pathways which can result in AHR, evidence obtained from both animal models and in vivo experiments in humans indicate that some mediators may interact with one another, resulting in AHR. Further research into these interactions may open new avenues for the pharmacological treatment of chronic allergic rhinitis, and possibly other allergic airway diseases. PMID:10704051

  12. NKp46 regulates allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, Hormas; Horani, Amjad; Glasner, Ariella; Elboim, Moran; Gazit, Roi; Shoseyov, David; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells that are able to rapidly kill viruses, tumor cells, parasites, bacteria, and even cells considered “self”. The activity of NK cells is controlled by a fine balance of inhibitory and activating signals mediated by a complex set of different receptors. However, the function of NK cells is not restricted only to the killing of target cells, NK cells also possess other properties such as the secretion of proangiogenic factors during pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate another unique NK-cell activity, namely the regulation of T-cell mediated allergic responses, which is dependent on the NK-cell specific receptor NKp46 (Ncr1 in mice). Using mice in which the Ncr1 gene has been replaced with a green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity and airway hypersensitivity. Interestingly, we show that this reduction in airway hypersensitivity is due to differences in the stimulation of T cells resulting in an altered cytokine profile. PMID:23878025

  13. NKp46 regulates allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Ghadially, Hormas; Horani, Amjad; Glasner, Ariella; Elboim, Moran; Gazit, Roi; Shoseyov, David; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells that are able to rapidly kill viruses, tumor cells, parasites, bacteria, and even cells considered "self". The activity of NK cells is controlled by a fine balance of inhibitory and activating signals mediated by a complex set of different receptors. However, the function of NK cells is not restricted only to the killing of target cells, NK cells also possess other properties such as the secretion of proangiogenic factors during pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate another unique NK-cell activity, namely the regulation of T-cell mediated allergic responses, which is dependent on the NK-cell specific receptor NKp46 (Ncr1 in mice). Using mice in which the Ncr1 gene has been replaced with a green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity and airway hypersensitivity. Interestingly, we show that this reduction in airway hypersensitivity is due to differences in the stimulation of T cells resulting in an altered cytokine profile. PMID:23878025

  14. Engineered silica nanoparticles act as adjuvants to enhance allergic airway disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    secondary allergen exposures. Whereas SNP caused innate immune responses at high doses in non-allergic mice, the adjuvant effects of SNP were found at lower doses in allergic mice and were Th2/Th17 related. In conclusion, these findings in mice suggest that individuals exposed to SNP might be more prone to manifest allergic airway disease, due to adjuvant-like properties of SNP. PMID:23815813

  15. Selective depletion of Foxp3+ Treg during sensitization phase aggravates experimental allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Baru, Abdul Mannan; Hartl, Andrea; Lahl, Katharina; Krishnaswamy, Jayendra Kumar; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Yildirim, Ali O; Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald; Behrens, Georg M N; Sparwasser, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies highlight the role of Treg in preventing unnecessary responses to allergens and maintaining functional immune tolerance in the lung. We investigated the role of Treg during the sensitization phase in a murine model of experimental allergic airway inflammation by selectively depleting the Treg population in vivo. DEpletion of REGulatory T cells (DEREG) mice were depleted of Treg by diphtheria toxin injection. Allergic airway inflammation was induced using OVA as a model allergen. Pathology was assessed by scoring for differential cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage, IgE and IgG1 levels in serum, cytokine secretion analysis of lymphocytes from lung draining lymph nodes and lung histology. Use of DEREG mice allowed us for the first time to track and specifically deplete both CD25(+) and CD25(-) Foxp3(+) Treg, and to analyze their significance in limiting pathology in allergic airway inflammation. We observed that depletion of Treg during the priming phase of an active immune response led to a dramatic exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation in mice, suggesting an essential role played by Treg in regulating immune responses against allergens as early as the sensitization phase via maintenance of functional tolerance. PMID:20544727

  16. Bystander suppression of allergic airway inflammation by lung resident memory CD8+ T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.; Camberis, Mali; Kopf, Manfred; Hook, Sarah M.; Le Gros, Graham

    2004-04-01

    CD8+ memory T cells have recently been recognized as playing a key role in natural immunity against unrelated viral infections, a phenomenon referred to as "heterologous antiviral immunity." We now provide data that the cellular immunological interactions that underlie such heterologous immunity can play an equally important role in regulating T helper 2 immune responses and protecting mucosal surfaces from allergen-induced inflammation. Our data show that CD8+ T cells, either retained in the lung after infection with influenza virus, or adoptively transferred via the intranasal route can suppress allergic airway inflammation. The suppression is mediated by IFN-, which acts to reduce the activation level, T helper 2 cytokine production, airways hyperresponsiveness, and migration of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells into the lung, whereas the systemic and draining lymph node responses remain unchanged. Of note, adoptive transfer of previously activated transgenic CD8+ T cells conferred protection against allergic airway inflammation, even in the absence of specific-antigen. Airway resident CD8+ T cells produced IFN- when directly exposed to conditioned media from activated dendritic cells or the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-18. Taken together these data indicate that effector/memory CD8+ T cells present in the airways produce IFN- after inflammatory stimuli, independent of specific-antigen, and as a consequence play a key role in modifying the degree and frequency of allergic responses in the lung.

  17. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome.

    PubMed

    Eyring, Kenneth R; Pedersen, Brent S; Yang, Ivana V; Schwartz, David A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS) or filtered air (FA). DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3) are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease. PMID:26642056

  18. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome

    PubMed Central

    Eyring, Kenneth R.; Pedersen, Brent S.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS) or filtered air (FA). DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3) are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease. PMID:26642056

  19. Pericytes contribute to airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jill R; Folestad, Erika; Rowley, Jessica E; Noll, Elisa M; Walker, Simone A; Lloyd, Clare M; Rankin, Sara M; Pietras, Kristian; Eriksson, Ulf; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Myofibroblast accumulation, subepithelial fibrosis, and vascular remodeling are complicating features of chronic asthma, but the mechanisms are not clear. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) regulate the fate and function of various mesenchymal cells and have been implicated as mediators of lung fibrosis. However, it is not known whether PDGF-BB signaling via PDGFRβ, which is critical for the recruitment of pericytes to blood vessels, plays a role in airway remodeling in chronic asthma. In the present study, we used a selective PDGFRβ inhibitor (CP-673451) to investigate the role of PDGFRβ signaling in the development of airway remodeling and lung dysfunction in an established mouse model of house dust mite-induced chronic allergic asthma. Unexpectedly, we found that pharmacological inhibition of PDGFRβ signaling in the context of chronic aeroallergen exposure led to exacerbated lung dysfunction and airway smooth muscle thickening. Further studies revealed that the inflammatory response to aeroallergen challenge in mice was associated with decreased PDGF-BB expression and the loss of pericytes from the airway microvasculature. In parallel, cells positive for pericyte markers accumulated in the subepithelial region of chronically inflamed airways. This process was exacerbated in animals treated with CP-673451. The results indicate that perturbed PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ signaling and pericyte accumulation in the airway wall may contribute to airway remodeling in chronic allergic asthma. PMID:25637607

  20. Pericytes contribute to airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Folestad, Erika; Rowley, Jessica E.; Noll, Elisa M.; Walker, Simone A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Rankin, Sara M.; Pietras, Kristian; Eriksson, Ulf; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblast accumulation, subepithelial fibrosis, and vascular remodeling are complicating features of chronic asthma, but the mechanisms are not clear. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) regulate the fate and function of various mesenchymal cells and have been implicated as mediators of lung fibrosis. However, it is not known whether PDGF-BB signaling via PDGFRβ, which is critical for the recruitment of pericytes to blood vessels, plays a role in airway remodeling in chronic asthma. In the present study, we used a selective PDGFRβ inhibitor (CP-673451) to investigate the role of PDGFRβ signaling in the development of airway remodeling and lung dysfunction in an established mouse model of house dust mite-induced chronic allergic asthma. Unexpectedly, we found that pharmacological inhibition of PDGFRβ signaling in the context of chronic aeroallergen exposure led to exacerbated lung dysfunction and airway smooth muscle thickening. Further studies revealed that the inflammatory response to aeroallergen challenge in mice was associated with decreased PDGF-BB expression and the loss of pericytes from the airway microvasculature. In parallel, cells positive for pericyte markers accumulated in the subepithelial region of chronically inflamed airways. This process was exacerbated in animals treated with CP-673451. The results indicate that perturbed PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ signaling and pericyte accumulation in the airway wall may contribute to airway remodeling in chronic allergic asthma. PMID:25637607

  1. Strain-dependent activation of NF-kappaB in the airway epithelium and its role in allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, John F; Ckless, Karina; Brown, Amy L; Guala, Amy S; Kolls, Jay K; Poynter, Matthew E; Irvin, Charles G; van der Vliet, Albert; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W

    2010-01-01

    NF-kappaB activation in the airway epithelium has been established as a critical pathway in ovalbumin (Ova)-induced airway inflammation in BALB/c mice (Poynter ME, Cloots R, van Woerkom T, Butnor KJ, Vacek P, Taatjes DJ, Irvin CG, Janssen-Heininger YM. J Immunol 173: 7003-7009, 2004). BALB/c mice are susceptible to the development of allergic airway disease, whereas other strains of mice, such as C57BL/6, are considered more resistant. The goal of the present study was to determine the proximal signals required for NF-kappaB activation in the airway epithelium in allergic airway disease and to unravel whether these signals are strain-dependent. Our previous studies, conducted in the BALB/c mouse background, demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative version of IkappaBalpha in the airway epithelium (CC10-IkappaBalpha(SR)) were protected from Ova-induced inflammation. In contrast to these earlier observations, we demonstrate here that CC10-IkappaBalpha(SR) transgenic mice on the C57BL/6 background were not protected from Ova-induced allergic airway inflammation. Consistent with this finding, Ova-induced nuclear localization of the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB was not observed in C57BL/6 mice, in contrast to the marked nuclear presence of RelA in BALB/c mice. Evaluation of cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated elevated expression of TNF-alpha in BALB/c mice compared with C57BL/6 mice after an acute challenge with Ova. Finally, neutralization of TNF-alpha by a blocking antibody prevented nuclear localization of RelA in BALB/c mice after Ova challenge. These data suggest that the mechanism of response of the airway epithelium of immunized C57BL/6 mice to antigen challenge is fundamentally different from that of immunized BALB/c mice and highlight the potential importance of TNF-alpha in regulating epithelial NF-kappaB activation in allergic airway disease. PMID:19897746

  2. RESPIRATORY RESPONSES OF SUBJECTS WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS TO OZONE EXPOSURE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO NONSPECIFIC AIRWAY REACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure in man produces changes in respiratory function and symptoms. There is a large degree of unexplained intersubject variability in the magnitude of these responses. There is concern that individuals with chronic respiratory diseases may also be more responsive to ozo...

  3. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Samitas, Konstantinos; Delimpoura, Vasiliki; Zervas, Eleftherios; Gaga, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes. PMID:26621973

  4. The Effects of Proresolution of Ellagic Acid in an Experimental Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Alves, Claudiney; Angeli, Giovanna Natalia; Favarin, Daniely Cornélio; Lemos de Andrade, Edinéia; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Roberto da Silva, Paulo; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease of airway inflammation characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and hypersecretion of mucus. Ellagic acid, a compound derived from medicinal plants and fruits, has shown anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental disease models. We used the classical experimental model, in BALB/c mice, of sensibilization with ovalbumin to determine the effect of ellagic acid (10 mg/kg; oral route) in the resolution of allergic airways response. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. The control group consisted of nonimmunized mice that received challenge with ovalbumin. Ellagic acid and dexamethasone or vehicle (water) were administered before or after intranasal allergen challenge. Ellagic acid accelerated the resolution of airways inflammation by decreasing total leukocytes and eosinophils numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the mucus production and lung inflammation in part by reducing IL-5 concentration, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity, and P-selectin expression, but not activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. In addition, ellagic acid enhanced alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of IgG-OVA-coated beads ex vivo, a new proresolving mechanism for the clearance of allergen from the airways. Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for accelerating the resolution of allergic airways inflammation. PMID:24376308

  5. Volatile Organic Compounds Enhance Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Ulrike; Böhme, Alexander; Kohajda, Tibor; Mögel, Iljana; Schütze, Nicole; von Bergen, Martin; Simon, Jan C.; Lehmann, Irina; Polte, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and adverse allergic and respiratory symptoms. However, whether VOCs exhibit a causal role as adjuvants in asthma development remains unclear. Methods To investigate the effect of VOC exposure on the development of allergic airway inflammation Balb/c mice were exposed to VOCs emitted by new polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring, sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and characterized in acute and chronic murine asthma models. Furthermore, prevalent evaporated VOCs were analyzed and mice were exposed to selected single VOCs. Results Exposure of mice to PVC flooring increased eosinophilic lung inflammation and OVA-specific IgE serum levels compared to un-exposed control mice. The increased inflammation was associated with elevated levels of Th2-cytokines. Long-term exposure to PVC flooring exacerbated chronic airway inflammation. VOCs with the highest concentrations emitted by new PVC flooring were N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB). Exposure to NMP or TXIB also increased the allergic immune response in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro or in vivo exposure to NMP or TXIB reduced IL-12 production in maturing dendritic cells (DCs) and enhanced airway inflammation after adoptive DC transfer into Balb/c mice. At higher concentrations both VOCs induced oxidative stress demonstrated by increased isoprostane and glutathione-S-transferase-pi1 protein levels in the lung of non-sensitized mice. Treatment of PVC flooring-exposed mice with N-acetylcysteine prevented the VOC-induced increase of airway inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that exposure to VOCs may increase the allergic immune response by interfering with DC function and by inducing oxidative stress and has therefore to be considerate as risk factor for the development of allergic diseases. PMID:22802943

  6. Specific allergen immunotherapy attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a rat model of Alstonia scholaris pollen induced airway allergy.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ankur; Moitra, Saibal; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grains are well established to be an important cause of respiratory allergy. Current pharmacologic therapies for allergic asthma do not cure the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only treatment method which re-directs the immune system away from allergic response leading to a long lasting effect. The mechanism by which immunotherapy achieves this goal is an area of active research world-wide. The present experimental study was designed to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation based on a relevant human allergen, Alstonia scholaris pollen, and to establish the immunological and cellular features of specific allergen immunotherapy using this same pollen extract. Our results revealed that Alstonia scholaris pollen sensitization and challenge causes eosinophilic airway inflammation with mucin hypersecretion. This is associated with increased total IgE, increased expression of FcɛRI on lung mast cells and increased levels of IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 as confirmed by ELISA, in-situ immunofluorescence and FACS assay. Allergen specific immunotherapy reduced airway inflammation and also decreased total IgE level, FcɛRI expression, IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 levels. It was further noted that the reduction of these levels was more by intra-nasal route than by intra-peritoneal route. Thus we present a novel animal model of Alstonia scholaris pollen allergic disease and specific allergen immunotherapy which will pave the way towards the development of better treatment modalities. PMID:26667977

  7. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Peter K; Haahtela, Tari

    2006-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist. Discussion In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, proteases, and a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Nasal biopsies in allergic rhinitis demonstrate accumulations of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils in the epithelium and accumulations of eosinophils in the deeper subepithelium (that is, lamina propria). Examination of bronchial tissue, even in mild asthma, shows lymphocytic inflammation enriched by eosinophils. In severe asthma, the predominant pattern of inflammation changes, with increases in the numbers of neutrophils and, in many, an extension of the changes to involve smaller airways (that is, bronchioli). Structural alterations (that is, remodeling) of bronchi in mild asthma include epithelial fragility and thickening of its reticular basement membrane. With increasing severity of asthma there may be increases in airway smooth muscle mass, vascularity, interstitial collagen, and mucus-secreting glands. Remodeling in the nose is less extensive than that of the lower airways, but the epithelial reticular basement membrane may be slightly but significantly thickened. Conclusion Inflammation is a key feature of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are therefore potential benefits for application of anti-inflammatory strategies that target both these anatomic sites. PMID:17140423

  8. CARMA3 Is Critical for the Initiation of Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Causton, Benjamin; Ramadas, Ravisankar A; Cho, Josalyn L; Jones, Khristianna; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Xavier, Ramnik J; Medoff, Benjamin D

    2015-07-15

    Innate immune responses to allergens by airway epithelial cells (AECs) help initiate and propagate the adaptive immune response associated with allergic airway inflammation in asthma. Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in AECs by allergens or secondary mediators via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is an important component of this multifaceted inflammatory cascade. Members of the caspase recruitment domain family of proteins display tissue-specific expression and help mediate NF-κB activity in response to numerous stimuli. We have previously shown that caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein (CARMA)3 is specifically expressed in AECs and mediates NF-κB activation in these cells in response to stimulation with the GPCR agonist lysophosphatidic acid. In this study, we demonstrate that reduced levels of CARMA3 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells decreases the production of proasthmatic mediators in response to a panel of asthma-relevant GPCR ligands such as lysophosphatidic acid, adenosine triphosphate, and allergens that activate GPCRs such as Alternaria alternata and house dust mite. We then show that genetically modified mice with CARMA3-deficient AECs have reduced airway eosinophilia and proinflammatory cytokine production in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Additionally, we demonstrate that these mice have impaired dendritic cell maturation in the lung and that dendritic cells from mice with CARMA3-deficient AECs have impaired Ag processing. In conclusion, we show that AEC CARMA3 helps mediate allergic airway inflammation, and that CARMA3 is a critical signaling molecule bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses in the lung. PMID:26041536

  9. CARMA3 Is Critical for the Initiation of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Causton, Benjamin; Ramadas, Ravisankar A.; Cho, Josalyn L.; Jones, Khristianna; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune responses to allergens by airway epithelial cells (AECs) help initiate and propagate the adaptive immune response associated with allergic airway inflammation in asthma. Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in AECs by allergens or secondary mediators via G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) is an important component of this multifaceted inflammatory cascade. Members of the caspase recruitment domain family of proteins display tissue-specific expression and help mediate NF-κB activity in response to numerous stimuli. We have previously shown that caspase recruitment domain–containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein (CARMA)3 is specifically expressed in AECs and mediates NF-κB activation in these cells in response to stimulation with the GPCR agonist lysophosphatidic acid. In this study, we demonstrate that reduced levels of CARMA3 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells decreases the production of proasthmatic mediators in response to a panel of asthma-relevant GPCR ligands such as lysophosphatidic acid, adenosine triphosphate, and allergens that activate GPCRs such as Alternaria alternata and house dust mite. We then show that genetically modified mice with CARMA3-deficient AECs have reduced airway eosinophilia and proinflammatory cytokine production in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Additionally, we demonstrate that these mice have impaired dendritic cell maturation in the lung and that dendritic cells from mice with CARMA3-deficient AECs have impaired Ag processing. In conclusion, we show that AEC CARMA3 helps mediate allergic airway inflammation, and that CARMA3 is a critical signaling molecule bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses in the lung. PMID:26041536

  10. Dendritic Cell-Nerve Clusters Are Sites of T Cell Proliferation in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Veres, Tibor Z.; Shevchenko, Marina; Krasteva, Gabriela; Spies, Emma; Prenzler, Frauke; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Tschernig, Thomas; Krug, Norbert; Kummer, Wolfgang; Braun, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in the airway mucosa precede secondary immune responses to inhaled antigen. The purpose of this study was to identify the anatomical locations where dendritic cell–T cell interactions occur, resulting in T cells activation by dendritic cells. In a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, we applied whole-mount immunohistology and confocal microscopy to visualize dendritic cells and T cells together with nerves, epithelium, and smooth muscle in three dimensions. Proliferating T cells were identified by the detection of the incorporation of the nucleotide analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine into the DNA. We developed a novel quantification method that enabled the accurate determination of cell–cell contacts in a semi-automated fashion. Dendritic cell–T cell interactions occurred beneath the smooth muscle layer, but not in the epithelium. Approximately 10% of the dendritic cells were contacted by nerves, and up to 4% of T cells formed clusters with these dendritic cells. T cells that were clustered with nerve-contacting dendritic cells proliferated only in the airways of mice with allergic inflammation but not in the airways of negative controls. Taken together, these results suggest that during the secondary immune response, sensory nerves influence dendritic cell-driven T cell activation in the airway mucosa. PMID:19179611

  11. Down-regulation of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 expression in the airway epithelium ameliorates allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bacsi, Attila; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Szczesny, Bartosz; Radak, Zsolt; Hazra, Tapas K; Sur, Sanjiv; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is characterized by increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness, in parallel with oxidative DNA base and strand damage, whose etiological role is not understood. Our goal was to establish the role of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common oxidatively damaged base, and its repair by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) in allergic airway inflammatory processes. Airway inflammation was induced by intranasally administered ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen grain extract (RWPE) in sensitized BALB/c mice. We utilized siRNA technology to deplete Ogg1 from airway epithelium; 8-oxoG and DNA strand break levels were quantified by Comet assays. Inflammatory cell infiltration and epithelial methaplasia were determined histologically, mucus and cytokines levels biochemically and enhanced pause was used as the main index of airway hyperresponsiveness. Decreased Ogg1 expression and thereby 8-oxoG repair in the airway epithelium conveyed a lower inflammatory response after RWPE challenge of sensitized mice, as determined by expression of Th2 cytokines, eosinophilia, epithelial methaplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, 8-oxoG repair in Ogg1-proficient airway epithelium was coupled to an increase in DNA single-strand break (SSB) levels and exacerbation of allergen challenge-dependent inflammation. Decreased expression of the Nei-like glycosylases Neil1 and Neil2 that preferentially excise ring-opened purines and 5-hydroxyuracil, respectively, did not alter the above parameters of allergic immune responses to RWPE. These results show that DNA SSBs formed during Ogg1-mediated repair of 8-oxoG augment antigen-driven allergic immune responses. A transient modulation of OGG1 expression/activity in airway epithelial cells could have clinical benefits. PMID:23127499

  12. Adjuvant and anti-inflammatory properties of cigarette smoke in murine allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Nancy J; Botelho, Fernando M; Bauer, Carla M T; Fattouh, Ramzi; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    The impact of cigarette smoke on allergic asthma remains controversial both clinically and experimentally. The objective of this study was to investigate, in a murine model, how cigarette smoke affects immune inflammatory processes elicited by a surrogate allergen. In our experimental design, mice were concurrently exposed to cigarette smoke and ovalbumin (OVA), an innocuous antigen that, unless introduced in the context of an adjuvant, induces inhalation tolerance. We show that cigarette smoke exposure has adjuvant properties, allowing for allergic mucosal sensitization to OVA. Specifically, concurrent exposure to cigarette smoke and OVA for 2 weeks led to airway eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia. In vivo OVA recall challenge 1 month after the last smoke exposure showed that concurrent exposure to OVA and cigarette smoke induced antigen-specific memory. Robust eosinophilia and OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE characterized the ensuing inflammatory response. Mechanistically, allergic sensitization was, in part, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) dependent, as a significant reduction in BAL eosinophilia was observed in mice treated with an anti-GM-CSF antibody. Of note, continuous smoke exposure attenuated the OVA recall response; decreased airway eosinophilia was observed in mice continuously exposed to cigarette smoke compared with mice that ceased the smoke exposure protocol. In conclusion, we demonstrate experimentally that while cigarette smoke acts as an adjuvant allowing for allergic sensitization, it also attenuates the ensuing eosinophilic inflammatory response. PMID:18635815

  13. Suppression of allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma by exogenous mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Hai-Feng; Huang, Yun; Hu, Xing-Bin; Wu, Chang-Gui

    2011-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have significant immunomodulatory effects in the development of acute lung inflammation and fibrosis. However, it is still unclear as to whether MSCs could attenuate allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. We firstly investigated whether exogenous MSCs can relocate to lung tissues in asthmatic mice and analyzed the chemotactic mechanism. Then, we evaluated the in vivo immunomodulatory effect of exogenous MSCs in asthma. MSCs (2 × 10(6)) were administered through the tail vein to mice one day before the first airway challenge. Migration of MSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry. The immunomodulatory effect of MSCs was evaluated by cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), histology, mast cell degranulation, airway hyperreactivity and cytokine profile in BALF. Exogenous MSCs can migrate to sites of inflammation in asthmatic mice through a stromal cell-derived factor-1α/CXCR4-dependent mechanism. MSCs can protect mice against a range of allergic airway inflammatory pathologies, including the infiltration of inflammatory cells, mast cell degranulation and airway hyperreactivity partly via shifting to a T-helper 1 (Th1) from a Th2 immune response to allergens. So, immunotherapy based on MSCs may be a feasible, efficient therapy for asthma. PMID:22114062

  14. Alterations of the Murine Gut Microbiome with Age and Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Harkema, Jack R.; Rizzo, Mike; Tiedje, James; Brandenberger, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of asthma. With advanced age the microbiome and the immune system are changing and, currently, little is known about how these two factors contribute to the development of allergic asthma in the elderly. In this study we investigated the associations between the intestinal microbiome and allergic airway disease in young and old mice that were sensitized and challenged with house dust mite (HDM). After challenge, the animals were sacrificed, blood serum was collected for cytokine analysis, and the lungs were processed for histopathology. Fecal pellets were excised from the colon and subjected to 16S rRNA analysis. The microbial community structure changed with age and allergy development, where alterations in fecal communities from young to old mice resembled those after HDM challenge. Allergic mice had induced serum levels of IL-17A and old mice developed a greater allergic airway response compared to young mice. This study demonstrates that the intestinal bacterial community structure differs with age, possibly contributing to the exaggerated pulmonary inflammatory response in old mice. Furthermore, our results show that the composition of the gut microbiota changes with pulmonary allergy, indicating bidirectional gut-lung communications. PMID:26090504

  15. Alterations of the Murine Gut Microbiome with Age and Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Harkema, Jack R; Rizzo, Mike; Tiedje, James; Brandenberger, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of asthma. With advanced age the microbiome and the immune system are changing and, currently, little is known about how these two factors contribute to the development of allergic asthma in the elderly. In this study we investigated the associations between the intestinal microbiome and allergic airway disease in young and old mice that were sensitized and challenged with house dust mite (HDM). After challenge, the animals were sacrificed, blood serum was collected for cytokine analysis, and the lungs were processed for histopathology. Fecal pellets were excised from the colon and subjected to 16S rRNA analysis. The microbial community structure changed with age and allergy development, where alterations in fecal communities from young to old mice resembled those after HDM challenge. Allergic mice had induced serum levels of IL-17A and old mice developed a greater allergic airway response compared to young mice. This study demonstrates that the intestinal bacterial community structure differs with age, possibly contributing to the exaggerated pulmonary inflammatory response in old mice. Furthermore, our results show that the composition of the gut microbiota changes with pulmonary allergy, indicating bidirectional gut-lung communications. PMID:26090504

  16. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Liu, Xiaoyang; Periasamy, Sivakumar; Ma, Aiying; Tang, Jin; Jenkins, Mark; Tuo, Wenbin; Song, Wenxia; Keegan, Achsah D.; Conrad, Daniel H.; Zhu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human low affinity IgE receptor, CD23 (FcεRII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monolayer in vitro. However, it remains unknown whether the CD23-dependent IgE transfer pathway in AECs initiates and facilitates allergic inflammation in vivo, and whether inhibition of this pathway attenuates allergic inflammation. To this end, we show that in wild-type (WT) mice, epithelial CD23 transcytosed both IgE and ovalbumin (OVA)-IgE complexes across the airway epithelial barrier, while neither type of transcytosis was observed in CD23 knockout (KO) mice. In chimeric mice, OVA sensitization and aerosol challenge of WT/WT (bone-marrow transfer from the WT to WT) or CD23KO/WT (CD23KO to WT) chimeric mice, which express CD23 on radioresistant airway structural cells (mainly epithelial cells) resulted in airway eosinophilia, including collagen deposition and a significant increase in goblet cells, and increased airway hyperreactivity. In contrast, the absence of CD23 expression on airway structural or epithelial cells, but not on hematopoietic cells, in WT/CD23KO (the WT to CD23KO) chimeric mice significantly reduced OVA-driven allergic airway inflammation. In addition, inhalation of the CD23-blocking B3B4 antibody in sensitized WT mice before or during airway challenge suppressed the salient features of asthma, including bronchial hyperreactivity. Taken together, these results identify a previously unproven mechanism in which epithelial CD23 plays a central role in the development of allergic inflammation. Further, our study suggests that functional inhibition of CD23 in the airway is a potential therapeutic approach with which to inhibit the development of asthma. PMID:25783969

  17. Resolution of Allergic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperreactivity Is Mediated by IL-17–producing γδT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Jenna R.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: γδT lymphocytes are enriched within the epithelial microenvironment, where they are thought to maintain homeostasis and limit immunopathology. γδT cells are postulated to exert a regulatory influence during acute allergic airway disease, but the mechanism is unknown. Although regulation of allergic airway disease has been attributed to IL-17–producing T helper (Th) 17 cells, we have found that γδT cells represent the major source of IL-17 in the allergic lung. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of these IL-17–producing γδT cells to regulation of allergic airway inflammation. Methods: Flow cytometry revealed that IL-17–producing γδT cells are more prevalent than IL-17+αβT cells (Th17) in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation. Measurements and Main Results: Transfer of γδT cells at the peak of acute allergic responses ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness with a corresponding acceleration in the resolution of eosinophilic and Th2-driven inflammation. Conversely, functional blockade of γδT cells led to exacerbation of injury. Neither treatment changed pulmonary Th17 cell numbers. Moreover, transfer of Th17 cells had no effect on disease outcome. Importantly, IL-17–deficient γδT cells were unable to promote resolution of injury. These data identify IL-17–producing γδT cells as key regulators of the allergic response in vivo. Conclusions: This unfolds a new perspective for the understanding of γδT cell function with regard to innate regulation of the adaptive immune responses, emphasizing that resolution of responses are important in determining the outcome of acute inflammatory episodes as well as for maintenance of tissue integrity and homeostasis. PMID:20413629

  18. γ-Secretase Inhibitor Alleviates Acute Airway Inflammation of Allergic Asthma in Mice by Downregulating Th17 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weixi; Zhang, Xueya; Sheng, Anqun; Weng, Cuiye; Zhu, Tingting; Zhao, Wei; Li, Changchong

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Th17 cell differentiation requires Notch signaling. γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) blocks Notch signaling; thus, it may be considered as a potential treatment for allergic asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GSI on Th17 cell differentiation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. OVA was used to induce mouse asthma model in the presence and absence of GSI. GSI ameliorated the development of OVA-induced asthma, including suppressing airway inflammation responses and reducing the severity of clinical signs. GSI also significantly suppressed Th17-cell responses in spleen and reduced IL-17 levels in serum. These findings suggest that GSI directly regulates Th17 responses through a Notch signaling-dependent pathway in mouse model of allergic asthma, supporting the notion that GSI is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:26339131

  19. Adam8 Limits the Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Knolle, Martin D.; Nakajima, Takahiro; Hergrueter, Anja; Gupta, Kushagra; Polverino, Francesca; Craig, Vanessa J.; Fyfe, Susanne E.; Zahid, Muhammad; Permaul, Perdita; Cernadas, Manuela; Montano, Gilbert; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Sholl, Lynette; Kobzik, Lester; Israel, Elliot; Owen, Caroline A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase-8 (Adam8) regulates allergic airway inflammation (AAI) and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), we compared AAI and AHR in wild type (WT) versus Adam8−/− mice in different genetic backgrounds sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite protein extract (HDM). OVA- and HDM-treated Adam8−/− mice had higher lung leukocyte counts, more airway mucus metaplasia, greater lung levels of some TH2 cytokines, and higher methacholine-induced increases in central airway resistance than allergen-treated WT mice. Studies of OVA-treated Adam8 bone marrow chimeric mice confirmed that leukocyte-derived Adam8 predominantly mediated Adam8’s anti-inflammatory activities in murine airways. Airway eosinophils and macrophages both expressed Adam8 in WT mice with AAI. Adam8 limited AAI and AHR in mice by reducing leukocyte survival because: 1) Adam8−/− mice with AAI had fewer apoptotic eosinophils and macrophages in their airways than WT mice with AAI; and 2) Adam8−/− macrophages and eosinophils had reduced rates of apoptosis compared with WT leukocytes when the intrinsic (but not the extrinsic) apoptosis pathway was triggered in the cells in vitro. ADAM8 was robustly expressed by airway granulocytes in lung sections from human asthma patients but, surprisingly, airway macrophages had less ADAM8 staining than airway eosinophils. Thus, ADAM8 has anti-inflammatory activities during AAI in mice by activating the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in myeloid leukocytes. Strategies that increase ADAM8 levels in myeloid leukocytes may have therapeutic efficacy in asthma. PMID:23670189

  20. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Huang, Huei-Mei; Lin, Chu-Lun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA) on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL-) 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4), MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN-) γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model. PMID:26495021

  1. Contrasting roles for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products on structural cells in allergic airway inflammation vs. airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Akihiko; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Waseda, Koichi; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Fujii, Utako; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Mikio; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Gelfand, Erwin W; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kanehiro, Arihiko

    2015-10-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. RAGE is reported to be involved in various inflammatory disorders; however, studies that address the role of RAGE in allergic airway disease are inconclusive. RAGE-sufficient (RAGE+/+) and RAGE-deficient (RAGE-/-) mice were sensitized to ovalbumin, and airway responses were monitored after ovalbumin challenge. RAGE-/- mice showed reduced eosinophilic inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia, lower T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine production from spleen and peribronchial lymph node mononuclear cells, and lower numbers of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the lung compared with RAGE+/+ mice following sensitization and challenge. Experiments using irradiated, chimeric mice showed that the mice expressing RAGE on radio-resistant structural cells but not hematopoietic cells developed allergic airway inflammation; however, the mice expressing RAGE on hematopoietic cells but not structural cells showed reduced airway inflammation. In contrast, absence of RAGE expression on structural cells enhanced innate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In the absence of RAGE, increased interleukin (IL)-33 levels in the lung were detected, and blockade of IL-33 receptor ST2 suppressed innate AHR in RAGE-/- mice. These data identify the importance of RAGE expressed on lung structural cells in the development of allergic airway inflammation, T helper type 2 cell activation, and group 2 innate lymphoid cell accumulation in the airways. RAGE on lung structural cells also regulated innate AHR, likely through the IL-33-ST2 pathway. Thus manipulating RAGE represents a novel therapeutic target in controlling allergic airway responses. PMID:26472810

  2. Biosignature for airway inflammation in a house dust mite-challenged murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Piyadasa, Hadeesha; Altieri, Anthony; Basu, Sujata; Schwartz, Jacquie; Halayko, Andrew J; Mookherjee, Neeloffer

    2016-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) challenge is commonly used in murine models of allergic asthma for preclinical pathophysiological studies. However, few studies define objective readouts or biomarkers in this model. In this study we characterized immune responses and defined molecular markers that are specifically altered after HDM challenge. In this murine model, we used repeated HDM challenge for two weeks which induced hallmarks of allergic asthma seen in humans, including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and elevated levels of circulating total and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1. Kinetic studies showed that at least 24 h after last HDM challenge results in significant AHR along with eosinophil infiltration in the lungs. Histologic assessment of lung revealed increased epithelial thickness and goblet cell hyperplasia, in the absence of airway wall collagen deposition, suggesting ongoing tissue repair concomitant with acute allergic lung inflammation. Thus, this model may be suitable to delineate airway inflammation processes that precede airway remodeling and development of fixed airway obstruction. We observed that a panel of cytokines e.g. IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, KC, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-33, MDC and TARC were elevated in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar fluid, indicating local lung inflammation. However, levels of these cytokines remained unchanged in serum, reflecting lack of systemic inflammation in this model. Based on these findings, we further monitored the expression of 84 selected genes in lung tissues by quantitative real-time PCR array, and identified 31 mRNAs that were significantly up-regulated in lung tissue from HDM-challenged mice. These included genes associated with human asthma (e.g. clca3, ear11, il-13, il-13ra2, il-10, il-21, arg1 and chia1) and leukocyte recruitment in the lungs (e.g. ccl11, ccl12 and ccl24). This study describes a biosignature to enable broad and systematic interrogation of molecular mechanisms and intervention strategies for

  3. Janus Kinase-3 Dependent Inflammatory Responses in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Debra L.; Malaviya, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung characterized by reversible airway obstruction, high serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and chronic airway inflammation. A number of cells including mast cells, T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Janus Kinase (JAK) −3, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, traditionally known to mediate cytokine signaling, also regulates functional responses of these cells. In this review the role of JAK-3 in regulating various pathogenic processes in allergic asthma is discussed. We propose that targeting JAK-3 is a rationale approach to control the inflammatory responses of multiple cell types responsible for the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. PMID:20430118

  4. Ionotropic and Metabotropic Proton-Sensing Receptors Involved in Airway Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Haruka; Mogi, Chihiro; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2014-01-01

    An acidic microenvironment has been shown to evoke a variety of airway responses, including cough, bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung, and stimulation of mucus hyperproduction. Except for the participation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in severe acidic pH (of less than 6.0)-induced cough and bronchoconstriction through sensory neurons, the molecular mechanisms underlying extracellular acidic pH-induced actions in the airways have not been fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1)-family G protein-coupled receptors, which sense pH of more than 6.0, are expressed in structural cells, such as airway smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells, and in inflammatory and immune cells, such as eosinophils and dendritic cells. They function in a variety of airway responses related to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, including allergic asthma. In the present review, we discuss the roles of ionotropic TRPV1 and ASICs and metabotropic OGR1-family G protein-coupled receptors in the airway inflammation and AHR in asthma and respiratory diseases. PMID:25197168

  5. Therapeutic expansion of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells limits allergic airway inflammation during pulmonary fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Bianca; Piehler, Daniel; Eschke, Maria; Heyen, Laura; Protschka, Martina; Köhler, Gabriele; Alber, Gottfried

    2016-06-01

    Allergic asthma can be frequently caused and exacerbated by sensitization to ubiquitous fungal allergens associated with pulmonary mucus production, airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction, resulting in a complex disease that is often difficult to treat. Fungal infections are frequently complicated by the development of a type 2 immune response that prevents successful elimination of the fungal pathogen. Furthermore, production of type 2 cytokines triggers allergic airway inflammation. Following intranasal infection of BALB/c mice with the fungusCryptococcus neoformans, we recently described a more pronounced type 2 immune response in the absence of regulatory T (Treg) cells. To determine whether Treg cell expansion is able to suppress type 2-related fungal allergic inflammation, we increased Treg cell numbers during pulmonaryC. neoformansinfection by administration of an interleukin (IL)-2/anti-IL-2 complex. Expansion of Treg cells resulted in reduced immunoglobulin E production and decreased allergic airway inflammation including reduced production of pulmonary mucus and type 2 cytokines as well as production of immunosuppressive cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β1. From our data we conclude that Treg cells and/or their suppressive mediators represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention during allergic fungal airway disease. PMID:27001975

  6. Chemokines and their receptors in the allergic airway inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Juan Raymundo; Teran, Luis Manuel

    2011-08-01

    The development of the allergic airway disease conveys several cell types, such as T-cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and dendritic cells, which act in a special and temporal synchronization. Cellular mobilization and its complex interactions are coordinated by a broad range of bioactive mediators known as chemokines. These molecules are an increasing family of small proteins with common structural motifs and play an important role in the recruitment and cell activation of both leukocytes and resident cells at the allergic inflammatory site via their receptors. Trafficking and recruitment of cell populations with specific chemokines receptors assure the presence of reactive allergen-specific T-cells in the lung, and therefore the establishment of an allergic inflammatory process. Different approaches directed against chemokines receptors have been developed during the last decades with promising therapeutic results in the treatment of asthma. In this review we explore the role of the chemokines and chemokine receptors in allergy and asthma and discuss their potential as targets for therapy. PMID:20352527

  7. Nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 regulates T-cell differentiation and allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Chemmannur, S V; Badhwar, A J; Mirlekar, B; Malonia, S K; Gupta, M; Wadhwa, N; Bopanna, R; Mabalirajan, U; Majumdar, S; Ghosh, B; Chattopadhyay, S

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a complex airway allergic disease involving the interplay of various cell types, cytokines, and transcriptional factors. Though many factors contribute to disease etiology, the molecular control of disease phenotype and responsiveness is not well understood. Here we report an essential role of the matrix attachment region (MAR)-binding protein SMAR1 in regulating immune response during allergic airway disease. Conditional knockout of SMAR1 in T cells rendered the mice resistant to eosinophilic airway inflammation against ovalbumin (OVA) allergen with low immunoglobulin E (IgE) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) levels. Moreover, a lower IgE/IgG2a ratio and higher interferon-γ (IFN-γ) response suggested aberrant skewing of T-cell differentiation toward type 1 helper T cell (Th1) response. We show that SMAR1 functions as a negative regulator of Th1 and Th17 differentiation by interacting with two potential and similar MAR regions present on the promoters of T-bet and IL-17. Thus, we present SMAR1 as a regulator of T-cell differentiation that favors the establishment of Th2 cells by modulating Th1 and Th17 responses. PMID:25736456

  8. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  9. IL-18 Does not Increase Allergic Airway Disease in Mice When Produced by BCG

    PubMed Central

    Amniai, L.; Biet, F.; Marquillies, P.; Locht, C.; Pestel, J.; Tonnel, A.-B.; Duez, C.

    2007-01-01

    Whilst BCG inhibits allergic airway responses in murine models, IL-18 has adversary effects depending on its environment. We therefore constructed a BCG strain producing murine IL-18 (BCG-IL-18) and evaluated its efficiency to prevent an asthma-like reaction in mice. BALB/cByJ mice were sensitized (day (D) 1 and D10) by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and primary (D20–22) and secondary (D62, 63) challenged with OVA aerosols. BCG or BCG-IL-18 were intraperitonealy administered 1 hour before each immunization (D1 and D10). BCG-IL-18 and BCG were shown to similarly inhibit the development of AHR, mucus production, eosinophil influx, and local Th2 cytokine production in BAL, both after the primary and secondary challenge. These data show that IL-18 did not increase allergic airway responses in the context of the mycobacterial infection, and suggest that BCG-IL-18 and BCG are able to prevent the development of local Th2 responses and therefore inhibit allergen-induced airway responses even after restimulation. PMID:18299704

  10. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes target airway CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells to suppress allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Daniels, N J; Hyde, E; Ghosh, S; Seo, K; Price, K M; Hoshino, K; Kaisho, T; Okada, T; Ronchese, F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is driven by the recognition of inhaled allergen by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the airway and lung. Allergen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can strongly reduce airway inflammation, however, the mechanism of their inhibitory activity is not fully defined. We used mouse models to show that allergen-specific CTLs reduced early cytokine production by Th2 cells in lung, and their subsequent accumulation and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In addition, treatment with specific CTLs also increased the proportion of caspase(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in mediastinal lymph node (MLN), and decreased the numbers of CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs in the lung. This decrease required expression of the cytotoxic mediator perforin in CTLs and of the appropriate MHC-antigen ligand on DCs, suggesting that direct CTL-DC contact was necessary. Lastly, lung imaging experiments revealed that in airway-challenged mice XCR1-GFP(+) DCs, corresponding to the CD103(+) DC subset, and XCR1-GFP(-) CD11c(+) cells, which include CD11b(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages, both clustered in the areas surrounding the small airways and were closely associated with allergen-specific CTLs. Thus, allergen-specific CTLs reduce allergic airway inflammation by depleting CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DC populations in the lung, and may constitute a mechanism through which allergic immune responses are regulated. PMID:26104914

  11. Pristimerin attenuates ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yingli; Wang, Yujia; Zhao, Danning; Ma, Sitong; Lu, Jing; Shuang, Guan

    2016-06-01

    Pristimerin has been shown to possess antiinflammatory activity. However, its potential use for asthma induced by airway inflammation has not yet been studied. First, we established a ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mice model. BALB/c mice were immunized and challenged by OVA. Treatment with pristimerin caused a marked reduction in the levels of OVA-specific IgE, immune cells, and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 secretion. Histological studies using H&E staining were used to study the alterations in lung tissue. These results were similar to those obtained with dexamethasone treatment. We then investigated which signal transduction mechanisms could be implicated in pristimerin activity by Western blot. The data showed that pristimerin could inhibit MAPKs and NF-κB inflammatory pathways. PMID:27098091

  12. Suppression of type 2 immunity and allergic airway inflammation by secreted products of the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, Henry J; O'Gorman, Mary T; Blair, Natalie; Sutherland, Tara E; Filbey, Kara J; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allergic asthma is less prevalent in countries with parasitic helminth infections, and mice infected with parasites such as Heligmosomoides polygyrus are protected from allergic airway inflammation. To establish whether suppression of allergy could be mediated by soluble products of this helminth, we tested H. polygyrus excretory-secretory (HES) material for its ability to impair allergic inflammation. When HES was added to sensitising doses of ovalbumin, the subsequent allergic airway response was suppressed, with ablated cell infiltration, a lower ratio of effector (CD4+CD25+Foxp3−) to regulatory (CD4+Foxp3+) T (Treg) cells, and reduced Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. HES exposure reduced IL-5 responses and eosinophilia, abolished IgE production, and inhibited the type 2 innate molecules arginase-1 and RELM-α. Although HES contains a TGF-β-like activity, similar effects in modulating allergy were not observed when administering mammalian TGF-β alone. HES also protected previously sensitised mice, suppressing recruitment of eosinophils to the airways when given at challenge, but no change in Th or Treg cell populations was apparent. Because heat-treatment of HES did not impair suppression at sensitisation, but compromised its ability to suppress at challenge, we propose that HES contains distinct heat-stable and heat-labile immunomodulatory molecules which modulate pro-allergic adaptive and innate cell populations. PMID:22706967

  13. Link between allergic asthma and airway mucosal infection suggested by proteinase-secreting household fungi.

    PubMed

    Porter, P; Susarla, S C; Polikepahad, S; Qian, Y; Hampton, J; Kiss, A; Vaidya, S; Sur, S; Ongeri, V; Yang, T; Delclos, G L; Abramson, S; Kheradmand, F; Corry, D B

    2009-11-01

    Active fungal proteinases are powerful allergens that induce experimental allergic lung disease strongly resembling atopic asthma, but the precise relationship between proteinases and asthma remains unknown. Here, we analyzed dust collected from the homes of asthmatic children for the presence and sources of active proteinases to further explore the relationship between active proteinases, atopy, and asthma. Active proteinases were present in all houses and many were derived from fungi, especially Aspergillus niger. Proteinase-active dust extracts were alone insufficient to initiate asthma-like disease in mice, but conidia of A. niger readily established a contained airway mucosal infection, allergic lung disease, and atopy to an innocuous bystander antigen. Proteinase produced by A. niger enhanced fungal clearance from lung and was required for robust allergic disease. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) and IL-5 were required for optimal clearance of lung fungal infection and eosinophils showed potent anti-fungal activity in vitro. Thus, asthma and atopy may both represent a protective response against contained airway infection due to ubiquitous proteinase-producing fungi. PMID:19710638

  14. Natural antibody repertoires: development and functional role in inhibiting allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Kearney, John F; Patel, Preeyam; Stefanov, Emily K; King, R Glenn

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the effects of microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire. Neonatal exposure to conserved bacterial carbohydrates and phospholipids permanently reprograms the natural antibody repertoire directed toward these antigens by clonal expansion, alterations in clonal dominance, and increased serum antibody levels. These epitopes are present not only in bacterial cell walls, but also in common environmental allergens. Neonatal immunization with bacterial polysaccharide vaccines results in attenuated allergic airway responses to fungi-, house dust mite-, and cockroach-associated allergens in mouse models. The similarities between mouse and human natural antibody repertoires suggest that reduced microbial exposure in children may have the opposite effect, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the hygiene hypothesis. We propose that understanding the effects of childhood infections on the natural antibody repertoire and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated immunoregulation observed in allergy models will lead to the development of prevention/interventional strategies for treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:25622195

  15. T cells are necessary for ILC2 activation in house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Bobby W S; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Tindemans, Irma; Lukkes, Melanie; KleinJan, Alex; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2016-06-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways mediated by an adaptive type 2 immune response. Upon allergen exposure, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can be rapidly activated and represent an early innate source of IL-5 and IL-13. Here, we used a house dust mite (HDM)-driven asthma mouse model to study the induction of ILC2s in allergic airway inflammation. In BALF, lungs, and lymph nodes, ILC2 activation is critically dependent on prior sensitization with HDM. Importantly, T cells are required for ILC2 induction, whereby T-cell activation precedes ILC2 induction. During HDM-driven allergic airway inflammation the accumulation of ILC2s in BALF is IL-33 independent, although infiltrating ILC2s produce less cytokines in Il33(-/-) mice. Transfer of in vitro polarized OVA-specific OT-II Th2 cells alone or in combination with Th17 cells followed by OVA and HDM challenge is not sufficient to induce ILC2, despite significant eosinophilic inflammation and T-cell activation. In this asthma model, ILC2s are therefore not an early source of Th2 cytokines, but rather contribute to type 2 inflammation in which Th2 cells play a key role. Taken together, ILC2 induction in HDM-mediated allergic airway inflammation in mice critically depends on activation of T cells. PMID:27062360

  16. The Therapeutic Potential of Targeting Cytokine Alarmins to Treat Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Chandler B.; Siracusa, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that results in recurrent attacks of breathlessness, coughing, and wheezing that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the precise causes of asthma are unclear, studies suggest that a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to various allergens and pathogens contribute to its development. Currently, the most common treatment to control asthma is a dual combination of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and corticosteroids. However, studies have shown that some patients do not respond well to these medications, while others experience significant side effects. It is reported that the majority of asthmas are associated with T helper type 2 (TH2) responses. In these patients, allergen challenge initiates the influx of TH2 cells in the airways leading to an increased production of TH2-associated cytokines and the promotion of allergy-induced asthma. Therefore, biologics that target this pathway may provide an alternative method to treat the allergic airway inflammation associated with asthma. As of now, only two biologics (omalizumab and mepolizumab), which target immunoglobulin E and interleukin-5, respectively, are FDA-approved and being prescribed to asthmatics. However, recent studies have reported that targeting other components of the TH2 response also show great promise. In this review, we will briefly describe the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic asthma. Furthermore, we will discuss the current therapeutic strategies used to treat asthma including their limitations. Finally, we will highlight the benefits of using biologics to treat asthma-associated allergic airway inflammation with an emphasis on the potential of targeting cytokine alarmins, especially thymic stromal lymphopoietin. PMID:27378934

  17. Effect of P2X4R on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in allergic airway challenge in mice

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, HONGXIA; XIA, QINGQING; FENG, XIAOQIAN; CAO, FANGYUAN; YU, HANG; SONG, YINLI; NI, XIUQIN

    2016-01-01

    P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) is the most widely expressed subtype of the P2XRs in the purinergic receptor family. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a ligand for this receptor, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. ATP-P2X4R signaling is involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling, and in the proliferation and differentiation of airway and alveolar epithelial cell lines. However, the role of P2X4R in asthma remains to be elucidated. This aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of P2X4R in a murine experimental asthma model. The asthmatic model was established by the inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA) in BALB/c mice. The mice were treated with P2X4R-specific agonists and antagonists to investigate the role of this receptor in vivo. Pathological changes in the bronchi and lung tissues were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining and Alcian blue staining. The inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, and the expression levels of P2X4R, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected using western blotting. In the OVA-challenged mice, inflammation, infiltration, collagen deposition, mucus production, and the expression levels of P2X4R and PCNA were all increased; however, the expression of α-SMA was decreased, compared with the mice in the control group. Whereas treatment with the P2X4R agonist, ATP, enhanced the allergic reaction, treatment with the P2X4R antagonist, 5-BDBD, attenuated the allergic reaction. The results suggested that ATP-P2X4R signaling may not only contribute to airway inflammation, but it may also contribute to airway remodeling in allergic asthma in mice. PMID:26648454

  18. A small molecule, orally active, α4β1/α4β7 dual antagonist reduces leukocyte infiltration and airway hyper-responsiveness in an experimental model of allergic asthma in Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, Julio; Sanz, María-Jesús; Iranzo, Arantxa; Montesinos, José Luis; Nabah, Yafa Naim Abu; Alfón, José; Gómez, Luis A; Merlos, Manuel; Morcillo, Esteban J

    2006-01-01

    α4β1 and α4β7 integrins are preferentially expressed on eosinophils and mononuclear leukocytes and play critical roles in their recruitment to inflammatory sites. We investigated the effects of TR14035, a small molecule, α4β1/α4β7 dual antagonist, in a rat model of allergic asthma. Actively sensitized rats were challenged with aerosol antigen or saline on day 21, and the responses evaluated 24 and 48-h later. TR14035 (3 mg kg−1, p.o.) was given 1-h before and 4-h after antigen or saline challenge. Airway hyper-responsiveness to intravenous 5-hydroxytryptamine was suppressed in TR14035-treated rats. Eosinophil, mononuclear cell and neutrophil counts, and eosinophil peroxidase and protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were decreased in TR14035-treated rats. Histological study showed a marked reduction of lung inflammatory lesions by TR14035. At 24-h postchallenge, antigen-induced lung interleukin (IL)-5 mRNA upregulation was suppressed in TR14035-treated rats. By contrast, IL-4 levels in BALF were not significantly affected by TR14035 treatment. IL-4 selectively upregulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which is the main endothelial ligand of α4 integrins. Intravital microscopy within the rat mesenteric microcirculation showed that 24-h exposure to 1 μg per rat of IL-4 induced a significant increase in leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion and emigration. These responses were decreased by 48, 100 and 99%, respectively in animals treated with TR14035. In conclusion, TR14035, by acting on α4β1 and α4β7 integrins, is an orally active inhibitor of airway leukocyte recruitment and hyper-responsiveness in animal models with potential interest for the treatment of asthma. PMID:16432509

  19. Acetaminophen Attenuates House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory J; Thrall, Roger S; Cloutier, Michelle M; Manautou, Jose E; Morris, John B

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, likely through pro-oxidant mechanisms. However, no studies have investigated the direct effects of APAP on the development of allergic inflammation. To determine the likelihood of a causal relationship between APAP and asthma pathogenesis, we explored the effects of APAP on inflammatory responses in a murine house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease. We hypothesized that APAP would enhance the development of HDM-induced allergic inflammation. The HDM model consisted of once daily intranasal instillations for up to 2 weeks with APAP or vehicle administration 1 hour prior to HDM during either week 1 or 2. Primary assessment of inflammation included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cytokine expression in lung tissue, and histopathology. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of HDM treatment were substantially diminished in APAP-treated groups compared with controls. APAP-treated groups had markedly reduced airway inflammation: including decreased inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid, lower cytokine expression in lung tissue, and less perivascular and peribronchiolar immune cell infiltration. The anti-inflammatory effect of APAP was not abrogated by an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism, suggesting that the effect was due to the parent compound or a non-P450 generated metabolite. Taken together, our studies do not support the biologic plausibility of the APAP hypothesis that APAP use may contribute to the causation of asthma. Importantly, we suggest the mechanism by which APAP modulates airway inflammation may provide novel therapeutic targets for asthma. PMID:27402277

  20. Allergen-encoded signals that control allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Landers, Cameron; Li, Evan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose is to review the important recent advances made in how innate immune cells, microbes, and the environment contribute to the expression of allergic disease, emphasizing the allergen-related signals that drive allergic responses. Recent findings The last few years have seen crucial advances in how innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells group 2 and airway epithelial cells and related molecular pathways through organismal proteinases and innate immune cytokines, such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33 contribute to allergy and asthma. Simultaneously with these advances, important progress has been made in our understanding of how the environment, and especially pathogenic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, helminths, and especially fungi derived from the natural and built environments, either promote or inhibit allergic inflammation and disease. Of specific interest are how lipopolysaccharide mediates its antiallergic effect through the ubiquitin modifying factor A20 and the antiallergic activity of both helminths and protozoa. Summary Innate immune cells and molecular pathways, often activated by allergen-derived proteinases acting on airway epithelium and macrophages as well as additional unknown factors, are essential to the expression of allergic inflammation and disease. These findings suggest numerous future research opportunities and new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in allergic disease. PMID:26658015

  1. Parasitic Nematode-Induced CD4+Foxp3+T Cells Can Ameliorate Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Sang Kyun; Jang, Min Seong; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background The recruitment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T (Treg) cells is one of the most important mechanisms by which parasites down-regulate the immune system. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the effects of Treg cells from Trichinella spiralis-infected mice and uninfected mice on experimental allergic airway inflammation in order to understand the functions of parasite-induced Treg cells. After four weeks of T. spiralis infection, we isolated Foxp3-GFP-expressing cells from transgenic mice using a cell sorter. We injected CD4+Foxp3+ cells from T. spiralis-infected [Inf(+)Foxp3+] or uninfected [Inf(-)Foxp3+] mice into the tail veins of C57BL/6 mice before the induction of inflammation or during inflammation. Inflammation was induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-alum sensitization and OVA challenge. The concentrations of the Th2-related cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 in the serum were lower in mice that received intravenous application of Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells [IV(inf):+(+) group] than in control mice. Some features of allergic airway inflammation were ameliorated by the intravenous application of Inf(-)Foxp3+ cells [IV(inf):+(-) group], but the effects were less distinct than those observed in the IV(inf):+(+) group. We found that Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells migrated to inflammation sites in the lung and expressed higher levels of Treg-cell homing receptors (CCR5 and CCR9) and activation markers (Klrg1, Capg, GARP, Gzmb, OX40) than did Inf(-)Foxp3+ cells. Conclusion/Significance T. spiralis infection promotes the proliferation and functional activation of Treg cells. Parasite-induced Treg cells migrate to the inflammation site and suppress immune responses more effectively than non-parasite-induced Treg cells. The adoptive transfer of Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells is an effective method for the treatment and prevention of allergic airway diseases in mice and is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment

  2. Role of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Allergic Airway Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Veraldi, Kristen L.; Gibson, Bethany T.; Yasuoka, Hidekata; Myerburg, Michael M.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Balzar, Silvana; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The hallmarks of allergic asthma are airway inflammation, obstruction, and remodeling. Airway remodeling may lead to irreversible airflow obstruction with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in the treatment of asthma, the mechanisms underlying airway remodeling are still poorly understood. We reported that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) contribute to extracellular matrix deposition in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; however, their contribution to airway remodeling in asthma has not been established. Objectives: We hypothesized that IGFBP-3 is overexpressed in asthma and contributes to airway remodeling. Methods: We evaluated levels of IGFBP-3 in tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with asthma at baseline and 48 hours after allergen challenge, in reparative epithelium in an in vitro wounding assay, and in conditioned media from cytokine- and growth factor–stimulated primary epithelial cells. Measurements and Main Results: IGFBP-3 levels and distribution were evaluated by Western blot, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. IGFBP-3 is increased in vivo in the airway epithelium of patients with asthma compared with normal control subjects. The concentration of IGFBP-3 is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma after allergen challenge, its levels are increased in reparative epithelium in an in vitro wounding assay and in the conditioned medium of primary airway epithelial cell cultures stimulated with IGF-I. Conclusions: Our results suggest that one mechanism of allergic airway remodeling is through the secretion of the profibrotic IGFBP-3 from IGF-I–stimulated airway epithelial cells during allergic inflammation. PMID:19608721

  3. Nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 mediate survival of pulmonary plasma cells during the allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Abram, Melanie; Wegmann, Michael; Fokuhl, Verena; Sonar, Sanchaita; Luger, Elke Olga; Kerzel, Sebastian; Radbruch, Andreas; Renz, Harald; Zemlin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    Allergen-specific Abs play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of allergic airway inflammation. During secondary immune responses, plasma cell survival and Ab production is mediated by extrinsic factors provided by the local environment (survival niches). It is unknown whether neurotrophins, a characteristic marker of allergic airway inflammation, influence plasma cell survival in the lung. Using a mouse model of allergic asthma, we found that plasma cells from the lung and spleen are distinct subpopulations exhibiting differential expression patterns of neurotrophins and their receptors (Trks). In vitro, the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) led to a dose-dependent increase in viability of isolated pulmonary plasma cells due to up-regulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl2 pathway. In parallel, the expression of transcription factors that stimulate the production of immunoglobulins (X-box binding protein 1 and NF-kappaB subunit RelA) was enhanced in plasma cells treated with NGF and NT3. These findings were supported in vivo. When the NGF pathway was blocked by intranasal application of a selective TrkA inhibitor, sensitized mice showed reduced numbers of pulmonary plasma cells and developed lower levels of allergen-specific and total serum IgE in response to OVA inhalation. This suggests that in the allergic airway inflammation, NGF/TrkA-mediated pulmonary IgE production contributes significantly to serum-IgE levels. We conclude that the neurotrophins NGF and NT3 act as survival factors for pulmonary plasma cells and thus are important regulators of the local Ab production in the allergic airway disease. PMID:19342646

  4. Impact on allergic immune response after treatment with vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Victor; Berggård, Karin; Barrios, Yvelise; Barrios, Ysamar; Arnau, Maria-Rosa; Zubeldia, Jose M; Baeza, Maria L; Back, Ove; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2009-01-01

    Background Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. Objective To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease. Methods Ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization/OVA-challenge (OVA/OVA) and house dust mite (HDM)-immunization/HDM-challenge (HDM/HDM) experimental murine models of allergic airway disease, using C57Bl.10/Q groups of mice (n = 10) treated subcutaneously with different concentrations of all-trans RA (0, 50, 500 and 2,500 ug) every 2-days were used to assess the allergic immune response. Results Levels of total and specific-IgE in sera were increased in all groups of RA treated OVA/OVA and HDM/HDM mice. Percentage and total amount of recruited eosinophil in airways by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were significantly enhanced in groups treated with 50, 500 and 2,500 ug of RA compared to non-treated mice. However, the group of mice treated with 2,500 ug had less eosinophil recruitment than the other two groups (50 and 500 ug). In parallel, levels of IL-5 and total IgE in BALF were also significantly diminished in the group treated with 2,500 ug compared to the other 2 groups (50 and 500 ug). Finally, total lung resistance was decreased in group treated with 2,500 ug compared to non-treated mice. Conclusion Our results suggest that retinoic acid directly enhances allergic response in vivo, but in higher doses may produce of immune suppression. PMID:19852821

  5. Gut dysbiosis promotes M2 macrophage polarization and allergic airway inflammation via fungi-induced PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun-Gi; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Totsuka, Naoya; Weinberg, Jason B.; Núñez, Gabriel; Shibuya, Akira

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although imbalances in gut microbiota composition, or “dysbiosis”, are associated with many diseases, the effects of gut dysbiosis on host systemic physiology are less well characterized. We report that gut dysbiosis induced by antibiotic (Abx)-treatment promotes allergic airway inflammation by shifting macrophage polarization in the lung toward the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages derived from Abx-treated mice was sufficient to increase allergic airway inflammation. Abx-treatment resulted in the overgrowth of a commensal fungal Candida species in the gut and increased plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which induced M2 macrophage polarization in the lung. Suppression of PGE2 synthesis by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and celecoxib suppressed M2 macrophage polarization and decreased allergic airway inflammatory cell infiltration in Abx-treated mice. Thus, Abx-treatment can cause overgrowth of particular fungal species in the gut and promote M2 macrophage activation at distant sites to influence systemic responses including allergic inflammation. PMID:24439901

  6. Measurement of airway function using invasive and non-invasive methods in mild and severe models for allergic airway inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Verheijden, Kim A. T.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert

    2014-01-01

    In this study a direct comparison was made between non-invasive and non-ventilated unrestrained whole body plethysmography (Penh) (conscious animals) and the invasive ventilated lung resistance (RL) method (anesthetized animals) in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models. Mild inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal sensitization and aerosols of ovalbumin. Severe inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal sensitization using trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin, followed by intranasal challenges with IgE-allergen complexes. A significant increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine was observed in the mild inflammation group when RL was measured. Significant changes in both RL and Penh were observed in the severe inflammation groups. There was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells in the Broncho-Alveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) in both the mild and severe inflammation animals. The enforced ventilation of the animals during the RL measurement further increased the number of cells in the BALF. IL-2 and RANTES levels in the BALF were higher in the severe inflammation groups compared to the mild inflammation groups. Penh gave only reliable measurements during severe airway inflammation. Measuring RL gave consistent results in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models however, ventilation induced an additional cell influx into the airways. PMID:25161620

  7. JNK-TLR9 signal pathway mediates allergic airway inflammation through suppressing melatonin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Mei; Shen, Qi-Ying; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Shi-Hai; Shen, Pei-Ting; Liu, Ya-Jing; Liu, Rong-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases such as asthma. TLR9 is one of the most extensively studied TLRs as an approach to treat asthma. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR9 in the allergic airway inflammation and the underlying mechanism. Wild-type (WT) mice and TLR9(-/-) mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA to establish allergic airway disease model. We found that the expression of TLR9 was elevated concomitantly with airway inflammation post-OVA challenge, and TLR9 deficiency effectively inhibited airway inflammation, including serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), pulmonary inflammatory cell recruitment, mucus secretion, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inflammatory cytokine production. Meanwhile, the protein expression of hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in lung tissues, the level of melatonin in serum, and BALF were reduced in OVA-challenged WT mice, while these reductions were significantly restored by TLR9 deficiency. Additionally, we showed that although TLR9 deficiency had no effect on OVA-induced phosphorylation of JNK, inhibition of JNK by specific inhibitor SP600125 significantly decreased OVA-induced expression of TLR9, suggesting that JNK is the upstream signal molecular of TLR9. Furthermore, SP600125 treatment promoted resolution of allergic airway inflammation in OVA-challenged WT mice, but not further ameliorated allergic airway inflammation in OVA-challenged TLR9(-/-) mice. Similarly, SP600125 significantly restored the protein expression of HIOMT and the level of melatonin in OVA-challenged WT mice, while such effect was not further enhanced by TLR9 deficiency. Collectively, our results indicated that JNK-TLR9 signal pathway mediates allergic airway inflammation through suppressing melatonin biosynthesis. PMID:26914888

  8. Airborne lipid antigens mobilize resident intravascular NKT cells to induce allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Seth T.; Thomas, Seddon Y.; Ferreira, Caroline M.; Bai, Li; Krausz, Thomas; Savage, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne exposure to microbial cell wall lipids such as lipopolysaccharide triggers innate immune responses that regulate susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation. α-Glycosylceramides represent another widespread class of microbial lipids that directly stimulate innate-like, IL-4– and IL-13–producing, CD1d-restricted NKT cells. In this study, we demonstrate that NKT cells constitutively accumulate and reside in the microvasculature of the mouse lung. After a single airborne exposure to lipid antigen, they promptly extravasate to orchestrate the formation of peribronchiolar and interstitial lymphohistiocytic granulomas containing numerous eosinophils. Concomitant airborne exposure to ovalbumin (OVA) induces the priming of OVA-specific Th2 cells and IgE antibodies by the same dendritic cell coexpressing CD1d and MHC class II. Although NKT cell activation remains confined to the lipid-exposed lung and draining lymph nodes, Th2 cells recirculate and seed the lung of a parabiotic partner, conferring susceptibility to OVA challenge months after the initial exposure, in a manner independent of NKT cells and CD1d. Thus, transient recruitment and activation of lung-resident intravascular NKT cells can trigger long-term susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation. PMID:21930768

  9. Polygonum multiflorum Decreases Airway Allergic Symptoms in a Murine Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Wang, Chien-N; Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Chiu, Chun-Lung; Liu, Leroy F; Lin, Hung-Yun; Wu, Reen

    2016-01-01

    The root of Polygonum multiflorum (also called He-Shou-Wu in Chinese) is a common herb and medicinal food in Asia used for its anti-aging properties. Our study investigated the therapeutic potential of an extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum (PME) in allergic asthma by using a mouse model. Feeding of 0.5 and 1 mg/mouse PME inhibited ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma symptoms, including airway inflammation, mucus production, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), in a dose-dependent manner. To discern PME's mechanism of action, we examined the profile and cytokine production of inflammatory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We found that eosinophils, the main inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lung of OVA-immunized mice, significantly decreased after PME treatment. Th2 cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], decreased in PME-treated mice. Elevated mRNA expression of Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 in the lung tissue was also inhibited after oral feeding of PME in OVA-immunized mice. Thus, we conclude that PME produces anti-asthma activity through the inhibition of Th2 cell activation. PMID:26916919

  10. The polymeric mucin Muc5ac is required for allergic airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher M.; Raclawska, Dorota S.; Ttofali, Fani; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Fletcher, Ashley A.; Harper, Daniel N.; McGing, Maggie A.; McElwee, Melissa M.; Williams, Olatunji W.; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Roy, Michelle G.; Kindrachuk, Kristen N.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Tuvim, Michael J.; Janssen, William J.; Schwartz, David A.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2015-01-01

    In asthma, airflow obstruction is thought to result primarily from inflammation-triggered airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. However, anti-inflammatory and smooth muscle-relaxing treatments are often temporary or ineffective. Overproduction of the mucin MUC5AC is an additional disease feature that, while strongly associated pathologically, is poorly understood functionally. Here we show that Muc5ac is a central effector of allergic inflammation that is required for airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine (MCh). In mice bred on two well-characterized strain backgrounds (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) and exposed to two separate allergic stimuli (ovalbumin and Aspergillus extract), genetic removal of Muc5ac abolishes AHR. Residual MCh responses are identical to unchallenged controls, and although inflammation remains intact, heterogeneous mucus occlusion decreases by 74%. Thus, whereas inflammatory effects on ASM alone are insufficient for AHR, Muc5ac-mediated plugging is an essential mechanism. Inhibiting MUC5AC may be effective for treating asthma and other lung diseases where it is also overproduced. PMID:25687754

  11. Thalidomide attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Asano, Toshiaki; Kume, Hiroaki; Taki, Fumitaka; Ito, Satoru; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness of the airways. We hypothesized that thalidomide, which has numerous immunomodulatory properties, may have anti-inflammatory effects in allergic asthma. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) were treated orally with thalidomide (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg) or a vehicle. When thalidomide was administered to OVA-challenged mice, the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly decreased. The numbers of inflammatory cells other than eosinophils were not reduced by thalidomide. Thalidomide inhibited the elevated levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in BALF by OVA challenges. Histological analysis of the lung revealed that both the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the hyperplasia of goblet cells were significantly suppressed by thalidomide treatment. Furthermore, thalidomide significantly inhibited the response to methacholine induced by OVA challenges. Taken together, thalidomide treatment decreased airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic asthma. These results might provide an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics to treat severe asthma. PMID:20522972

  12. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5-10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. PMID:22266348

  13. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  14. Effects of airway exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro; Yoshida, Seiichi; Tanaka, Michitaka; Takano, Hirohisa; Sun, Guifan; Ichinose, Takamichi

    2013-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a positive link between atopy morbidity and exposure to phthalate esters, which are environmental chemicals mainly involved in house dust. Nevertheless, experimental studies applying several allergic in vivo models (in addition to epidemiological studies) are needed to prove the precise correlation between phthalates and facilitation of the allergic response/pathophysiology. Among the phthalate esters, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been widely used in flexible polyvinyl chloride products, including vinyl flooring and wall covering, and has been widely suggested to have immunomodulating potential. In the present study, we examined the effects of airway exposure to DEHP on allergen (ovalbumin: OVA)-induced rhinitis in mice. The repeated administration of OVA via an intranasal route induced nasal inflammation characterized by the infiltration of granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils) into the nasal cavity. In this experimental setting, DEHP did not exaggerate OVA-related inflammatory pathology. However, local (nasal) IL-13 levels were significantly higher in mice treated with allergen plus DEHP than with allergen alone. Taken together, phthalate esters including DEHP have the potential to exacerbate the allergic milieu in the nasal system, as well as dermal and respiratory systems. PMID:23672524

  15. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides block allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting Th2 cell activation and IgE-mediated cytokine induction

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Edith M.; Chu, Mabel; Lizcano, Jennifer O.; Chang, Bonnie; Herman, Nancy; Kell, Sariah A.; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Coffman, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A single treatment with a CpG-containing immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ISS) given before allergen challenge can inhibit T helper type 2 cell (Th2)–mediated airway responses in animal models of allergic asthma; however, the mechanism of this inhibition remains largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that airway delivery of ISS before allergen challenge in Th2-primed mice acts in two distinct ways to prevent the allergic responses to this challenge. The first is to prevent induction of cytokines from allergen-specific Th2 cells, as demonstrated by the nearly complete inhibition of Th2 cytokine production, Th2-dependent functional responses, and gene induction patterns. ISS inhibits the Th2 response by rendering lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) unable to effectively present antigen to Th2 cells, but not to Th1 cells. This loss of APC function correlates with a reduced expression of costimulatory molecules, including programmed cell death ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2, CD40, CD80, CD86, and inducible T cell costimulator, and of major histocompatibility complex class II on CD11c+APCs from the airways of ISS-treated mice. The second important action of ISS is inhibition of immunoglobulin E–dependent release of Th2 cytokines, especially interleukin 4, from basophils and/or mast cells in the airways of Th2-primed mice. Thus, inhibition by ISS of allergic responses can be explained by two novel mechanisms that culminate in the inhibition of the principal sources of type 2 cytokines in the airways. PMID:16314434

  16. Abietic acid attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a mouse allergic asthma model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Zhaoyu, Liu; Xiangming, Fang; Chunyi, Lin; Jiayu, Pan; Lu, Shen; Jitao, Chen; Liangcai, Chen; Jifang, Liu

    2016-09-01

    Abietic acid (AA), one of the terpenoids isolated from Pimenta racemosa var. grissea, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, the anti-allergic effects of AA remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic effects of AA in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma murine model. The model of mouse asthma was established by induction of OVA. AA (10, 20, 40mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1h after the OVA treatment on days 21 to 23. At 24h after the last challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes, cytokines production, and NF-κB expression. The results showed that AA attenuated lung histopathologic changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AA also inhibited OVA-induced the nitric oxide (NO), IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and OVA-specific IgE production, as well as NF-κB activation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that AA exhibited protective effects against OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice and the possible mechanism was involved in inhibiting NF-κB activation. PMID:27318791

  17. Soluble ADAM33 initiates airway remodeling to promote susceptibility for allergic asthma in early life

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Elizabeth R.; Kelly, Joanne F.C.; Howarth, Peter H.; Wilson, David I.; Holgate, Stephen T.; Davies, Donna E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Haitchi, Hans Michael

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease that usually begins in early life and involves gene-environment interactions. Although most asthma exhibits allergic inflammation, many allergic individuals do not have asthma. Here, we report how the asthma gene a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) acts as local tissue susceptibility gene that promotes allergic asthma. We show that enzymatically active soluble ADAM33 (sADAM33) is increased in asthmatic airways and plays a role in airway remodeling, independent of inflammation. Furthermore, remodeling and inflammation are both suppressed in Adam33-null mice after allergen challenge. When induced in utero or added ex vivo, sADAM33 causes structural remodeling of the airways, which enhances postnatal airway eosinophilia and bronchial hyperresponsiveness following subthreshold challenge with an aeroallergen. This substantial gene-environment interaction helps to explain the end-organ expression of allergic asthma in genetically susceptible individuals. Finally, we show that sADAM33-induced airway remodeling is reversible, highlighting the therapeutic potential of targeting ADAM33 in asthma. PMID:27489884

  18. Clusterin Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Attenuating CCL20-Mediated Dendritic Cell Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gyong Hwa; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Moon, Keun-Ai; Park, So Young; Park, Sunjoo; Lee, Kyoung Young; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Lee, Heung Kyu; Cho, You Sook

    2016-03-01

    Recruitment and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in the lungs are critical for Th2 responses in asthma, and CCL20 secreted from bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) is known to influence the recruitment of DCs. Because asthma is a disease that is closely associated with oxidative stress, we hypothesized that clusterin, an oxidative stress regulatory molecule, may have a role in the development of allergic airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine whether clusterin regulates CCL20 production from the BECs and the subsequent DC recruitment in the lungs. To verify the idea, clusterin knockout (Clu(-/-)), clusterin heterogeneous (Clu(+/-)), and wild-type mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) extract to induce allergic airway inflammation. We found that the total number of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the lung was increased in Clu(-/-) and Clu(+/-) mice. Of these immune cells, inflammatory DCs (CD11b(+)CD11c(+)) and Ly6C(high) monocyte populations in the lung were significantly increased, which was accompanied by increased levels of various chemokines, including CCL20 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased oxidative stress markers in the lung. Moreover, HDM-stimulated human BECs with either up- or downregulated clusterin expression showed that CCL20 secretion was negatively associated with clusterin expression. Interestingly, clusterin also reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which is related to induction of CCL20 expression after HDM stimulation. Thus, the antioxidant property of clusterin is suggested to regulate the expression of CCL20 in BECs and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory DCs in the airway. PMID:26826245

  19. Mucosal production of uric acid by airway epithelial cells contributes to particulate matter-induced allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Gold, M J; Hiebert, P R; Park, H Y; Stefanowicz, D; Le, A; Starkey, M R; Deane, A; Brown, A C; Liu, G; Horvat, J C; Ibrahim, Z A; Sukkar, M B; Hansbro, P M; Carlsten, C; VanEeden, S; Sin, D D; McNagny, K M; Knight, D A; Hirota, J A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major component of air pollution, contributes to increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. PM induces innate immune responses and contributes to allergic sensitization, although the mechanisms governing this process remain unclear. Lung mucosal uric acid has also been linked to allergic sensitization. The links among PM exposure, uric acid, and allergic sensitization remain unexplored. We therefore investigated the mechanisms behind PM-induced allergic sensitization in the context of lung mucosal uric acid. PM10 and house dust mite exposure selectively induced lung mucosal uric acid production and secretion in vivo, which did not occur with other challenges (lipopolysaccharide, virus, bacteria, or inflammatory/fibrotic stimuli). PM10-induced uric acid mediates allergic sensitization and augments antigen-specific T-cell proliferation, which is inhibited by uricase. We then demonstrate that human airway epithelial cells secrete uric acid basally and after stimulation through a previously unidentified mucosal secretion system. Our work discovers a previously unknown mechanism of air pollution-induced, uric acid-mediated, allergic sensitization that may be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:26509876

  20. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people. PMID:7951780

  1. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz, E A; Reuter, S; Martin, H; Dehzad, N; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Buhl, R; Stassen, M; Taube, C

    2012-01-15

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow-derived mast cells following IgE/FcɛRI crosslinking, whereas treatment with QI had no effect. Similarly, in vivo treatment with Kp and QE decreased development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and production of IL-5, IL-13 and TNF. In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. PMID:21802918

  2. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  3. Chrysin attenuates allergic airway inflammation by modulating the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Gu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Jiankang; Huang, Mao; Su, Mei

    2012-07-01

    Chrysin, a flavonoid obtained from various natural sources, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant and anti-allergic activities. However, its anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities in asthma animal models are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of chrysin on airway inflammation and the possible mechanisms through which it acts in a murine model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin (OVA) were administered intragastrically with chrysin at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily. Chrysin significantly suppressed OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to acetylcholine chloride (Ach). Chrysin administration significantly inhibited the total inflammatory cell and eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in serum. Histological examination of lung tissue demonstrated that chrysin significantly attenuated allergen-induced lung eosinophilic inflammation and mucus-producing goblet cells in the airway. In addition, chrysin triggered a switch of the immune response to allergens towards a T-helper type 1 (Th1) profile by modulating the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 in allergic mice. These data suggest that chrysin exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties and provides new insights into the immunopharmacological role of chrysin in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma. PMID:22552848

  4. TGF-beta, eosinophils and IL-13 in allergic airway remodeling: a critical appraisal with therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Fattouh, Ramzi; Jordana, Manel

    2008-12-01

    Airway remodeling is a characteristic feature of allergic asthma that is now thought to contribute to airway dysfunction and, ultimately, to clinical symptoms. A prevalent hypothesis holds that eosinophil-derived transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a predominant underlying mechanism driving the development of remodeling and thus, represent promising targets for therapeutic intervention. This notion is supported by in vivo evidence from loss of function experiments conducted in animal models employing the surrogate allergen ovalbumin (OVA), and by indirect evidence from studies in human asthmatics. However, it is important to note that various studies in OVA systems have reported disconnects between eosinophils, TGF-beta and allergic remodeling. Moreover, recent investigations in a mouse model induced by respiratory exposure to a house dust mite extract have shown that remodeling can develop independently of TGF-beta. These findings challenge the above hypothesis and suggest that the mechanisms governing remodeling may be context specific. In addition to TGF-beta and eosinophils, several other factors have been implicated in the development of airway remodeling. Among these, interleukin (IL)-13 may be of particular importance given its role in type-2 immunity and in the tissue repair/fibrotic response. This review will appraise the evidence pertaining to the roles of TGF-beta, eosinophils and IL-13 in allergic remodeling, and will suggest that identifying robust targets for therapeutic intervention might benefit from a reconsideration of our approach to understanding remodeling. PMID:19075788

  5. Chronic Low Dose Chlorine Exposure Aggravates Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Activates Inflammasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Park, Da-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic clinical studies suggested that chronic exposure to chlorine products is associated with development of asthma and aggravation of asthmatic symptoms. However, its underlying mechanism was not clearly understood. Studies were undertaken to define the effects and mechanisms of chronic low-dose chlorine exposure in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods Six week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA in the presence and absence of chronic low dose chlorine exposure of naturally vaporized gas of 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Airway inflammation and AHR were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell recovery and non-invasive phlethysmography, respectively. Real-time qPCR, Western blot assay, and ELISA were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Human A549 and murine epithelial (A549 and MLE12) and macrophage (AMJ2-C11) cells were used to define the responses to low dose chlorine exposure in vitro. Results Chronic low dose chlorine exposure significantly augmented airway inflammation and AHR in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and IL-33 were significantly increased in OVA/Cl group compared with OVA group. The chlorine exposure also activates the major molecules associated with inflammasome pathway in the macrophages with increased expression of epithelial alarmins IL-33 and TSLP in vitro. Conclusion Chronic low dose exposure of chlorine aggravates allergic Th2 inflammation and AHR potentially through activation of inflammasome danger signaling pathways. PMID:25202911

  6. Neuroimmune semaphorin 4A downregulates the severity of allergic response.

    PubMed

    Nkyimbeng-Takwi, E H; Shanks, K; Smith, E; Iyer, A; Lipsky, M M; Detolla, L J; Kikutani, H; Keegan, A D; Chapoval, S P

    2012-07-01

    To define the role of semaphorin 4A (Sema4A) in allergic response, we employed Sema4A⁻/⁻ and wild-type (WT) mice in the experimental model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation. We observed a selective increase in eosinophilic airway infiltration accompanied by bronchial epithelial cell hyperplasia in allergen-treated Sema4A⁻/⁻ mice relative to WT mice. This enhanced inflammatory response was associated with a selective increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) interleukin 13 (IL-13) content, augmented airway hyperreactivity, and lower regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers. In vivo allergen-primed Sema4A⁻/⁻ CD4+ T cells were more effective in transferring T helper type 2 (Th2) response to naive mice as compared with WT CD4+ T cells. T-cell proliferation and IL-13 productions in OVA₃₂₃₋₃₃₉-restimulated Sema4A⁻/⁻ cell cultures were upregulated. Generated bone marrow chimeras showed an equal importance of both lung-resident cell and inflammatory cell Sema4A expression in optimal disease regulation. These data provide a new insight into Sema4A biology and define Sema4A as an important regulator of Th2-driven lung pathophysiology. PMID:22472774

  7. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Meagan; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Eisenhauer, Philip; Ziats, Nicholas P; LeClair, Laurie; Poynter, Matthew E; Steele, Chad; Rincon, Mercedes; Weiss, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) mitigate inflammation in mouse models of acute lung injury. However, specific mechanisms of BMSC actions on CD4 T lymphocyte-mediated inflammation in vivo remain poorly understood. Limited data suggests promotion of Th2 phenotype in models of Th1-mediated diseases. However, whether this might alleviate or worsen Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic asthma is unknown. To ascertain the effects of systemic administration of BMSCs in a mouse model of Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airways inflammation was induced in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as in interferon-γ (IFNγ) receptor null mice. Effects of systemic administration during antigen sensitization of either syngeneic or allogeneic BMSC on airways hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes, and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Both syngeneic and allogeneic BMSCs inhibited airways hyperreactivity and lung inflammation through a mechanism partly dependent on IFNγ. However, contrary to existing data, BMSCs did not affect antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte proliferation but rather promoted Th1 phenotype in vivo as assessed by both OVA-specific CD4 T lymphocyte cytokine production and OVA-specific circulating immunoglobulins. BMSCs treated to prevent release of soluble mediators and a control cell population of primary dermal skin fibroblasts only partly mimicked the BMSC effects and in some cases worsened inflammation. In conclusion, BMSCs inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation by influencing antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte differentiation. Promotion of a Th1 phenotype in antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes by BMSCs is sufficient to inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation through an IFNγ-dependent process. PMID:21544902

  8. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). Objective We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Results Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Conclusion Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper

  9. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AS ADJUVANTS IN ALLERGIC AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: Studies have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) worsen respiratory diseases including allergic asthma. The adjuvant effects of DEP in the airways have been widely reported; however, the precise determinants and mechanisms of these effects are ill-defined. S...

  10. Proteinase activated receptor-2-mediated dual oxidase-2 up-regulation is involved in enhanced airway reactivity and inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Alharbi, Naif O; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Tyagi, Manoj; Ahmad, Sheikh F; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M

    2015-07-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) express a variety of receptors, which sense danger signals from various aeroallergens/pathogens being inhaled constantly. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is one such receptor and is activated by cockroach allergens, which have intrinsic serine proteinase activity. Recently, dual oxidases (DUOX), especially DUOX-2, have been shown to be involved in airway inflammation in response to Toll-like receptor activation. However, the association between PAR-2 and DUOX-2 has not been explored in airways of allergic mice. Therefore, this study investigated the contribution of DUOX-2/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling in airway reactivity and inflammation after PAR-2 activation. Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with intact cockroach allergen extract (CE) in the presence of aluminium hydroxide followed by intranasal challenge with CE. Mice were then assessed for airway reactivity, inflammation, oxidative stress (DUOX-2, ROS, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrite, nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyls) and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3). Challenge with CE led to up-regulation of DUOX-2 and ROS in AECs with concomitant increases in airway reactivity/inflammation and parameters of oxidative stress, and apoptosis. All of these changes were significantly inhibited by intranasal administration of ENMD-1068, a small molecule antagonist of PAR-2 in allergic mice. Administration of diphenyliodonium to allergic mice also led to improvement of allergic airway responses via inhibition of the DUOX-2/ROS pathway; however, these effects were less pronounced than PAR-2 antagonism. The current study suggests that PAR-2 activation leads to up-regulation of the DUOX-2/ROS pathway in AECs, which is involved in regulation of airway reactivity and inflammation via oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:25684443

  11. Acute glutathione depletion leads to enhancement of airway reactivity and inflammation via p38MAPK-iNOS pathway in allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Siddiqui, N; Alharbi, Naif O; Alharbi, M M; Imam, F

    2014-09-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays a major role in allergic airway responses through a variety of mechanism which include direct scavenging of oxidative species, being a reducing equivalent and regulation of cellular signaling through redox sensitive mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of acute GSH depletion on airway reactivity, inflammation and NO signaling in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase was used for depletion of GSH levels. Acute depletion of GSH with BSO worsened allergen induced airway reactivity and inflammation through increase in nitrosative stress as reflected by increased inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, total nitrates and nitrites (NOx), nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls, and decreased total antioxidant capacity. Treatment with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and iNOS inhibitors attenuated the effects of GSH depletion on airway reactivity and inflammation through attenuation of nitrosative stress as evidenced by a decrease in NOx, nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls and increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC). In conclusion, these data suggest that acute depletion of glutathione is associated with alteration of airway responses through an increase in nitrosative stress in allergic airways of mice. PMID:24978607

  12. A limited CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide therapy regimen induces sustained suppression of allergic airway inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kozy, Heather M.; Lum, Jeremy A.; Sweetwood, Rosemary; Chu, Mabel; Cunningham, Cameron R.; Salamon, Hugh; Lloyd, Clare M.; Coffman, Robert L.; Hessel, Edith M.

    2015-01-01

    Background CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are potent inhibitors of Th2-mediated allergic airway disease in sensitized mice challenged with allergen. A single treatment has transient effects but a limited series of treatments has potential to achieve clinically meaningful sustained inhibition of allergic airway disease. Objective To optimize the treatment regimen and determine the mechanisms of action in mice of an inhaled form of CpG-ODN being developed for human asthma treatment. Methods A limited series of weekly intranasal 1018 ISS (CpG-ODN; B-class) treatments were given to ragweed allergen-sensitized mice chronically exposed to allergen during and after the 1018 ISS treatment regimen. Treatment effects were evaluated by measuring effect on lung Th2 cytokines and eosinophilia as well as lung dendritic cell function and T cell responses. Results Twelve intranasal 1018 ISS treatments induced significant suppression of BAL eosinophilia and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels and suppression was maintained through 13 weekly ragweed exposures administered after treatment cessation. At least 5 treatments were required for lasting Th2 suppression. CpG-ODN induced moderate Th1 responses but Th2 suppression did not require IFN-γ. Th2 suppression was associated with induction of a regulatory T cell response. Conclusion A short series of CpG-ODN treatments results in sustained suppression of allergic lung inflammation induced by a clinically relevant allergen. PMID:24464743

  13. Basophils as a primary inducer of the T helper type 2 immunity in ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenwei; Su, Wen; Zhang, Yanjie; Liu, Qi; Wu, Jinhong; Di, Caixia; Zhang, Zili; Xia, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-induced allergic airway inflammation is mediated by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and their cytokines, but the mechanism that initiates the Th2 immunity is not fully understood. Recent studies show that basophils play important roles in initiating Th2 immunity in some inflammatory models. Here we explored the role of basophils in ovalbumin (OVA) -induced airway allergic inflammation in BALB/c mice. We found that OVA sensitization and challenge resulted in a significant increase in the amount of basophils in blood and lung, along with the up-regulation of activation marker of CD200R. However, depletion of basophils with MAR-1 or Ba103 antibody attenuated airway inflammation, represented by the significantly decreased amount of the Th2 subset in spleen and draining lymph nodes, interlukin-4 level in lung and OVA-special immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels in serum. On the other hand, adoptive transfer of basophils from OVA-challenged lung tissue to naive BALB/c mice provoked the Th2 immune response. In addition, pulmonary basophils from OVA-challenged mice were able to uptake DQ-OVA and express MHC class II molecules and CD40 in vivo, as well as to release interleukin-4 following stimulation by IgE–antigen complexes and promote Th2 polarization in vitro. These findings demonstrate that basophils may participate in Th2 immune responses in antigen-induced allergic airway inflammation and that they do so through facilitating antigen presentation and providing interleukin-4. PMID:24383680

  14. Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Daekeun; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Habibah, Nurina Umy; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic kaempferol at 10–20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy. PMID:26694364

  15. Control of T helper 2 cell function and allergic airway inflammation by PKCζ

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Pilar; Villares, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Mascarenhas, Sandra; Zaballos, Angel; Leitges, Michael; Kovac, Judit; Sizing, Irene; Rennert, Paul; Márquez, Gabriel; Martínez-A, Carlos; Diaz-Meco, María T.; Moscat, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a disease of chronic airway inflammation in which T helper (Th) 2 cells play a critical role. The molecular mechanisms controlling Th2 differentiation and function are of paramount importance in biology and immunology. PKCζ has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and NF-κB, as well as in the control of T-dependent responses, although no defects were detected in naïve T cells from PKCζ–/– mice. Here, we report that PKCζ is critical for IL-4 signaling and Th2 differentiation. Thus, PKCζ levels are increased during Th2 differentiation, but not Th1 differentiation, of CD4+ T cells, and the loss of PKCζ impairs the secretion of Th2 cytokines in vitro and in vivo, as well as the nuclear translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat6 and Jak1 activation, essential downstream targets of IL-4 signaling. Moreover, PKCζ–/– mice display dramatic inhibition of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease, strongly suggesting that PKCζ can be a therapeutic target in asthma. PMID:15987782

  16. IL-23 signaling enhances Th2 polarization and regulates allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Yang, Xuexian O.; Chang, Seon Hee; Yang, Jiong; Dong, Chen

    2009-01-01

    IL-23/IL-17 axis is an important regulator in various inflammatory diseases. However, the role of IL-23 in allergic airway inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we show that in an allergen-induced asthma model, mice with transgenic overexpression of IL-23R exhibited increased airway infiltration of eosinophils and Th2 cytokine production, whereas those deficient in IL-23 displayed reduced airway inflammation. In vitro, IL-23-IL-23R signaling promoted GATA-3 expression and enhanced Th2 cytokine expression. Conversely, in the absence of this signal, Th2 cell differentiation was partially inhibited. Therefore, IL-23 signaling may regulate allergic asthma through modulation of Th2 cell differentiation. PMID:19935773

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells and serelaxin synergistically abrogate established airway fibrosis in an experimental model of chronic allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Royce, Simon G; Shen, Matthew; Patel, Krupesh P; Huuskes, Brooke M; Ricardo, Sharon D; Samuel, Chrishan S

    2015-11-01

    This study determined if the anti-fibrotic drug, serelaxin (RLN), could augment human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated reversal of airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) associated with chronic allergic airways disease (AAD/asthma). Female Balb/c mice subjected to the 9-week model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic AAD were either untreated or treated with MSCs alone, RLN alone or both combined from weeks 9-11. Changes in airway inflammation (AI), epithelial thickness, goblet cell metaplasia, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression, myofibroblast differentiation, subepithelial and total lung collagen deposition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, and AHR were then assessed. MSCs alone modestly reversed OVA-induced subepithelial and total collagen deposition, and increased MMP-9 levels above that induced by OVA alone (all p<0.05 vs OVA group). RLN alone more broadly reversed OVA-induced epithelial thickening, TGF-β1 expression, myofibroblast differentiation, airway fibrosis and AHR (all p<0.05 vs OVA group). Combination treatment further reversed OVA-induced AI and airway/lung fibrosis compared to either treatment alone (all p<0.05 vs either treatment alone), and further increased MMP-9 levels. RLN appeared to enhance the therapeutic effects of MSCs in a chronic disease setting; most likely a consequence of the ability of RLN to limit TGF-β1-induced matrix synthesis complemented by the MMP-promoting effects of MSCs. PMID:26426509

  18. Nitrogen dioxide enhances allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Matthew E; Persinger, Rebecca L; Irvin, Charles G; Butnor, Kelly J; van Hirtum, Hans; Blay, Wendy; Heintz, Nicholas H; Robbins, Justin; Hemenway, David; Taatjes, Douglas J; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being an air pollutant, NO2 is a potent inflammatory oxidant generated endogenously by myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. In these studies, we sought to determine the effects of NO2 exposure on mice with ongoing allergic airway disease pathology. Mice were sensitized and challenged with the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) to generate airway inflammation and subsequently exposed to 5 or 25 ppm NO2 for 3 days or 5 days followed by a 20-day recovery period. Whereas 5 ppm NO2 elicited no pathological changes, inhalation of 25 ppm NO2 alone induced acute lung injury, which peaked after 3 days and was characterized by increases in protein, LDH, and neutrophils recovered by BAL, as well as lesions within terminal bronchioles. Importantly, 25 ppm NO2 was also sufficient to cause AHR in mice, a cardinal feature of asthma. The inflammatory changes were ameliorated after 5 days of inhalation and completely resolved after 20 days of recovery after the 5-day inhalation. In contrast, in mice immunized and challenged with OVA, inhalation of 25 ppm NO2 caused a marked augmentation of eosinophilic inflammation and terminal bronchiolar lesions, which extended significantly into the alveoli. Moreover, 20 days postcessation of the 5-day 25 ppm NO2 inhalation regimen, eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation, pulmonary lesions, and AHR were still present in mice immunized and challenged with OVA. Collectively, these observations suggest an important role for NO2 in airway pathologies associated with asthma, both in modulation of degree and duration of inflammatory response, as well as in induction of AHR. PMID:16085673

  19. Collaborative interactions between type 2 innate lymphoid cells and antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells exacerbate murine allergic airway diseases with prominent eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2015-04-15

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype. PMID:25780046

  20. Effects of nitric acid on carbachol reactivity of the airways in normal and allergic sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.M.; Kim, C.S.; King, M.M.; Oliver, W. Jr.; Yerger, L.

    1982-01-01

    The airway effects of a 4-hr exposure (via a Plexiglas hood) to 1.6 ppm nitric acid vapor were evaluated in seven normal and seven allergic sheep, i.e., animals that have a history of reacting with bronchospasm to inhalation challenge with Ascaris suum antigen. The nitric acid vapor was generated by ultrasonic nebulization of a 2% nitric acid solution. Airway effects were assessed by measuring the change in specific pulmonary flow resistance before and after a standard inhalation challenge with 2.5% carbachol aerosol. Nitric acid exposure did not produce bronchoconstriction in either group. Pre-exposure increases in specific pulmonary flow resistance after carbachol inhalation were 68% (SD+/- 13%) and 82% (SD+/- 35%) for the normal and allergic sheep, respectively. Within 24 hr, the largest post-exposure increases in specific pulmonary flow resistance for the normal and allergic sheep were 108% (SD+/- 51%(P<.06)) and 175% (SD+/- 87% (p<.02)), respectively. We conclude that a short-term exposure to nitric acid vapor at levels below the industrial threshold limit (2 ppm), produces airway hyperreactivity to aerosolized carbachol in allergic sheep.

  1. Long-term exposure to house dust mite leads to suppression of allergic airway disease despite persistent lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Sonali J.; Adami, Alexander J.; Szczepanek, Steven M.; Ehsan, Mohsin; Natarajan, Prabitha; Guernsey, Linda A.; Shahriari, Neda; Rafti, Ektor; Matson, Adam P.; Schramm, Craig M.; Thrall, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergic asthma is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and results from inadequate immune regulation in response to innocuous, environmental antigens. The need exists to understand the mechanisms that promote non-reactivity to human-relevant allergens such as house dust mite (HDM) in order to develop curative therapies for asthma. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of short-, intermediate- and long-term HDM administration in a murine asthma model and determine the ability of long-term HDM exposure to suppress allergic inflammation. Methods C57BL/6 mice were intranasally instilled with HDM for short-term (2 weeks), intermediate-term (5 weeks) and long-term (11 weeks) periods to induce allergic airway disease (AAD). Severity of AAD was compared across all stages of the model via both immunologic and pulmonary parameters. Results Short- and intermediate-term HDM exposure stimulated development of AAD that included eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), pronounced airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), and evidence of lung inflammation. Long-term HDM exposure promoted suppression of AAD, with loss of BAL eosinophilia and AHR despite persistent mononuclear inflammation in the lungs. Suppression of AAD with long-term HDM exposure was associated with an increase in both Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and IL-10+ alveolar macrophages at the site of inflammation. Conclusions This model recapitulates key features of human asthma and may facilitate investigation into the mechanisms that promote immunological tolerance against clinically relevant aeroallergens. PMID:25924733

  2. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  3. Temporal Changes in Glutaredoxin 1 and Protein S-Glutathionylation in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Kanako; Nagai, Katsura; Suzuki, Masaru; Inomata, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, involving oxidative stress. Upon oxidative stress, glutathione covalently binds to protein thiols to protect them against irreversible oxidation. This posttranslational modification, known as protein S-glutathionylation, can be reversed by glutaredoxin 1 (Glrx1) under physiological condition. Glrx1 is known to increase in the lung tissues of a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. However, the temporal relationship between levels of Glrx1, protein S-glutathionylation, and glutathione in the lungs with allergic airway inflammation is not clearly understood. Methods BALB/c mice received 3 aerosol challenges with ovalbumin (OVA) following sensitization to OVA. They were sacrificed at 6, 24, 48, or 72 h, or 8 days (5 mice per group), and the levels of Glrx1, protein S-glutathionylation, glutathione, and 25 cytokines/chemokines were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and/or lung tissue. Results Levels of Glrx1 in BALF were significantly elevated in the OVA 6 h (final challenge) group compared to those in the control, with concurrent increases in protein S-glutathionylation levels in the lungs, as well as total glutathione (reduced and oxidized) and oxidized glutathione in BALF. Protein S-glutathionylation levels were attenuated at 24 h, with significant increases in Glrx1 levels in lung tissues at 48 and 72 h. Glrx1 in alveolar macrophages was induced after 6 h. Glrx1 levels concomitantly increased with Th2/NF-κB-related cytokines and chemokines in BALF. Conclusions The temporal relationships of Glrx1 with protein S-glutathionylation, glutathione, and cytokines/chemokines were observed as dynamic changes in lungs with allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that Glrx1 and protein–SSG redox status may play important roles in the development of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25874776

  4. Functional relevance of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin (IL)-1β during acute allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, M; Straubinger, K; Schmidt, S; Busch, D H; Hagner, S; Garn, H; Prazeres da Costa, C; Layland, L E

    2014-01-01

    Overall asthmatic symptoms can be controlled with diverse therapeutic agents. However, certain symptomatic individuals remain at risk for serious morbidity and mortality, which prompts the identification of novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. Thus, using an adjuvant-free T helper type 2 (Th2) murine model, we have deciphered the role of interleukin (IL)-1 signalling during allergic airway inflammation (AAI). Because functional IL-1β depends on inflammasome activation we first studied asthmatic manifestations in specific inflammasome-deficient [NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3−/−) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC−/−)] and IL-1 receptor type 1−/− (IL-1R1−/−) mice on the BALB/c background. To verify the onset of disease we assessed cellular infiltration in the bronchial regions, lung pathology, airway hyperresponsiveness and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune responses. In the absence of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β release all symptoms of AAI were reduced, except OVA-specific immunoglobulin levels. To address whether manipulating IL-1 signalling reduced asthmatic development, we administered the IL-1R antagonist anakinra (Kineret®) during critical immunological time-points: sensitization or challenge. Amelioration of asthmatic symptoms was only observed when anakinra was administered during OVA challenge. Our findings indicate that blocking IL-1 signalling could be a potential complementary therapy for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:24943899

  5. EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

  6. Anaphylatoxins coordinate innate and adaptive immune responses in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Schmudde, Inken; Laumonnier, Yves; Köhl, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic disease of the airways in which maladaptive Th2 and Th17 immune responses drive airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation and mucus overproduction. Airway epithelial and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells in concert with different resident and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) play critical roles in allergen sensing and consecutive activation of TH cells and their differentiation toward TH2 and TH17 effector or regulatory T cells (Treg). Further, myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) act on TH cells and either suppress or enhance their activation. The complement-derived anaphylatoxins (AT) C3a and C5a are generated during initial antigen encounter and regulate the development of maladaptive immunity at allergen sensitization. Here, we will review the complex role of ATs in activation and modulation of different DC populations, MDRCs and CD4⁺ TH cells. We will also discuss the potential impact of ATs on the regulation of the pulmonary stromal compartment as an important means to regulate DC functions. PMID:23694705

  7. High-dose but not low-dose mainstream cigarette smoke suppresses allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Thomas H.; Benson, Randi P.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke as a significant risk factor for the onset and exacerbation of asthma, but studies of smoking in adults are less conclusive, and mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) has been reported to both enhance and attenuate allergic airway inflammation in animal models. We sensitized mice to ovalbumin (OVA) and exposed them to MCS in a well-characterized exposure system. Exposure to MCS (600 mg/m3 total suspended particulates, TSP) for 1 h/day suppresses the allergic airway response, with reductions in eosinophilia, tissue inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, IL-4 and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and OVA-specific antibodies. Suppression is associated with a loss of antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production by T cells. However, exposure to a lower dose of MCS (77 mg/m3 TSP) had no effect on the number of BAL eosinophils or OVA-specific antibodies. This is the first report to demonstrate, using identical smoking methodologies, that MCS inhibits immune responses in a dose-dependent manner and may explain the observation that, although smoking provokes a systemic inflammatory response, it also inhibits T cell-mediated responses involved in a number of diseases. PMID:18567739

  8. EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS (P. Singhl, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2,
    C.A.J. Dick', K.B. Adlerl and M.I. Gilmour2, INCSU, Raleigh, N.C., 2NHEERL/ORD/ USEPA, RTP, N.C. and 3UNC, Chapel Hill, N.C.)The interaction between ...

  9. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  10. Differences in airway reactivity in normal and allergic sheep after exposure to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.M.; Oliver, W. Jr.; Welker, M.J.; King, M.M.; Wanner, A.; Sackner, M.A.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of breathing 5 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on airway reactivity was studied in both normal and allergic conscious sheep. Allergic sheep were defined as animals in which inhalation of Axcaris suum extract resulted in bronchospasm as evidenced by an increase in mean pulmonary flow resistance (RL), hyperinflation, and a fall in dynamic compliance. Airway reactivity was assessed by measuring the increase of RL after 18 breaths of 0.25% carbachol (c), from an initial RL value obtained after 18 breaths of buffered saline (s) (RL(c-s)). RL and RL(c-s) were determined prior to, immediately after, and 24 h after exposure to 5 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 4 h. In both groups RL remained unchanged after SO/sub 2/ exposure. Prior to exposure, RL(c-s) was not significantly different in seven normal (0.3 +/- 0.1) and seven allergic sheep (0.4 +/- 0.2 (SD) cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s), and there was no significant change in RL (c-s) immediately after SO/sub 2/ exposure in either group. Twenty-four h later, RL(c-s) RL(c-s) increased to 0.7 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.2) in normal and to 1.8 +/- 0.9 cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s (P < 0.01) in allergic sheep. Because the increase in RL(c-s) after 24 h was greater (P < 0.01) in allergic than in normal sheep, we conclude that SO/sub 2/ exposure increased airway reactivity more in the former than in the latter.

  11. The Role of the Extracellular Matrix Protein Mindin in Airway Response to Environmental Airways Injury

    PubMed Central

    Frush, Sarah; Li, Zhuowei; Potts, Erin N.; Du, Wanglei; Eu, Jerry P.; Garantziotis, Stavros; He, You-Wen; Foster, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our previous work demonstrated that the extracellular matrix protein mindin contributes to allergic airways disease. However, the role of mindin in nonallergic airways disease has not previously been explored. Objectives: We hypothesized that mindin would contribute to airways disease after inhalation of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ozone. Methods: We exposed C57BL/6J and mindin-deficient (–/–) mice to aerosolized LPS (0.9 μg/m3 for 2.5 hr), saline, ozone (1 ppm for 3 hr), or filtered air (FA). All mice were evaluated 4 hr after LPS/saline 
exposure or 24 hr after ozone/FA exposure. We characterized the physiological and biological responses by analysis of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) with a computer-controlled small-animal ventilator (FlexiVent), inflammatory cellular recruitment, total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), proinflammatory cytokine profiling, and ex vivo bronchial ring studies. Results: After inhalation of LPS, mindin–/– mice demonstrated significantly reduced total cell and neutrophil recruitment into the airspace compared with their wild-type counterparts. Mindin–/– mice also exhibited reduced proinflammatory cytokine production and lower AHR to methacholine challenge by FlexiVent. After inhalation of ozone, mice had no detectible differences in cellular inflammation or total BALF protein dependent on mindin. However, mindin–/– mice were protected from increased proinflammatory cytokine production and AHR compared with their C57BL/6J counterparts. After ozone exposure, bronchial rings derived from mindin–/– mice demonstrated reduced constriction in response to carbachol. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the extracellular matrix protein mindin modifies the airway response to both LPS and ozone. Our data support a conserved role of mindin in production of proinflammatory cytokines and the development of AHR in two divergent models of reactive airways disease, as well as a role of

  12. Phosphodiesterase 4B is essential for TH2-cell function and development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Catherine Jin, S.-L.; Goya, Sho; Nakae, Susumu; Wang, Dan; Bruss, Matthew; Hou, Chiaoyin; Umetsu, Dale; Conti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Background Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling modulates functions of inflammatory cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and type 4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are essential components of this pathway. Induction of the PDE4 isoform PDE4B is necessary for Toll-like receptor signaling in monocytes and macrophages and is associated with T cell receptor/CD3 in T cells; however, its exact physiological function in the development of allergic asthma remains undefined. Objectives We investigated the role of PDE4B in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and TH2-driven inflammatory responses. Methods Wild-type and PDE4B−/− mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and AHR measured in response to inhaled methacholine. Airway inflammation was characterized by analyzing leukocyte infiltration and cytokine accumulation in the airways. Ovalbumin-stimulated cell proliferation and TH2 cytokine production were determined in cultured bronchial lymph node cells. Results Mice deficient in PDE4B do not develop AHR. This protective effect was associated with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment to the lungs and decreased TH2 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Defects in T-cell replication, TH2 cytokine production, and dendritic cell migration were evident in cells from the airway-draining lymph nodes. Conversely, accumulation of the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ was not affected in PDE4B−/− mice. Ablation of the orthologous PDE4 gene PDE4A has no impact on airway inflammation. Conclusion By relieving a cAMP-negative constraint, PDE4B plays an essential role in TH2-cell activation and dendritic cell recruitment during airway inflammation. These findings provide proof of concept that PDE4 inhibitors with PDE4B selectivity may have efficacy in asthma treatment. PMID:21047676

  13. The spectrum of allergic fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jonathan; Caruthers, Carrie; Azmeh, Roua; Dykewicz, Mark S; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2016-05-01

    Fungi cause a wide spectrum of fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways. There are three main phyla involved in allergic fungal disease: (1) Ascomycota (2) Basidiomycota (3) Zygomycota. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) causes chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms and is caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus in India and Bipolaris in the United States. The recommended treatment approach for AFRS is surgical intervention and systemic steroids. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (APBA) is most commonly diagnosed in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Long term systemic steroids are the mainstay treatment option for ABPA with the addition of an antifungal medication. Fungal sensitization or exposure increases a patient's risk of developing severe asthma and has been termed severe asthma associated with fungal sensitivity (SAFS). Investigating for triggers and causes of a patient's asthma should be sought to decrease worsening progression of the disease. PMID:26776889

  14. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takuma; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Wang, Linan; Murata, Mariko; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  15. Chrysin alleviates allergic inflammation and airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Jiang, Mingzi; Zhang, Yunshi; Liu, Xing; Du, Qiang; Feng, Ganzhu

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disorder and progresses mainly due to airway remodeling. Chrysin, a natural flavonoid, has been reported to possess multiple biologic activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and anti-proliferation. The present study aimed to investigate whether chrysin could relieve allergic airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma and the mechanism involved. The female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) successfully developed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation and remodeling. The experimental data showed that chrysin could alleviate OVA-induced AHR. Chrysin could also reduce OVA-induced increases in the number of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, interleukin (IL) -4, and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and total IgE in serum. The decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) level in BALF was also upregulated by chrysin. In addition, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) around bronchioles were suppressed by chrysin. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) could be decreased by chrysin, which are associated with airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) proliferation. These results indicate the promising therapeutic effect of chrysin on chronic asthma, especially the progression of airway remodeling. PMID:26780233

  16. Inhaled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Potentiate Airway Fibrosis in Murine Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Tewksbury, Earl W.; Moss, Owen R.; Cesta, Mark F.; Wong, Brian A.; Bonner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are gaining increasing attention due to possible health risks from occupational or environmental exposures. This study tested the hypothesis that inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) would increase airway fibrosis in mice with allergic asthma. Normal and ovalbumin-sensitized mice were exposed to a MWCNT aerosol (100 mg/m3) or saline aerosol for 6 hours. Lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis were examined by histopathology, clinical chemistry, ELISA, or RT-PCR for cytokines/chemokines, growth factors, and collagen at 1 and 14 days after inhalation. Inhaled MWCNT were distributed throughout the lung and found in macrophages by light microscopy, but were also evident in epithelial cells by electron microscopy. Quantitative morphometry showed significant airway fibrosis at 14 days in mice that received a combination of ovalbumin and MWCNT, but not in mice that received ovalbumin or MWCNT only. Ovalbumin-sensitized mice that did not inhale MWCNT had elevated levels IL-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in lung lavage fluid, but not platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA. In contrast, unsensitized mice that inhaled MWCNT had elevated PDGF-AA, but not increased levels of TGF-β1 and IL-13. This suggested that airway fibrosis resulting from combined ovalbumin sensitization and MWCNT inhalation requires PDGF, a potent fibroblast mitogen, and TGF-β1, which stimulates collagen production. Combined ovalbumin sensitization and MWCNT inhalation also synergistically increased IL-5 mRNA levels, which could further contribute to airway fibrosis. These data indicate that inhaled MWCNT require pre-existing inflammation to cause airway fibrosis. Our findings suggest that individuals with pre-existing allergic inflammation may be susceptible to airway fibrosis from inhaled MWCNT. PMID:18787175

  17. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  18. Different airway inflammatory responses in asthmatic and healthy humans exposed to diesel.

    PubMed

    Stenfors, N; Nordenhäll, C; Salvi, S S; Mudway, I; Söderberg, M; Blomberg, A; Helleday, R; Levin, J O; Holgate, S T; Kelly, F J; Frew, A J; Sandström, T

    2004-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution adversely affects the airways, with asthmatic subjects thought to be especially sensitive. The authors hypothesised that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE), a major source of PM, would induce airway neutrophilia in healthy subjects, and that either these responses would be exaggerated in subjects with mild allergic asthma, or DE would exacerbate pre-existent allergic airways. Healthy and mild asthmatic subjects were exposed for 2 h to ambient levels of DE (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM10) 108 microg x m(-3)) and lung function and airway inflammation were assessed. Both groups showed an increase in airway resistance of similar magnitude after DE exposure. Healthy subjects developed airway inflammation 6 h after DE exposure, with airways neutrophilia and lymphocytosis together with an increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) protein in lavage fluid, increased IL-8 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the bronchial mucosa and upregulation of the endothelial adhesion molecules. In asthmatic subjects, DE exposure did not induce a neutrophilic response or exacerbate their pre-existing eosinophilic airway inflammation. Epithelial staining for the cytokine IL-10 was increased after DE in the asthmatic group. Differential effects on the airways of healthy subjects and asthmatics of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm at concentrations below current World Health Organisation air quality standards have been observed in this study. Further work is required to elucidate the significance of these differential responses. PMID:14738236

  19. Thuja orientalis reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kim, Hui-Seong; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-09-01

    Thuja orientalis (TO) may be used as a herbal remedy for the treatment of numerous inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the effects of TO were evaluated on airway inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. The effects of TO on the production of proinflammatory mediators, were determined in RAW264.7 cells that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, an in vivo experiment was performed on mice that were sensitized to OVA and then received an OVA airway challenge. TO was administered by daily oral gavage at a dose of 30 mg/kg, 21‑23 days after the initial OVA sensitization. TO was shown to reduce nitric oxide production and reduce the relative mRNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)‑6, cyclooxygenase‑2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9, and tumor necrosis factor‑α in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. In addition, TO markedly decreased the inflammatory cell counts in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, reduced the levels of IL‑4, IL‑5, IL‑13, eotaxin and immunoglobulin E, and reduced airway hyperresponsivenes, in the OVA sensitized mice. Furthermore, TO attenuated airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, induced by the OVA challenge of the lung tissue. TO also reduced the expression of iNOS and MMP‑9 in lung tissue. In conclusion, TO exerted anti‑inflammatory effects in an OVA‑induced allergic asthma model, and in LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that TO may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including allergic asthma. PMID:26063078

  20. IL-10 reduces Th2 cytokine production and eosinophilia but augments airway reactivity in allergic mice.

    PubMed

    van Scott, M R; Justice, J P; Bradfield, J F; Enright, E; Sigounas, A; Sur, S

    2000-04-01

    We investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-10 administration on allergen-induced Th2 cytokine production, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway reactivity. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ragweed (RW) adsorbed to Alum and challenged by intratracheal instillation of the allergen. Sensitization and challenge with RW increased concentrations of IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from undetectable levels to 60 pg/ml over 72 h. Intratracheal instillation of 25 ng of recombinant murine IL-10 at the time of RW challenge further elevated BAL fluid IL-10 concentration to 440 pg/ml but decreased BAL fluid IL-4, IL-5, and interferon-gamma levels by 40-85% and eosinophil numbers by 70% (P < 0.0001). Unexpectedly, the same IL-10 treatment increased airway reactivity to methacholine in spontaneously breathing mice that had been sensitized and challenged with RW (P < 0.001). IL-10 treatment in naive animals or RW-sensitized mice challenged with PBS failed to increase airway reactivity, demonstrating that IL-10 induces an increase in airway reactivity only when it is administered in conjunction with allergic sensitization and challenge. The results demonstrate that IL-10 reduces Th2 cytokine levels and eosinophilic inflammation but augments airway hyperreactivity. Thus, despite its potent anti-inflammatory activity, IL-10 could contribute to the decline in pulmonary function observed in asthma. PMID:10749743

  1. Role of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Allergic Airway Inflammation Endotypes.

    PubMed

    Amin, K; Janson, C; Bystrom, J

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology. The cells are, however, likely disease causing in asthma with a late onset, which is often associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Assessment of eosinophilia, fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and periostin are markers that have emerged useful in assessing and monitoring asthma severity and endotype. Current scientific knowledge suggests that eosinophils are recruited by the inflammatory environment, activated by the innate interleukin (IL)-33 and prevented from apoptosis by both lymphocytes and innate immune cells such as type two innate immune cells. Eosinophils contain four specific granule proteins that exhibit an array of toxic and immune-modulatory activates. The granule proteins can be released by different mechanisms. Additionally, eosinophils contain a number of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators as well as radical oxygen species that might contribute to the disease both by the recruitment of other cells and the direct damage to supporting cells, leading to exacerbations and tissue fibrosis. This review aimed to outline current knowledge how eosinophils are recruited, activated and mediate damage to tissues and therapies used to control the cells. PMID:27167590

  2. Lunasin alleviates allergic airway inflammation while increases antigen-specific Tregs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Jingjing; Tung, Chun-Yu; Gardiner, Gail; Wang, Qun; Chang, Hua-Chen; Zhou, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    Lunasin is a naturally occurring peptide isolated from soybeans and has been explored in cancer treatment. Lunasin inhibits NF-κB activation and thus pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator production in macrophages. In this study we demonstrate that lunasin can effectively suppress allergic airway inflammation in two murine models of asthma. In an OVA+Alum sensitization model, intranasal lunasin treatment at the time of OVA challenges significantly reduced total cells counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and eosinophilia, peribronchiolar inflammatory infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia and airway IL-4 production. In an OVA+LPS intranasal sensitization model, lunasin treatment either at the time of sensitization or challenge has similar effects in suppress allergic airway inflammation including significantly reduced total cell and eosinophil counts in BAL fluid, inflammatory gene Fizz1 expression in the lung, and IL-4 production by OVA re-stimulated cells from mediastinal lymph nodes. We further show that intranasal instillation of OVA+lunasin significantly increases OVA-specific regulatory T cell (Treg) accumulation in the lung comparing to OVA only treatment. Taken together, our results suggest lunasin as an anti-inflammatory agent can be potentially used in asthma therapy or as an adjuvant to enhance the induction of antigen-specific Tregs and thus boost the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy. PMID:25646897

  3. Lunasin Alleviates Allergic Airway Inflammation while Increases Antigen-Specific Tregs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Jingjing; Tung, Chun-Yu; Gardiner, Gail; Wang, Qun; Chang, Hua-Chen; Zhou, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    Lunasin is a naturally occurring peptide isolated from soybeans and has been explored in cancer treatment. Lunasin inhibits NF-κB activation and thus pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator production in macrophages. In this study we demonstrate that lunasin can effectively suppress allergic airway inflammation in two murine models of asthma. In an OVA+Alum sensitization model, intranasal lunasin treatment at the time of OVA challenges significantly reduced total cells counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and eosinophilia, peribronchiolar inflammatory infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia and airway IL-4 production. In an OVA+LPS intranasal sensitization model, lunasin treatment either at the time of sensitization or challenge has similar effects in suppress allergic airway inflammation including significantly reduced total cell and eosinophil counts in BAL fluid, inflammatory gene Fizz1 expression in the lung, and IL-4 production by OVA re-stimulated cells from mediastinal lymph nodes. We further show that intranasal instillation of OVA+lunasin significantly increases OVA-specific regulatory T cell (Treg) accumulation in the lung comparing to OVA only treatment. Taken together, our results suggest lunasin as an anti-inflammatory agent can be potentially used in asthma therapy or as an adjuvant to enhance the induction of antigen-specific Tregs and thus boost the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy. PMID:25646897

  4. Thymol attenuates allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ershun; Fu, Yunhe; Wei, Zhengkai; Yu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Xichen; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-07-01

    Thymol, a naturally occurring monocyclic phenolic compound derived from Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory property in vivo and vitro. However, the mechanism of thymol is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of thymol on allergic inflammation in OVA-induced mice asthma and explore its mechanism. The model of mouse asthma was established by the induction of OVA. Thymol was orally administered at a dose of 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg body weight 1h before OVA challenge. At 24h after the last challenge, mice were sacrificed, and the data were collected by various experimental methods. The results revealed that pretreatment with thymol reduced the level of OVA-specific IgE, inhibited recruitment of inflammatory cells into airway, and decreased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF. Moreover, the pathologic changes of lung tissues were obviously ameliorated and goblet cell hyperplasia was effectively inhibited by the pretreatment of thymol. In addition, thymol reduced the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and blocked the activation of NF-κB pathway. All data suggested that thymol ameliorated airway inflammation in OVA-induced mouse asthma, possibly through inhibiting NF-κB activation. These findings indicated that thymol may be used as an alternative agent for treating allergic asthma. PMID:24785965

  5. Comparison of allergen-induced changes in bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation between mildly allergic asthma patients and allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Garcia, B E; Tabar, A I; Urbiola, E

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial eosinophilic inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are the main features of allergic asthma (AA), but they have also been demonstrated in allergic rhinitis (AR), suggesting a continuity between both diseases. In spite of not fully reproducing natural allergenic exposure, the allergen bronchial provocation test (A-BPT) has provided important knowledge of the pathophysiology of AA. Our aim was to verify the existence of a behavior of AA and AR airways different from the allergen bronchial challenge-induced airway eosinophilic inflammation and BHR changes. We studied a group of 31 mild and short-evolution AA and 15 AR patients, sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The A-BPT was performed with a partially biologically standardized D. pteronyssinus extract, and known quantities of Der p 1 were inhaled. Peripheral blood (eosinophils and ECP) and induced sputum (percentage cell counts, ECP, albumin, tryptase, and interleukin [IL]-5) were analyzed, before and 24 h after A-BPT. Methacholine BHR, assessed before and 32 h after the A-BPT, was defined by M-PD20 values and, when possible, by maximal response plateau (MRP). The A-BPT was well tolerated by all the patients. AA presented a lower Der p 1 PD20 and a higher occurrence of late-phase responses (LPR). M-PD20 values decreased in AA, but not in AR, patients. MRP values increased in both groups. Eosinophils numbers and ECP levels increased in blood and sputum from both AA and AR, but only the absolute increment of sputum ECP levels was higher in AA than AR patients (P = 0.025). The A-BPT induced no change in sputum albumin, tryptase, or IL-5 values. We conclude as follows: 1) In spite of presenting a lower degree of bronchial sensitivity to allergen, AR patients responded to allergen inhalation with an eosinophilic inflammation enhancement very similar to that observed among AA. 2) MRP levels increased in both AA and AR patients after allergen challenge; however, M-PD20 values

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cells mediate Aspergillus hyphal extract-induced allergic airway inflammation by inhibition of the Th17 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Melissa J; Brooks, Elice M; Bonenfant, Nick R; Sokocevic, Dino; Borg, Zachary D; Goodwin, Meagan; Loi, Roberto; Cruz, Fernanda; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    Systemic administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppresses airway inflammation and methacholine-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in mouse models of T helper cell (Th) type 2-mediated eosinophilic allergic airway inflammation (AAI); however, the efficacy of MSCs in mouse models of severe Th17-mediated neutrophilic AAI has not yet been demonstrated. We assessed MSC effects in a mouse model of mixed Th2/Th17 AAI produced by mucosal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus hyphal extract (AHE). Following sensitization produced by oropharyngeal AHE administration, systemic (tail vein) administration of syngeneic MSCs on the first day of challenge significantly reduced acute AHR predominantly through reduction of Th17-mediated airway inflammation. In parallel experiments, MSCs also mitigated AHR when administered during recurrent challenge 10 weeks after initial sensitization and challenge through reduction in systemic Th17-mediated inflammation. Investigation into potential mechanistic actions of MSCs in this model demonstrated that although T regulatory cells were increased in all AHE-treated mice, MSC administration did not alter T regulatory cell numbers in either the acute or recurrent model. Differential induction of interleukin-17a secretion was observed in ex vivo restimulation of mediastinal lymph node mixed-cell cytokine analyses. Although the mechanisms by which MSCs act to decrease inflammation and AHR in this model are not yet fully elucidated, decrease in Th17-mediated airway inflammation appears to play a significant role. These results provide a basis for further investigations of MSC administration as a potential therapeutic approach for severe refractory neutrophilic asthma. PMID:24436442

  7. The Role of Ion Channels to Regulate Airway Ciliary Beat Frequency During Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Joskova, M; Sutovska, M; Durdik, P; Koniar, D; Hargas, L; Banovcin, P; Hrianka, M; Khazaei, V; Pappova, L; Franova, S

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of mucus is a hallmark of asthma. The aim of this study was to identify potentially effective therapies for removing excess mucus. The role of voltage-gated (Kir 6.1, KCa 1.1) and store-operated ion channels (SOC, CRAC) in respiratory cilia, relating to the tracheal ciliary beat frequency (CBF), was compared under the physiological and allergic airway conditions. Ex vivo experiments were designed to test the local effects of Kir 6.1, KCa 1.1 and CRAC ion channel modulators in a concentration-dependent manner on the CBF. Cilia, obtained with the brushing method, were monitored by a high-speed video camera and analyzed with ciliary analysis software. In natural conditions, a Kir 6.1 opener accelerated CBF, while CRAC blocker slowed it in a concentration-dependent manner. In allergic inflammation, the effect of Kir 6.1 opener was insignificant, with a tendency to decrease CBF. A cilio-inhibitory effect of a CRAC blocker, while gently reduced by allergic inflammation, remained significant. A KCa 1.1 opener turned out to significantly enhance the CBF under the allergic OVA-sensitized conditions. We conclude that optimally attuned concentration of KCa 1.1 openers or special types of bimodal SOC channel blockers, potentially given by inhalation, might benefit asthma. PMID:27369295

  8. Liver-Specific Allergen Gene Transfer by Adeno-Associated Virus Suppresses Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheng-Chi; Lai, Chin-Wen; Wu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Li-Chen; Tao, Mi-Hua; Kuo, Ming-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Allergic airway inflammation driven by T helper 2 (Th2)-type immunity is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic infiltration, and elevated IgE production. Various novel strategies for managing asthma have been explored, such as DNA vaccines, T-cell peptides, and allergen-specific immunotherapy. A principal goal of most immunotherapeutic approaches is active and long-term allergen-specific tolerance. Liver-specific gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been shown to favorably induce tolerogenic responses to therapeutic products in various experimental models. AAV8 has strong liver tropism and induces immune tolerance in mice. The present study aimed to determine whether hepatocyte-specific allergen expression by pseudotyped AAV2/8 alleviates asthmatic symptoms in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. Mice were intravenously injected with AAV2/8 vector carrying membrane-bound OVA transgene under transcriptional control of a hepatocyte-specific alpha 1 antitrypsin promoter (AAV2/8-OVA) and then sensitized with OVA. AAV2/8-OVA specifically transduced the OVA transgene in the liver. Airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion, and Th2 cytokines were significantly suppressed in both the lungs and secondary lymphoid organs of asthmatic mice infected with AAV2/8-OVA. Significant reduction of OVA-specific antibodies was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from AAV2/8-OVA-treated mice. Moreover, AAV2/8-OVA treatment prominently promoted the expression of Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-β in the liver. Enhanced Foxp3 expression was also detected in the lungs of asthmatic mice after AAV2/8-OVA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the induction of immune tolerance by hepatic AAV gene transfer may be beneficial for modulating allergic asthma. PMID:27178525

  9. Insulin modulates cytokine release and selectin expression in the early phase of allergic airway inflammation in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical and experimental data suggest that the inflammatory response is impaired in diabetics and can be modulated by insulin. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of insulin on the early phase of allergic airway inflammation. Methods Diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/Kg, i.v., 10 days) and controls were sensitized by s.c. injection of ovalbumin (OA) in aluminium hydroxide 14 days before OA (1 mg/0.4 mL) or saline intratracheal challenge. The following analyses were performed 6 hours thereafter: a) quantification of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, b) expression of E- and P- selectins on lung vessels by immunohistochemistry, and c) inflammatory cell infiltration into the airways and lung parenchyma. NPH insulin (4 IU, s.c.) was given i.v. 2 hours before antigen challenge. Results Diabetic rats exhibited significant reduction in the BALF concentrations of IL-1β (30%) and TNF-α (45%), and in the lung expression of P-selectin (30%) compared to non-diabetic animals. This was accompanied by reduced number of neutrophils into the airways and around bronchi and blood vessels. There were no differences in the CINC-1 levels in BALF, and E-selectin expression. Treatment of diabetic rats with NPH insulin, 2 hours before antigen challenge, restored the reduced levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and P-selectin, and neutrophil migration. Conclusion Data presented suggest that insulin modulates the production/release of TNF-α and IL-1β, the expression of P- and E-selectin, and the associated neutrophil migration into the lungs during the early phase of the allergic inflammatory reaction. PMID:20667094

  10. No Adjuvant Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-Maize on Allergic Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize (MON810) on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:25084284

  11. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a murine allergic airway inflammation model

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Hirano, Seishiro; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-15

    The development of nanotechnology has increased the risk of exposure to types of particles other than combustion-derived particles in the environment, namely, industrial nanomaterials. On the other hand, patients with bronchial asthma are sensitive to inhaled substances including particulate matters. This study examined the effects of pulmonary exposure to a type of nano-sized carbon nanotube (multi-walled nanotubes: MWCNT) on allergic airway inflammation in vivo and their cellular mechanisms in vitro. In vivo, ICR mice were divided into 4 experimental groups. Vehicle, MWCNT (50 {mu}g/animal), ovalbumin (OVA), and OVA + MWCNT were repeatedly administered intratracheally. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity, lung histology, levels of cytokines related to allergic inflammation in lung homogenates/BAL fluids (BALFs), and serum immunoglobulin levels were studied. Also, we evaluated the impact of MWCNT (0.1-1 {mu}g/ml) on the phenotype and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) in vitro. MWCNT aggravated allergen-induced airway inflammation characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells in the lung, and an increase in the number of goblet cells in the bronchial epithelium. MWCNT with allergen amplified lung protein levels of Th cytokines and chemokines compared with allergen alone. MWCNT exhibited adjuvant activity for allergen-specific IgG{sub 1} and IgE. MWCNT significantly increased allergen (OVA)-specific syngeneic T-cell proliferation, particularly at a lower concentration in vitro. Taken together, MWCNT can exacerbate murine allergic airway inflammation, at least partly, via the promotion of a Th-dominant milieu. In addition, the exacerbation may be partly through the inappropriate activation of antigen-presenting cells including DC.

  12. Perinatal paracetamol exposure in mice does not affect the development of allergic airways disease in early life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Debbie C P; Walker, Simone A; Byrne, Adam J; Gregory, Lisa G; Buckley, James; Bush, Andrew; Shaheen, Seif O; Saglani, Sejal; Lloyd, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy, or intake during infancy and risk of wheezing or asthma in childhood is inconclusive based on epidemiological studies. We have investigated whether there is a causal link between maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy and lactation and the development of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in offspring using a neonatal mouse model. Methods Pregnant mice were administered paracetamol or saline by oral gavage from the day of mating throughout pregnancy and/or lactation. Subsequently, their pups were exposed to intranasal HDM or saline from day 3 of life for up to 6 weeks. Assessments of airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodelling were made at weaning (3 weeks) and 6 weeks of age. Results Maternal paracetamol exposure either during pregnancy and/or lactation did not affect development of AAD in offspring at weaning or at 6 weeks. There were no effects of maternal paracetamol at any time point on airway remodelling or IgE levels. Conclusions Maternal paracetamol did not enhance HDM induced AAD in offspring. Our mechanistic data do not support the hypothesis that prenatal paracetamol exposure increases the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:25841236

  13. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  14. Self-Assembling Nanoparticles Containing Dexamethasone as a Novel Therapy in Allergic Airways Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Lee, Joyce; Luo, Juntao; Franzi, Lisa M.; Zeki, Amir A.; Lam, Kit S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocarriers can deliver a wide variety of drugs, target them to sites of interest, and protect them from degradation and inactivation by the body. They have the capacity to improve drug action and decrease undesirable systemic effects. We have previously developed a well-defined non-toxic PEG-dendritic block telodendrimer for successful delivery of chemotherapeutics agents and, in these studies, we apply this technology for therapeutic development in asthma. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we hypothesized that dexamethasone contained in self-assembling nanoparticles (Dex-NP) and delivered systemically would target the lung and decrease allergic lung inflammation and airways hyper-responsiveness to a greater degree than equivalent doses of dexamethasone (Dex) alone. We found that ovalbumin (Ova)-exposed mice treated with Dex-NP had significantly fewer total cells (2.78±0.44×105 (n = 18) vs. 5.98±1.3×105 (n = 13), P<0.05) and eosinophils (1.09±0.28×105 (n = 18) vs. 2.94±0.6×105 (n = 12), p<0.05) in the lung lavage than Ova-exposed mice alone. Also, lower levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 (3.43±1.2 (n = 11) vs. 8.56±2.1 (n = 8) pg/ml, p<0.05) and MCP-1 (13.1±3.6 (n = 8) vs. 28.8±8.7 (n = 10) pg/ml, p<0.05) were found in lungs of the Dex-NP compared to control, and they were not lower in the Dex alone group. In addition, respiratory system resistance was lower in the Dex-NP compared to the other Ova-exposed groups suggesting a better therapeutic effect on airways hyperresponsiveness. Taken together, these findings from early-stage drug development studies suggest that the encapsulation and protection of anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids in nanoparticle formulations can improve efficacy. Further development of novel drugs in nanoparticles is warranted to explore potential treatments for chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PMID:24204939

  15. Self-assembling nanoparticles containing dexamethasone as a novel therapy in allergic airways inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Nicholas J; Bratt, Jennifer M; Lee, Joyce; Luo, Juntao; Franzi, Lisa M; Zeki, Amir A; Lam, Kit S

    2013-01-01

    Nanocarriers can deliver a wide variety of drugs, target them to sites of interest, and protect them from degradation and inactivation by the body. They have the capacity to improve drug action and decrease undesirable systemic effects. We have previously developed a well-defined non-toxic PEG-dendritic block telodendrimer for successful delivery of chemotherapeutics agents and, in these studies, we apply this technology for therapeutic development in asthma. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we hypothesized that dexamethasone contained in self-assembling nanoparticles (Dex-NP) and delivered systemically would target the lung and decrease allergic lung inflammation and airways hyper-responsiveness to a greater degree than equivalent doses of dexamethasone (Dex) alone. We found that ovalbumin (Ova)-exposed mice treated with Dex-NP had significantly fewer total cells (2.78 ± 0.44 × 10(5) (n = 18) vs. 5.98 ± 1.3 × 10(5) (n = 13), P<0.05) and eosinophils (1.09 ± 0.28 × 10(5) (n = 18) vs. 2.94 ± 0.6 × 10(5) (n = 12), p<0.05) in the lung lavage than Ova-exposed mice alone. Also, lower levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 (3.43 ± 1.2 (n = 11) vs. 8.56 ± 2.1 (n = 8) pg/ml, p<0.05) and MCP-1 (13.1 ± 3.6 (n = 8) vs. 28.8 ± 8.7 (n = 10) pg/ml, p<0.05) were found in lungs of the Dex-NP compared to control, and they were not lower in the Dex alone group. In addition, respiratory system resistance was lower in the Dex-NP compared to the other Ova-exposed groups suggesting a better therapeutic effect on airways hyperresponsiveness. Taken together, these findings from early-stage drug development studies suggest that the encapsulation and protection of anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids in nanoparticle formulations can improve efficacy. Further development of novel drugs in nanoparticles is warranted to explore potential treatments for chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PMID:24204939

  16. Murine Cytomegalovirus Influences Foxj1 Expression, Ciliogenesis, and Mucus Plugging in Mice with Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Carol A.; Peluso, John J.; Shanley, John D.; Puddington, Lynn; Thrall, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    We have followed throughout time the development of allergic airway disease (AAD) in both uninfected mice and mice infected intranasally with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Histological evaluation of lung tissue from uninfected mice with AAD demonstrated mucus plugging after 14 and 21 days of ovalbumin-aerosol challenge, with resolution of mucus plugging occurring by 42 days. In MCMV/AAD mice, mucus plugging was observed after 7 days of ovalbumin-aerosol challenge and remained present at 42 days. The level of interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from MCMV/AAD mice was decreased compared with AAD mice and was accompanied by increased levels of interferon-γ. Levels of Muc5A/C, Muc5B, or Muc2 mucin mRNA in the lungs of MCMV/AAD mice were not elevated compared with AAD mice. MCMV was able to infect the airway epithelium, resulting in decreased expression of Foxj1, a transcription factor critical for ciliogenesis, and a loss of ciliated epithelial cells. In addition, an increase in the number of epithelial cells staining positive for periodic acid-Schiff was observed in MCMV/AAD airways. Together, these findings suggest that MCMV infection of the airway epithelium enhances goblet cell metaplasia and diminishes efficient mucociliary clearance in mice with AAD, resulting in increased mucus plugging. PMID:18258850

  17. Th2 Allergic Immune Response to Inhaled Fungal Antigens is Modulated By TLR-4-Independent Bacterial Products

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Jenna B.; Rinaldi, Lisa; Wargo, Matt; Allen, Gilman; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Poynter, Matthew E.; Hogan, Deborah A.; Rincon, Mercedes; Whittaker, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Allergic airway disease is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and increased airway resistance. Fungal antigens are ubiquitous within the environment and are well know triggers of allergic disease. Bacterial products are also frequently encountered within the environment and may alter the immune response to certain antigens. The consequence of simultaneous exposure to bacterial and fungal products on the lung adaptive immune response has not been explored. Here we show that oropharyngeal aspiration of fungal lysates (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus) promotes airway eosinophilia, secretion of Th2 cytokines and mucus cell metaplasia. In contrast, oropharyngeal exposure to bacterial lysates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) promotes airway inflammation characterized by neutrophils, Th1 cytokine secretion and no mucus production. More importantly, administration of bacterial lysates together with fungal lysates deviates the adaptive immune response to a Th1 type associated with neutrophilia and diminished mucus production. The immunomodulatory effect that bacterial lysates have on the response to fungi is TLR4-independent but MyD88 dependent. Thus, different types of microbial products within the airway can alter the host's adaptive immune response, and potentially impact the development of allergic airway disease to environmental fungal antigens. PMID:19224641

  18. Adipose-derived stem cells ameliorate allergic airway inflammation by inducing regulatory T cells in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin-Ae; Park, Hee-Young; Hong, Sung-Lyong; Park, Hye-Kyung; Yu, Hak-Sun; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ASCs) can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation, the immunomodulatory mechanism of ASCs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether regulatory T cells (Tregs) induction is a potential mechanism in immunomodulatory effects of ASCs on allergic airway disease and how these induced Tregs orchestrate allergic inflammation. Intravenous administration of ASCs significantly reduced allergic symptoms and inhibited eosinophilic inflammation. Airway hyperresponsiveness, total immune cell and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, mucus production, and serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 were significantly reduced after ASCs administration. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and enhanced Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, levels of IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 were significantly increased after ASCs administration. Interestingly, this upregulation was accompanied by increased Treg populations. In conclusion, ASCs ameliorated allergic airway inflammation and improved lung function through the induction of Treg expansion. The induction of Treg by ASCs involves the secretion of soluble factors such as IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 and Treg might be involved in the downregulation of Th2 cytokines and upregulation of Th1 cytokines production. PMID:25246732

  19. Limonene inhalation reduces allergic airway inflammation in Dermatophagoides farinae-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Ryoji; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Bhatti, Sabah Asif; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Muzembo, Basilua Andre; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2012-05-01

    Limonene is one of the main flavonoids which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the production of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether limonene can inhibit Dermatophagoides farinae-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic infiltration and other histological changes in the lung, T helper (Th) 2 cytokine production and airway remodeling in a mice model of asthma. Treatment with limonene significantly reduced the levels of IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, MCP-1, and TGF-β₁ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The goblet cell metaplasia, thickness of airway smooth muscle, and airway fibrosis were markedly decreased in limonene-treated mice. Furthermore, AHR to acetylcholine was significantly abrogated in limonene-treated mice. These results indicate that limonene has a potential to reduce airway remodeling and AHR in asthma model. PMID:22564095

  20. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevent allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-Qi; Deng, Meng-Xia; He, Jia; Zeng, Qing-Xiang; Wen, Weiping; Wong, David S H; Tse, Hung-Fat; Xu, Geng; Lian, Qizhou; Shi, Jianbo; Fu, Qing-Ling

    2012-12-01

    We previously found that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exerted immunomodulatory effects on Th2-mediated allergic rhinitis in vitro. However, their contribution to the asthma and allergic rhinitis in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we developed a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in both the upper and lower airways and evaluated the effects of the systemic administration of human iPSC-MSCs and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on allergic inflammation. Our results showed that treatments with both the iPSC-MSCs and BM-MSCs before the challenge phase protected the animals from the majority of allergy-specific pathological changes. This protection included an inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in the lung, a reduction in eosinophil infiltration in the nose, and a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration in both the bronchoalveolar and nasal lavage fluids. In addition, treatment with iPSC-MSCs or BM-MSCs before the challenge phase resulted in reduced serum levels of Th2 immunoglobulins (e.g., IgE) and decreased levels of Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, or IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar and/or nasal lavage fluids. Similar therapeutic effects were observed when the animals were pretreated with human iPSC-MSCs before the sensitization phase. These data suggest that iPSC-MSCs may be used as an alternative strategy to adult MSCs in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:22987325

  1. Investigating the Effects of Particulate Matter on House Dust Mite and Ovalbumin Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Alejandro R; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution, has been shown to enhance allergen-mediated airway hypersensitivity and inflammation. Surprisingly, exposure to PM during the sensitization to allergen is sufficient to produce immunological changes that result in heightened inflammatory effects upon future allergen exposures (challenge) in the absence of PM. This suggests that PM has the ability to modulate the allergic immune response, thereby acting as an adjuvant by enhancing the immunological memory formed during the adaptive immune response; however, the mechanisms through which this occurs remain elusive. Establishing a reproducible animal model to study the PM-mediated immunotoxicological effects that enhance allergy, may provide insights to understand how air pollution activates the immune system and thereby modulates the pathophysiology of asthma. The basic protocol can be used to study various characteristics of air pollution, such as PM size, source, or chemical composition, to help elucidate how such features may affect the allergic response in a mouse model of asthma. Using a BALB/c model of acute exposure (14 days), mice are first sensitized with allergen and PM, and then subsequently challenged with allergen only. The endpoints of this basic protocol include the assessment of inflammation via cells recovered from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), histopathological analysis, gene expression profiles, and protein quantification of inflammatory markers. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27145110

  2. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates airway remodelling and hyperresponsiveness in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, G S; Rodrigues-Machado, M G; Motta-Santos, D; Silva, A R; Caliari, M V; Prata, L O; Abreu, S C; Rocco, P R M; Barcelos, L S; Santos, R A S; Campagnole-Santos, M J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose A long-term imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators leads to airway remodelling, which is strongly correlated to most of the symptoms, severity and progression of chronic lung inflammation. The Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor axis of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with attenuation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang-(1-7) treatment in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation. Experimental Approach Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; 4 injections over 42 days, 14 days apart) and were challenged three times per week (days 21–46). These mice received Ang-(1-7) (1 μg·h−1, s.c.) by osmotic mini-pumps, for the last 28 days. Histology and morphometric analysis were performed in left lung and right ventricle. Airway responsiveness to methacholine, analysis of Ang-(1-7) levels (RIA), collagen I and III (qRT-PCR), ERK1/2 and JNK (Western blotting), IgE (elisa), cytokines and chemokines (elisa multiplex), and immunohistochemistry for Mas receptors were performed. Key Results Infusion of Ang-(1-7) in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in the airways and lung parenchyma, and prevented bronchial hyperresponsiveness. These effects were accompanied by decreased IgE and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mas receptors were detected in the epithelium and bronchial smooth muscle, suggesting a site in the lung for the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7). Conclusions and Implications Ang-(1-7) exerted beneficial attenuation of three major features of chronic asthma: lung inflammation, airway remodelling and hyperresponsiveness. Our results support an important protective role of Ang-(1-7) in lung inflammation. PMID:25559763

  3. Nanoparticle uptake by airway phagocytes after fungal spore challenge in murine allergic asthma and chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthy lungs, deposited micrometer-sized particles are efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages present on airway surfaces; however, uptake of nanoparticles (NP) by macrophages appears less effective and is largely unstudied in lung disease. Using mouse models of allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we investigated NP uptake after challenge with common biogenic ambient air microparticles. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from diseased mice (allergic asthma: ovalbumin [OVA] sensitized and COPD: Scnn1b-transgenic [Tg]) and their respective healthy controls were exposed ex vivo first to 3-μm fungal spores of Calvatia excipuliformis and then to 20-nm gold (Au) NP. Electron microscopic imaging was performed and NP uptake was assessed by quantitative morphometry. Results Macrophages from diseased mice were significantly larger compared to controls in OVA-allergic versus sham controls and in Scnn1b-Tg versus wild type (WT) mice. The percentage of macrophages containing AuNP tended to be lower in Scnn1b-Tg than in WT mice. In all animal groups, fungal spores were localized in macrophage phagosomes, the membrane tightly surrounding the spore, whilst AuNP were found in vesicles largely exceeding NP size, co-localized in spore phagosomes and occasionally, in the cytoplasm. AuNP in vesicles were located close to the membrane. In BAL from OVA-allergic mice, 13.9 ± 8.3% of all eosinophils contained AuNP in vesicles exceeding NP size and close to the membrane. Conclusions Overall, AuNP uptake by BAL macrophages occurred mainly by co-uptake together with other material, including micrometer-sized ambient air particles like fungal spores. The lower percentage of NP containing macrophages in BAL from Scnn1b-Tg mice points to a change in the macrophage population from a highly to a less phagocytic phenotype. This likely contributes to inefficient macrophage clearance of NP in lung disease. Finally, the AuNP containing

  4. Intranasal exposure of mice to house dust mite elicits allergic airway inflammation via a GM-CSF-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cates, Elizabeth C; Fattouh, Ramzi; Wattie, Jennifer; Inman, Mark D; Goncharova, Susanna; Coyle, Anthony J; Gutierrez-Ramos, José-Carlos; Jordana, Manel

    2004-11-15

    It is now well established that passive exposure to inhaled OVA leads to a state of immunological tolerance. Therefore, to elicit allergic sensitization, researchers have been compelled to devise alternative strategies, such as the systemic delivery of OVA in the context of powerful adjuvants, which are alien to the way humans are exposed and sensitized to allergens. The objectives of these studies were to investigate immune-inflammatory responses to intranasal delivery of a purified house dust mite (HDM) extract and to evaluate the role of GM-CSF in this process. HDM was delivered to BALB/c mice daily for 10 days. After the last exposure, mice were killed, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and samples were obtained. Expression/production of Th2-associated molecules in the lymph nodes, lung, and spleen were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Using this exposure protocol, exposure to HDM alone generated Th2 sensitization based on the expression/production of Th2 effector molecules and airway eosinophilic inflammation. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated expansion and activation of APCs in the lung and an influx of activated Th2 effector cells. Moreover, this inflammation was accompanied by airways hyper-responsiveness and a robust memory-driven immune response. Finally, administration of anti-GM-CSF-neutralizing Abs markedly reduced immune-inflammatory responses in both lung and spleen. Thus, intranasal delivery of HDM results in Th2 sensitization and airway eosinophilic inflammation that appear to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous GM-CSF production. PMID:15528378

  5. Allergic Non-Asthmatic Adults Have Regional Pulmonary Responses to Segmental Allergen Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Vanessa J.; Winkler, Tilo; Venegas, Jose G.; Kone, Mamary; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Afshar, Roshi; Cho, Josalyn L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Harris, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergic non-asthmatic (ANA) adults experience upper airway symptoms of allergic disease such as rhinorrhea, congestion and sneezing without symptoms of asthma. The aim of this study was to utilize PET-CT functional imaging to determine whether allergen challenge elicits a pulmonary response in ANA subjects or whether their allergic disease is truly isolated to the upper airways. Methods In 6 ANA subjects, bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were performed at baseline and 24h after instillation of an allergen and a diluent in separate lung lobes. After instillation (10h), functional imaging was performed to quantify and compare regional perfusion, ventilation, fractional gas content (Fgas), and glucose uptake rate (Ki) between the baseline, diluent and allergen lobes. BAL cell counts were also compared. Results In ANA subjects, compared to the baseline and diluent lobes, perfusion and ventilation were significantly lower in the allergen lobe (median [inter-quartile range], baseline vs. diluent vs. allergen: Mean-normalized perfusion; 0.87 [0.85–0.97] vs. 0.90 [0.86–0.98] vs. 0.59 [0.55–0.67]; p<0.05. Mean-normalized ventilation 0.89 [0.88–0.98] vs. 0.95 [0.89–1.02] vs. 0.63 [0.52–0.67], p<0.05). In contrast, no significant differences were found in Fgas between baseline, diluent and allergen lobes or in Ki. Total cell counts, eosinophil and neutrophil cell counts (cells/ml BAL) were significantly greater in the allergen lobe compared to the baseline lobe (all P<0.05). Conclusions Despite having no clinical symptoms of a lower airway allergic response (cough and wheeze) allergic non-asthmatic subjects have a pulmonary response to allergen exposure which manifests as reduced ventilation and perfusion. PMID:26640951

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection modulate systemic allergic immune response in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Soto, Ariadna S; Picchio, Mariano S; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2015-07-01

    The increased prevalence of allergies in developed countries has been attributed to a reduced exposure to some microbes. In agreement with epidemiological studies, we previously showed that Toxoplasma gondii infection prevents allergic airway inflammation. The mechanisms would be related to the strong Th1 response induced by the parasite and to regulatory cell induction. Herein we further characterized whether T. gondii allergy modulation extents to a systemic level or if it is limited to the lung. Parasite infection before allergic sensitization resulted in a diminished Th2 cytokine response and, when sensitized during acute infection, an increased in TGF-β production was detected. Allergen specific T cell proliferation was also reduced. Sensitization during both acute and chronic phases of infection resulted in a decreased anaphylaxis reaction. Our results extend earlier work and show that, in addition to lung airway inflammation, T. gondii infection can suppress allergic responses at systemic level. These results open the possibility that this protozoan infection could modulate other allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis or oral allergies. Understanding the mechanisms by which different microorganisms regulate inflammation may potentially lead to the development of strategies aimed to control atopic diseases. PMID:25888245

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus replication is prolonged by a concomitant allergic response

    PubMed Central

    Hassantoufighi, A; Oglesbee, M; Richter, B W M; Prince, G A; Hemming, V; Niewiesk, S; Eichelberger, M C

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an association between early exposure to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the development or exacerbation of asthma. This idea is supported by studies in mice that demonstrate worsened airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) when RSV-infected animals are exposed to allergen. The effect of allergen on RSV disease, however, has not been reported. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) that have been used as a model to study RSV pathogenesis were sensitized to extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af), a common household mould. The allergic response to Af included eosinophilia, formation of granulomas and induction of Th2 type cytokines. RSV infection prior to allergen challenge resulted in exacerbation of the inflammatory response as well as increased airway responsiveness to methacholine. The exacerbated response was indeed dependent on virus replication. Virus replication in turn was influenced by the allergic response, with persistence in the noses for 2 days longer in animals challenged with allergen. This diminished clearance corresponded to decreased induction of mRNA for IFN-γ, a Th1-type cytokine that is characteristic of viral infection. Treatment of RSV-infected Af-challenged animals with recombinant IFN-γ reduced the allergic inflammatory response as well as the relative levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA. However, this treatment did not reduce airway reactivity, showing that these pathologic and physiologic measures of exacerbated disease are independent. We speculate that the reciprocal effect of the allergic response on viral immunity may benefit the host by limiting exacerbation of physiologic responses that are IFN-γ-dependent. PMID:17335559

  8. Calcium-sensing receptor antagonists abrogate airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yarova, Polina L; Stewart, Alecia L; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Britt, Rodney D; Thompson, Michael A; P Lowe, Alexander P; Freeman, Michelle; Aravamudan, Bharathi; Kita, Hirohito; Brennan, Sarah C; Schepelmann, Martin; Davies, Thomas; Yung, Sun; Cholisoh, Zakky; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R; Broadley, Kenneth J; Rietdorf, Katja; Chang, Wenhan; Bin Khayat, Mohd E; Ward, Donald T; Corrigan, Christopher J; T Ward, Jeremy P; Kemp, Paul J; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S; Riccardi, Daniela

    2015-04-22

    Airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are fundamental hallmarks of allergic asthma that are accompanied by increases in certain polycations, such as eosinophil cationic protein. Levels of these cations in body fluids correlate with asthma severity. We show that polycations and elevated extracellular calcium activate the human recombinant and native calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), leading to intracellular calcium mobilization, cyclic adenosine monophosphate breakdown, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. These effects can be prevented by CaSR antagonists, termed calcilytics. Moreover, asthmatic patients and allergen-sensitized mice expressed more CaSR in ASMs than did their healthy counterparts. Indeed, polycations induced hyperreactivity in mouse bronchi, and this effect was prevented by calcilytics and absent in mice with CaSR ablation from ASM. Calcilytics also reduced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergen-sensitized mice in vivo. These data show that a functional CaSR is up-regulated in asthmatic ASM and targeted by locally produced polycations to induce hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Thus, calcilytics may represent effective asthma therapeutics. PMID:25904744

  9. Calcium-sensing receptor antagonists abrogate airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yarova, Polina L.; Stewart, Alecia L.; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Britt, Rodney D; Thompson, Michael A.; Lowe, Alexander P. P.; Freeman, Michelle; Aravamudan, Bharathi; Kita, Hirohito; Brennan, Sarah C.; Schepelmann, Martin; Davies, Thomas; Yung, Sun; Cholisoh, Zakky; Kidd, Emma J.; Ford, William R.; Broadley, Kenneth J.; Rietdorf, Katja; Chang, Wenhan; Khayat, Mohd E. Bin; Ward, Donald T.; Corrigan, Christopher J.; Ward, Jeremy P. T.; Kemp, Paul J.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.; Riccardi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are fundamental hallmarks of allergic asthma that are accompanied by increases in certain polycations, such as eosinophil cationic protein. Levels of these cations in body fluids correlate with asthma severity. We show that polycations and elevated extracellular calcium activate the human recombinant and native calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), leading to intracellular calcium mobilization, cyclic adenosine monophosphate breakdown, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. These effects can be prevented by CaSR antagonists, termed calcilytics. Moreover, asthmatic patients and allergen-sensitized mice expressed more CaSR in ASMs than did their healthy counterparts. Indeed, polycations induced hyper-reactivity in mouse bronchi, and this effect was prevented by calcilytics and absent in mice with CaSR ablation from ASM. Calcilytics also reduced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergen-sensitized mice in vivo. These data show that a functional CaSR is up-regulated in asthmatic ASM and targeted by locally produced polycations to induce hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Thus, calcilytics may represent effective asthma therapeutics. PMID:25904744

  10. 12/15-Lipoxygenase deficiency protects mice from allergic airways inflammation and increases secretory IgA levels

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Amanda R.; Lindley, Alexa R.; Favoreto, Silvio; Carter, Roderick; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kuperman, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Induction of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) has been observed in the airways of subjects with asthma, although its physiologic role in the airways has remained largely undefined. Objectives We sought to test the hypothesis that the mouse 15-LO-1 ortholog 12/15-LO contributes to the development of allergic airways inflammation. Methods Two models were used to evaluate wild-type and 12/15-LO–deficient mice. The systemic model involved intraperitoneal injections of allergen, and the mucosal model involved allergen exposures occurring exclusively in the airways. The systemic and mucosal-specific contributions of 12/15-LO to allergic sensitization and airways inflammation were determined by comparing the results obtained in the 2 models. Results In the mucosal model 12/15-LO knockout mice were protected from the development of allergic sensitization and airways inflammation, as evidenced by circulating levels of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a; the profile of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; and the expression of cytokines and mediators in lung tissue. In the systemic model 12/15-LO knockout mice were not protected. This suggested the presence of a lung-restricted protective role for 12/15-LO deficiency that was potentially accounted for by increased activation of mucosal B cells and increased production of the known mucosal-specific protective mediator secretory IgA. Conclusions Induction of 15-LO-1 in asthma might contribute to allergic sensitization and airways inflammation, potentially by causing suppression of secretory IgA. PMID:18692885

  11. Inhibition of Protein Kinase C Delta Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation through Suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 Alpha/VEGF Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang chang; Yan, Guang Hai

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is supposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. VEGF expression is regulated by a variety of stimuli such as nitric oxide, growth factors, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Recently, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to alleviate cardinal asthmatic features, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased vascular permeability in asthma models. Based on these observations, we have investigated whether mTOR is associated with HIF-1α-mediated VEGF expression in allergic asthma. In studies with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we have elucidated the stimulatory role of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF axis in allergic response. Next, the mechanisms by which mTOR is activated to modulate this response have been evaluated. mTOR is known to be regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt or protein kinase C-delta (PKC δ) in various cell types. Consistent with these, our results have revealed that suppression of PKC δ by rottlerin leads to the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activity and the subsequent blockade of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF module, thereby attenuating typical asthmatic attack in a murine model. Thus, the present data indicate that PKC δ is necessary for the modulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade, resulting in a tight regulation of HIF-1α activity and VEGF expression. In conclusion, PKC δ may represent a valuable target for innovative therapeutic treatment of allergic airway disease. PMID:24312355

  12. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of dendritic cells induces interleukin-10 producing allergen-specific T cells in vitro but fails to prevent allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Birgit; Freund, Tobias; Rha, Ro-Dug; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Quarcoo, David; Hutloff, Andreas; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2009-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in directing naive T cells towards a Th1/Th2 or regulatory T cells (Treg) cell phenotype. In this context, interleukin (IL)-10 has been shown to exhibit immune regulatory capacities. The aim of this study was to delineate the influence of high-IL-10-producing DCs on DC-T-cell interactions in inhibiting allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were generated from hemopoietic progenitors by culture with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stimulated with ovalbumin (OVA) +/- lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of ovalbumin-pulsed BMDCs on cytokine production by allergen-specific naive T cells were studied in vitro. The development of airway inflammation in Balb/c mice was determined after intranasal administration of BMDCs in vivo. LPS stimulation of BMDCs strongly enhanced IL-10 production. Coculture of LPS-modulated DCs exhibiting increased IL-10 production with allergen-specific naive T cells reduced the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-5, but enhanced the production of IL-10. After blockade with anti-IL-10 plus anti-IL-10-receptor antibodies, the level of IFN-gamma and IL-5 production by cocultured T cells was restored, underlining the regulatory function of IL-10. Intranasal administration of high-IL-10-producing LPS-stimulated, OVA-primed BMDCs prior to repetitive airway allergen challenges resulted in an even enhanced airway inflammation. These data demonstrate that increased IL-10 production by DCs may be a critical element for T-cell activation and differentiation in the context of allergen-induced immune responses in vitro. However, this DC modulation did not translate into suppression of allergic airway disease in vivo. PMID:19415548

  13. Lower airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in non-asthmatic patients with non-allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuping; Ji, Junfeng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhiyi; Wu, Kunmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Potential associations between non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) and asthma have been verified epidemiologically, but these associations remain not very clear. It is necessary to further explore the possible implication of lower airway abnormities in NAR patients but without asthma. This study aims to determine lower airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation and lung function in non-asthmatic patients with NAR. Methods We recruited 262 non-asthmatic patients with NAR, 377 with AR and 264 healthy subjects. All subjects were non-smokers who underwent meticulous history taking, nasal examination, allergen skin prick test (SPT), blood routine test, measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), methacholine bronchial challenge test and induced sputum eosinophil count, in this order. Results Compared with healthy subjects, non-asthmatic patients with NAR yielded markedly lower FEV1/FVC, maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), mid-expiratory flow when 50% of FVC has been expired (MEF50%) and mid-expiratory flow when 75% of FVC has been expired (MEF25%) (P<0.05). Differences in spirometry between group AR and NAR were unremarkable (P>0.05). Patients with NAR yielded higher rate of AHR and higher FeNO levels than healthy subjects but lower than those with AR. The proportion of lower airways disorders (sputum eosinophilia, high FeNO levels or AHR) was highest in group AR (70.8%), followed by NAR (53.4%) and healthy subjects (24.2%) (P<0.01). However, sputum eosinophils in NAR patients were not higher compared with healthy subjects (P>0.05). Sputum eosinophils and FeNO had significant correlation with positive AHR and MMEF in group AR but not in NAR. Conclusions Non-asthmatic patients with NAR harbor lower AHR, small airways dysfunction and inflammation, despite being less significant than those with AR. This offers clues to unravel the link between NAR and asthma. PMID:26623098

  14. Emerging Antigens Involved in Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    New allergic diseases can “emerge” because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which is associated with two novel forms of anaphylaxis. In a large area of the southeastern United States, the disease of delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat is now common. This disease challenges many previous rules about food allergy and provides a striking model of an emerging allergic disease. PMID:24095162

  15. Purified Timothy grass pollen major allergen Phl p 1 may contribute to the modulation of allergic responses through a pleiotropic induction of cytokines and chemokines from airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Röschmann, K I L; van Kuijen, A-M; Luiten, S; Jonker, M J; Breit, T M; Fokkens, W J; Petersen, A; van Drunen, C M

    2012-01-01

    By definition, allergens are proteins with the ability to elicit powerful T helper lymphocyte type 2 (Th2) responses, culminating in immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibody production. Why specific proteins cause aberrant immune responses has remained largely unanswered. Recent data suggest that there may be several molecular paths that may affect allergenicity of proteins. The focus of this study is the response of airway epithelium to a major allergen from Phleum pratense Phl p 1. Instead of focusing on a few genes and proteins that might be affected by the major allergen, our aim was to obtain a broader view on the immune stimulatory capacity of Phl p 1. We therefore performed detailed analysis on mRNA and protein level by using a microarray approach to define Phl p 1-induced gene expression. We found that this allergen induces modulation and release of a broad range of mediators, indicating it to be a powerful trigger of the immune system. We were able to show that genes belonging to the GO cluster ‘cell communication’ were among the most prominent functional groups, which is also reflected in cytokines and chemokines building centres in a computational model of direct gene interaction. Further detailed comparison of grass pollen extract (GPE)- and Phl p 1-induced gene expression might be beneficial with regard to the application of single components within diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:22288584

  16. STAT5-induced lunatic fringe during Th2 development alters delta-like 4-mediated Th2 cytokine production in respiratory syncytial virus-exacerbated airway allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sumanta; Rasky, Andrew J; Lundy, Phil A; Kittan, Nicolai A; Kunkel, Steven L; Maillard, Ivan P; Kowalski, Paul E; Kousis, Philaretos C; Guidos, Cynthia J; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2014-02-01

    Notch activation plays an important role in T cell development and mature T cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of Notch activation in a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-exacerbated allergic airway disease. During RSV exacerbation, in vivo neutralization of a specific Notch ligand, Delta-like ligand (Dll)-4, significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity, mucus production, and Th2 cytokines. Lunatic Fringe (Lfng), a glycosyltransferase that enhances Notch activation by Dll4, was increased during RSV exacerbation. Lfng loss of function in Th2-skewed cells inhibited Dll4-Notch activation and subsequent IL-4 production. Further knockdown of Lfng in T cells in CD4Cre(+)Lfng(fl/fl) mice showed reduced Th2 response and disease pathology during RSV exacerbation. Finally, we identified STAT5-binding cis-acting regulatory element activation as a critical driver of Lfng transcriptional activation. These data demonstrate that STAT5-dependent amplification of Notch-modifying Lfng augments Th2 response via Dll4 and is critical for amplifying viral exacerbation during allergic airway disease. PMID:24367028

  17. Aggravation of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Cigarette Smoke in Mice Is CD44-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Smitha; Lanckacker, Ellen; Dentener, Mieke; Bracke, Ken; Provoost, Sharen; De Grove, Katrien; Brusselle, Guy; Wouters, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Background Although epidemiological studies reveal that cigarette smoke (CS) facilitates the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, these studies offer limited information on the mechanisms involved. The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is involved in cell adhesion and acts as a receptor for hyaluronic acid and osteopontin. We aimed to investigate the role of CD44 in a murine model of CS-facilitated allergic airway inflammation. Methods Wild type (WT) and CD44 knock-out (KO) mice were exposed simultaneously to house dust mite (HDM) extract and CS. Inflammatory cells, hyaluronic acid (HA) and osteopontin (OPN) levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Proinflammatory mediators, goblet cell metaplasia and peribronchial eosinophilia were assessed in lung tissue. T-helper (Th) 1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine production was evaluated in mediastinal lymph node cultures. Results In WT mice, combined HDM/CS exposure increased the number of inflammatory cells and the levels of HA and OPN in BALF and Th2 cytokine production in mediastinal lymph nodes compared to control groups exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)/CS, HDM/Air or PBS/Air. Furthermore, HDM/CS exposure significantly increased goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial eosinophilia and inflammatory mediators in the lung. CD44 KO mice exposed to HDM/CS had significantly fewer inflammatory cells in BALF, an attenuated Th2 cytokine production, as well as decreased goblet cells and peribronchial eosinophils compared to WT mice. In contrast, the levels of inflammatory mediators were similar or higher than in WT mice. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that the aggravation of pulmonary inflammation upon combined exposure to allergen and an environmental pollutant is CD44-dependent. Data from this murine model of concomitant exposure to CS and HDM might be of importance for smoking allergic asthmatics. PMID:26999446

  18. miR-125b inhibits goblet cell differentiation in allergic airway inflammation by targeting SPDEF.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoe; Chen, Xing; Wu, Qiaoling; Song, Jia; Wang, Lijun; Li, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by goblet cell differentiation, mucus hypersecretion, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness. miR-125b was downregulated as normal human bronchial epithelial cells differentiation to pseudostratified epithelium. However, its role in asthma remains unknown especially in regulating goblet cell differentiation. miR-125b expression in the sputum of 50 asthmatic children and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Meanwhile, expressions of miR-125b and SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) in normal human tracheal epithelial (HTEpC) and A549 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2h were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. Furthermore, the predicted miR-125b target was determined in silico and confirmed with dual-luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, intranasal delivery of miR-125b mimic in mice was performed to study its effects on house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation mouse models. We found that miR-125b expression was decreased in the sputum of the asthmatic patients especially in eosinophilic asthma. After stimulation with LPS, miR-125b expression was downregulated, accompanied by the upregulation of SPDEF in HTEpC and A549 cells. Moreover, SPDEF is a target of miR-125b, which regulates SPDEF at the posttranscriptional level. Additionally, intranasal delivery of miR-125b decreased SPDEF protein levels, goblet cell differentiation, mucus hypersecretion, and altered relevant gene expressions. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-125b inhibits SPDEF expression modulating goblet cell differentiation and mucus secretion in asthma. PMID:27112664

  19. Glutathione modulation during sensitization as well as challenge phase regulates airway reactivity and inflammation in mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nahid; Alharbi, Naif O; Alharbi, Mohammad M; Imam, Faisal; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Glutathione, being a major intracellular redox regulator has been shown to be implicated in regulation of airway reactivity and inflammation. However, no study so far has investigated the effect of glutathione depletion/repletion during sensitization and challenge phases separately, which could provide an important insight into the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of glutathione depletion/repletion during sensitization and challenge phases separately in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a thiol donor were used for depletion or repletion of glutathione levels respectively during both sensitization and challenge phases separately followed by assessment of airway reactivity, inflammation and oxidant-antioxidant balance in allergic mice. Depletion of glutathione with BSO during sensitization as well as challenge phase worsened allergen induced airway reactivity/inflammation and caused greater oxidant-antioxidant imbalance as reflected by increased NADPH oxidase expression/reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation/lipid peroxides formation and decreased total antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, repletion of glutathione pool by NAC during sensitization and challenge phases counteracted allergen induced airway reactivity/inflammation and restored oxidant-antioxidant balance through a decrease in NADPH oxidase expression/ROS generation/lipid peroxides formation and increase in total antioxidant capacity. Taken together, these findings suggest that depletion or repletion of glutathione exacerbates or ameliorates allergic asthma respectively by regulation of airway oxidant-antioxidant balance. This might have implications towards increased predisposition to allergy by glutathione depleting environmental pollutants. PMID:24742380

  20. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  1. IL-17RA Signaling in Airway Inflammation and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Willis, Cynthia R; Siegel, Lori; Leith, Anh; Mohn, Deanna; Escobar, Sabine; Wannberg, Sharon; Misura, Kira; Rickel, Erika; Rottman, James B; Comeau, Michael R; Sullivan, John K; Metz, Daniela P; Tocker, Joel; Budelsky, Alison L

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) is a shared receptor subunit required for activity of IL-17 family cytokines, including IL-17A and IL-25. IL-17A and IL-25 induce different proinflammatory responses, and concentrations are elevated in subjects with asthma. However, the individual contributions of IL-17A and IL-25 to disease pathogenesis are unclear. We explored proinflammatory activities of the IL-17 pathway in models of pulmonary inflammation and assessed its effects on contractility of human bronchial airway smooth muscle. In two mouse models, IL-17RA, IL-17RB, or IL-25 blockade reduced airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. Individually, IL-17A and IL-25 enhanced contractility of human bronchial smooth muscle induced by methacholine or carbachol. IL-17A had more pronounced effects on methacholine-induced contractility in bronchial rings from donors with asthma compared with donors without asthma. Blocking the IL-17 pathway via IL-17RA may be a useful therapy for some patients with asthma by reducing pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. PMID:25919006

  2. Assessing mucus and airway morphology in response to a segmental allergen challenge using OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, David C.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Asthma affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and the prevalence of the disease appears to be increasing. One of the most important aspects of asthma is the excessive bronchoconstriction that results in many of the symptoms experienced by asthma sufferers, but the relationship between bronchoconstriction and airway morphology is not clearly established. We present the imaging results of a study involving a segmental allergen challenge given to both allergic asthmatic (n = 12) and allergic non-asthmatic (n = 19) human volunteers. Using OCT, we have imaged and assessed baseline morphology in a right upper lobe (RUL) airway, serving as the control, and a right middle lobe (RML) airway, in which the allergen was to be administered. After a period of 24 hours had elapsed following the administration of the allergen, both airways were again imaged and the response morphology assessed. A number of airway parameters were measured and compared, including epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness and buckling, lumen area, and mucus content. We found that at baseline epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness, and mucosal buckling were greater in AAs than ANAs. We also observed statistically significant increases in these values 24 hours after the allergen had been administered for both the ANA and AA sets. In comparison, the control airway which received a diluent showed no statistically significant change.

  3. Cleavage of fibrinogen by proteinases elicits allergic responses through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Shaw, Joanne; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Mak, Garbo; Roberts, Luz; Song, Li-Zhen; Knight, J Morgan; Creighton, Chad J; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B

    2013-08-16

    Proteinases and the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are essential for expression of allergic inflammation and diseases such as asthma. A mechanism that links these inflammatory mediators is essential for explaining the fundamental basis of allergic disease but has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that TLR4 is activated by airway proteinase activity to initiate both allergic airway disease and antifungal immunity. These outcomes were induced by proteinase cleavage of the clotting protein fibrinogen, yielding fibrinogen cleavage products that acted as TLR4 ligands on airway epithelial cells and macrophages. Thus, allergic airway inflammation represents an antifungal defensive strategy that is driven by fibrinogen cleavage and TLR4 activation. These findings clarify the molecular basis of allergic disease and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23950537

  4. Role of M2 Muscarinic Receptor in the Airway Response to Methacholine of Mice Selected for Minimal or Maximal Acute Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Juciane Maria de Andrade; Resende, Rodrigo R.; Florsheim, Esther; Albuquerque, Layra Lucy; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Gomes, Eliane; Tavares de Lima, Wothan; de Franco, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle constriction induced by cholinergic agonists such as methacholine (MCh), which is typically increased in asthmatic patients, is regulated mainly by muscle muscarinic M3 receptors and negatively by vagal muscarinic M2 receptors. Here we evaluated basal (intrinsic) and allergen-induced (extrinsic) airway responses to MCh. We used two mouse lines selected to respond maximally (AIRmax) or minimally (AIRmin) to innate inflammatory stimuli. We found that in basal condition AIRmin mice responded more vigorously to MCh than AIRmax. Treatment with a specific M2 antagonist increased airway response of AIRmax but not of AIRmin mice. The expression of M2 receptors in the lung was significantly lower in AIRmin compared to AIRmax animals. AIRmax mice developed a more intense allergic inflammation than AIRmin, and both allergic mouse lines increased airway responses to MCh. However, gallamine treatment of allergic groups did not affect the responses to MCh. Our results confirm that low or dysfunctional M2 receptor activity is associated with increased airway responsiveness to MCh and that this trait was inherited during the selective breeding of AIRmin mice and was acquired by AIRmax mice during allergic lung inflammation. PMID:23691511

  5. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits basophil maturation and activation but promotes its apoptosis in T helper type 2-mediated allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenwei; Di, Caixia; Lv, Jiajia; Zhang, Yanjie; Lin, Xiaoliang; Yuan, Yufan; Lv, Jie; Xia, Zhenwei

    2016-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been studied extensively in many disease models including asthma. Many cell types are anti-inflammatory targets of HO-1, such as dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. In contrast to previous reports that HO-1 had limited effects on basophils, which participate in T helper type 2 immune responses and antigen-induced allergic airway inflammation, we demonstrated in this study, for the first time, that the up-regulation of HO-1 significantly suppressed the maturation of mouse basophils, decreased the expression of CD40, CD80, MHC-II and activation marker CD200R on basophils, blocked DQ-ovalbumin uptake and promoted basophil apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the inhibition of T helper type 2 polarization. These effects of HO-1 were mimicked by exogenous carbon monoxide, which is one of the catalytic products of HO-1. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of HO-1-modified basophils reduced ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. The above effects of HO-1 can be reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor Sn-protoporphyrin IX. Moreover, conditional depletion of basophils accompanying hemin treatment further attenuated airway inflammation compared with the hemin group, indicating that the protective role of HO-1 may involve multiple immune cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that HO-1 exerted its anti-inflammatory function through suppression of basophil maturation and activation, but promotion of basophil apoptosis, providing a possible novel therapeutic target in allergic asthma. PMID:26879758

  7. The IL-33 receptor (ST2) regulates early IL-13 production in fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Piehler, D; Eschke, M; Schulze, B; Protschka, M; Müller, U; Grahnert, A; Richter, T; Heyen, L; Köhler, G; Brombacher, F; Alber, G

    2016-07-01

    Allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in response to environmental antigens is an increasing medical problem, especially in the Western world. Type 2 interleukins (IL) are central in the pathological response but their importance and cellular source(s) often rely on the particular allergen. Here, we highlight the cellular sources and regulation of the prototypic type 2 cytokine, IL-13, during the establishment of AAI in a fungal infection model using Cryptococcus neoformans. IL-13 reporter mice revealed a rapid onset of IL-13 competence within innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2) and IL-33R(+) T helper (Th) cells. ILC2 showed IL-33-dependent proliferation upon infection and significant IL-13 production. Th cells essentially required IL-33 to become either GATA3(+) or GATA3(+)/Foxp3(+) hybrids. GATA3(+) Th cells almost exclusively contributed to IL-13 production but hybrid GATA3(+)/Foxp3(+) Th cells did not. In addition, alveolar macrophages upregulated the IL-33R and subsequently acquired a phenotype of alternative activation (Ym1(+), FIZZ1(+), and arginase-1(+)) linked to type 2 immunity. Absence of adaptive immunity in rag2(-/-) mice resulted in attenuated AAI, revealing the need for Th2 cells for full AAI development. Taken together, in pulmonary cryptococcosis ILC2 and GATA3(+) Th2 cells produce early IL-13 largely IL-33R-dependent, thereby promoting goblet cell metaplasia, pulmonary eosinophilia, and alternative activation of alveolar macrophages. PMID:26555705

  8. Treatment with Pyranopyran-1, 8-Dione Attenuates Airway Responses in Cockroach Allergen Sensitized Asthma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Song, Joohyun; Kim, You Ah; Cho, Hi Jae; Min, Byung-Il; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. Viticis Fructus (VF) has long been used in China and Korea as a traditional herbal remedy for treating various inflammatory diseases. Previously, we have isolated a novel phytochemical, pyranopyran-1, 8-dione (PPY), from VF. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of PPY to prevent airway inflammation and to attenuate airway responses in a cockroach allergen-induced asthma model in mice. The mice sensitized to and challenged with cockroach allergen were treated with oral administration of PPY. The infiltration of total cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the BAL fluid was significantly inhibited in cockroach allergen-induced asthma mice treated with PPY (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg). Th2 cytokines and chemokine, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin in BAL fluid were also reduced to normal levels following treatment with PPY. In addition, the levels of IgE were also markedly suppressed after PPY treatment. Histopathological examination demonstrated that PPY substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airway, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPY possesses a potent efficacy on controlling allergic asthma response such as airway inflammation and remodeling. PMID:24489937

  9. Treatment with pyranopyran-1, 8-dione attenuates airway responses in cockroach allergen sensitized asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Park, Min-Sun; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Song, Joohyun; Kim, You Ah; Cho, Hi Jae; Min, Byung-Il; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. Viticis Fructus (VF) has long been used in China and Korea as a traditional herbal remedy for treating various inflammatory diseases. Previously, we have isolated a novel phytochemical, pyranopyran-1, 8-dione (PPY), from VF. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of PPY to prevent airway inflammation and to attenuate airway responses in a cockroach allergen-induced asthma model in mice. The mice sensitized to and challenged with cockroach allergen were treated with oral administration of PPY. The infiltration of total cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the BAL fluid was significantly inhibited in cockroach allergen-induced asthma mice treated with PPY (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg). Th2 cytokines and chemokine, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin in BAL fluid were also reduced to normal levels following treatment with PPY. In addition, the levels of IgE were also markedly suppressed after PPY treatment. Histopathological examination demonstrated that PPY substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airway, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPY possesses a potent efficacy on controlling allergic asthma response such as airway inflammation and remodeling. PMID:24489937

  10. Bronchial Epithelial Cells Produce IL-5: Implications for Local Immune Responses in the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Carol A.; Peluso, John J.; Zhu, Li; Lingenheld, Elizabeth G.; Walker, Sharale T.; Puddington, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    IL-5 is a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes eosinophil differentiation and survival. While naïve bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) produce low levels of IL-5, the role of BEC-derived IL-5 in allergic airway inflammation is unknown. We now show that BEC, isolated from mice with OVA-induced allergic airway disease (AAD), produced elevated levels of IL-5 mRNA and protein as compared to BEC from naïve mice. To determine the contribution of BEC-derived IL-5 to effector responses in the airways, IL-5 deficient bone marrow chimeric mice were generated in which IL-5 expression was restricted to stromal (e.g. BEC) or hematopoietic cells. When subjected to AAD, IL-5 produced by BECs contributed to mucous metaplasia, airway eosinophilia, and OVA-specific IgA levels. Thus, IL-5 production by BEC can impact the microenvironment of the lung, modifying pathologic and protective immune responses in the airways. PMID:20494340

  11. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  12. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease. PMID:18160846

  13. Influenza A infection enhances antigen-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in young but not aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Birmingham, Janette M.; Gillespie, Virginia L.; Srivastava, Kamal; Li, Xiu-Min; Busse, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although morbidity and mortality rates from asthma are highest in patients > 65 years of age, the effect of older age on airway inflammation in asthma is not well established. Objective To investigate age-related differences in the promotion of allergic inflammation after influenza A viral respiratory infection on antigen specific IgE production, antigen-induced airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness in mice. Methods To accomplish this objective, the following model system was used. Young (six-week) and aged (18-month) BALB/c mice were first infected with a non-lethal dose of influenza virus A (H/HK×31). Mice were then ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized during the acute-infection (3-days post inoculation) and then chronically underwent challenge to the airways with OVA. Forty-eight hours after the final OVA-challenge, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cellular and cytokine profile, antigen-specific IgE and IgG1, and lung tissue inflammation were measured. Results Age-specific differences were noted on the effect of a viral infection, allergic sensitization, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Serum OVA-specific IgE was significantly increased in only the aged mice infected with influenza virus. Despite greater morbidity (e.g. weight loss and sickness scores) during the acute infection in the 18-month old mice that were OVA-sensitized there was little effect on the AHR and BALF cellular differential. In contrast, BALF neutrophils and AHR increased, but eosinophils decreased in 6-week mice that were OVA-sensitized during an acute influenza infection. Conclusion With increased age in a mouse model, viral infection prior to antigen sensitization affects the airway and systemic allergic response differently. These differences may reflect distinct phenotypic features of allergic inflammation in older patients with asthma PMID:25039815

  14. Human airway musculature on a chip: an in vitro model of allergic asthmatic bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation.

    PubMed

    Nesmith, Alexander Peyton; Agarwal, Ashutosh; McCain, Megan Laura; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-10-21

    Many potential new asthma therapies that show promise in the pre-clinical stage of drug development do not demonstrate efficacy during clinical trials. One factor contributing to this problem is the lack of human-relevant models of the airway that recapitulate the tissue-level structural and functional phenotypes of asthma. Hence, we sought to build a model of a human airway musculature on a chip that simulates healthy and asthmatic bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation in vitro by engineering anisotropic, laminar bronchial smooth muscle tissue on elastomeric thin films. In response to a cholinergic agonist, the muscle layer contracts and induces thin film bending, which serves as an in vitro analogue for bronchoconstriction. To mimic asthmatic inflammation, we exposed the engineered tissues to interleukin-13, which resulted in hypercontractility and altered relaxation in response to cholinergic challenge, similar to responses observed clinically in asthmatic patients as well as in studies with animal tissue. Moreover, we reversed asthmatic hypercontraction using a muscarinic antagonist and a β-agonist which are used clinically to relax constricted airways. Importantly, we demonstrated that targeting RhoA-mediated contraction using HA1077 decreased basal tone, prevented hypercontraction, and improved relaxation of the engineered tissues exposed to IL-13. These data suggest that we can recapitulate the structural and functional hallmarks of human asthmatic musculature on a chip, including responses to drug treatments for evaluation of safety and efficacy of new drugs. Further, our airway musculature on a chip provides an important tool for enabling mechanism-based search for new therapeutic targets through the ability to evaluate engineered muscle at the levels of protein expression, tissue structure, and tissue function. PMID:25093641

  15. Ovalbumin sensitization of guinea pig at birth prevents the ontogenetic decrease in airway smooth muscle responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chitano, Pasquale; Wang, Lu; Degan, Simone; Worthington, Charles L.; Pozzato, Valeria; Hussaini, Syed H.; Turner, Wesley C.; Dorscheid, Delbert R.; Murphy, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Airway smooth muscle (ASM) displays a hyperresponsive phenotype at young age and becomes less responsive in adulthood. We hypothesized that allergic sensitization, which causes ASM hyperresponsiveness and typically occurs early in life, prevents the ontogenetic loss of the ASM hyperresponsive phenotype. We therefore studied whether neonatal allergic sensitization, not followed by later allergen challenges, alters the ontogenesis of ASM properties. We neonatally sensitized guinea pigs to ovalbumin and studied them at 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months (adult). A Schultz‐Dale response in isolated tracheal rings confirmed sensitization. The occurrence of inflammation was evaluated in the blood and in the submucosa of large airways. We assessed ASM function in tracheal strips as ability to produce force and shortening. ASM content of vimentin was also studied. A Schultz‐Dale response was observed in all 3‐week or older sensitized animals. A mild inflammatory process was characterized by eosinophilia in the blood and in the airway submucosa. Early life sensitization had no effect on ASM force generation, but prevented the ontogenetic decline of shortening velocity and the increase in resistance to shortening. Vimentin increased with age in control but not in sensitized animals. Allergic sensitization at birth without subsequent allergen exposures is sufficient to prevent normal ASM ontogenesis, inducing persistence to adulthood of an ASM hyperresponsive phenotype. PMID:25501429

  16. Role of breast regression protein-39/YKL-40 in asthma and allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Jack A

    2010-01-01

    BRP-39 and its human homolog YKL-40 have been regarded as a prototype of chitinase-like proteins (CLP) in mammals. Exaggerated levels of YKL-40 protein and/or mRNA have been noted in a number of diseases characterized by inflammation, tissue remodeling, and aberrant cell growth. Asthma is an inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. Recently, the novel regulatory role of BRP-39/YKL-40 in the pathogenesis of asthma has been demonstrated both in human studies and allergic animal models. The levels of YKL-40 are increased in the circulation and lungs from asthmatics where they correlate with disease severity, and CHI3L1 polymorphisms correlate with serum YKL-40 levels, asthma and abnormal lung function. Animal studies using BRP-39 null mutant mice demonstrated that BRP-39 was required for optimal allergen sensitization and Th2 inflammation. These studies suggest the potential use of BRP-39 as a biomarker as well as a therapeutic target for asthma and other allergic diseases. Here, we present an overview of chitin/chitinase biology and summarize recent findings on the role of BRP-39 in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic responses. PMID:20224674

  17. Effective treatment of allergic airway inflammation with Helicobacter pylori immunomodulators requires BATF3-dependent dendritic cells and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Engler, Daniela B; Reuter, Sebastian; van Wijck, Yolanda; Urban, Sabine; Kyburz, Andreas; Maxeiner, Joachim; Martin, Helen; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Gerhard, Markus; Cover, Timothy L; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2014-08-12

    The prevalence of allergic asthma and other atopic diseases has reached epidemic proportions in large parts of the developed world. The gradual loss of the human indigenous microbiota has been held responsible for this trend. The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a constituent of the normal gastric microbiota whose presence has been inversely linked to allergy and asthma in humans and experimental models. Here we show that oral or i.p. tolerization with H. pylori extract prevents the airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar eosinophilia, pulmonary inflammation, and Th2 cytokine production that are hallmarks of allergen-induced asthma in mice. Asthma protection is not conferred by extracts from other enteropathogens and requires a heat-sensitive H. pylori component and the DC-intrinsic production of IL-10. The basic leucine zipper ATF-like 3 (BATF3)-dependent CD103(+)CD11b(-) dendritic cell lineage is enriched in the lungs of protected mice and strictly required for protection. Two H. pylori persistence determinants, the γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, are required and sufficient for asthma protection and can be administered in purified form to prevent asthma. In conclusion, we provide preclinical evidence for the concept that the immunomodulatory properties of H. pylori can be exploited for tolerization strategies aiming to prevent allergen-induced asthma. PMID:25074917

  18. Effective treatment of allergic airway inflammation with Helicobacter pylori immunomodulators requires BATF3-dependent dendritic cells and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Daniela B.; Reuter, Sebastian; van Wijck, Yolanda; Urban, Sabine; Kyburz, Andreas; Maxeiner, Joachim; Martin, Helen; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Gerhard, Markus; Cover, Timothy L.; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic asthma and other atopic diseases has reached epidemic proportions in large parts of the developed world. The gradual loss of the human indigenous microbiota has been held responsible for this trend. The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a constituent of the normal gastric microbiota whose presence has been inversely linked to allergy and asthma in humans and experimental models. Here we show that oral or i.p. tolerization with H. pylori extract prevents the airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar eosinophilia, pulmonary inflammation, and Th2 cytokine production that are hallmarks of allergen-induced asthma in mice. Asthma protection is not conferred by extracts from other enteropathogens and requires a heat-sensitive H. pylori component and the DC-intrinsic production of IL-10. The basic leucine zipper ATF-like 3 (BATF3)-dependent CD103+CD11b− dendritic cell lineage is enriched in the lungs of protected mice and strictly required for protection. Two H. pylori persistence determinants, the γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, are required and sufficient for asthma protection and can be administered in purified form to prevent asthma. In conclusion, we provide preclinical evidence for the concept that the immunomodulatory properties of H. pylori can be exploited for tolerization strategies aiming to prevent allergen-induced asthma. PMID:25074917

  19. CARMA1 is necessary for optimal T cell responses in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, Ravisankar A; Roche, Marly I; Moon, James J; Ludwig, Thomas; Xavier, Ramnik J; Medoff, Benjamin D

    2011-12-15

    CARMA1 is a lymphocyte-specific scaffold protein necessary for T cell activation. Deletion of CARMA1 prevents the development of allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma due to a defect in naive T cell activation. However, it is unknown if CARMA1 is important for effector and memory T cell responses after the initial establishment of inflammation, findings that would be more relevant to asthma therapies targeted to CARMA1. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the role of CARMA1 in T cells that have been previously activated. Using mice in which floxed CARMA1 exons can be selectively deleted in T cells by OX40-driven Cre recombinase (OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F)), we report that CD4(+) T cells from these mice have impaired T cell reactivation responses and NF-κB signaling in vitro. Furthermore, in an in vivo recall model of allergic airway inflammation that is dependent on memory T cell function, OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F) mice have attenuated eosinophilic airway inflammation, T cell activation, and Th2 cytokine production. Using MHC class II tetramers, we demonstrate that the development and maintenance of Ag-specific memory T cells is not affected in OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F) mice. In addition, adoptive transfer of Th2-polarized OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F) Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells into wild-type mice induces markedly less airway inflammation in response to Ag challenge than transfer of wild-type Th2 cells. These data demonstrate a novel role for CARMA1 in effector and memory T cell responses and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting CARMA1 could help treat chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma. PMID:22075698

  20. Inhalation of concentrated ambient particulate matter near a heavily trafficked road stimulates antigen-induced airway responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Michael T; Hamade, Ali; Meacher, Dianne; Oldham, Michael; Sioutas, Constantinos; Chakrabarti, Bhabesh; Stram, Dan; Froines, John R; Cho, Arthur K

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) exposure to mobile emissions from mobile sources close to a heavily trafficked roadway will exacerbate airway inflammation and allergic airway responses in a sensitized mouse model, and (2) the magnitude of allergic airway disease responses will decrease with increasing distance from the roadway. A particle concentrator and a mobile exposure facility were used to expose ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice to purified air and concentrated fine and concentrated ultrafine ambient particles at 50 m and 150 m downwind from a roadway that was heavily impacted by emissions from heavy duty diesel-powered vehicles. After exposure, we assessed interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, OVA-specific immunoglobulin G1, and eosinophil influx as biomarkers of allergic responses and numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a marker of inflammation. The study was performed over a two-year period, and there were differences in the concentrations and compositions of ambient particulate matter across those years that could have influenced our results. However, averaged over the two-year period, exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) increased the biomarkers associated with airway allergies (IL-5, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin G1 and eosinophils). In addition, mice exposed to CAPs 50 m downwind of the roadway had, on the average, greater allergic responses and showed greater indications of inflammation than did mice exposed to CAPs 150 m downwind. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to CAPs close to a heavily trafficked roadway influenced allergic airway responses. PMID:16259423

  1. Effects of provinol and its combinations with clinically used antiasthmatics on airway defense mechanisms in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Kazimierová, I; Jošková, M; Pecháňová, O; Šutovská, M; Fraňová, S

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies show that provinol, a polyphenolic compound, has anti-inflammatory activity during allergic inflammation. In the present study we investigated the effects of provinol and its combinations with clinically used antiasthmatics: budesonide or theophylline on airway defense mechanisms during experimental allergic asthma. Separate groups of guinea pigs were treated during the course of 21-day ovalbumin sensitization with provinol (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or budesonide (1 mM by inhalation), or theophylline (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.), and with a half-dose combination of provinol+budesonide or provinol+theophylline. Airways defense mechanisms: cough reflex and specific airway resistance (sRaw) were evaluated in vivo. Tracheal smooth muscle reactivity and mucociliary clearance were examined in vitro. The findings were that provinol caused significant decreases in sRaw and in tracheal smooth muscle contractility, a suppression of cough reflex, and positively modulated ciliary beat frequency. The bronchodilatory and antitussive effects of provinol were comparable with those of budesonide and theophylline. Provinol given as add-on treatment significantly potentiated the effects of budesonide or theophylline, although the doses of each were halved. We conclude that provinol not only has bronchodilatory and antitussive effects, but also potentiates similar effects exerted by budesonide and theophylline. PMID:25315622

  2. Alveolar macrophage-derived vascular endothelial growth factor contributes to allergic airway inflammation in a mouse asthma model.

    PubMed

    Song, C; Ma, H; Yao, C; Tao, X; Gan, H

    2012-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor that correlates with vascular permeability and remodelling in asthma. Recently, alveolar macrophages (AM) were shown to be an important source of VEGF during lung injury. Our previous studies demonstrated that AM are an important subset of macrophages in the initiation of asthmatic symptoms. Here, we further investigated whether AM-derived VEGF was required for allergic airway inflammation in asthma. In this study, we reported that the expression of VEGF in AM was significantly increased after allergen challenge. Depleting AM or neutralizing VEGF in alveolus prevented ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma-related inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung, reduced the level of the cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and decreased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Moreover, the inhibition of miR-20b increased the protein level of VEGF in normal AM; conversely, increasing miR-20b in asthmatic AM resulted in decreased VEGF protein levels. These findings suggest that AM-derived VEGF is necessary for allergic airway inflammation in asthmatic mice and miR-20b negatively regulates this expression. PMID:22324377

  3. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  4. Natural Killer Receptor 1 Dampens the Development of Allergic Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Moshkovits, Itay; Shemesh, Avishai; Filiba, Ayelet; Tsirulsky, Yevgeny; Vronov, Elena; Shagan, Marilou; Apte, Ron N; Benharroch, D Aniel; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Dagan, Ron; Munitz, Ariel; Mizrachi Nebenzahl, Yaffa; Porgador, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The function of NCR1 was studied in a model of experimental asthma, classified as a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, in mice. IgE levels were significantly increased in the serum of OVA immunized NCR1 deficient (NCR1gfp/gfp) mice in comparison to OVA immunized wild type (NCR1+/+) and adjuvant immunized mice. Histological analysis of OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice revealed no preservation of the lung structure and overwhelming peribronchial and perivascular granulocytes together with mononuclear cells infiltration. OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice demonstrated preserved lung structure and peribronchial and perivascular immune cell infiltration to a lower extent than that in NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Adjuvant immunized mice demonstrated lung structure preservation and no immune cell infiltration. OVA immunization caused an increase in PAS production independently of NCR1 presence. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed NCR1 dependent decreased percentages of eosinophils and increased percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages following OVA immunization. In the OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice the protein levels of eosinophils' (CCL24) and Th2 CD4+ T-cells' chemoattractants (CCL17, and CCL24) in the BAL are increased in comparison with OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice. In the presence of NCR1, OVA immunization caused an increase in NK cells numbers and decreased NCR1 ligand expression on CD11c+GR1+ cells and decreased NCR1 mRNA expression in the BAL. OVA immunization resulted in significantly increased IL-13, IL-4 and CCL17 mRNA expression in NCR1+/+ and NCR1gfp/gfp mice. IL-17 and TNFα expression increased only in OVA-immunized NCR1+/+mice. IL-6 mRNA increased only in OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Collectively, it is demonstrated that NCR1 dampens allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. PMID:27580126

  5. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  6. Intranasal administration of a combination of choline chloride, vitamin C, and selenium attenuates the allergic effect in a mouse model of airway disease.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Preeti; Saw, Sanjay; Govindaraj, Dhanapal; Arora, Naveen

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory allergic disease is an inflammatory condition accompanied by oxidative stress. Supplementation of an anti-inflammatory agent with antioxidants may have a therapeutic effect. In this study, the effects of choline chloride in combination with antioxidants were evaluated via the intranasal route in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged on days 25-30 with cockroach extract (CE) and with a booster challenge on day 38. They were treated with choline chloride (ChCl; 1mg/kg), vitamin C (Vit C; 308.33 mg/kg), and selenium (Se; 1mg/kg) alone or in combination via the intranasal route on days 31, 33, 35, 37, and 39. The mice were sacrificed on day 40 to collect blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, and spleen. Mice immunized with CE showed a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation, Th2 cytokines, and the oxidative stress markers intracellular reactive oxygen species and 8-isoprostanes compared to the phosphate-buffered saline control group. A significant decrease was observed in these parameters with all the treatments (p<0.01). The highest decrease was noticed in the ChCl+Vit C+Se-treated group, with AHR decreased to the normal level. This group also showed the highest decrease in airway inflammation (p<0.001), IL-4 and IL-5 (p<0.001), IgE and IgG1 (p<0.001), NF-κB (p<0.001), and 8-isoprostane levels (p<0.001). Glutathione peroxidase activity, which was decreased significantly in CE-immunized mice, was restored to normal levels in this group (p<0.001). IL-10 level was decreased in CE-immunized mice and was restored to normal by combination treatment. The combination treatment induced FOXP3(+) cells in splenocyte culture, responsible for the upregulation of IL-10. In conclusion, the combination of choline chloride, vitamin C, and selenium via the intranasal route reduces AHR, inflammation, and oxidative stress, probably by causing IL-10 production by FOXP

  7. Precursor B Cells Increase in the Lung during Airway Allergic Inflammation: A Role for B Cell-Activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Malmhäll, Carina; Rådinger, Madeleine; Ramos-Ramirez, Patricia; Lu, You; Deák, Tünde; Semitekolou, Maria; Gaga, Mina; Sjöstrand, Margareta; Lötvall, Jan; Bossios, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Background B cells, key cells in allergic inflammation, differentiate in the bone marrow and their precursors include pro-B, pre-B and immature B cells. Eosinophil progenitor cells increase in the lung after allergen exposure. However, the existence and possible role of B cell precursors in the lung during allergic inflammation remains elusive. Methods A BALB/c mouse model of allergic airway inflammation was utilized to perform phenotypic and quantification analyses of pro-B and pre-B cells in the lung by flow cytometry. B cell maturation factors IL-7 and B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and their receptors (CD127 and BAFFR, BCMA, TACI, respectively) were also evaluated in the lung and serum. The effect of anti-BAFF treatment was investigated both in vivo (i.p. administration of BAFF-R-Ig fusion protein) and in vitro (colony forming cell assay). Finally, BAFF levels were examined in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Results Precursor pro and pre-B cells increase in the lung after allergen exposure, proliferate in the lung tissue in vivo, express markers of chemotaxis (CCR10 and CXCR4) and co-stimulation (CD40, CD86) and are resistant to apoptosis (Bax). Precursor B cells express receptors for BAFF at baseline, while after allergen challenge both their ligand BAFF and the BCMA receptor expression increases in B cell precursors. Blocking BAFFR in the lung in vivo decreases eosinophils and proliferating precursor B cells. Blocking BAFFR in bone marrow cultures in vitro reduces pre-B colony formation units. BAFF is increased in the BAL of severe asthmatics. Conclusion Our data support the concept of a BAFF-mediated role for B cell precursors in allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27513955

  8. Chlorinated pool attendance, airway epithelium defects and the risks of allergic diseases in adolescents: Interrelationships revealed by circulating biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Alfred Nickmilder, Marc; Dumont, Xavier

    2015-07-15

    It has been suggested that allergic diseases might be epithelial disorders driven by various environmental stressors but the epidemiological evidence supporting this concept is limited. In a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents (365 boys; mean age, 15.5 yr), we measured the serum concentrations of Club cell protein (CC16), surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) and of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE. We used the serum CC16/SP-D concentration ratio as an index integrating changes in the permeability (SP-D) and secretory function (CC16) of the airway epithelium. In both sexes, early swimming in chlorinated pools emerged as the most consistent and strongest predictor of low CC16 and CC16/SP-D ratio in serum. Among girls, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds (lowest vs. highest tertile) for pet sensitization (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.19–8.22) and for hay fever in subjects sensitized to pollen (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.28–14.4). Among boys, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds for house-dust mite (HDM) sensitization (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11–3.73), for allergic rhinitis in subjects sensitized to HDM (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22–11.1) and for asthma in subjects sensitized to any aeroallergen (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.17–11.0), HDM (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.40–24.2) or pollen (OR 5.82, 95% CI 1.51–27.4). Odds for allergic sensitization or rhinitis also increased with increasing SP-D or decreasing CC16 in serum. Our findings support the hypothesis linking the development of allergic diseases to epithelial barrier defects due to host factors or environmental stressors such as early swimming in chlorinated pools. - Highlights: • We conducted a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents. • The airway epithelium integrity was evaluated by measuring serum pneumoproteins. • The risk of allergic diseases was associated with a defective airway epithelium. • Childhood swimming in chlorinated pools can cause persistent epithelial

  9. A dual role for complement in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Köhl, Jörg; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2007-06-01

    Complement is an ancient danger-sensor system of innate immunity, providing first-line defence against pathogens. Concordant with its pro-inflammatory properties, complement contributes to airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and mucus production during the effector phase of allergic asthma. In contrast to these pro-allergic properties, complement can also protect from the development of the maladaptive Th2-biased immune response that drives airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in allergic asthma. As such, selective targeting of pro-allergic complement pathways appears an attractive therapeutic option in allergic asthma. PMID:17475559

  10. The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Gotić, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution. PMID:24822073

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin D2/CRTH2 pathway mediates double-stranded RNA-induced enhancement of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yoshiki; Asano, Koichiro; Niimi, Kyoko; Fukunaga, Koichi; Wakaki, Misa; Kagyo, Junko; Takihara, Takahisa; Ueda, Soichiro; Nakajima, Takeshi; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Shiomi, Tetsuya; Sayama, Koichi; Kagawa, Shizuko; Ikeda, Eiji; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Kinya; Nakamura, Masataka; Miyasho, Taku; Ishizaka, Akitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory RNA viruses responsible for the common cold often worsen airway inflammation and bronchial responsiveness, two characteristic features of human asthma. We studied the effects of dsRNA, a nucleotide synthesized during viral replication, on airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in murine models of asthma. Intratracheal instillation of poly I:C, a synthetic dsRNA, increased the airway eosinophilia and enhanced bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in OVA-sensitized, exposed rats. These changes were associated with induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and COX-2-dependent PGD2 synthesis in the lungs, particularly in alveolar macrophages. The direct intratracheal instillation of PGD2 enhanced the eosinophilic inflammation in OVA-exposed animals, whereas pretreatment with a dual antagonist against the PGD2 receptor-(CRTH2) and the thromboxane A2 receptor, but not with a thromboxane A2 receptor-specific antagonist, nearly completely eliminated the dsRNA-induced worsening of airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. CRTH2-deficient mice had the same degree of allergen-induced airway eosinophilia as wild-type mice, but they did not exhibit a dsRNA-induced increase in eosinophil accumulation. Our data demonstrate that COX-2-dependent production of PGD2 followed by eosinophil recruitment into the airways via a CRTH2 receptor are the major pathogenetic factors responsible for the dsRNA-induced enhancement of airway inflammation and responsiveness. PMID:18097056

  12. Epithelial barrier function: at the frontline of asthma immunology and allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Georas, Steve N.; Rezaee, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells form a barrier to the outside world, and are at the frontline of mucosal immunity. Epithelial apical junctional complexes are multi-protein subunits that promote cell-cell adhesion and barrier integrity. Recent studies in the skin and GI tract suggest that disruption of cell-cell junctions is required to initiate epithelial immune responses, but how this applies to mucosal immunity in the lung is not clear. Increasing evidence indicates that defective epithelial barrier function is a feature of airway inflammation in asthma. One challenge in this area is that barrier function and junctional integrity are difficult to study in the intact lung, but innovative approaches should provide new knowledge in this area in the near future. In this article, we review the structure and function of epithelial apical junctional complexes, emphasizing how regulation of the epithelial barrier impacts innate and adaptive immunity. We discuss why defective epithelial barrier function may be linked to Th2 polarization in asthma, and propose a rheostat model of barrier dysfunction that implicates the size of inhaled allergen particles as an important factor influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:25085341

  13. Functional characterization and biomarker identification in the Brown Norway model of allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Stephen L; Haddad, El-Bdaoui; Birrell, Mark A; McCluskie, Kerryn; Pecoraro, Michaela; Dabrowski, Dominika; Webber, Stephen E; Foster, Martyn L; Belvisi, Maria G

    2002-01-01

    The antigen-induced inflammatory response in the Brown Norway rat is a model commonly used to assess the impact of novel compounds on airway eosinophilia. A detailed functional, cellular and molecular characterization of this model has not yet been performed within a single study. This information together with the temporal changes in this phenomenon should be known before this model can be used, with confidence, to elucidate the mechanisms of action of novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Antigen challenge caused an accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue 24 h after challenge. Accumulation of CD2+ T cells was not apparent until after 72 h. Interestingly, mRNA for the Th2 type cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and eotaxin were elevated in lung tissue after challenge and the expression of IL-13 and eotaxin protein increased at around 8–12 h. The temporal changes in both the biomarker production and the functional responses are important factors to consider in protocol design prior to initiating a compound screening program. A neutralising antibody (R73) against αβ-TCR caused a significant reduction in T cell numbers accompanied by a significant suppression of eosinophil accumulation. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was not apparent in this specific Brown Norway model in sensitized animals after a single or multiple challenges although eosinophil influx was seen in the same animals. In conclusion, this is a convenient pre-clinical model (incorporating the measurement of biomarkers and functional responses) for screening novel small molecule inhibitors and/or biotherapeutics targeted against T cell/eosinophil infiltration/activation. PMID:12208784

  14. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a standardized extracts from the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus maritime) and used as a herbal remedy for various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PYC on airway inflammation using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. PYC decreased nitric oxide production and reduced the interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PYC also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and enhanced the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In the in vivo experiment, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in BALF or serum. These results are consistent with the histological analysis findings, which showed that PYC attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, PYC enhanced the expression of HO-1. In contrast, PYC inhibited the elevated expression of iNOS and MMP-9 proteins induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, PYC exhibits protective effects against OVA-induced asthma and LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYC has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:24120901

  15. The Ethanol Extract of Osmanthus fragrans Flowers Reduces Oxidative Stress and Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-Ya; Shi, Li-Shian; Wang, Jing-Yao; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Ye, Yi-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The Osmanthus fragrans flower, a popular herb in Eastern countries, contains several antioxidant compounds. Ben Cao Gang Mu, traditional Chinese medical literature, describes the usefulness of these flowers for phlegm and stasis reduction, arrest of dysentery with blood in the bowel, and stomachache and diarrhea treatment. However, modern evidence regarding the therapeutic efficacy of these flowers is limited. This study was aimed at assessing the antioxidative effects of the ethanol extract of O. fragrans flowers (OFE) in vivo and evaluating its antioxidant maintenance and therapeutic effect on an allergic airway inflammation in mice. After OFE's oral administration to mice, the values obtained in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay as well as the glutathione concentration in the lungs and spleens of mice increased while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances decreased significantly, indicating OFE's significant in vivo antioxidant activity. OFE was also therapeutically efficacious in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. Orally administered OFE suppressed ovalbumin-specific IgE production and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung. Moreover, the antioxidative state of the mice improved. Thus, our findings confirm the ability of the O. fragrans flowers to reduce phlegm and suggest that OFE may be useful as an antiallergic agent. PMID:24386002

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using a mouse model to assess immune and inflammatory responses as well as changes in respiratory function and pathology characteristic of allergic asthma to fungal extracts M. anisopliae (MACA), S. chartarum (SCE), and P. chrysogenum (PCE). This model will be useful to a...

  17. Novel small airway bronchodilator responses to rosiglitazone in mouse lung slices.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jane E; Bai, Yan; Donovan, Chantal; Esposito, James G; Tan, Xiahui; Sanderson, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    There is a need to identify novel agents that elicit small airway relaxation when β2-adrenoceptor agonists become ineffective in difficult-to-treat asthma. Because chronic treatment with the synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist rosiglitazone (RGZ) inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in mouse models of allergic airways disease, we tested the hypothesis that RGZ causes acute airway relaxation by measuring changes in small airway size in mouse lung slices. Whereas the β-adrenoceptor agonists albuterol (ALB) and isoproterenol induced partial airway relaxation, RGZ reversed submaximal and maximal contraction to methacholine (MCh) and was similarly effective after precontraction with serotonin or endothelin-1. Concentration-dependent relaxation to RGZ was not altered by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol and was enhanced by ALB. RGZ-induced relaxation was mimicked by other synthetic PPARγ agonists but not by the putative endogenous agonist 15-deoxy-PGJ2 and was not prevented by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. To induce airway relaxation, RGZ inhibited the amplitude and frequency of MCh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). In addition, RGZ reduced MCh-induced Ca(2+) sensitivity of the ASMCs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that acute bronchodilator responses induced by RGZ are PPARγ independent, additive with ALB, and occur by the inhibition of ASMC Ca(2+) signaling and Ca(2+) sensitivity. Because RGZ continues to elicit relaxation when β-adrenoceptor agonists have a limited effect, RGZ or related compounds may have potential as bronchodilators for the treatment of difficult asthma. PMID:24188042

  18. Key Mediators in the Immunopathogenesis of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sannette; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is described as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the conducting airways. It is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, eosinophil and Th2 infiltration, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway remodeling. Our findings to date have largely been dependent on work done using animal models, which have been instrumental in broadening our understanding of the mechanism of the disease. However, using animals to model a uniquely human disease is not without its drawbacks. This review aims to examine some of the key mediators and cells of allergic asthma learned from animal models and shed some light on emerging mediators in the pathogenesis allergic airway inflammation in acute and chronic asthma. PMID:24933589

  19. Xanthii Fructus inhibits allergic response in the ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Nam-Gil; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Im, Yong-Seok; Lee, Ka-Yeon; Jun-Kum, Chang; Kim, Ho-Seok; Cho, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthii Fructus (XF) is widely used in traditional anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory Asian medicine. Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by markedly increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the nasal mucosa. We investigated the effects of XF in the allergen-induced rhinitis model. Materials and Methods: Following ovalbumin (OVA)/alum intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7 and 14, the BALB/c mice (albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mice) were challenged intranasally with OVA for 10 days a week after the last sensitization. The number of sneezes was recorded for 10 days; additionally, the levels of cytokines, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific serum IgE were estimated. Eosinophil infiltration, thickness of nasal mucosa and expression of caspase-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the effect of XF on the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) in human mast cell-1 (HMC-1), by Western blotting. Results: The administration of XF significantly decreased sneezing and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). XF inhibited the changes in thickness of the nasal septum, influx of eosinophils and expression of capase-1. In addition, XF inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB in phorbol-myristate-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion: This study suggests that XF acts a potent anti-allergic drug which alleviates the allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model. PMID:26664025

  20. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-05-01

    Although type 2 immune responses to environmental Ags are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. In this article, we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin were produced quickly in the lungs of naive mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin sensitized naive animals to an innocuous airway Ag OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE Ab, and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same Ag. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naive animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa. PMID:24663677

  1. Chlorinated pool attendance, airway epithelium defects and the risks of allergic diseases in adolescents: Interrelationships revealed by circulating biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Alfred; Nickmilder, Marc; Dumont, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    It has been suggested that allergic diseases might be epithelial disorders driven by various environmental stressors but the epidemiological evidence supporting this concept is limited. In a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents (365 boys; mean age, 15.5 yr), we measured the serum concentrations of Club cell protein (CC16), surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) and of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE. We used the serum CC16/SP-D concentration ratio as an index integrating changes in the permeability (SP-D) and secretory function (CC16) of the airway epithelium. In both sexes, early swimming in chlorinated pools emerged as the most consistent and strongest predictor of low CC16 and CC16/SP-D ratio in serum. Among girls, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds (lowest vs. highest tertile) for pet sensitization (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.19-8.22) and for hay fever in subjects sensitized to pollen (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.28-14.4). Among boys, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds for house-dust mite (HDM) sensitization (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11-3.73), for allergic rhinitis in subjects sensitized to HDM (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22-11.1) and for asthma in subjects sensitized to any aeroallergen (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.17-11.0), HDM (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.40-24.2) or pollen (OR 5.82, 95% CI 1.51-27.4). Odds for allergic sensitization or rhinitis also increased with increasing SP-D or decreasing CC16 in serum. Our findings support the hypothesis linking the development of allergic diseases to epithelial barrier defects due to host factors or environmental stressors such as early swimming in chlorinated pools. PMID:25863185

  2. Cigarette smoke inhalation and the acute airway response.

    PubMed Central

    Higenbottam, T; Feyeraband, C; Clark, T J

    1980-01-01

    The acute airway response to smoking varying numbers (one to four) of identical cigarettes in rapid succession and smoking single cigarettes of differing tar/nicotine yields was assessed repeatedly in 13 healthy smokers. The airway response was variable, indicating airway narrowing consistently in only three subjects. There appeared no difference between forced spirometry and measurement of airway resistance in detecting the airway response. No relationship was observed between the airway response and amount of smoke inhaled into the lungs as measured either by changes in venous blood nicotine or percentage carboxyhaemoglobin. When five smokers inhaled smoke directly from a cigarette acute airway narrowing was consistently observed. A normal smoking pattern consisting of an initial drag of smoke into the mouth, followed after a pause by inhalation of smoke diluted with air, did not consistently cause airway narrowing although similar amounts of smoke as the direct drag were inhaled as assessed by changes in venous blood nicotine. The manner of smoke inhalation affects the relative concentrations of the different constituents of smoke reaching the lungs and also appears to be the main determinant of the acute airway response to smoking, which was unrelated to the number of cigarettes smoked or the tar content of the smoke. This suggests that patterns of smoke inhalation may influence the pathogenesis of bronchial disease associated with smoking. PMID:7434266

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION IL-4 INDUCES IL-6 AND SIGNS OF ALLERGIC-TYPE INFLAMMATION IN THE NASAL AIRWAYS OF NONALLERGIC INDIVIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory


    In addition to its more widely recognized role in promoting IgE synthesis, we speculate that interleukin-4 (IL-4) may modulate both allergic- and nonallergic-type inflammatory processes in the airway mucosa. We examined in vivo the effect of IL-4 on granulocyte and cytokine h...

  4. Neurturin influences inflammatory responses and airway remodeling in different mouse asthma models.

    PubMed

    Mauffray, Marion; Domingues, Olivia; Hentges, François; Zimmer, Jacques; Hanau, Daniel; Michel, Tatiana

    2015-02-15

    Neurturin (NTN) was previously described for its neuronal activities, but recently, we have shown that this factor is also involved in asthma physiopathology. However, the underlying mechanisms of NTN are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate NTN involvement in acute bronchial Th2 responses, to analyze its interaction with airway structural cells, and to study its implication in remodeling during acute and chronic bronchial inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. We analyzed the features of allergic airway inflammation in wild-type and NTN(-/-) mice after sensitization with two different allergens, OVA and house dust mite. We showed that NTN(-/-) dendritic cells and T cells had a stronger tendency to activate the Th2 pathway in vitro than similar wild-type cells. Furthermore, NTN(-/-) mice had significantly increased markers of airway remodeling like collagen deposition. NTN(-/-) lung tissues showed higher levels of neutrophils, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, matrix metalloproteinase 9, TNF-α, and IL-6. Finally, NTN had the capacity to decrease IL-6 and TNF-α production by immune and epithelial cells, showing a direct anti-inflammatory activity on these cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that NTN could modulate the allergic inflammation in different mouse asthma models. PMID:25595789

  5. Intranasal mite allergen induces allergic asthma-like responses in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Shibamori, Masafumi; Ogino, Keiki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ishiyama, Hironobu

    2006-01-25

    Airway responses induced by intranasal administration of mite allergen without adjuvant were studied in NC/Nga mice. A crude extract of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) was administered for 5 consecutive days and a single intranasal challenge booster dose was given 1 week after the last sensitization. 24 h after the single challenge, the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils, and both cytokine and chemokine levels. There were marked increases in number of eosinophils in the BALF, AHR, Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13), and chemokine (eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2) levels in the BALF following Df exposure. C57BL/6N, A/J, BALB/c, and CBA/JN mouse strains were also exposed to Df crude extract, but all of the measured responses were strongest in NC/Nga mice. Furthermore, Df-exposed NC/Nga mice showed the goblet cell hyperplasia, pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation, and increases in both total serum IgE and Df-specific IgG1. After intranasal exposure of NC/Nga mice to crude extract of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the BALF eosinophilia and AHR were similar to responses induced by Df. None of the study parameters were increased in response to intranasal exposure to ovalbumin. These data demonstrated that NC/Nga mice developed allergic asthma-like responses after intranasal exposure to mite allergens. PMID:16229861

  6. Gedunin, a natural tetranortriterpenoid, modulates T lymphocyte responses and ameliorates allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Fausto K; Moret, Katelim Hottz; Figueiredo, Alexandre Bezerra Conde; Penido, Carmen; Henriques, Maria das Graças M O

    2012-09-01

    T lymphocytes are critical cells involved in allergy. Here, we report that the natural tetranortriterpenoid gedunin impaired allergic responses primarily by modulating T lymphocyte functions. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gedunin inhibited pleural leukocyte accumulation triggered by intra-pleural (i.pl.) challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) in previously sensitized C57BL/6 mice; this inhibition was primarily due to the impairment of eosinophil and T lymphocyte influx. Likewise, i.pl. pre-treatment with gedunin inhibited eosinophil and T lymphocyte migration into mouse lungs 24 h after OVA intra-nasal (i.n.) instillation. Pre-treatment with gedunin diminished the levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, Interleukin-5 and leukotriene B(4) at the allergic site. In vitro pre-treatment with gedunin failed to inhibit T lymphocyte adhesion and chemotaxis towards pleural washes recovered from OVA-challenged mice, suggesting that gedunin inhibits T lymphocyte migration in vivo via the inhibition of chemotactic mediators in situ. In vivo pre-treatment with gedunin reduced the numbers of CD69(+) and CD25(+) T lymphocytes in the pleura and CD25(+) cells in the thoracic lymph nodes 24 h after OVA i.pl. challenge. In accordance, in vitro treatment of T lymphocytes with gedunin inhibited α-CD3 mAb-induced expression of CD69 and CD25, proliferation, Interleukin-2 production and nuclear translocation of NFκB and NFAT. Notably, post-treatment of mice with gedunin reverted OVA-induced lung allergic inflammation by decreasing the T lymphocyte and eosinophil counts and the levels of eosinophilotactic mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Our results demonstrate a remarkable anti-allergic effect of gedunin due to its capability to modulate T cell activation and trafficking into the airways. PMID:22709475

  7. A New Approach for the Study of Lung Smooth Muscle Phenotypes and Its Application in a Murine Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Paez-Cortez, Jesus; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Arno, Anneliese; Aven, Linh; Ram-Mohan, Sumati; Patel, Kruti R.; Lu, Jining; King, Oliver D.; Ai, Xingbin; Fine, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of lung smooth muscle cells in health and disease are poorly characterized. This is due, in part, to a lack of methodologies that allow for the independent and direct isolation of bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the lung. In this paper, we describe the development of a bi-fluorescent mouse that permits purification of these two cell populations by cell sorting. By subjecting this mouse to an acute allergen based-model of airway inflammation that exhibits many features of asthma, we utilized this tool to characterize the phenotype of so-called asthmatic BSMCs. First, we examined the biophysical properties of single BSMCs from allergen sensitized mice and found increases in basal tone and cell size that were sustained ex vivo. We then generated for the first time, a comprehensive characterization of the global gene expression changes in BSMCs isolated from the bi-fluorescent mice with allergic airway inflammation. Using statistical methods and pathway analysis, we identified a number of differentially expressed mRNAs in BSMCs from allergen sensitized mice that code for key candidate proteins underlying changes in matrix formation, contractility, and immune responses. Ultimately, this tool will provide direction and guidance for the logical development of new markers and approaches for studying human lung smooth muscle. PMID:24040256

  8. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Skrovankova, Sona; Sochor, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is the great representative of polyphenols, flavonoids subgroup, flavonols. Its main natural sources in foods are vegetables such as onions, the most studied quercetin containing foods, and broccoli; fruits (apples, berry crops, and grapes); some herbs; tea; and wine. Quercetin is known for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production. It can improve the Th1/Th2 balance, and restrain antigen-specific IgE antibody formation. It is also effective in the inhibition of enzymes such as lipoxygenase, eosinophil and peroxidase and the suppression of inflammatory mediators. All mentioned mechanisms of action contribute to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of quercetin that can be effectively utilized in treatment of late-phase, and late-late-phase bronchial asthma responses, allergic rhinitis and restricted peanut-induced anaphylactic reactions. Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, which is more competent in inhibiting of IL-8 than cromolyn (anti-allergic drug disodium cromoglycate) and suppresses IL-6 and cytosolic calcium level increase. PMID:27187333

  9. Induction of Allergic Responses to Peanut Allergen in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Bischof, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN) extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40–50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep) showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy. PMID:23284686

  10. Basophil-associated OX40 ligand participates in the initiation of Th2 responses during airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Yuan, Yufan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Junling; Xia, Zhenwei

    2015-05-15

    Asthma is characterized by increased airway submucosal infiltration of T helper (Th) cells and myeloid cells that co-conspire to sustain a chronic inflammation. While recent studies have demonstrated that the myeloid basophils promote Th2 cells in response to various types of allergens, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found for the first time that in a mouse model of allergic asthma basophils highly expressed OX40 ligand (OX40L) after activation. Interestingly, blockade of OX40-OX40L interaction suppressed basophils-primed Th2 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic eosinophilic inflammation mediated by Th2 activation. In accordance, the adoptive transfer of basophils derived from mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of OVA-immunized mice triggered a robust Th2 response and eosinophilic inflammation in wild-type mice but largely muted in OX40(-/-) mice and mice receiving OX40L-blocked basophils. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role of OX40L presented by the activated basophils to initiate Th2 responses in an allergic asthma model, implicating OX40-OX40L signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25839234

  11. Basophil-associated OX40 Ligand Participates in the Initiation of Th2 Responses during Airway Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Yuan, Yufan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Junling; Xia, Zhenwei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by increased airway submucosal infiltration of T helper (Th) cells and myeloid cells that co-conspire to sustain a chronic inflammation. While recent studies have demonstrated that the myeloid basophils promote Th2 cells in response to various types of allergens, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found for the first time that in a mouse model of allergic asthma basophils highly expressed OX40 ligand (OX40L) after activation. Interestingly, blockade of OX40-OX40L interaction suppressed basophils-primed Th2 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic eosinophilic inflammation mediated by Th2 activation. In accordance, the adoptive transfer of basophils derived from mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of OVA-immunized mice triggered a robust Th2 response and eosinophilic inflammation in wild-type mice but largely muted in OX40−/− mice and mice receiving OX40L-blocked basophils. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role of OX40L presented by the activated basophils to initiate Th2 responses in an allergic asthma model, implicating OX40-OX40L signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25839234

  12. Preexposure to ozone blocks the antigen-induced late asthmatic response of the canine peripheral airways

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.R.; Kleeberger, S.R.; Spannhake, E.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The influence of exposure of the airways to ozone on acute allergic responsiveness has been investigated in several species. Little is known, however, about the effect of this environmental pollutant on the late asthmatic response (LAR) in animals in which it is exhibited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect in the canine peripheral airways and to assess the potential role of mast cells in modulating the effect. A series of experiments on seven mongrel dogs demonstrated that the numbers of mast cells at the base of the epithelial region of small subsegmental airways exposed to 1 ppm ozone for 5 min were significantly (p less than .01) increased 3 h following exposure compared to air exposed or nonexposed control airways. In a second series of experiments performed on eight additional mongrel dogs with inherent sensitivity to Ascaris suum antigen, antigen aerosol was administered to the sublobar segment 3 h following ozone preexposure when mast cell numbers were presumed to be increased. These experiments were performed to determine whether ozone preexposure could enhance the late-phase response to antigen by virtue of acutely increasing the number of mast cells available to bind the antigen. Four of the eight dogs tested displayed a late-phase response to antigen following air-sham preexposure. In these four dogs, simultaneous ozone preexposure of a contralateral lobe completely blocked the late-phase response to antigen. These results indicate that the consequences of a single exposure to ozone persist beyond its effects on acute antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and extend to the complex processes involved with the late response. This attenuating effect of ozone is seen under conditions where mast-cell numbers in the airways are increased above baseline levels.

  13. Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Airway Responsiveness in Individuals with Asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled human exposure studies evaluating the effect of inhaled NO2 on the inherent responsiveness of the airways to challenge by bronchoconstricting agents have had mixed results. In general, existing meta-analyses show statistically significant effects of NO2 on the airway r...

  14. Persistence of serotonergic enhancement of airway response in a model of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian D; Hyde, Dallas M; Miller, Lisa A; Wong, Emily M; Schelegle, Edward S

    2014-07-01

    The persistence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and serotonergic enhancement of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction induced by ozone (O3) plus allergen has not been evaluated. If this mechanism persists after a prolonged recovery, it would indicate that early-life exposure to O3 plus allergen induces functional changes predisposing allergic individuals to asthma-related symptoms throughout life, even in the absence of environmental insult. A persistent serotonergic mechanism in asthma exacerbations may offer a novel therapeutic target, widening treatment options for patients with asthma. The objective of this study was to determine if previously documented AHR and serotonin-enhanced ASM contraction in allergic monkeys exposed to O3 plus house dust mite allergen (HDMA) persist after prolonged recovery. Infant rhesus monkeys sensitized to HDMA were exposed to filtered air (FA) (n = 6) or HDMA plus O3 (n = 6) for 5 months. Monkeys were then housed in a FA environment for 30 months. At 3 years, airway responsiveness was assessed. Airway rings were then harvested, and ASM contraction was evaluated using electrical field stimulation with and without exogenous serotonin and serotonin-subtype receptor antagonists. Animals exposed to O3 plus HDMA exhibited persistent AHR. Serotonin exacerbated the ASM contraction in the exposure group but not in the FA group. Serotonin subtype receptors 2, 3, and 4 appear to drive the response. Our study shows that AHR and serotonin-dependent exacerbation of cholinergic-mediated ASM contraction induced by early-life exposure to O3 plus allergen persist for at least 2.5 years and may contribute to a persistent asthma phenotype. PMID:24484440

  15. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles augment allergic airway inflammation and Socs3 expression via NF-κB pathway in murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vani; Baranwal, Vikas; Mishra, Rohit K; Sharma, Shivesh; Paul, Bholanath; Pandey, Avinash C

    2016-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) previously considered to possess relatively low toxicity both in vitro and in vivo, although classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Also, their adjuvant potential has been reported to promote allergic sensitization and modulate immune responses. Previously, in OVA induced mouse model of asthma we found high expression of Socs3 and low expression of Stat3 and IL-6. However, a clear understanding regarding the signaling pathways associated with nTiO2 adjuvant effect in mouse model of asthma is lacking. In the present study we investigated the status of Stat3/IL-6 and Socs3 and their relationship with NF-κB, with nTiO2 as an adjuvant in mouse model of asthma. nTiO2 when administered with ovalbumin (OVA) during sensitization phase augmented airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), biochemical markers of lung damage and a mixed Th2/Th1 dependent immune response. At the same time, we observed significant elevation in the levels of Stat3, Socs3, NF-κB, IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, transient in vivo blocking of NF-κB by NF-κB p65 siRNA, downregulated the expression of Socs3, IL-6 and TNF-α. Our study, thus, shows that nTiO2 exacerbate the inflammatory responses in lungs of pre-sensitized allergic individuals and that these changes are regulated via NF-κB pathway. PMID:27057692

  16. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients. PMID:14637240

  17. Differential cellular responses in healthy mice and in mice with established airway inflammation when exposed to hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Åsa; Bergström, Ulrika; Ågren, Lina; Österlund, Lars; Sandström, Thomas; Bucht, Anders

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory and immunological responses in airways and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), following lung exposure to iron oxide (hematite) nanoparticles (NPs). The responses to the hematite NPs were evaluated in both healthy non-sensitized mice, and in sensitized mice with an established allergic airway disease. The mice were exposed intratracheally to either hematite NPs or to vehicle (PBS) and the cellular responses were evaluated on days 1, 2, and 7, post-exposure. Exposure to hematite NPs increased the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the airways of non-sensitized mice on days 1 and 2 post-exposure; at these time points the number of lymphocytes was also elevated in the LDLNs. In contrast, exposing sensitized mice to hematite NPs induced a rapid and unspecific cellular reduction in the alveolar space on day 1 post-exposure; a similar decrease of lymphocytes was also observed in the LDLN. The results indicate that cells in the airways and in the LDLN of individuals with established airway inflammation undergo cell death when exposed to hematite NPs. A possible explanation for this toxic response is the extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pro-oxidative environment of inflamed airways. This study demonstrates how sensitized and non-sensitized mice respond differently to hematite NP exposure, and it highlights the importance of including individuals with respiratory disorders when evaluating health effects of inhaled nanomaterials. PMID:26163175

  18. Airway smooth muscle responsiveness from dogs with airway hyperresponsiveness after O/sub 3/ inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.; O'Byrne, P.M.; Pashley, M.; Serio, R.; Jury, J.; Lane, C.G.; Daniel, E.E.

    1988-07-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness occurs after inhalation of O3 in dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the responsiveness of trachealis smooth muscle in vitro to electrical field stimulation, exogenous acetylcholine, and potassium chloride from dogs with airway hyperresponsiveness after inhaled O3 in vivo and to compare this with the responsiveness of trachealis muscle from control dogs. In addition, excitatory junction potentials were measured with the use of single and double sucrose gap techniques in both groups of dogs to determine whether inhaled O3 affects the release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic nerves in trachealis muscle. Airway hyperresponsiveness developed in all dogs after inhaled O3 (3 ppm for 30 min). The acetylcholine provocative concentration decreased from 4.11 mg/ml before O3 inhalation to 0.66 mg/ml after O3 (P less than 0.0001). The acetylcholine provocative concentration increased slightly after control inhalation of dry room air. Airway smooth muscle showed increased responses to both electrical field stimulation and exogenous acetylcholine but not to potassium chloride in preparations from dogs with airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo. The increased response to electrical field stimulation was not associated with a change in excitatory junctional potentials. These results suggest that a postjunctional alteration in trachealis muscle function occurs after inhaled O3 in dogs, which may account for airway hyperresponsiveness after O3 in vivo.

  19. Treatment of allergic asthma: Modulation of Th2 cells and their responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease characterised by recurrent episodes of wheezy, laboured breathing with an underlying Th2 cell-mediated inflammatory response in the airways. It is currently treated and, more or less, controlled depending on severity, with bronchodilators e.g. long-acting beta agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists or anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids (inhaled or oral), leukotriene modifiers, theophyline and anti-IgE therapy. Unfortunately, none of these treatments are curative and some asthmatic patients do not respond to intense anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, the use of long-term oral steroids has many undesired side effects. For this reason, novel and more effective drugs are needed. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ Th2 cells and their products as targets for the development of new drugs to add to the current armamentarium as adjuncts or as potential stand-alone treatments for allergic asthma. We argue that in early disease, the reduction or elimination of allergen-specific Th2 cells will reduce the consequences of repeated allergic inflammatory responses such as lung remodelling without causing generalised immunosuppression. PMID:21867534

  20. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BAL/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  1. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BALB/MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  2. GS143, an I{kappa}B ubiquitination inhibitor, inhibits allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Koichi; Wakashin, Hidefumi; Oki, Mie; Kagami, Shin-ichiro; Suto, Akira; Ikeda, Kei; Watanabe, Norihiko; Iwamoto, Itsuo; Furuichi, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2008-09-26

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation with intense eosinophil infiltration and mucus hyper-production, in which antigen-specific Th2 cells play critical roles. Nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway has been demonstrated to be essential for the production of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the airways in murine asthma models. In the present study, we examined the effect of GS143, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of I{kappa}B ubiquitination, on antigen-induced airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine production in mice. Intranasal administration of GS143 prior to antigen challenge suppressed antigen-induced NF-{kappa}B activation in the lung of sensitized mice. Intranasal administration of GS143 also inhibited antigen-induced eosinophil and lymphocyte recruitment into the airways as well as the expression of Th2 cytokines and eotaxin in the airways. Moreover, GS143 inhibited antigen-induced differentiation of Th2 cells but not of Th1 cells in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that I{kappa}B ubiquitination inhibitor may have therapeutic potential against asthma.

  3. Protease inhibitor reduces airway response and underlying inflammation in cockroach allergen-induced murine model.

    PubMed

    Saw, Sanjay; Arora, Naveen

    2015-04-01

    Protease(s) enhances airway inflammation and allergic cascade. In the present study, effect of a serine protease inhibitor was evaluated in mouse model of airway disease. Mice were sensitized with cockroach extract (CE) or Per a 10 and treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) 1 h before or after challenge to measure airway response. Mice were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung to evaluate inflammation. AEBSF treatment significantly reduced the AHR in allergen-challenged mice in dose-dependent manner (p≤ 0.01). IgE (p≤0.05) and Th2 cytokines (p≤0.05) were significantly reduced in treated mice. AEBSF treatment lowered total cell (p≤0.05), eosinophil (p≤0.05), and neutrophil (p≤0.05) in BALF and lung tissue. Oxidative stress parameters were impaired on treatment in allergen-challenged mice (p≤0.05). AEBSF had therapeutic effect in allergen-induced airway resistance and underling inflammation and had potential for combination or as add-on therapy for respiratory diseases. PMID:25052477

  4. Airway responsiveness to psychological processes in asthma and health

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial factors have been found to impact airway pathophysiology in respiratory disease with considerable consistency. Influences on airway mechanics have been studied particularly well. The goal of this article is to review the literature on airway responses to psychological stimulation, discuss potential pathways of influence, and present a well-established emotion-induction paradigm to study airway obstruction elicited by unpleasant stimuli. Observational studies have found systematic associations between lung function and daily mood changes. The laboratory-based paradigm of bronchoconstrictive suggestion has been used successfully to elicit airway obstruction in a substantial proportion of asthmatic individuals. Other studies have demonstrated modulation of airway responses to standard airway challenges with exercise, allergens, or pharmacological agents by psychological factors. Standardized emotion-induction techniques have consistently shown airway constriction during unpleasant stimulation, with surgery, blood, and injury stimuli being particularly powerful. Findings with various forms of stress induction have been more mixed. A number of methodological factors may account for variability across studies, such as choice of measurement technique, temporal association between stimulation and measurement, and the specific quality and intensity of the stimulus material, in particular the extent of implied action-orientation. Research has also begun to elucidate physiological processes associated with psychologically induced airway responses, with vagal excitation and ventilatory influences being the most likely candidate pathways, whereas the role of specific central nervous system pathways and inflammatory processes has been less studied. The technique of emotion-induction using films has the potential to become a standardized challenge paradigm for the further exploration of airway hyperresponsiveness mediated by central nervous system processes. PMID

  5. Mechanical consequences of allergic induced remodeling on mice airway resistance and compressibility.

    PubMed

    Novali, Mauro; Shalaby, Karim H; Robichaud, Annette; Benedetti, Andrea; Fereydoonzad, Liah; McGovern, Toby K; Schuessler, Thomas F; Martin, James G

    2015-11-01

    The effect of remodeling on airway function is uncertain. It may affect airway compressibility during forced expirations differently than airflow resistance, providing a tool for its assessment. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of acute and chronic antigen challenge on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction assessed from resistance and maximal tidal expiratory flow. Balb/C mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged either daily for three days with intra-nasal OVA or daily for 5 days and three times a week for 5 subsequent weeks. Acute and chronic allergen challenge induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. However the relationship between maximal tidal expiratory flow and resistance during methacholine challenge was different between the two conditions, suggesting that the determinants of AHR are not identical following acute and chronic allergen exposure. We conclude that the contrast of changes in maximal tidal expiratory flow and respiratory resistance during methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction may allow the detection of the mechanical consequences of airway remodeling. PMID:26213118

  6. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  7. Animal Models of Allergic Airways Disease: Where Are We and Where to Next?

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David G.; Tully, Jane E.; Nolin, James D.; Jansen-Heininger, Yvonne M; Irvin, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    In a complex inflammatory airways disease such as asthma, abnormalities in a plethora of molecular and cellular pathways ultimately culminate in characteristic impairments in respiratory function. The ability to study disease pathophysiology in the setting of a functioning immune and respiratory system therefore makes mouse models an invaluable tool in translational research. Despite the vast understanding of inflammatory airways diseases gained from mouse models to date, concern over the validity of mouse models continues to grow. Therefore the aim of this review is two-fold; firstly, to evaluate mouse models of asthma in light of current clinical definitions, and secondly, to provide a framework by which mouse models can be continually refined so that they continue to stand at the forefront of translational science. Indeed, it is in viewing mouse models as a continual work in progress that we will be able to target our research to those patient populations in whom current therapies are insufficient. PMID:25043224

  8. Biomarkers of in vivo fluorescence imaging in allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa-Ping; Fan, Ying-Qi; Li, Su-Yun; Mao, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Airway inflammation is a central component of the manifestation of asthma but is relatively inaccessible to study. Current imaging techniques such as X-ray CT, MRI, and PET, have advanced noninvasive research on pulmonary diseases. However, these techniques mainly facilitate the anatomical or structural assessment of the diseased lung and/or typically use radioactive agents. In vivo fluorescence imaging is a novel method for noninvasive, real-time, and specific monitoring of lung airway inflammation, which is particularly important to gain a further understanding asthma. Compared to conventional techniques, fluorescent imaging has the advantages of rapid feedback, as well as high sensitivity and resolution. Recently, there has been an increase in the identification of biomarkers, including matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins, selectins, folate receptor-beta, nanoparticles, as well as sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-F to assess the level of airway inflammation in asthma. Recent advances in our understanding of these biomarkers as molecular probes for in vivo imaging are discussed in this review. PMID:26902991

  9. Chitin-Induced Airway Epithelial Cell Innate Immune Responses Are Inhibited by Carvacrol/Thymol.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Erle, David J

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is produced in large amounts by fungi, insects, and other organisms and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Airway epithelial cells are in direct contact with environmental particles and serve as the first line of defense against inhaled allergens and pathogens. The potential contributions of airway epithelial cells to chitin-induced asthma remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that chitin directly stimulates airway epithelial cells to release cytokines that promote type 2 immune responses and to induce expression of molecules which are important in innate immune responses. We found that chitin exposure rapidly induced the expression of three key type 2-promoting cytokines, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP, in BEAS-2B transformed human bronchial epithelial cells and in A549 and H292 lung carcinoma cells. Chitin also induced the expression of the key pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and TLR4. Chitin induced the expression of miR-155, miR-146a and miR-21, each of which is known to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also the expression of SOCS1 and SHIP1 which are known targets of miR-155 was repressed by chitin treatment. The monoterpene phenol carvacrol (Car) and its isomer thymol (Thy) are found in herbal essential oils and have been shown to inhibit allergic inflammation in asthma models. We found that Car/Thy inhibited the effects of chitin on type 2-promoting cytokine release and on the expression of TLRs, SOCS1, SHIP1, and miRNAs. Car/Thy could also efficiently reduce the protein levels of TLR4, inhibit the increase in TLR2 protein levels in chitin plus Car/Thy-treated cells and increase the protein levels of SHIP1 and SOCS1, which are negative regulators of TLR-mediated inflammatory responses. We conclude that direct effects of chitin on airway epithelial cells are likely to contribute to allergic airway diseases like asthma, and that Car/Thy directly inhibits epithelial cell pro-inflammatory responses to chitin. PMID

  10. Chitin-Induced Airway Epithelial Cell Innate Immune Responses Are Inhibited by Carvacrol/Thymol

    PubMed Central

    Erle, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is produced in large amounts by fungi, insects, and other organisms and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Airway epithelial cells are in direct contact with environmental particles and serve as the first line of defense against inhaled allergens and pathogens. The potential contributions of airway epithelial cells to chitin-induced asthma remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that chitin directly stimulates airway epithelial cells to release cytokines that promote type 2 immune responses and to induce expression of molecules which are important in innate immune responses. We found that chitin exposure rapidly induced the expression of three key type 2-promoting cytokines, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP, in BEAS-2B transformed human bronchial epithelial cells and in A549 and H292 lung carcinoma cells. Chitin also induced the expression of the key pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and TLR4. Chitin induced the expression of miR-155, miR-146a and miR-21, each of which is known to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also the expression of SOCS1 and SHIP1 which are known targets of miR-155 was repressed by chitin treatment. The monoterpene phenol carvacrol (Car) and its isomer thymol (Thy) are found in herbal essential oils and have been shown to inhibit allergic inflammation in asthma models. We found that Car/Thy inhibited the effects of chitin on type 2-promoting cytokine release and on the expression of TLRs, SOCS1, SHIP1, and miRNAs. Car/Thy could also efficiently reduce the protein levels of TLR4, inhibit the increase in TLR2 protein levels in chitin plus Car/Thy-treated cells and increase the protein levels of SHIP1 and SOCS1, which are negative regulators of TLR-mediated inflammatory responses. We conclude that direct effects of chitin on airway epithelial cells are likely to contribute to allergic airway diseases like asthma, and that Car/Thy directly inhibits epithelial cell pro-inflammatory responses to chitin. PMID

  11. Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene α-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Andrade, Edinéia L; Leite, Daniela FP; Figueiredo, Cláudia P; Calixto, João B

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: α-Humulene and trans-caryophyllene are plant sesquiterpenes with pronounced anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of airways allergic inflammation. Experimental approach: Female BALB/c mice, sensitized to and challenged with ovalbumin received daily α-humulene or trans-caryophyllene (50 mg·kg−1, orally) or α-humulene (1 mg·mL−1, by aerosol) as either a preventive (for 22 days) or therapeutic (from the 18th to the 22nd day) treatment. Dexamethasone or budesonide was used as a positive control drug. Inflammation was determined on day 22 post-immunization by leukocyte recruitment, interleukin-5 (IL-5), CCL11, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and leukotriene (LT)B4 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, transcription factors [nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), activator protein 1 (AP-1)] and P-selectin in lung tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry and mucus secretion by histochemistry. Key results: Preventive or therapeutic treatments with α-humulene, but not with trans-caryophyllene, significantly reduced the eosinophil recruitment to the BALF. In addition, α-humulene recovery INF-γ and reduced the IL-5, CCL11 and LTB4 levels in BALF, as well as the IL-5 production in mediastinal lymph nodes (in vitro assay). Furthermore, α-humulene decreased the NF-kB and the AP-1 activation, the expression of P-selectin and the increased mucus secretion in the lung. Conclusions and implications: α-Humulene, given either orally or by aerosol, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory properties in a murine model of airways allergic inflammation, an effect that seemed to be mediated via reduction of inflammatory mediators, adhesion molecule expression and transcription factors activation. This article is part of a themed issue on Mediators and Receptors in the Resolution of Inflammation. To view this issue visit http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear

  12. TLR2, TLR4 AND MyD88 Mediate Allergic Airway Disease (AAD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae-Induced Suppression of AAD

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Alison N.; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Donovan, Chantal; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Jarnicki, Andrew G.; Foster, Paul S.; Gibson, Peter G.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to non-pathogenic Streptococcus pneumoniae and vaccination are inversely associated with asthma. Studies in animal models demonstrate that airway administration of S. pneumoniae (live or killed), or its vaccines or components, suppresses the characteristic features of asthma in mouse models of allergic airway disease (AAD). These components could be developed into immunoregulatory therapies. S. pneumoniae components are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and TLR4, and both induce inflammatory cell responses through the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). The involvement of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of AAD and asthma is incompletely understood, and has not been studied in S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD. We investigated the role of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in the development of AAD and S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD. Methods and Findings OVA-induced AAD and killed S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD were assessed in wild-type, TLR2-/-, TLR4-/-, TLR2/4-/- and MyD88-/- BALB/c mice. During OVA-induced AAD, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 were variously involved in promoting eosinophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood, and T-helper type (Th)2 cytokine release from mediastinal lymph node T cells and splenocytes. However, all were required for the induction of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 were variously involved in the suppression of eosinophilic and splenocyte Th2 responses but all were required for the reduction in AHR. Conclusions These results highlight important but complex roles for TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in promoting the development of OVA-induced AAD, but conversely in the S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD, with consistent and major contributions in both the induction and suppression of AHR. Thus, TLR signaling is likely required for both the development of asthma and the

  13. Mechanisms of Heightened Airway Sensitivity and Responses to Inhaled SO2 in Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Reno, Anita L; Brooks, Edward G; Ameredes, Bill T

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a problematic inhalable air pollutant in areas of widespread industrialization, not only in the United States but also in countries undergoing rapid industrialization, such as China, and it can be a potential trigger factor for asthma exacerbations. It is known that asthmatics are sensitive to the effects of SO2; however, the basis of this enhanced sensitivity remains incompletely understood. A PubMed search was performed over the course of 2014, encompassing the following terms: asthma, airway inflammation, sulfur dioxide, IL-10, mouse studies, and human studies. This search indicated that biomarkers of SO2 exposure, SO2 effects on airway epithelial cell function, and animal model data are useful in our understanding of the body’s response to SO2, as are SO2-associated amplification of allergic inflammation, and potential promotion of neurogenic inflammation due to chemical irritant properties. While definitive answers are still being sought, these areas comprise important foci of consideration regarding asthmatic responses to inhaled SO2. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency associated with asthma may be another important factor associated with an inability to resolve inflammation and mitigate oxidative stress resulting from SO2 inhalation, supporting the idea that asthmatics are predisposed to SO2 sensitivity, leading to asthma exacerbations and airway dysfunction. PMID:25922579

  14. Changes in airway permeability and responsiveness after exposure to ozone. [Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.M.; Delehunt, J.C.; Yerger, L.; Marchette, B.; Oliver, W. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between airway responsiveness and the permeability of histamine through the airways in conscious sheep after exposure to ozone (O/sub 3/ was examined). Airway responsiveness was assessed by measuring the change from baseline in mean pulmonary flow resistance following a controlled 2-min inhalation challenge with 1% histamine, containing 200 ..mu..Ci/ml of (/sup 3/H)histamine. The rate of appearance of the (/sup 3/H)histamine in the plasma during inhalation challenge was used to estimate airway permeability. To perturb the airways, conscious sheep were exposed to either 0.5 or 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ for 2 hr via an endotracheal tube. Airway responsiveness and airway permeability were measured prior to and 1 day after exposure. In six sheep exposed to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/, increased airway responsiveness and airway permeability were obseved 1 day after exposure. Four of seven sheep exposed to 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ had enhanced airway responsiveness and airway permeability, while the remaining three sheep showed corresponding decreases in airway responsiveness and airway permeability. Since the O/sub 3/-induced directional changes in airway responsiveness paralleled the directional changes in airway permeability in both the positive and negative directions, it was concluded that changes in airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine following exposure to O/sub 3/ may be related to concomitant changes in airway permeability to this agent.

  15. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Azuma, Masahiko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Uehara, Hisanori; Aono, Yoshinori; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling. PMID:25785861

  16. Simvastatin Inhibits Goblet Cell Hyperplasia and Lung Arginase in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma: A Novel Treatment for Airway Remodeling?

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Amir A.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Rabowsky, Michelle; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Airway remodeling in asthma contributes to airway hyperreactivity, loss of lung function, and persistent symptoms. Current therapies do not adequately treat the structural airway changes associated with asthma. The statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis in the mevalonate pathway. These drugs have been associated with improved respiratory health and ongoing clinical trials are testing their therapeutic potential in asthma. We hypothesized that simvastatin treatment of ovalbumin-exposed mice would attenuate early features of airway remodeling, by a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. BALB/c mice were initially sensitized to ovalbumin, and then exposed to 1% ovalbumin aerosol for 2 weeks after sensitization for a total of six exposures. Simvastatin (40 mg/kg) or simvastatin plus mevalonate (20 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally before each ovalbumin exposure. Treatment with simvastatin attenuated goblet cell hyperplasia, arginase-1 protein expression, and total arginase enzyme activity, but did not alter airway hydroxyproline content or transforming growth factor-β1. Inhibition of goblet cell hyperplasia by simvastatin was mevalonate-dependent. No appreciable changes to airway smooth muscle cells were observed in any of the control or treatment groups. In conclusion, in an acute mouse model of allergic asthma, simvastatin inhibited early hallmarks of airway remodeling, indicators that can lead to airway thickening and fibrosis. Statins are potentially novel treatments for airway remodeling in asthma. Further studies utilizing sub-chronic or chronic allergen exposure models are needed to extend these initial findings. PMID:21078495

  17. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Postnatal exposure history and airways: oxidant stress responses in airway explants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shannon R; Schelegle, Edward S; Edwards, Patricia C; Miller, Lisa A; Hyde, Dallas M; Van Winkle, Laura S

    2012-12-01

    Postnatally, the lung continues to grow and differentiate while interacting with the environment. Exposure to ozone (O(3)) and allergens during postnatal lung development alters structural elements of conducting airways, including innervation and neurokinin abundance. These changes have been linked with development of asthma in a rhesus monkey model. We hypothesized that O(3) exposure resets the ability of the airways to respond to oxidant stress and that this is mediated by changes in the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Infant rhesus monkeys received episodic exposure to O(3) biweekly with or without house dust mite antigen (HDMA) from 6 to 12 months of age. Age-matched monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA). Microdissected airway explants from midlevel airways (intrapulmonary generations 5-8) for four to six animals in each of four groups (FA, O(3), HDMA, and HDMA+O(3)) were tested for NK-1R gene responses to acute oxidant stress using exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1.2 mM), a lipid ozonide (10 μM), or sham treatment for 4 hours in vitro. Airway responses were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NK-1R and IL-8 gene expression. Basal NK-1R gene expression levels were not different between the exposure groups. Treatment with ozonide or hydrogen peroxide did not change NK-1R gene expression in animals exposed to FA, HDMA, or HDMA+O(3). However, treatment in vitro with lipid ozonide significantly increased NK-1R gene expression in explants from O(3)-exposed animals. We conclude that a history of prior O(3) exposure resets the steady state of the airways to increase the NK-1R response to subsequent acute oxidant stresses. PMID:22962062

  19. BLUNTING AIRWAYS EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATION RESULTS IN A DECREASED AIRWAY NEUTROPHIL RESPONSE TO INHALED LPS IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS A ROLE FOR CD-14

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data demonstrate that atopic inflammation might enhance airway responses to inhaled LPS in individuals with atopic asthma by increasing CD14 expression on airway macrophages. We sought to determine whether blunting airway eosinophilic inflammation decreases CD14 expressio...

  20. Aquaporin-3 potentiates allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ikezoe, Kohei; Oga, Toru; Honda, Tetsuya; Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Ma, Xiaojun; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Uno, Kazuko; Fuchikami, Jun-ichi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Yoshio; Verkman, Alan S.; Narumiya, Shuh; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a small transmembrane water/glycerol channel that may facilitate the membrane uptake of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here we report that AQP3 potentiates ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma by mediating both chemokine production from alveolar macrophages and T cell trafficking. AQP3 deficient (AQP3−/−) mice exhibited significantly reduced airway inflammation compared to wild-type mice. Adoptive transfer experiments showed reduced airway eosinophilic inflammation in mice receiving OVA-sensitized splenocytes from AQP3−/− mice compared with wild-type mice after OVA challenge, consistently with fewer CD4+ T cells from AQP3−/− mice migrating to the lung than from wild-type mice. Additionally, in vivo and vitro experiments indicated that AQP3 induced the production of some chemokines such as CCL24 and CCL22 through regulating the amount of cellular H2O2 in M2 polarized alveolar macrophages. These results imply a critical role of AQP3 in asthma, and AQP3 may be a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27165276

  1. Aquaporin-3 potentiates allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Kohei; Oga, Toru; Honda, Tetsuya; Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Ma, Xiaojun; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Uno, Kazuko; Fuchikami, Jun-Ichi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Yoshio; Verkman, Alan S; Narumiya, Shuh; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a small transmembrane water/glycerol channel that may facilitate the membrane uptake of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here we report that AQP3 potentiates ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma by mediating both chemokine production from alveolar macrophages and T cell trafficking. AQP3 deficient (AQP3(-/-)) mice exhibited significantly reduced airway inflammation compared to wild-type mice. Adoptive transfer experiments showed reduced airway eosinophilic inflammation in mice receiving OVA-sensitized splenocytes from AQP3(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice after OVA challenge, consistently with fewer CD4(+) T cells from AQP3(-/-) mice migrating to the lung than from wild-type mice. Additionally, in vivo and vitro experiments indicated that AQP3 induced the production of some chemokines such as CCL24 and CCL22 through regulating the amount of cellular H2O2 in M2 polarized alveolar macrophages. These results imply a critical role of AQP3 in asthma, and AQP3 may be a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27165276

  2. T cell derived IL-10 is dispensable for tolerance induction in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Stefanie; Dolch, Anja; Surianarayanan, Sangeetha; Dorn, Britta; Bewersdorff, Mayte; Alessandrini, Francesca; Behrendt, Rayk; Karp, Christopher L; Muller, Werner; Martin, Stefan F; Roers, Axel; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory mechanisms initiated by allergen-specific immunotherapy are mainly attributed to T cell derived IL-10. However, it has not been shown that T cell derived IL-10 is required for successful tolerance induction (TI). Here, we analyze cellular sources and the functional relevance of cell type specific IL-10 during TI in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. While TI was effective in IL-10 competent mice, neutralizing IL-10 prior to tolerogenic treatment completely abrogated the beneficial effects. Cellular sources of IL-10 during TI were identified by using transcriptional reporter mice as T cells, B cells, and to a lesser extent DCs. Interestingly, TI was still effective in mice with T cell, B cell, B and T cell, or DC-specific IL-10 deficiency. In contrast, TI was not possible in mice lacking IL-10 in all hematopoetic cells, while it was effective in bone marrow (BM) chimera that lacked IL-10 only in nonhematopoetic cells. Taken together, allergen-specific tolerance depends on IL-10 from hematopoetic sources. The beneficial effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy cannot solely be attributed to IL-10 from T cells, B cells, or even DCs, suggesting a high degree of cellular redundancy in IL-10-mediated tolerance. PMID:27287239

  3. AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM INDUCES DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of P. chrysogenum (PCE) can dose-dependently induce responses typ...

  4. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  5. Reversible Control by Vitamin D of Granulocytes and Bacteria in the Lungs of Mice: An Ovalbumin-Induced Model of Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Shelley; Weeden, Clare E.; Tan, Daryl H. W.; Scott, Naomi M.; Hart, Julie; Foong, Rachel E.; Mok, Danny; Stephens, Nahiid; Zosky, Graeme; Hart, Prue H.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D may be essential for restricting the development and severity of allergic diseases and asthma, but a direct causal link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma has yet to be established. We have developed a ‘low dose’ model of allergic airway disease induced by intraperitoneal injection with ovalbumin (1 µg) and aluminium hydroxide (0.2 mg) in which characteristics of atopic asthma are recapitulated, including airway hyperresponsiveness, antigen-specific immunoglobulin type-E and lung inflammation. We assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency throughout life (from conception until adulthood) on the severity of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease in vitamin D-replete and -deficient BALB/c mice using this model. Vitamin D had protective effects such that deficiency significantly enhanced eosinophil and neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of male but not female mice. Vitamin D also suppressed the proliferation and T helper cell type-2 cytokine-secreting capacity of airway-draining lymph node cells from both male and female mice. Supplementation of initially vitamin D-deficient mice with vitamin D for four weeks returned serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to levels observed in initially vitamin D-replete mice, and also suppressed eosinophil and neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of male mice. Using generic 16 S rRNA primers, increased bacterial levels were detected in the lungs of initially vitamin D-deficient male mice, which were also reduced by vitamin D supplementation. These results indicate that vitamin D controls granulocyte levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in an allergen-sensitive manner, and may contribute towards the severity of asthma in a gender-specific fashion through regulation of respiratory bacteria. PMID:23826346

  6. Dynamics of airway response in lung microsections: a tool for studying airway-extra cellular matrix interactions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Afzal

    2016-01-01

    The biological configuration of extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in how mechanical interactions of the airway with its parenchymal attachments affect the dynamics of airway responses in different pulmonary disorders including asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It is now recognized that mechanical interactions between airway tissue and ECM play a key regulatory role on airway physiology and kinetics that can lead to the reorganization and remodeling of airway connective tissue. A connective tissue is composed of airway smooth muscle cells (ASM) and the ECM, which includes variety of glycoproteins and therefore the extent of interactions between ECM and ASM affects airway dynamics during exacerbations of major pulmonary disorders. Measurement of the velocity and magnitude of airway closure or opening provide important insights into the functions of the airway contractile apparatus and the interactions with its surrounding connective tissues. This review highlights suitability of lung microsection technique in studying measurements of airway dynamics (narrowing/opening) and associated structural distortions in airway compartments. PMID:27176036

  7. Mouse models to unravel the role of inhaled pollutants on allergic sensitization and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as well as exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) could promote allergic sensitization or aggravate symptoms of asthma, suggesting a role for these inhaled pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mouse models are a valuable tool to study the potential effects of these pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma, with the opportunity to investigate their impact during processes leading to sensitization, acute inflammation and chronic disease. Mice allow us to perform mechanistic studies and to evaluate the importance of specific cell types in asthma pathogenesis. In this review, the major clinical effects of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust exposure regarding to asthma development and progression are described. Clinical data are compared with findings from murine models of asthma and inhalable pollutant exposure. Moreover, the potential mechanisms by which both pollutants could aggravate asthma are discussed. PMID:20092634

  8. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  9. Therapy with resveratrol attenuates obesity-associated allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    André, Diana Majolli; Calixto, Marina Ciarallo; Sollon, Carolina; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Leiria, Luiz O; Tobar, Natalia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Antunes, Edson

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance have been associated with deterioration in asthma outcomes. High oxidative stress and deficient activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have emerged as important regulators linking insulin resistance and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on obesity-associated allergic pulmonary inflammation. Male C57/Bl6 mice fed with high-fat diet to induce obesity (obese group) or standard-chow diet (lean group) were treated or not with resveratrol (100mg/kg/day, two weeks). Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). At 48h thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was performed, and lungs collected for morphological studies and Western blot analysis. Treatment of obese mice with resveratrol significantly reduced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, as well as the body measures (body mass, fat mass, % fat, and body area). OVA-challenge promoted a higher increase in pulmonary eosinophil infiltration in obese compared with lean mice, which was nearly abrogated by resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol markedly increased the phosphorylated AMPK expression in lung tissues of obese compared with lean mice. Resveratrol reduced the p47phox expression and reactive-oxygen species (ROS) production, and elevated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in lung tissues of obese mice. The increased pulmonary levels of TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in obese mice were also normalized after resveratrol treatment. In lean mice, resveratrol failed to affect the levels of fasting glucose, p47phox, ROS levels, TNF-α, iNOS and phosphorylated AMPK. Resveratrol exhibits protective effects in obesity-associated lung inflammation that is accompanied by local AMPK activation and antioxidant property. PMID:27344038

  10. Mechanisms of airway responses to esophageal acidification in cats.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Haworth, Steven T; Medda, Bidyut K; Forster, Hubert; Shaker, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Acid in the esophagus causes airway constriction, tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and a decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport rate. This study was designed to investigate the neuropharmacological mechanisms controlling these responses. In chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 72), we investigated the effects of vagotomy or atropine (100 μg·kg(-1)·30 min(-1) iv) on airway responses to esophageal infusion of 0.1 M PBS or 0.1 N HCl at 1 ml/min. We quantified 1) diameter of the bronchi, 2) tracheobronchial mucociliary transport rate, 3) tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and 4) mucous content of the tracheal epithelium and submucosa. We found that vagotomy or atropine blocked the airway constriction response but only atropine blocked the increase in mucous output and decrease in mucociliary transport rate caused by esophageal acidification. The mucous cells of the mucosa produced more Alcian blue- than periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained mucosubstances, and the mucous cells of the submucosa produced more PAS- than Alcian blue-stained mucosubstances. Selective perfusion of the different segments of esophagus with HCl or PBS resulted in significantly greater production of PAS-stained mucus in the submucosa of the trachea adjacent to the HCl-perfused esophagus than in that adjacent to the PBS-perfused esophagus. In conclusion, airway constriction caused by esophageal acidification is mediated by a vagal cholinergic pathway, and the tracheobronchial transport response is mediated by cholinergic receptors. Acid perfusion of the esophagus selectively increases production of neutral mucosubstances of the apocrine glands by a local mechanism. We hypothesize that the airway responses to esophageal acid exposure are part of the innate, rather than acute emergency, airway defense system. PMID:26846551

  11. Intranasal administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides reduces lower airway inflammation in a murine model of combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Tian-Tuo; Chen, Zhuang-Gui; Ye, Jin; Liu, Hui; Zou, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Yan-Hong; Yang, Hai-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Given the relationship between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma, it can be hypothesized that reducing upper airway inflammation by targeting oligodeoxynucleotides with CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) specifically to the upper airway via intranasal administration in a small volume (10 μL) might improve lower airway (asthma) outcomes. The goal of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of 10 μL of intranasal versus intradermal administration of CpG-ODN in suppressing lower airway inflammation and methacholine-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in mice subjected to ovalbumin (OVA)-induced combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS). OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice were subjected to upper-airway intranasal OVA exposure three times per week for 3 weeks. Then, CpG-ODN was administered to a subset of these mice 1h after intranasal OVA exposure, followed by five days of OVA aerosol challenges, thereby targeting OVA to the lower airways. Immunologic variables and nasal symptoms were evaluated. The results showed that the CARAS mice exhibited significant increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and splenocytes Th2-associated cytokine production, OVA-specific serum IgE, and AHR, as well as nose and lung pathologies. Intranasal administration of CpG-ODN significantly reduced Th2-associated cytokine production, the percentage of eosinophils in the BALF, the IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations in the supernatants of cultured OVA-challenged splenic lymphocytes, the serum OVA-specific IgE levels, the peribronchial inflammation score in the lungs, and the severity of nose pathology and nasal symptoms. However, intradermal administration of CpG-ODN did not significantly reduce the aforementioned parameters. In conclusion, intranasal treatment with CpG-ODN attenuated AR and significantly alleviated lower airway inflammation and AHR in the CARAS model. CpG-ODN therapy was more effective when administered intranasally than when administered intradermally. The current

  12. METALS, PARTICLES AND IMPACT UPON PULMONARY ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The increase in allergic asthma over the past few decades has prompted investigations into whether air pollution may affect either the incidence or severity of allergic lung disease. Population studies have demonstrated that as air pollution rises, symptoms, medication use a...

  13. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  14. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure attenuates airway immune inflammatory responses to surrogate and common environmental allergens in mice, despite evidence of increased systemic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Clinton S; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Fattouh, Ramzi; Dawe, David E; Vujicic, Neda; Richards, Carl D; Jordana, Manel; Inman, Mark D; Stampfli, Martin R

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of mainstream cigarette smoke exposure (MTS) on allergic sensitization and the development of allergic inflammatory processes. Using two different experimental murine models of allergic airways inflammation, we present evidence that MTS increased cytokine production by splenocytes in response to OVA and ragweed challenge. Paradoxically, MTS exposure resulted in an overall attenuation of the immune inflammatory response, including a dramatic reduction in the number of eosinophils and activated (CD69+) and Th2-associated (T1ST2+) CD4 T lymphocytes in the lung. Although MTS did not impact circulating levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, we observed a striking reduction in OVA-specific IgG2a production and significantly diminished airway hyperresponsiveness. MTS, therefore, plays a disparate role in the development of allergic responses, inducing a heightened state of allergen-specific sensitization, but dampening local immune inflammatory processes in the lung. PMID:16116169

  15. The effect of phytocannabinoids on airway hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation, and cough.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Raj; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis has been demonstrated to have bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory, and antitussive activity in the airways, but information on the active cannabinoids, their receptors, and the mechanisms for these effects is limited. We compared the effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiolic acid, and tetrahydrocannabivarin on contractions of the guinea pig-isolated trachea and bronchoconstriction induced by nerve stimulation or methacholine in anesthetized guinea pigs following exposure to saline or the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). CP55940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol), a synthetic cannabinoid agonist, was also investigated in vitro. The cannabinoids were also evaluated on TNF-α- and lipopolysaccharide-induced leukocyte infiltration into the lungs and citric acid-induced cough responses in guinea pigs. TNF-α, but not saline, augmented tracheal contractility and bronchoconstriction induced by nerve stimulation, but not methacholine. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and CP55940 reduced TNF-α-enhanced nerve-evoked contractions in vitro to the magnitude of saline-incubated trachea. This effect was antagonized by the cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) and CB(2) receptor antagonists AM251 [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-caroxamide] and JTE907 [N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-1,2-dihydro-7-methoxy-2-oxo-8-(pentyloxy)-3-quinolinecarboxamide], respectively. Tetrahydrocannabivarin partially inhibited the TNF-α-enhanced nerve-evoked contractions, whereas the other cannabinoids were without effect. The effect of cannabidiol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol together did not differ from that of the latter alone. Only Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibited TNF-α-enhanced vagal-induced bronchoconstriction, neutrophil recruitment to the airways, and citric acid-induced cough responses. TNF-α potentiated contractions

  16. Airway inflammation, airway responsiveness and cough before and after inhaled budesonide in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Brightling, C E; Ward, R; Wardlaw, A J; Pavord, I D

    2000-04-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, characterized by sputum eosinophilia similar to that seen in asthma, but unlike asthma the patients have no objective evidence of variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. The reason for the different functional associations is unclear. The authors have tested the hypothesis that in eosinophilic bronchitis the inflammation is mainly localized in the upper airway. In an open study the authors measured the lower (provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20)) and upper (PC25 MIF50) airway responsiveness to histamine, lower and upper airway inflammation using induced sputum and nasal lavage, in II patients with eosinophilic bronchitis. The authors assessed changes in these measures and in cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin and cough severity after 400 microg of inhaled budesonide for 4 weeks. A nasal eosinophilia was present in only three patients with one having upper airway hyperresponsiveness. Following treatment with inhaled corticosteroids the geometric mean sputum eosinophil count decreased from 12.8% to 2.9% (mean difference 4.4-fold, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-10.02), the mean +/- sem cough visual analogue score on a 100 mm scale decreased from 27.2 +/- 6.6 mm to 12.6 +/- 5.7 mm (mean difference 14.6, 95% CI 9.1-20.1) and the cough sensitivity assessed as the capsaicin concentration required to cause two coughs (C2) and five coughs (C5) improved (C2 mean difference 0.75 doubling concentrations, 95% CI 0.36-1.1; C5 mean difference 1.3 doubling concentration, 95% CI 0.6-2.1). There was a significant positive correlation between the fold change in sputum eosinophil count and doubling dose change in C5 after inhaled budesonide (r=0.61). It is concluded that upper airway inflammation is not prominent in eosinophilic bronchitis and that inhaled budesonide improves the sputum eosinophilia, cough severity and sensitivity suggesting a

  17. Allergen challenge induces Ifng dependent GTPases in the lungs as part of a Th1 transcriptome response in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Dharajiya, Nilesh; Vaidya, Swapnil; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2009-01-01

    According to the current paradigm, allergic airway inflammation is mediated by Th2 cytokines and pro-inflammatory chemokines. Since allergic inflammation is self-limited, we hypothesized that allergen challenge simultaneously induces anti-inflammatory genes to counter-balance the effects of Th2 cytokines and chemokines. To identify these putative anti-inflammatory genes, we compared the gene expression profile in the lungs of ragweed-sensitized mice four hours after challenge with either PBS or ragweed extract (RWE) using a micro-array platform. Consistent with our hypothesis, RWE challenge concurrently upregulated Th1-associated early target genes of the Il12/Stat4 pathway, such as p47 and p65 GTPases (Iigp, Tgtp and Gbp1), Socs1, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Gadd45g with the Th2 genes Il4, Il5, Ccl2 and Ccl7. These Th1-associated genes remain upregulated longer than the Th2 genes. Augmentation of the local Th1 milieu by administration of Il12 or CpG prior to RWE challenge further upregulated these Th1 genes. Abolition of the Th1 response by disrupting the Ifng gene increased allergic airway inflammation and abrogated RWE challenge-induced upregulation of GTPases, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Socs1, but not Gadd45g. Our data demonstrate that allergen challenge induces two sets of Th1-associated genes in the lungs: 1) Ifng-dependent genes such as p47 and p65 GTPases, Socs1, Cxcl9 and Cxcl10 and 2) Ifng-independent Th1-inducing genes like Gadd45g. We propose that allergen-induced airway inflammation is regulated by simultaneous upregulation of Th1 and Th2 genes, and that persistent unopposed upregulation of Th1 genes resolves allergic inflammation. PMID:20027288

  18. Protective Effects of the Polyphenol Sesamin on Allergen-Induced TH2 Responses and Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Huei; Shen, Mei-Lin; Zhou, Ning; Lee, Chen-Chen; Kao, Shung-Te; Wu, Dong Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a lifelong airway condition that affects people of all ages. In recent decades, asthma prevalence continues to increase globally, with an estimated number of 250,000 annual deaths attributed to the disease. Although inhaled corticosteroids and β-adrenergic receptor agonists are the primary therapeutic avenues that effectively reduce asthma symptoms, profound side effects may occur in patients with long-term treatments. Therefore, development of new therapeutic strategies is needed as alternative or supplement to current asthma treatments. Sesamin is a natural polyphenolic compound with strong anti-oxidative effects. Several studies have reported that sesamin is effective in preventing hypertension, thrombotic tendency, and neuroinflammation. However, it is still unknown whether sesamin can reduce asthma-induced allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Our study has revealed that sesamin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. We found that treatments with sesamin after OVA sensitization and challenge significantly decreased expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and serum IgE. The numbers of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in BALF were also reduced in the sesamin-treated animals. Histological results demonstrated that sesamin attenuated OVA-induced eosinophil infiltration, airway goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus occlusion, and MUC5AC expression in the lung tissue. Mice administered with sesamin showed limited increases in AHR compared with mice receiving vehicle after OVA challenge. OVA increased phosphorylation levels of IκB-α and nuclear expression levels of NF-κB, both of which were reversed by sesamin treatments. These data indicate that sesamin is effective in treating allergic asthma responses induced by OVA in mice. PMID:24755955

  19. Secondary allergic T cell responses are regulated by dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in the setting of allergic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Reyes, N J; Khandelwal, P; Schlereth, S L; Lee, H S; Masli, S; Saban, D R

    2016-08-01

    Allergic eye disease, as in most forms of atopy, ranges in severity among individuals from immediate hypersensitivity to a severe and debilitating chronic disease. Dendritic cells play a key role in stimulating pathogenic T cells in allergen re-exposure, or secondary responses. However, molecular cues by dendritic cells underpinning allergic T cell response levels and the impact that this control has on consequent severity of allergic disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that a deficiency in thrombospondin-1, a matricellular protein known to affect immune function, has subsequent effects on downstream T cell responses during allergy, as revealed in an established mouse model of allergic eye disease. More specifically, we demonstrate that a thrombospondin-1 deficiency specific to dendritic cells leads to heightened secondary T cell responses and consequent clinical disease. Interestingly, whereas thrombospondin-1-deficient dendritic cells augmented activity of allergen-primed T cells, this increase was not recapitulated with naïve T cells in vitro. The role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in regulating secondary allergic T cell responses was confirmed in vivo, as local transfer of thrombospondin-1-sufficient dendritic cells to the ocular mucosa of thrombospondin-1 null hosts prevented the development of augmented secondary T cell responses and heightened allergic eye disease clinical responses. Finally, we demonstrate that topical instillation of thrombospondin-1-derived peptide reduces T cell activity and clinical progression of allergic eye disease. Taken together, this study reveals an important modulatory role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 on secondary allergic T cell responses and suggests the possible dysregulation of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 expression as a factor in allergic eye disease severity. PMID:26856994

  20. Airway purinergic responses in healthy, atopic nonasthmatic, and atopic asthmatic subjects exposed to ozone**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Ozone exposure triggers airway inflammatory responses that maybe influenced bybiologically active purine metabolites. Objective:To examinethe relationships between airway purine metabolites and established inflammatory markers of ozone exposure, and to determine if thes...

  1. Systemic Administration of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Extracellular Vesicles Ameliorates Aspergillus Hyphal Extract-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in Immunocompetent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Fernanda F.; Borg, Zachary D.; Goodwin, Meagan; Sokocevic, Dino; Wagner, Darcy E.; Coffey, Amy; Antunes, Mariana; Robinson, Kristen L.; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Kourembanas, Stella; Thane, Kristen; Hoffman, Andrew M.; McKenna, David H.; Rocco, Patricia R.M.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies demonstrate that administration of either conditioned media (CM) or extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and other sources are as effective as the MSCs themselves in mitigating inflammation and injury. The goal of the current study was to determine whether xenogeneic administration of CM or EVs from human bone marrow-derived MSCs would be effective in a model of mixed Th2/Th17, neutrophilic-mediated allergic airway inflammation, reflective of severe refractory asthma, induced by repeated mucosal exposure to Aspergillus hyphal extract (AHE) in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 mice. Systemic administration of both CM and EVs isolated from human and murine MSCs, but not human lung fibroblasts, at the onset of antigen challenge in previously sensitized mice significantly ameliorated the AHE-provoked increases in airway hyperreactivity (AHR), lung inflammation, and the antigen-specific CD4 T-cell Th2 and Th17 phenotype. Notably, both CM and EVs from human MSCs (hMSCs) were generally more potent than those from mouse MSCs (mMSCs) in most of the outcome measures. The weak cross-linking agent 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride was found to inhibit release of both soluble mediators and EVs, fully negating effects of systemically administered hMSCs but only partly inhibited the ameliorating effects of mMSCs. These results demonstrate potent xenogeneic effects of CM and EVs from hMSCs in an immunocompetent mouse model of allergic airway inflammation and they also show differences in mechanisms of action of hMSCs versus mMSCs to mitigate AHR and lung inflammation in this model. Significance There is a growing experience demonstrating benefit of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based cell therapies in preclinical models of asthma. In the current study, conditioned media (CM) and, in particular, the extracellular vesicle fraction obtained from the CM were as potent as the

  2. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model.

    PubMed

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2weeks. 48h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. PMID:27343405

  3. Thy1+IL-7+ lymphatic endothelial cells in iBALT provide a survival niche for memory T-helper cells in allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Kenta; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Iinuma, Tomohisa; Ichikawa, Tomomi; Suzuki, Akane S.; Sugaya, Kaoru; Tumes, Damon J.; Yamamoto, Heizaburo; Hara, Takahiro; Tani-ichi, Shizue; Ikuta, Koichi; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Memory CD4+ T helper (Th) cells are central to long-term protection against pathogens, but they can also be pathogenic and drive chronic inflammatory disorders. How these pathogenic memory Th cells are maintained, particularly at sites of local inflammation, remains unclear. We found that ectopic lymphoid-like structures called inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) are formed during chronic allergic inflammation in the lung, and that memory-type pathogenic Th2 (Tpath2) cells capable of driving allergic inflammation are maintained within the iBALT structures. The maintenance of memory Th2 cells within iBALT is supported by Thy1+IL-7–producing lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). The Thy1+IL-7–producing LECs express IL-33 and T-cell–attracting chemokines CCL21 and CCL19. Moreover, ectopic lymphoid structures consisting of memory CD4+ T cells and IL-7+IL-33+ LECs were found in nasal polyps of patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Thus, Thy1+IL-7–producing LECs control chronic allergic airway inflammation by providing a survival niche for memory-type Tpath2 cells. PMID:27140620

  4. Immune response phenotype of allergic versus clinically tolerant pigs in a neonatal swine model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah; Wilkie, Bruce

    2013-07-15

    The prevalence of childhood food allergy and the duration of these allergies, particularly those considered to be transient, like egg and milk allergy, are increasing. The identification of allergic individuals using minimally invasive, non-anaphylaxis-threatening methods is therefore of increasing importance. In this experiment, correlates were sought of an allergic immune response (IR) phenotype in pigs. Using pigs pre-treated with heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components before allergic sensitization with the egg white protein ovomucoid (Ovm), differences were determined in IR phenotype of pigs in the categories treated-allergic, treated-tolerant, control-allergic (CA) and control-tolerant. Phenotype was established by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)-associated antibody activity (AbA), cytokine profiles and the proportion of blood T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and observing late-phase allergen-specific skin tests (ST). Although 100% of pigs became sensitized to Ovm, only 33% of pigs had clinical signs of allergy after oral challenge with egg white. Pigs without clinical signs were classified as clinically tolerant. Sixty-seven percent of allergic pigs had a positive, late-phase ST classified as very strong or strong, while 84% of clinically tolerant pigs did not have late-phase ST. Treated-allergic pigs and CA pigs had greater total antibody IgG (H+L), IgE and IgG1 AbA than clinically tolerant pigs. Cytokine profiles of allergic pigs and the proportion of circulating T-regs, did not differ significantly between allergic and clinically tolerant pigs. Therefore, measurement of allergen-specific IgG, IgG1 and/or IgE activity and evaluation of late-phase ID ST may be useful in identifying allergic IR phenotypes in swine models of food allergy, which may be extended toward human use. PMID:23664639

  5. Exposure to Triclosan Augments the Allergic Response to Ovalbumin in a Mouse Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Kashon, Michael L.; Anderson, Katie L.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan ranging from 0.75 to 3% (0.375–1.5 mg/mouse/day) for 28 consecutive days. Concordantly, mice were ip injected with OVA (0.9 μg) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5 mg) on days 1 and 10 and challenged with OVA (125 μg) by pharyngeal aspiration on days 19 and 27. Compared with the animals exposed to OVA alone, increased spleen weights, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-13 cytokine levels, and numbers of lung eosinophils were demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and triclosan. Statistically significant increases in OVA-specific and nonspecific airway hyperreactivity were observed for all triclosan coexposed groups compared with the vehicle and OVA controls. In these studies, exposure to triclosan alone was not demonstrated to be allergenic; however, coexposure with a known allergen resulted in enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to that allergen, suggesting that triclosan exposure may augment the allergic responses to other environmental allergens. PMID:23192912

  6. Exposure to triclosan augments the allergic response to ovalbumin in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Kashon, Michael L; Anderson, Katie L; Hubbs, Ann F; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-03-01

    During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan ranging from 0.75 to 3% (0.375-1.5mg/mouse/day) for 28 consecutive days. Concordantly, mice were ip injected with OVA (0.9 µg) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5mg) on days 1 and 10 and challenged with OVA (125 µg) by pharyngeal aspiration on days 19 and 27. Compared with the animals exposed to OVA alone, increased spleen weights, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-13 cytokine levels, and numbers of lung eosinophils were demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and triclosan. Statistically significant increases in OVA-specific and nonspecific airway hyperreactivity were observed for all triclosan coexposed groups compared with the vehicle and OVA controls. In these studies, exposure to triclosan alone was not demonstrated to be allergenic; however, coexposure with a known allergen resulted in enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to that allergen, suggesting that triclosan exposure may augment the allergic responses to other environmental allergens. PMID:23192912

  7. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

  8. Heightened airway responsiveness in normal female children compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Tepper, R S; Stevens, J; Eigen, H

    1994-03-01

    Studies have suggested that airway responsiveness declines with maturation; however, studies comparing infants, children, and adults are confounded by differences in size as well as maturation. Therefore, to determine whether maturation has a significant affect on airway responsiveness, we compared normal female children (n = 9; mean age = 13.6 yr) and adults (n = 7; mean age = 42.4 yr) who were matched for body size. Bronchial challenge tests were performed with increasing methacholine concentrations to a maximum of 30 mg/ml. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the two groups in lung volumes (TGV, RV, TLC) or flow-volume curves (FEV1, average forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the vital capacity [FEF25-75], FVC). All subjects but one adolescent completed the challenge (30 mg/ml). The children had a greater percentage decline from baseline in FEV1 than the adults (17 versus 7%, p < 0.03). The percentage decline in FEF25-75 was greater for the children than for the adults, but the difference was not statistically significant (35 versus 20%, p < 0.10). Compared with the children, the adults more often demonstrated a plateau in their dose-response curves for FEV1 (22 versus 86%) and for FEF25-75 (33 versus 100%). We conclude that normal female children have a greater airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine than do adults, and that this difference is not related to baseline lung size, airway caliber, or delivered methacholine dose. PMID:8118636

  9. Airway reflexes, autonomic function, and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed Central

    Widdicombe, J; Lee, L Y

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we review the cardiovascular responses to the inhalation of irritants and pollutants. Many sensory receptors in the respiratory system, from nose to alveoli, respond to these irritants and set up powerful reflex changes, including those in the cardiovascular system. Systemic hypotension or hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, and dysrhythmias have all been described previously. Most of the experiments have been acute and have been performed on anesthetized experimental animals. Experiments on humans suggest we have similar sensory systems and reflex responses. However, we must use caution when applying the animal results to humans. Most animal experiments, unlike those with humans, have been performed using general anesthesia, with irritants administered in high concentrations, and often to a restricted part of the respiratory tract. Species differences in the response to irritants are well established. We must be even more careful when applying the results of acute experiments in animals to the pathophysiologic changes observed in prolonged exposure to environmental pollution in humans. PMID:11544167

  10. Airborne pollutant ROFA enhances the allergic airway inflammation through direct modulation of dendritic cells in an uptake-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arantes-Costa, Fernanda Magalhaes; Grund, Lidiane Zito; Martins, Milton Arruda; Lima, Carla

    2014-09-01

    Studies suggest that airborne pollutants are important cofactors in the exacerbation of lung diseases. The role of DC on the exacerbation of lung inflammation induced by particulate matter pollutants is unclear. We evaluated the effects of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) on the phenotype and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro and lung dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, and the subsequent T-cell response. In a model of asthma, exposure to ROFA exacerbated pulmonary inflammation, which was attributed to the increase of eosinophils, IL-5- and IFN-γ-producing T cells, and goblet cells as well as decreased number of Treg and pDC. However, the ROFA showed no ability to modulate the production of anaphylactic IgE. In vitro studies showed that ROFA directly induced the maturation of DCs up-regulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines and MMP production in an uptake-dependent and oxidative stress-dependent manner. Furthermore, ROFA-pulsed BMDC transferred to allergic mice exacerbated eosinophilic inflammation as well as promoted increased epithelial and goblet cells changes. Thus, pollutants may constitute an important and risk factor in the exacerbation of asthma with inhibition of the negative regulatory signals in the lung, with enhanced mDC activation that sustains the recruitment of effector T lymphocytes and eosinophil. PMID:24975839

  11. Early interleukin 4-dependent response can induce airway hyperreactivity before development of airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    To, Y; Dohi, M; Tanaka, R; Sato, A; Nakagome, K; Yamamoto, K

    2001-10-01

    In experimental models of bronchial asthma with mice, airway inflammation and increase in airway hyperreactivity (AHR) are induced by a combination of systemic sensitization and airway challenge with allergens. In this report, we present another possibility: that systemic antigen-specific sensitization alone can induce AHR before the development of inflammation in the airway. Male BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) by a combination of intraperitoneal injection and aerosol inhalation, and various parameters for airway inflammation and hyperreactivity were sequentially analyzed. Bronchial response measured by a noninvasive method (enhanced pause) and the eosinophil count and interleukin (IL)-5 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) gradually increased following the sensitization, and significant increase was achieved after repeated OVA aerosol inhalation along with development of histologic changes of the airway. In contrast, AHR was already significantly increased by systemic sensitization alone, although airway inflammation hardly developed at that time point. BALF IL-4 concentration and the expression of IL-4 mRNA in the lung reached maximal values after the systemic sensitization, then subsequently decreased. Treatment of mice with anti-IL-4 neutralizing antibody during systemic sensitization significantly suppressed this early increase in AHR. In addition, IL-4 gene-targeted mice did not reveal this early increase in AHR by systemic sensitization. These results suggest that an immune response in the lung in an early stage of sensitization can induce airway hyperreactivity before development of an eosinophilic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice and that IL-4 plays an essential role in this process. If this early increase in AHR does occur in sensitized human infants, it could be another therapeutic target for early prevention of the future onset of asthma. PMID:11598151

  12. Dendritic cells induce Th2-mediated airway inflammatory responses to house dust mite via DNA-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Amarjit; Brown, Alexandra L.; Yao, Xianglan; Yang, Shutong; Park, Sung-Jun; Liu, Chengyu; Dagur, Pradeep K.; McCoy, J. Philip; Keeran, Karen J.; Nugent, Gayle Z.; Jeffries, Kenneth R.; Qu, Xuan; Yu, Zu-Xi; Levine, Stewart J.; Chung, Jay H.

    2015-01-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) mediates double stranded DNA break repair, V(D)J recombination, and immunoglobulin class switch recombination, as well as innate immune and pro-inflammatory responses. However, there is limited information regarding the role of DNA-PK in adaptive immunity mediated by dendritic cells (DCs), which are the primary antigen-presenting cells in allergic asthma. Here we show that house dust mite induces DNA-PK phosphorylation, which is a marker of DNA-PK activation, in DCs via the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. We also demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PK, as well as the specific deletion of DNA-PK in DCs, attenuates the induction of allergic sensitization and Th2 immunity via a mechanism that involves the impaired presentation of mite antigens. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PK following antigen priming similarly reduces the manifestations of mite-induced airway disease. Collectively, these findings suggest that DNA-PK may be a potential target for treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:25692509

  13. Allergic inflammatory response to short ragweed allergenic extract in HLA-DQ transgenic mice lacking CD4 gene.

    PubMed

    Chapoval, Svetlana P; Iijima, Koji; Marietta, Eric V; Smart, Michele K; Chapoval, Andrei I; Andrews, Amy G; David, Chella S

    2002-01-15

    To investigate the role of HLA-DQ molecules and/or CD4(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, we generated HLA-DQ6 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice lacking endogenous class II (Abeta(null)) and CD4 genes and challenged them intranasally with short ragweed allergenic extract (SRW). We found that DQ6/CD4(null) mice developed a strong eosinophilic infiltration into the bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue, while DQ8/CD4(null) mice were normal. However, neither cytokines nor eosinophil peroxidase in the bronchoalveolar lavage of DQ6/CD4(null) mice was found. In addition, the airway reactivity to methacholine was elevated moderately in DQ6/CD4(null) mice compared with the high response in DQ/CD4(+) counterparts and was only partially augmented by CD4(+) T cell transfer. The DQ6/CD4(null) mice showed Th1/Th2-type cytokines and SRW-specific Abs in the immune sera in contrast to a direct Th2 response observed in DQ6/CD4(+) mice. The proliferative response of spleen mononuclear cells and peribronchial lymph node cells demonstrated that the response to SRW in DQ6/CD4(null) mice was mediated by HLA-DQ-restricted CD4(-)CD8(-)NK1.1(-) T cells. FACS analysis of PBMC and spleen mononuclear cells demonstrated an expansion of double-negative (DN) CD4(-)CD8(-)TCRalphabeta(+) T cells in SRW-treated DQ6/CD4(null) mice. These cells produced IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-gamma when stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3. IL-5 ELISPOT assay revealed that DN T cells were the cellular origin of IL-5 in allergen-challenged DQ6/CD4(null) mice. Our study shows a role for HLA-DQ-restricted CD4(+) and DN T cells in the allergic response. PMID:11777987

  14. Effects of cessation of terbutaline treatment on airway obstruction and responsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, J. W.; Koëter, G. H.; van der Mark, T. W.; Postma, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cessation of regular therapy with inhaled beta 2 agonists in patients with asthma may lead to a temporary deterioration of lung function and airway responsiveness. Few such studies have been reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), so an investigation was carried out to determine whether rebound airway responsiveness and rebound bronchoconstriction also occurs in COPD and if there is any relationship with the dose of beta 2 agonist being used. METHODS: Lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF)), airway responsiveness (PC20 methacholine (PC20)) and symptoms were assessed in a double blind, placebo controlled crossover study during and after cessation of two weeks regular treatment with placebo, and low dose (250 micrograms) and high dose (1000 micrograms) inhaled terbutaline via a dry powder inhaler (Turbohaler) all given three times a day. Sixteen non-allergic patients with COPD of mean (SD) age 58.7 (6.5) years, FEV1 57.1 (12.8)% of predicted, and reversibility on 1000 micrograms terbutaline of 4.5 (3.5)% predicted were studied. PC20 and FEV1 were measured 10, 14, 34 and 82 hours after the last inhalation of terbutaline or placebo. Measurements performed at 10, 14, and 34 hours were expressed relative to 82 hour values in each period, transformed into an area under the curve (AUC) value and analysed by ANOVA. RESULTS: Mean morning and evening PEF increased during terbutaline treatment. PC20 and FEV1 did not change after cessation of terbutaline treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cessation of regular treatment with both low and high dose inhaled terbutaline does not result in a rebound bronchoconstriction and rebound airway responsiveness in patients with COPD. PMID:8882073

  15. Astragalin inhibits airway eotaxin-1 induction and epithelial apoptosis through modulating oxidative stress-responsive MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Eotaxin proteins are a potential therapeutic target in treating the peribronchial eosinophilia associated with allergic airway diseases. Since inflammation is often associated with an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress is a mechanistically imperative factor in asthma. Astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) is a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory activity and newly found in persimmon leaves and green tea seeds. This study elucidated that astragalin inhibited endotoxin-induced oxidative stress leading to eosinophilia and epithelial apoptosis in airways. Methods Airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence and presence of 1–20 μM astragalin. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses were conducted to determine induction of target proteins. Cell and nuclear staining was also performed for ROS production and epithelial apoptosis. Results When airway epithelial cells were exposed to 2 μg/ml LPS, astragalin nontoxic at ≤20 μM suppressed cellular induction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and ROS production enhanced by LPS. Both LPS and H2O2 induced epithelial eotaxin-1 expression, which was blocked by astragalin. LPS activated and induced PLCγ1, PKCβ2, and NADPH oxidase subunits of p22phox and p47phox in epithelial cells and such activation and induction were demoted by astragalin or TLR4 inhibition antagonizing eotaxin-1 induction. H2O2-upregulated phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK was dampened by adding astragalin to epithelial cells, while this compound enhanced epithelial activation of Akt and ERK. H2O2 and LPS promoted epithelial apoptosis concomitant with nuclear condensation or caspase-3 activation, which was blunted by astragalin. Conclusions Astragalin ameliorated oxidative stress-associated epithelial eosinophilia and apoptosis through disturbing TLR4-PKCβ2-NADPH oxidase-responsive signaling. Therefore, astragalin may be a potent agent antagonizing endotoxin

  16. Pneumocystis Elicits a STAT6-Dependent, Strain-Specific Innate Immune Response and Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Nicole N.; Siemsen, Dan W.; McInnerney, Kate; Harmsen, Allen G.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that exposure to pathogens such as fungi can be an agent of comorbidity, such as exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although many studies have examined allergic responses to fungi and their effects on pulmonary function, the possible pathologic implications of the early innate responses to fungal pathogens have not been explored. We examined early responses to the atypical fungus Pneumocystis in two common strains of mice in terms of overall immunological response and related pathology, such as cell damage and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We found a strong strain-specific response in BALB/c mice that included recruitment of neutrophils, NK, NKT, and CD4 T cells. This response was accompanied by elevated indicators of lung damage (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid albumin and LDH) and profound AHR. This early response was absent in C57BL/6 mice, although both strains exhibited a later response associated with the clearance of Pneumocystis. We found that this AHR could not be attributed exclusively to the presence of recruited neutrophils, NKT, NK, or CD4 cells or to the actions of IFN-γ or IL-4. However, in the absence of STAT6 signaling, AHR and inflammatory cell recruitment were virtually absent. Gene expression analysis indicated that this early response included activation of several transcription factors that could be involved in pulmonary remodeling. These results show that exposure to a fungus such as Pneumocystis can elicit pulmonary responses that may contribute to morbidity, even without prior sensitization, in the context of certain genetic backgrounds. PMID:21960549

  17. Airway epithelial cells initiate the allergen response through transglutaminase 2 by inducing IL-33 expression and a subsequent Th2 response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a post-translational protein-modifying enzyme that catalyzes the transamidation reaction, producing crosslinked or polyaminated proteins. Increased TG2 expression and activity have been reported in various inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation-associated pulmonary fibrosis, and autoimmune encephalitis. In particular, TG2 from epithelial cells is important during the initial inflammatory response in the lung. In this study, we evaluated the role of TG2 in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, particularly whether TG2 affects initial activation signaling leading to Th2 differentiation against antigens. Methods We induced allergic asthma by ovalbumin sensitization and intranasal challenge in wild-type (WT) BALB/c and TG2-deficient mice. Broncheoalveolar lavage fluid cells and intracellular cytokine production were analyzed by flow cytometry. Interleukin (IL)-33 and TG2 expression in lung epithelial cells was detected by confocal microscopy. Results Airway responsiveness was attenuated in TG2-deficient mice compared to that in the WT control. In addition, recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 and Th17 differentiation decreased in TG2-deficient mice. Treatment with cysteamine, a transglutaminase inhibitor, also reduced airway hypersensitivity, inflammatory cell recruitment, and T helper cell differentiation. TG2-deficient mice showed reduced IL-33 expression following induction of allergic asthma compared to those in the WT control. Conclusions We found that pulmonary epithelial cells damaged by allergens triggered TG2-mediated IL-33 expression leading to type 2 responses by recruiting both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. PMID:23496815

  18. Nasal airway responses to nasal continuous positive airway pressure breathing: An in-vivo pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Bartley, Jim; Shakeel, Muhammad; Nates, Roy J; Hankin, Robin K S

    2016-06-14

    The nasal cycle, through variation in nasal airflow partitioning, allows the upper airway to accommodate the contrasting demands of air conditioning and removal of entrapped air contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) breathing has on both nasal airflow partitioning and nasal geometry. Using a custom-made nasal mask, twenty healthy participants had the airflow in each naris measured during normal nasal breathing followed by nCPAP breathing. Eight participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasal region during spontaneous nasal breathing, and then nCPAP breathing over a range of air pressures. During nCPAP breathing, a simultaneous reduction in airflow through the patent airway together with a corresponding increase in airway flow within the congested nasal airway were observed in sixteen of the twenty participants. Nasal airflow resistance is inversely proportional to airway cross-sectional area. MRI data analysis during nCPAP breathing confirmed airway cross-sectional area reduced along the patent airway while the congested airway experienced an increase in this parameter. During awake breathing, nCPAP disturbs the normal inter-nasal airflow partitioning. This could partially explain the adverse nasal drying symptoms frequently reported by many users of this therapy. PMID:27173595

  19. Exposure to cigarette smoke impacts myeloid-derived regulatory cell function and exacerbates airway hyper-responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Jin, Tong Huan; Farhana, Aisha; Freeman, Jason; Estell, Kim; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw; Gaggar, Amit; Thannickal, Victor J; Schwiebert, Lisa M; Steyn, Adrie JC; Deshane, Jessy S

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking enhances oxidative stress and airway inflammation in asthma, the mechanisms of which are largely unknown. Myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) are free radical producing immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory properties which have recently been demonstrated as critical regulators of allergic airway inflammation. NO (nitric oxide)-producing immunosuppressive MDRC suppress T cell proliferation and airway-hyper responsiveness (AHR), while the O2•− (superoxide)-producing MDRC are proinflammatory. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may impact MDRC function and contribute to exacerbations in asthma. Exposure of bone marrow (BM) derived NO-producing MDRC to CS reduced the production of NO and its metabolites and inhibited their potential to suppress T cell proliferation. Production of immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly inhibited, while proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-33 were enhanced in CS exposed BMMDRC. Additionally, CS exposure increased NF-κB activation and induced BM-MDRC-mediated production of O2•−, via NF-κB dependent pathway. Intratracheal transfer of smoke exposed MDRC producing proinflammatory cytokines increased NF-κB activation, reactive oxygen species and mucin production in vivo and exacerbated AHR in C57BL/6 mice, mice deficient in Type I IFNR and MyD88, both with reduced numbers of endogenous MDRC. Thus, CS exposure modulates MDRC function and contributes to asthma exacerbation and identifies MDRC as potential targets for asthma therapy. PMID:25365203

  20. Exposure to cigarette smoke impacts myeloid-derived regulatory cell function and exacerbates airway hyper-responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Jin, Tong Huan; Farhana, Aisha; Freeman, Jason; Estell, Kim; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W; Gaggar, Amit; Thannickal, Victor J; Schwiebert, Lisa M; Steyn, Adrie J C; Deshane, Jessy S

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking enhances oxidative stress and airway inflammation in asthma, the mechanisms of which are largely unknown. Myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) are free radical producing immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory properties that have recently been demonstrated as critical regulators of allergic airway inflammation. NO (nitric oxide)-producing immunosuppressive MDRC suppress T-cell proliferation and airway-hyper responsiveness (AHR), while the O2(•-) (superoxide)-producing MDRC are proinflammatory. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may impact MDRC function and contribute to exacerbations in asthma. Exposure of bone marrow (BM)-derived NO-producing MDRC to CS reduced the production of NO and its metabolites and inhibited their potential to suppress T-cell proliferation. Production of immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly inhibited, while proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-33 were enhanced in CS-exposed BM-MDRC. Additionally, CS exposure increased NF-κB activation and induced BM-MDRC-mediated production of O2(•-), via NF-κB-dependent pathway. Intratracheal transfer of smoke-exposed MDRC-producing proinflammatory cytokines increased NF-κB activation, reactive oxygen species and mucin production in vivo and exacerbated AHR in C57BL/6 mice, mice deficient in Type I IFNR and MyD88, both with reduced numbers of endogenous MDRC. Thus CS exposure modulates MDRC function and contributes to asthma exacerbation and identifies MDRC as potential targets for asthma therapy. PMID:25365203

  1. Resolvin D1 and Resolvin E1 Promote the Resolution of Allergic Airway Inflammation via Shared and Distinct Molecular Counter-Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Resolvins are generated from omega-3 fatty acids during inflammatory responses in the lung. These natural mediators interact with specific receptors to decrease lung inflammation and promote its resolution in healthy tissues. There are several lung diseases of chronic inflammation that fail to resolve, most notable asthma. This common disorder has a lifetime prevalence of nearly 10% and is characterized, in part, by chronic, non-resolving inflammation of the airway. Pro-resolving mediators are generated during asthma; however, their biosynthesis is decreased in severe and uncontrolled asthma, suggesting that the chronic, adaptive inflammation in asthmatic airways may result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms for resolvins that limit adaptive immune responses in healthy airways. PMID:23293638

  2. Acute and chronic exposure to Tyrophagus putrescentiae induces allergic pulmonary response in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Nailê Karine; dos Santos Dutra, Moisés; Barbosa, Gustavo Leivas; Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; de Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; Vargas, Mauro Henrique Moraes; Antunes, Géssica Luana; Silveira, Josiane Silva; da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-01-01

    Background Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) is a source of aeroallergen that causes allergic diseases. Objective To describe an acute and chronic murine model of allergic asthma with Tp extract with no systemic sensitization and no use of adjuvant. Methods Mites from dust sample were cultured and a raw extract was produced. Female BALB/c mice (6-8 weeks) were challenged intranasally with Tp extract or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline, for 10 consecutive days (acute protocol) or for 6 weeks (chronic protocol). Twenty-four hours after the last intranasal challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed for total and differential cells count, cytokine analysis, and eosinophil peroxidase activity. Lung tissue was also removed for histopathologic analysis. Results Tp extract has shown a significant increase in total cells count from BALF as well as an increase in absolute eosinophils count, eosinophil peroxidase activity, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 levels, in both acute and chronic protocols. Peribronchovascular infiltrate, goblet cells hyperplasia and collagen deposition were shown in the airways of acute and chronic Tp-exposed mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that the intranasal exposure to Tp extract, with no systemic sensitization and no use of adjuvants, induces a robust allergic inflammation in the lungs of mice, in both acute and chronic models. Our Tp extract seems to be a potent allergen extract which may be used in asthma model studies. PMID:26844220

  3. Airway responsiveness to hypertonic saline: dose-response slope or PD15?

    PubMed

    de Meer, G; Marks, G B; de Jongste, J C; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    The result of airway challenge test with hypertonic saline (HS) is expressed as the dose causing a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; PD15). A noncensored measure, such as the dose-response slope (DRS), allows the evaluation of the risk of asthma for subjects with a fall in FEV1 <15%. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between airway responsiveness to HS by PD15 or DRS, asthma symptoms and markers of eosinophilic inflammation. Data on current wheeze and airway responsiveness were obtained for 1,107 children (aged 8-13 yrs). Blood eosinophils and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were assessed in subsets (n = 683 and 485). PD15 was assessed if FEV1 fell > or =15%, and the DRS was calculated for all tests. Graphs were constructed to visualise relationships with current wheeze, blood eosinophils and serum ECP. Odds ratios and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify these relationships. Children with features of asthma had lower PD15 and higher DRS, and separation was most pronounced for DRS. Prevalence of current wheeze increased continuously over the entire range of DRS values. Blood eosinophils were significantly higher only for the highest values of DRS. In conclusion, the continuous relationship between airway responsiveness and asthma symptoms is in favour of a noncensored measure of airway responsiveness, such as the dose-response slope. PMID:15640337

  4. A standardized aqueous extract of Anoectochilus formosanus modulated airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-inhaled murine model.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, C-C; Hsiao, H-B; Lin, W-C

    2010-07-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus HAYATA, a Chinese herb, is a valued folk medicine for fever, pain, and diseases of the lung and liver. Allergic asthma is characterized by increased serum IgE level and inflammation of the airways with high levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). Constriction of airway smooth muscle and development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) are the most important symptoms of allergic asthma. In our previous study, a standardized aqueous extract of A. formosanus (SAEAF) was used to modulate innate immunity of normal mice. In this study, airway inflammatory infiltrations, including T cell differentiation, cytokine modulation, allergic antibodies estimation, pulmonary pathology, and enhanced pause (Penh) of AHR were used to evaluate SAEAF treatment of an ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled airway allergic murine model. The resulting cytokine profiles demonstrated that SAEAF can significantly reduce Th2 polarization after administration of SAEAF in OVA inhalation. These results also suggest that SAEAF modulates cytokine secretion in allergic asthma. Modulated natural T regulatory cells (CD25+/CD4+, Treg) were also shown to increase immuno-suppression in the allergic lung inflammation and further down-regulate airway inflammatory infiltration in eosinophils and macrophages. Finally, decreased airway anti-OVA IgE secretion and reduced AHR were observed. Our results indicate that the administration of SAEAF can modulate cytokines and T cell subpopulation by regulating inflammatory cell infiltration and modulating the allergic response. PMID:20092984

  5. Do mouse models of allergic asthma mimic clinical disease?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Experimental mouse models of allergic asthma established almost 10 years ago offered new opportunities to study disease pathogenesis and to develop new therapeutics. These models focused on the factors governing the allergic immune response, on modeling clinical behavior of allergic asthma, and led to insights into pulmonary pathophysiology. Although mouse models rarely completely reproduce all the features of human disease, after sensitization and respiratory tract challenges with antigen, wild-type mice develop a clinical syndrome that closely resembles allergic asthma, characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), increased IgE, mucus hypersecretion, and eventually, airway remodeling. There are, however, differences between mouse and human physiology that threaten to limit the value of mouse models. Three examples of such differences relate to both clinical manifestations of disease and underlying pathogenesis. First, in contrast to patients who have increased methacholine-induced AHR even when they are symptom-free, mice exhibit only transient methacholine-induced AHR following allergen exposure. Second, chronic allergen exposure in patients leads to chronic allergic asthma, whereas repeated exposures in sensitized mice causes suppression of disease. Third, IgE and mast cells, in humans, mediate early- and late-phase allergic responses, though both are unnecessary for the generation of allergic asthma in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that mouse models of allergic asthma are not exact replicas of human disease and thus, question the validity of these models. However, observations from mouse models of allergic asthma support many existing paradigms, although some novel discoveries in mice have yet to be verified in patients. This review presents an overview of the clinical aspects of disease in mouse models of allergic asthma emphasizing (1). the factors influencing the pathophysiological responses during

  6. Intranasal Administration of Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis Inducing IL-17A Autoantibody Attenuates Airway Inflammation in a Murine Model of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sheng; Wu, Liangxia; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder, previous studies have shown that IL-17A contributes to the development of asthma, and there is a positive correlation between the level of IL-17A and the severity of disease. Here, we constructed recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing fusion protein Ag85A-IL-17A (rMS-Ag85a-IL-17a) and evaluated whether it could attenuate allergic airway inflammation, and further investigated the underlying mechanism. In this work, the murine model of asthma was established with ovalbumin, and mice were intranasally vaccinated with rMS-Ag85a-IL-17a. Autoantibody of IL-17A in sera was detected, and the airway inflammatory cells infiltration, the local cytokines and chemokines production and the histopathological changes of lung tissue were investigated. We found that the administration of rMS-Ag85a-IL-17a induced the autoantibody of IL-17A in sera. The vaccination of rMS-Ag85a-IL-17a remarkably reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of mucus in lung tissue and significantly decreased the numbers of the total cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in BALF. Th1 cells count in spleen, Th1 cytokine levels in BALF and supernatant of splenocytes and mediastinal lymph nodes, and T-bet mRNA in lung tissue were significantly increased with rMS-Ag85a-IL-17a administration. Meanwhile, rMS-Ag85a-IL-17a vaccination markedly decreased Th2 cells count, Th2 cytokine and Th17 cytokine levels in BALF and supernatant of splenocytes and mediastinal lymph nodes, and chemokines mRNA expression in lung tissue. These data confirmed that recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis in vivo could induce autoantibody of IL-17A, which attenuated asthmatic airway inflammation. PMID:26974537

  7. Therapeutic effects of R8, a semi-synthetic analogue of Vasicine, on murine model of allergic airway inflammation via STAT6 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rayees, Sheikh; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Rasool, Shafaq; Rather, Rafiq Ahmad; Panda, Lipsa; Satti, Naresh Kumar; Lattoo, Surrinder Kumar; Ghosh, Balaram; Singh, Gurdarshan

    2015-05-01

    This is a follow-up study of our previous work in which we screened a series of Vasicine analogues for their anti-inflammatory activity in a preventive OVA induced murine model of asthma. The study demonstrated that R8, one of the analogues, significantly suppressed the Th2 cytokine production and eosinophil recruitment to the airways. In the present study, we have been using two standard experimental murine models of asthma, where the mice were treated with R8 either during (preventive use) or after (therapeutic use) the development of asthma features. In the preventive model, R8 reduced inflammatory cell infiltration to the airways, OVA specific IgE and Th2 cytokine production. Also, the R8 treatment in the therapeutic model decreased methacholine induced AHR, Th2 cytokine release, serum IgE levels, infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways, phosphorylation of STAT6 and expression of GATA3. Moreover, R8 not only reduced goblet cell metaplasia in asthmatic mice but also reduced IL-4 induced Muc5AC gene expression in human alveolar basal epithelial cells. Further, R8 attenuated IL-4 induced differentiation of murine splenocytes into Th2 cells in vitro. So, we may deduce that R8 treatment profoundly reduced asthma features by attenuating the differentiation of T cells into Th2 cells by interfering with the binding of IL-4 to its receptor in turn decreasing the phosphorylation of STAT6 and expression of GATA3 in murine model of asthma. These preclinical findings suggest a possible therapeutic role of R8 in allergic asthma. PMID:25863236

  8. Lymphocyte responses to food antigens in food sensitive patients with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Shinoda, S; Agata, H; Nishida, T; Miwa, Y; Fujii, H; Orii, T

    1992-01-01

    Scores of radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for cow's milk or buckwheat flour and proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin or buckwheat flour were measured in cow's milk or buckwheat flour sensitive patients with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome. In all 3 cow's milk sensitive patients with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome, RAST scores for cow's milk were negative or slightly positive, but PBMCs well responded to bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin, but not to ovalbumin. In a buckwheat flour sensitive patient with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome, RAST scores for buckwheat flour were negative, but PBMCs well responded to buckwheat flour, but not to ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin. Conversely, in cow's milk or buckwheat flour sensitive patients with immediate allergic symptoms, RAST scores for offending foods were positive although PBMCs did not respond to offending food antigens. These results suggest that proliferative responses of PBMCs to food antigens are very useful for detection of offending foods in allergic tension-fatigue syndrome. PMID:1290724

  9. Cohabitation with a sick partner increases allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; de Lima, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; dos Santos Franco, Adriana Lino; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Palermo-Neto, João

    2014-11-01

    results suggest that allergic lung inflammatory response exacerbation in CSP mice is a consequence of the psychological stress induced by forced cohabitation with the sick partner. Strong involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through adrenaline and noradrenaline release and a shift of the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile toward a Th2 response were considered to be the mechanisms underlying the cell recruitment to the animal's airways. PMID:24929194

  10. Neurology of allergic inflammation and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J

    2002-05-01

    Afferent nerves, derived from the trigeminal ganglion, and postganglionic autonomic nerves, derived from sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia expressing many different neurotransmitters, innervate the nose. Reflexes that serve to optimize the air-conditioning function of the nose by altering sinus blood flow, or serve to protect the nasal mucosal surface by mucus secretion, vasodilatation, and sneezing, can be initiated by a variety of stimuli, including allergen, cold air, and chemical irritation. Activation of nasal afferent nerves can also have profound effects on respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and airway caliber (the diving response). Dysregulation of the nerves in the nose plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Axon reflexes can precipitate inflammatory responses in the nose, resulting in plasma extravasation and inflammatory cell recruitment, while allergic inflammation can produce neuronal hyper-responsiveness. Targeting the neuronal dysregulation in the nose may be beneficial in treating upper airway disease. PMID:11918862

  11. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  12. AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO HUMAN METAPNEUMOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    X, Bao; T, Liu; L, Spetch; D, Kolli; R.P, Garofalo; A, Casola

    2007-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-κB, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immuno-modulatory mediators. PMID:17655903

  13. Plasticity of Airway Epithelial Cell Transcriptome in Response to Flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Joan G.; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Basom, Ryan S.; Gharib, Sina A.

    2015-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are critical components of the inflammatory and immune response during exposure to pathogens. AECs in monolayer culture and differentiated epithelial cells in air-liquid interface (ALI) represent two distinct and commonly used in vitro models, yet differences in their response to pathogens have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the transcriptional effects of flagellin on AECs in monolayer culture versus ALI culture using whole-genome microarrays and RNA sequencing. We exposed monolayer and ALI AEC cultures to flagellin in vitro and analyzed the transcriptional response by microarray and RNA-sequencing. ELISA and RT-PCR were used to validate changes in select candidates. We found that AECs cultured in monolayer and ALI have strikingly different transcriptional states at baseline. When challenged with flagellin, monolayer AEC cultures greatly increased transcription of numerous genes mapping to wounding response, immunity and inflammatory response. In contrast, AECs in ALI culture had an unexpectedly muted response to flagellin, both in number of genes expressed and relative enrichment of inflammatory and immune pathways. We conclude that in vitro culturing methods have a dramatic effect on the transcriptional profile of AECs at baseline and after stimulation with flagellin. These differences suggest that epithelial responses to pathogen challenges are distinctly different in culture models of intact and injured epithelium. PMID:25668187

  14. Plasticity of airway epithelial cell transcriptome in response to flagellin.

    PubMed

    Clark, Joan G; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Basom, Ryan S; Gharib, Sina A

    2015-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are critical components of the inflammatory and immune response during exposure to pathogens. AECs in monolayer culture and differentiated epithelial cells in air-liquid interface (ALI) represent two distinct and commonly used in vitro models, yet differences in their response to pathogens have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the transcriptional effects of flagellin on AECs in monolayer culture versus ALI culture using whole-genome microarrays and RNA sequencing. We exposed monolayer and ALI AEC cultures to flagellin in vitro and analyzed the transcriptional response by microarray and RNA-sequencing. ELISA and RT-PCR were used to validate changes in select candidates. We found that AECs cultured in monolayer and ALI have strikingly different transcriptional states at baseline. When challenged with flagellin, monolayer AEC cultures greatly increased transcription of numerous genes mapping to wounding response, immunity and inflammatory response. In contrast, AECs in ALI culture had an unexpectedly muted response to flagellin, both in number of genes expressed and relative enrichment of inflammatory and immune pathways. We conclude that in vitro culturing methods have a dramatic effect on the transcriptional profile of AECs at baseline and after stimulation with flagellin. These differences suggest that epithelial responses to pathogen challenges are distinctly different in culture models of intact and injured epithelium. PMID:25668187

  15. Prevention of Th2-like cell responses by coadministration of IL-12 and IL-18 is associated with inhibition of antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, and serum IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, C L; Van Ark, I; Hofman, G; Kool, M; Nijkamp, F P; Van Oosterhout, A J

    1998-11-01

    Allergic asthma is thought to be regulated by Th2 cells, and inhibiting this response is a promising mode of intervention. Many studies have focused on differentiation of Th cells to the Th1 or Th2 subset in vitro. IL-4 is essential for Th2 development, while IL-12 induces Th1 development, which can be enhanced by IL-18. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-12 and IL-18 were able to interfere in Th2 development and the associated airway symptoms in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized with OVA using a protocol that induces IgE production. Repeated challenges by OVA inhalation induced elevated serum levels of IgE, airway hyperresponsiveness, and a predominantly eosinophilic infiltrate in the bronchoalveolar lavage concomitant with the appearance of Ag-specific Th2-like cells in lung tissue and lung-draining lymph nodes. Whereas treatments with neither IL-12 nor IL-18 during the challenge period were effective, combined treatment of IL-12 and IL-18 inhibited Ag-specific Th2-like cell development. This inhibition was associated with an absence of IgE up-regulation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and cellular infiltration in the lavage. These data show that, in vivo, the synergistic action of IL-12 and IL-18 is necessary to prevent Th2-like cell differentiation, and consequently inhibits the development of airway symptoms in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:9794443

  16. T follicular helper (Tfh ) cells in normal immune responses and in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Varricchi, G; Harker, J; Borriello, F; Marone, G; Durham, S R; Shamji, M H

    2016-08-01

    Follicular helper T cells (Tfh ) are located within germinal centers of lymph nodes. Cognate interaction between Tfh , B cells, and IL-21 drives B cells to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells thereby leading to antibody production. Tfh cells and IL-21 are involved in infectious and autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, vaccination, and cancer. Human peripheral blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells comprise different subsets of Tfh -like cells. Despite the importance of the IgE response in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, little is known about the role of follicular and blood Tfh cells and IL-21 in human and experimental allergic disease. Here, we review recent advances regarding the phenotypic and functional characteristics of both follicular and blood Tfh cells and of the IL-21/IL-21R system in the context of allergic disorders. PMID:26970097

  17. CXCR4 inhibitor attenuates ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by inhibiting Th17 and Tc17 cell immune response

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, HUILONG; XU, XIANGQIN; TENG, JIEMING; CHENG, SHENG; BUNJHOO, HANSVIN; CAO, YONG; LIU, JIN; XIE, JUNGANG; WANG, CONGYI; XU, YONGJIAN; XIONG, WEINING

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) may contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully understood. T-helper 17 cells (Th17) and T-cytotoxic 17 cells (Tc17) have been implicated in the development of several allergic disorders, including asthma. The present study aimed to explore the association between CXCL12 signaling and Th17/Tc17 cells in the development of asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice were treated with AMD3100, a specific CXCR4 antagonist, prior to OVA challenge. Following the final allergen (OVA) challenge, airway responsiveness to methacholine, influx of inflammatory cells to the airway, and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung homogenate were assessed. Interleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD3+CD8− lymphocytes (Th17 cells) and IL-17+CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes (Tc17 cells) isolated from lung tissue samples were detected by flow cytometry. The results of the present study demonstrated that administration of AMD3100 significantly decreased airway responsiveness to methacholine, attenuated the influx of inflammatory cells to the airway and reduced the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in the BALF. Furthermore, AMD3100 significantly reduced the increased number of lung Th17 and Tc17 cells as well as the levels of IL-17 in the lung homogenate induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, the CXCR4 inhibitor suppresses the asthmatic response, which is associated with attenuation of the Th17 and Tc17 cell immune response. PMID:27168818

  18. EFFECTS OF PARTICLES FROM TWO GERMAN CITIES ON ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF PARTICLES FROM TWO GERMAN CITIES ON ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN MICE. S. H. Gavett, L. R. Bishop, N. Haykal-Coates, J. Heinrich*, and M. I. Gilmour. Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, *GSF, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Chi...

  19. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22053313

  20. An evaluation of short-term corticosteroid response in perennial allergic rhinitis using histamine and adenosine monophosphate nasal challenge

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew M; Sims, Erika J; Orr, Linda C; Robb, Fiona; Lipworth, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of AMP nasal challenge as a measure of short-term treatment response in patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge has been shown to be a good inflammatory surrogate in the lower airways, but it has not been properly evaluated as a nasal challenge test. Methods Fourteen patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) were randomized to receive 2 weeks treatment with placebo (PL) or 200 µg intranasal mometasone furoate (MF) once daily in a randomized single-blind crossover study. AMP (25–800 mg ml−1) and histamine (0.25–8 mg ml−1) nasal challenge testing were performed after each treatment period with 30% decrease in minimal cross-sectional area (MCA). Domiciliary symptom data were collected. Results There was a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in PC30 MCA and nasal volume with AMP but not with histamine comparing MF vs PL. This amounted to a 2.8 (95% CI 1.5, 4.0) and 0.7 (95% CI −0.5, 1.9) doubling-dose change for AMP and histamine challenges, respectively. There were significant (P < 0.05) improvements in nasal symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions AMP nasal challenge using acoustic rhinometry may be a useful test to assess short-term treatment response in patient with PAR. PMID:12680883

  1. SUPPRESSION OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE (HDM) IN RATS EXPOSED TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Exposure to various xenobiotics, including oxidant gases, diesel exhaust and certain pesticides, has been reported to exacerbate pulmonary allergic hypersensitivity responses. Increased lymphocyte proliferative responses to parasite antigens or increased antibody r...

  2. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  3. CTAB-coated gold nanorods elicit allergic response through degranulation and cell death in human basophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Ka Lun; Chen, Huanjun; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Jianfang; Ho, Ho Pui; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kong, Siu Kai

    2012-07-01

    The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs.The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30435j

  4. [Comparison of respiratory control responses in bronchial and external airway stenosis].

    PubMed

    Marek, W; Rasche, K; Mailänder, A; Hoffarth, H P; Ulmer, W T

    1989-11-01

    Respiratory responses during allergen-induced airway obstruction and external airway stenosis were investigated in anaesthetised sheep. The results were compared to those obtained from healthy subjects during external airway stenosis. Allergen-induced increase in airway resistance results in an increased respiratory frequency, mainly due to a shortening of expiration (TE) and only partially due to a shortening of inspiration (TI). Tidal volume is diminished while respiratory changes in oesophageal pressure (delta Poes) are increased. Both results in an increase of dynamic elastance (Edyn) representing airway resistance. Based on the increase in the slope and amplitude of inspiratory pressure (delta Poes/TI), the mean inspiratory airflow (VT/TI) remains almost unchanged. In spite of an increased ventilation PaO2 decreases, whereas PaCO2 increases only slightly. External airway stenosis, however, results in a decrease of respiratory frequency, mainly depending on a prolongation of inspiration. Changes in Poes and VT are similar to those of allergen-induced airway obstruction. delta Poes/TI, however, increases less than during allergen application and results in a decrease of mean inspiratory airflow, tidal volume and ventilation. Respiratory responses of healthy subjects during external airway stenosis were similar to those described in experimental animals. The results of our investigation show a different pattern in the control of breathing during bronchial and external stenosis-induced airway obstruction and thus indicate different vagal reflex mechanisms. PMID:2608647

  5. Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very frequent disease with a prevalence of 15-20%. Symptoms are most pronounced in young people while, for some unknown reason, the elderly become clinically hyposensitized. Pollen is the cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and house dust mite and animals are the main causes of perennial allergic rhinitis. Histamine is the main cause of sneezing and hypersecretion, while other mediators probably also play a role in nasal blockage. In polyposis, a local denervation is an important cause of vascular leakage, edema and polyp formation. Antihistamines have a positive effect on sneezing and hypersecretion, but not on blockage. As they have a quick onset of action they are useful in patients with mild and occasional symptoms. A nasal steroid is preferable in patients with persistent symptoms, since it is more effective on all nasal symptoms. Short-term use of a systemic steroid can be a valuable adjunct to topical treatment, especially in nasal polyposis, when there is a temporary failure of topical treatment in a blocked nose. A nasal vasoconstrictor can be added for short-term treatment, and an ipratropium spray can be beneficial in perennial non-allergic rhinitis, when watery secretion is the dominant symptom. Immunotherapy can be added in allergic rhinitis, when pharmacotherapy is insufficient. This chapter is based on the author's personal experience with allergic rhinitis, as a patient, a doctor and a researcher. Therefore, it is not a balanced review and the references will be highly selected as they largely consist of the author's own publications. As the text is mainly based on personal research, steroids are described in detail, while, with regard to immunotherapy, the reader is referred to another chapter. In addition to allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis will be described. It was formerly believed to be an allergic disease, but we now know that it is not. However, with regard to histopathology and drug responsiveness this disease is

  6. Airway oxidative stress causes vascular and hepatic inflammation via upregulation of IL-17A in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ansari, Mushtaq A; AlSharari, Shakir D; Bahashwan, Saleh A; Attia, Sabry M; Al-Hosaini, Khaled A; Al Hoshani, Ali R; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2016-05-01

    Oxidants are generated in asthmatic airways due to infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes and resident cells in the lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical may leak into systemic circulation when generated in uncontrolled manner and may impact vasculature. Our previous studies have shown an association between airway inflammation and systemic inflammation; however so far none has investigated the impact of airway oxidative inflammation on hepatic oxidative stress and Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine markers in liver/vasculature in a murine model of asthma. Therefore, this study investigated the contribution of oxidative stress encountered in asthmatic airways in modulation of systemic/hepatic Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines balance and hepatic oxidative stress. Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with cockroach extract (CE) in the presence of aluminum hydroxide followed by several intranasal (i.n.) challenges with CE. Mice were then assessed for systemic/hepatic inflammation through assessment of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and oxidative stress (iNOS, protein nitrotyrosine, lipid peroxides and myeloperoxidase activity). Challenge with CE led to increased Th2/Th17 cytokines in blood/liver and hepatic oxidative stress. However, only Th17 related pro-inflammatory markers were upregulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhalation in vasculature and liver, whereas antioxidant treatment, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) downregulated them. Hepatic oxidative stress was also upregulated by H2O2 inhalation, whereas NAC attenuated it. Therefore, our study shows that airway oxidative inflammation may contribute to systemic inflammation through upregulation of Th17 immune responses in blood/liver and hepatic oxidative stress. This might predispose these patients to increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26953647

  7. "Siglec"ting the allergic response for therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Bochner, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    As a physician-scientist, I have pursued research related to translational immunology with the goal of improving our ability to diagnose and treat allergic, immunologic and other diseases involving eosinophils, basophils and mast cells. We have tried to delineate novel mechanisms of human disease, working whenever possible with primary human cells and tissues, attempting to identify targets that might be amenable to the development of new therapies. As a general strategy, we have compared eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and neutrophils to look for pathways in inflammation that were unique to distinct subsets of these cells. In doing so, the concepts of glycobiology did not enter my mind until we began noticing some intriguing functional differences involving selectins and their ligands among these cell types. One simple observation, that neutrophils were coated with a glycan that allowed them to interact with an endothelial adhesion molecule while eosinophils lacked this structure, pried open the glyco-door for me. Fruitful collaborations with card-carrying glycobiologists soon followed that have forever positively influenced our science, and have enhanced our hypotheses, experimental design, research opportunities and discoveries. Within a few years, we helped to discover Siglec-8, an I-type lectin expressed only on human eosinophils, basophils, mast cells. This receptor, together with its closest mouse counterpart Siglec-F, has been the primary focus of our work now for over a decade. If not for those in the fields of glycobiology and glycoimmunology, my lab would not have made much progress toward the goal of leveraging Siglec-8 for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26911285

  8. Effects of corticosteroid treatment on airway inflammation, mechanics, and hyperpolarized ³He magnetic resonance imaging in an allergic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abraham C; Kaushik, S Sivaram; Nouls, John; Potts, Erin N; Slipetz, Deborah M; Foster, W Michael; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of corticosteroid therapy on a murine model of allergic asthma using hyperpolarized (3)He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and respiratory mechanics measurements before, during, and after methacholine (MCh) challenge. Three groups of mice were prepared, consisting of ovalbumin sensitized/ovalbumin challenged (Ova/Ova, n = 5), Ova/Ova challenged but treated with the corticosteroid dexamethasone (Ova/Ova+Dex, n = 3), and ovalbumin-sensitized/saline-challenged (Ova/PBS, n = 4) control animals. All mice underwent baseline 3D (3)He MRI, then received a MCh challenge while 10 2D (3)He MR images were acquired for 2 min, followed by post-MCh 3D (3)He MRI. Identically treated groups underwent respiratory mechanics evaluation (n = 4/group) and inflammatory cell counts (n = 4/group). Ova/Ova animals exhibited predominantly large whole lobar defects at baseline, with significantly higher ventilation defect percentage (VDP = 19 ± 4%) than Ova/PBS (+2 ± 1%, P = 0.01) animals. Such baseline defects were suppressed by dexamethasone (0%, P = 0.009). In the Ova/Ova group, MCh challenge increased VDP on both 2D (+30 ± 8%) and 3D MRI scans (+14 ± 2%). MCh-induced VDP changes were diminished in Ova/Ova+Dex animals on both 2D (+21 ± 9%, P = 0.63) and 3D scans (+7 ± 2%, P = 0.11) and also in Ova/PBS animals on 2D (+6 ± 3%, P = 0.07) and 3D (+4 ± 1%, P = 0.01) scans. Because MCh challenge caused near complete cessation of ventilation in four of five Ova/Ova animals, even as large airways remained patent, this implies that small airway (<188 μm) obstruction predominates in this model. This corresponds with respiratory mechanics observations that MCh challenge significantly increases elastance and tissue damping but only modestly affects Newtonian airway resistance. PMID:22241062

  9. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA) sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187) induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells. PMID:22439792

  10. Abnormal IgG4 antibody response to aeroallergens in allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, P; Delneste, Y; Tillie-Leblond, I; Wallaert, B; carlier, A; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1994-01-01

    Various studies have suggested the involvement of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies (Ab) in the physiopathology of allergic disorders. Recently, an abnormal IgG4 Ab production in response to immunization has been reported in some atopic patients. Thus, in order to evidence in allergic patients, a potential abnormal IgG4 Ab response to aeroallergens following natural exposure, we compared, in 34 patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and in 16 healthy subjects, the IgG4 Ab response to D. pteronyssinus, grass pollen and cat dander, using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Since some patients were also sensitive to grass pollen and/or to cat dander, we analyzed, in all patients, the IgG4 Ab responses both towards the allergen(s) they were sensitive to (sensitizing allergen) or not (unrelated allergen). The results showed that 90% of the patients produced levels of antisensitizing allergen(s) IgG4 Ab significantly higher than the controls; this IgG4 Ab response was correlated with the corresponding specific IgE Ab level. In addition, among these patients, around 40% presented high levels of IgG4 Ab to the unrelated allergen(s). Thus, in allergic patients, while specific IgE Ab define the nature of the sensitizing allergen, the presence of IgG4 Ab directed against various allergens seems in relation with an abnormal isotype regulation associated with atopic disorders. PMID:8199463

  11. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  12. Oral supplementation with areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arecae semen, the dried slice of areca nuts, is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat intestinal parasitosis, rectal tenesmus and diarrhea. Areca nuts contain a rich amount of polyphenols that have been shown to modulate the functionality of mast cells and T cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of polyphenol-enriched areca nut extracts (PANE) against food allergy, a T cell-mediated immune disorder. Methods BALB/c mice were left untreated or administered with PANE (0.05% and 0.1%) via drinking water throughout the entire experiment. The mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) twice by intraperitoneal injection, and then repeatedly challenged with OVA by gavage to induce food allergic responses. Results PANE administration attenuated OVA-induced allergic responses, including the occurrence of diarrhea and the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells in the duodenum. The serum level of OVA-specific IgE and the expression of interleukin-4 in the duodenum were suppressed by PANE treatment. In addition, PANE administration induced Gr-1+, IL-10+ and Gr-1+IL-10+ cells in the duodenum. Conclusion These results demonstrate that oral intake of areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses accompanied with a decreased Th2 immunity and an enhanced induction of functional myeloid-derived suppressor cells. PMID:23816049

  13. Airway response to ultra short-term exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, J.M.; Delemos, R.A.; McFadden, E.R. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    To determine whether acute short-term exposure to oxidant pollutants can cause changes in respiratory mechanics, we gave 0.5 ppm ozone for 5 min to 7 baboons. We measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and obtained dose response curves to methacholine before and after the exposures. This brief insult increased resistance (control RL = 1.53 +/- 0.21 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s; post-ozone RL = 3.53 +/- 0.54 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s). On a second occasion, 6 of these animals were restudied before and after the administration of cromolyn sodium. Although this drug had no effect on the measurements of mechanics made in the control period, it significantly reduced the ozone-induced changes in mechanics. The increase in RL was 52% of that produced in the first study. The results demonstrated that the ozone injury with its acute and subacute airway sequelae occurs quite rapidly and after very brief exposure. The time course of the change in mechanics and the effects of cromolyn suggest the hypothesis that surface epithelial cells are disrupted, causing subsequent release of bronchoconstricting agents.

  14. Broncho-Vaxom Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Restoring GSK3β-Related T Regulatory Cell Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Yu, Dehong; Zeng, Xianping; Deng, Mengxia; Sun, Yueqi; Wen, Weiping; Li, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of bacterial extracts (eg, Broncho-Vaxom (BV)) has been proposed to attenuate asthma through modulating Treg cells. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully characterized. This study sought to assess the effects of oral administration of BV on GSK-3β expression and Treg cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice models. Method Asthmatic mice models were established with OVA challenge and treated with oral administration of BV. Next, infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophil and neutrophils, mucous metaplasia, levels of Th1/Th2/Treg-typed cytokines and expression of GSK3β and Foxp3 were examined in asthmatic mice models by histological analysis, Bio-Plex and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of Treg cells were evaluated in cultured splenocytes by flow cytometry in the presence of BV or GSK3β siRNA interference. Results We found significant decrease of infiltrated inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in asthmatic mice models after oral administration of BV. Oral administration of BV was shown to significantly suppress mucus metaplasia, Th2-typed cytokine levels and GSK3β expression while increasing Foxp3 production in asthmatic mice models. Moreover, BV significantly enhanced GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells in cultured spleen cells in vitro. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that oral administration of BV is capable of attenuating airway inflammation in asthmatic mice models, which may be associated with GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells. PMID:24667347

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of an E coli strain carrying an ovalbumin allergenic peptide as a fused protein to OMPC in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yépez, Sara Huerta; Pando, Rogelio Hernández; Argumedo, Leopoldo Santos; Paredes, Mario Vega; Cueto, Angeles Hernández; Isibasi, Armando; Bonilla, César R González

    2003-01-17

    An Escherichia coli strain expressing the ovalbumin (OVA) 323-329 allergenic peptide on the bacterial surface was evaluated for its ability to reduce the lung inflammatory response in mice allergic to OVA. BALB/c mice were rendered allergic by means of two intraperitoneal injections of OVA suspended in alum 5 days apart, and one intratracheal boost 1 week later. The mice were then treated with two intranasal, 1 week apart, doses of 4x10(9) E. coli-UH302 transformed with plasmids pST13 or pST13-OVA(323-339), which bear the OmpC porin from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or the OmpC with the OVA allergenic 323-339 amino acid sequence inserted in the external loop 5. The allergic inflammatory reaction was evaluated on day 31, finding that mice treated with E. coli-UH302-pST13-OVA reduced four to seven times perivascular and peribronchial infiltrates, mucus production, goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophils when compared with mice treated with E. coli-UH302-pST13 or saline solution. These results were consistent with a significant decrease of IL-5 mRNA and induction of IFN-gamma mRNA in cells from bronchio-alveolar lavages (BAL). Specific serum IgE anti-OVA was also reduced, although the decrease did not reach statistical significance. These results demonstrate that the bacterial live vector bearing an allergenic peptide successfully moderated two important components of allergy, pulmonary inflammation and mucus overproduction. PMID:12531657

  16. So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang, a herbal medicine, modulates inflammatory cell infiltration and prevents airway remodeling via regulation of interleukin-17 and GM-CSF in allergic asthma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Woo; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Cho, Su-In

    2014-01-01

    Background: So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT), herbal medicine, has been used for the control of respiratory disease in East Asian countries. However, its therapeutic mechanisms, especially an inhibitory effect on inflammatory cell infiltration and airway remodeling in allergic asthma are unclear. Objective: The present study investigated the mechanism of antiasthmatic effects of SCRT in allergic asthma in mice. Materials and Methods: We investigated the influence of SCRT on levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-4, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE in serum, and histopathological changes in allergen-induced asthma. Results: So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang decreased levels of IL-17 and GM-CSF in BALF. IL-4, a Th2-driven cytokine, was also decreased by SCRT, but IFN-γ, a Th1-driven cytokine, was not changed. Levels of OVA-specific IgE in serum were also decreased by SCRT. With SCRT treatment, histopathological findings showed reduced tendency of inflammatory cell infiltration, and prevention from airway remodeling such as epithelial hyperplasia. Conclusion: In this study, we firstly demonstrated that regulation of IL-17 and GM-CSF production may be one of the mechanism contributed to a reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration and prevention from airway remodeling. PMID:25298667

  17. A fungal protease allergen provokes airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma.

    PubMed

    Balenga, Nariman A; Klichinsky, Michael; Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice C; Zhao, Ming; Jude, Joseph; Laviolette, Michel; Panettieri, Reynold A; Druey, Kirk M

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a common disorder that affects >250 million people worldwide, is defined by exaggerated bronchoconstriction to inflammatory mediators including acetylcholine (ACh), bradykinin and histamine-also termed airway hyper-responsiveness. Nearly 10% of people with asthma have severe, treatment-resistant disease, which is frequently associated with immunoglobulin-E sensitization to ubiquitous fungi, typically Aspergillus fumigatus (Af). Here we show that a major Af allergen, Asp f13, which is a serine protease, alkaline protease 1 (Alp 1), promotes airway hyper-responsiveness by infiltrating the bronchial submucosa and disrupting airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Alp 1-mediated ECM degradation evokes pathophysiological RhoA-dependent Ca(2+) sensitivity and bronchoconstriction. These findings support a pathogenic mechanism in asthma and other lung diseases associated with epithelial barrier impairment, whereby ASM cells respond directly to inhaled environmental allergens to generate airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:25865874

  18. Effect of ozone inhalation on the response to nasal challenge with antigen of allergic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Naclerio, R.M.; Fitzgerald, T.K.; Kagey-Sobotka, A.; Proud, D. )

    1990-09-01

    The effect of oxidant inhalation on allergic illness is of interest because allergic patients often report increased respiratory symptoms during episodes of poor air quality, and epidemiologic studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of the air pollutant ozone and exacerbations of asthma. The purpose of this study was to characterize the upper respiratory response to ozone inhalation in asymptomatic, allergic subjects and to determine whether ozone pre-exposure increased the acute response to nasal challenge with antigen in these subjects. A group of 12 asymptomatic subjects with a history of allergic rhinitis were exposed in a randomized, cross-over design, at rest, on each of 2 days, separated by 2 wk, to 4 h of clean air or 0.5 ppm ozone in an environmental chamber. Following the exposure period, subjects underwent nasal challenge with four doses of antigen (1 to 1,000 PNU ragweed or grass). Symptoms were rated and nasal lavage performed after each dose. Measurement of histamine and albumin concentration and TAME-esterase activity and determination of cell counts and differentials were performed. Exposure to ozone caused significant increases in upper and lower respiratory symptoms, a mixed inflammatory cell influx with a sevenfold increase in naval lavage neutrophils, a 20-fold increase in eosinophils, and a tenfold increase in mononuclear cells, as well as an apparent sloughing of epithelial cells. There was a significant increase in nasal lavage albumin concentration on the ozone exposure day and a small increase in nasal lavage histamine concentration on both the ozone and clean air exposure days. TAME-esterase activity showed no significant increase overall, but increased at least twofold in 5 of 12 subjects.

  19. Increase in passive stiffness at reduced airway smooth muscle length: potential impact on airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Ynuk; Solomon, Dennis; Chin, Leslie Y M; Lian, Kevin; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2010-03-01

    The amplitude of strain in airway smooth muscle (ASM) produced by oscillatory perturbations such as tidal breathing or deep inspiration (DI) influences the force loss in the muscle and is therefore a key determinant of the bronchoprotective and bronchodilatory effects of these breathing maneuvers. The stiffness of unstimulated ASM (passive stiffness) directly influences the amplitude of strain. The nature of the passive stiffness is, however, not clear. In this study, we measured the passive stiffness of ovine ASM at different muscle lengths (relative to in situ length, which was used as a reference length, L(ref)) and states of adaptation to gain insights into the origin of this muscle property. The results showed that the passive stiffness was relatively independent of muscle length, possessing a constant plateau value over a length range from 0.62 to 1.25 L(ref). Following a halving of ASM length, passive stiffness decreased substantially (by 71%) but redeveloped over time ( approximately 30 min) at the shorter length to reach 65% of the stiffness value at L(ref), provided that the muscle was stimulated to contract at least once over a approximately 30-min period. The redevelopment and maintenance of passive stiffness were dependent on the presence of Ca(2+) but unaffected by latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin filament polymerization. The maintenance of passive stiffness was also not affected by blocking myosin cross-bridge cycling using a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor or by blocking the Rho-Rho kinase (RhoK) pathway using a RhoK inhibitor. Our results suggest that the passive stiffness of ASM is labile and capable of redevelopment following length reduction. Redevelopment and maintenance of passive stiffness following muscle shortening could contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness by attenuating the airway wall strain induced by tidal breathing and DI. PMID:20008114

  20. [Influence of nanosize particles of cobalt ferrite on contractile responses of smooth muscle segment of airways].

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Zaĭtseva, T N; Nosarev, A V; D'iakova, E Iu; Petlina, Z R; Ogorodova, L M; Ageev, B G; Magaeva, A A; Itin, V I; Terekhova, O G; Medvedev, M A

    2012-02-01

    Contractile responses of airways segments of porpoises inhaling nanopowder CoFe2O4 were stidued by means of a mechanographic method. Inhalation of the nanosize particles of CoFe2O4 in vivo and in vitro testing the nanomaterial on isolated smooth muscles led to potentiation histaminergic, cholinergic contractile activity in airways of porpoises and to strengthening of adrenergic relaxing answers. Nanosize particles vary amplitude of hyperpotassium reductions in smooth muscle segments of airways similarly to the effect of depolymerizing drug colchicine. PMID:22650066

  1. Potential of Immunoglobulin A to Prevent Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gloudemans, Anouk K.; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Smits, Hermelijn H.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a defective barrier function, and eosinophilic lower airway inflammation in response to allergens. The inflammation is dominated by Th2 cells and IgE molecules and supplemented with Th17 cells in severe asthma. In contrast, in healthy individuals, allergen-specific IgA and IgG4 molecules are found but no IgE, and their T cells fail to proliferate in response to allergens, probably because of the development of regulatory processes that actively suppress responses to allergens. The presence of allergen-specific secretory IgA has drawn little attention so far, although a few epidemiological studies point at a reverse association between IgA levels and the incidence of allergic airway disease. This review highlights the latest literature on the role of mucosal IgA in protection against allergic airway disease, the mechanisms described to induce secretory IgA, and the role of (mucosal) dendritic cells in this process. Finally, we discuss how this information can be used to translate into the development of new therapies for allergic diseases based on, or supplemented with, IgA boosting strategies. PMID:23690823

  2. Potential of immunoglobulin A to prevent allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Gloudemans, Anouk K; Lambrecht, Bart N; Smits, Hermelijn H

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a defective barrier function, and eosinophilic lower airway inflammation in response to allergens. The inflammation is dominated by Th2 cells and IgE molecules and supplemented with Th17 cells in severe asthma. In contrast, in healthy individuals, allergen-specific IgA and IgG4 molecules are found but no IgE, and their T cells fail to proliferate in response to allergens, probably because of the development of regulatory processes that actively suppress responses to allergens. The presence of allergen-specific secretory IgA has drawn little attention so far, although a few epidemiological studies point at a reverse association between IgA levels and the incidence of allergic airway disease. This review highlights the latest literature on the role of mucosal IgA in protection against allergic airway disease, the mechanisms described to induce secretory IgA, and the role of (mucosal) dendritic cells in this process. Finally, we discuss how this information can be used to translate into the development of new therapies for allergic diseases based on, or supplemented with, IgA boosting strategies. PMID:23690823

  3. The Rhizomes of Acorus gramineus and the Constituents Inhibit Allergic Response In vitro and In vivo.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun; Lee, Seung Young; Lee, Kang Ro; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-09-01

    The rhizomes of Acorus gramineus have frequently been used in traditional medicine mainly for sedation as well as enhancing brain function. In this study, the anti-allergic activity of A. gramineus was investigated. The 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of A. gramineus was found to inhibit the allergic response against 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-catalyzed leukotriene (LT) production from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells and β-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells with IC50's of 48.9 and >200 μg/ml, respectively. Among the 9 major constituents isolated, β-asarone, (2R,3R,4S,5S)-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-bis (2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran (AF) and 2,3-dihydro-4,5,7-trimethoxy-1-ethyl-2-methyl-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)indene (AI) strongly inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed LT production in A23187-treated RBL-1 cells, AI being the most potent (IC50=6.7 μM). Against β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, only AI exhibited strong inhibition (IC50=7.3 μM) while β-asarone and AF showed 26.0% and 39.9% inhibition at 50 μM, respectively. In addition, the ethanol extract of A. gramineus showed significant inhibitory action against the hapten-induced delayed hypersensitivity reaction in mice by oral administration at 200 mg/kg. Therefore, it is suggested that A. gramineus possesses anti-allergic activity and the constituents including β-asarone and AI certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of A. gramineus. PMID:24009837

  4. Nitration of β-Lactoglobulin but Not of Ovomucoid Enhances Anaphylactic Responses in Food Allergic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Diesner, Susanne C.; Schultz, Cornelia; Ackaert, Chloé; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Ondracek, Anna; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Singer, Josef; Heiden, Denise; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Fazekas, Judit; Assmann, Vera E.; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Stutz, Hanno; Duschl, Albert; Untersmayr, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background We revealed in previous studies that nitration of food proteins reduces the risk of de novo sensitization in a murine food allergy model. In contrast, in situations with preformed specific IgE antibodies, in vitro experiments suggested an increased capacity of effector cell activation by nitrated food proteins. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of protein nitration on the effector phase of food allergy. Design BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the milk allergen β-lactoglobulin (BLG) or the egg allergen ovomucoid (OVM), followed by intragastric (i.g.) gavages to induce a strong local inflammatory response and allergen-specific antibodies. Subsequently, naïve and allergic mice were intravenously (i.v.) challenged with untreated, sham-nitrated or nitrated BLG or OVM. Anaphylaxis was monitored by measuring core body temperature and determination of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) levels in blood. Results A significant drop of body temperature accompanied with significantly elevated concentrations of the anaphylaxis marker mMCP-1 were only observed in BLG allergic animals challenged with nitrated BLG and not in OVM allergic mice challenged with nitrated OVM. SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism analysis of the differentially modified allergens revealed an effect of nitration on the secondary protein structure exclusively for BLG together with enhanced protein aggregation. Conclusion Our data suggest that nitration affects differently the food allergens BLG and OVM. In the case of BLG, structural changes favored dimerization possibly explaining the increased anaphylactic reactivity in BLG allergic animals. PMID:25955653

  5. Dose-response relationship of ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in unanesthetized guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, M.; Suzuki, S.; Ikeda, H.; Fukuda, T.; Suzuki, J.; Okubo, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The effect of ozone dose (the product of ozone concentration and exposure time) on airway responsiveness was examined in unanesthetized, spontaneously breathing guinea pigs. Airway responsiveness was assessed by measuring specific airway resistance (sRaw) as a function of increasing concentration of inhaled methacholine (Mch) aerosol (the concentration of Mch required in order to double the baseline sRaw: PC200Mch). The airway responsiveness was measured before and at 5 min, 5 h, and 24 h after exposure. A 30-min exposure to 1 ppm ozone (dose 30 ppm.min) did not change PC200Mch at any time after exposure. Both a 90-min exposure to 1 ppm ozone and a 30-min exposure to 3 ppm ozone, which are identical in terms of ozone dose (90 ppm.min), decreased PC200Mch to a similar degree. A 120-min exposure to 3 ppm ozone (360 ppm.min) produced a much greater decrease of PC200Mch at 5 min and 5 h after exposure, compared with low-dose exposure. There was a significant correlation between ozone dose and the change in airway responsiveness. In all groups, the baseline sRaw was increased by approximately 50% at 5 min after exposure, but there was no correlation between the changes in PC200Mch and the baseline sRaw. This study suggests that ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs is closely related to ozone dose.

  6. How the airway smooth muscle in cystic fibrosis reacts in proinflammatory conditions: implications for airway hyper-responsiveness and asthma in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McCuaig, Sarah; Martin, James G

    2013-04-01

    Among patients with cystic fibrosis there is a high prevalence (40-70%) of asthma signs and symptoms such as cough and wheezing and airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled histamine or methacholine. Whether these abnormal airway responses are due to a primary deficiency in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or are secondary to the inflammatory environment in the cystic fibrosis lungs is not clear. A role for the CFTR in smooth muscle function is emerging, and alterations in contractile signalling have been reported in CFTR-deficient airway smooth muscle. Persistent bacterial infection, especially with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, stimulates interleukin-8 release from the airway epithelium, resulting in neutrophilic inflammation. Increased neutrophilia and skewing of CFTR-deficient T-helper cells to type 2 helper T cells creates an inflammatory environment characterised by high concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-8, and interleukin-13, which might all contribute to increased contractility of airway smooth muscle in cystic fibrosis. An emerging role of interleukin-17, which is raised in patients with cystic fibrosis, in airway smooth muscle proliferation and hyper-responsiveness is apparent. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the altered smooth muscle physiology in patients with cystic fibrosis might provide insight into airway dysfunction in this disease. PMID:24429094

  7. The Inhibitory Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation in IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seon Young; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Cha Soon; Lee, In Kyung; Kim, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has different biological effects according to dose and dose rate. In particular, the biological effect of low-dose radiation is unclear. Low-dose whole-body gamma irradiation activates immune responses in several ways. However, the effects and mechanism of low-dose radiation on allergic responses remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that low-dose ionizing radiation inhibits mediator release in IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 mast cell activation. In this study, to have any physiological relevance, we investigated whether low-dose radiation inhibits allergic responses in activated human mast cells (HMC-1(5C6) and LAD2 cells), mouse models of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and the late-phase cutaneous response. High-dose radiation induced cell death, but low-dose ionizing radiation of <0.5 Gy did not induce mast cell death. Low-dose ionizing radiation that did not induce cell death significantly suppressed mediator release from human mast cells (HMC-1(5C6) and LAD2 cells) that were activated by antigen-antibody reaction. To determine the inhibitory mechanism of mediator released by low-dose ionizing radiation, we examined the phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules such as Lyn, Syk, phospholipase Cγ, and protein kinase C, as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The phosphorylation of signaling molecules and [Ca2+]i following stimulation of FcεRI receptors was inhibited by low dose ionizing radiation. In agreement with its in vitro effect, ionizing radiation also significantly inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration, cytokine mRNA expression (TNF-α, IL-4, IL-13), and symptoms of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and the late-phase cutaneous response in anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-sensitized mice. These results indicate that ionizing radiation inhibits both mast cell-mediated immediate- and delayed-type allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26317642

  8. The Inhibitory Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation in IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hae Mi; Kang, Su Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Cha Soon; Lee, In Kyung; Kim, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has different biological effects according to dose and dose rate. In particular, the biological effect of low-dose radiation is unclear. Low-dose whole-body gamma irradiation activates immune responses in several ways. However, the effects and mechanism of low-dose radiation on allergic responses remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that low-dose ionizing radiation inhibits mediator release in IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 mast cell activation. In this study, to have any physiological relevance, we investigated whether low-dose radiation inhibits allergic responses in activated human mast cells (HMC-1(5C6) and LAD2 cells), mouse models of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and the late-phase cutaneous response. High-dose radiation induced cell death, but low-dose ionizing radiation of <0.5 Gy did not induce mast cell death. Low-dose ionizing radiation that did not induce cell death significantly suppressed mediator release from human mast cells (HMC-1(5C6) and LAD2 cells) that were activated by antigen-antibody reaction. To determine the inhibitory mechanism of mediator released by low-dose ionizing radiation, we examined the phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules such as Lyn, Syk, phospholipase Cγ, and protein kinase C, as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The phosphorylation of signaling molecules and [Ca2+]i following stimulation of FcεRI receptors was inhibited by low dose ionizing radiation. In agreement with its in vitro effect, ionizing radiation also significantly inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration, cytokine mRNA expression (TNF-α, IL-4, IL-13), and symptoms of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and the late-phase cutaneous response in anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-sensitized mice. These results indicate that ionizing radiation inhibits both mast cell-mediated immediate- and delayed-type allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26317642

  9. Prostaglandin I2 Suppresses Proinflammatory Chemokine Expression, CD4 T Cell Activation, and STAT6-Independent Allergic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weisong; Zhang, Jian; Goleniewska, Kasia; Dulek, Daniel E; Toki, Shinji; Newcomb, Dawn C; Cephus, Jacqueline Y; Collins, Robert D; Wu, Pingsheng; Boothby, Mark R; Peebles, R Stokes

    2016-09-01

    Allergic airway diseases are immune disorders associated with heightened type 2 immune responses and IL-5 and IL-13 production at the site of inflammation. We have previously reported that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition by indomethacin augmented allergic airway inflammation in a STAT6-independent manner. However, the key COX product(s) responsible for restraining indomethacin-mediated STAT6-independent allergic inflammation is unknown. In this study, using the mouse model of OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, we identified that PGI2 receptor (IP) signaling was critical for indomethacin-induced, STAT6-independent proallergic effects. We demonstrated that IP deficiency increased inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophilia, and IL-5 and IL-13 expression in the lung in a STAT6-independent manner. The augmented STAT6-independent allergic inflammation correlated with enhanced primary immune responses to allergic sensitization and elevated production of multiple inflammatory chemokines (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, and CXCL12) in the lung after allergen challenge. We also showed that the PGI2 analogue cicaprost inhibited CD4 T cell proliferation and IL-5 and IL-13 expression in vitro, and IP deficiency diminished the stimulatory effect of indomethacin on STAT6-independent IL-5 and IL-13 responses in vivo. The inhibitory effects of PGI2 and the IP signaling pathway on CD4 T cell activation, inflammatory chemokine production, and allergic sensitization and airway inflammation suggest that PGI2 and its analogue iloprost, both Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, may be useful in treating allergic diseases and asthma. In addition, inhibiting PGI2 signaling by drugs that either block PGI2 production or restrain IP signaling may augment STAT6-independent pathways of allergic inflammation. PMID:27456482

  10. Evaluation of Furfuryl Alcohol Sensitization Potential Following Dermal and Pulmonary Exposure: Enhancement of Airway Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Franko, Jennifer; Jackson, Laurel G.; Hubbs, Ann; Kashon, Michael; Meade, B. J.; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2015-01-01

    Furfuryl alcohol is considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to be a high volume production chemical, with over 1 million pounds produced annually. Due to its high production volume and its numerous industrial and consumer uses, there is considerable potential for work-related exposure, as well as exposure to the general population, through pulmonary, oral, and dermal routes of exposure. Human exposure data report a high incidence of asthma in foundry mold workers exposed to furan resins, suggesting potential immunologic effects. Although furfuryl alcohol was nominated and evaluated for its carcinogenic potential by the National Toxicology Program, studies evaluating its immunotoxicity are lacking. The studies presented here evaluated the immunotoxic potential of furfuryl alcohol following exposure by the dermal and pulmonary routes using a murine model. When tested in a combined irritancy local lymph node assay, furfuryl alcohol was identified to be an irritant and mild sensitizer (EC3 = 25.6%). Pulmonary exposure to 2% furfuryl alcohol resulted in enhanced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic infiltration into the lungs, and enhanced cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, and interferon-γ) by ex vivo stimulated lung-associated draining lymphoid cells. Airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic lung infiltration were augmented by prior dermal exposure to furfuryl alcohol. These results suggest that furfuryl alcohol may play a role in the development of allergic airway disease and encourage the need for additional investigation. PMID:22003193

  11. Gene Expression Changes Associated with the Airway Wall Response to Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Badrul; McLachlan, Gerry; McCorquodale, Caroline; Collie, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the way in which the airway heals in response to injury is fundamental to dissecting the mechanisms underlying airway disease pathology. As only limited data is available in relation to the in vivo characterisation of the molecular features of repair in the airway we sought to characterise the dynamic changes in gene expression that are associated with the early response to physical injury in the airway wall. Methodology/Principal Findings We profiled gene expression changes in the airway wall using a large animal model of physical injury comprising bronchial brush biopsy in anaesthetised sheep. The experimental design featured sequential studies in the same animals over the course of a week and yielded data relating to the response at 6 hours, and 1, 3 and 7 days after injury. Notable features of the transcriptional response included the early and sustained preponderance of down-regulated genes associated with angiogenesis and immune cell activation, selection and differentiation. Later features of the response included the up-regulation of cell cycle genes at d1 and d3, and the latter pronounced up-regulation of extracellular matrix-related genes at d3 and d7. Conclusions/Significance It is possible to follow the airway wall response to physical injury in the same animal over the course of time. Transcriptional changes featured coordinate expression of functionally related genes in a reproducible manner both within and between animals. This characterisation will provide a foundation against which to assess the perturbations that accompany airway disease pathologies of comparative relevance. PMID:23593124

  12. In vivo exposure to hyperoxia increases airway responsiveness in rats. Demonstration in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Szarek, J L

    1989-10-01

    Studies regarding O2-induced lung injury have concentrated on damage to alveolar structures and pulmonary vasculature without consideration of alterations that may be occurring in airways. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of in vivo hyperoxic exposure on airway responses to excitatory stimuli in intact, anesthetized rats and in intrapulmonary bronchi isolated from hyperoxia-exposed rats. Using lung conductance (G1) as an index of bronchoconstriction, intravenously administered 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) elicited greater bronchoconstrictor responses in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats that had been exposed to 85% O2 for 7 days rather than to air. Further, airways of hyperoxia-exposed rats were more sensitive to the effects of intravenously administered 5HT as evidenced by the lower log dose of 5HT required to decrease G1 30%. Cylindrical segments of intrapulmonary bronchi isolated from hyperoxia-exposed rats were more responsive to the contractile effects of 5HT and electrical field stimulation. However, no differences in responsiveness to bethanechol or KCl were observed between the two groups. The log concentration of 5HT and the log frequency of electrical field stimulation that elicited half-maximal responses were smaller in bronchi isolated from hyperoxia-exposed animals, indicating an increase in sensitivity of the airways to these stimuli. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to greater than ambient levels of O2 can alter airway function; however, the mechanism responsible for these changes remains to be determined. PMID:2802379

  13. Effects of inhaled budesonide on spirometric values, reversibility, airway responsiveness, and cough threshold in smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Auffarth, B; Postma, D S; de Monchy, J G; van der Mark, T W; Boorsma, M; Koëter, G H

    1991-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are known to reduce respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in allergic patients with asthma. The aim of the present randomised, double blind study was to assess the effect of eight weeks' treatment with inhaled budesonide in non-allergic smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease. Twenty four subjects (23 male) entered the study. Their ages ranged from 40 to 70 (mean 57) years, with a mean of 35 (range 9-80) pack years of smoking; the mean FEV1 was 53% (range 32-74%) predicted and geometric mean PC20 (histamine concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1) 0.96 (range 0.07-7.82) mg/ml. After a two week washout, single blind, placebo period, 12 patients were allocated to treatment with budesonide 1600 microgram/day and 12 to placebo for eight weeks. The only additional drug to be taken was ipratropium bromide "if needed." Twenty one patients completed the study, 10 in the budesonide group and 11 in the placebo group. The standard deviation of the difference between duplicate measurements of PC20 histamine and citric acid cough threshold made two weeks apart was below one doubling dose step. There was a significant reduction in dyspnoea in the budesonide group, but otherwise no change in symptom scores or use of ipratropium bromide over the eight weeks of treatment within or between the two groups. No significant differences in spirometric values, peak expiratory flow, PC20 histamine, or citric acid cough threshold were found between the groups. Although differences were not significant, some of the changes showed a trend in favour of budesonide. Whether a longer observation period would show a significant influence of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease remains to be determined. Images PMID:2068695

  14. Prolonged increased responsiveness of canine peripheral airways after exposure to O/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, W.S.; Freed, A.N.; Turner, C.; Menkes, H.A.

    1988-02-01

    Because it is relatively insoluble, the oxidant gas O3 may penetrate to small peripheral airways when it is inhaled. Increased responsiveness in large airways after O3 breathing has been associated with the presence of inflammatory cells. To determine whether O3 produces prolonged hyperresponsiveness of small airways associated with the presence of inflammatory cells, we exposed the peripheral lungs of anesthetized dogs to 1.0 ppm O3 for 2 h using a wedged bronchoscope technique. A contralateral sublobar segment was simultaneously exposed to air as a control. In the O3-exposed segments, collateral resistance (Rcs) was increased within 15 min and remained elevated approximately 150% throughout the 2-h exposure period. Fifteen hours later, the base-line Rcs of the O3-exposed sublobar segments was significantly elevated, and these segments demonstrated increased responsiveness to aerosolized acetylcholine (100 and 500 micrograms/ml). There were no differences in neutrophils, mononuclear cells, or mast cells (numbers or degree of mast cell degranulation) between O3 and air-exposed airways at 15 h. The small airways of the lung periphery thus are capable of remaining hyperresponsive hours after cessation of localized exposure to O3, but this does not appear to be dependent on the presence of inflammatory cells in the small airway wall.

  15. Cellular lesion responsible for exaggerated IgE synthesis accompanying allergic breakthrough

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelletti, J.F.; Katz, D.H.

    1989-05-01

    Appropriate levels of IgE are maintained by a cellular and molecular network composed of (1) a suppressive, Ly-1+, CD4+ T cell-dependent arm that is activated by inappropriate high levels of IgE and (2) an enhancing, CD8+ T cell-dependent arm that controls this suppression in a feedback regulatory manner. Ly-1+ T cells also function to counterbalance (inhibit) the activity of these latter CD8+ T cells. It has been previously shown that Ly-1+ T cells can reverse low-dose irradiation-induced enhancement of IgE antibody responses (i.e., allergic breakthrough). We have analyzed lymphocytes isolated from mice subjected to low-dose irradiation to determine which component of this network is defective in such animals. Stimulation of normal lymphocytes with IgE in vitro resulted in the release of lymphokines that suppress IgE antibody responses. In contrast, similar stimulation of lymphocytes from irradiated mice did not elicit secretion of such suppressive lymphokines, unless the cells were depleted of CD8+ T cells or reconstituted with normal Ly-1+ T cells. Because Ly-1+ T cells of irradiated mice could not reconstitute the response, we conclude that this functional subset of CD4+ T cells, which normally controls CD8+ T cell activity in this network, is defective in animals that exhibit irradiation-induced allergic breakthrough.

  16. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M Craig; McAlexander, M Allen; Herrick, Christina A; Jordt, Sven E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1(-/-) mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  17. Airway blood flow response to dry air hyperventilation in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, G.H.; Baile, E.M.; Pare, P.D.

    1986-03-01

    Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 39/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep.

  18. Antibodies generated against conserved antigens expressed by bacteria and allergen-bearing fungi suppress airway disease.

    PubMed

    Kin, Nicholas W; Stefanov, Emily K; Dizon, Brian L P; Kearney, John F

    2012-09-01

    There has been a sharp rise in allergic asthma and asthma-related deaths in the developed world, in contrast to many childhood illnesses that have been reduced or eliminated. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that excessively sanitary conditions early in life result in autoimmune and allergic phenomena because of a failure of the immune system to receive proper microbial stimulation during development. We demonstrate that Abs generated against conserved bacterial polysaccharides are reactive with and dampen the immune response against chitin and Aspergillus fumigatus. A reduction in Ag uptake, cell influx, cell activation, and cytokine production occurred in the presence of anti-polysaccharide Abs, resulting in a striking decrease in the severity of allergic airway disease in mice. Overall, our results suggest that Ag exposure--derived from environmental sources, self-antigens, or vaccination--during the neonatal period has dramatic effects on the adult Ab response and modifies the development of allergic airway disease. PMID:22837487

  19. EFFECTS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLE EXPOSURE ON NEUROIMMUNE RESPONSES IN RAT AIRWAYS

    PubMed Central

    Scuri, Mario; Chen, Bean T.; Castranova, Vincent; Reynolds, Jeffrey S.; Johnson, Victor J.; Samsell, Lennie; Walton, Cheryl; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ambient nanoparticles (defined as particulate matter [PM] having one dimension < 100 nm) is associated with increased risk of childhood and adult asthma. Nanomaterials feature a smaller aerodynamic diameter and a higher surface area per unit mass ratio compared to fine or coarse-sized particles, resulting in greater lung deposition efficiency and an increased potential for biological interaction. The neurotrophins nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are key regulatory elements of neuronal development and responsiveness of airway sensory neurons. Changes in their expression are associated with bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. The neurogenic-mediated control of airway responses is a key pathophysiological mechanism of childhood asthma. However, the effects of nanoparticle exposure on neurotrophin-driven airway responses and their potential role as a predisposing factor for developing asthma have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, in vivo inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (12 mg/m13; 5.6 h/d for 3 d) produced upregulation of lung neurotrophins in weanling (2-wk-old) and newborn (2-d-old) rats but not in adult (12-wk-old) animals compared to controls. This effect was associated with increased airway responsiveness and upregulation of growth-related oncogene/keratine-derived chemokine (GRO/KC; CXCL1, rat equivalent of human interleukin [IL]-8) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These data show for the first time that exposure to nanoparticulate upregulates the expression of lung neurotrophins in an age-dependent fashion and that this effect is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. These results suggest the presence of a critical window of vulnerability in earlier stages of lung development, which may lead to a higher risk of developing asthma. PMID:20818535

  20. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1-deficiency modifies allergic airway inflammation by regulating STAT6 and IL-4 in cells and in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG-1) is an enzyme involved in DNA repair. OGG-1 has a potential role in regulating inflammation but its function in modulating allergic diseases remains undefined. Objectives: To investigate the role of OGG-1 in mediating allergic inflammation, we used OGG...

  1. EFFECTS OF INHALED ULTRAFINE PARTICLES ON PRE-EXISTING ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES. (R826785)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. SYNTHETIC COPPER-CONTAINING PARTICLES ENHANCE ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory morbidity and mortality associated with increases in ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) may be dependent on particle elemental composition. Particle-associated metals such as copper may catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species leading to inflammation and l...

  3. Simvastatin Inhibits Airway Hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Amir A.; Franzi, Lisa; Last, Jerold; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Statin use has been linked to improved lung health in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We hypothesize that statins inhibit allergic airway inflammation and reduce airway hyperreactivity via a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. Objectives: To determine whether simvastatin attenuates airway inflammation and improves lung physiology by mevalonate pathway inhibition. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin over 4 weeks and exposed to 1% ovalbumin aerosol over 2 weeks. Simvastatin (40 mg/kg) or simvastatin plus mevalonate (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally before each ovalbumin exposure. Measurements and Main Results: Simvastatin reduced total lung lavage leukocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages (P < 0.05) in the ovalbumin-exposed mice. Cotreatment with mevalonate, in addition to simvastatin, reversed the antiinflammatory effects seen with simvastatin alone (P < 0.05). Lung lavage IL-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were all reduced by treatment with simvastatin (P < 0.05). Simvastatin treatment before methacholine bronchial challenge increased lung compliance and reduced airway hyperreactivity (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Simvastatin attenuates allergic airway inflammation, inhibits key helper T cell type 1 and 2 chemokines, and improves lung physiology in a mouse model of asthma. The mevalonate pathway appears to modulate allergic airway inflammation, while the beneficial effects of simvastatin on lung compliance and airway hyperreactivity may be independent of the mevalonate pathway. Simvastatin and similar agents that modulate the mevalonate pathway may prove to be treatments for inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma. PMID:19608720

  4. Contribution of Basophils to Cutaneous Immune Reactions and Th2-Mediated Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Basophils are potent effector cells of innate immunity and also play a role in T helper 2 (Th2)-mediated allergic responses. But, although their in vitro functions are well studied, their in vivo functions remain largely unknown. However, several mouse models of basophil depletion have recently been developed and used to investigate basophil functions. For example, in a croton oil-induced model of irritant contact dermatitis in conditionally basophil-depleted transgenic mice, we found that basophils rapidly infiltrate inflamed skin and subsequently induce infiltration of eosinophils. We also showed that basophils induce Th2 skewing upon epicutaneous sensitization with various haptens and peptide antigens. Intriguingly, basophils also promoted Th2 polarization upon protein antigen exposure in the presence of dendritic cells (DCs). The dermal DC subset associated with Th2 skewing was recently identified as CD301b+ DC. Such studies with basophil-deficient mouse models have significantly improved our understanding of the mechanisms involved in human immune-related diseases. In this review, we will focus on the relative contribution of basophils and DCs to Th2-mediated allergic responses. PMID:26284076

  5. Modulation of the immune response by infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in children with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Guangorena-Gómez, J O; Maravilla-Domínguez, A; García-Arenas, G; Cervantes-Flores, M; Meza-Velázquez, R; Rivera-Guillén, M; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R C

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that the allergic response can be ameliorated by the administration of pathogen derivatives that activate Toll-like receptors and induce a Th1-type immune response (IR). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that promotes an IR via Toll-like receptors and elicits the production of Th1-type cytokines, which limit cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to investigate allergy-related immune markers in children naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. In a cross-sectional study, 49 children with or without clinical diagnosis of allergies, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faeces were screened microscopically. We microscopically screened for leucocytes, examined T and B cells for allergy-related activation markers using flow cytometry and evaluated serum for total IgE using chemiluminescence. Children with allergies and Cryptosporidium in the faeces had significantly lower levels of total IgE, B cells, CD19(+) CD23(+) and CD19(+) CD124(+) cells as well as a greater percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+) ) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) cells than children with allergies without Cryptosporidium. This is the first description of the modulation of the IR in children with allergic diseases in the setting of natural Cryptosporidium infection. Our findings suggest the involvement of CD4(+) cells producing IL-4 and IFN-γ in the IR to Cryptosporidium in naturally infected children. PMID:27150641

  6. Enhancement of allergic responses in vivo and in vitro by butylated hydroxytoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Kouya; Taneda, Shinji; Yanagisawa, Rie; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yoshino, Shin

    2007-09-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used widely as an antioxidant, on IgE-dependent allergic responses in vivo and in vitro was investigated. For in vivo study, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was elicited in rats by i.d. injection of anti-DNP IgE and 48 h later by i.v. injection of DNP-HSA. BHT was i.p. given immediately after anti-DNP IgE injection. For in vitro studies, the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE was challenged with the multivalent antigen DNP-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) in the presence or absence of BHT. {beta}-Hexosaminidase and histamine released from RBL2H3 cells, as indicators of degranulation of the cells, the concentration of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, the level of phosphorylated-Akt, and global tyrosine phosphorylation as indicators of mast cell activation, were measured. The results showed that BHT given to anti-DNP IgE-sensitized rats augmented DNP-specific PCA in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BHT, IgE-induced releases of {beta}-hexosaminidase and histamine from RBL2H3 cells were increased. BHT also further elevated IgE-mediated increased concentrations of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and the levels of phosphorylated-Akt, but did not affect global tyrosine phosphorylation, in RBL2H3 cells. Moreover, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited IgE-dependent degranulation and its enhancement by BHT. These findings indicate that BHT may upregulate PCA by enhancing mast cell degranulation associated with enhancements of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration and PI3K activation, suggesting that BHT might affect allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  7. Airway responses to methacholine and exercise at high altitude in healthy lowlanders.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Riccardo; Pompilio, Pasquale; Quaranta, Marco; Aliverti, Andrea; Kayser, Bengt; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Fasano, Valter; Cogo, Annalisa; Milanese, Manlio; Cornara, Giuseppe; Brusasco, Vito; Dellacà, Raffaele

    2010-02-01

    Peribronchial edema has been proposed as a mechanism enhancing airway responses to constrictor stimuli. Acute exposure to altitude in nonacclimatized lowlanders leads to subclinical interstitial pulmonary edema that lasts for several days after ascent, as suggested by changes in lung mechanics. We, therefore, investigated whether changes in lung mechanics consistent with fluid accumulation at high altitude within the lungs are associated with changes in airway responses to methacholine or exercise. Fourteen healthy subjects were studied at 4,559 and at 120 m above sea level. At high altitude, both static and dynamic lung compliances and respiratory reactance at 5 Hz significantly decreased, suggestive of interstitial pulmonary edema. Resting minute ventilation significantly increased by approximately 30%. Compared with sea level, inhalation of methacholine at high altitude caused a similar reduction of partial forced expiratory flow but less reduction of maximal forced expiratory flow, less increments of pulmonary resistance and respiratory resistance at 5 Hz, and similar effects of deep breath on pulmonary and respiratory resistance. During maximal incremental exercise at high altitude, partial forced expiratory flow gradually increased with the increase in minute ventilation similarly to sea level but both achieved higher values at peak exercise. In conclusion, airway responsiveness to methacholine at high altitude is well preserved despite the occurrence of interstitial pulmonary edema. We suggest that this may be the result of the increase in resting minute ventilation opposing the effects and/or the development of airway smooth muscle force, reduced gas density, and well preserved airway-to-parenchyma interdependence. PMID:19940099

  8. A comparison between intratracheal and inhalation delivery of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in the development of fungal allergic asthma in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Amali E.; Hoselton, Scott A.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Allergic asthma is a debilitating disease of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia with associated mucus hypersecretion, and airway wall remodelling events, particularly subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia. Animal models that accurately mimic these hallmarks of allergic airways disease are critical for studying mechanisms associated with the cellular and structural changes that lead to disease pathogenesis. Aspergillus fumigatus, is a common aeroallergen of human asthmatics. The intratracheal (IT) delivery of A. fumigatus conidia into the airways of sensitized mice has been described as a model of allergic disease. Here, we compared the IT model with a newly developed inhalation (IH) challenge model. The IH model allowed multiple fungal exposures, which resulted in an exacerbation to the allergic asthma phenotype. Increased recruitment of eosinophils and lymphocytes, the hallmark leukocytes of asthma, were noted with the IH model as compared to the IT model in which macrophages and neutrophils were more prominent. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) production was significantly greater after IH challenge, while that of IgG2a was higher after IT challenge. Airway wall remodelling was pronounced in IH-treated mice, particularly after multiple allergen challenges. Although the IT model may be appropriate for the examination of the played by innate cells in the acute response to fungus, it fails to consistently reproduce the chronic remodelling hallmarks of allergic asthma. The ability of the IH challenge to mimic these characteristics recommends it as a model suited to study these important events. PMID:21215951

  9. A comparison between intratracheal and inhalation delivery of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in the development of fungal allergic asthma in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Amali E; Hoselton, Scott A; Schuh, Jane M

    2011-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a debilitating disease of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia with associated mucus hypersecretion, and airway wall remodelling events, particularly subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia. Animal models that accurately mimic these hallmarks of allergic airways disease are critical for studying mechanisms associated with the cellular and structural changes that lead to disease pathogenesis. Aspergillus fumigatus, is a common aeroallergen of human asthmatics. The intratracheal (IT) delivery of A. fumigatus conidia into the airways of sensitized mice has been described as a model of allergic disease. Here, we compared the IT model with a newly developed inhalation (IH) challenge model. The IH model allowed multiple fungal exposures, which resulted in an exacerbation to the allergic asthma phenotype. Increased recruitment of eosinophils and lymphocytes, the hallmark leukocytes of asthma, was noted with the IH model as compared to the IT model in which macrophages and neutrophils were more prominent. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) production was significantly greater after IH challenge, while that of IgG(2a) was higher after IT challenge. Airway wall remodelling was pronounced in IH-treated mice, particularly after multiple allergen challenges. Although the IT model may be appropriate for the examination of the played by innate cells in the acute response to fungus, it fails to consistently reproduce the chronic remodelling hallmarks of allergic asthma. The ability of the IH challenge to mimic these characteristics recommends it as a model suited to study these important events. PMID:21215951

  10. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma by Mimosa pudica extract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji-Sook; Yun, Chi-Young; Ryang, Yong Suk; Kim, Jong-Bae; Kim, In Sik

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of asthma include the infiltration of leukocytes and release of cytokines. Mimosa pudica (Mp) has been used traditionally for the treatment of insomnia, diarrhea and inflammatory diseases. Although Mp extract has various therapeutic properties, the effect of this extract on asthma has not yet been reported. This study investigated the suppressive effects of Mp extract on asthmatic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mp extract was acquired from dried and powdered whole plants of M. pudica using 80% ethanol. BALB/c mice were used for the mouse model of asthma induced by ovalbumin. Mp extract significantly inhibited the HMC-1 cell migration induced by stem cell factor and blocked the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in EoL-1 cells. Leukocytosis, eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic lung were significantly suppressed by Mp extract. The release of ovalbumin-specific IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was also decreased. Mp extract treatment resulted in no liver cytotoxicity. The Mp extract has inhibitory properties on asthma and may be used as a potent therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation. PMID:20623591

  11. S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase Inhibition Regulates Allergen-Induced Lung Inflammation and Airway Hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, David J. P.; Bradley, Matthews O.; Jaffar, Zeina

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by Th2 type inflammation, leading to airway hyperresponsivenes, mucus hypersecretion and tissue remodeling. S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is an alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the regulation of intracellular levels of S-nitrosothiols. GSNOR activity has been shown to be elevated in human asthmatic lungs, resulting in diminished S-nitrosothiols and thus contributing to increased airway hyperreactivity. Using a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, we report that intranasal administration of a new selective inhibitor of GSNOR, SPL-334, caused a marked reduction in airway hyperreactivity, allergen-specific T cells and eosinophil accumulation, and mucus production in the lungs in response to allergen inhalation. Moreover, SPL-334 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 and the level of the chemokine CCL11 (eotaxin-1) in the airways. Collectively, these observations reveal that GSNOR inhibitors are effective not only in reducing airway hyperresponsiveness but also in limiting lung inflammatory responses mediated by CD4+ Th2 cells. These findings suggest that the inhibition of GSNOR may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:23936192

  12. Airway smooth muscle in airway reactivity and remodeling: what have we learned?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is now established that airway smooth muscle (ASM) has roles in determining airway structure and function, well beyond that as the major contractile element. Indeed, changes in ASM function are central to the manifestation of allergic, inflammatory, and fibrotic airway diseases in both children and adults, as well as to airway responses to local and environmental exposures. Emerging evidence points to novel signaling mechanisms within ASM cells of different species that serve to control diverse features, including 1) [Ca2+]i contractility and relaxation, 2) cell proliferation and apoptosis, 3) production and modulation of extracellular components, and 4) release of pro- vs. anti-inflammatory mediators and factors that regulate immunity as well as the function of other airway cell types, such as epithelium, fibroblasts, and nerves. These diverse effects of ASM “activity” result in modulation of bronchoconstriction vs. bronchodilation relevant to airway hyperresponsiveness, airway thickening, and fibrosis that influence compliance. This perspective highlights recent discoveries that reveal the central role of ASM in this regard and helps set the stage for future research toward understanding the pathways regulating ASM and, in turn, the influence of ASM on airway structure and function. Such exploration is key to development of novel therapeutic strategies that influence the pathophysiology of diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24142517

  13. Elevated and cross-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sumithra; Aslam, Aamir; Misbah, Siraj A; Salio, Mariolina; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Moody, D Branch; Ogg, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The role of CD1a-reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a-reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a-transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T-cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM-CSF, and IL-13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-13 producing CD1a-reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom-derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells were cross-responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a-reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein-specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a-reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. PMID:26518614

  14. Elevated and cross‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sumithra; Aslam, Aamir; Misbah, Siraj A.; Salio, Mariolina; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Moody, D Branch

    2015-01-01

    The role of CD1a‐reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a‐reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a‐transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T‐cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN‐γ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 producing CD1a‐reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom‐derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells were cross‐responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a‐reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein‐specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. PMID:26518614

  15. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  16. Piperazine-induced airway symptoms: exposure-response relationships and selection in an occupational setting

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmar, L.; Bellander, T.; Ranstam, J.; Skerfving, S.

    1984-01-01

    The heterocyclic secondary amine piperazine is known to cause asthma. In a cohort of 602 workers, employed during the period 1942-1979, at a chemical industry where piperazine is handled, a study conducted by means of a mailed questionnaire showed a strong exposure-response relationship as to frequency of work-related airway symptoms indicating asthma. In the most exposed group about a third of the workers had experienced such symptoms. Age, length of employment, smoking habits, and previous work-related asthmatic symptoms, but not atopy, modified the response. Further, there was an association between piperazine exposure and chronic bronchitis. In the most exposed group every fourth subject had chronic bronchitis. The frequency was modified by smoking habits; atopy was a confounder. Although many subjects, especially high-exposed ones, left work because of airway symptoms, there was no difference in occurrence of airway symptoms between former and present employees.

  17. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Tager, I.B.; Balmes, J.R.; Harrison, R.J. )

    1992-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from five U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS) Hotshot crews in Northern California and Montana completed questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing before and after an active season of fire fighting in 1989. There were significant mean individual declines of 0.09, 0.15, and 0.44 L/s in postseason values of FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75, respectively, compared with preseason values. There were no consistent significant relationships between mean individual declines of the spirometric parameters and the covariates: sex, smoking history, history of asthma or allergies, years as a fire fighter, upper/lower respiratory symptoms, or membership in a particular Hotshot crew. There was a statistically significant increase in airway responsiveness when comparing preseason methacholine dose-response slopes (DRS) with postseason dose-response slopes (p = 0.02). The increase in airway responsiveness appeared to be greatest in fire fighters with a history of lower respiratory symptoms or asthma, but it was not related to smoking history. These data suggest that wildland fire fighting is associated with decreases in lung function and increases in airway responsiveness independent of a history of cigarette smoking. Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies of municipal fire fighters.

  18. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Tager, I B; Balmes, J R; Harrison, R J

    1992-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from five U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS) Hotshot crews in Northern California and Montana completed questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing before and after an active season of fire fighting in 1989. There were significant mean individual declines of 0.09, 0.15, and 0.44 L/s in postseason values of FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75, respectively, compared with preseason values. There were no consistent significant relationships between mean individual declines of the spirometric parameters and the covariates: sex, smoking history, history of asthma or allergies, years as a fire fighter, upper/lower respiratory symptoms, or membership in a particular Hotshot crew. There was a statistically significant increase in airway responsiveness when comparing preseason methacholine dose-response slopes (DRS) with postseason dose-response slopes (p = 0.02). The increase in airway responsiveness appeared to be greatest in fire fighters with a history of lower respiratory symptoms or asthma, but it was not related to smoking history. These data suggest that wildland fire fighting is associated with decreases in lung function and increases in airway responsiveness independent of a history of cigarette smoking. Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies of municipal fire fighters. PMID:1456562

  19. Enhanced allergic responsiveness after early childhood infection with respiratory viruses: Are long-lived alternatively activated macrophages the missing link?

    PubMed

    Keegan, Achsah D; Shirey, Kari Ann; Bagdure, Dayanand; Blanco, Jorge; Viscardi, Rose M; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2016-07-01

    Early childhood infection with respiratory viruses, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, is associated with an increased risk of allergic asthma and severe exacerbation of ongoing disease. Despite the long recognition of this relationship, the mechanism linking viral infection and later susceptibility to allergic lung inflammation is still poorly understood. We discuss the literature and provide new evidence demonstrating that these viruses induce the alternative activation of macrophages. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) induced by RSV or influenza infection persisted in the lungs of mice up to 90 days after initial viral infection. Several studies suggest that AAM contribute to allergic inflammatory responses, although their mechanism of action is unclear. In this commentary, we propose that virus-induced AAM provide a link between viral infection and enhanced responses to inhaled allergens. PMID:27178560

  20. Basophil response to peanut allergens in Mediterranean peanut-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Gomez, F; Aranda, A; Koppelman, S J; Diaz-Perales, A; Blanca-López, N; Blazquez, A B; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

    2014-07-01

    Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 are important sensitizers in peanut allergy. Ara h 9 has also been shown to be relevant in the Mediterranean area. We evaluated the basophil response to peanut allergens and Pru p 3 in Mediterranean patients: Group 1, peanut and peach allergy; Group 2, peanut allergy and tolerance to peach; Group 3, peach allergy and tolerance to peanut; Group 4, nonallergic subjects that tolerate both peanut and peach. Compared to controls (Group 4), there was an increased basophil activation with Ara h 2 (P = 0.031) and Pru p 3 (P = 0.009) in Group 1 and with Ara h 1 (P = 0.016), Ara h 2 (P = 0.001), and Ara h 9 (P = 0.016) in Group 2. Importantly, only Ara h 2 showed an increased activation (P = 0.009) in Group 2 compared to Group 3. Ara h 2 is the best discriminating allergen for peanut allergy diagnosis in a Mediterranean population showing two patterns: patients also allergic to peach, responding to Ara h 2 and Pru p 3, and patients allergic only to peanut, responding to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 9. PMID:24816395

  1. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  2. House dust mite allergen induces asthma via TLR4 triggering of airway structural cells

    PubMed Central

    HAMMAD, Hamida; CHIEPPA, Marcello; PERROS, Frederic; WILLART, Monique A.; GERMAIN, Ronald N.; LAMBRECHT, Bart N.

    2009-01-01

    Barrier epithelial cells and airway dendritic cells (DC) make up the first line of defence against inhaled substances like house dust mite (HDM) allergen and endotoxin. We hypothesized that these cells need to communicate to cause allergic disease. Using irradiated chimeric mice, we demonstrate that TLR4 expression on radioresistant lung structural cells is required and sufficient for DC activation in the lung and for priming of effector T helper responses to HDM. TLR4 triggering on structural cells caused production of the innate proallergic cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin-25 and IL-33. The absence of TLR4 on structural cells, but not on hematopoietic cells, abolished HDM driven allergic airway inflammation. Finally, inhalation of a TLR4 antagonist to target exposed epithelial cells suppressed the salient features of asthma including bronchial hyperreactivity. Our data identify an innate immune function of airway epithelial cells that drives allergic inflammation via activation of mucosal DCs. PMID:19330007

  3. Bee venom phospholipase A2 suppresses allergic airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model through the induction of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Baek, Hyunjung; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Gihyun; Lee, Hyeonhoon; Kang, Geun-Hyung; Lee, Gyeseok; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-12-01

    Bee venom (BV) is one of the alternative medicines that have been widely used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously demonstrated that BV induces immune tolerance by increasing the population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in immune disorders. However, the major component and how it regulates the immune response have not been elucidated. We investigated whether bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) exerts protective effects that are mediated via Tregs in OVA-induced asthma model. bvPLA2 was administered by intraperitoneal injection into control and OVA-challenged mice. The Treg population, total and differential bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count, Th2 cytokines, and lung histological features were assessed. Treg depletion was used to determine the involvement of Treg migration and the reduction of asthmatic symptoms. The CD206-dependence of bvPLA2-treated suppression of airway inflammation was evaluated in OVA-challenged CD206(-/-) mice. The bvPLA2 treatment induced the Tregs and reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in the OVA-challenged mice. Th2 cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were reduced in bvPLA2-treated mice. Although bvPLA2 suppressed the number of inflammatory cells after OVA challenge, these effects were not observed in Treg-depleted mice. In addition, we investigated the involvement of CD206 in bvPLA2-mediated immune tolerance in OVA-induced asthma model. We observed a significant reduction in the levels of Th2 cytokines and inflammatory cells in the BALF of bvPLA2-treated OVA-induced mice but not in bvPLA2-treated OVA-induced CD206(-/-) mice. These results demonstrated that bvPLA2 can mitigate airway inflammation by the induction of Tregs in an OVA-induced asthma model. PMID:26734460

  4. Local Immune Responses in Children and Adults with Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hana; Jang, Man-Young; Kim, Kyung Rae; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease but little is known about the difference of local immune responses in children and adults with AR. Objective To compare local immune responses between children and adults with AR and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), and to investigate whether the association of local and systemic immune responses is different between the two age groups. Methods Fifty-one patients with chronic rhinitis were enrolled and grouped into children (N = 27, mean age 7.2 years) and adults (N = 24, mean age 29.9 years). Diagnosis of AR was based on symptoms, skin prick tests and serum specific IgEs. Nasal lavage (NAL) fluids were collected from all subjects and used to measure the levels of total IgE, specific IgEs to house dust mites (Dp and Df), and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A and IFN-γ). Flow cytometry was used to measure inflammatory cell types in NAL fluids. Results AR had significantly increased local levels of total IgE and specific IgEs to Dp and Df compared with NAR in both age groups (P < 0.05). Nasal eosinophils % (P = 0.01) was significantly increased only in children with AR. Local-systemic correlations of total IgE (r = 0.662, P = 0.000) and eosinophil % (r = 0.461, P = 0.015) between the peripheral blood and NAL fluids were found only in children. Moreover, children had correlations between total IgE and eosinophil % in the peripheral blood (r = 0.629, P = 0.001) and in NAL fluids (r = 0.373, P = 0.061). Conclusion Elevated local IgE is a common feature of AR in children and adults. Local measures in NAR showed naïve state of immune response which disagree with the hypothesis of local allergic rhinitis. Children showed intense local inflammation and close local-systemic interactions compared to adults supporting pediatric AR as a distinct feature. PMID:27281182

  5. Antioxidant airway responses following experimental exposure to wood smoke in man

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Biomass combustion contributes to the production of ambient particulate matter (PM) in rural environments as well as urban settings, but relatively little is known about the health effects of these emissions. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize airway responses in humans exposed to wood smoke PM under controlled conditions. Nineteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both wood smoke, at a particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of 224 ± 22 μg/m3, and filtered air for three hours with intermittent exercise. The wood smoke was generated employing an experimental set-up with an adjustable wood pellet boiler system under incomplete combustion. Symptoms, lung function, and exhaled NO were measured over exposures, with bronchoscopy performed 24 h post-exposure for characterisation of airway inflammatory and antioxidant responses in airway lavages. Results Glutathione (GSH) concentrations were enhanced in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after wood smoke exposure vs. air (p = 0.025), together with an increase in upper airway symptoms. Neither lung function, exhaled NO nor systemic nor airway inflammatory parameters in BAL and bronchial mucosal biopsies were significantly affected. Conclusions Exposure of healthy subjects to wood smoke, derived from an experimental wood pellet boiler operating under incomplete combustion conditions with PM emissions dominated by organic matter, caused an increase in mucosal symptoms and GSH in the alveolar respiratory tract lining fluids but no acute airway inflammatory responses. We contend that this response reflects a mobilisation of GSH to the air-lung interface, consistent with a protective adaptation to the investigated wood smoke exposure. PMID:20727160

  6. Airway wall thickness is increased in COPD patients with bronchodilator responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) is a common but variable phenomenon in COPD. The CT characteristics of airway dimensions that differentiate COPD subjects with BDR from those without BDR have not been well described. We aimed to assess airway dimensions in COPD subjects with and without BDR. Methods We analyzed subjects with GOLD 1–4 disease in the COPDGene® study who had CT airway an