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Sample records for allergic alveolitis eaa

  1. New occupational and environmental causes of asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Fishwick, David

    2012-12-01

    Asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) remain prevalent respiratory diseases and the cause of a significant disease burden. This article reviews the recent occupational and environmental causes described for these conditions. Even over the limited time spam addressed by this article, novel agents and new data relating to already suggested causes have been described. Various types of work tasks or exposures are described that appear to cause both asthma and EAA. Isocyanates, the best example of dual potential to cause asthma and EAA are discussed, as is the new understanding of the role metal-working fluids play when causing respiratory diseases. PMID:23153603

  2. Allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern Poland: a study of twenty cases.

    PubMed

    Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients. PMID:9852490

  3. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by a cold water humidifier.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A S; Burge, P S; Wieland, G A; Carmalt, M H

    1987-01-01

    Three workers developed classical extrinsic allergic alveolitis while working in a printing works that had a contaminated cold water humidifier. All had nodular shadows on their chest radiographs, reduced gas transfer measurements, and lung biopsy specimens that showed an alveolitis with giant cells and cholesterol clefts. In two subjects bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the lavage fluid contained more than 70% lymphocytes in each case. Bronchial provocation tests with the humidifier antigen in these two workers reproduced their symptoms. Unlike previously reported cases, where exposure was to humidifiers working at generally higher temperatures, challenge with thermophilic actinomycetes in our two patients produced no reaction. Tests for precipitins to the humidifier antigen gave strongly positive reactions in the three workers but no single organism isolated from the humidifier produced a significantly positive reaction. Images PMID:3616972

  4. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects. PMID:23457980

  5. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in a sawmill worker. A case report.

    PubMed

    Terho, E O; Husman, K; Kotimaa, M; Sjöblom, T

    1980-06-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, with acute attacks of the disease, developed in a sawmill worker. The diagnosis was based on the history of exposure to moldy wood, on the symptoms and clinical signs, and on physiological and radiographic findings. A microbiological analysis of the ambient air of the patient's work environment showed that the air contained a considerable number of spores, both of fungi and actinomycetes. The most common fungal genus was Aspergillus. Thermoactinomyces vulgaris predominated the actinomycetal flora. The patient's serum contained precipitins to Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Aspergillus fumigatus. Based on the microbiological and serological data, it was concluded that the causative agent(s) of the disease was either T vulgaris or species of the genus Aspergillus. PMID:7001618

  6. BN 52021 (a platelet activating factor-receptor antagonist) decreases alveolar macrophage-mediated lung injury in experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Arellano, J L; Martín, T; López-Novoa, J M; Sánchez, M L; Montero, A; Jiménez, A

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of research indirectly suggest that platelet activating factor (PAF) may intervene in the pathogenesis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). The specific aim of our study was to evaluate the participation of PAF on macrophage activation during the acute phase of EAA in an experimental model of this disease developed in guinea pigs. Initially we measured the concentration of PAF in bronchoalvedar lavage fluid, blood and lung tissue. In a second phase we evaluate the participation of PAF on alveolar macrophage activation and parenchymal lung injury. The effect of PAF on parenchymal lung injury was evaluated by measuring several lung parenchymatous lesion indices (lung index, bronchoalvedar lavage fluid (BALF) lactic hydrogenase activity and BALF alkaline phosphatase activity) and parameters of systemic response to the challenge (acute phase reagents). We observed that induction of the experimental EAA gave rise to an increase in the concentration of PAF in blood and in lung tissue. The use of the PAF-receptor antagonist BN52021 decreases the release of lysosomal enzymes (beta-glucuronidase and tartrate-sensitive acid phosphatase) to the extracellular environment both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, antagonism of the PAF receptors notably decreases pulmonary parenchymatous lesion. These data suggest that lung lesions from acute EAA are partly mediated by local production of PAF. PMID:9705608

  7. [Pathomorphology of the lungs and microcirculatory bed of the lesser circulation in chronic experimental allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Orekhov, O O; Kirillov, Iu A

    1985-01-01

    Granulomatous lung lesions were produced in rats by 5 intravenous or intratracheal injections of the killed BCG suspension as an antigen. On the basis of immunocomplex and cell-mediated immunopathological reactions this condition may be considered as a chronic allergic form of alveolitis. Granulomas were formed along the arteries when the antigen was administered intravenously and along the bronchi after its intratracheal administration. In both cases there were single granulomas in the alveolar septa interstitium. The microcirculatory bed was studied in semithin sections and morphometrically in thick sections after impregnation with an Indian ink and 5% gelatin. The alveolar septa capillaries in control rats were shown to form a network the parameters ow which rather correspond to the "sheet-blow" model (Fung and Sobin, 1969). In chronic allergic alveolitis, a reduction of the capillary network develops at the zone of granulomatous inflammation while in the relatively normal zone a network type of the microcirculatory bed is preformed into the main one with the formation of predominant routes of circulation that provide the blood filling of the heart cavities. PMID:4074142

  8. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677

  9. [Allergic alveolitis in agricultural workers, caused by thermophilic bacteria or fungi].

    PubMed

    Barzó, P; Molnár, L; Csokonay, L

    1989-01-01

    Between 1976-1986 fifty-seven patients with farmer's lung have been diagnosed in Hungary on the basis of data obtained from public institutes for tuberculosis. That are 0.08% of the 744,300 manual workers employed in agriculture and forestry. In the counties of Borsod and Szolnok the rate was 0.5% (referred to 62,900 and 36,000 individuals, respectively). Regional accumulation of the different provoking agent's and variation of disease prevalence seem to be in correlation with geographical, climatic, meteorological, economical and occupational factors, showing a declining tendency in recent years. Antibodies of the Thermoactinomyces vulgaris antigen could be detected most frequently. In the biopsy material of 17 patients obtained by Klassen biopsy were fibrosing and not fibrosing desquamative alveolitis, granulomas similar to sarcoidosis, bronchiolitis with peribronchial fibrosis observed. Mostly focal, rarely subpleural deficiencies were detected by lung-scintigraphy, their dimension in acute cases being greater than the extent of radiological lesions. On the basis of 5 Coombs positive cases authors consider conceivable that sometimes cytotoxic allergic reaction type II participates in the pathogenesis of farmer's lung. PMID:2686222

  10. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with eosinophil infiltration induced by 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a): a case report.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Yasui, Masahide; Nakade, Yusuke; Kimura, Hideharu; Katayama, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Kazuo; Fujimura, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman was admitted with symptoms of dyspnea and fever with pulmonary infiltrates noted on her chest X-ray study. She developed these symptoms in the workplace; her job included the removal of body hair using a diode-laser with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a, an alternative to chlorofluorocarbon) as a coolant. A chest X-ray examination revealed ground-glass opacities in the lower lung fields, and a chest computed tomographic study showed diffuse centrilobular opacities. An examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed increased lymphocytes with a slight increase in the number of eosinophils. An examination of the transbronchial biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration. A peripheral blood eosinophilia was also seen. The patient's symptoms, chest X-ray findings, and arterial blood gas analysis all returned to normal within a week. A challenge test of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a) inhalation was performed, which resulted in an elevation of body temperature, the development of a cough, and laboratory data indicating increased inflammation. We then determined the patient's diagnosis to be extrinsic allergic alveolitis with eosinophil infiltration, caused by HFC134a. PMID:17827848

  11. miEAA: microRNA enrichment analysis and annotation.

    PubMed

    Backes, Christina; Khaleeq, Qurratulain T; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Similar to the development of gene set enrichment and gene regulatory network analysis tools over a decade ago, microRNA enrichment tools are currently gaining importance. Building on our experience with the gene set analysis toolkit GeneTrail, we implemented the miRNA Enrichment Analysis and Annotation tool (miEAA). MiEAA is a web-based application that offers a variety of commonly applied statistical tests such as over-representation analysis and miRNA set enrichment analysis, which is similar to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Besides the different statistical tests, miEAA also provides rich functionality in terms of miRNA categories. Altogether, over 14 000 miRNA sets have been added, including pathways, diseases, organs and target genes. Importantly, our tool can be applied for miRNA precursors as well as mature miRNAs. To make the tool as useful as possible we additionally implemented supporting tools such as converters between different miRBase versions and converters from miRNA names to precursor names. We evaluated the performance of miEAA on two sets of miRNAs that are affected in lung adenocarcinomas and have been detected by array analysis. The web-based application is freely accessible at: http://www.ccb.uni-saarland.de/mieaa_tool/. PMID:27131362

  12. miEAA: microRNA enrichment analysis and annotation

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Christina; Khaleeq, Qurratulain T.; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the development of gene set enrichment and gene regulatory network analysis tools over a decade ago, microRNA enrichment tools are currently gaining importance. Building on our experience with the gene set analysis toolkit GeneTrail, we implemented the miRNA Enrichment Analysis and Annotation tool (miEAA). MiEAA is a web-based application that offers a variety of commonly applied statistical tests such as over-representation analysis and miRNA set enrichment analysis, which is similar to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Besides the different statistical tests, miEAA also provides rich functionality in terms of miRNA categories. Altogether, over 14 000 miRNA sets have been added, including pathways, diseases, organs and target genes. Importantly, our tool can be applied for miRNA precursors as well as mature miRNAs. To make the tool as useful as possible we additionally implemented supporting tools such as converters between different miRBase versions and converters from miRNA names to precursor names. We evaluated the performance of miEAA on two sets of miRNAs that are affected in lung adenocarcinomas and have been detected by array analysis. The web-based application is freely accessible at: http://www.ccb.uni-saarland.de/mieaa_tool/. PMID:27131362

  13. Colponemids represent multiple ancient alveolate lineages.

    PubMed

    Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Mikhailov, Kirill V; Simdyanov, Timur G; Aleoshin, Vladimir V; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J

    2013-12-16

    The alveolates comprise three well-studied protist lineages of significant environmental, medical, and economical importance: apicomplexans (e.g., Plasmodium), dinoflagellates (e.g., Symbiodinium), and ciliates (e.g., Tetrahymena). These major lineages have evolved distinct and unusual characteristics, the origins of which have proved to be difficult evolutionary puzzles. Mitochondrial genomes are a prime example: all three groups depart from canonical form and content, but in different ways. Reconstructing such ancient transitions is difficult without deep-branching lineages that retain ancestral characteristics. Here we describe two such lineages and how they illuminate the ancestral state of alveolate mitochondrial genomes. We established five clonal cultures of colponemids, predatory alveolates without cultured representatives and molecular data. Colponemids represent at least two independent lineages at the phylum level in multilocus phylogenetic analysis; one sister to apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and the other at a deeper position. A genome survey from one strain showed that ancestral state of the mitochondrial genomes in the three major alveolate lineages consisted of an unusual linear chromosome with telomeres and a substantially larger gene set than known alveolates. Colponemid sequences also identified several environmental lineages as colponemids, altogether suggesting an untapped potential for understanding the origin and evolution of apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates. PMID:24316202

  14. Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) - AirVenture 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) - AirVenture 2003: Artist Robert T. McCall discussed the motivation for his new NASA century-of-flight mural during unveiling ceremonies July 30, 2003 at the EAA convention in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. A panoramic mural commissioned by NASA to depict highlights of the first century of flight was unveiled at the world's largest aviation event, the Experimental Aircraft Associations AirVenture - Oshkosh convention in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The mural, by aviation artist Robert McCall, measures six by 18 feet. McCall was on hand with NASA Dryden Flight Research Center director Kevin Peterson and Experimental Aircraft Association president Tom Poberezny for the official unveiling at Noon July 30, 2003. The painting depicts a host of milestone aircraft and spacecraft swirling around the original Wright Flyer, symbolically airborne in front of the sun at the dawn of the age of flight. In the foreground, fliers ranging from a happy-go-lucky aviator of World War One to a pair of free-floating astronauts, anonymous behind the reflective shields of their helmets, depict the people who animate the vehicles in the painting. The mural entitled 'Celebrating One Hundred Years of Powered Flight, 1903-2003' will be exhibited at the EAA as part fo the commemoration of a century of flight and eventually will go on permanent display at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Edwards Air Force Base in California. NASA Dryden director Keven Peterson said: ' This is an exciting day for us. The painting...has been years in the making. The events it records were a century in the making. But this is a celebration of the future yet to be.' Tom Poberezny said he was proud NASA chose to unveil the mural at AirVenture, 'Experimental Aircraft Association has valued the relationship it has with NASA.' Robert McCall told the audience he enjoys the awe of flight. He said he likes to think humanity is still just experiencing the beginnings of flight.

  15. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  16. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner-Warwick, M; Lebowitz, M; Burrows, B; Johnson, A

    1980-07-01

    Lung cancer was found in 20 (9.8%) of 205 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) or 12.9% of the 155 patients in this series followed to death. An excess relative risk of lung cancer of 14.1 was found in patients with CFA compared to the general population of comparable age and sex, allowing for the lengths of follow-up of the CFA patients. The relative risk for male smokers was (observed/expected) 15+1.06 = 14.2, and for female smokers (O/E) 2/0.3 = 6.7. Only one male and one female non-smoker had lung cancer. These data suggest that there is an excess risk of lung cancer not wholly accounted for by age, sex, or smoking habit. The distribution of histological types was not obviously different from that found in lung cancer without pulmonary fibrosis. Large opacities suggestive of lung cancer were present at the time of first hospital attendance for symptoms relating to CFA in four of the 20 patients. Finger clubbing was present in 19 (95%) compared with 116/185 (63%) of those so far not developing cancer. There were no other clinical differences at presentation. In particular, cancer was not found especially in those with longer survival from the onset of symptoms of CFA or with a greater initial radiographic change. PMID:7434310

  17. Alveolate phylogeny inferred using concatenated ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Handy, Sara M; Place, Allen R; Delwiche, Charles F

    2011-01-01

    Dinoflagellates and apicomplexans are a strongly supported monophyletic group in rDNA phylogenies, although this phylogeny is not without controversy, particularly between the two groups. Here we use concatenated protein-coding genes from expressed sequence tags or genomic data to construct phylogenies including "typical" dinophycean dinoflagellates, a parasitic syndinian dinoflagellate, Amoebophrya sp., and two related species, Oxyrrhis marina, and Perkinsus marinus. Seventeen genes encoding proteins associated with the ribosome were selected for phylogenetic analysis. The dataset was limited for the most part by data availability from the dinoflagellates. Forty-five taxa from four major lineages were used: the heterokont outgroup, ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans. Amoebophrya sp. was included in this phylogeny as a sole representative of the enigmatic marine alveolate or syndinian lineage. The atypical dinoflagellate O. marina, usually excluded from rDNA analyses due to long branches, was also included. The resulting phylogenies were well supported in concatenated analyses with only a few unstable or weakly supported branches; most features were consistent when different lineages were pruned from the tree or different genes were concatenated. The least stable branches involved the placement of Cryptosporidium spp. within the Apicomplexa and the relationships between P. marinus, Amoebophrya sp., and O. marina. Both bootstrap and approximately unbiased test results confirmed that P. marinus, Amoebophrya sp., O. marina, and the remaining dinoflagellates form a monophyletic lineage to the exclusion of Apicomplexa. PMID:21518081

  18. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  19. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  20. Ventilation perfusion radionuclide imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Bourke, S J; Hawkins, T; Keavey, P M; Gascoigne, A D; Corris, P A

    1993-06-01

    There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. However, the full spectrum of V/Q abnormalities in this disease is poorly defined. We therefore analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and 'washout delay' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving > 60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO2 or A-aO2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. V/Q images in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis show a diverse range of appearances and may mimic pulmonary embolism. V/Q imaging complements the data obtained from lung function tests and is particularly useful in defining the differential function of each lung which is particularly important in the assessment of patients for single lung transplantation. PMID:8321484

  1. Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very frequent disease with a prevalence of 15-20%. Symptoms are most pronounced in young people while, for some unknown reason, the elderly become clinically hyposensitized. Pollen is the cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and house dust mite and animals are the main causes of perennial allergic rhinitis. Histamine is the main cause of sneezing and hypersecretion, while other mediators probably also play a role in nasal blockage. In polyposis, a local denervation is an important cause of vascular leakage, edema and polyp formation. Antihistamines have a positive effect on sneezing and hypersecretion, but not on blockage. As they have a quick onset of action they are useful in patients with mild and occasional symptoms. A nasal steroid is preferable in patients with persistent symptoms, since it is more effective on all nasal symptoms. Short-term use of a systemic steroid can be a valuable adjunct to topical treatment, especially in nasal polyposis, when there is a temporary failure of topical treatment in a blocked nose. A nasal vasoconstrictor can be added for short-term treatment, and an ipratropium spray can be beneficial in perennial non-allergic rhinitis, when watery secretion is the dominant symptom. Immunotherapy can be added in allergic rhinitis, when pharmacotherapy is insufficient. This chapter is based on the author's personal experience with allergic rhinitis, as a patient, a doctor and a researcher. Therefore, it is not a balanced review and the references will be highly selected as they largely consist of the author's own publications. As the text is mainly based on personal research, steroids are described in detail, while, with regard to immunotherapy, the reader is referred to another chapter. In addition to allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis will be described. It was formerly believed to be an allergic disease, but we now know that it is not. However, with regard to histopathology and drug responsiveness this disease is

  2. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your symptoms. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. If your doctor determines you ... Others cause little or no sleepiness. Antihistamine nasal sprays work well for treating allergic rhinitis. Ask your ...

  3. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  4. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  5. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  6. A Complex Distribution of Elongation Family GTPases EF1A and EFL in Basal Alveolate Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, Kirill V.; Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Mirzaeva, Gulnara S.; Diakin, Andrei Yu.; Simdyanov, Timur G.; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Aleoshin, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1A) and the related GTPase EF-like (EFL) are two proteins with a complex mutually exclusive distribution across the tree of eukaryotes. Recent surveys revealed that the distribution of the two GTPases in even closely related taxa is frequently at odds with their phylogenetic relationships. Here, we investigate the distribution of EF1A and EFL in the alveolate supergroup. Alveolates comprise three major lineages: ciliates and apicomplexans encode EF1A, whereas dinoflagellates encode EFL. We searched transcriptome databases for seven early-diverging alveolate taxa that do not belong to any of these groups: colpodellids, chromerids, and colponemids. Current data suggest all seven are expected to encode EF1A, but we find three genera encode EFL: Colpodella, Voromonas, and the photosynthetic Chromera. Comparing this distribution with the phylogeny of alveolates suggests that EF1A and EFL evolution in alveolates cannot be explained by a simple horizontal gene transfer event or lineage sorting. PMID:25179686

  7. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; CARDOSO, Camila Lopes; de CARVALHO, Paulo Sérgio Perri; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; FERES, Magda; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier; FERREIRA JÚNIOR, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. Objective In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Material and methods Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. Results All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). Conclusion These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies. PMID:21625744

  8. EAA/EMQN best practice guidelines for molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions: state-of-the-art 2013

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, C; Hoefsloot, L; Simoni, M; Tüttelmann, F

    2014-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions is a common routine genetic test which is part of the diagnostic workup of azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic men. Since 1999, the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) have been actively involved in supporting the improvement of the quality of the diagnostic assays by publication of the laboratory guidelines for molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions and by offering external quality assessment trials. The present revision of the 2004 laboratory guidelines summarizes all the clinical novelties related to the Y chromosome (classic, partial and gene-specific deletions, genotype–phenotype correlations, methodological issues) and provides an update on the results of the quality control programme. These aspects also reflect the consensus of a large group of specialists present at a round table session during the recent Florence-Utah-Symposium on ‘Genetics of male infertility’ (Florence, 19–21 September, 2013). During the last 10 years the gr/gr deletion has been demonstrated as a significant risk factor for impaired sperm production. However, the screening for this deletion type in the routine diagnostic setting is still a debated issue among experts. The original basic protocol based on two multiplex polymerase chain reactions remains fully valid and appropriate for accurate diagnosis of complete AZF deletions and it requires only a minor modification in populations with a specific Y chromosome background. However, in light of novel data on genotype–phenotype correlations, the extension analysis for the AZFa and AZFb deletions is now routinely recommended. Novel methods and kits with excessively high number of markers do not improve the sensitivity of the test, may even complicate the interpretation of the results and are not recommended. Annual participation in an external quality control programme is strongly encouraged. The 12

  9. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  10. "Blue bodies" in a case of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (desquamative type) an ultra-structural study.

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, I T; Uff, J S

    1978-01-01

    A patient with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, with both mural and desquamative features, had two lung biopsies at the times of coronary artery surgery. These lung specimens were studied, using light and electron microscopy, with immunofluorescence techniques and electron microanalysis. In addition to the typical changes of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis previously reported, we found "blue-staining bodies" within alveolar macrophages and giant cells. These bodies were 15--25 micrometer in diameter with an iron rich outer rim and core of connective tissue mucin--possibly chondroitin sulphate or dermatan sulphate. It seems unlikely that these "blue bodies" were due to fibreglass dust to which the patients had had a trivial exposure, but their exact nature and significance remains unclear. Images PMID:218319

  11. Increased lung epithelial permeability in HIV-infected patients with isolated cytotoxic T-lymphocytic alveolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Meignan, M.; Guillon, J.M.; Denis, M.; Joly, P.; Rosso, J.; Carette, M.F.; Baud, L.; Parquin, F.; Plata, F.; Debre, P. )

    1990-05-01

    HIV-related lymphocytic alveolitis is common in HIV-seropositive patients without lung infection or tumor. In some of them a fraction of alveolar lymphocytes are HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) bearing the CD8 and D44 cell surface markers and capable of killing HIV-infected alveolar macrophages. In order to evaluate the in vivo effect of these CTL on lung function, we measured the pulmonary clearance of aerosolized 99mTc-diethylene triamine penta-acetate (DTPA-CI) on 24 occasions in 22 patients with lymphocytic alveolitis. DTPA-CI has been selected as a highly sensitive test to detect injury of the lung epithelium. In 13 of the patients, we found a high DTPA-CI of 4.56 +/- 2.54%.min-1 (mean +/- SD), suggesting an increase of the epithelial permeability. The lymphocytic alveolitis was then characterized by a high cellularity, a high proportion of lymphocytes (59 +/- 18%), mainly composed of CD8+D44+ T-lymphocytes (149 +/- 109 cells/mm3), which spontaneously exhibited a cytolytic activity against the autologous alveolar macrophages in a standard 51Cr release assay. In the remaining 11 patients, DTPA-CI was normal (less than 1.78%.min-1), lymphocytic alveolitis being characterized by a low number or an absence of CD8+D44+ alveolar lymphocytes (9 +/- 13 cells/mm3) with no significant cytolytic activity. In the whole group, a significant correlation (r = 0.74, p = 0.0004) was found between the DTPA-CI and the number of CD8+D44+ lymphocytes and their cytotoxic activity against alveolar macrophages. Altogether, these results suggest that an injury of the lung epithelium could result from a HIV-specific CTL-induced immunologic conflict.

  12. Neutrophil chemotactic factor release and neutrophil alveolitis in asbestos-exposed individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.A.; Rose, A.H.; Musk, A.W.; Robinson, B.W.

    1988-09-01

    Alveolar neutrophil accumulation occurs in asbestosis. To evaluate a possible role for release of neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) in the pathogenesis of asbestosis, spontaneous NCF release from alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in eight individuals with asbestosis, 13 asbestos-exposed individuals without asbestosis, and five control subjects has been studied. Alveolar macrophages were incubated in medium (four hours; 37 degrees C), and neutrophil responses to the supernatants were assayed in a microchemotaxis chamber. Alveolar macrophages from subjects with asbestosis released more NCF (97 +/- 19 neutrophils per high-power field (N/HPF)) than controls (3 +/- 1 N/HPF; p less than 0.01). Alveolar macrophages from individuals with asbestos exposure and increased BAL neutrophil proportions (n = 7) released more NCF (93 +/- 24 N/HPF) than individuals with asbestos exposure and normal BAL neutrophil proportions (n = 6; 11 +/- 6 N/HPF; p less than 0.02). The results show that spontaneous NCF release occurs in asbestosis and that NCF release is associated with neutrophil alveolitis in asbestos-exposed individuals without asbestosis, suggesting a pathogenic role for NCF in mediating this neutrophil alveolitis. The results of the study also suggest that the presence of crackles is a better predictor of the presence of neutrophil alveolitis than is an abnormal chest x-ray film.

  13. Description of Colponema vietnamica sp.n. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp., Two New Alveolate Phyla (Colponemidia nom. nov. and Acavomonidia nom. nov.) and Their Contributions to Reconstructing the Ancestral State of Alveolates and Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Janouškovec, Jan; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Mikhailov, Kirill V.; Simdyanov, Timur G.; Aleoshin, Vladimir V.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary and ecological importance of predatory flagellates are too often overlooked. This is not only a gap in our understanding of microbial diversity, but also impacts how we interpret their better-studied relatives. A prime example of these problems is found in the alveolates. All well-studied species belong to three large clades (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates), but the predatory colponemid flagellates are also alveolates that are rare in nature and seldom cultured, but potentially important to our understanding of alveolate evolution. Recently we reported the first cultivation and molecular analysis of several colponemid-like organisms representing two novel clades in molecular trees. Here we provide ultrastructural analysis and formal species descriptions for both new species, Colponema vietnamica n. sp. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp. Morphological and feeding characteristics concur with molecular data that both species are distinct members of alveolates, with Acavomonas lacking the longitudinal phagocytotic groove, a defining feature of Colponema. Based on ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies, which both provide concrete rationale for a taxonomic reclassification of Alveolata, we establish the new phyla Colponemidia nom. nov. for the genus Colponema and its close relatives, and Acavomonidia nom. nov. for the genus Acavomonas and its close relatives. The morphological data presented here suggests that colponemids are central to our understanding of early alveolate evolution, and suggest they also retain features of the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. PMID:24740116

  14. Diversity of extracellular proteins during the transition from the 'proto-apicomplexan' alveolates to the apicomplexan obligate parasites.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    The recent completion of high-coverage draft genome sequences for several alveolate protozoans - namely, the chromerids, Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis; the perkinsid Perkinsus marinus; the apicomplexan, Gregarina niphandrodes, as well as high coverage transcriptome sequence information for several colpodellids, allows for new genome-scale comparisons across a rich landscape of apicomplexans and other alveolates. Genome annotations can now be used to help interpret fine ultrastructure and cell biology, and guide new studies to describe a variety of alveolate life strategies, such as symbiosis or free living, predation, and obligate intracellular parasitism, as well to provide foundations to dissect the evolutionary transitions between these niches. This review focuses on the attempt to identify extracellular proteins which might mediate the physical interface of cell-cell interactions within the above life strategies, aided by annotation of the repertoires of predicted surface and secreted proteins encoded within alveolate genomes. In particular, we discuss what descriptions of the predicted extracellular proteomes reveal regarding a hypothetical last common ancestor of a pre-apicomplexan alveolate - guided by ultrastructure, life strategies and phylogenetic relationships - in an attempt to understand the evolution of obligate parasitism in apicomplexans. PMID:26585326

  15. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. PMID:26439646

  16. Halting the allergic march.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Hugo P; Samuel, Sudesh T; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, has increased exponentially. In Singapore, the prevalence of asthma at all ages exceeds 20%, and around 50% of Singaporean children show features of an underlying allergy. The exact environmental causes for the increase of allergic diseases have not yet been identified, but most researchers agree that a decreased bacterial load in young children may be one of the reasons for the increase. However, the causes of allergy are multiple, and the development of an allergic disease is the result of complex interactions between genetic constitution and environmental factors. In this review article, different aspects of allergic sensitization are covered, including prenatal and postnatal sensitization. The phenomenon of the "allergic march" (switching from one clinical expression of allergy to another) and its underlying mechanisms are discussed. The last part of this review article is on prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, including the role of bacterial products (probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and the role of immunotherapy, including sublingual immunotherapy. PMID:23283392

  17. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  18. Identifying the lethal fish egg parasite Ichthyodinium chabelardi as a member of Marine Alveolate Group I.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meneses, Isabel; Angélico, Maria Manuel

    2009-08-01

    Cells of the parasitic, unicellular eukaryote Ichthyodinium chabelardi were isolated from eggs of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and from a previously unrecognized host, bogue (Boops boops), off the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Immediately after release from the infected fish egg or newly hatched larva, I. chabelardi cells were spherical and non-motile. After few minutes, spherical cells became flagellated and motile. Following 2-3 days of incubation and several divisions, spherical flagellated cells developed a twisted elongate shape and moved vigorously. Sequences of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) were identical for I. chabelardi of both hosts and so were sequences of ITS1, ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene. This genetic similarity suggests that eggs of sardine and bogue were infected by one single population of I. chabelardi. The SSU rRNA gene sequence of I. chabelardi was, in turn, 97% similar to those of two identical Asian isolates of Ichthyodinium sp. Phylogenetic analyses showed high support for the inclusion of Ichthyodinium in the so-called Marine Alveolate Group I (MAGI). Two morphologically well-described genera, namely Ichthyodinium and Dubosquella, have now been shown to belong to this group of seemingly exclusively parasitic alveolates. PMID:19453613

  19. Possible role of L-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kaseda, M; Kadota, J; Mukae, H; Kawamoto, S; Shukuwa, T; Iwashita, T; Matsubara, Y; Ishimatsu, Y; Yoshinaga, M; Abe, K; Kohno, S

    2000-07-01

    A number of adhesion molecules participate in the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation, and selectins together with their ligands are important in the early transient adhesion phase. In this study, we evaluated the role of L-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. We measured serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentrations of soluble (s)L-selectin using an ELISA. Serum and BALF concentrations of sL-selectin were significantly elevated in patients with sarcoidosis compared with control healthy subjects and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients (P < 0.05 and P < 0. 01, respectively). The lymphocyte surface marker was also examined in peripheral blood and BALF by flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of CD3+CD62L+ cells (L-selectin-bearing T lymphocytes) was significantly lower in peripheral blood of sarcoidosis than in that of healthy subjects (P < 0.01). In contrast, the percentage of CD3+CD62L- cells (L-selectin-negative T lymphocytes) in BALF of patients with sarcoidosis was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.05) and IPF patients (P < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between serum concentrations of sL-selectin and the number of L-selectin-negative T lymphocytes in BALF (r = 0.535, P < 0.01). Our results suggest that L-selectin may be involved in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:10886252

  20. Possible role of l-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaseda, M; Kadota, J; Mukae, H; Kawamoto, S; Shukuwa, T; Iwashita, T; Matsubara, Y; Ishimatsu, Y; Yoshinaga, M; Abe, K; Kohno, S

    2000-01-01

    A number of adhesion molecules participate in the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation, and selectins together with their ligands are important in the early transient adhesion phase. In this study, we evaluated the role of l-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. We measured serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentrations of soluble (s)l-selectin using an ELISA. Serum and BALF concentrations of sl-selectin were significantly elevated in patients with sarcoidosis compared with control healthy subjects and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients (P < 0·05 and P < 0·01, respectively). The lymphocyte surface marker was also examined in peripheral blood and BALF by flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of CD3+CD62L+ cells (l-selectin-bearing T lymphocytes) was significantly lower in peripheral blood of sarcoidosis than in that of healthy subjects (P < 0·01). In contrast, the percentage of CD3+CD62L− cells (l-selectin-negative T lymphocytes) in BALF of patients with sarcoidosis was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0·05) and IPF patients (P < 0·01). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between serum concentrations of sl-selectin and the number of l-selectin-negative T lymphocytes in BALF (r = 0·535, P < 0·01). Our results suggest that l-selectin may be involved in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:10886252

  1. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  2. Allergic host defences.

    PubMed

    Palm, Noah W; Rosenstein, Rachel K; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2012-04-26

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macroparasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity has an important role in host defence against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, haematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  3. Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sarcoidosis: correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies, and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Line, B.R.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Keogh, B.A.; Jones, A.E.; Johnston, G.S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1981-04-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis suggest that the alveolitis of this disorder is related to increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytes and activated T-lymphocytes within the lung. To determine if 67Ga scanning, a procedure commonly used in the evaluation of inflammation, would be useful in staging the alveolitis of sarcoidosis, we studied 41 patients with this disorder and correlated estimates of pulmonary 67Ga accumulation with clinical, roentgenographic, physiologic, and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in these patients. Although 65% of patients with sarcoidosis showed increased amounts of 67Ga accumulation in the lung compared with control subjects, only weak correlations (r less than +/- 0.42, all comparisons) were found between the degree of gallium uptake and the clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic data. In contrast, there was a strong correlation of 67Ga uptake and the number of lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes recovered from the lungs of these patients by bronchoalveolar lavage (p less than 0.0001, r greater than or equal to 0.67, both comparisons). This data suggested that gallium uptake reflects the intensity of the T-lymphocytes mediated component of the alveolitis in sarcoidosis. Because 67Ga scans are noninvasive, simple to perform, and widely available, they should prove useful to stage the activity of sarcoidosis and to make decisions regarding therapy directed against the alveolitis of the disease.

  4. Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sarcoidosis: correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies, and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Line, B.R.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Keogh, B.A.; Jones, A.E.; Johnston, G.S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1981-04-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis suggest that the alveolitis of this disorder is related to increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytes and activated T-lymphocytes within the lung. To determine if 67Ga scanning, a procedure commonly used in the evaluation of inflammation, would be useful in staging the alveolitis of sarcoidosis, researchers studied 41 patients with this disorder and correlated estimates of pulmonary /sup 67/Ga accumulation with clinical, roentgenographic, physiologic, and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in these patients. Although 65% of patients with sarcoidosis showed increased amounts of /sup 67/Ga accumulation in the lung compared with control subjects, only weak correlations (r less than +/- 0.42, all comparisons) were found between the degree of gallium uptake and the clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic data. In contrast, there was a strong correlation of /sup 67/Ga uptake and the number of lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes recovered from the lungs of these patients by bronchoalveolar lavage (p less than 0.0001, r greater than or equal to 0.67, both comparisons). This data suggested that gallium uptake reflects the intensity of the T-lymphocytes mediated component of the alveolitis in sarcoidosis. Because /sup 67/Ga scans are noninvasive, simple to perform, and widely available, they should prove useful to stage the activity of sarcoidosis and to make decisions regarding therapy directed against the alveolitis of the disease.

  5. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  6. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  7. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  8. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  10. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  11. [Antihistamines in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines are the first line of pharmacotherapy in allergic diseases, especially in allergic rhinitis. The article also presents the interesting 2005-2007 publications on the use of antihistamine in practical point of view, especially the newly introduced ones (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine) and those which are to be introduced soon (rupatadine). The efficacy in skin histamine provocation model and various clinical model were discussed. PMID:18260244

  12. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  13. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  14. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... in something you are allergic to, such as dust mites, animal dander, or pollen. Allergic rhinitis is ... your or your child's exposure to them. Reduce dust and dust mites in the home. Control molds ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  16. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  17. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  18. [Genetic study of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Luo

    2012-09-01

    Allergic diseases mentioned in this review is regarding to I type allergic inflammation induced by an IgE-mediated reaction, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. It is convinced that allergic diseases belong to multiple genes diseases and are controlled by both genetic and environmental factors. Meanwhile there exists gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions during the development of the disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the toolkit, advance, inherent difficulties and future clinical application prospect in genetic studies of allergic disease. PMID:23214325

  19. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294

  20. CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of Fluid Flow and Particle Transport in a Model of Alveolated Airways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 μm aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy. PMID:20161301

  1. CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of Fluid Flow and Particle Transport in a Model of Alveolated Airways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal

    2009-05-01

    Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 mum aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy. PMID:20161301

  2. Diagnosing Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K; Scadding, Guy W

    2016-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common immunologic disease in industrialized societies and has a significant impact on quality of life. Most asthmatics also have rhinitis. AR may present with comorbidities, including chronic otitis media with effusion, cough, and pollen-food cross-reactivity. AR may occur in isolation or be part of a mixed rhinitis. PMID:27083100

  3. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  4. A novel alveolate in bivalves with chemosynthetic bacteria inhabiting deep-sea methane seeps.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Fumiya; Kawato, Masaru; Yoshida, Takao; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Fujikura, Katsunori; Takishita, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been unveiled that a wide variety of microbial eukaryotes (protists) occur in chemosynthetic ecosystems, such as hydrothermal vents and methane seeps. However, there is little knowledge regarding protists associated with endemic animals inhabiting these environments. In the present study, utilizing PCR techniques, we detected fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA gene) from a particular protist from gill tissues of a significant fraction of the vesicomyid clams Calyptogena soyoae and C. okutanii complex and of the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons and B. japonicus, all of which harbor chemosynthetic endosymbiont bacteria and dominate methane seeps in Sagami Bay, Japan. Based on the phylogeny of SSU rRNA gene, the organism in question was shown to belong to Alveolata. It is noteworthy that this protist did not affiliate with any known alveolate group, although being deeply branched within the lineage of Syndiniales, for which the monophyly was constantly recovered, but not robustly supported. In addition, the protist detected using PCR followed by sequencing was localized within gill epithelial cells of B. platifrons with whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization. This protist may be an endoparasite or an endocommensal of Calyptogena spp. and Bathymodiolus spp., and possibly have physiological and ecological impacts on these bivalves. PMID:23316697

  5. Tranexamic acid in alveolar sockets in the prevention of alveolitis sicca dolorosa.

    PubMed

    Gersel-Pedersen, N

    1979-12-01

    The effect of trans-4-amino-methyl-cyclohexane acid (AMCA) and a placebo preparation on the development of alveolitis sicca dolorosa (ASD) was investigated in a double-blind designed experiment. The preoperative registrations were age, sex, use of oral contraceptives, menstrual cycle, smoking, degree of impaction and operation time. The study included 120 healthy persons. Each person had bilateral impacted mandibular molars removed surgically at one session. AMCA (160 mg/extraction site) or placebor was applied in each socket after the operation. The postoperative course was evaluated on average 5 days later by the use of 13 different variables describing local and general discomfort. The incidence of ASD was 7.5% in the AMCA side and 5.0% in the placebo side. The result shows that a local inhibition of plasminogen activation by AMCA is insufficient to prevent the development of ASD. The occurrence of ASD and postoperative discomfort was not increased in women operated during the menstrual period. The usage of oral contraceptives is known to be associated with a high frequency of ASD. Women taking oral contraceptives may therefore postpone the operation to the withdrawal period of the pill, to reduce the risk of developing ASD. Postoperative pains and the consumption of analgetics were significantly increased in patients who were habitual smokers. PMID:120339

  6. Nonreductive Iron Uptake Mechanism in the Marine Alveolate Chromera velia1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sutak, Robert; Šlapeta, Jan; San Roman, Mabel; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Lesuisse, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Chromera velia is a newly cultured photosynthetic marine alveolate. This microalga has a high iron requirement for respiration and photosynthesis, although its natural environment contains less than 1 nm of this metal. We found that this organism uses a novel mechanism of iron uptake, differing from the classic reductive and siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems characterized in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and present in most yeasts and terrestrial plants. C. velia has no trans-plasma membrane electron transfer system, and thus cannot reduce extracellular ferric chelates. It is also unable to use hydroxamate siderophores as iron sources. Iron uptake from ferric citrate by C. velia is not inhibited by a ferrous chelator, but the rate of uptake is strongly decreased by increasing the ferric ligand (citrate) concentration. The cell wall contains a large number of iron binding sites, allowing the cells to concentrate iron in the vicinity of the transport sites. We describe a model of iron uptake in which aqueous ferric ions are first concentrated in the cell wall before being taken up by the cells without prior reduction. We discuss our results in relation to the strategies used by the phytoplankton to take up iron in the oceans. PMID:20724644

  7. Granulomatous myositis associated with a novel alveolate pathogen in an adult southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Megan E B; Armién, Aníbal G; Rothermel, Betsie B; Pessier, Allan P

    2012-12-27

    Since 1999, infections with an incompletely characterized alveolate protozoan variously reported as a Dermocystidium-like organism, a Perkinsus-like agent, and Dermomycoides sp. have been associated with mortality events in tadpoles of ranid frogs from the USA. However, disease or mortality events due to this organism have not been described in post-metamorphic animals. We describe infection with a morphologically similar protozoan presenting itself as a leg mass in a free-ranging adult southern leopard frog Lithobates sphenocephalus. Using histological examination, we found a mass within skeletal muscle; this mass was composed of macrophages with intracytoplasmic, thick-walled, 4 to 6 µm in diameter, spherical basophilic protozoal organisms that exhibited green autofluorescence with epiflorescence illumination. Using transmission electron microscopy, organism cell walls were found to have electron-dense plates that, when viewed by scanning electron microscopy, were reminiscent of the thecal plates of dinoflagellates. Additional morphologic and molecular phylogenetic research is needed to resolve the taxonomic status of this organism. PMID:23269391

  8. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  9. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer. PMID:10932345

  10. Basophils and allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Siracusa, Mark C; Kim, Brian S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Artis, David

    2013-10-01

    Basophils were discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1879 and represent the least abundant granulocyte population in mammals. The relative rarity of basophils and their phenotypic similarities with mast cells resulted in this cell lineage being historically overlooked, both clinically and experimentally. However, recent studies in human subjects and murine systems have shown that basophils perform nonredundant effector functions and significantly contribute to the development and progression of TH2 cytokine-mediated inflammation. Although the potential functions of murine and human basophils have provoked some controversy, recent genetic approaches indicate that basophils can migrate into lymphoid tissues and, in some circumstances, cooperate with other immune cells to promote optimal TH2 cytokine responses in vivo. This article provides a brief historical perspective on basophil-related research and discusses recent studies that have identified previously unappreciated molecules and pathways that regulate basophil development, activation, and function in the context of allergic inflammation. Furthermore, we highlight the unique effector functions of basophils and discuss their contributions to the development and pathogenesis of allergic inflammation in human disease. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting basophils in preventing or alleviating the development and progression of allergic inflammation. PMID:24075190

  11. Allergic inflammation--innately homeostatic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Laurence E; Locksley, Richard M

    2015-03-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  12. Validity of mini-dose gallium for objective quantification of alveolitis in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vitti, R.; Maurer, A.H.; Siegel, J.A.; Fewell, J.W.; Malmud, L.S.

    1985-05-01

    Patents (pts) with pulmonary sarcoidosis will often have frequent gallium (Ga) studies to assess the response of alveolitis to corticosteroid therapy. Since many pts are young and the cumulative radiation burden significant the authors have evaluated the ability of computer based Ga lung imaging to reliably quantify Ga activity using a 0.5 mCi dose of Ga. Twelve pts with biopsy proven pulmonary sarcoidosis received 0.5 mCi of Ga-67 citrate intravenously and had a posterior view of the chest including a portion of the liver obtained at 24 hrs post injection. At 24 hrs the pts received an additional 2.5 mCi and were then imaged at 48 and 72 hrs. A gallium score (GS) was computer generated as follows: regions of interest (ROI's) were manually created for the lungs, liver and background. Following a 9 point spatial smooth and background subtraction, the images were scaled so that the liver activity was assigned an arbitrary value of 400 counts per pixel. The resulting average counts per pixel for the lungs were then summed for the GS. Using a paired T-test there was only a borderline significant difference (0.05

  13. [Exogenous fibrosing alveolitis due to the condensation aerosol (smoke) of zinc oxide].

    PubMed

    Voznesenskiĭ, N K

    2004-01-01

    Clinical-and-biological, biochemical, immunological, histomorphological; X-ray and functional examinations of workers of an electric-melting shop manufacturing brass alloys, who had contacts with condensation aerosol with a high zinc oxide concentrations, were used to detect in them pneumoconiosis with the exogenous fibrosing alveolitis (ZEFA). Some workers had acute conditions, i.e. "foundry fever" speaking in clinical terms, which was followed by a period of "visible improvement" lasting on the average for 8.6 +/- 0.8 years. The latter was described by the autoimmune activation of B-lymphocytes accompanied by an intensified formation of circulating immune complexes with a sharp reduction of the DR-cell content. The disease onset is gradual with the below signs: increasing dyspnea, cough and cyanosis of the lips due to the developing hypoxemia with decreasing PO2 (below 80 mm Hg); it can also be displayed through a mixed type of respiratory insufficiency with a lower PO2 and a higher PCO2 (above 40 mm Hg)-X-ray showed reticular changes in the pulmonary pattern. Generation of a high-above-norm quantity of active forms of oxygen and nitrogen by alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in their contacts with cellular membranes is the key mechanism triggering the pathological process like it happens in all cases of pneumoconiosis. Transformation of the mentioned products of free-radical oxygenation into hydroxyl radicals in the catalytic centers of the dust-particle borders containing zinc (which is, like iron, a metal with transient valence) is ZEFA specificity. The factor draws together ZEFA with pathological processes caused by asbestos-fiber dust, which have iron ions in their catalytic centers. PMID:15108372

  14. Feast or flee: bioelectrical regulation of feeding and predator evasion behaviors in the planktonic alveolate Favella sp. (Spirotrichia).

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Taylor, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Alveolate (ciliates and dinoflagellates) grazers are integral components of the marine food web and must therefore be able to sense a range of mechanical and chemical signals produced by prey and predators, integrating them via signal transduction mechanisms to respond with effective prey capture and predator evasion behaviors. However, the sensory biology of alveolate grazers is poorly understood. Using novel techniques that combine electrophysiological measurements and high-speed videomicroscopy, we investigated the sensory biology of Favella sp., a model alveolate grazer, in the context of its trophic ecology. Favella sp. produced frequent rhythmic depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming and are responsible for endogenous swimming patterns relevant to foraging. Contact of both prey cells and non-prey polystyrene microspheres at the cilia produced immediate mechanostimulated depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming, and likely underlie aggregative swimming patterns of Favella sp. in response to patches of prey. Contact of particles at the peristomal cavity that were not suitable for ingestion resulted in depolarizations after a lag of ∼600 ms, allowing time for particles to be processed before rejection. Ingestion of preferred prey particles was accompanied by transient hyperpolarizations (∼1 s) that likely regulate this step of the feeding process. Predation attempts by the copepod Acartia tonsa elicited fast (∼20 ms) animal-like action potentials accompanied by rapid contraction of the cell to avoid predation. We have shown that the sensory mechanisms of Favella sp. are finely tuned to the type, location, and intensity of stimuli from prey and predators. PMID:26567352

  15. Analysis of EST data of the marine protist Oxyrrhis marina, an emerging model for alveolate biology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The alveolates include a large number of important lineages of protists and algae, among which are three major eukaryotic groups: ciliates, apicomplexans and dinoflagellates. Collectively alveolates are present in virtually every environment and include a vast diversity of cell shapes, molecular and cellular features and feeding modes including lifestyles such as phototrophy, phagotrophy/predation and intracellular parasitism, in addition to a variety of symbiotic associations. Oxyrrhis marina is a well-known model for heterotrophic protist biology, and is now emerging as a useful organism to explore the many changes that occurred during the origin and diversification of dinoflagellates by virtue of its phylogenetic position at the base of the dinoflagellate tree. Results We have generated and analysed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from the alveolate Oxyrrhis marina in order to shed light on the evolution of a number of dinoflagellate characteristics, especially regarding the emergence of highly unusual genomic features. We found that O. marina harbours extensive gene redundancy, indicating high rates of gene duplication and transcription from multiple genomic loci. In addition, we observed a correlation between expression level and copy number in several genes, suggesting that copy number may contribute to determining transcript levels for some genes. Finally, we analyze the genes and predicted products of the recently discovered Dinoflagellate Viral Nuclear Protein, and several cases of horizontally acquired genes. Conclusion The dataset presented here has proven very valuable for studying this important group of protists. Our analysis indicates that gene redundancy is a pervasive feature of dinoflagellate genomes, thus the mechanisms involved in its generation must have arisen early in the evolution of the group. PMID:24512041

  16. [Pathogenetic and clinical significance of the adhesion molecule expression on T cells of the lung in sarcoid alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Galandrini, R; Agea, E; Bini, P; Tognellini, R

    1990-01-01

    A double immunofluorescence analysis of CD4+ cell population from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis was carried out. The results showed that, unlike BAL and peripheral blood CD4+ cells of healthy subjects, almost all BAL CD4+ cells of the patients highly express, besides CDw29 antigen, LFA-1 and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules. The co-expression of these molecules on BAL CD4+ cells during high intensity sarcoid alveolitis could represent a marker of immunological memory. The relevant pathogenetic and clinical implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:2199744

  17. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious. PMID:10524269

  18. Gene duplication, loss and selection in the evolution of saxitoxin biosynthesis in alveolates.

    PubMed

    Murray, Shauna A; Diwan, Rutuja; Orr, Russell J S; Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    A group of marine dinoflagellates (Alveolata, Eukaryota), consisting of ∼10 species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense, produce the toxin saxitoxin and its analogues (STX), which can accumulate in shellfish, leading to ecosystem and human health impacts. The genes, sxt, putatively involved in STX biosynthesis, have recently been identified, however, the evolution of these genes within dinoflagellates is not clear. There are two reasons for this: uncertainty over the phylogeny of dinoflagellates; and that the sxt genes of many species of Alexandrium and other dinoflagellate genera are not known. Here, we determined the phylogeny of STX-producing and other dinoflagellates based on a concatenated eight-gene alignment. We determined the presence, diversity and phylogeny of sxtA, domains A1 and A4 and sxtG in 52 strains of Alexandrium, and a further 43 species of dinoflagellates and thirteen other alveolates. We confirmed the presence and high sequence conservation of sxtA, domain A4, in 40 strains (35 Alexandrium, 1 Pyrodinium, 4 Gymnodinium) of 8 species of STX-producing dinoflagellates, and absence from non-producing species. We found three paralogs of sxtA, domain A1, and a widespread distribution of sxtA1 in non-STX producing dinoflagellates, indicating duplication events in the evolution of this gene. One paralog, clade 2, of sxtA1 may be particularly related to STX biosynthesis. Similarly, sxtG appears to be generally restricted to STX-producing species, while three amidinotransferase gene paralogs were found in dinoflagellates. We investigated the role of positive (diversifying) selection following duplication in sxtA1 and sxtG, and found negative selection in clades of sxtG and sxtA1, clade 2, suggesting they were functionally constrained. Significant episodic diversifying selection was found in some strains in clade 3 of sxtA1, a clade that may not be involved in STX biosynthesis, indicating pressure for diversification

  19. Updating algal evolutionary relationships through plastid genome sequencing: did alveolate plastids emerge through endosymbiosis of an ochrophyte?

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Sudek, Sebastian; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Algae with secondary plastids of a red algal origin, such as ochrophytes (photosynthetic stramenopiles), are diverse and ecologically important, yet their evolutionary history remains controversial. We sequenced plastid genomes of two ochrophytes, Ochromonas sp. CCMP1393 (Chrysophyceae) and Trachydiscus minutus (Eustigmatophyceae). A shared split of the clpC gene as well as phylogenomic analyses of concatenated protein sequences demonstrated that chrysophytes and eustigmatophytes form a clade, the Limnista, exhibiting an unexpectedly elevated rate of plastid gene evolution. Our analyses also indicate that the root of the ochrophyte phylogeny falls between the recently redefined Khakista and Phaeista assemblages. Taking advantage of the expanded sampling of plastid genome sequences, we revisited the phylogenetic position of the plastid of Vitrella brassicaformis, a member of Alveolata with the least derived plastid genome known for the whole group. The results varied depending on the dataset and phylogenetic method employed, but suggested that the Vitrella plastids emerged from a deep ochrophyte lineage rather than being derived vertically from a hypothetical plastid-bearing common ancestor of alveolates and stramenopiles. Thus, we hypothesize that the plastid in Vitrella, and potentially in other alveolates, may have been acquired by an endosymbiosis of an early ochrophyte. PMID:26017773

  20. Steroids in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Webb, D R

    1981-09-01

    From the experience above, it may be concluded that corticosteroid therapy in allergic disease has become more effective than ever before. The expected variations in usage of new important pharmacologic agents is seen with special clarity in the use of corticosteroids. The wide acclaim for the "miracle drug of the 1950's", which followed penicillin of the 1940's, soon gave away to anguish about side-effects that threatened to abolish its use entirely in the late 1950's. The 1960's brought alternate day therapy for chronic usage and recognition that short term usage was relatively safe. The 1970's saw proliferation of topically active steroids similar to those so important to the practice of Dermatology in the previous decade. Results in treating asthma and nasal diseases have been excellent and extensive research for adverse effects has been largely unrevealing. PMID:6793795

  1. [Allergic inflammation in respiratory system].

    PubMed

    An, Lifeng; Wang, Yanshu; Li, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology of allergic disease such as asthma and allergic rhinitis tell the similar story: when the endogenous and exogenous inflammatory mechanisms occur disorder, the body may begin with inflammatory cell activation, namely through the release of cytokine and inflammatory mediator role in the corresponding target cells, activate the sensory nerve fiber, acting on the cell organ specificity effect, clinical symptoms. This article is divided into the following five parts focused on the research progress of allergic inflammatory diseases: (1) inflammatory cells; (2) staphylococcus aureus superantigen; (3) small molecules (cytokines, inflammatory mediators, lipid classes medium); (4) nerve fibers and effect cells; (5) genetic and epigenetic factors. PMID:26012309

  2. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

  3. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  4. Allergic reactions to medication (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A true allergy to a medication is different than a simple adverse reaction to the drug. The allergic reaction occurs when the immune system, having been exposed to the drug before, creates antibodies to ...

  5. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  6. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberger, Paul A.; Bush, Robert K.; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Luong, Amber; Slavin, Raymond G.; Knutsen, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    There remains lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of AAAAI members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports and an electronic survey was conducted of AAAAI members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 U. S. physicians in the AAAAI database of members and fellows, 245 (48%) health professionals had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE as 44.9% used ≥ 417 kU/L whereas 42.0% used ≥ 1000 kU/L. These findings suggest that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. Regarding pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids + inhaled corticosteroids + anti-fungal agent were utilized in 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited. PMID:25439360

  7. The allergic emergency--management of severe allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Werner-Busse, Alexandra; Zuberbier, Torsten; Worm, Margitta

    2014-05-01

    Anaphylaxis is characterized by the sudden onset of acute allergic symptoms involving two or more organ systems. An acute allergic emergency is a challenge for physicians due to its life-threatening potential. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions has increased in recent years. Most frequent elicitors of mast cell and primarily histamine dependent anaphylactic reactions are food, insect venom or drugs. Allergic -reactions are graded into four groups according to the classification by Ring and Messmer; grade I is defined by the onset of cutaneous symptoms only whereas grade IV is characterized by cardiovascular shock as well as cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. The treatment of allergic reactions should be guided by the severity of the reaction. Initially an intramuscular epinephrine injection into the lateral thigh should be given if cutaneous, mucosal and cardiovascular/respiratory symptoms occur. Additionally, the patient should receive intravenous antihistamines and corticosteroids. For self-treatment in the case of an allergic emergency, oral antihistamines and corticosteroids should be prescribed to the patient. PMID:24673732

  8. Allergic fungal otomastoiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiung-Ming; Chiang, Ching-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Allergic mucin is described as thick, peanut butter-like mucus impacted in the paranasal sinuses of patients with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The presence of allergic mucin in the middle ear has never been reported. We encountered a 65-year-old female with allergic mucin found impacted in her left middle ear and mastoid cavity during revised tympanoplasty surgery at our institute. Bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery performed 3 months later showed no evidence of fungal infection or allergic mucin in her paranasal sinuses. We report the case herein and propose the term allergic fungal otomastoiditis for this disease entity. PMID:22825725

  9. New therapies for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Sclifò, Francesca; Ferrando, Matteo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-04-01

    Because of its burden on patient's lives and its impact on asthma, allergic rhinitis must be treated properly with more effective and safer treatments. According to guidelines by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), the classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of allergic rhinitis are well defined. Currently, second-generation antihistamines and inhaled steroids are considered the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, new formulations of available drugs (e.g., loratadine and rupatadine oral solution, ebastine fast-dissolving tablets, and the combination of intranasal fluticasone propionate and azelastine hydrochloride), recently discovered molecules (e.g., ciclesonide, bilastine, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), immunologic targets (e.g., omalizumab), and unconventional treatments (e.g., homeopathic treatments) are currently under investigation and represent a new frontier in modern medicine and in allergic rhinitis management. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic rhinitis treatment, paying particular attention to clinical trials published within the past 20 months that assessed the efficacy and safety of new formulations of available drugs or new molecules. PMID:24504526

  10. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  11. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  12. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

  13. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  14. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  15. Differentiation of the ILO boundary chest roentgenograph (0/1 to 1/0) in asbestosis by high-resolution computed tomography scan, alveolitis, and respiratory impairment.

    PubMed

    Harkin, T J; McGuinness, G; Goldring, R; Cohen, H; Parker, J E; Crane, M; Naidich, D P; Rom, W N

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans have been advocated as providing greater sensitivity in detecting parenchymal opacities in asbestos-exposed individuals, especially in the presence of pleural fibrosis, and having excellent inter- and intraobserver reader interpretation. We compared the 1980 International Labor Organization (ILO) International Classification of the Radiographs of the Pneumoconioses for asbestosis with the high-resolution CT scan using a grid scoring system to better differentiate normal versus abnormal in the ILO boundary 0/1 to 1/0 chest roentgenograph. We studied 37 asbestos-exposed individuals using the ILO classification, HRCT grid scores, respiratory symptom questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. We used Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the linear relationship between outcome variables and each roentgenographic method. The normal HRCT scan proved to be an excellent predictor of "normality," with pulmonary function values close to 100% for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), total lung capacity (TLC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and no increase in BAL inflammatory cells. Concordant HRCT/ILO abnormalities were associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, reduced diffusing capacity, and alveolitis consistent with a definition of asbestosis. In our study, the ILO classification and HRCT grid scores were both excellent modalities for the assessment of asbestosis and its association with impaired physiology and alveolitis, with their combined use providing statistical associations with alveolitis and reduced diffusing capacity. PMID:8871331

  16. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  17. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  18. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy. PMID:19717065

  19. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  20. New perspectives on basic mechanisms in lung disease. 1. Lung injury, inflammatory mediators, and fibroblast activation in fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, M N; Harrison, N K

    1992-01-01

    It is over 25 years since Scadding first defined the term fibrosing alveolitis. It has since been established that complex mechanisms underlie its pathogenesis, including epithelial and endothelial injury, vascular leakage, production of inflammatory cells and their mediators, and fibroblast activation. Only through a detailed knowledge of how these cellular and molecular events are interlinked will we learn how to combat this disease, which is notoriously resistant to present treatments. So far the only therapeutic advances have been refinements in immunosuppression, and even these treatments are frequently disappointing. We believe that future advances in treatment will come from the development of agents that protect endothelial and epithelial cells from further injury and agents that can inhibit release of inflammatory mediators. A better knowledge of the mechanisms of collagen gene activation and the biochemical pathways of collagen production may also allow the identification of vulnerable sites at which new treatments may be directed. A combined approach to modifying appropriate parts of both the inflammatory component and the fibroblast/collagen component should provide a new stimulus to research. Further epidemiological studies are also needed to identify the environmental causes of lung injury that initiate the cascade of events leading to interstitial fibrosis. Images PMID:1494772

  1. Lupus erythematosus cell phenomenon in pediatric bronchoalveolar lavages: possible manifestation of early radioadaptive response in radiation induced alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Zunic, S

    2013-01-01

    A ten-year (December 1992 - December 2002) evaluation of 225 pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts showed appearance of the cells corresponding to the cytological entity - lupus erythematosus cell (LEC) in 47 specimens of which not a single case was associated with the coexistent autoimmune disease. There was a significant increase in the percentage of LEC in BAL samples of the examinees during the first 6 months after the bombing of targets in Serbia (July-December 1999) in comparison to the period 1992 to March 24, 1999, and after the bombing of targets in Serbia (2000-2002). Maintaining the character of occurrence of LEC in BAL as nonspecific (Zunic et al. 1996), the devastating power of alpha particles (originated from uranium decay) gives an opportunity to discuss this phenomenon more comprehensibly and perceive a new vista related to the pathogenesis of LEC phenomenon in BAL. Since the period after 1991 corresponds to the time after the first Gulf War, and later the bombing of targets in Bosnia, the possibility of occurrence of LEC in BAL as a manifestation of radiation alveolitis due to contamination by air transferred depleted uranium (DU) particles could not be excluded. PMID:23830389

  2. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and its association with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2011-01-01

    Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae. PMID:22053309

  3. [Infectious-allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis].

    PubMed

    Akhunova, A M

    1991-01-01

    Primary or secondary infection of the lungs with fungi of the Paecilomyces family (P. variotii and P. viridis) gives rise to the development of infectious allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis characterized by the presence of chronic allergic interstitial pneumonia and obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma, total and pulmonary eosinophilia, the presence of the tissue parasitic form of the fungus in sputum, blood, pulmonary tissue, the presence of allergen-specific IgE and/or IgG antibodies in patients' sera, immediate or double (20 min and 6 h) reaction of the skin to administration of allergen of Paecilomyces, by not infrequent combination of lung damage and impairment of other organs as well as by chronic relapses. PMID:1805416

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  5. Immunologic principles of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Marco; Gebhardt, Carl; Emmrich, Frank; Treudler, Regina; Simon, Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Allergy either results from a pathological excessive immune reaction, or from the defective induction of tolerance to otherwise harmless antigens. Allergic reactions are mounted by mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity. The development of an allergic response can be divided in sensitization and elicitation phases. Immediate type allergic reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis, urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis allergica, allergic asthma) are mediated by IgE antibodies which are produced by B cells stimulated by allergen-specific Th2 cells. Crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE on membrane surfaces of mast cells and basophilic granulocytes leads to release of soluble mediators which may cause systemic symptoms within minutes to hours. The following infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes and Th2 cells directs chronic inflammation. Humoral cytotoxic immune reactions (e.g. drug induced cytopenia) are mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies which are directed against membrane associated antigens. IgG and IgM antibodies directed against soluble antigens elicit immune complex mediated cytotoxicity (e.g.drug induced vasculitis). Delayed type immune reactions (e.g.contact dermatitis) are based on the activation of antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and need 24 h to 48 h to develop. Upon recurrent contact with identical antigens, recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells cause inflammation and cytotoxic induced apoptosis in target cells as well as cytokine mediated leukocyte infiltration. Subsequent immigration of CD4(+) Th2 cells provides anti-inflammatory mechanisms leading to resolution of the inflammatory response and tissue repair. PMID:17976144

  6. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR. PMID:26012287

  7. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  8. Management of allergic Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Fitch, K D

    1984-05-01

    Twenty percent of the recent Australian Olympic athletes have had an allergic disorder. Because of the ban on all sympathomimetic drugs except some beta 2-agonists. Olympic team physicians have a major responsibility to ensure that no competitor is disqualified for infringing on the antidoping rules of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Inadvertent contravention of these regulations may occur because numerous banned sympathomimetics are available to athletes and their coaches without medical prescription and are frequently contained in combination preparations. The unbroken 24 yr in which asthmatics have won Olympic medals have been both before and after the introduction of drug tests. Currently a comprehensive range of preventive and therapeutic medications are available for asthmatics to compete with minimal respiratory disadvantage. It was, however, during a period of unnecessary restriction that an American swimmer forfeited his gold medal because of prerace ingestion of a banned sympathomimetic agent. Should adverse air quality be encountered during the Los Angeles Olympics, allergic competitors will be among the most inconvenienced . Athletes with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis will be the most disadvantaged because sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors remain banned. It is strongly recommended that the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee meet with an appropriate body of experts (i.e., the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology) to review this ban on vasoconstrictor agents. PMID:6715736

  9. Investigational drugs for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Compalati, Enrico; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2010-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a high-prevalence disease, triggered by an IgE-mediated reaction, and sustained by a complex inflammatory network of cells, mediators, and cytokines. When the exposure to allergens persists, the inflammatory process becomes chronic. The current therapeutic strategy is based on allergen avoidance when possible, drugs and allergen immunotherapy. The main drugs are oral and topical antihistamines and nasal steroids. They are overall effective in controlling symptoms, but do not modify the immune background that leads to allergic inflammation. In addition, safety concerns may be present, especially for prolonged treatments. Thus, efforts are currently made to improve the existing molecules and to develop new drugs, in order to achieve greater clinical efficacy with a better tolerability. Also, attempts are made to selectively block relevant signal pathways of the allergic reaction by means of specific anti-mediators. Specific immunotherapy, in addition to the clinical effect, is capable of modifying the Th2-biased immune response. Thus, an intense research activity is presently ongoing with the aim of improving the characteristics and modes of action of this treatment. PMID:20001557

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops. PMID:25897195

  11. Neutrophil alveolitis in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: induction by tumor-derived interleukin-8 and relation to clinical outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Bellocq, A.; Antoine, M.; Flahault, A.; Philippe, C.; Crestani, B.; Bernaudin, J. F.; Mayaud, C.; Milleron, B.; Baud, L.; Cadranel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Tumor infiltrate, predominantly constituted by lymphocytes, may represent an important prognostic factor in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), in addition to tumor extension and histological type. In the present study, we determined the presence, the origin, and the prognostic importance of neutrophils that also participate in leukocyte infiltrates of BAC. Neutrophil alveolitis was determined immunohistochemically in both lung biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from 29 patients with histologically proved BAC. The local expression of interleukin (IL)-8 was determined by immunohistochemical and immunoenzymatic techniques. Neutrophil counts were analyzed in relation to the clinical outcome of patients by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's univariate and stepwise multivariate models. Lymphocytes and neutrophils dominated the inflammatory cell population in the lower respiratory tract of patients with BAC. Neutrophils were located mainly in the alveolar lumen and seldom in alveolar wall whereas lymphocytes were exclusively present in alveolar wall. A relationship was observed between the number of neutrophils and the level of IL-8 in BAL fluid suggesting the involvement of that chemokine in neutrophil recruitment. The tumor cells were the predominant cells that appeared to express IL-8 by immunolocalization. The presence of increased numbers of neutrophils was significantly associated with a poorer outcome in patients with BAC (P = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis, the neutrophil percentage in BAL fluid was an independent predictor of clinical outcome. The risk of death was increased substantially (rate ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 24.7) among patients with BAL neutrophil percentage of > or = 39% (median of the distribution) as compared with the others. In BAC, neutrophils accumulate in the alveolar lumen. Elaboration of IL-8 by tumor cells may be responsible for this event, which is associated with a significantly higher risk of

  12. A bug's view of allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter S; Campbell, Dianne E

    2016-06-01

    The increase in allergic airways disease has been linked to modern urbanization and lifestyle. Recent evidence suggests that the associated reduction in microbial exposure, reduction in dietary fibre intake and increased antibiotic use may cause early dysbiosis in infancy, which predisposes to immune dysregulation and allergic airways disease later in life. This implies that there may be a window of opportunity for primary prevention strategies aimed to protect or restore the microbiome early in life and thereby decrease the risk of developing allergic airways disease. Alternatively, strategies that correct dysbiosis may aid in the treatment of established allergic airways disease. PMID:27012478

  13. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  14. Environmental Changes, Microbiota, and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, Eun

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically. The development of allergic diseases has been attributed to complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. Of the many possible environmental factors, most research has focused on the most commonly encountered environmental factors, such as air pollution and environmental microbiota in combination with climate change. There is increasing evidence that such environmental factors play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response that is associated with allergic diseases, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This review deals with not only these environmental factors and genetic factors but also their interactions in the development of allergic diseases. It will also emphasize the need for early interventions that can prevent the development of allergic diseases in susceptible populations and how these interventions can be identified. PMID:25228995

  15. Epithelial Cell Regulation of Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gour, Naina; Lajoie, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases, which have escalated in prevalence in recent years, arise as a result of maladaptive immune responses to ubiquitous environmental stimuli. Why only certain individuals mount inappropriate type 2 immune responses to these otherwise harmless allergens has remained an unanswered question. Mounting evidence suggests that the epithelium, by sensing its environment, is the central regulator of allergic diseases. Once considered to be a passive barrier to allergens, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces are now considered to be the cornerstone of the allergic diathesis. Beyond their function as maintaining barrier at mucosal surfaces, mucosal epithelial cells through the secretion of mediators like IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP control the fate of downstream allergic immune responses. In this review, we will discuss the advances in recent years regarding the process of allergen recognition and secretion of soluble mediators by epithelial cells that shape the development of the allergic response. PMID:27534656

  16. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  17. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  18. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  19. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  20. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  1. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics. PMID:8115841

  2. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people. PMID:27120868

  3. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  4. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet. PMID:18173213

  5. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders. PMID:19946408

  6. Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response to allergens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which Treg cells fail to maintain tolerance in patients with allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how Treg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the "dual" functionality of Treg cells in patients with allergic diseases: how Treg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a proallergic inflammatory environment can skew Treg cells toward a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in patients with chronic allergic diseases by promoting Treg cell stability and function. PMID:27596705

  7. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  8. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  9. Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Allergic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Juan; Grine, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    This article explains the proposed pathophysiology, evidence of efficacy, and adverse effects of several complementary and alternative medicine modalities, for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as traditional Chinese medicine formula, herbal treatments, acupuncture, and homeopathy. PMID:27545740

  10. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. PMID:27055949

  11. [Allergic dermatitis caused by pyrogenic silica (aerosol)].

    PubMed

    Liashenko, I N; Lutsiuk, N B; Otkalenko, A K; Odnorogov, Iu V

    1989-01-01

    A case of allergic dermatitis developing after a contact exposure of the skin to aerosil is described. The authors suppose that violated intactness of the skin integument is largely responsible for the allergic reaction. The C-reactive protein, Hoigne's, and leucocyte migration inhibition tests have been all markedly positive. It is recommended that types of aerosil other than powder-forming be utilized and that means protecting the skin and the upper respiratory tract be used. PMID:2543155

  12. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  13. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22053313

  14. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value. PMID:26706728

  15. Spliced leader RNAs, mitochondrial gene frameshifts and multi-protein phylogeny expand support for the genus Perkinsus as a unique group of alveolates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Dungan, Christopher F; Lin, Senjie

    2011-01-01

    The genus Perkinsus occupies a precarious phylogenetic position. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between perkinsids, dinoflagellates and other alveolates, we analyzed the nuclear-encoded spliced-leader (SL) RNA and mitochondrial genes, intron prevalence, and multi-protein phylogenies. In contrast to the canonical 22-nt SL found in dinoflagellates (DinoSL), P. marinus has a shorter (21-nt) and a longer (22-nt) SL with slightly different sequences than DinoSL. The major SL RNA transcripts range in size between 80-83 nt in P. marinus, and ∼ 83 nt in P. chesapeaki, significantly larger than the typical ≤ 56-nt dinoflagellate SL RNA. In most of the phylogenetic trees based on 41 predicted protein sequences, P. marinus branched at the base of the dinoflagellate clade that included the ancient taxa Oxyrrhis and Amoebophrya, sister to the clade of apicomplexans, and in some cases clustered with apicomplexans as a sister to the dinoflagellate clade. Of 104 Perkinsus spp. genes examined 69.2% had introns, a higher intron prevalence than in dinoflagellates. Examination of Perkinsus spp. mitochondrial cytochrome B and cytochrome C oxidase subunit I genes and their cDNAs revealed no mRNA editing, but these transcripts can only be translated when frameshifts are introduced at every AGG and CCC codon as if AGGY codes for glycine and CCCCU for proline. These results, along with the presence of the numerous uncharacterized 'marine alveolate group I' and Perkinsus-like lineages separating perkinsids from core dinoflagellates, expand support for the affiliation of the genus Perkinsus with an independent lineage (Perkinsozoa) positioned between the phyla of Apicomplexa and Dinoflagellata. PMID:21629701

  16. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  17. ["NPAs": a new allergic risk?].

    PubMed

    Dutau, G; Rancé, F

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, to the list of classic pet animals (dogs and cats) as allergens we must now add the "new pet animals" (NPAs). This group of animals, referred to by the Anglo-Saxons as "pets", includes both those previously recognized (rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, birds) and the "truly new NPAs"; by general agreement "NPA" will include all animals other than cats and dogs. Some rather rare animals are regularly added to this list. The emergence of "NPAs" can be related to a social phenomenon, in particular, to the fashion and need for the exotic (http://www.aquadesign.be). They are a very diverse group: warm-blooded animals, spiders, batrachia (frogs, toads, salamanders, etc.) and reptiles. Besides the physical risks from their natural aggressive behaviour, the "NPAs" can be an allergic risk factor and this risk has a tendency to increase. Allergists and paediatricians have a role to play in the diagnosis and prevention of these allergies by giving advice on the choice of pet animals. This review concerns allergies to rodents, reptiles, batrachians, spiders, etc. PMID:19195854

  18. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens. PMID:17390749

  19. Surfactant and allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Carla; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of unique proteins and lipids that covers the airway lumen. Surfactant prevents alveolar collapse and maintains airway patency by reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, it provides a defence against antigen uptake by binding foreign particles and enhancing cellular immune responses. Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway inflammation and presents with episodes of airway narrowing. The pulmonary inflammation and bronchoconstriction can be triggered by exposure to allergens or pathogens present in the inhaled air. Pulmonary surfactant has the potential to interact with various immune cells which orchestrate allergen- or pathogen-driven episodes of airway inflammation. The complex nature of surfactant allows multiple sites of interaction, but also makes it susceptible to external alterations, which potentially impair its function. This duality of modulating airway physiology and immunology during inflammatory conditions, while at the same time being prone to alterations accompanied by restricted function, has stimulated numerous studies in recent decades, which are reviewed in this article. PMID:23896983

  20. NKp46 regulates allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, Hormas; Horani, Amjad; Glasner, Ariella; Elboim, Moran; Gazit, Roi; Shoseyov, David; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells that are able to rapidly kill viruses, tumor cells, parasites, bacteria, and even cells considered “self”. The activity of NK cells is controlled by a fine balance of inhibitory and activating signals mediated by a complex set of different receptors. However, the function of NK cells is not restricted only to the killing of target cells, NK cells also possess other properties such as the secretion of proangiogenic factors during pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate another unique NK-cell activity, namely the regulation of T-cell mediated allergic responses, which is dependent on the NK-cell specific receptor NKp46 (Ncr1 in mice). Using mice in which the Ncr1 gene has been replaced with a green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity and airway hypersensitivity. Interestingly, we show that this reduction in airway hypersensitivity is due to differences in the stimulation of T cells resulting in an altered cytokine profile. PMID:23878025

  1. NKp46 regulates allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Ghadially, Hormas; Horani, Amjad; Glasner, Ariella; Elboim, Moran; Gazit, Roi; Shoseyov, David; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells that are able to rapidly kill viruses, tumor cells, parasites, bacteria, and even cells considered "self". The activity of NK cells is controlled by a fine balance of inhibitory and activating signals mediated by a complex set of different receptors. However, the function of NK cells is not restricted only to the killing of target cells, NK cells also possess other properties such as the secretion of proangiogenic factors during pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate another unique NK-cell activity, namely the regulation of T-cell mediated allergic responses, which is dependent on the NK-cell specific receptor NKp46 (Ncr1 in mice). Using mice in which the Ncr1 gene has been replaced with a green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity and airway hypersensitivity. Interestingly, we show that this reduction in airway hypersensitivity is due to differences in the stimulation of T cells resulting in an altered cytokine profile. PMID:23878025

  2. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26552770

  3. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  4. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. Results In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. Conclusions We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:20487574

  5. Epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics of asthma and allergic disease is a field that has expanded greatly in the last decade. Previously thought only in terms of cell differentiation, it is now evident the epigenetics regulate many processes. With T cell activation, commitment toward an allergic phenotype is tightly regulated by DNA methylation and histone modifications at the Th2 locus control region. When normal epigenetic control is disturbed, either experimentally or by environmental exposures, Th1/Th2 balance can be affected. Epigenetic marks are not only transferred to daughter cells with cell replication but they can also be inherited through generations. In animal models, with constant environmental pressure, epigenetically determined phenotypes are amplified through generations and can last up to 2 generations after the environment is back to normal. In this review on the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases we review basic epigenetic mechanisms and discuss the epigenetic control of Th2 cells. We then cover the transgenerational inheritance model of epigenetic traits and discuss how this could relate the amplification of asthma and allergic disease prevalence and severity through the last decades. Finally, we discuss recent epigenetic association studies for allergic phenotypes and related environmental risk factors as well as potential underlying mechanisms for these associations. PMID:24932182

  6. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors. PMID:12745410

  7. Chlorination products: emerging links with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of the human population to chlorination products has considerably increased during the 20(th) century especially after the 1960s with the development of public and leisure pools. The present article summarizes current knowledge regarding the human exposure to chlorination products and reviews studies suggesting that these chemicals might be involved in the development or exacerbation of allergic diseases. Populations regularly in contact with chlorination products such as swimmers, lifeguards or workers using chlorine as cleaning or bleaching agent show increased risks of allergic diseases or of respiratory disorders frequently associated with allergy. Experimental evidence suggests that chlorination products promote allergic sensitization by compromising the permeability or the immunoregulatory function of epithelial barriers. These findings led to the chlorine hypothesis proposing that the rise of allergic diseases could result less from the declining exposure to microbial agents (the hygiene hypothesis) than from the increasing and largely uncontrolled exposure to products of chlorination, the most widely used method to achieve hygiene in the developed world. Giving the increasing popularity of water recreational areas, there is an obvious need to assess the effects of chlorine-based oxidants on human health and their possible implication in the epidemic of allergic diseases. PMID:17627515

  8. Allergic sensitization and the environment: latest update.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases is still increasing both in developed and developing countries. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant allergens is common and, although not sufficient, a necessary step in the development of allergic diseases. Despite a small number of proteins from certain plants and animals being common allergens in humans, we still do not fully understand who will develop sensitization and to which allergens. Environmental exposure to these allergens is essential for the development of sensitization, but what has emerged clearly in the literature in the recent years is that the adjuvants to which an individual is exposed at the same time as the allergen are probably an equally important determinant of the immune response to the allergen. These adjuvants act on all steps in the development of sensitization from modifying epithelial barriers, to facilitating antigen presentation, to driving T-cell responses, to altering mast cell and basophil hyperreactivity. The adjuvants come from biogenic sources, including microbes and the plants and animals that produce the allergens, and from man-made sources (anthropogenic), including unintended by-products of combustion and chemicals now ubiquitous in modern life. As we better understand how individuals are exposed to these adjuvants and how the exposure influences the likelihood of an allergic response, we may be able to design individual and community-level interventions that will reverse the increase in allergic disease prevalence, but we are not there yet. PMID:25149167

  9. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Chawes, Bo L K

    2011-05-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis and epidemiological surveys have suggested a close connection between upper and lower airway diseases expressed as the "united airways concept". Furthermore, an association between upper and lower airway diseases also seems to exist in non-atopic individuals. Nevertheless, the nature of this association is poorly understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key symptom in both allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of the allergic diseases. In paper I, we studied nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency assessed by acoustic rhinometry in children with allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis and healthy controls. Allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with nasal eosinophilia and irreversible nasal airway obstruction suggesting chronic inflammation and structural remodeling

  10. Think You're Allergic to Penicillin? Maybe Not

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158759.html Think You're Allergic to Penicillin? Maybe Not Only a severe reaction that comes ... Many people who believe they're allergic to penicillin actually aren't, an allergist says. "Hypersensitivity reactions ...

  11. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Probiotics: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  12. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with probiotics: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from oxygen cannulas.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, A J

    1980-10-01

    A patient experienced allergic contact dermatitis on two occasions two months apart as a result of wearing the same brand of polyvinyl chloride oxygen cannula. In one instance the cannula was removed and not replaced, as continuing oxygen was unnecessary; on the other occasion the original cannula was replaced by a cannula of another brand. In both cases the dermatitis disappeared after removal of the original cannula. The reaction was probably to a resin remaining in the polyvinyl chloride after the curing process in the manufacture of the plastic from which the cannula was made. Allergic reactions to plastics have been documented in other medical products but have not previously been reported in respiratory therapy plastic appliances. Because of variability in residual resins in different brands and batches of plastics, and because of varying individual sensitivity, therapists and others should be alert to the possibility of allergic contact dermatitis from respiratory therapy devices. PMID:10315103

  14. Role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Idzko, Marco; Pitchford, Simon; Page, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role for platelets and their products (e.g., platelet factor 4, β-thromboglobulin, RANTES, thromboxane, or serotonin) in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. A variety of changes in platelet function have been observed in patients with asthma, such as alterations in platelet secretion, expression of surface molecules, aggregation, and adhesion. Moreover, platelets have been found to actively contribute to most of the characteristic features of asthma, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. This review brings together the current available data from both experimental and clinical studies that have investigated the role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation and asthma. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of asthma might lead to novel promising therapeutic approaches in the treatment of allergic airway diseases. PMID:26051948

  15. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization. PMID:9789357

  16. The united allergic airway: Connections between allergic rhinitis, asthma, and chronic sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michaela D.; Simon, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The united allergic airway is a theory that connects allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma, in which seemingly disparate diseases, instead of being thought of separately, are instead viewed as arising from a common atopic entity. Objective: This article describes patients with such diseases; explores ideas suggesting a unified pathogenesis; elucidates the various treatment modalities available, emphasizing nasal corticosteroids and antihistamines; and provides an update of the literature. Methods: A literature review was conducted. Conclusion: The aggregation of research suggests that AR, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis are linked by the united allergic airway, a notion that encompasses commonalities in pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment. PMID:22643942

  17. Micro cell isolation column for allergic diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Koichiro; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Yuhki; Hide, Michihiro; Miyake, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    We suggest a new micro cell isolation column of basophils for an allergic diagnostic system for detecting human basophils activations. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensors using human basophils allow allergic diagnosis of less than 1 ml of peripheral blood. However, an isolation of basophils from a small amount of blood is not easy. In this study, we constructed a new micro cell isolation column for basophils with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microflow pass including magnetic particles. Furthermore, we determined whether leukocytes were captured by the micro cell isolation column from a small amount of blood. We can isolate basophils from other leukocytes by using the micro cell isolation column.

  18. Rupatadine in allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Mullol, J; Bousquet, J; Bachert, C; Canonica, W G; Gimenez-Arnau, A; Kowalski, M L; Martí-Guadaño, E; Maurer, M; Picado, C; Scadding, G; Van Cauwenberge, P

    2008-04-01

    Histamine is the primary mediator involved the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria, and this explains the prominent role that histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists have in the treatment of these disorders. However, histamine is clearly not the only mediator involved in the inflammatory cascade. There is an emerging view that drugs which can inhibit a broader range of inflammatory processes may prove to be more effective in providing symptomatic relief in both allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. This is an important consideration of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative which provides a scientific basis for defining what are the desirable properties of an 'ideal' antihistamine. In this review of rupatadine, a newer dual inhibitor of histamine H(1)- and PAF-receptors, we evaluate the evidence for a mechanism of action which includes anti-inflammatory effects in addition to a powerful inhibition of H(1)- and PAF-receptors. We assess this in relation to the clinical efficacy (particularly the speed of onset of action) and safety of rupatadine, and importantly its longer term utility in everyday life. In clinical trials, rupatadine has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). It has a fast onset of action, producing rapid symptomatic relief, and it also has an extended duration of clinical activity which allows once-daily administration. In comparative clinical trials rupatadine was shown to be at least as effective as drugs such as loratadine, cetirizine, desloratadine and ebastine in reducing allergic symptoms in adult/adolescent patients with seasonal, perennial or persistent allergic rhinitis. Importantly, rupatadine demonstrated no adverse cardiovascular effects in preclinical or extensive clinical testing, nor negative significant effects on cognition or psychomotor performance (including a practical driving study). It improved the

  19. Eosinophilic pleural effusion complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Austin N; Kuhlmann, Erica; Kuzniar, Tomasz J

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is primarily a disease of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, who typically present with bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, and expectoration of mucus plugs. We report a case of a young man with a history of asthma who presented with cough, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have lobar atelectasis and an eosinophilic, empyematous pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy and sputum cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, and testing confirmed strong allergic response to this mold, all consistent with a diagnosis of ABPA. This novel and unique presentation of ABPA expands on the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusions. PMID:21311176

  20. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  1. Acute stress affects the physiology and behavior of allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Shome, G P; Hulbert, L E; Krebs, N; Wachtel, M; McGlone, J J

    2009-09-01

    Physical and psychological stressors have been implicated in acute asthma exacerbation. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of forced swimming stress (FST) on allergic pulmonary inflammation in BALB/c mice. Eighty female mice were allocated to one of four treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of two levels of allergy and two levels of stress. The effects of stress and allergy were assessed by examination of cytokines and leukocyte differentials in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, corticosterone and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the plasma, leukocyte differentials in the peripheral blood, natural killer cytotoxicity, and histopathology of the lungs. Behavior was recorded during the FST. Stress and allergy increased plasma corticosterone in mice. Allergy increased IgE concentrations and pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-4 was greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice and stressed, non-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and 6 (IL-6) were greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice compared with non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 and 6 were reduced among stressed-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, allergic mice. Stress and allergy shifted mice towards a T-helper 2 response as shown by increased interleukin-4. Stress reduced IL-5 and IL-6 in allergic mice but not non-allergic mice. Pulmonary inflammation was not reduced among allergic stressed mice in spite of elevated glucocorticoids. Mice induced to be allergic responded to FST differently than non-allergic mice. Our findings suggest that stress induces a differential response among allergic and non-allergic mice. PMID:19527741

  2. A dual role for complement in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Köhl, Jörg; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2007-06-01

    Complement is an ancient danger-sensor system of innate immunity, providing first-line defence against pathogens. Concordant with its pro-inflammatory properties, complement contributes to airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and mucus production during the effector phase of allergic asthma. In contrast to these pro-allergic properties, complement can also protect from the development of the maladaptive Th2-biased immune response that drives airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in allergic asthma. As such, selective targeting of pro-allergic complement pathways appears an attractive therapeutic option in allergic asthma. PMID:17475559

  3. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  4. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials. PMID:22686617

  5. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  7. Impaired basophil histamine release from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Stahl Skov, P; Norn, S; Weeke, B; Nolte, H

    1987-04-01

    A few patients (6-7%) with a verified type I allergic reaction do not respond with histamine release after challenge of their basophils with specific antigen (non-responding basophils from allergic patients). Sera from these non-responding patients were used for passive sensitization of responding cells from healthy controls. When these sensitized cells were challenged with specific antigen, histamine release was observed indicating that the non-responding allergic patients have circulating antigen-specific IgE capable of binding to Fc-receptors on the basophils. These findings suggest the possibility that non-responding basophils have impaired cell functions. We therefore examined the influence of enhanced IgE receptor stimulation on histamine release in non-responding basophils. This was made by stimulating protein kinase C activity by a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). When the non-responding cells were incubated with the phorbol ester and challenged with either anti-IgE or specific antigen, the cells released histamine. These findings support the hypothesis that the unresponsiveness of basophils in some allergic patients is associated with impaired IgE receptor complex activation or subcellular functioning and not with a lack of cell-bound IgE. PMID:2440283

  8. Novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents: allergic disease and innovative treatments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Coelho, Pedro B; Oliveira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Anti-allergic agents are used to treat a great variety of diseases which usually involve an inflammation reaction. These compounds act by inhibiting the release and the effects of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine) in the target tissue. The purpose of anti-allergy therapy is to deliver the drug to its local of action in a therapeutic concentration, minimizing the undesired side effects. In order to solve some of the anti-allergic agents' physicochemical drawbacks and the limitations associated to conventional pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. poor solubility and absorption, skin permeation, stability), novel drug delivery systems, such as cyclodextrins, liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, nano and microparticles, have been developed. Depending on the allergic condition, several administration routes are used to deliver anti-allergic agents, each with its own disadvantages to overcome. In the literature, there are a vast number of papers concerning novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents, making it difficult to evaluate the information and the promising outcomes. The aim of the present review article is to compile the recent (i.e. in the new millennium) improvements of novel drug delivery technology focusing on the achievement of anti-allergic therapeutic delivery. The potential intrinsic benefits of these systems will reflect an increased therapeutic adherence and better patients' life quality. A critical prospect of future clinical trial directions will also be discussed. PMID:25895551

  9. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  10. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26086549

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  12. Silencing Nociceptor Neurons Reduces Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E; Burkett, Patrick R; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J F; Pascal, Maud A; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L; Tran, Johnathan V; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Bean, Bruce P; Levy, Bruce D; Woolf, Clifford J

    2015-07-15

    Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation, we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8(+) sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large-pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin- or house-dust-mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4(+) and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  13. Neurology of allergic inflammation and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J

    2002-05-01

    Afferent nerves, derived from the trigeminal ganglion, and postganglionic autonomic nerves, derived from sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia expressing many different neurotransmitters, innervate the nose. Reflexes that serve to optimize the air-conditioning function of the nose by altering sinus blood flow, or serve to protect the nasal mucosal surface by mucus secretion, vasodilatation, and sneezing, can be initiated by a variety of stimuli, including allergen, cold air, and chemical irritation. Activation of nasal afferent nerves can also have profound effects on respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and airway caliber (the diving response). Dysregulation of the nerves in the nose plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Axon reflexes can precipitate inflammatory responses in the nose, resulting in plasma extravasation and inflammatory cell recruitment, while allergic inflammation can produce neuronal hyper-responsiveness. Targeting the neuronal dysregulation in the nose may be beneficial in treating upper airway disease. PMID:11918862

  14. [Clinical diagnosis and treatment of allergic pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Yan, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Mingxia

    2015-08-01

    Although the concept of united airway disease has been widely accepted, most scholars emphasize only the effect of rhino-sinusitis while ignoring the pharyngeal factors to the lower airway, especially to the allergic pharyngitis (AP), which still lacks enough awareness. First of all, absence of unified diagnostic standard leads to the lack of epidemiological data, which, results in doctors' personal experience but no guideline in treatments. In addition, it is still not clear that the role of AP in the allergic airway diseases and its relationship with asthma. However, the number of patients with AP has been increasing obviously in daily clinic practice. Combined with the previous observation, this paper does a systematic review about the clinical problems of AP, expecting to give a hand to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of AP. PMID:26685417

  15. [The gene or genes of allergic asthma?].

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Bousquet, J; Godard, P; Michel, F B

    1993-05-15

    Asthma is a multifactorial disease in which the hereditary component has been demonstrated by familial and identical twin studies. Allergy is important in the aetiology of asthma and is characterized by a hyperreaction to allergens triggering predominantly the immunoglobulines E. The levels of these antibodies are found to be elevated even in non allergic asthmatics. The majority of genetic research in this area is focused on either the genes of the specific immune response or that of the non allergic response. These are the genes of the class II MHC, and the APY gene on chromosome 11q respectively. The modern techniques of molecular genetics and in particular those of inverse genetics have recently contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of this disease. PMID:8316547

  16. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  17. Strategies to prevent or reduce allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The need for allergy prevention strategies has never been greater. Surging rates of food allergy and eczema are now adding to the already substantial burden of asthma and respiratory allergic diseases. The parallel rise in many other immune diseases suggests that the developing immune system is highly vulnerable to modern environmental changes. These strong environmental pressures may be one reason why simple allergen avoidance strategies have not been successful. Another more recent strategy to curtail the allergy epidemic has been to identify factors associated with modern lifestyle that may be causally linked with allergic disease, in an attempt to restore more favourable conditions for immune tolerance during early development. More hygienic conditions and disruption of microbial exposure have prompted strategies to restore this balance using probiotic and prebiotic supplements. Modern dietary changes linked with allergic diseases have prompted supplementation studies to assess the preventive merits of specific immunomodulatory dietary nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Other nutrients such as antioxidants, folate, and vitamin D are also currently under investigation. Modern environmental pollutants have also been associated with adverse effects on immune development and the risk of disease. While many of these avenues have provided some promise, they have not yet translated into specific recommendations. Current evidence-based guidelines for allergy prevention remain limited to avoidance of cigarette smoke, promotion of breastfeeding and the use of hydrolysed formula when breastfeeding is not possible. Allergen avoidance strategies have been largely removed from most guidelines. It is hoped that a number of ongoing studies will help provide clearer recommendations around the use of probiotics, prebiotics, specific dietary nutrients and the role of early introduction of allergenic foods for the promotion of tolerance. Despite the current

  18. [Coenzyme metabolic therapy in infectious allergic myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Mazurets, A F; Gurevich, M A; Kubyshkin, V F; Dziuba, M V; Vikharev, N P

    1995-01-01

    A trial was performed of clinical efficacy of the coenzyme complex incorporating piridoxalphosphate, cobamamide and phosphaden in patients with infectious allergic myocarditis. Myo- cardial dystrophy and correlations of the myocardial enzymatic status with blood lymphocytes in the above patients were taken in consideration. Corrective action of metabolic therapy on myocardial bioenergy was coupled with positive antiarrhythmic and cardiotonic effects. Cytochemical follow-up investigations enabled long-term monitoring over the patients' condition and further catamnesis. PMID:8815275

  19. Role of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Pharmacological studies using CysLTs indicate that two classes of receptor exist: CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). The CysLT1R is a high-affinity leukotriene D4 receptor with lower affinity for leukotriene C4 that is sensitive to the CysLT1R antagonist currently used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. Our previous immunohistochemical and autoradiographic studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-CysLT1R antibodies labeled in eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages, neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells in human nasal mucosa. Furthermore, we have revealed that the novel radioactive CysLT1R antagonist [3H]-pranlukast bound specifically to CysLT1R in human inferior turbinates and its binding sites were localized to vascular endothelium and the interstitial cells. These data suggest that the major targets of CysLT1R antagonists in allergic rhinitis are the vascular bed and infiltrated leukocytes such as mast cells, eosinophils and macrophages. Clinical trials have demonstrated that CysLT1R antagonists are as effective as antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, they are less effective than intranasal steroids. The use of CysLT1R antagonists in combination with antihistamines has generally resulted in greater efficacy than when these agents were used alone. PMID:27115997

  20. Potassium ion channels and allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Kocmalova, M; Oravec, M; Adamkov, M; Sadlonova, V; Kazimierova, I; Medvedova, I; Joskova, M; Franova, S; Sutovska, M

    2015-01-01

    High-conductive calcium-sensitive potassium channels (BK+Ca) and ATP-sensitive potassium (K+ATP) channels play a significant role in the airway smooth muscle cell and goblet cell function, and cytokine production. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of BK+Ca and K+ATP openers, NS 1619 and pinacidil, respectively, in an experimental model of allergic inflammation. Airway allergic inflammation was induced with ovalbumine in guinea pigs during 21 days, which was followed by a 14-day treatment with BK+Ca and K+ATP openers. The outcome measures were airway smooth muscle cells reactivity in vivo and in vitro, cilia beating frequency and the level of exhaled NO (ENO), and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The openers of both channels decreased airway smooth muscle cells reactivity, cilia beating frequency, and cytokine levels in the serum. Furthermore, NS1619 reduced ENO and inflammatory cells infiltration. The findings confirmed the presence of beneficial effects of BK+Ca and K+ATP openers on airway defence mechanisms. Although both openers dampened pro-inflammatory cytokines and mast cells infiltration, an evident anti-inflammatory effect was provided only by NS1619. Therefore, we conclude that particularly BK+Ca channels represent a promising new drug target in treatment of airway's allergic inflammation. PMID:25315623

  1. Allergic rhinitis and asthma in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Christopher C

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis, epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management of allergic rhinitis and asthma in the recreational and elite athlete are discussed in this study. There is an increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma in the elite athlete related to the enhanced ventilation with entrainment of inhalants including allergens as well as irritants such as pollutants in the urban athlete, chlorine in the swimmer, and cold air in the hockey player in the training environment. The history as well as objective exercise challenge and skin-prick tests to inhalants or in vitro allergen testing are essential in conjunction with a comprehensive physical exam to diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma in the athlete. This is particularly necessary for the elite or competitive athlete who often has poor insight into the symptoms. Management is with appropriate inhaled steroids and/or leukotriene antagonists for the upper (nasal) and lower airways with avoidance of inhaled allergens and/or appropriate immunotherapy where relevant. The optimal management of the athlete results in minimum medication with minimum adverse side effects and optimal outcome. Proper adherence to antidoping regulations and application for use exemption in competitive athletes is recommended. The athlete should be encouraged to pursue the selected sports activity without limitations. PMID:16724626

  2. Probiotics for allergic respiratory diseases--putting it into perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Ranjan Das, Rashmi

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory allergies include allergic rhinitis, sinusitis and asthma. Increasing attention on pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases has given rise to "atopic march" hypothesis i.e. clinical features of atopic eczema occur first and precede the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis. The "hygiene hypothesis" proposes that the increase in allergic diseases reflects a decrease in infections during childhood. Clinical trials also suggest that the exposure to microbes through the gastrointestinal tract powerfully shapes immune function. Probiotics are live organisms which exert a beneficial effect in the prevention as well as treatment of allergic diseases through modification of immune system of host via gut ecosystem. Intestinal microbiota differs in infants who later develop allergic diseases, and feeding probiotics to infants at risk has been shown to reduce their rate of developing eczema. This has prompted studies of feeding probiotics in prevention as well as treatment of respiratory allergy. We hereby discuss the status of probiotics in respiratory allergy. PMID:19725896

  3. Risk of allergic reactions to wine, in milk, egg and fish-allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European legislators and wine producers still debate on the requirement for labeling of wines fined with potentially allergenic food proteins (casein, egg white or fish-derived isinglass). We investigated whether wines fined with known concentrations of these proteins have the potential to provoke clinical allergic reactions in relevant patients. Methods In-house wines were produced for the study, fined with different concentrations of casein (n = 7), egg albumin (n = 1) and isinglass (n = 3). ELISA and PCR kits specific for the respective proteins were used to identify the fining agents. Skin prick tests and basophil activation tests were performed in patients with confirmed IgE-mediated relevant food allergies (n = 24). A wine consumption questionnaire and detailed history on possible reactions to wine was obtained in a multinational cohort of milk, egg or fish allergic patients (n = 53) and patients allergic to irrelevant foods as controls (n = 13). Results Fining agents were not detectable in wines with the available laboratory methods. Nevertheless, positive skin prick test reactions and basophil activation to the relevant wines were observed in the majority of patients with allergy to milk, egg or fish, correlating with the concentration of the fining agent. Among patients consuming wine, reported reactions were few and mild and similar with the ones reported from the control group. Conclusion Casein, isinglass or egg, remaining in traces in wine after fining, present a very low risk for the respective food allergic consumers. Physician and patient awareness campaigns may be more suitable than generalized labeling to address this issue, as the latter may have negative impact on both non-allergic and allergic consumers. PMID:22409883

  4. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  5. Early host-pathogen interactions in marine bivalves: evidence that the alveolate parasite Perkinsus marinus infects through the oyster mantle during rejection of pseudofeces.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Carden, Wade E; Ward, J Evan; Ralph, Gina; Winnicki, Sarah; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle

    2013-05-01

    Parasites have developed myriad strategies to reach and infect their specific hosts. One of the most common mechanisms for non-vector transmitted parasites to reach the internal host environment is by ingestion during feeding. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of oyster host colonization by the alveolate Perkinsus marinus and focused on how oysters process infective waterborne P. marinus cells during feeding in order to determine the portal(s) of entry of this parasite to its host. We also compared the infectivity of freely-suspended cells of P. marinus with that of cells incorporated into marine aggregates to link changes in particle processing by the feeding organs with infection success and route. Finally, we evaluated the effect of oyster secretions (mucus) covering the feeding organs on P. marinus physiology because these host factors are involved in the processing of waterborne particles. The ensemble of results shows a unique mechanism for infection by which the parasite is mostly acquired during the feeding process, but not via ingestion. Rather, infection commonly occurs during the rejection of material as pseudofeces before reaching the mouth. The pseudofeces discharge area, a specialized area of the mantle where unwanted particles are accumulated for rejection as pseudofeces, showed significantly higher parasite loads than other host tissues including other parts of the mantle. Aggregated P. marinus cells caused significantly higher disease prevalence and infection intensities when compared to freely-suspended parasite cells. Mucus covering the mantle caused a quick and significant increase in parasite replication rates suggesting rapid impact on P. marinus physiology. A new model for P. marinus acquisition in oysters is proposed. PMID:23274079

  6. Do mouse models of allergic asthma mimic clinical disease?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Experimental mouse models of allergic asthma established almost 10 years ago offered new opportunities to study disease pathogenesis and to develop new therapeutics. These models focused on the factors governing the allergic immune response, on modeling clinical behavior of allergic asthma, and led to insights into pulmonary pathophysiology. Although mouse models rarely completely reproduce all the features of human disease, after sensitization and respiratory tract challenges with antigen, wild-type mice develop a clinical syndrome that closely resembles allergic asthma, characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), increased IgE, mucus hypersecretion, and eventually, airway remodeling. There are, however, differences between mouse and human physiology that threaten to limit the value of mouse models. Three examples of such differences relate to both clinical manifestations of disease and underlying pathogenesis. First, in contrast to patients who have increased methacholine-induced AHR even when they are symptom-free, mice exhibit only transient methacholine-induced AHR following allergen exposure. Second, chronic allergen exposure in patients leads to chronic allergic asthma, whereas repeated exposures in sensitized mice causes suppression of disease. Third, IgE and mast cells, in humans, mediate early- and late-phase allergic responses, though both are unnecessary for the generation of allergic asthma in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that mouse models of allergic asthma are not exact replicas of human disease and thus, question the validity of these models. However, observations from mouse models of allergic asthma support many existing paradigms, although some novel discoveries in mice have yet to be verified in patients. This review presents an overview of the clinical aspects of disease in mouse models of allergic asthma emphasizing (1). the factors influencing the pathophysiological responses during

  7. Clinical and allergic sensitization characteristics of allergic rhinitis among the elderly population in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ayse Bilge; Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; Olmez, Merve Ozata

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in elderly population in Turkey is not known. Studies on the prevalence and features of allergy in older adults are needed to identify safe and effective diagnostic/therapeutic methods for elderly AR patients. We aimed to identify the clinical and allergic characteristics of sensitization to aeroallergens among individuals aged ≥60 years with allergic rhinitis admitted to an allergy outpatient clinic in Istanbul. Of 109 patients, 33.9 % were atopic. Sixty-five percent of subjects were sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 17 % to a grass-pollen mixture, 8 % to Aspergillus fumigatus, and 8 % to Blattella germanica. There was no difference between mono- and polysensitized patients in terms of the duration of rhinitis and symptom severity. No significant difference was observed between the two groups according to age, sex, smoking status, AR onset (<40 or ≥40 years), or duration/severity of disease. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the prevalence of asthma and conjunctivitis, (p = 0.256). Atopic dermatitis/eczema was more prevalent in those with AR (p = 0.046). Clinical characteristics of AR in the elderly could be different from those in non-allergic patients, and the prevalence of allergy may be higher than expected. PMID:25680346

  8. Elevated nonspecific plasma proteins in allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Reich, M; Niess, J H; Bär, C; Zwacka, G; Markert, U R

    2003-01-01

    Several allergen-specific plasma proteins, such as IgE and IgG subclasses, are commonly used for the evaluation of grade of allergy. In the present investigation, we compared the concentration of various nonspecific plasma proteins, mostly known as inflammation markers, in an allergic and a healthy population. Plasma from 130 children with single inhalation allergies to grass pollen, birch pollen, or house dust mites as well as from 42 healthy children was obtained during the symptom-free period. Patients showed symptoms including allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma with one single radioallergosorbent test (RAST) class 3 or higher. Plasma concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1), soluble interleukin-2 receptor(sIL-2R), sE-selectin, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (1sVCAM-1) were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Concentrations of sICAM-1 and sE-selectin were significantly increased in all patients compared to controls. In the single allergen groups, sICAM-1 elevation was significant in the grass and mite groups, but not in the birch group; while sE-selection increase was significant in the birch and mite groups, but not in the grass group. The elevation of sIL-2R in the allergic patients was obvious in each single allergen group, but not significant. No difference was observed in sVCAM-1 expression. In two groups of patients with mean age of 9.5 years versus 17.5 years, the analyzed parameters were not age dependent. The increased proteins may be useful as additional markers for efficacy and follow-up investigations of allergy therapies. PMID:12861853

  9. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  10. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-07-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  11. Assessment of Allergic Rhinitis Websites in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon Young; Han, Doo Hee; Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Seung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Chul Hee; Min, Yang-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The internet has become an important source of medical information and a great amount of information related to allergic rhinitis (AR) is available on the internet. However, the quality of this information is still a matter of debate. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the AR-related information on Korean websites. Methods The key word "allergic rhinitis" was entered into 4 popular search engines, and this led to identifying 40 websites. After being categorized according to authorship, the informational value of these websites was evaluated using 4 different assessment tools such as the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, the DISCERN questionnaire, the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2008 Update and the Health On the Net (HON) code. Results The 40 websites containing AR-related information were categorized according to their authorship as Western physician: 20, Oriental physician: 14, commercial: 1, and others: 5. The mean citation frequencies of the JAMA benchmarks and the ARIA 2008 Update concepts was 1.23 out of 4 and 4.33 out of 8, respectively, while the mean DISCERN score was 1.92 out of 5. When the websites were evaluated based on the type of authorship, the mean citation frequencies of the ARIA 2008 Update concepts were Western physician: 5.35, Oriental physician: 2.64. Additionally, three websites authored by Western physicians and 13 authored by Oriental physicians contained unreliable information. Among these 16 websites, only 3 websites met the requirements for the HON code "Justification". Conclusion AR-related information available on Korean websites is of variable quality and not all of the information provided is justifiable. Thus, performing surveillance of the medical information on these websites is necessary. Furthermore, common criteria that can be used to evaluate the websites created by both Western and Oriental physicians are also needed. PMID:20379400

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. PMID:27185422

  13. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  14. METALS, PARTICLES AND IMPACT UPON PULMONARY ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The increase in allergic asthma over the past few decades has prompted investigations into whether air pollution may affect either the incidence or severity of allergic lung disease. Population studies have demonstrated that as air pollution rises, symptoms, medication use a...

  15. Association between exposure to antimicrobial household products and allergic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Choi, Won-Jun; Lim, Wan Ryung; Kim, Jeonghoon; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Antimicrobial chemicals are used in a variety of household and personal care products. Exposure to antimicrobial household products has been hypothesized to lead to allergic diseases in children. Methods We investigated antimicrobial household product exposure and allergic symptoms in Korean children. An antimicrobial exposure (AE) score was derived. To examine the symptoms of allergic diseases (current wheeze, current rhinitis, and current eczema) in the past 12 months, we used a questionnaire based on the core module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Complete data for the analysis were available for 25,805 of the 35,590 (72.5%) children. Results The prevalence of current allergic diseases was as follows: wheeze, 5.6%; allergic rhinitis, 32.6%; and eczema, 17.7%. The mean (standard deviation) AE score was 14.3 (9.3) (range: 0-40). Compared with subjects with a low AE score (reference), subjects with a high AE score (fourth quartile) were more likely to have symptoms of wheezing and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for wheezing 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.45, p for trend=0.24; aOR for allergic rhinitis 1.30, 95% CI, 1.20-1.40, p<0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that frequent use of antimicrobial household products was associated with current wheeze and current allergic rhinitis. PMID:25420879

  16. Allergic and nonallergic asthma in children: are they distinct phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Fakhri, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mazaher; Bashardoost, Bahram; Razavi, Seyed Jafar; Toolabi, Masoumeh; Tajik, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Masjedi, Mohamad Reza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of current study is to describe clinical similarities and differences between atopic and non-atopic asthma in children. In a cross-sectional study, 95 asthmatic children (75 allergics and 20 nonallergics) were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and familial history were compared between two groups. There was no significant differences between variables like sex, age of onset (p=0.75), severity (p=0.70), and family history among the two groups (p=0.42). Patients with allergic asthma were significantly older than those with non- allergic asthma (11.28 ± 3.19 and 9.75 ± 2.35 years, respectively, p=0.02). The controversy lingers over the presence of a completely distinct phenotype of non-atopic asthma in children. Our study suggested that phenotypes of allergic and non-allergic asthma in children were not entirely distinct. PMID:25150079

  17. [Prevention of allergic diseases in childhood: from theory to reality].

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Allergic diseases have an increasing worldwide prevalence and a great impact on the health related costs. The research is focused on the study of etiological and risk factors of allergic diseases that can potentially be modified with primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies. Many of these measures do not have a definitively proven effect taking place in a controlled context different to what happens in real life. This paper aims to review the latest evidence on prevention of allergic diseases considering certainties and unresolved issues and focuses mainly on environmental, dietary, pharmacological and immunological preventive strategies for different levels of prevention. It is imperative to have a better understanding of genetic and environmental factors that cause allergic diseases to optimize preventive measures that are effective in reversing the increasing trend in the prevalence of allergic illnesses in childhood. PMID:27164342

  18. Allergic reactions associated with pegaspargase in adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Abraham; Kim, Michelle; Seyer, Maggie; Patel, Samit

    2016-07-01

    One of the severe toxicities of pegaspargase (PEG) is the development of allergic reactions. This study retrospectively assessed 311 PEG doses administered to 139 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients from May 1, 2008 to July 30, 2014 for allergic reactions based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03. Fourteen reactions were recorded in 13 patients (9.4%). The rate of reaction did not differ between patients who received pre-medications and those who did not (p = 0.939). Patients who received only IV PEG doses had a higher rate of reaction compared to only IM PEG (14.0% vs 1.6%; p = 0.010). Six of the seven patients with CTCAE grade 4 reactions received a majority of IV doses, suggesting that severity of reactions may increase with IV administration. Capped doses at 3750 units only had a reaction rate of 2.3%, while uncapped doses over 3750 units were found to have a 6.0% reaction rate (p = 0.194). PMID:26461960

  19. Immune Regulatory Mechanisms in Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Niederkorn, Jerry Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review This review highlights recent findings regarding the immune regulation of allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Mouse models have facilitated prospective studies that have not been possible in patients. The availability of gene knockout mice and the wealth of monoclonal antibodies have permitted exquisite dissection of the pathophysiology and immune regulation of AC. Recent findings New insights have emerged in three areas: a) role of costimulatory molecules in the induction of Th2 immune responses; b) crucial role of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the expression of AC; and c) the function of T regulatory cells in shaping conjunctival inflammation once the immune response has been initiated. Summary Allergic conjunctivitis involves early phase and late phase reactions. The early phase reaction (EPR) is IgE antibody-dependent, while the late phase reaction (LPR) is IgE-independent and is mediated by inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils. Recent studies in mouse models of AC have provided important insights into the immune regulation of both the EPR and LPR of AC. Mounting evidence suggests that IFN-γ is crucial for optimum expression of AC. Costimulatory molecules influence the induction of Th2 immune responses and the EPR while regulatory T cells shape the expression of the LPR of AC. PMID:18769204

  20. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    PubMed Central

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1–like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future. PMID:24880633

  1. Allergic diseases: the price of civilisational progress

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:25097472

  2. Emerging Antigens Involved in Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    New allergic diseases can “emerge” because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which is associated with two novel forms of anaphylaxis. In a large area of the southeastern United States, the disease of delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat is now common. This disease challenges many previous rules about food allergy and provides a striking model of an emerging allergic disease. PMID:24095162

  3. Allergic diseases: the price of civilisational progress.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-05-01

    Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:25097472

  4. Airway Fibrinogenolysis and the Initiation of Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Mak, Garbo; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Knight, J. Morgan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    The past 15 years of allergic disease research have produced extraordinary improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway allergic diseases such as asthma. Whereas it was previously viewed as largely an immunoglobulin E-mediated process, the gradual recognition that T cells, especially Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells and Th17 cells, play a major role in asthma and related afflictions has inspired clinical trials targeting cytokine-based inflammatory pathways that show great promise. What has yet to be clarified about the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders, however, are the fundamental initiating factors, both exogenous and endogenous, that drive and sustain B- and T-cell responses that underlie the expression of chronic disease. Here we review how proteinases derived from diverse sources drive allergic responses. A central discovery supporting the proteinase hypothesis of allergic disease pathophysiology is the role played by airway fibrinogen, which in part appears to serve as a sensor of unregulated proteinase activity and which, when cleaved, both participates in a novel allergic signaling pathway through Toll-like receptor 4 and forms fibrin clots that contribute to airway obstruction. Unresolved at present is the ultimate source of airway allergenic proteinases. From among many potential candidates, perhaps the most intriguing is the possibility such enzymes derive from airway fungi. Together, these new findings expand both our knowledge of allergic disease pathophysiology and options for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25525732

  5. Treatment strategies designed to minimize medical complications of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fireman, P

    1997-01-01

    Perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis affect many million Americans and account for close to $2 billion annually in medical costs and lost productivity. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and pruritus are, at best, very annoying and may be quite debilitating in some patients, causing irritability, insomnia, and fatigue. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is often not self-limiting and can contribute to serious medical complications such as sinusitis and otitis. Aggressive medical management of allergic rhinitis is important in the therapy for chronic sinusitis and otitis media and may prevent progression to more serious disease. Accurate diagnosis and initiation of environmental control measures to reduce exposure to causative factors should accompany initiation of pharmacotherapy. Antihistamines form the cornerstone of pharmacologic therapy, and use of the newer nonsedating antihistamines such as loratadine, terfenadine, and astemizole is not associated with the sedation produced by the classic antihistamines. Both loratadine and terfenadine are available in combination with a decongestant. Topical intranasal corticosteroids are another important component of pharmacologic management of allergic rhinitis. Allergen immunotherapy (hyposensitization) is used in those patients not adequately managed with pharmacotherapy. The relative safety and convenient dosing schedule of the newer medications should be accompanied by enhanced patient compliance and, hence, better control of allergic symptoms, halting progression of allergic rhinitis to serious medical complications. PMID:9129750

  6. Xanthii Fructus inhibits allergic response in the ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Nam-Gil; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Im, Yong-Seok; Lee, Ka-Yeon; Jun-Kum, Chang; Kim, Ho-Seok; Cho, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthii Fructus (XF) is widely used in traditional anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory Asian medicine. Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by markedly increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the nasal mucosa. We investigated the effects of XF in the allergen-induced rhinitis model. Materials and Methods: Following ovalbumin (OVA)/alum intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7 and 14, the BALB/c mice (albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mice) were challenged intranasally with OVA for 10 days a week after the last sensitization. The number of sneezes was recorded for 10 days; additionally, the levels of cytokines, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific serum IgE were estimated. Eosinophil infiltration, thickness of nasal mucosa and expression of caspase-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the effect of XF on the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) in human mast cell-1 (HMC-1), by Western blotting. Results: The administration of XF significantly decreased sneezing and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). XF inhibited the changes in thickness of the nasal septum, influx of eosinophils and expression of capase-1. In addition, XF inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB in phorbol-myristate-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion: This study suggests that XF acts a potent anti-allergic drug which alleviates the allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model. PMID:26664025

  7. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy. PMID:8669268

  8. The anatomical and functional relationship between allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bielory, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous anatomic connections between the allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis. The most obvious reason is the physical connection via the nasolacrimal apparatus. However, a closer look at innervation, circulatory, lymphatic, and neurogenic systems reveals much more than a physical connection. The eye is richly innervated by parasympathetic nerves that enter the eyes after traveling in conjunction with the parasympathetic input to the nasal cavity. Parasympathetic innervation governing the tear film and nasal secretion can intersect at the pterygopalatine ganglion. Neurogenic inflammation affects both the eye and the nose as evidenced by the presence of the same neurogenic factors. Venous flow is in the SOV area connecting the eye and the nose, once thought to be without valves. In the past, this thinking is the basis for concern about the danger triangle of the face. Recent literature has shown otherwise. Although valves are present, there are still pathways where bidirectional flow exists and a venous connection is made. The most likely area for venous communication is the pterygoid plexus and cavernous sinus. The venous flow and connections also offers a pathway for allergic shiners. Understanding the mutual connections between the nasal mucosa and the ocular surface can also affect treatment strategies. PMID:24498515

  9. Abietic acid attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a mouse allergic asthma model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Zhaoyu, Liu; Xiangming, Fang; Chunyi, Lin; Jiayu, Pan; Lu, Shen; Jitao, Chen; Liangcai, Chen; Jifang, Liu

    2016-09-01

    Abietic acid (AA), one of the terpenoids isolated from Pimenta racemosa var. grissea, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, the anti-allergic effects of AA remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic effects of AA in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma murine model. The model of mouse asthma was established by induction of OVA. AA (10, 20, 40mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1h after the OVA treatment on days 21 to 23. At 24h after the last challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes, cytokines production, and NF-κB expression. The results showed that AA attenuated lung histopathologic changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AA also inhibited OVA-induced the nitric oxide (NO), IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and OVA-specific IgE production, as well as NF-κB activation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that AA exhibited protective effects against OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice and the possible mechanism was involved in inhibiting NF-κB activation. PMID:27318791

  10. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens. PMID:25840636

  11. Immunoregulation of passively induced allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Willenborg, D O; Sjollema, P; Danta, G

    1986-03-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be readily induced passively by transfer of lymphocytes from neuroantigen immunized rats to naive recipients. This passively induced disease runs an acute, monophasic, self-limiting course, much the same as is usually seen in actively induced diseases. Here we examine the mechanisms regulating passive EAE. We report that splenectomy, thymectomy, and increasing age of recipients, manipulations which have been reported to influence recovery from actively induced EAE, have no effect on passively induced disease. EAE effector cells are not inactivated when transferred into recipients that have been actively sensitized and are beginning their recovery from clinical signs; this being a time when recovery associated suppressor cells are thought to be present. Finally, in the absence of suppressor T cells in both the recipient and in the transfer cell population, recovery from passive EAE still occurs. We conclude that suppressor T cells play no role in regulating passively induced EAE. PMID:2936807

  12. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components. PMID:11405157

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from a wooden necklace.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M

    1997-09-01

    A 36-year-old female kitchenworker twice developed eczematous lesions corresponding exactly to the area around her neck where she had worn a wooden necklace. Contact dermatitis lasted longer than 1 week. The necklace consisted of 42 brown wooden beads and 63 other wooden parts, 0.5 to 3 cm diameter. Most parts could be identified as Cocobolo wood, Brazilian and East Indian rosewood, and teak. Patch tests with the pure constituents gave +3-reactions to three dalbergions and obtusaquinone, which are known to be the sensitizers of Cocobolo and the above-mentioned rosewoods. Because of these test results, the identification of the species by eye examination could be corroborated. Further detailed questioning revealed that the patient had played a recorder, probably made from Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa), when a child, to which she unknowingly became allergic. PMID:9249295

  14. Langerhans cells in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tuchinda, P; Gaspari, A A

    2010-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that has significant socio-economic impact. ACD is mediated by a T-cell mediated inflammatory reaction. Langerhans cells (LCs) are an epidermal DCs subset specialized in antigen presentation. After hapten exposure, LCs play a major role as in induction adaptive immune response against allergens. LCs recognize, take up and process haptens and migrate to the local draining lymph nodes. However, LCs specific functions and the LCs migration to local draining lymph nodes are not yet clearly defined. Recent advance in the knowledge of LCs function has increased in the past decades including the evidence for a tolerogenic function of LCs. The present review will focus on the role for LCs response to contact allergens. PMID:21139551

  15. Rhinolith misdiagnosed as allergic rhinitis: case report

    PubMed Central

    Aljfout, Qais; Saraireh, Mohammad; Maita, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body neglected in the nasal cavity for many years leads to the formation of a rhinolith, which gradually increases in size. Nasal obstruction and persistent foul smelling nasal discharge usually are the main presenting symptoms, although some might be silent. This paper presents and discuss a case of 19-year-old female patient whose main complaint was nasal obstruction for many years and treated as allergic rhinitis. Diagnosis was confirmed with computed tomography scan, and it was removed endoscopically without complications. We think that proper examination, which includes endoscopic evaluation, should be done to reach the diagnosis. A computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis and helped in planning the best treatment option. PMID:27053994

  16. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Björkner, B; Lepoittevin, J P

    1995-03-01

    Glues based on cyanoacrylates are widely used as contact adhesives for metal, glass, rubber, plastics and textiles, as well for biological materials, including binding tissues and sealing wounds in surgery. In this paper, an apprentice cobbler with an occupational allergic contact dermatitis from an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue, in which the major monomer was shown to be the sensitizer, is reported. Initial patch testing with the cyanoacrylate glue dissolved in acetone with the Finn Chamber (aluminium) technique yielded false-negative reactions. Positive test reactions were obtained with the same preparations using Van der Bend chambers. With petrolatum as vehicle for the glue, there was no difference between Finn Chamber technique and Van der Bend chamber technique. The role of aluminium in the false-negative reactions is discussed. PMID:7774187

  17. Evidence-based practice: sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sarah K; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2012-10-01

    In this article, the authors review the current evidence regarding the public health and economic impact of allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic methods for allergic disease are discussed as well as certain nuances of allergy skin testing protocols. In addition, the evidence supporting sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis is reviewed, with subsequent attention to certain subgroups, such as adults and children, seasonal versus perennial allergens, and SLIT efficacy for individual antigens. The authors consider the evidence supporting appropriate SLIT dosing as well as the existing data on SLIT safety. PMID:22980684

  18. Allergic reaction to platinum in silicone breast implants.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sambasiva R; Bezabeh, Shewit; Brown, S Lori

    2002-01-01

    Platinum is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of silicone breast implants. Because platinum is recognized as a potent sensitizer in certain circumstances, some have expressed concern that women with silicone breast implants are exposed to platinum, which is causing allergic reactions. We searched the literature for information on the level of platinum in breast implants and reports of sensitization that clearly related to platinum in women with breast implants. We found no published report with convincing evidence that platinum causes allergic reactions in women with breast implants or that women with breast implants are any more likely to have allergic reactions than women without breast implants. PMID:12627791

  19. Modeling anti-allergic natural compounds by molecular topology.

    PubMed

    García-Domenech, Ramón; Zanni, Riccardo; Galvez-Llompart, María; de Julián-Ortiz, J Vicente

    2013-09-01

    Molecular topology has been applied to the search of QSAR models able to identify the anti-allergic activity of a wide group of heterogeneous compounds. Through the linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks, correct classification percentages above 85% for both the training set and the test set have been obtained. After carrying out a virtual screening with a natural product library, about thirty compounds with theoretical anti-allergic activity have been selected. Among them, hesperidin, naringin, salinomycin, sorbitol, curcumol, myricitrin, diosmin and kinetin stand out. Some of these compounds have already been referenced as having anti-allergic activity. PMID:23597273

  20. Assessment of disease control in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Demoly, Pascal; Calderon, Moises A; Casale, Thomas; Scadding, Glenis; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Delaisi, Bertrand; Haddad, Thierry; Malard, Olivier; Trébuchon, Florence; Serrano, Elie

    2013-01-01

    The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative has had a significant impact, by raising awareness of allergic rhinitis (AR) and improving the diagnosis and treatment of AR sufferers. ARIA classifies the severity of AR as "mild" or "moderate/severe" on the basis of "yes"/"no" answers to four questions. This two-point classification has been criticized as providing little guidance on patient management; patients with "mild" AR are unlikely to consult a physician, whereas the group of patients with "moderate/severe" seen by specialists is heterogeneous. These perceived shortcomings have prompted attempts to improve the ARIA classification or, by analogy with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), adopt approaches based on "disease control" in AR. Even though "disease severity", "disease control" and "responsiveness to treatment" are different (albeit related) metrics, they are not mutually exclusive. Currently, there is no single, accepted definition, but we propose that "disease control" in AR can combine (i) measurements of the severity and/or frequency of daily or nocturnal symptoms, (ii) impairments in social, physical, professional and educational activities, (iii) respiratory function monitoring and (iv) exacerbations (e.g. unscheduled medical consultations and rescue medication use). Although control-based classifications have a number of limitations (e.g. their dependence on treatment compliance and the patient's psychological status), these instruments could be used as an adjunct to the ARIA severity classification and regional practice parameters. Here, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of the current two-level ARIA classification, analyze published proposals for its modification and review the literature on instruments that measure AR control. We conclude that there is a need for research in which severity is compared with control in terms of their effects on patient management. PMID:23419058

  1. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Lalita; Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  2. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  3. Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vega, Francisco; Ramos, Tania; Las Heras, Paloma; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant allergic reactions to multiple drugs are uncommon. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. It is notable that one of the reactions was caused by oral nystatin, which generally is not considered to be allergenic due to its poor intestinal absorption. Diagnoses were confirmed on patch testing with histologic examination along with oral challenge testing. We also used challenge testing to rule out cross-reactivity among nystatin and other macrolide drugs, both antifungals and antibiotics. PMID:26919353

  4. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your child's health care provider to help you ... What to ask your doctor about allergic rhinitis - child; Hay fever - what to ask your doctor - child; Allergies - what to ask ...

  5. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... How do I find out when smog or pollution is worse in our area? What does my ... More Allergen Allergic rhinitis Allergies - overview Allergy testing - skin Asthma and allergy - resources Common cold Sneezing Patient ...

  6. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... How do I find out when smog or pollution is worse in my area? Am I taking ... More Allergen Allergic rhinitis Allergies - overview Allergy testing - skin Asthma and allergy - resources Common cold Sneezing Patient ...

  7. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  9. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects. PMID:24754409

  10. Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

  11. [The modern strategies for the treatment of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A

    2016-01-01

    The present literature review had the objective to analyze the published data concerning the effectiveness of intranasal administration of antihistamine preparations and intranasal glucocorticoids for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Special emphasis is placed on the clinical significance and the further prospects for the application of a fixed combination of these medications including azelastineplusmometasonefuroateas the first choice therapy of moderately severe and severe manifestations of allergic rhinitis. PMID:27213663

  12. Intestinal microbiota and allergic diseases: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melli, L C F L; do Carmo-Rodrigues, M S; Araújo-Filho, H B; Solé, D; de Morais, M B

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that possible imbalances in intestinal microbiota composition may be implicated in the occurrence of allergic diseases. Although several studies published until 2006 indicated a correlation between microbiota composition and allergic symptoms, it has not been possible to distinguish protective microorganisms from those associated with increased risk of allergic diseases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to review the studies published since 2007 that address the intestinal microbiota in allergic diseases. Twenty-one studies were identified after excluding those that performed a clinical intervention before stool collection. In the early microbiota of children who later developed allergies, lower bacterial diversity was observed, with a predominance of Firmicutes; a higher count of Bacteroidaceae; a higher prevalence of the anaerobic bacteria Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium longum; and a lower prevalence of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. bifidum, and Lactobacillus. In the microbiota of allergic children whose intestinal microbiota was assessed at the onset of allergic symptoms, there was a higher count of Bacteroides; a lower count of Akkermansia muciniphila, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Clostridium; a higher prevalence of B. adolescentis; a lower prevalence of B. catenulatum and Staphylococcus aureus; and a lower bacterial diversity. PMID:25985709

  13. Emerging concepts: mast cell involvement in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Modena, Brian D; Dazy, Kristen; White, Andrew A

    2016-08-01

    In a process known as overt degranulation, mast cells can release all at once a diverse array of products that are preformed and present within cytoplasmic granules. This occurs typically within seconds of stimulation by environmental factors and allergens. These potent, preformed mediators (ie, histamine, heparin, serotonin, and serine proteases) are responsible for the acute symptoms experienced in allergic conditions such as allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergy-induced asthma, urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Yet, there is reason to believe that the actions of mast cells are important when they are not degranulating. Mast cells release preformed mediators and inflammatory cytokines for periods after degranulation and even without degranulating at all. Mast cells are consistently seen at sites of chronic inflammation, including nonallergic inflammation, where they have the ability to temper inflammatory processes and shape tissue morphology. Mast cells can trigger actions and chemotaxis in other important immune cells (eg, eosinophils and the newly discovered type 2 innate lymphocytes) that then make their own contributions to inflammation and disease. In this review, we will discuss the many known and theorized contributions of mast cells to allergic diseases, focusing on several prototypical allergic respiratory and skin conditions: asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, and some of the more common medication hypersensitivity reactions. We discuss traditionally accepted roles that mast cells play in the pathogenesis of each of these conditions, but we also delve into new areas of discovery and research that challenge traditionally accepted paradigms. PMID:26976119

  14. Sublingual immunotherapy for pediatric allergic rhinitis: The clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Licari, Amelia; Caimmi, Silvia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is estimated to affect 10%-20% of pediatric population and it is caused by the IgE-sensitization to environmental allergens, most importantly grass pollens and house dust mites. Allergic rhinitis can influence patient’s daily activity severely and may precede the development of asthma, especially if it is not diagnosed and treated correctly. In addition to subcutaneous immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents the only treatment being potentially able to cure allergic respiratory diseases, by modulating the immune system activity. This review clearly summarizes and analyzes the available randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials, which aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and the safety of grass pollen and house dust mite SLIT for the specific treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis. Our analysis demonstrates the good evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT for allergic rhinitis to grass pollens in children, whereas trials regarding pediatric allergic rhinitis to house dust mites present lower quality, although several studies supported its usefulness. PMID:26862501

  15. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  16. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  17. Sublingual immunotherapy for pediatric allergic rhinitis: The clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Licari, Amelia; Caimmi, Silvia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis is estimated to affect 10%-20% of pediatric population and it is caused by the IgE-sensitization to environmental allergens, most importantly grass pollens and house dust mites. Allergic rhinitis can influence patient's daily activity severely and may precede the development of asthma, especially if it is not diagnosed and treated correctly. In addition to subcutaneous immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents the only treatment being potentially able to cure allergic respiratory diseases, by modulating the immune system activity. This review clearly summarizes and analyzes the available randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials, which aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and the safety of grass pollen and house dust mite SLIT for the specific treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis. Our analysis demonstrates the good evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT for allergic rhinitis to grass pollens in children, whereas trials regarding pediatric allergic rhinitis to house dust mites present lower quality, although several studies supported its usefulness. PMID:26862501

  18. Immunoregulatory Role of HLA-G in Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Murdaca, Giuseppe; Contini, Paola; Negrini, Simone; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Puppo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are sustained by a T-helper 2 polarization leading to interleukin-4 secretion, IgE-dependent inflammation, and mast cell and eosinophil activation. HLA-G molecules, both in membrane-bound and in soluble forms, play a central role in modulation of immune responses. Elevated levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) molecules are detected in serum of patients with allergic rhinitis to seasonal and perennial allergens and correlate with allergen-specific IgE levels, clinical severity, drug consumption, and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy. sHLA-G molecules are also found in airway epithelium of patients with allergic asthma and high levels of sHLA-G molecules are detectable in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic patients correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels. Finally, HLA-G molecules are expressed by T cells, monocytes-macrophages, and Langerhans cells infiltrating the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients. Collectively, although at present it is difficult to completely define the role of HLA-G molecules in allergic diseases, it may be suggested that they are expressed and secreted by immune cells during the allergic reaction in an attempt to suppress allergic inflammation. PMID:27413762

  19. Immunoregulatory Role of HLA-G in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Contini, Paola; Negrini, Simone; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Puppo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are sustained by a T-helper 2 polarization leading to interleukin-4 secretion, IgE-dependent inflammation, and mast cell and eosinophil activation. HLA-G molecules, both in membrane-bound and in soluble forms, play a central role in modulation of immune responses. Elevated levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) molecules are detected in serum of patients with allergic rhinitis to seasonal and perennial allergens and correlate with allergen-specific IgE levels, clinical severity, drug consumption, and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy. sHLA-G molecules are also found in airway epithelium of patients with allergic asthma and high levels of sHLA-G molecules are detectable in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic patients correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels. Finally, HLA-G molecules are expressed by T cells, monocytes-macrophages, and Langerhans cells infiltrating the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients. Collectively, although at present it is difficult to completely define the role of HLA-G molecules in allergic diseases, it may be suggested that they are expressed and secreted by immune cells during the allergic reaction in an attempt to suppress allergic inflammation. PMID:27413762

  20. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. Methods We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. Results We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with

  1. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  2. Allergic reaction to mint leads to asthma.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M; Barnett, Tisha

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory and cutaneous adverse reactions to mint can result from several different mechanisms including IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis), and nonimmunologic histamine release. Reactions to cross-reacting plants of the Labiatae family, such as oregano and thyme, as well as to the chemical turpentine, may clue the clinician in on the diagnosis of mint allergy. Contact dermatitis can result from menthol in peppermint. Contact allergens have been reported in toothpastes, which often are mint-flavored. Allergic asthma from mint is less well-recognized. A case of a 54-year-old woman with dyspnea on exposure to the scent of peppermint is presented in whom mint exposure, as seemingly innocuous as the breath of others who had consumed Tic Tac candies, exacerbated her underlying asthma. This case highlights the importance of testing with multiple alternative measures of specific IgE to mint, including skin testing with mint extract, and skin testing with fresh mint leaves. Additionally, this cases suggests that asthma can result from inhaling the scent of mint and gives consideration to obtaining confirmatory pre- and postexposure pulmonary function data by both impulse oscillometry and spirometry. PMID:22852115

  3. Gut Microbiota and Allergic Disease. New Insights.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-03-01

    The rapid rise in childhood allergies (atopy) in Westernized nations has implicated associated environmental exposures and lifestyles as primary drivers of disease development. Culture-based microbiological studies indicate that atopy has demonstrable ties to altered gut microbial colonization in very early life. Infants who exhibit more severe multisensitization to food- or aero-allergens have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing asthma in childhood. Hence an emerging hypothesis posits that environment- or lifestyle-driven aberrancies in the early-life gut microbiome composition and by extension, microbial function, represent a key mediator of childhood allergic asthma. Animal studies support this hypothesis. Environmental microbial exposures epidemiologically associated with allergy protection in humans confer protection against airway allergy in mice. In addition, gut microbiome-derived short-chain fatty acids produced from a high-fiber diet have been shown to protect against allergy via modulation of both local and remote mucosal immunity as well as hematopoietic antigen-presenting cell populations. Here we review key data supporting the concept of a gut-airway axis and its critical role in childhood atopy. PMID:27027953

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  5. Beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, D W; MacCormack, D W; Newhouse, M T; Hargreave, F E

    1976-09-18

    Treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol (BDA), 50 mug four times daily in each nostril, was compared with placebo therapy in a double-blind non-crossover trial of 30 matched patients with allergic rhinitis induced by ragweed pollen. The trial was started at the beginning of the ragweed season and continued for 42 days. Response to treatment was assessed from information on daily diary cards, weekly objective measurements of nasal patency and measurement of total eosinophil count (TEC) before treatment and at week 4. Patients in the BDA group had significantly less (P less than 0.05) sneezing, rhinorrhea and nasal stuffiness at 36 days, cough at 10 days and antihistamine consumption at 17 days. There was no significant difference between the groups in eye symptoms, nasal airway inspiratory resistance, maximum inspiratory nasal flow or TEC. Overall comparison with previous pollen seasons by the patients indicated moderate to great improvement in 86% of the BDA group and in 13% of the placebo group (P less than 0.01). Minor side effects were noted by two patients in each group. PMID:782679

  6. Sublingual or subcutaneous immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis?

    PubMed

    Durham, Stephen R; Penagos, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and, unlike antiallergic drugs, has been shown to modify the underlying cause of the disease, with proved long-term benefits. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been the gold standard, whereas sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has emerged as an effective and safe alternative. Previous Cochrane systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed that both SLIT and SCIT are effective in patients with seasonal AR, whereas evidence for their efficacy in patients with perennial disease has been less convincing. Recent large, adequately powered trials have demonstrated reductions in both symptoms and use of rescue medication in patients with seasonal and those with perennial AR. Here we appraise evidence for SCIT versus SLIT based on indirect evidence from Cochrane reviews and recent well-powered double-blind, randomized controlled trials versus placebo and the limited direct evidence available from randomized blind head-to-head comparisons. At present, based on an overall balance of efficacy and side effects, the patient is in equipoise. Pending definitive comparative trials, choice might be determined largely by the local availability of SCIT and SLIT products of proved value and personal (patient) preference. PMID:26853126

  7. Olfaction in allergic rhinitis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Boris A; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a key symptom in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Despite the implications for quality of life, relatively few articles have tested olfactory function in their investigations. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the following 2 questions: (1) What does AR do to human olfaction? (2) How effective is the treatment of AR in restoring the sense of smell? A comprehensive literature search was performed, and human studies of any design were included. A total of 420 articles were identified, and 36 articles were considered relevant. Data indicate that the frequency of olfactory dysfunction increases with the duration of the disorder, and most studies report a frequency in the range of 20% to 40%. Although olfactory dysfunction does not appear to be very severe in patients with AR, its presence seems to increase with the severity of the disease. There is very limited evidence that antihistamines improve olfactory function. In addition, there is limited evidence that topical steroids improve the sense of smell, especially in patients with seasonal AR. This is also the case for specific immunotherapy. However, many questions remain unanswered because randomized controlled trials are infrequent and only a few studies rely on quantitative measurement of olfactory function. PMID:26409662

  8. Allergic asthma biomarkers using systems approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Bhattacharya, Swati G.; Saha, Sudipto

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by lung inflammation caused by complex interaction between the immune system and environmental factors such as allergens and inorganic pollutants. Recent research in this field is focused on discovering new biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. This review illustrates updated research associating biomarkers of allergic asthma and their potential use in systems biology of the disease. We focus on biomolecules with altered expression, which may serve as inflammatory, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of asthma discovered in human or experimental asthma model using genomic, proteomic and epigenomic approaches for gene and protein expression profiling. These include high-throughput technologies such as state of the art microarray and proteomics Mass Spectrometry (MS) platforms. Emerging concepts of molecular interactions and pathways may provide new insights in searching potential clinical biomarkers. We summarized certain pathways with significant linkage to asthma pathophysiology by analyzing the compiled biomarkers. Systems approaches with this data can identify the regulating networks, which will eventually identify the key biomarkers to be used for diagnostics and drug discovery. PMID:24409194

  9. PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADOLESCENTS WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Manjavidze, N; Ubiria, I; Saginadze, L

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a widespread allergic disease, with 35-40% prevalence in the world population. It is characterized with increasing frequency, particularly in children's population. Goal of the work - study of psycho-emotional profile in adolescents with allergic rhinitis of different severity. Single-stage research was conducted, in compliance with the ethical norms. Study included 86 children (41% girls and 45% boys) of age from 11 to 13 years with allergic rhinitis of different severity and 30 healthy children. For the purpose of study of the patients' psychological profile Esenek Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) intended for assessment of characterological and individual psychological features in children and adolescents (10-15 years) was used. Psycho-emotional sphere of the adolescents with allergic rhinitis was assessed also by Psychopathologic Symptom Checklist (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised-SCL-90-R). Clinical scale of self-assessment of psychical condition is widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice. At the final stage of research the mathematical-statistical data processing was provided by means of SPSS/v12 software package. According to the research results, susceptibility to significant and mild introversion was identified in severe and average AR cases. Such patients are often locked into their inner world. These children are reserved, communicate with the parents and close friends only. They make decisions with due care, love order, control their emotions, are pessimistic and rarely aggressive. Results of neuroticism study by G. Esenek techniques are provided in Table. Neuroticism is associated with the lability of nervous system, characterizes emotional condition or emotional lability (emotional stability or instability). According to the research results, allergic rhinitis is characterized with emotional instability, anxiety, as manifested by unsatisfactory adaptation, instable nature, depression, low resistance to the stress situations

  10. Traffic exposure associated with allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis in adults. A cross-sectional study in southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Nihlén, Ulf; Montnémery, Peter; Axmon, Anna; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Background There is conflicting evidence that traffic-related air pollution is a risk factor for allergic conditions. Few studies have investigated this in adults. In adults, a high proportion of asthma, rhinitis and eczema is triggered by non-allergic factors. We investigated traffic as a risk factor for allergic versus non-allergic asthma and rhinitis, and eczema, in adults. A questionnaire from 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years) provided individual data about disease outcome and self-reported traffic exposure. Additional exposure assessments were obtained using Geographical Informations Systems (GIS). Residential addresses were linked to the national Swedish Road Database and to a pollutant database with modelled annual means of NOx (Nitrogen Oxids). Results Living within 100 m from a road with a traffic intensity of >10 cars/min (24 hour mean) was associated with prevalence of current asthma reported to be triggered by allergic factors (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.23–2.72) and with allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = (1.05–1.61). No relation was seen with asthma or rhinitis triggered by other factors. Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/min was also associated with hand-eczema during the last 12 months (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19–2.23), but not with allergic eczema or diagnosed hand-eczema. Consistent results were seen using self-reported traffic, but the associations with NOx were less consistent. Conclusion Exposure to traffic was associated with a higher prevalence of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, but not with asthma or rhinitis triggered by non-allergic factors. This difference was suggested by the overall pattern, but only clear using GIS-measured traffic intensity as a proxy for traffic exposure. An association was also found with hand-eczema during the last 12 months. We suggest that asthma and rhinitis should not be treated as homogenous groups when estimating effects from traffic in adults. PMID:19419561

  11. γ-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice augments development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates.

    PubMed

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Soveg, Frank; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2016-04-15

    γ-Tocopherol increases responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether γ-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether γ-tocopherol augments development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with γ-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to allergen challenge. The γ-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice increased the numbers of eosinophils twofold in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also about a twofold increase in pup lung CD11b(+) subsets of CD11c(+) dendritic cells and in numbers of these dendritic cells expressing the transcription factor IRF4. There was no change in several CD11b(-) dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased the number of fetal liver CD11b(+)CD11c(+) dendritic cells twofold in utero. In the pups, γ-tocopherol increased lung expression of the inflammatory mediators CCL11, amphiregulin, activin A, and IL-5. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and increased development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with γ-tocopherol in prenatal vitamins. PMID:26801566

  12. Probiotic Therapy as a Novel Approach for Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Anzela, Anzela; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Licciardi, Paul V.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically in Western countries over the past few decades. The hygiene hypothesis, whereby reduced exposure to microbial stimuli in early life programs the immune system toward a Th2-type allergic response, is suggested to be a major mechanism to explain this phenomenon in developed populations. Such microbial exposures are recognized to be critical regulators of intestinal microbiota development. Furthermore, intestinal microbiota has an important role in signaling to the developing mucosal immune system. Intestinal dysbiosis has been shown to precede the onset of clinical allergy, possibly through altered immune regulation. Existing treatments for allergic diseases such as eczema, asthma, and food allergy are limited and so the focus has been to identify alternative treatment or preventive strategies. Over the past 10 years, a number of clinical studies have investigated the potential of probiotic bacteria to ameliorate the pathological features of allergic disease. This novel approach has stemmed from numerous data reporting the pleiotropic effects of probiotics that include immunomodulation, restoration of intestinal dysbiosis as well as maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. In this mini-review, the emerging role of probiotics in the prevention and/or treatment of allergic disease are discussed with a focus on the evidence from animal and human studies. PMID:23049509

  13. Role of Interferon-λ in Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sonja; Finotto, Susetta

    2015-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs), or IFN-λ, are known to have potent antiviral and antiproliferative activities. It inhibits viral replication and upregulates cytotoxic responses to virally infected cells. Besides these characteristics, IFN-λ also has additional activities in the immune system. In fact, it induces the proliferation of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells mediated in part by dendritic cells and inhibit the production of IL-5 and IL-13 in vitro. Regulatory T cells and the Th2 cytokines like IL-5 and IL-13 play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. In humans, there seems to be an inverse link between IFN-λ and the severity of allergic asthma and allergic asthma exacerbations. Asthmatic patients, without a detectable viral infection show an inverse correlation between IL-28 and IL-29 mRNA levels and severity of allergic responses in the airways. These additional features of IFN-λ that affect the adaptive immune system make it a potential immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:25592858

  14. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  15. Allergen-encoded signals that control allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Landers, Cameron; Li, Evan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose is to review the important recent advances made in how innate immune cells, microbes, and the environment contribute to the expression of allergic disease, emphasizing the allergen-related signals that drive allergic responses. Recent findings The last few years have seen crucial advances in how innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells group 2 and airway epithelial cells and related molecular pathways through organismal proteinases and innate immune cytokines, such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33 contribute to allergy and asthma. Simultaneously with these advances, important progress has been made in our understanding of how the environment, and especially pathogenic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, helminths, and especially fungi derived from the natural and built environments, either promote or inhibit allergic inflammation and disease. Of specific interest are how lipopolysaccharide mediates its antiallergic effect through the ubiquitin modifying factor A20 and the antiallergic activity of both helminths and protozoa. Summary Innate immune cells and molecular pathways, often activated by allergen-derived proteinases acting on airway epithelium and macrophages as well as additional unknown factors, are essential to the expression of allergic inflammation and disease. These findings suggest numerous future research opportunities and new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in allergic disease. PMID:26658015

  16. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C(+)TCRβ(+) NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C(+)TCRβ(+) NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  17. Effects of sublingual immunotherapy on allergic inflammation: an update.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Colombo, Giselda; Marcucci, Francesco; Caminati, Marco; Sensi, Laura; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Frati, Franco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2012-08-01

    The most common allergic diseases, and especially the respiratory disorders such as rhinitis and asthma, are closely related to the allergic inflammation elicited by the causative allergen. This makes inflammation the main target of anti-allergic therapies. Among the available treatments, allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) has a patent effect on allergic inflammation, which persists also after its discontinuation, and is the only therapy able to modify the natural history of allergy. The traditional, subcutaneous route of administration was demonstrated to modify the allergen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) that in turn correct the phenotype of allergen-specific T cells, switching from the Th2-type response, typical of allergic inflammation and characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-32 cytokines to a Th1-type response. This immune deviation is related to an increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 production as well as to the anergy of Th2 or to tolerance, the latter being related to the generation of allergen-specific T regulatory (Treg) cells, which produce cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms observed during sublingual AIT with high allergen doses proved to be similar to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Data obtained from biopsies clearly indicate that the pathophysiology of the oral mucosa, with particular importance for mucosal DCs, plays a crucial role in inducing tolerance to the administered allergen. PMID:22506880

  18. Altered calcium-induced exocytosis in neutrophils from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongfang; Zhang, Jicheng; Wu, Jianmin; Zhang, Chunguang; Xu, Tao

    2004-08-01

    We have investigated the exocytotic characteristics of neutrophils from allergic patients and healthy volunteers employing the whole cell membrane capacitance (Cm) measurement. The mean serum IgE level from allergic patients (423.75 +/- 12.75 IU/ml) determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay was much higher than that of healthy volunteers (28.47 +/- 16.68 IU/ml). Intracellular dialysis of buffered Ca2+ and GTPgammaS triggered biphasic exocytosis. The total capacitance increment displayed a steep dependence on pipette free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]p), with maximal stimulation achieved at 10 microM. A significant decrease in the total capacitance increment was observed in the allergic group at [Ca2+]p >10 microM. Moreover, at submaximal stimulatory [Ca2+]p of 1 microM, the maximal rate of exocytosis in allergic patients (Vmax = 20.75 +/- 6.19 fF/s) was much faster than that of the healthy control group (Vmax = 7.97 +/- 2.49 fF/s). On the other hand, the Ca2+-independent exocytosis stimulated by GTPgammaS displayed no significant difference in either the total membrane capacitance increments or the maximal rate of exocytosis. The results suggest that hypersecretion of neutrophils in allergic diseases may involve the development of abnormal Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. PMID:15205559

  19. Peripheral neutrophils after allergic asthmatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Asman, B; Strand, V; Bylin, G; Bergström, K

    1997-01-01

    The response of peripheral neutrophils was studied in 16 patients with allergic asthma after challenge with birch/grass pollen allergen, in order to identify inflammatory markers associated with only the early asthmatic reaction and those associated with both early and late asthmatic reactions. The allergen challenge proceeded until the patients had an early asthmatic reaction with 100% increase in specific airway resistance. Bronchoconstriction after allergen challenge was monitored hourly over 9 h and finally after 18 h, by measurement of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Seven patients had a late reaction, defined as a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s of more than 15%. Blood samples were taken before and 18 h after challenge. After allergen challenge (18 h) the blood concentration of neutrophils in patients with a late asthmatic reaction was 1.4 times higher than before challenge and there was a tendency for increased Fc gamma receptor-mediated chemiluminescence. Lewis X-antigen (CD 15), which is associated with endothelial adhesion and extravasation, significantly decreased at the same time. Neutrophils were incubated with the tetrapeptide arginine-glycine-aspartate-serine before and 18 h after allergen challenge. Both patient groups showed an increased Fc gamma receptor-mediated chemiluminescence and a decreased Fc gamma receptor membrane expression following allergen challenge, suggesting a preactivation. In conclusion, patients with a dual asthmatic reaction show a sustained primed inflammatory response and primed neutrophils compared with patients with only an early reaction when measured after the decline of clinical symptoms provoked by allergen challenge. PMID:9352381

  20. The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kyburz, Andreas; Müller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity. Many of the best understood GI-resident immunomodulatory species have co-evolved with their mammalian hosts for tens of thousands of years and masterfully manipulate host immune responses. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence for the role of the GI tract microbiota as a whole, and of specific members, in protection against allergic and other immunological disorders. We then focus on the mechanistic basis of microbial immunomodulation, which is presented using several well-understood paradigmatic examples, that is, helminths, Helicobacter pylori, Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In a final chapter, we highlight past and ongoing attempts at harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of GI microbiota species and their secreted products for intervention studies and describe the promises and limitations of these experimental approaches. The effects of pro- and prebiotics, bacterial lysates, as well as of fecal microbiota transplantation are presented and compared. PMID:27028536

  1. Allergic contact sensitizing chemicals as environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1997-01-01

    Chemicals that were bioassayed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and that also produce allergic dermatitis (ACD) in humans were evaluated for their tumorigenic characteristics. The impetus for the study was that most contact sensitizers, i.e., those that produce ACD, and genotoxic carcinogens are chemically similar in that they are electrophilic, thereby producing adducts on macromolecules including protein and DNA. This similarity in chemical behavior suggests that many contact sensitizers might be environmental carcinogens. All of the published NTP bioassays by early 1996 that had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies were included in this analysis. The NTP chemicals had been chosen for bioassay without regard to their ability to produce ACD. Of the 209 chemicals that were bioassayed, there were 36 (17%) that were known to be human contact sensitizers; about half of these were positive on tumor bioassays. The contact sensitizers differed from the NTP sample as a whole by having a proportionately larger number of nongenotoxic chemicals by the Ames Salmonella assay, presumably because more of them were selected on the basis of widespread usage rather than structural resemblance to known carcinogens. Compared to the nongenotoxic chemicals, the genotoxics were stronger carcinogens in that they had a higher incidence of positive tumor bioassays, with twice the number of organs in which tumors were induced. The nongenotoxic chemicals had a preference for tumor induction in parenchymal tissues in contrast to epithelial tissues. The contact sensitizers showed essentially the same characteristics as the whole NTP sample when stratified according to genotoxicity. Judging by the chemicals that were chosen primarily for their widespread use rather than for their structural resemblance to carcinogens, the addition of a test for contact sensitization to the Ames test as a screening tool would increase the tumorigenic detection efficiency by about 40% because of

  2. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  3. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals. PMID:20646673

  4. Role of sensitization to mammalian serum albumin in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Asero, Riccardo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-10-01

    Serum albumin (SA) constitutes an intriguing puzzle that is involved in allergic sensitizations from different sources and induces different clinical manifestations. In this article, we describe the role of sensitization to SAs in inducing allergic diseases and the complex interactions and cross-reactivity between SA resulting from its presence in various mammalian tissues and fluids. SAs alone are an uncommon cause of allergic sensitization in airways, but these allergenic proteins likely play a significant role as cross-reacting allergens in individuals sensitized to several types of animal dander. SAs are a minor allergen in milk but a major allergen in meats. Recently, bovine SA has been added to the culture medium of spermatozoids used for artificial insemination. As a consequence, some case reports have shown that bovine SA may be a causative agent in severe anaphylaxis after standard intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:21809117

  5. Janus Kinase-3 Dependent Inflammatory Responses in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Debra L.; Malaviya, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung characterized by reversible airway obstruction, high serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and chronic airway inflammation. A number of cells including mast cells, T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Janus Kinase (JAK) −3, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, traditionally known to mediate cytokine signaling, also regulates functional responses of these cells. In this review the role of JAK-3 in regulating various pathogenic processes in allergic asthma is discussed. We propose that targeting JAK-3 is a rationale approach to control the inflammatory responses of multiple cell types responsible for the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. PMID:20430118

  6. Rupatadine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Allergies are a widespread group of diseases of civilization and most patients are still undertreated. Since histamine is considered to be the most important mediator in allergies such as allergic rhinitis and urticaria, the most commonly used drugs to treat these disorders are antihistamines acting on the histamine 1 (H1) receptor. The currently available antihistamines, however, have significant differences in their effects and safety profiles. Furthermore, the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma initiative calls for additional desirable properties of antihistamines. Here, we review the profile of rupatadine, a new dual platelet-activating factor and H1-receptor antagonist that fulfils these criteria and therefore offers an excellent option for the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:21162645

  7. Beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Montalbano, Laura; Cilluffo, Giovanna; Malizia, Velia; Marchese, Donatella; La Grutta, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease, and its prevalence is increasing all over the world, both in adults and in children. Patients experience symptoms that may negatively impact on physical, social and psychological well-being. Hence, if left untreated, allergic rhinitis may significantly affect quality of life. Under current guidelines, intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective drugs and they are recommended as first-line therapy. Among the several corticosteroid intranasal sprays available, beclomethasone dipropionate is one of the most prescribed. Recently, new intranasal hydrofluoroalkane-propelled formulations with little or no impact on the ozone layer have been developed for the treatment of AR. The use of these devices might improve patients' adherence to treatment, avoiding some of the most common side effects associated with aqueous formulations. This review provides the most recent evidence for the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane nasal aerosol in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. PMID:26558604

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  9. Cardiac autonomic imbalance in children with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Tascilar, Emre; Yokusoglu, Mehmet; Dundaroz, Rusen; Baysan, Oben; Ozturk, Sami; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Kilic, Ayhan

    2009-11-01

    The involvement of autonomic imbalance has been reported in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic diseases are more frequent in children and some of predisposing factors may be changed according to the increasing age, but the involvement of autonomic imbalance has not been investigated in pediatric population. In this cross-sectional, case-control study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty-five pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and 36 healthy children (mean age 11 +/- 2.7, and 12 +/- 3 years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Age and gender were not different between the groups. The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on the history, symptoms, and skin prick tests. Participants with acute infection, nasal polyposis, bronchial asthma, and any other medical problems, assessed by history, physical examination and routine laboratory tests, were excluded. Twenty-four hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings were obtained, and the time domain and frequency domain indices of HRV were analyzed. We found significant increase in calculated HRV variables in children with allergic rhinitis compared to controls, which reflect parasympathetic tones, such as number of R-R intervals exceeding 50 ms, root mean square of successive differences between normal sinus R-R intervals, the percentage of difference between adjacent normal R-R intervals, and high frequency. These results indicate that HRV is increased, which implies sympathetic withdrawal and parasympathetic predominance. We propose that autonomic imbalance may be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients. PMID:19851046

  10. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  11. Characteristics and predictors of allergic rhinitis undertreatment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Murgia, N; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Pala, A P; Casciari, C; dell'Omo, M; Viegi, G

    2016-03-01

    Although allergic rhinitis is considered a raising medical problem in many countries it is often undertreated. The reasons for this phenomenon are not completely clear.The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment.A sample of 518 allergic rhinitis patients recruited by their primary care physicians, as a part of the ARGA study, were invited to fill in a specific questionnaire regarding rhinitis symptoms, treatment, and rhinitis-related work/social disability. Chi-square test and logistic regression were performed to assess risk factors for allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment.Over one out of four patients had no treatment despite the symptoms and 13.5% were inadequately treated. Participants with asthma (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.75) and conjunctivitis (0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71) were at lower risk of allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment: in asthmatics this reduction was related mainly to the concomitant asthma treatment (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.37).Asthmatics with under-/not treated rhinitis had the highest prevalence of rhinitis-related quality of life impairment.Under-/no treatment for allergic rhinitis is still rather frequent despite the relevance of this disease. The simultaneous presence of asthma and an anti-asthmatic therapy are able to influence positively the treatment. Targeted interventions toward a better characterization and a tight follow-up of rhinitis patient without asthma are needed. PMID:26680255

  12. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bleasel, Narelle; Tate, Bruce; Rademaker, Marius

    2002-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from the topical use of essential oils is not widely recognized as an occupational hazard. Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis to essential oils occurring in three aromatherapists and one chemist with a particular interest in aromatherapy are described. All presented with predominantly hand dermatitis and demonstrated sensitization to multiple essential oils. One patient developed a recurrence of cutaneous symptoms following ingestion of lemongrass tea. Workers within this industry should be aware of the sensitization potential of these products and the risk of limiting their ability to continue employment. PMID:12121401

  14. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

  15. Allergic rhinitis: meaningful and less meaningful combination treatments including reminiscences.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, I

    2014-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) results from a complex allergen-driven mucosal inflammation in the nasal cavity. Current guideline-based therapy for allergic rhinitis include oral and nasal antihistamines, topical and systemic glucocorticoids, decongestants, antimuscarinic agents, mast cell stabilizing drugs, leukotriene-receptor antagonists, and others. In spite of guideline recommendations, most patients are using multiple therapies in an attempt to achieve symptom control. Therefore, more effective therapies for the management of AR are clearly required. Recently, a novel fixed dose combination containing azelastine and fluticasone propionate has successfully been introduced. At present, it represents the only meaningful topical drug combination. Perhaps, it will be followed by others. PMID:24974572

  16. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin: master switch for allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin (IL) 7–like cytokine that triggers dendritic cell–mediated T helper (Th)2 inflammatory responses. TSLP is highly expressed by keratinocytes in skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis and is associated with dendritic cell activation in situ, suggesting that TSLP might be a master switch for allergic inflammation at the epithelial cell–dendritic cell interface. New reports now establish a direct link between TSLP expression and the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and asthma in vivo, and begin to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying TSLP-induced allergic inflammation. PMID:16432252

  17. Key Mediators in the Immunopathogenesis of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sannette; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is described as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the conducting airways. It is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, eosinophil and Th2 infiltration, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway remodeling. Our findings to date have largely been dependent on work done using animal models, which have been instrumental in broadening our understanding of the mechanism of the disease. However, using animals to model a uniquely human disease is not without its drawbacks. This review aims to examine some of the key mediators and cells of allergic asthma learned from animal models and shed some light on emerging mediators in the pathogenesis allergic airway inflammation in acute and chronic asthma. PMID:24933589

  18. [Non-allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Diagnostic and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, A; Küster, I; Beule, A G

    2015-12-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis is a heterogenous group of medical diseases without an IgE-mediated pathophysiology. In this review, typical subgroups are presented with data regarding their frequency, clinical symptoms and recommendations for an effective and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic approach are indicated. The most common subtype is the non-allergic rhinopathy, also known as idiopathic or vasomotoric rhinitis. Because medication induced rhinitis is still a frequent clinical problem, a step wise approach to wean the patient is presented. PMID:26669462

  19. [Preliminary results of prophylactic program of allergic diseases in children in Lodz district].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Korzeniewska, Aleksandra; Piechota, Mariusz; Podsiadłowicz-Borzecka, Małgorzata; Majak, Paweł; Stelmach, Iwona

    2002-01-01

    Allergic diseases are one of the most important problems in medicine. As a consequence of increased frequency of allergic diseases, negative health, economical and social problems appear. To eliminate these consequences prophylactic programmes are created. In this paper preliminary results of Prophylactic Program of Allergic Diseases in Children in Łodz district in 2000-2001 years is presented. PMID:12884565

  20. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BAL/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  1. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BALB/MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  2. Effects of breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Malin F; Fredriksson, Jenny; Hellquist, Anna; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2003-02-01

    Breast milk contains several components that provide specific immunity and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of breast milk, on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production from cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and if those effects differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The cells were incubated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), ovalbumin or cat dander in the presence of various dilutions of colostrum. Colostrum inhibited both mitogen- and cat-induced IFN-gamma and mitogen-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. The inhibition on IFN-gamma production was to some extent caused by TGF-beta, as the effect was modified when an anti-TGF-beta antibody was added to the cultures. In contrast, colostrum enhanced allergen-induced production of the Th2-like cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and this was accompanied with increased production of IL-10. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on IFN-gamma production, which was partly due to the high levels of TGF-beta, together with the enhancing effect on IL-10 secretion, confirm that breast milk is anti-inflammatory. Although the production of IL-5 and IL-13 was enhanced by colostrum, this was accompanied with an increased production of IL-10. Together with the high levels of TGF-beta in breast milk and inhibitory effect of colostrum on IL-4 production, this suggests a possible mechanism whereby breast-feeding may protect against the development of allergy. Despite differences in the composition of breast milk between allergic and non-allergic mothers, the effects of breast milk on cytokine production from CBMC were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. PMID:12603708

  3. The evaluation of allergens and allergic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, C S; Tang, R B; Chung, R L

    2000-12-01

    Knowing the incidence of allergic diseases and their relationship with allergens is a crucial requirement for therapeutic judgment. We present our experience on the incidence, clinical features and allergens of the allergic diseases detected by multiple allergosorbent chemiluminescent assay (MAST-CLA) in children from 1997 to 1999 at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. The incidence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are significantly different when stratified by age groups. Among the enrolled 2008 patients, 980 (48.8%) patients have positive MAST-CLA results. Of these, 562 (57.3%) are male and 418 (42.7%) are female. A significant increase among patients with positive allergens is also found when stratified by age group. Inhalant allergen is the major allergen detected in our patients. House dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), cockroaches, feathers, and dog dander show the highest incidence in the 7- to 12-year-old group. In the fungal group, Aspergillus and Penicillium also show a significant difference in the incidence among different age groups. Pollen allergens, on a whole, show significant difference in incidence among different age groups. The food allergen group shows variable significant difference in incidence. Crab, milk, and egg white show the highest significant incidence in the 2- to 6-year-old group. These results suggest that the incidence of allergens detected in allergic diseases varies among different age groups. PMID:11269366

  4. Local allergic rhinitis: A critical reappraisal from a paediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Arasi, Stefania; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-09-01

    The so-called local allergic rhinitis (LAR) has been proposed as a phenotype of rhinitis with Th2-driven prominent local allergic inflammation, nasal synthesis of specific IgE and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test, in the absence of 'systemic' atopy (negative skin prick test and serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies). To date, available data on LAR are mostly focused on adults. The purpose of this 'Rostrum' was to critically discuss data and implications of the 'LAR concept' in paediatrics. In the natural history of rhinitis due to IgE-mediated reactions triggered by exposure to allergens, a 'LAR' can be either the initial, transient stage of classical allergic rhinitis or a stable phenotype never evolving to 'systemic' IgE sensitization. Given the present difficulties in performing routinely nasal allergen provocation test in children, the development of sensitive and specific tests to detect IgE in the child's nasal secretions is a research priority. We suggest also the hypothetical role of allergen immunoprophylaxis or immunotherapy in LAR. Last, the term 'local allergic rhinitis' may be inappropriate, as rhinitis is always 'local', while IgE sensitization can be either 'local' or 'systemic'. PMID:27098888

  5. Therapeutic Targeting of Eosinophil Adhesion and Accumulation in Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Baiula, Monica; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules. Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target. Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs. This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:23271999

  6. Think You're Allergic to Penicillin? Maybe Not

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem in the use of penicillin," said Dr. Thomas Leath, an allergist with the Texas A&M College of Medicine. "Many people who report a penicillin allergy don't even know why. It could be because they had a reaction when they were very young, or because a family member had an allergic ...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using a mouse model to assess immune and inflammatory responses as well as changes in respiratory function and pathology characteristic of allergic asthma to fungal extracts M. anisopliae (MACA), S. chartarum (SCE), and P. chrysogenum (PCE). This model will be useful to a...

  8. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  9. Probiotics and prebiotics: immunological and clinical effects in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in immune development and may play a role in the development of allergic disorders. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota may therefore offer an approach to the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics and prebiotics, used alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Clinical studies suggest a potential role for selected probiotics (alone or in combination with prebiotics) in the prevention of atopic eczema. A prenatal component of treatment appears important for beneficial effects. Effects are dependent upon the specific bacteria and characteristics of the study population. One study reported beneficial effects for prebiotics in the prevention of eczema in high-risk infants, however, further studies are required to confirm this. The use of probiotics in the treatment of allergic disease is less promising. A Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that probiotics are not effective for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Probiotic effects in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis are conflicting. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics offer potential treatments for the prevention of atopic eczema; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend their use in clinical practice. Studies to clarify the optimal dose, bacterial species/strains, whether there is added benefit with synbiotics, the optimal timing for intervention, and the patient populations who would benefit most from such therapies are warranted. PMID:19710525

  10. Platelets promote allergic asthma through the expression of CD154.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Zhu, Tianyi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Zhenhong; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-11-01

    Platelet activation is associated with multiple immune responses and the pathogenesis of various immune-related diseases. However, the exact role and the underlying mechanism of platelets in the progression of allergic asthma remain largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that during antigen sensitization, platelets can be activated by ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol via the upregulation of CD154 (CD40L) expression. Platelet transfer promoted allergic asthma progression by inducing more severe leukocyte infiltration and lung inflammation, elevated IgE production and strengthened T helper 2 (Th2) responses in asthma-induced mice. Accordingly, platelet depletion compromised allergic asthma progression. Cd154-deficient platelets failed to promote asthma development, indicating the requirement of CD154 for platelets to promote asthma progression. The mechanistic study showed that platelets inhibited the induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells both in vivo and in vitro at least partially through CD154, providing an explanation for the increase of Th2 responses by platelet transfer. Our study reveals the previously unknown role of platelet CD154 in the promotion of asthma progression by polarizing Th2 responses and inhibiting regulatory T-cell generation and thus provides a potential clue for allergic disease interventions. PMID:25418472

  11. Potential of Immunoglobulin A to Prevent Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gloudemans, Anouk K.; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Smits, Hermelijn H.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a defective barrier function, and eosinophilic lower airway inflammation in response to allergens. The inflammation is dominated by Th2 cells and IgE molecules and supplemented with Th17 cells in severe asthma. In contrast, in healthy individuals, allergen-specific IgA and IgG4 molecules are found but no IgE, and their T cells fail to proliferate in response to allergens, probably because of the development of regulatory processes that actively suppress responses to allergens. The presence of allergen-specific secretory IgA has drawn little attention so far, although a few epidemiological studies point at a reverse association between IgA levels and the incidence of allergic airway disease. This review highlights the latest literature on the role of mucosal IgA in protection against allergic airway disease, the mechanisms described to induce secretory IgA, and the role of (mucosal) dendritic cells in this process. Finally, we discuss how this information can be used to translate into the development of new therapies for allergic diseases based on, or supplemented with, IgA boosting strategies. PMID:23690823

  12. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients.

  13. Potential of immunoglobulin A to prevent allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Gloudemans, Anouk K; Lambrecht, Bart N; Smits, Hermelijn H

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a defective barrier function, and eosinophilic lower airway inflammation in response to allergens. The inflammation is dominated by Th2 cells and IgE molecules and supplemented with Th17 cells in severe asthma. In contrast, in healthy individuals, allergen-specific IgA and IgG4 molecules are found but no IgE, and their T cells fail to proliferate in response to allergens, probably because of the development of regulatory processes that actively suppress responses to allergens. The presence of allergen-specific secretory IgA has drawn little attention so far, although a few epidemiological studies point at a reverse association between IgA levels and the incidence of allergic airway disease. This review highlights the latest literature on the role of mucosal IgA in protection against allergic airway disease, the mechanisms described to induce secretory IgA, and the role of (mucosal) dendritic cells in this process. Finally, we discuss how this information can be used to translate into the development of new therapies for allergic diseases based on, or supplemented with, IgA boosting strategies. PMID:23690823

  14. ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the Allergic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yonjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, S...

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause. PMID:24602035

  16. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Skrovankova, Sona; Sochor, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is the great representative of polyphenols, flavonoids subgroup, flavonols. Its main natural sources in foods are vegetables such as onions, the most studied quercetin containing foods, and broccoli; fruits (apples, berry crops, and grapes); some herbs; tea; and wine. Quercetin is known for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production. It can improve the Th1/Th2 balance, and restrain antigen-specific IgE antibody formation. It is also effective in the inhibition of enzymes such as lipoxygenase, eosinophil and peroxidase and the suppression of inflammatory mediators. All mentioned mechanisms of action contribute to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of quercetin that can be effectively utilized in treatment of late-phase, and late-late-phase bronchial asthma responses, allergic rhinitis and restricted peanut-induced anaphylactic reactions. Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, which is more competent in inhibiting of IL-8 than cromolyn (anti-allergic drug disodium cromoglycate) and suppresses IL-6 and cytosolic calcium level increase. PMID:27187333

  17. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Allergies to pollen, dust mites, and animal dander in the nose and nasal passages are also called allergic rhinitis. Hay fever is another word often used for this problem. Symptoms ... are questions you may want to ask your health care provider to ...

  18. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in pediatric allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785

  19. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in pediatric allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yukselen, Ayfer

    2016-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785

  20. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed) proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source of support for gut microbe colonization, due to its bifidobacteria and galactooligosaccharide content. The literature lacks consensus in recommending the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, while prebiotics may prove to be effective in reducing atopy in healthy children. There is insufficient evidence to support soy formulas or amino acid formulas for

  1. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed) proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source of support for gut microbe colonization, due to its bifidobacteria and galactooligosaccharide content. The literature lacks consensus in recommending the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, while prebiotics may prove to be effective in reducing atopy in healthy children. There is insufficient evidence to support soy formulas or amino acid formulas for

  2. Dual oxidase regulates neutrophil recruitment in allergic airways.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sandra; Linderholm, Angela; Franzi, Lisa; Kenyon, Nicholas; Grasberger, Helmut; Harper, Richart

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced reactive oxygen species production in allergic airways is well described and correlates with increased airway contractions, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia, and mucus hypersecretion. There is also an abundance of interleukin-4/interleukin-13 (IL-4/IL-13)- or interleukin-5-secreting cells that are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We postulated that the dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2), members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family that release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the respiratory tract, are critical proteins in the pathogenesis of allergic airways. DUOX activity is regulated by cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13, and DUOX-mediated H2O2 influences several important features of allergic asthma: mucin production, IL-8 secretion, and wound healing. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of DUOXs to the development of allergic asthma in a murine model. To accomplish this goal, we utilized a DUOXA-deficient mouse model (Duoxa(-/-)) that lacked maturation factors for both DUOX1 and DUOX2. Our results are the first to demonstrate evidence of DUOX protein and DUOX functional activity in murine airway epithelium. We also demonstrate that DUOXA maturation factors are required for airway-specific H2O2 production and localization of DUOX to cilia of fully differentiated airway epithelial cells. We compared wild-type and Duoxa(-/-) mice in an ovalbumin exposure model to determine the role of DUOX in allergic asthma. In comparison to DUOX-intact mice, Duoxa(-/-) mice had reduced mucous cell metaplasia and lower levels of TH2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, increased airway resistance in response to methacholine was observed in Duoxa(+/+) mice, as expected, but was absent in Duoxa(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, Duoxa(-/-) mice had decreased influx of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue sections associated with a lower level of the

  3. Dual Oxidase Regulates Neutrophil Recruitment in Allergic Airways

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sandra; Linderholm, Angela; Franzi, Lisa; Kenyon, Nicholas; Grasberger, Helmut; Harper, Richart

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced reactive oxygen species production in allergic airways is well described, and correlates with increased airway contractions, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia, and mucus hypersecretion. There is also an abundance of interleukin-4/interleukin-13 (IL-4/IL-13) or interleukin-5-secreting cells that are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We postulated that dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2), members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family that release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the respiratory tract, are critical proteins in the pathogenesis of allergic airways. DUOX activity is regulated by cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13, and DUOX-mediated H2O2 influences several important features of allergic asthma: mucin production, IL-8 secretion, and wound healing. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of DUOX to the development of allergic asthma in a murine model. To accomplish this goal, we utilized a DUOXA-deficient mouse model (Duoxa−/−) that lacked maturation factors for both DUOX1 and DUOX2. Our results are the first to demonstrate evidence of DUOX protein and DUOX functional activity in murine airway epithelium. We also demonstrate that DUOXA maturation factors are required for airway-specific H2O2 production and localization of DUOX to cilia of fully differentiated airway epithelial cells. We compared wild-type and Duoxa−/− mice in an ovalbumin exposure model to determine the role of DUOX in allergic asthma. In comparison to DUOX-intact mice, Duoxa−/− mice had reduced mucous cell metaplasia, and lower levels of TH2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, increased airway resistance in response to methacholine was observed in Duoxa+/+ mice as expected, but was absent in Duoxa−/− mice. Surprisingly, Duoxa−/− mice had decreased influx of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue sections associated with a lower level of

  4. The Hyaluronic Acid–HDAC3–miRNA Network in Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmi; Eom, Sangkyung; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Hyuna; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the anti-allergic effect of high molecular weight form of hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA). In doing so, HA targets CD44 and inhibits FcεRI signaling and cross-talk between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FcεRI. We previously reported the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in allergic inflammation and allergic inflammation-promoted enhanced tumorigenic potential. We reported regulatory role of HA in the expression of HDAC3. In this review, we will discuss molecular mechanisms associated with anti-allergic effect of HA in relation with HDACs. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in allergic inflammation has been reported. We will also discuss the role of miRNAs in allergic inflammation in relation with HA-mediated anti-allergic effects. PMID:25983734

  5. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  6. Fetal growth and risk of childhood asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Tedner, S G; Örtqvist, A K; Almqvist, C

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early genetic and environmental factors have been discussed as potential causes for the high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in the western world, and knowledge on fetal growth and its consequence on future health and disease development is emerging. Objective This review article is an attempt to summarize research on fetal growth and risk of asthma and allergic disease. Current knowledge and novel findings will be reviewed and open research questions identified, to give basic scientists, immunologists and clinicians an overview of an emerging research field. Methods PubMed-search on pre-defined terms and cross-references. Results Several studies have shown a correlation between low birth weight and/or gestational age and asthma and high birth weight and/or gestational age and atopy. The exact mechanism is not yet clear but both environmental and genetic factors seem to contribute to fetal growth. Some of these factors are confounders that can be adjusted for, and twin studies have been very helpful in this context. Suggested mechanisms behind fetal growth are often linked to the feto-maternal circulation, including the development of placenta and umbilical cord. However, the causal link between fetal growth restriction and subsequent asthma and allergic disease remains unexplained. New research regarding the catch-up growth following growth restriction has posited an alternative theory that diseases later on in life result from rapid catch-up growth rather than intrauterine growth restriction per se. Several studies have found a correlation between a rapid weight gain after birth and development of asthma or wheezing in childhood. Conclusion and clinical relevance Asthma and allergic disease are multifactorial. Several mechanisms seem to influence their development. Additional studies are needed before we fully understand the causal links between fetal growth and development of asthma and allergic diseases. PMID:22994341

  7. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  8. Immunological evaluation of allergic respiratory children with recurrent sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Costa Carvalho, Beatriz T; Nagao, Aparecida Tiemi; Arslanian, Cristina; Carneiro Sampaio, Magda M S; Naspitz, Charles K; Sorensen, Ricardo U; Leiva, Lily; Solé, Dirceu

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate humoral immunity of allergic respiratory children with chronic/recurrent sinusitis. Twenty-seven allergic respiratory (persistent mild/moderate asthma and persistent allergic rhinitis) children (7-15-year old) with chronic or recurrent sinusitis were evaluated. Patients had symptoms and abnormal computer tomography scan even after two adequate treatments (long-lasting antibiotics, decongestants, and short-term oral corticosteroids). clinical examination, sweat test, total blood cell count, measurement of serum levels of: total and specific IgE, immunoglobulins (G, M, A), IgG subclasses, antibodies to Haemophilus influenza type b (IgG anti-Ps Hib) and pneumococcal serotypes (IgG anti-Ps 1, 3, 5, 6B, 9V, and 14) before and after active immunization (Act-Hib and Pneumo23, Aventis Pasteur SA, Lyon, France), Rubella neutralizing antibody titers and human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Specific IgE to inhalant allergens higher than class III were observed in 24/27 patients. One patient had IgA plus IgG2 deficiency and other an IgG3 deficiency. Eight and 12 of 27 patients had IgG2 and IgG3 serum levels below 2.5th percentile, respectively. Immunological responses to protein and polysaccharide antigens were normal in all patients. Although our patients have been appropriately treated of their allergic diseases, they persisted with chronic/recurrent sinusitis and 60% of them had a documented osteomeatal complex blockade. In spite of the diagnosis of IgA plus IgG2 deficiency and an isolated IgG3 deficiency, in all patients an adequate response to Ps antigens was observed. Primary and/or secondary humoral immunodeficiency seems not to be the main cause of chronic/recurrent sinusitis in patients with respiratory allergic disease. PMID:16176402

  9. Impact on allergic immune response after treatment with vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Victor; Berggård, Karin; Barrios, Yvelise; Barrios, Ysamar; Arnau, Maria-Rosa; Zubeldia, Jose M; Baeza, Maria L; Back, Ove; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2009-01-01

    Background Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. Objective To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease. Methods Ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization/OVA-challenge (OVA/OVA) and house dust mite (HDM)-immunization/HDM-challenge (HDM/HDM) experimental murine models of allergic airway disease, using C57Bl.10/Q groups of mice (n = 10) treated subcutaneously with different concentrations of all-trans RA (0, 50, 500 and 2,500 ug) every 2-days were used to assess the allergic immune response. Results Levels of total and specific-IgE in sera were increased in all groups of RA treated OVA/OVA and HDM/HDM mice. Percentage and total amount of recruited eosinophil in airways by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were significantly enhanced in groups treated with 50, 500 and 2,500 ug of RA compared to non-treated mice. However, the group of mice treated with 2,500 ug had less eosinophil recruitment than the other two groups (50 and 500 ug). In parallel, levels of IL-5 and total IgE in BALF were also significantly diminished in the group treated with 2,500 ug compared to the other 2 groups (50 and 500 ug). Finally, total lung resistance was decreased in group treated with 2,500 ug compared to non-treated mice. Conclusion Our results suggest that retinoic acid directly enhances allergic response in vivo, but in higher doses may produce of immune suppression. PMID:19852821

  10. Inhibition of allergic inflammation by supplementation with 5-hydroxytryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; McCary, Christine A.; Urick, Daniela; Mahadevia, Riti; Marchese, Michelle E.; Swartz, Kelsey; Wright, Lakiea; Mutlu, Gökhan M.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical reports indicate that patients with allergy/asthma commonly have associated symptoms of anxiety/depression. Anxiety/depression can be reduced by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplementation. However, it is not known whether 5-HTP reduces allergic inflammation. Therefore, we determined whether 5-HTP supplementation reduces allergic inflammation. We also determined whether 5-HTP decreases passage of leukocytes through the endothelial barrier by regulating endothelial cell function. For these studies, C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with 5-HTP, treated with ovalbumin fraction V (OVA), house dust mite (HDM) extract, or IL-4, and examined for allergic lung inflammation and OVA-induced airway responsiveness. To determine whether 5-HTP reduces leukocyte or eosinophil transendothelial migration, endothelial cells were pretreated with 5-HTP, washed and then used in an in vitro transendothelial migration assay under laminar flow. Interestingly, 5-HTP reduced allergic lung inflammation by 70–90% and reduced antigen-induced airway responsiveness without affecting body weight, blood eosinophils, cytokines, or chemokines. 5-HTP reduced allergen-induced transglutaminase 2 (TG2) expression and serotonylation (serotonin conjugation to proteins) in lung endothelial cells. Consistent with the regulation of endothelial serotonylation in vivo, in vitro pretreatment of endothelial cells with 5-HTP reduced TNF-α-induced endothelial cell serotonylation and reduced leukocyte transendothelial migration. Furthermore, eosinophil and leukocyte transendothelial migration was reduced by inhibitors of transglutaminase and by inhibition of endothelial cell serotonin synthesis, suggesting that endothelial cell serotonylation is key for leukocyte transendothelial migration. In summary, 5-HTP supplementation inhibits endothelial serotonylation, leukocyte recruitment, and allergic inflammation. These data identify novel potential targets for intervention in allergy/asthma. PMID:22842218

  11. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The effects of perennial allergic rhinitis on dental and skeletal development: a comparison of sibling pairs.

    PubMed

    Trask, G M; Shapiro, G G; Shapiro, P A

    1987-10-01

    This study analyzed the effect of perennial allergic rhinitis on dental and facial skeletal characteristics. Twenty-five allergic children who were apparent mouth breathers, their 25 siblings who did not have the disease and were apparent nose breathers, and 14 nasal breathing control subjects were examined medically, dentally, and cephalometrically. Compared with their siblings, the allergic subjects had more nasal mucosal edema, a higher proportion of eosinophils in their nasal secretions, and greater nasal power. The allergic subjects were characterized by deeper palatal height, retroclined mandibular incisors, increased total anterior facial height and lower facial height, a larger gonial angle, and greater SN, palatal, and occlusal planes to mandibular plane angles. All of these measures except gonial angle were also significantly different between the allergic children and the nonconsanguineous controls. Also, the allergic subjects compared with controls had smaller SNB and SN-pogonion angles and an increased overjet. Both allergic and nonallergic sibling groups showed larger mean adenoid size on radiographs than controls. For most variables the nonallergic siblings fell between the allergic children and the control subjects. Overall, the allergic children had longer, more retrusive faces than controls. This retrusive characteristic was present in nonallergic siblings and cannot be ascribed to the apparent breathing mode at the time of the study. These results confirm earlier reports that allergic rhinitis may be associated with altered facial growth. Controlled longitudinal studies to analyze a possible cause-and-effect relationship and the effects of medical and surgical treatments should be undertaken. PMID:3477946

  13. Allergic inhalant dermatitis attributable to marijuana exposure in a dog.

    PubMed

    Evans, A G

    1989-12-01

    Exposure to marijuana was believed to be responsible for clinical signs consistent with allergic inhalant dermatitis in a dog. The dog had facial and pedal pruritus associated with bilateral ocular discharge. Clinical signs resolved when the dog was kenneled, but returned when the dog was returned to its home. The results of intradermal skin testing, using a standard tray of 51 inhalant extracts, did not adequately account for the dog's clinical signs. Later, the owners indicated that previous residents of the owners' home had cultivated marijuana intensively inside and outside of the home. Intradermal skin testing with a source of marijuana pollen extract was performed, yielding a positive reaction in the dog and a negative reaction in another dog without clinical or historical evidence of allergic inhalant dermatitis. The affected dog was treated successfully and exclusively by hyposensitization with marijuana pollen extract. PMID:2599943

  14. Contact allergic dermatitis "current topic in tropical dermatology".

    PubMed

    Soyinka, F

    1978-11-01

    Out of a total of 2,666 new dermatology patients, 128 (4.8%) were clinically diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis. Of these, 107 (4%) reacted positively to different antigens in the patch-test. The commonest contact sensitizers among females were nickel and dyes. Among male patients, the commonest sensitizers were mecaptobenzol-thiazole, chrome and nickel. The incidence of occupational contact dermatitis among bricklayers, construction workers and builders were found to be low and the sensitization rate against chromate was 0.6%. There was no sensitization against cobalt and nickel in the group, however, the length of occupational contact with cement among these group was short. Allergic contact dermatitis is not as uncommon among the Nigeria populace as is generally believed. It seems to be on the increase especially with increase rate of industrialization. PMID:753055

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures. PMID:24030369

  16. Effects of cetirizine versus terfenadine in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lockey, R F; Findley, S; Mitchell, D Q; Woehler, T; Lieberman, P; Nicodemus, C F

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of cetirizine, 10 mg, once daily in the morning to terfenadine, 60 mg, BID in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. The multicenter, single-blind, parallel study involved 160 patients, who were all included in the safety and efficacy analysis. The results of the study showed that both cetirizine, 10 mg, QD and terfenadine, 60 mg, BID used for 1 week are safe and effective in the management of allergic rhinitis. By repeated measures analysis, cetirizine improved symptoms more than terfenadine for the treatment period of days four to seven. Standard Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics test showed the relative degree of patient satisfaction to be higher in the cetirizine group. PMID:8466096

  17. The Role of Prostaglandins in Allergic Lung Inflammation and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Claar, Dru; Hartert, Tina V.; Peebles, R. Stokes

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins are products of the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. There are five primary prostaglandins, PGD2, PGE2, PGF2, PGI2, and thromboxane B2, all of which signal through distinct seven transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptors. Some prostaglandins may counteract the actions of others, or even the same prostaglandin may have opposing physiologic or immunologic effects, depending on the specific receptor through which it signals. In this review, we will examine the effects of cyclooxygenase activity and the various prostaglandins on allergic airway inflammation and physiology that is associated with asthma. We also highlight the potential therapeutic benefit of targeting prostaglandins in allergic lung inflammation and asthma based on basic science, animal model, and human studies. PMID:25541289

  18. The current and future therapy of allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, M H

    1998-08-01

    A wealth of antiallergic drugs is available for ocular allergy, and many new drugs will soon be approved. Pharmaceutical companies frequently seek approval of anti-inflammatory drugs for allergic indications, because it is relatively easy to perform clinical trials for ocular allergy. Extremely safe drugs for mild to moderate degrees of allergic conjunctivitis include antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Topical corticosteroids, preferably those with reduced side effects, are available for more severe forms of ocular allergy. The choice of an antiallergic drug may be guided by the indication for which the drug was approved. The ultimate selection will be made based on the patient's symptoms, the drug's availability, and its cost. PMID:10387470

  19. When perennial rhinitis worsens: rhinolith mimicking severe allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Heffler, Enrico; Machetta, Giacomo; Magnano, Mauro; Rolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common causes of nasal obstruction, but other diseases need to be considered particularly when the clinical course is getting worse. We present a patient with known mild persistent allergic rhinitis due to house dust mites who experienced progressive worsening of nasal obstruction with associated hyposmia and mucopurulent discharge. The lack of improvement of the patient’s symptoms prompted the re-evaluation of the case. Skin prick tests for airborne allergens confirmed sensitisation only to house dust mites. Nasal endoscopy and facial CT scan revealed a huge rhinolith occupying almost completely the right nasal cavity. The rhinolith was surgically removed with resolution of symptoms. Rhinoliths are rare and unusual calcified materials which grow around intranasal foreign body; they are often promoted by trauma, surgical operations and dental work. The patient underwent dental work about 30 months before the diagnosis of rhinolith, suggesting a possible aetiology. PMID:24526202

  20. Skin Prick Test in Patients with Chronic Allergic Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Pooja; Dogra, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%), insects (17.07%), fungus (12.20%), and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM) (7.32%). The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%). Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD. PMID:25814704

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

    1985-01-01

    Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3971254

  2. Update on rupatadine in the management of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mullol, J; Bousquet, J; Bachert, C; Canonica, G W; Giménez-Arnau, A; Kowalski, M L; Simons, F E R; Maurer, M; Ryan, D; Scadding, G

    2015-01-01

    In a review of rupatadine published in 2008, the primary focus was on its role as an antihistamine, with a thorough evaluation of its pharmacology and interaction with histamine H1 -receptors. At the time, however, evidence was already emerging of a broader mechanism of action for rupatadine involving other mediators implicated in the inflammatory cascade. Over the past few years, the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as a potent mediator involved in the hypersensitivity-type allergic reaction has gained greater recognition. Rupatadine has dual affinity for histamine H1 -receptors and PAF receptors. In view of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma group's call for oral antihistamines to exhibit additive anti-allergic/anti-inflammatory properties, further exploration of rupatadine's anti-PAF effects was a logical step forward. New studies have demonstrated that rupatadine inhibits PAF effects in nasal airways and produces a greater reduction in nasal symptoms than levocetirizine. A meta-analysis involving more than 2500 patients has consolidated the clinical evidence for rupatadine in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adults and children (level of evidence Ia, recommendation A). Other recent advances include observational studies of rupatadine in everyday clinical practice situations and approval of a new formulation (1 mg/ml oral solution) for use in children. In this reappraisal, we revisit some key properties and pivotal clinical studies of rupatadine and examine new clinical data in more detail including studies that measured health-related quality of life and studies that investigated the efficacy and safety of rupatadine in other indications such as acquired cold urticaria, mosquito bite allergy and mastocytosis. PMID:25491409

  3. Analysis of selected allergic reactions among psoriatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Filipowska-Grońska, Agata; Kalemba, Michał; Krajewska, Anna; Grzanka, Alicja; Bożek, Andrzej; Jarząb, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The aetiology is still unknown in spite of numerous scientific researches. There is very little evidence which does not provide enough knowledge about allergic reactions in psoriatic patients. Based on the fact that the epidermal barrier damage allows different allergen types to penetrate into deep layers of epidermis and skin, we can assume that it may lead to immunological reactions. Aim To investigate the allergic reaction indicators and hypersensitivity assessment about contact, inhalant and food allergens. The results were analysed with regard to clinical disease indicators and progression stage of dermal lesions. Material and methods Eighty patients with psoriasis were examined. The concentration of total IgE antibodies and allergen specific IgE antibodies (asIgE) were analysed. Standard epidermal tests and atopy patch tests were performed. All the patients were estimated for their dermatological condition based on the PASI scale. The control group consisted of 50 patients without psoriasis and allergic history. Results Significantly higher concentration of total E immunoglobulin has been stated in the patients with psoriasis. Higher concentrations of specific allergic IgE antibodies were more often observed in the examined group but the most frequently observed values were present in 1–3 class. The most common airborne allergens were birch, artemisia, timothy and rye pollens. There have not been any significant statistical differences in the case of positive epidermal test results. Conclusions There is slightly expressed hypersensitivity in psoriatic patients. This hypersensitivity degree correlates with the intensification of symptoms. PMID:26985174

  4. Allergic Reactions to Dental Materials-A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Radhika; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Utility of various dental materials ranging from diagnosis to rehabilitation for the management of oral diseases are not devoid of posing a potential risk of inducing allergic reactions to the patient, technician and dentist. This review aims to develop a systematic approach for the selection and monitoring of dental materials available in the market thereby giving an insight to predict their risk of inducing allergic reactions. Materials and Methods Our data included 71 relevant articles which included 60 case reports, 8 prospective studies and 3 retrospective studies. The source of these articles was Pub Med search done with the following terms: allergies to impression materials, sodium hypochlorite, Ledermix paste, zinc oxide eugenol, formaldehyde, Latex gloves, Methyl methacrylate, fissure sealant, composites, mercury, Nickel-chromium, Titanium, polishing paste and local anaesthesia. All the relevant articles and their references were analysed. The clinical manifestations of allergy to different dental materials based on different case reports were reviewed. Results After reviewing the literature, we found that the dental material reported to cause most adverse reactions in patients is amalgam and the incidence of oral lichenoid reactions adjacent to amalgam restorations occur more often than other dental materials. Conclusion The most common allergic reactions in dental staff are allergies to latex, acrylates and formaldehyde. While polymethylmethacrylates and latex trigger delayed hypersensitivity reactions, sodium metabisulphite and nickel cause immediate reactions. Over the last few years, due to the rise in number of patients with allergies from different materials, the practicing dentists should have knowledge about documented allergies to known materials and thus avoid such allergic manifestations in the dental clinic. PMID:26557634

  5. Foxp3 expressing regulatory T-cells in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T

    2009-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema are increasing in prevalence worldwide, in particular in industrialised countries affecting up to 20% of the population. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) have been shown to be critical in T-cell homeostasis and in the maintenance of immune responses, such as prevention of autoimmunity and hampering allergic diseases. The so-called 'natural' CD4+CD25+ Tregs and/or IL-10-producing Tr1 cells have been shown to be responsible for the protection of immune tolerance and intact immune reactions following exposure to allergens such as aeroallergens or food allergens. In this regard, both cell-cell contact (through membrane bound TGF-beta or via suppressive molecules such as CLTA-4) and soluble cytokine-(TGF-beta and IL-10) dependent mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the ability of Tregs to operate effectively. The transcription factor Foxp3, a member of the forkhead-winged helix family, appears to be critical in the suppressive abilities of regulatory T-cells. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ Tregs from healthy to diseased animals corroborated and provided further evidence of the vital role of these populations in the prevention or cure of certain autoimmune conditions. Clinical improvement seen after allergen immunotherapy for allergic diseases such as rhinitis and asthma has also been associated with the induction of IL-10 and TGF-beta producing Trl cells as well as Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25+ T-cells, resulting in the suppression ofTh2 cytokine milieu. Activation and expansion ofantigen-specific CD4+CD25+ Tregs in vivo using adjuvants such as IL-10 or pharmacological agents such as low dose steroids or vitamin D3 could represent novel approaches to induce antigen-specific tolerance in immune-mediated conditions such as allergic asthma, autoimmune disease and the rejection of transplanted organs in man. PMID:20429425

  6. Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Improves the Symptomatology of Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Edmir Américo; Caldeira, Eduardo José; Carvalho, César Alexandre Fabrega; Cunha, Marcelo Rodriques; Carvalho, Marcus Vinícius Henriques; Passos, Saulo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The relevance of allergic rhinitis is unquestionable. This condition affects people's quality of life and its incidence has increased over the last years. Objective Thus, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of subcutaneous injectable immunotherapy in cases of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis patients. Methods In the present study, the same researcher analyzed the records of 281 patients. Furthermore, the researchers identified allergens through puncture cutaneous tests using standardized extracts containing acari, fungi, pet hair, flower pollen, and feathers. Then, the patients underwent treatment with subcutaneous specific immunotherapy, using four vaccine vials for desensitization, associated with environmental hygiene. The authors analyzed conditions of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion throughout the treatment, and assigned them with a score ranging from zero (0), meaning absence of these symptoms to three (3), for severe cases. The symptoms were statistically compared in the beginning, during, and after treatment. Results In this study, authors analyzed the cases distribution according to age and the evolution of symptomatology according to the scores, comparing all phases of treatment. The average score for the entire population studied was 2.08 before treatment and 0.44 at the end. These results represent an overall improvement of ∼79% in symptomatology of allergic rhinitis in the studied population. Conclusion The subcutaneous immunotherapy as treatment of allergic rhinitis led to a reduction in all symptoms studied, improving the quality of life of patients, proving itself as an important therapeutic tool for these pathological conditions. PMID:26722338

  7. Allergen Challenge Chamber: an innovative solution in allergic rhinitis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Jerzy; Wojas, Oksana; Piekarska, Barbara; Sybilski, Adam; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2015-01-01

    The Allergen Challenge Chamber (ACC) is definitely a serious challenge on the one hand and an innovative solution in allergic rhinitis diagnosis on the other. The gradual validation of the chamber (according to the test protocol) will allow for standardisation, which is a process undertaken by centres worldwide. The process of designing a consistent system that allows for creating conditions as those in the case of natural inhalation took into account all the aspects (technical specification) necessary to ensure appropriate inhalation. PMID:26755904

  8. Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Improves the Symptomatology of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Edmir Américo; Caldeira, Eduardo José; Carvalho, César Alexandre Fabrega; Cunha, Marcelo Rodriques; Carvalho, Marcus Vinícius Henriques; Passos, Saulo Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The relevance of allergic rhinitis is unquestionable. This condition affects people's quality of life and its incidence has increased over the last years. Objective Thus, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of subcutaneous injectable immunotherapy in cases of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis patients. Methods In the present study, the same researcher analyzed the records of 281 patients. Furthermore, the researchers identified allergens through puncture cutaneous tests using standardized extracts containing acari, fungi, pet hair, flower pollen, and feathers. Then, the patients underwent treatment with subcutaneous specific immunotherapy, using four vaccine vials for desensitization, associated with environmental hygiene. The authors analyzed conditions of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion throughout the treatment, and assigned them with a score ranging from zero (0), meaning absence of these symptoms to three (3), for severe cases. The symptoms were statistically compared in the beginning, during, and after treatment. Results In this study, authors analyzed the cases distribution according to age and the evolution of symptomatology according to the scores, comparing all phases of treatment. The average score for the entire population studied was 2.08 before treatment and 0.44 at the end. These results represent an overall improvement of ∼79% in symptomatology of allergic rhinitis in the studied population. Conclusion The subcutaneous immunotherapy as treatment of allergic rhinitis led to a reduction in all symptoms studied, improving the quality of life of patients, proving itself as an important therapeutic tool for these pathological conditions. PMID:26722338

  9. Induction of Allergic Responses to Peanut Allergen in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Bischof, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN) extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40–50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep) showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy. PMID:23284686

  10. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported. PMID:27090934

  11. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients. PMID:14637240

  12. PULMONARY MYCOTIC INFECTIONS—Allergic and Immunologic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Edmund L.

    1954-01-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated. Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions—precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction—the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections—for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed. PMID:13209369

  13. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  14. Actual therapeutic management of allergic and hyperreactive nasal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rudack, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and hyperractive disorders of the upper airways, depending upon the type of releasing stimuli, are defined as nasal hyperreactivity, for example in the case of AR, or as non-specific nasal hyperreactivity and as idiopathic rhinitis (IR) (synonyms frequently used in the past: non-specific nasal hyperreactivity; vasomotor rhinitis) in the case of non-characterised stimuli. An early and professional therapy of allergic disorders of the upper airways is of immense importance as allergic rhinitis is detected in comorbidities such as asthma and rhino sinusitis. The therapeutic concept is influenced by new and further developments in pharmacological substance classes such as antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids. Specific immune therapy, the only causal therapy for AR, has been reviewed over the past few years in respect of the type and pattern of application. However, to date no firm recommendations on oral, sublingual and /or nasal immune therapy have yet been drawn up based on investigations of these modifications. Therapeutic management of IR is aimed at a symptom-oriented therapy of nasal hyperactivity as etiological factors relating to this form of rhinitis are not yet sufficiently known. Drug groups such as mast cell stabilizers, systemic and topic antihistamines, topic and systemic glucocorticosteroids, ipatroium bromide and alpha symphatomimetics belong to the spectrum of the therapeutics employed. PMID:22073046

  15. Outdoor air pollution in urban areas and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G

    1999-12-01

    Respiratory allergic diseases (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma and its equivalents) appear to be increasing in most countries, and subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to experience respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked, among various factors, to air pollution, which is now an important public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm the epidemiological evidence that inhalation of some pollutants, either individually or in combination, adversely affect lung function in asthmatics. The most abundant air pollutants in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are respirable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. While nitrogen dioxide does not exert consistent effects on lung function, ozone, respirable particulate matter and allergens impair lung function and lead to increased airway responsiveness and bronchial obstruction in predisposed subjects. However, besides acting as irritants, airborne pollutants can modulate the allergenicity of antigens carried by airborne particles. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived paucimicronic particles, pollutants can modify the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents and after their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway epithelial permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and so facilitate the allergen-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, air pollutants such as diesel exhaust emissions are thought to modulate the immune response by increasing immunoglobulin E synthesis, thus facilitating allergic sensitization in atopic subjects and the subsequent development of clinical respiratory symptoms. PMID:10695313

  16. Clara cells drive eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Ehmke, M; Marsh, L M; Dietze, J; Dudda, J C; Conrad, M L; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2012-02-01

    Development of allergic asthma is a complex process involving immune, neuronal and tissue cells. In the lung, Clara cells represent a major part of the "immunomodulatory barrier" of the airway epithelium. To understand the contribution of these cells to the inflammatory outcome of asthma, disease development was assessed using an adjuvant-free ovalbumin model. Mice were sensitised with subcutaneous injections of 10 μg endotoxin-free ovalbumin in conjunction with naphthalene-induced Clara cell depletion. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung strongly reduced eosinophil influx, which correlated with decreased eotaxin levels and, moreover, diminished the T-helper cell type 2 inflammatory response, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13. In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness was increased. Further investigation revealed Clara cells as the principal source of eotaxin in the lung. These findings are the first to show that Clara airway epithelial cells substantially contribute to the infiltration of eotaxin-responsive CCR3+ immune cells and augment the allergic immune response in the lung. The present study identifies Clara cells as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory lung diseases such as allergic asthma. PMID:21828027

  17. Exosomes from bronchoalveolar fluid of tolerized mice prevent allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Prado, Noela; Marazuela, Eva G; Segura, Elodie; Fernández-García, Héctor; Villalba, Mayte; Théry, Clotilde; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2008-07-15

    Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from multivesicular bodies that are secreted by a variety of cell types. The dual capability of exosomes to promote immunity or to induce tolerance has prompted their clinical use as vehicles for vaccination against different human diseases. In the present study, the effect of allergen-specific exosomes from tolerized mice on the development of allergen-induced allergic response was determined using a mouse model. Mice were tolerized by respiratory exposure to the olive pollen allergen Ole e 1. Exosome-like vesicles were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the animals by the well-established filtration and ultracentrifugation procedure, characterized by electron microscopy, Western blot, and FACS analyses, and assessed in a prophylactic protocol. To this end, BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with tolerogenic exosomes or naive exosomes as control, 1 wk before sensitization/challenge to Ole e 1. Blood, lungs, and spleen were collected and analyzed for immune responses. Intranasal administration of tolerogenic exosomes inhibited the development of IgE response, Th2 cytokine production, and airway inflammation--cardinal features of allergy--and maintained specific long-term protection in vivo. This protective effect was associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of the regulatory cytokine TGF-beta. These observations demonstrate that exosomes can induce tolerance and protection against allergic sensitization in mice. Thus, exosome-based vaccines could represent an alternative to conventional therapy for allergic diseases in humans. PMID:18606707

  18. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  19. Non-allergic rhinitis: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rhinitis is characterized by rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, nasal itch and/or postnasal drip. Often the first step in arriving at a diagnosis is to exclude or diagnose sensitivity to inhalant allergens. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) comprises multiple distinct conditions that may even co-exist with allergic rhinitis (AR). They may differ in their presentation and treatment. As well, the pathogenesis of NAR is not clearly elucidated and likely varied. There are many conditions that can have similar presentations to NAR or AR, including nasal polyps, anatomical/mechanical factors, autoimmune diseases, metabolic conditions, genetic conditions and immunodeficiency. Here we present a case of a rare condition initially diagnosed and treated as typical allergic rhinitis vs. vasomotor rhinitis, but found to be something much more serious. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining an appropriate differential diagnosis for a complaint routinely seen as mundane. The case presentation is followed by a review of the potential causes and pathogenesis of NAR. PMID:20181075

  20. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  1. Role of Treg in immune regulation of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Oscar; Yaman, Görkem; Azkur, Ahmet K; Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-05-01

    Allergy is a Th2-mediated disease that involves the formation of specific IgE antibodies against innocuous environmental substances. The prevalence of allergic diseases has dramatically increased over the past decades, affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. The understanding of mechanisms underlying allergic diseases as well as those operating in non-allergic healthy responses and allergen-specific immunotherapy has experienced exciting advances over the past 15 years. Studies in healthy non-atopic individuals and several clinical trials of allergen-specific immunotherapy have demonstrated that the induction of a tolerant state in peripheral T cells represent a key step in healthy immune responses to allergens. Both naturally occurring thymus-derived CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg and inducible type 1 Treg inhibit the development of allergy via several mechanisms, including suppression of other effector Th1, Th2, Th17 cells; suppression of eosinophils, mast cells and basophils; Ab isotype change from IgE to IgG4; suppression of inflammatory DC; and suppression of inflammatory cell migration to tissues. The identification of the molecules involved in these processes will contribute to the development of more efficient and safer treatment modalities. PMID:20148422

  2. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  3. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells in human allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jillian L.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent decades have seen allergic diseases become endemic in a number of developed countries. Understanding the inflammatory processes that dictate these allergic responses is therefore important. Recent findings Critical to many allergic responses is the inappropriate release of the type-2 immune-regulatory cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-9, and interleukin-13. The study of these inflammatory mediators has led directly to the development of two new asthma treatments: anti-interleukin-5 and anti-interleukin-13. Until recently, T helper 2 cells were considered to be the major cellular source of type-2 cytokines; however, a paradigm shift occurred with the discovery of a novel population, type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), that can produce huge levels of type-2 cytokines and are sufficient to induce allergy in mice. This discovery raises interesting questions about how innate and adaptive type-2 immunity might interact to induce relapsing and remitting episodes of allergy in patients. Summary It is essential that alongside the mechanistic investigation using model organisms, the roles of ILC2s in human disease be explored. Here, we discuss how ILC2 traits, discovered in mouse models, have informed research in humans and how newly identified human ILC2 pathways might provide potential therapeutic benefits in the future. PMID:25115682

  4. Developing Primary Intervention Strategies to Prevent Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Rueter, Kristina; Haynes, Aveni; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Allergic diseases are a major cause of morbidity in the developed world, now affecting up to 40 % of the population with no evidence that this is abating. If anything, the prevalence of early onset allergic diseases such as eczema and food allergy appears to be still increasing. This is almost certainly due to the changing modern environment and lifestyle factors, acting to promote immune dysfunction through early perturbations in immune maturation, immune tolerance and regulation. This early propensity to inflammation may also have implications for the rising risk of other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. Identifying risk factors and pathways for preventing early onset immune disease like allergy is likely to have benefits for many aspects of human health, particularly as many NCDs share similar risk factors. This review focuses on recent advances in primary intervention strategies for promoting early immune health and preventing allergic disease, highlighting the current evidence-based guidelines where applicable and areas requiring further investigation. PMID:26143389

  5. Chemokines and their receptors in the allergic airway inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Juan Raymundo; Teran, Luis Manuel

    2011-08-01

    The development of the allergic airway disease conveys several cell types, such as T-cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and dendritic cells, which act in a special and temporal synchronization. Cellular mobilization and its complex interactions are coordinated by a broad range of bioactive mediators known as chemokines. These molecules are an increasing family of small proteins with common structural motifs and play an important role in the recruitment and cell activation of both leukocytes and resident cells at the allergic inflammatory site via their receptors. Trafficking and recruitment of cell populations with specific chemokines receptors assure the presence of reactive allergen-specific T-cells in the lung, and therefore the establishment of an allergic inflammatory process. Different approaches directed against chemokines receptors have been developed during the last decades with promising therapeutic results in the treatment of asthma. In this review we explore the role of the chemokines and chemokine receptors in allergy and asthma and discuss their potential as targets for therapy. PMID:20352527

  6. ICOS ligand expression is essential for allergic airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Kadkhoda, Kamran; Wang, Shuhe; Fan, Yijun; Qiu, Hongyu; Basu, Sujata; Halayko, Andrew J; Yang, Xi

    2011-04-01

    Inducible co-stimulator ligand (ICOSL) is a rather newly defined co-stimulatory molecule, which, through interaction with ICOS expressed on T cells, plays an important role in T-cell activation, differentiation and function. T(h)2-type immune responses are critical for the development and maintenance of allergic responses including asthma. Using knockout (KO) mice, we have assessed the role of ICOSL in allergic airway inflammation and responsiveness using a standard mouse asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Our data show that OVA-treated ICOSL KO mice exhibit significantly less lung eosinophilic infiltration, histopathology, mucus production and virtually no airway hyperresponsiveness in contrast to wild-type (Wt) counterparts. Serum antibody analysis showed that antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgE titers in ICOSL KO mice were significantly lower than those of Wt controls. Also, CD4(+) T cells isolated from ICOSL KO mice produced less T(h)2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) but more T(h)1 (IFN-γ) and IL-17 than their Wt controls. Taken together, we conclude that ICOSL plays an important role in predisposing individuals to allergic airway hyperresponsiveness by enhancing IgE antibody class switching and T(h)2 cytokine production and diminishing the T(h)17 response and airway eosinophilia. PMID:21402623

  7. Clobetasone treatment of allergic conjunctivitis: a comparative double blind study.

    PubMed

    Cerqueti, P M; Prosio, P E; Bosia, S; Buscaglia, S; Ciprandi, G

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are often included in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. The present study compares the efficacy on clinical and cytological parameters and safety of topical clobetasone butyrate compared to placebo. The trial, designed as double blind, randomized and parallel group treatment, was carried out in 30 patients, suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis due to Grass pollen, during the pollen season (June 1992). Patients received clobetasone butyrate 0.1% eye drops or placebo eye drops, two drops each eye, t.i.d. for 10 days. The clinical and cytological evidences were investigated on admission and at the end of treatment by clinicians and by patients on a dairy card. The steroid group showed a rapid and significant clinical improvement and at the end of the trial a statistically significant difference was evidenced between the active drug treated group and placebo treated group. No serious side effects were observed. The results show the clinical efficacy of clobetasone butyrate in the treatment of pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:8337991

  8. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  9. Allergic reactions, "spillover' reactions, and T-cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Bruynzeel, D P; Nieboer, C; Boorsma, D M; Scheper, R J; van Ketel, W G

    1983-01-01

    A strong positive, allergic patch-test reaction was elicited in 15 patients with an established allergy for a particular allergen. Patches with a marginally irritating concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were applied at fixed distances. The SLS patch situated adjacent to the allergic reaction was significantly enhanced in 12 of 15 patients (P less than 0.01) compared to more distant SLS reactions ("spillover'). Only quantitative differences were observed in the histologic pictures of the different types of reaction. The infiltrate consisted of lymphocytes and histiocytes, mainly located perivascular in the upper dermis. T-cell subsets were assessed with monoclonal antibodies using an immunoperoxidase technique. The distribution of the different T cells was the same for both reaction types. T cells located outside the perivascular infiltrates (e.g., in the epidermal vesicles) were OKT-8-positive (cytotoxic/suppressor T lymphocytes). Immunofluorescence examination did not show different patterns for the allergic or "enhanced toxic' reactions with regard to the presence of immunoglobulins and complement. The "spillover' phenomenon may cause false-positive patch-test reactions. PMID:6223603

  10. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, David; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Fexofenadine is a selective, non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, marketed in the United States since 2000. The FDA approved an oral suspension in 2006, for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in children. The tablet, capsule, and oral suspension are bioequivalent. Although fexofenadine does not use P450 CYP 3A4 it does interact with a number of drugs at P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter polypeptides. The risk of toxicity from other drugs may increase with the administration of fexofenadine. Orange and grapefruit juices reduce the bioavailability of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine has been shown to have an impact on inflammatory mediators, other than histamine, such as decreasing the production of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGE2, and PGF2α; inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase 2, thromboxane; limiting iNOS generation of NO; decreasing cytokine levels (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, I-TAC, MDC, TARC, MMP-2, MMP-9, tryptase); and diminishing eosinophil adherence, chemotaxis, and opsonization of particles. These effects may provide benefit to some of the inflammatory responses of an acute allergic reaction and provide a basis for future development of H1 antagonists with stronger anti-inflammatory effects. These studies also support the contention that fexofenadine is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinits and chronic idiopathic urticaria. PMID:21436982

  11. Role of Crosstalk between Epithelial and Immune Cells, the Epimmunome, in Allergic Rhinitis Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Yamashita, Keiji; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Nagaya, Tomonori; Ito, Fumie; Ichimiya, Shingo; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis has been dramatically increasing worldwide. As conventional therapies for allergic rhinitis, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, nasal sprays and allergen immunotherapy, have limitations, the development of new drugs is required. Recent studies have revealed that epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are able to control immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells, thereby acting as 'master switches' in allergic disease. In addition, new roles have been identified for follicular helper T cells and regulatory B cells in allergic disease, and they are considered to be promising targets for new therapies. Thus, crosstalk between epithelial and immune cells, the epimmunome, underlies the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Greater understanding of the epimmunome may lead to breakthroughs in the development of new treatments for allergic rhinitis and will help us cure many patients suffering from its severe symptoms in the future. PMID:27116609

  12. Report of a patient with complex composites of hepatitis B virus, allergic asthma and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin; Omidi, Razie

    2014-01-01

    HBV is a non-cytopathic virus and cell mediated immune response against this. Humoral mediated immune response are responsible for allergic diseases. Balance between these two subsets of Th CD4+ cells are result of the immune system response. A 56 year old woman presented with chronic HBV infection, allergic asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure and high blood lipid. Patients should be followed for the allergic and autoimmune diseases along with their viral reactivation. PMID:25183147

  13. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  14. Anti-allergic effect of a Korean traditional medicine, Biyeom-Tang on mast cells and allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biyeom-Tang, a medicine prescribed by oriental clinics, has been used for the treatment of the allergic rhinitis (AR). In the present study, an ethanol extract of Biyeom-Tang (EBT) was investigated for anti-allergic properties on bone-marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) and in vivo models. Methods The anti-allergic properties of EBT were evaluated by measuring β-Hex release and the production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) on BMMC in vitro and PCA and OVA-induced AR models in vivo. Results EBT strongly inhibited a degranulation reaction in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 35.6 μg/ml. In addition, the generation of PGD2 and LTC4 was inhibited in BMMC in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.0 μg/ml and 10.9 μg/ml, respectively. When administrated orally, EBT ameliorated the mast cell-mediated PCA reaction. In the OVA-induced AR model, the increased levels of IgE were reduced by EBT. The levels of cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 decreased in the splenocytes of EBT-treated mice. The histological analysis shows that the infiltration of inflammatory cells increased by OVA-sensitization was also reduced. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggested that EBT has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:24521096

  15. Anti-allergic activity of compounds from Kaempferia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Kummee, Sopa

    2008-02-28

    Kaempferia parviflora is one of the plants in the Zingiberaceae family, locally known in Thai as kra-chai-dam. In Thai traditional medicine, the decoction of Kaempferia parviflora powder with alcohol has been reported to cure allergy, asthma, impotence, gout, diarrhea, dysentery, peptic ulcer and diabetes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate anti-allergic substances from this plant. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of seven methoxyflavone derivatives (1-7) from Kaempferia parviflora extract and they were identified on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Among the compounds tested, 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5) possessed the highest anti-allergic activity against antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with an IC(50) value of 8.0 microM, followed by 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2, IC(50)=20.6 microM) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (4, IC(50)=26.0 microM), whereas others showed moderate activities (IC(50)=37.5-66.5 microM). Structure-activity trends of 7-methoxyflavone derivatives on anti-allergic activity can be summarized as follows: (1) substitution with vicinal methoxyl groups at positions 3' and 4' conferred higher activity than only one methoxylation, (2) methoxylation at position 3 reduced activity and (3) methoxylation at position 5 showed higher activity than hydroxylation. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were also determined for their mechanisms on ionomycin-induced beta-hexosaminidase release. The results indicated that the mechanism on inhibition of cell degranulation of compounds 2 and 5 mainly involve the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx to the cells, whereas that of 4 may be partly due to this inhibition. In regards to the active constituents for anti-allergic activity of Kaempferia parviflora, 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (4) are responsible for anti-allergic effect of this plant. The

  16. The association of prolonged breastfeeding and allergic disease in poor urban children.

    PubMed

    Obihara, C C; Marais, B J; Gie, R P; Potter, P; Bateman, E D; Lombard, C J; Beyers, N; Kimpen, J L L

    2005-06-01

    The fact that breastfeeding may protect against allergic disease remains controversial, with hardly any reports from developing countries. This study investigated the association between allergic disease in children and prolonged breastfeeding. Data were collected from a 15% random sample of households from two poor suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Parents completed a validated International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire on allergic diseases for children aged 6-14 yrs. Other questions included breastfeeding duration, maternal smoking and parental allergy. Results were adjusted for possible confounders and for possible clustering within the household. Out of the 861 children included in the study, allergic disease in general, and hay fever in particular, were significantly less frequent in those with prolonged (> or =6 months) breastfeeding. There was a significant linear inverse association between breastfeeding duration and allergic disease in children without allergic parents, but not in children with an allergic predisposition. In conclusion, these results from a developing country suggest a protective effect of prolonged breastfeeding on the development of allergic disease, particularly hay fever, in children born to nonallergic parents. This protective effect was not found in children with an allergic predisposition. PMID:15929950

  17. [Oxidation phenotype as a risk factor for development of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Niewiński, P; Orzechowska-Juzwenko, K; Patkowski, J; Wolańczyk-Medrala, A; Nittner-Marszalska, M; Rzemisławska, Z

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between genetically determined polymorphic metabolism and susceptibility to allergic diseases has aroused much interest. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether patients with allergic diseases, like atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis differ from healthy persons in their ability to oxidize sparteine as a model drug. The study was completed by 200 persons, 40 patients with allergic diseases--20 with atopic asthma and 20 with allergic rhinitis and 160 healthy volunteers as a control group. The results of our study revealed a predominance of very extensive metabolizers of sparteine among patients with allergic diseases in comparison with healthy volunteers. The difference in the oxidation metabolic ratio (MR) frequency distribution between patients with allergic diseases and healthy persons was statistically significant. Relative risk (odds ratio) of development of atopic asthma was 3.29 times higher, and that of allergic rhinitis 2.94 times higher for persons with very extensive oxidation phenotype. Our results represent some evidence for a possible relationship between extensive, rapid oxidation phenotype and the higher susceptibility to development of atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:10592724

  18. Occurrence of Common Allergic Diseases in Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chang-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical and immunological studies have consistently shown a possible link between atopy and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, whether allergic diseases occur after INS develops is unknown. Methods From Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database, 1340 children with newly diagnosed INS and 5360 non-INS matched controls were identified in 2000–2007. By the end of 2008, the incidences and hazard ratios of four allergic diseases (allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma) were calculated. Results The incidence rates of all four allergic diseases were greater in the INS cohort than in the non-INS cohort in all age groups and decreased sharply as age increased in both cohorts. Children with INS had the highest adjusted hazard ratio (4.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50–6.83) for atopic dermatitis and the lowest adjusted hazard ratio (1.71; 95% CI, 1.39–2.09) for allergic rhinitis. Most of the allergic diseases appeared within 2–6 months after INS developed, and the incidences declined with increasing follow-up duration. Conclusions Allergic disorders are common in children with INS, especially within the first year after diagnosis. The role of INS in the development of allergic disorders should be elucidated to establish innovative disease intervention programs. PMID:25843432

  19. Alveolar macrophages from allergic lungs are not committed to a pro-allergic response and can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness following ex vivo culture

    PubMed Central

    Pouliot, P.; Spahr, A.; Careau, É.; Turmel, V.; Bissonnette, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background We already demonstrated that adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages (AMs) from non-allergic rats into AM-depleted allergic rats prevents airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We also showed that AMs from non-sensitized, but not from sensitized, allergy-prone rats can prevent AHR following allergen challenge in sensitized allergic animals, establishing the importance of rat immunological status on the modulation of AM functions and suggesting that an allergic lung environment alters AM functions. Objective We investigated how the activation of allergic AMs can be modulated to reinstitute them with their capacity to reduce AHR. Methods AMs from sensitized Brown Norway rats were cultured ex vivo for up to 18 h in culture media to deprogram them from the influence of the allergic lung before being reintroduced into the lung of AM-depleted sensitized recipient. AHR and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were measured following allergen challenge. AMs stimulated ex vivo with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) were used as positive controls as BCG induces a T-helper type 1 activation in AMs. Results AMs ex vivo cultured for 4–18 h reduced AHR to normal level. Interestingly, pro-allergic functions of AMs were dampened by 18 h culture and they reduced AHR even after spending 48 h in an allergic lung microenvironment. Furthermore, transfer of cultured AMs caused an increase in the levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in BAL when compared with their ovalbumin control. After 18 h of ex vivo culture, AMs expressed reduced levels of TNF, IL-1α, IL-6, and Arginase-2 mRNAs compared with freshly isolated AMs, suggesting that ex vivo culture exempted AMs from lung stimuli that affected their functions. Conclusions There is a significant crosstalk between lung microenvironment and AMs, affecting their functions. It is also the first report showing that sensitized AMs can be modulated ex vivo to reduce lung pro-allergic environment, opening the way to therapies targetting

  20. Secondary allergic T cell responses are regulated by dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in the setting of allergic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Reyes, N J; Khandelwal, P; Schlereth, S L; Lee, H S; Masli, S; Saban, D R

    2016-08-01

    Allergic eye disease, as in most forms of atopy, ranges in severity among individuals from immediate hypersensitivity to a severe and debilitating chronic disease. Dendritic cells play a key role in stimulating pathogenic T cells in allergen re-exposure, or secondary responses. However, molecular cues by dendritic cells underpinning allergic T cell response levels and the impact that this control has on consequent severity of allergic disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that a deficiency in thrombospondin-1, a matricellular protein known to affect immune function, has subsequent effects on downstream T cell responses during allergy, as revealed in an established mouse model of allergic eye disease. More specifically, we demonstrate that a thrombospondin-1 deficiency specific to dendritic cells leads to heightened secondary T cell responses and consequent clinical disease. Interestingly, whereas thrombospondin-1-deficient dendritic cells augmented activity of allergen-primed T cells, this increase was not recapitulated with naïve T cells in vitro. The role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in regulating secondary allergic T cell responses was confirmed in vivo, as local transfer of thrombospondin-1-sufficient dendritic cells to the ocular mucosa of thrombospondin-1 null hosts prevented the development of augmented secondary T cell responses and heightened allergic eye disease clinical responses. Finally, we demonstrate that topical instillation of thrombospondin-1-derived peptide reduces T cell activity and clinical progression of allergic eye disease. Taken together, this study reveals an important modulatory role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 on secondary allergic T cell responses and suggests the possible dysregulation of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 expression as a factor in allergic eye disease severity. PMID:26856994

  1. Age-Related Changes in Immunological Factors and Their Relevance in Allergic Disease Development During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Woo-Sung; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lim, Yeon-Mi; Yoon, Dankyu; Son, Jo-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Soo-Jong; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Allergic diseases are triggered by Th2-mediated immune reactions to allergens and orchestrated by various immunological factors, including immune cells and cytokines. Although many reports have suggested that childhood is the critical period in the onset of allergic diseases and aging leads to alter the susceptibility of an individual to allergic diseases, age-related changes in various immunological factors in healthy individuals as well as their difference between healthy and allergic children have not yet been established. Methods We investigated the ratio of Th1/Th2 cells and the levels of 22 allergy-related cytokines across all age groups in individuals who were classified as clinically non-atopic and healthy. We also examined their differences between healthy and allergic children to evaluate immunological changes induced by the development of allergic diseases during childhood. Results The Th1/Th2 ratio rose gradually during the growth period including childhood, reaching peak values in the twenties-thirties age group. Th1/Th2 ratios were significantly lower in allergic children than in healthy controls, whereas 14 of 22 cytokines were significantly higher in allergic children than in healthy controls. On the other hand, there were no differences in Th1/Th2 ratios and cytokines between healthy and allergic adolescents. Conclusions In this study, age-related changes in Th1/Th2 ratios were found in normal controls across all age groups, and decreases in Th1/Th2 ratio were observed with increasing of 14 cytokines in allergic children. The results of this study may be helpful as reference values for both monitoring immunological changes according to aging in healthy individuals and distinguishing between normal and allergic subjects in terms of immune cells and soluble factors. PMID:27126727

  2. Decreased Level of IgE is Associated with Breast Cancer and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huayi; Guo, Gang; Jianzhong, Cao; Zheng, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of type I allergic diseases in patients with breast cancer by carrying out a questionnaire survey and IgE detection in a healthy population and in patients with breast cancer. Material/Method There were 309 patients enrolled and they were further divided into the type I allergic disease group, the newly diagnosed breast cancer with type I allergic disease group, the re-visit breast cancer with type I allergic disease group, and the re-visit breast cancer without type I allergic disease group, as well as a healthy control group. Serum total IgE level was detected by immunoassay. Results The IgE value in the healthy population with type I allergic diseases (89.3±51.4 IU/ml) was significantly higher than in those without type I allergic diseases (45.6±65.1 IU/ml). There was no significant difference between IgE values in the re-visit breast cancer patients with type I allergic disease (25.1±65.1 IU/ml) and those without type I allergic disease (23.0±45.9 IU/ml). The area under the ROC curve was 0.618±0.04, sensitivity was 78%, specificity was 47.1%, Youden index was 0.251, and IgE threshold was 32.6 IU/ml. Conclusions The patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were susceptible to type I allergic disease at about the same levels as in the healthy population. There was no correlation between breast cancer and type I allergic disease. PMID:26901362

  3. Local Effect of Neurotrophin-3 in Neuronal Inflammation of Allergic Rhinitis: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    İsmi, Onur; Özcan, Cengiz; Karabacak, Tuba; Polat, Gürbüz; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf; Güçlütürk, Taylan; Görür, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory nasal mucosal disease characterized by sneezing, watery nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and itching. Although allergen-specific antibodies play a main role in the allergic airway inflammation, neuronal inflammation may also contribute to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Neuronal inflammation is primarily caused by the stimulation of sensory nerve endings with histamine. It has been shown that neurotrophins may also have a role in allergic reactions and neuronal inflammation. Nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), neurotrophin 4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are members of the neurotrophin family. Although nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are well studied in allergic rhinitis patients, the exact role of Neurotrophin-3 is not known. Aims: To investigate the possible roles of neurotrophin-3 in allergic rhinitis patients. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Neurotrophin-3 levels were studied in the inferior turbinate and serum samples of 20 allergic rhinitis and 13 control patients. Neurotrophin-3 staining of nasal tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA was used for the determination of serum Neurotrophin-3 levels. Results: Neurotrophin-3 staining scores were statistically higher in the study group than in the control patients (p=0.001). Regarding serum Neurotrophin-3 levels, no statistically significant difference could be determined between allergic rhinitis and control patients (p=0.156). When comparing the serum NT-3 levels with tissue staining scores, there were no statistically significant differences in the allergic rhinitis and control groups (p=0.254 for allergic rhinitis and p=0.624 for control groups). Conclusion: We suggest that Neurotrophin-3 might affect the nasal mucosa locally without being released into the systemic circulation in allergic rhinitis patients. PMID:26740895

  4. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  5. Seasonal variation in bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Tilles, S A; Bardana, E J

    1997-01-01

    As summarized in Table 1, the literature consistently supports the hypothesis that allergic asthmatic patients have seasonal BHR changes that parallel allergen exposure. These seasonal changes appear to be preventable by treatment with corticosteroids (systemic, inhaled, or nasal), disodium cromoglycate, and immunotherapy. Studies have almost exclusively focused on pollens, though similar limited data exist for dust mites. Though the dust mite is a perennial allergen, mite levels are well known to fluctuate with seasonal temperature and humidity trends (44-46), and therefore, seasonal BHR variation in mite-sensitive asthmatic patients is not surprising. Allergenic mold species have not been studied in this regard. In allergic rhinitis patients, the data are less consistent (see Table 2). However, the studies that failed to identify a seasonal BHR difference were either small or had other design limitations. The seasonal changes identified by the larger analyses were similar to those identified for asthmatic patients. Thus, although confirmatory studies would be helpful, it seems likely that in the absence of clinical asthma, allergic rhinitis patients with baseline BHR have allergen-related seasonal changes in BHR. The BHR effects of seasonal changes in air pollution and viral URIs are not known, since they have not yet been directly studied. However, interesting recent reports have identified possible synergistic effects of air pollution exposure on BHR and allergic responses. Similarly, the availability of new viral identification techniques has resulted in the discovery that viral infection may be more prevalent during clinical asthma exacerbation than previously realized. Therefore, air pollution and viral infections may well influence BHR seasonally, and (along with allergens) may contribute to seasonal asthma morbidity and mortality peaks. The mechanism(s) underlying seasonal BHR changes is (are) not known. One plausible possibility with regard to allergen

  6. Clinical features of allergic rhinitis in children of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    He, S; Li, Y J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the clinical features of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children in Shanghai. Serum-specific IgE (sIgE) tests were performed on samples from patients with AR symptoms from January 2011 to December 2014. A disease-related questionnaire was completed after AR diagnosis. The allergen profile and clinical features of AR were analyzed. In total, 2713 AR patients were enrolled in this study. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was found to be the most common offending allergen in the study population. With increasing age, the prevalence of sIgE against inhalant allergens was significantly increased; however, the opposite trend was observed for food allergens. Additionally, the proportion of children with high levels of sIgE against D. pteronyssinus increased with age. Of the AR cases, 8.6% were classified as intermittent mild, 4.2% as persistent mild, 40.5% as intermittent moderate-severe, and 46.7% as persistent moderate-severe. A family history of allergies and a patient history of allergies within 6 months of birth were significantly associated with the duration and severity of AR symptoms. The occurrence of co-morbidities, such as allergic conjunctivitis, cough, and asthma, gradually increased from intermittent mild, persistent mild, and intermittent moderate-severe to persistent moderate-severe. The most frequently used drugs were topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines, which were used by 86.7 and 79.0% of patients, respectively. These results confirm the adequacy of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines for classifying AR patients, and advance the understanding of clinical features of AR in children in Shanghai, China. PMID:27173334

  7. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible. PMID:11260236

  8. Dissecting the inflammatory twitch in allergically inflamed mice.

    PubMed

    Pothen, Joshua J; Poynter, Matthew E; Lundblad, Lennart K A; Bates, Jason H T

    2016-05-15

    We have previously advanced the hypothesis that the allergic inflammatory response in the lungs occurs as a self-limited sequence of events that begins with the onset of inflammation and then resolves back to baseline over a predetermined time course (Pothen JJ, Poynter ME, Bates JH. J Immunol 190: 3510-3516, 2013). In the present study we tested a key prediction of this hypothesis, which is that the instigation of the allergic inflammatory response should be accompanied by a later refractory period during which the response cannot be reinitiated. We challenged groups of ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice for 3, 14, 21 and 31 consecutive days with aerosolized ovalbumin. We measured airways responsiveness as well as cell counts and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after the final challenge in subgroups from each group. In other subgroups we performed the same measurements following rest periods and after a final single recall challenge with antigen. We determined that the refractory periods for GM-CSF, KC, and IL-5 are no longer than 10 days, while those for IFNγ and IL-10 are no longer than 28 days. The refractory periods for total leukocytes and neutrophils were no greater than 28 days, while that for eosinophils was more than 28 days. The refractory period for airways resistance was less than 17, while for lung elastance it was longer than 28 days. Our results thus demonstrate that the components of the allergic inflammatory response in the lung have finite refractory periods, with the refractory period of the entire response being in the order of a month. PMID:26944087

  9. Allergic Reaction to Ginkgo Nut on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Ji; Park, Hye Lim; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who previously underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. F FDG PET/CT images demonstrated multiple lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake in the neck, chest, and abdomen and diffusely increased FDG uptake in the spleen, which were highly suspicious findings for malignant lymphoma. However, subsequent biopsy of axillary lymph node presented reactive hyperplasia. Detailed history revealed that the patient had a history of generalized edema and severe arthralgia after contact with ginkgo nut one week ago. This case highlights allergic reaction mimicking lymphoma on FDG PET/CT. PMID:27276210

  10. Oral manifestations of allergic, infectious, and immune-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Gregory M; Lockey, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Patients often have oral symptoms, and physicians frequently identify lesions during routine oral examination. Being able to associate these concerns and findings with systemic disease is important to providing effective management of these conditions. This review summarizes the etiology, presentation, and treatment of many oral lesions associated with systemic diseases and infections. The primary focus was on lesions associated with allergic, infectious, and immune-mediated disease; however, other common concerns are addressed as well as lesions that may be misinterpreted as disease and how to address unknown lesions. PMID:25439358

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  12. ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO “KISSING BUG” BITES

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Norman; Green, Thomas W.

    1963-01-01

    In addition to local allergic skin reactions to the bite of the kissing bug, Triatoma protracta, the systemic reactions can vary from a mild urticarial reaction to a severe anaphylactoid reaction consisting of shock, generalized angioneurotic edema and laryngeal edema. The diagnosis can be established by the clinical history, the finding of an engorged kissing bug, the presence of typical local and systemic signs, and finally, a positive reaction to a skin test with an extract of the bug. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13938346

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to temporary tattoo by p-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Pegas, J R P; Criado, P R; Criado, R F J; Vasconcellos, C; Pires, M C

    2002-01-01

    Temporary tattoos are widely applied today all over the world. The tattoo makers explain that they use "natural henna paint," although in fact they use "black henna," which includes a mixture of many substances, among them p-phenylenediamine (PPD). There have recently been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis because of temporary tattoo with PPD sensitization. We are adding a new case of temporary tattoo with black henna with an extensive reaction, in which a 12-year-old white boy showed contact dermatitis from PPD, followed by cutaneous eruption after corticosteroid topical treatment. PMID:12109535

  14. Mould counts and exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Radin, R C; Greenberger, P A; Patterson, R; Ghory, A

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) were associated with the total outdoor mould counts in the Chicago area. From 1976-1980, forty-nine flares of ABPA (new pulmonary infiltrate with elevation in total serum IgE) occurred in nineteen patients. Thirty-eight (77.5%) of flares occurred during months June through November in association with increased outdoor mould counts in Chicago. This association confirms earlier observations from the U.K. where during the peak mould season which occurs in winter months, there was an increased number of pulmonary infiltrates and average prednisone doses required in ABPA. PMID:6342846

  15. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers].

    PubMed

    Latorre, N; Silvestre, J F; Monteagudo, A F

    2011-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a colorless gas with a pungent odor that is widely used as a preservative in toiletries and cosmetics and in products for household and industrial use. Both formaldehyde itself and substances that can release it are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. This condition often becomes chronic, given that these allergens are found nearly everywhere and it is difficult for patients to avoid them completely. This article reviews the sources of exposure to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers and the clinical manifestations of allergen exposure. We also review current debates and recent developments and propose guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with formaldehyde contact dermatitis. PMID:21338980

  16. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  17. Skin testing for allergic diseases: techniques, indications and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, G V

    1978-01-01

    Despite significant strides in serologic methodologies, the skin test, when properly done, has remained the single most sensitive and practical assay for specific dermal-bound reaginic antibody. Its value could further be enhanced if and when characterization and standardization of the allergen extracts become a reality. While the technique is simple, the indications and interpretations of allergy skin tests required the expertise of well-trained allergists. A positive skin reaction is no more than a mere supportive laboratory aid in the diagnosis of allergic disease, which is arrived at through a carefully taken detailed history and a meticulously done physical examination. PMID:748833

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 10 loci influencing allergic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Raquel; Strachan, David P; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Linneberg, Allan; Curtin, John A; Warrington, Nicole M; Standl, Marie; Kerkhof, Marjan; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Bukvic, Blazenka K; Kaakinen, Marika; Sleimann, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schramm, Katharina; Baltic, Svetlana; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Simpson, Angela; St Pourcain, Beate; Coin, Lachlan; Hui, Jennie; Walters, Eugene H; Tiesler, Carla M T; Duffy, David L; Jones, Graham; Ring, Susan M; McArdle, Wendy L; Price, Loren; Robertson, Colin F; Pekkanen, Juha; Tang, Clara S; Thiering, Elisabeth; Montgomery, Grant W; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Husemoen, Lise L; Herder, Christian; Kemp, John P; Elliot, Paul; James, Alan; Waldenberger, Melanie; Abramson, Michael J; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Gupta, Ramneek; Thompson, Philip J; Holt, Patrick; Sly, Peter; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Blekic, Mario; Weidinger, Stephan; Hakonarsson, Hakon; Stefansson, Kari; Heinrich, Joachim; Postma, Dirkje S; Custovic, Adnan; Pennell, Craig E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koppelman, Gerard H; Timpson, Nicholas; Ferreira, Manuel A; Bisgaard, Hans; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgE (allergic sensitization) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the top SNP from 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association to allergic sensitization from three to 10, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2 and HLA-B. All the top-SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk variants at these 10 loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may provide novel insight into the etiology of allergic disease. PMID:23817571

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Tomoko; Oiso, Naoki; Hirao, Ayaka; Kawada, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition. PMID:21173928

  20. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from cetearyl alcohol in Thrombocid® ointment.

    PubMed

    Armengot-Carbo, Miquel Armengot-Carbo1; Rodríguez-Serna, Mercedes; Taberner-Bonastre, Pilar; Miquel-Miquel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocid® ointment (Lacer, Barcelona, Spain) is widely used in Spain and other countries for varicose veins and 22 hematomas. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis following its use. Herein we present 23 two cases of allergic contact dermatitis to Thrombocid® ointment, owing to cetearyl alcohol. PMID:27617733

  2. Lay voices on allergic conditions in children: parents' narratives and the negotiation of a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Sonja Olin

    2004-04-01

    Allergic conditions can be seen as an increasing as well as debated health problem in Western societies, but lay notions and experiences of these conditions are still not fully understood. As much attention is given to prevention of allergic conditions in early childhood, for example as medical advice to parents of young children, it is of particular interest to look at lay understandings of allergic conditions in childhood. This study, carried out in Sweden, explores understandings of child allergy, drawing on interviews with parents of children under 6 years, in a period when the children are medically assessed. The interviews are analysed as illness narratives, with a focus on how the parents explain the child's illness. The analysis reveals a complex pattern. The parents on the one hand refer to a shared knowledge about causes to allergic conditions, such as factors in the physical environment, family life-style and genetic causes. On the other hand, this knowledge is re-appropriated and intertwined with the parents' own experiences of allergic conditions in the process of making sense of the illness in their own child. In their stories, the parents link a potential allergic condition in the child to their own identities as allergic or non-allergic persons and to their family illness history. Child allergy is in this sense constructed as a "family condition". PMID:14759677

  3. CROSS REACTIVITY IN ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES BETWEEN MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds are ubiquitous in the environment and exposures to molds contribute to various human diseases including allergic asthma. Some mold allergens have been implicated as the causal agent for allergic asthma. Western blot analysis demonstrated IgE-binding cross-reactivity among m...

  4. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  5. Academic Functioning and Quality of Life of Children and Adolescents with Allergic Rhinitis--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series on allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis, which includes seasonal allergies, has been considered by physicians, parents, and the general public as a mild, transitory nuisance for children and adults that is easily remedied with over-the-counter or prescription medications. Recent research, however,…

  6. Parental Burden in Families with a Young Food-Allergic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the parental burden in families with a food-allergic child under the age of four. This study was carried out using a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects of this study were 104 families with a young food-allergic child who observed a restricted diet. The majority of the children were…

  7. ALLERGIC RESPONSE TO PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM COMPLEXES DETERMINATION OF NO-EFFECT LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rabbits, guinea pigs and mice were subcutaneously injected with PtSO4 (with and without NH4Cl) and PdSO4 (with and without NH4Cl) in an attempt to sensitize the animals to platinum or palladium. No allergic induction was found. No allergic induction to platinum or palladium was f...

  8. Increased Transcription of Immune and Metabolic Pathways in Naive and Allergic Mice Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization in animals following high dose instillation or chronic inhalation exposure scenarios. The purpose of this study was to determine if short term exposures to diluted DE enhance allergic immune responses to antigen...

  9. Non-pulmonary allergic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease: A qualitative review

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, David S; Shum, Mili; Hsieh, Jennifer; Blonski, Wojciech; Greenwald, David A

    2014-01-01

    While the etiological underpinnings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly complex, it has been noted that both clinical and pathophysiological similarities exist between IBD and both asthma and non-pulmonary allergic phenomena. In this review, several key points on common biomarkers, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and nutritional and probiotic interventions for both IBD and non-pulmonary allergic diseases are discussed. Histamine and mast cell activity show common behaviors in both IBD and in certain allergic disorders. IgE also represents a key immunoglobulin involved in both IBD and in certain allergic pathologies, though these links require further study. Probiotics remain a critically important intervention for both IBD subtypes as well as multiple allergic phenomena. Linked clinical phenomena, especially sinonasal disease and IBD, are discussed. In addition, nutritional interventions remain an underutilized and promising therapy for modification of both allergic disorders and IBD. Recommending new mothers breastfeed their infants, and increasing the duration of breastfeeding may also help prevent both IBD and allergic diseases, but requires more investigation. While much remains to be discovered, it is clear that non-pulmonary allergic phenomena are connected to IBD in a myriad number of ways and that the discovery of common immunological pathways may usher in an era of vastly improved treatments for patients. PMID:25170192

  10. AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM INDUCES DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of P. chrysogenum (PCE) can dose-dependently induce responses typ...

  11. Cleavage of fibrinogen by proteinases elicits allergic responses through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Shaw, Joanne; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Mak, Garbo; Roberts, Luz; Song, Li-Zhen; Knight, J Morgan; Creighton, Chad J; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B

    2013-08-16

    Proteinases and the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are essential for expression of allergic inflammation and diseases such as asthma. A mechanism that links these inflammatory mediators is essential for explaining the fundamental basis of allergic disease but has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that TLR4 is activated by airway proteinase activity to initiate both allergic airway disease and antifungal immunity. These outcomes were induced by proteinase cleavage of the clotting protein fibrinogen, yielding fibrinogen cleavage products that acted as TLR4 ligands on airway epithelial cells and macrophages. Thus, allergic airway inflammation represents an antifungal defensive strategy that is driven by fibrinogen cleavage and TLR4 activation. These findings clarify the molecular basis of allergic disease and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23950537

  12. Application of vitamin E to antagonize SWCNTs-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinquan; Li, Li; Chen, Hanqing; Chang, Qing; Liu, Xudong; Wu, Yang; Wei, Chenxi; Li, Rui; Kwan, Joseph K C; Yeung, King Lun; Xi, Zhuge; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The aggravating effects of zero-dimensional, particle-shaped nanomaterials on allergic asthma have been previously investigated, but similar possible effects of one-dimensional shaped nanomaterials have not been reported. More importantly, there are no available means to counteract the adverse nanomaterial effects to allow for their safe use. In this study, an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rat asthma model was established to investigate whether single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) aggravate allergic asthma. The results showed that SWCNTs in rats exacerbated OVA-induced allergic asthma and that this exacerbation was counteracted by concurrent administration vitamin E. A mechanism involving the elimination of reactive oxygen species, downregulation of Th2 responses, reduced Ig production, and the relief of allergic asthma symptoms was proposed to explain the antagonistic effects of vitamin E. This work could provide a universal strategy to effectively protect people with allergic asthma from SWCNTs or similar nanomaterial-induced aggravating effects. PMID:24589727

  13. Hyperresponsiveness in the human nasal airway: new targets for the treatment of allergic airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, P J; Foreman, J C

    1999-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a condition which affects over 15% of the population in the United Kingdom. The pathological process involves two stages: nasal inflammation, and the development of nasal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen and a number of other stimuli. This results in the amplification of any subsequent allergic reaction, contributing to the chronic allergic state. A number of different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of AHR, including a role for eosinophil-derived proteins, free radicals and neuropeptides. While there may be a number of independent pathways which can result in AHR, evidence obtained from both animal models and in vivo experiments in humans indicate that some mediators may interact with one another, resulting in AHR. Further research into these interactions may open new avenues for the pharmacological treatment of chronic allergic rhinitis, and possibly other allergic airway diseases. PMID:10704051

  14. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress. PMID:19104982

  15. Bronchial reactivity and allergy-promoting factors in monozygotic twins discordant for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, C H; Svartengren, M; Mossberg, B; Pedersen, N; Camner, P

    1991-07-01

    Bronchial reactivity was studied twice in eight monozygotic twin pairs discordant for allergic rhinitis with pollen hypersensitivity, during the winter season (all eight pairs) and during the pollen season (seven pairs). On both occasions, the allergic twins showed significantly higher reactivity than their nonallergic siblings. The results indicate that moderate allergic rhinitis is associated with increased bronchial reactivity. This increased reactivity is an acquired trait; however, bronchial reactivity is not constantly increased in pollen rhinitis and may be normal even during the pollen season. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis usually started in childhood before the separation of the siblings. We could not demonstrate any major differences in exposure to allergens or airway irritants between the siblings. The allergic twins tended to have lower birth weight and insufficient weight increase just after birth. PMID:1859042

  16. RELATIVE POTENCY OF MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Mold has been associated with the exacerbation of allergic asthma. However, its role in induction of allergic asthma is not clear. Using a previously developed mouse model for allergic asthma, we compared potencies of two fungal extracts (Metarhizium anisop...

  17. Risk of Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, and Eczema in Children Born to Mothers with Gum Inflammation during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Liu, Chin-Chen; Hsiao, Yu-Chen; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study. Methods We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control) by mother’s age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks. Results Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control) for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.20; 1.27, 1.24–1.31; 1.14, 1.12–1.17, respectively). Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother’s residential area. Conclusions Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care. PMID:27224053

  18. Immune response phenotype of allergic versus clinically tolerant pigs in a neonatal swine model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah; Wilkie, Bruce

    2013-07-15

    The prevalence of childhood food allergy and the duration of these allergies, particularly those considered to be transient, like egg and milk allergy, are increasing. The identification of allergic individuals using minimally invasive, non-anaphylaxis-threatening methods is therefore of increasing importance. In this experiment, correlates were sought of an allergic immune response (IR) phenotype in pigs. Using pigs pre-treated with heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components before allergic sensitization with the egg white protein ovomucoid (Ovm), differences were determined in IR phenotype of pigs in the categories treated-allergic, treated-tolerant, control-allergic (CA) and control-tolerant. Phenotype was established by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)-associated antibody activity (AbA), cytokine profiles and the proportion of blood T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and observing late-phase allergen-specific skin tests (ST). Although 100% of pigs became sensitized to Ovm, only 33% of pigs had clinical signs of allergy after oral challenge with egg white. Pigs without clinical signs were classified as clinically tolerant. Sixty-seven percent of allergic pigs had a positive, late-phase ST classified as very strong or strong, while 84% of clinically tolerant pigs did not have late-phase ST. Treated-allergic pigs and CA pigs had greater total antibody IgG (H+L), IgE and IgG1 AbA than clinically tolerant pigs. Cytokine profiles of allergic pigs and the proportion of circulating T-regs, did not differ significantly between allergic and clinically tolerant pigs. Therefore, measurement of allergen-specific IgG, IgG1 and/or IgE activity and evaluation of late-phase ID ST may be useful in identifying allergic IR phenotypes in swine models of food allergy, which may be extended toward human use. PMID:23664639

  19. Association Between Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection and Risk of Childhood Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, I. Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current population-based study investigated the onset of neonatal urinary tract infection (UTI) and the associated risks of allergic rhinitis. From 2000 to 2005, 3285 children with neonatal UTI and 13,128 randomly selected controls were enrolled from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan and frequency matched by gender, urbanization of residential area, parental occupation, and baseline year. We compared the risk of allergic rhinitis between the non-UTI and UTI cohorts by performing multivariable Cox regression analysis. We observed a significant relationship between UTI and allergic rhinitis. This study examined 16,413 patients, among whom 3285 had UTI and 13,128 did not have UTI. The overall incidence rate ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.41-fold higher in the UTI cohort than in the non-UTI cohort (100.2 vs 70.93 per 1000 person-y). After potential risk factors were adjusted for, the adjusted hazard ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.23–1.41). Regardless of gender, the UTI cohort had a higher risk of allergic rhinitis than that of the non-UTI cohort. The patients with UTI in different follow-up durations were equally susceptible to developing allergic rhinitis compared with those without UTI, especially in follow-up durations shorter than 5 years. Patients with UTI and particular comorbidities such as infections and neonatal jaundice had a significantly increased risk of allergic rhinitis. UTI in newborns is significantly associated with the development of allergic rhinitis in childhood and might be a risk factor for subsequent childhood allergic rhinitis. PMID:26402832

  20. The history and progression of treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to place new treatments in the context of allergic rhinitis (AR) treatment history. The medical literature was searched for significant advances and changes in AR treatment. Historical data on AR treatment options and management were selected. Reviews of AR management published throughout the 20th century were included to provide context for treatment advances. Modern AR treatment began in the early 20th century with immunotherapy and was soon followed by the emergence of antihistamine therapy in the 1930s. Numerous treatments for AR have been used over the ensuing decades, including decongestants, mast cell stabilizers, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Topical corticosteroid options were developed the 1950s, and, added to baseline antihistamine therapy, became the foundation of AR treatment. Treatment options were significantly impacted after the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of chlorofluorocarbon propellant aerosols because of environmental concerns. From the mid-1990s until recently, this left only aqueous solution options for intranasal corticosteroids (INSs). The approval of the first hydrofluoroalkane propellant aerosol INSs for AR in 2012 restored a "dry" aerosol treatment option. The first combination intranasal antihistamine/INSs was also approved in 2012, providing a novel treatment option for AR. Treatment of AR has progressed with new therapeutic options now available. This should continue to move forward with agents to alter the allergic mechanism itself and impact the disease burden that has a significant impact on patient outcomes. PMID:25582156

  1. Fluticasone furoate nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Agondi, Rosana; Stelmach, Rafael; Cukier, Alberto; Kalil, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a prevalent disease with great morbidity and significant societal and economic burden. Intranasal corticosteroids are recommended as first-line therapy for patients with moderate-to-severe disease, especially when nasal congestion is a major component of symptoms. To compare the efficacy and safety profile of different available intranasal corticosteroids for the treatment of AR, it is important to understand their different structures and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Knowledge of these drugs has increased tremendously over the last decade. Studies have elucidated mechanisms of action, pharmacologic properties, and the clinical impact of these drugs in allergic respiratory diseases. Although the existing intranasal corticosteroids are already highly efficient, the introduction of further improved formulations with a better efficacy/safety profile is always desired. Fluticasone furoate nasal spray is a new topical corticosteroid, with enhanced-affinity and a unique side-actuated delivery device. As it has high topical potency and low potential for systemic effects, it is a good candidate for rhinitis treatment. PMID:18728833

  2. Role of Rho kinase isoforms in murine allergic airway responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Liu, P-Y; Kasahara, D I; Williams, A S; Verbout, N G; Halayko, A J; Fedulov, A; Shoji, T; Williams, E S; Noma, K; Shore, S A; Liao, J K

    2011-10-01

    Inhibition of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinases (ROCKs) reduces allergic airway responses in mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of the two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, in these responses. Wildtype (WT) mice and heterozygous ROCK1 and ROCK2 knockout mice (ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-), respectively) were sensitised and challenged with ovalbumin. ROCK expression and activation were assessed by western blotting. Airway responsiveness was measured by forced oscillation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the lungs were fixed for histological assessment. Compared with WT mice, ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression were 50% lower in lungs of ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-) mice, respectively, without changes in the other isoform. In WT lungs, ROCK activation increased after ovalbumin challenge and was sustained for several hours. This activation was reduced in ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-) lungs. Airway responsiveness was comparable in WT, ROCK1(+/-), and ROCK2(+/-) mice challenged with PBS. Ovalbumin challenge caused airway hyperresponsiveness in WT, but not ROCK1(+/-) or ROCK2(+/-) mice. Lavage eosinophils and goblet cell hyperplasia were significantly reduced in ovalbumin-challenged ROCK1(+/-) and ROCK2(+/-) versus WT mice. Ovalbumin-induced changes in lavage interleukin-13, interleukin-5 and lymphocytes were also reduced in ROCK1(+/-) mice. In conclusion, both ROCK1 and ROCK2 are important in regulating allergic airway responses. PMID:21565918

  3. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M.; Jang, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  4. Viral disruption of olfactory progenitors is exacerbated in allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Ueha, R; Mukherjee, S; Ueha, S; de Almeida Nagata, D E; Sakamoto, T; Kondo, K; Yamasoba, T; Lukacs, N W; Kunkel, S L

    2014-09-01

    Upper airway viral infection in patients with airway allergy often exacerbates olfactory dysfunction, but the mechanism for this exacerbation remains unclear. Here, we examined the effects of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, in the presence or absence of airway allergy, on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their progenitors in mice. Immunohistological analyses revealed that cockroach allergen (CRA)-induced airway allergy alone did not affect the number of OMP(+) mature ORNs and SOX2(+) ORN progenitors. Intranasal RSV line 19 infection in allergy-free mice resulted in a transient decrease in SOX2(+) ORN progenitors without affecting OMP(+) ORNs. In contrast, the RSV-induced decrease in SOX2(+) ORN progenitors was exacerbated and prolonged in allergic mice, which resulted in eventual loss of OMP(+) ORNs. In the allergic mice, reduction of RSV in the olfactory epithelium was delayed as compared with allergy-free mice. These results suggest that ORN progenitors were impaired by RSV infection and that airway allergy exacerbated damage to ORN progenitors by reducing viral clearance. PMID:24998164

  5. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bracamonte, Erika; Thajudeen, Bijin; Sussman, Amy; Madhrira, Machaiah; Costello, James

    2015-01-01

    Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI. PMID:26664405

  6. Non-Pharmacological Treatments of Allergic Rhinitis (Neglected Treatments)

    PubMed Central

    Zohalinezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis is the most common diseases affecting people in industrialized society. However, this is not a new disease and it was clinically described and treated for the first time by Rhazes (865-925 CE). The disease was also mentioned in “The Canon of Medicine” by Avicenna (980–1037). Methods: We searched in Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed for “allergic rhinitis”, “interactions”, “non-prescription”, “prescription”, and in electronic copies of ITM sources the “canon” and “Al-Havi”. Results: Both Persian pioneers of Medicine recommended non-pharmacologic management as an important phase of the therapy. Their recommendations consisted of avoiding overeating and polydipsia, massage of the lower extremities, adjusting the duration and time of sleep, sleeping in the supine position, avoiding exposure of the head to cold air and taking a shower early in the morning. Conclusion: Although some aspects of their recommendations, such as massage of the lower extremities, avoiding of overeating and adjusting of sleep pattern were approved, but further cross-sectional and prospective studies are needed to confirm other non-pharmacological treatments.

  7. Allergic gastrointestinal motility disorders in infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2008-08-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, constipation and colic are among the most common disorders in infancy and early childhood. In at least a subset of infants with these functional disorders, improvement after dietary elimination of specific food proteins has been demonstrated. Gastrointestinal food allergy should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants presenting with persistent regurgitation, constipation or irritable behaviour, particularly if conventional treatment has not been beneficial. The diagnosis of food protein-induced gastrointestinal motility disorders is hampered by the absence of specific clinical features or useful laboratory markers. Gastrointestinal biopsies before commencing a hypoallergenic diet may provide the most important diagnostic clues. Early recognition is essential for the optimal management of these patients to prevent nutritional sequelae or aversive feeding behaviours. Treatment relies on hypoallergenic formulae, as well as maternal elimination diets in breast-fed infants. Further research is required to better define the pathological mechanisms and diagnostic markers of paediatric allergic gastrointestinal motility disorders. The following article will present three instructive cases followed by discussion of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and natural history of food allergic motility disorders in infancy and early childhood. PMID:18713339

  8. Cotton-made cellulose support for anti-allergic pajamas.

    PubMed

    Radu, Cezar-Doru; Salariu, Mihaela; Avadanei, Manuela; Ghiciuc, Cristina; Foia, Lili; Lupusoru, Elena Cătălina; Ferri, Ada; Ulea, Eugen; Lipsa, Florin

    2013-06-01

    The cotton used to produce an interlock knitted fabric is alkaline boiled, bleached and after drying, it is grafted with monochlorotriazinyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCT-β-CD) as a support of an inclusion compound (IC) with natural anti-allergic active principles, in order to improve the curative properties and the comfort. Are used: extract of Viola tricolor Herb (VtH), solution of propolis (P) and of menthol (M), as well as the pharmacologic products: advantan (AD), hydrocortisone (HYD) and pimechrolimus (PI). The dimensions of the active compound molecules were established with software. The textile material grafted with MCT-β-CD and with active principles absorbed in the cyclodextrin cavity is investigated by EDX. The anti-microbial activity of VtH, P and M was tested. Tactile determinations of softness were performed with human appraisers. By assembling the anti-allergic knitted fabric with untreated fabric, therapeutic pajamas were obtained. The manner to process and manufacture the pajamas for patients with contact and atopic (DA) dermatitis (DC) is presented. PMID:23618296

  9. Hyaluronan fragments as mediators of inflammation in allergic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A; Dorsam, Glenn P; Schuh, Jane M

    2015-05-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen, leading to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to allergens may experience a greater degree of tissue injury followed by airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. In addition, turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a hallmark of tissue injury and repair. This review focuses on the role of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the ECM, in pulmonary injury and repair with an emphasis on allergic asthma. Both the synthesis and degradation of the ECM are critical contributors to tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmented HA accumulates during tissue injury and functions in ways distinct from the larger native polymer. There is gathering evidence that HA degradation products are active participants in stimulating the expression of inflammatory genes in a variety of immune cells at the injury site. In this review, we will consider recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that are associated with HA accumulation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the asthmatic lung. PMID:25582403

  10. Pharmacological profile, efficacy and safety of rupatadine in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Subodh; Prakash, Shivesh

    2009-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a disease with high prevalence. In AR, exposure to airborne allergens elicits an allergic response which involves epithelial accumulation of effector cells - e.g. mast cells and basophils - and subsequent inflammation. During the early response in AR, histamine has been found to be the most abundant mediator and it is associated with many symptoms of this disease mediated through the histamine H1 receptor. Therefore, anti-histamines have a role to play in the management of AR. However, the available antihistamines have certain well-known side effects like sedation and potential pro-arrythmic effects owing to their interactions with other drugs, as well as having poor or no effect on platelet activating factor (PAF) which also plays an important role in AR. This article is a qualitative systematic literature review on the pharmacological profile of rupatadine in order to evaluate its safety and efficacy in AR as compared to other anti-histamines. Rupatadine is a once-daily non-sedative, selective, long-acting H1 anti-histamine with antagonistic PAF effects through its interaction with specific receptors. Rupatadine significantly improves nasal symptoms in patients with AR. It has a good safety profile and is devoid of arrythmogenic effects. These properties make rupatadine a suitable first line anti-histamine for the treatment of AR. PMID:18695846

  11. Hyaluronan fragments as mediators of inflammation in allergic pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen, leading to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to allergens may experience a greater degree of tissue injury followed by airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. In addition, turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a hallmark of tissue injury and repair. This review focuses on the role of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the ECM, in pulmonary injury and repair with an emphasis on allergic asthma. Both the synthesis and degradation of the ECM are critical contributors to tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmented HA accumulates during tissue injury and functions in ways distinct from the larger native polymer. There is gathering evidence that HA degradation products are active participants in stimulating the expression of inflammatory genes in a variety of immune cells at the injury site. In this review, we will consider recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that are associated with HA accumulation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the asthmatic lung. PMID:25582403

  12. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M; Jang, David W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  13. Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Pregnancy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and allergic disorders can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy itself may also affect the course of asthma and related diseases. Optimal management of these disorders during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of the mother and the baby. Specific pharmacological agents for treatment of asthma or allergic diseases must be cautiously selected and are discussed here with respect to safety considerations in pregnancy. Although most drugs do not harm the fetus, this knowledge is incomplete. Any drug may carry a small risk that must be balanced against the benefits of keeping the mother and baby healthy. The goals and principles of management for acute and chronic asthma, rhinitis, and dermatologic disorders are the same during pregnancy as those for asthma in the general population. Diagnosis of allergy during pregnancy should mainly consist of the patient's history and in vitro testing. The assured and well-evaluated risk factors revealed for sensitization in mother and child are very limited, to date, and include alcohol consumption, exposure to tobacco smoke, maternal diet and diet of the newborn, drug usage, and insufficient exposure to environmental bacteria. Consequently, the recommendations for primary and secondary preventive measures are also very limited in number and verification. PMID:21151812

  14. Neuroimmune semaphorin 4A downregulates the severity of allergic response.

    PubMed

    Nkyimbeng-Takwi, E H; Shanks, K; Smith, E; Iyer, A; Lipsky, M M; Detolla, L J; Kikutani, H; Keegan, A D; Chapoval, S P

    2012-07-01

    To define the role of semaphorin 4A (Sema4A) in allergic response, we employed Sema4A⁻/⁻ and wild-type (WT) mice in the experimental model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation. We observed a selective increase in eosinophilic airway infiltration accompanied by bronchial epithelial cell hyperplasia in allergen-treated Sema4A⁻/⁻ mice relative to WT mice. This enhanced inflammatory response was associated with a selective increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) interleukin 13 (IL-13) content, augmented airway hyperreactivity, and lower regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers. In vivo allergen-primed Sema4A⁻/⁻ CD4+ T cells were more effective in transferring T helper type 2 (Th2) response to naive mice as compared with WT CD4+ T cells. T-cell proliferation and IL-13 productions in OVA₃₂₃₋₃₃₉-restimulated Sema4A⁻/⁻ cell cultures were upregulated. Generated bone marrow chimeras showed an equal importance of both lung-resident cell and inflammatory cell Sema4A expression in optimal disease regulation. These data provide a new insight into Sema4A biology and define Sema4A as an important regulator of Th2-driven lung pathophysiology. PMID:22472774

  15. Clinical manifestation and sensitization of allergic children from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background An epidemiological rise of allergic diseases in developing countries raises new challenges. Currently a paucity of data exists describing allergy symptomology and sensitization to common food and aeroallergens in young children from developing countries. Objective To compare changes in symptomology, food allergen sensitization and aeroallergen sensitization in a cross-sectional study of children <2 years and 2-10 years. Methods A total of 192 allergic children (aged <2 years, 35 children; aged 2-10 years, 157 children) underwent specific IgE (>0.35 kU/L) to common food (egg white, cow's milk, cod fish, wheat, peanut, soya, peanut, and shrimp) and house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis). Results In children <2 years, atopic dermatitis (65.7%) was the most common symptom whereas in children 2-10 years it was rhinoconjunctivitis (74.5%). Higher sensitization rate to eggs (p < 0.01) and cow's milk (p = 0.044) was seen in <2 years group when compared to the 2-10 years group, but no significant differences for shrimp (p = 0.29), wheat (p = 0.23) and soya (p = 0.057). Interestingly, sensitization to peanut (p = 0.012) and fish (p = 0.035) was significantly decreased in the 2-10 years group. Sensitization to house dust mites (p < 0.01) dramatically increased in the older children. Conclusion Our study supports concept of atopic march from a developing country like Malaysia. PMID:25938072

  16. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  17. Allergic skin test reactivity to marijuana in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G L

    1983-06-01

    In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109

  18. Allergic Skin Test Reactivity to Marijuana in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Geraldine L.

    1983-01-01

    In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109

  19. Ancillary therapy of intranasal T-LysYal® for patients with allergic, non-allergic, and mixed rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Taliente, S; Fiorella, M L; Quaranta, N; Ciancio, G; Russo, C; Mola, P; Ciofalo, A; Zambetti, G; Caruso Armone, A; Cantone, E; Ciprandi, G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated pathogenesis. Frequently, patients have the two disorders associated: such as mixed rhinitis (MR). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a fundamental component of the human connective tissue. HA may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activities. Recently, an intranasal HA formulation was proposed: a supramolecular system containing lysine hyaluronate, thymine and sodium chloride (T-LysYal®). This randomized study investigated whether intranasal T-LysYal® (rinoLysYal®, Farmigea, Italy) was able to reduce symptom severity, endoscopic features, and nasal cytology in 89 patients (48 males and 41 females, mean age 36.3±7.1 years) with AR, NAR, and MR. Patients were treated with intranasal T-LysYal® or isotonic saline solution as adjunctive therapy to nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine for 4 weeks. Patients were visited at baseline, after treatment and after 4-week follow-up. Intranasal T-LysYal® treatment significantly reduced the quote of patients with symptoms, endoscopic features, and inflammatory cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that intranasal T-LysYal® is able, as ancillary therapy, to significantly improve patients with AR, NAR, and MR, and its effect is long lasting. PMID:27049100

  20. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    PubMed Central

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Tribouley, Catherine; Diamant, Zuzana; Boot, J. Diderik; Cohen, Adam F.; Van Dyck, K.; De Lepeleire, I.; Rivas, Veronica M.; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Ruddy, Marcella K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measured in this study. Methods Thirteen non-smoking, allergic subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 2-period cross-over study following a single-blind placebo run-in period. Each period consisted of three consecutive days, separated by a wash-out period of at least 3 weeks. Subjects randomly received inhaled fluticasone ((FP) MDI; 500 mcg BID×5 doses in total) or placebo. On day 2, house dust mite extract was inhaled and airway response was measured by FEV1 at predefined time points until 7 h post-allergen. Sputum was induced by NaCl 4.5%, processed and analysed at 24 h pre-allergen and 7 and 24 h post-allergen. RNA was isolated from eligible sputum cell pellets (<80% squamous of 500 cells), amplified according to NuGEN technology, and profiled on Affymetrix arrays. Gene expression changes from baseline and fluticasone treatment effects were evaluated using a mixed effects ANCOVA model at 7 and at 24 h post-allergen challenge. Results Inhaled allergen-induced statistically significant gene expression changes in sputum, which were effectively blunted by fluticasone (adjusted p<0.025). Forty-seven RNA signatures were selected from these responses for correlation analyses and further validation. This included Th2 mRNA levels for cytokines, chemokines, high-affinity IgE receptor FCER1A, histamine receptor HRH4, and enzymes and receptors in the arachidonic pathway. Individual messengers from the 47 RNA signatures correlated significantly

  1. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  2. Accurate Prediction of Severe Allergic Reactions by a Small Set of Environmental Parameters (NDVI, Temperature)

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions. PMID:25794106

  3. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients' quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  4. Rupatadine: a review of its use in the management of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Keam, Susan J; Plosker, Greg L

    2007-01-01

    Rupatadine (Rupafin, Rinialer, Rupax, Alergoliber) is a selective oral histamine H(1)-receptor antagonist that has also been shown to have platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist activity in vitro. It is indicated for use in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in patients aged >/=12 years. Clinical trials show that rupatadine is an effective and generally well tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and CIU. It has a rapid onset of action and a prolonged duration of activity. Importantly, it has no significant effect on cognition, psychomotor function or the cardiovascular system. Once-daily rupatadine significantly improves allergic rhinitis symptoms in patients with SAR, PAR or persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) compared with placebo, and provides similar symptom control to that of loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine or ebastine. In patients with CIU, longer-term use of rupatadine improves CIU symptoms to a greater extent than placebo. It is as well tolerated as other commonly used second-generation H(1)-receptor antagonists. Thus, the introduction of rupatadine extends the range of oral agents available for the treatment of allergic disorders, including allergic rhinitis and CIU. PMID:17335300

  5. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  6. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180

  7. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180

  8. No Adjuvant Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-Maize on Allergic Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize (MON810) on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:25084284

  9. Current understanding of allergic transfusion reactions: incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumiya

    2013-02-01

    Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment. PMID:23215650

  10. Psoriasin, one of several new proteins identified in nasal lavage fluid from allergic and non-allergic individuals using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bryborn, Malin; Adner, Mikael; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Background Extravasation and luminal entry of plasma occurs continuously in the nose. This process is markedly facilitated in patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis, resulting in an increased secretion of proteins. Identification of these proteins is an important step in the understanding of the pathological mechanisms in allergic diseases. DNA microarrays have recently made it possible to compare mRNA profiles of lavage fluids from healthy and diseased patients, whereas information on the protein level is still lacking. Methods Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 11 patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis and 11 healthy volunteers. 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins in the lavage fluids. Protein spots were picked from the gels and identified using mass spectrometry and database search. Selected proteins were confirmed with western blot. Results 61 spots were identified, of which 21 were separate proteins. 6 of these proteins (psoriasin, galectin-3, alpha enolase, intersectin-2, Wnt-2B and hypothetical protein MGC33648) had not previously been described in nasal lavage fluids. The levels of psoriasin were markedly down-regulated in allergic individuals. Prolactin-inducible protein was also found to be down-regulated, whereas different fragments of albumin together with Ig gamma 2 chain c region, transthyretin and splice isoform 1 of Wnt-2B were up-regulated among the allergic patients. Conclusion The identification of proteins in nasal lavage fluid with 2-dimensional gelelectrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is a novel tool to profile protein expression in allergic rhinitis and it might prove useful in the hunt for new therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers for allergic diseases. Psoriasin is a potent chemotactic factor and its down-regulation during inflammation might be of importance for the outcome of the disease. PMID:16236163

  11. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takuma; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Wang, Linan; Murata, Mariko; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  12. Geometric hysteresis of alveolated ductal architecture.

    PubMed

    Kojic, M; Butler, J P; Vlastelica, I; Stojanovic, B; Rankovic, V; Tsuda, A

    2011-11-01

    Low Reynolds number airflow in the pulmonary acinus and aerosol particle kinetics therein are significantly conditioned by the nature of the tidal motion of alveolar duct geometry. At least two components of the ductal structure are known to exhibit stress-strain hysteresis: smooth muscle within the alveolar entrance rings, and surfactant at the air-tissue interface. We hypothesize that the geometric hysteresis of the alveolar duct is largely determined by the interaction of the amount of smooth muscle and connective tissue in ductal rings, septal tissue properties, and surface tension-surface area characteristics of surfactant. To test this hypothesis, we have extended the well-known structural model of the alveolar duct by Wilson and Bachofen (1982, "A Model for Mechanical Structure of the Alveolar Duct," J. Appl. Physiol. 52(4), pp. 1064-1070) by adding realistic elastic and hysteretic properties of (1) the alveolar entrance ring, (2) septal tissue, and (3) surfactant. With realistic values for tissue and surface properties, we conclude that: (1) there is a significant, and underappreciated, amount of geometric hysteresis in alveolar ductal architecture; and (2) the contribution of smooth muscle and surfactant to geometric hysteresis are of opposite senses, tending toward cancellation. Quantitatively, the geometric hysteresis found experimentally by Miki et al. (1993, "Geometric Hysteresis in Pulmonary Surface-to-Volume Ratio during Tidal Breathing," J. Appl. Physiol. 75(4), pp. 1630-1636) is consistent with little or no smooth muscle tone in anesthetized rabbits in control conditions, and with substantial smooth muscle activation following methacholine challenge. The observed local hysteretic boundary motion of the acinar duct would result in irreversible acinar flow fields, which might be important mechanistic contributors to aerosol mixing and deposition deep in the lung. PMID:22168737

  13. Allergic reactions following contrast material administration: nomenclature, classification, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Comment, Lionel; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    In forensic pathology routine, fatal cases of contrast agent exposure can be occasionally encountered. In such situations, beyond the difficulties inherent in establishing the cause of death due to nonspecific or absent autopsy and histology findings as well as limited laboratory investigations, pathologists may face other problems in formulating exhaustive, complete reports, and conclusions that are scientifically accurate. Indeed, terminology concerning adverse drug reactions and allergy nomenclature is confusing. Some terms, still utilized in forensic and radiological reports, are outdated and should be avoided. Additionally, not all forensic pathologists master contrast material classification and pathogenesis of contrast agent reactions. We present a review of the literature covering allergic reactions to contrast material exposure in order to update used terminology, explain the pathophysiology, and list currently available laboratory investigations for diagnosis in the forensic setting. PMID:24061700

  14. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to Alternaria: Case report and review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhagteshwar; Denning, David W

    2012-01-01

    While allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and mycosis are well recognised, no cases have been described related to Alternaria spp. Alternaria is a common sensitising fungus in asthmatics and related to thunderstorm asthma. We report a case of an asthmatic who presented with worsening asthma control, mild eosinophilia on high dose inhaled corticosteroids (800 μg/day), a total IgE of 3800 KIU/L, an Alternaria-specific IgE of 21.3 KUa/L and positive skin prick test, negative specific IgE and skin prick test to Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Trichophyton spp. and a normal CT scan of the thorax. He responded well to a short course of oral prednisolone and then oral itraconazole, given over 17 months but relapsed 1 month after stopping it. PMID:24371728

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: review of the past decade.

    PubMed

    Admani, Shehla; Jacob, Sharon E

    2014-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. During the last decade, there has been a heightened awareness of this disease in the pediatric population. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred children with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6 %. The most common allergens in children in North America are nickel, neomycin, cobalt, fragrance, Myroxylon pereirae, gold, formaldehyde, lanolin/wool alcohols, thimerosal, and potassium dichromate. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up. PMID:24504525

  16. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  17. Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.

    PubMed

    Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

    2014-10-01

    Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

  18. Racial Differences in Allergic Sensitization: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Zoratti, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities are present in many facets of health and disease. Allergy and asthma are no exceptions. Secondary results from cross-sectional and cohort studies have provided information on the scope of racial disparities in allergic sensitization in the United States. African American/Black individuals tend to be sensitized more frequently than White individuals. Little is known about rates in other race groups. Genetics are unlikely to be the sole or major cause of the observed differences. Home dust allergen and endotoxin levels cannot explain the differences. Studies that have been designed to specifically address the sources of these racial disparities are needed. A “Multilevel Framework” that considers the roles of the individual, family and community presents an excellent approach to guide design of future studies of the causes of these disparities. Understanding the causes of the disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals. PMID:23435599

  19. Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by 15-deoxyspergualin.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, T; Da-Lin, Y; Satoh, J; Tabira, T

    1987-12-01

    15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG), a novel antitumor antibiotic, was tested for treatment of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Clinical and histologic signs of EAE by active sensitization with myelin basic protein were profoundly inhibited by prophylactic administration of DSG in a dose-dependent manner. By the treatment during the inductive phase, the onset of EAE was significantly delayed. Antigen-specific proliferation of lymph node cells and the ability of spleen cells to transfer EAE were suppressed but concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte proliferation was not altered. Passive EAE induced with an encephalitogenic T cell line was also prevented by DSG-treatment, although DSG did not suppress but rather augmented the activation of T cells in vitro. Taken together, DSG is not a non-specific lymphocyte toxin but a unique immunomodulator that can suppress both inductive and effector phases of EAE. PMID:3502003

  20. Pristimerin attenuates ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yingli; Wang, Yujia; Zhao, Danning; Ma, Sitong; Lu, Jing; Shuang, Guan

    2016-06-01

    Pristimerin has been shown to possess antiinflammatory activity. However, its potential use for asthma induced by airway inflammation has not yet been studied. First, we established a ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mice model. BALB/c mice were immunized and challenged by OVA. Treatment with pristimerin caused a marked reduction in the levels of OVA-specific IgE, immune cells, and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 secretion. Histological studies using H&E staining were used to study the alterations in lung tissue. These results were similar to those obtained with dexamethasone treatment. We then investigated which signal transduction mechanisms could be implicated in pristimerin activity by Western blot. The data showed that pristimerin could inhibit MAPKs and NF-κB inflammatory pathways. PMID:27098091

  1. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis.

    PubMed

    Kebbe, Jad; Mador, M Jeffery

    2016-07-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  2. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Brod, Bruce A; Treat, James R; Rothe, Marti Jill; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last ten years, there has been an increased awareness of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, in addition to adults. Historically, ACD was not considered a significant disease in the pediatric population. This may have been due to failure to employ patch testing, which is the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis of ACD. A number of epidemiologic studies now reflect upon the significance of positive patch tests in children and its utility in diagnosing ACD. While there is significant overlap among the most common allergens in children and adults, the patterns of exposure and sources of allergens can significantly differ, because children have distinct experiences related to their exposure to personal care products, articles of clothing, and time spent in play as opposed to work. Evaluation of the pediatric patient with dermatitis involves specialized knowledge in taking the pediatric history and specific techniques employed for successful patch test application. PMID:26686012

  4. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis preceding allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Teo, F S W; Santosa, A; Teng, G G

    2015-11-01

    A 61-year-old Chinese man with long-standing, stable Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and asthma, presented with acute hypoxemia and declining obstructive pulmonary function. Elevated serum IgE levels, positive Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and CT findings of central bronchiectasis with small airway mucoid impaction confirmed new development of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). The maintenance therapy for EGPA, azathioprine, was discontinued. Prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/day and Itraconazole improved his symptoms and IgE levels. To our knowledge, ABPA occurring in a patient with EGPA has not been reported. Differentiation of EGPA with asthmatic flare vs ABPA vs asthma with aspergillus hypersensitivity is discussed. Heightened Th2 immunity where eosinophils play a central role may link these conditions. PMID:26549342

  5. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  6. Alcaftadine: a topical antihistamine for use in allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Namdar, R; Valdez, C

    2011-12-01

    Alcaftadine (Lastacaft®; Allergen, Inc.) is a broad-spectrum antihistamine displaying a high affinity for histamine H1 and H2 receptors and a lower affinity for H4 receptors. It also exhibits modulatory action on immune cell recruitment and mast cell stabilizing effects. The authors reviewed all available English-language literature characterizing the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic profile of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution. In the studies reviewed, alcaftadine was more effective than placebo and at least as effective as olopatadine 0.01% in preventing ocular itching at 15 minutes and at 16 hours after administration. Alcaftadine 0.025% ophthalmic solution has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis in patients over 2 years of age. Comparative efficacy data of alcaftadine to other ocular antihistamine/mast cell stabilizers are limited. PMID:22348913

  7. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mador, M. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  8. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome, Allergic Proctocolitis, and Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-08-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES), allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and enteropathy (FPE) are among a number of immune-mediated reactions to food that are thought to occur primarily via non-IgE-mediated pathways. All three are typically present in infancy and are triggered most commonly by cow's milk protein. The usual presenting features are vomiting with lethargy and dehydration in FPIES; bloody and mucous stools in FPIAP; and diarrhea with malabsorption and failure to thrive in FPE. Diagnosis is based on convincing history and resolution of symptoms with food avoidance; confirmatory diagnostic testing other than food challenge is lacking. The mainstay of management is avoidance of the suspected inciting food, with interval challenge to assess for resolution, which usually occurs in the first years of life. Studies published in the past few years clarify common presenting features, report additional culprit foods, address potential biomarkers, and suggest new management strategies. PMID:26174434

  9. Cutaneous allergic reaction to intramuscular vitamin K1.

    PubMed

    Wong, D A; Freeman, S

    1999-08-01

    A 40-year-old woman with no pre-existing hepatic disease developed a cutaneous allergic reaction to intramuscular vitamin K1. She received this medication prophylactically prior to surgery, developed severe localized, and subsequently generalized, dermatitis, beginning 5 days after administration of the Konakion Cremophor-EL form of vitamin K1 by intramuscular injection at four sites on her thighs. Investigation by patch and intradermal testing revealed delayed-type hypersensitivity to Konakion Cremophor-EL, Konakion Mixed Micelles and pure vitamin K1, but not Cremophor-EL vehicle alone. This case is unusual because the patient was also shown to be patch test positive to vitamin K3 sodium bisulfite. PMID:10439527

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for birch pollen-allergic patients: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:27140409

  11. Gynecomastia and Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Advanced Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Joshua Y; Woodworth, Bradford A; Johnston, James M

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a rare entity in the pediatric population. The most common causes of hyperprolactinemia include drug use, hypothyroidism and renal insufficiency, though rarely a pituitary or sellar mass is discovered. We present an immunocompetent pediatric patient who presented with gynecomastia and was found to have hyperprolactinemia. Imaging showed a sphenoid mass and referral was made for a pituitary tumor. The mass was not a pituitary tumor and he was formally diagnosed with allergic fungal sinusitis and treated surgically. There are no previous reports of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis causing pituitary dysfunction in a pediatric patient. We also present a brief review and discussion of the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis. PMID:26768883

  12. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people. PMID:7951780

  13. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ihler, Friedrich; Canis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides promises a new treatment paradigm that aims to modulate the immune response, but it has

  14. Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D; Horev, L; Slodovnik, D; Merimes, S; Trattner, A; Ingber, A

    2001-02-01

    Allergy to chromium is relatively common, often in association with exposure to cement or in leather manufacture. However, in certain locations, there appears to be a relatively large cohort of chromium-sensitive individuals whose allergy cannot be explained by these common sources. In particular, this group include Israeli housewives with persistent hand eczema and concomitant patch test positivity to chromium. The causation of their allergy has been linked with relatively high levels of chromium contamination in household products. To provide further information in respect of the definition of safe levels for such products, we examined 17 chromium-allergic individuals to determine their threshold for reaction under closed patch test and repeated open application test (ROAT) conditions. The data derived indicated that, on normal skin, the patch test threshold was 10 ppm chromium; in the presence of an irritant (sodium lauryl sulfate) the threshold was closer to 1 ppm, 2/17 subjects giving 1+ reactions at this concentration. In the more realistic exposure conditions of the ROAT, 8/14 individuals failed to react to 50 ppm, whilst 3/15 reacted to 5 ppm. Interestingly, there was very poor correlation between patch test sensitivity and ROAT sensitivity. To ensure the large majority of chromium-allergic individuals do not suffer elicitation of their allergy, as well as to limit the development of new chromium-sensitive subjects, it is recommended that household products adhere to a previously published standard of a maximum limit of 5 ppm, with an ultimate target of 1 ppm contamination by chromium. PMID:11205406

  15. The Effects of Environmental Toxins on Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, San-Nan; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Lee, Min-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Yii

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has increased worldwide over the last few decades. Many common environmental factors are associated with this increase. Several theories have been proposed to account for this trend, especially those concerning the impact of environmental toxicants. The development of the immune system, particularly in the prenatal period, has far-reaching consequences for health during early childhood, and throughout adult life. One underlying mechanism for the increased levels of allergic responses, secondary to exposure, appears to be an imbalance in the T-helper function caused by exposure to the toxicants. Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals can result in dramatic changes in cytokine production, the activity of the immune system, the overall Th1 and Th2 balance, and in mediators of type 1 hypersensitivity mediators, such as IgE. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke is a common risk factor for wheezing and asthma in children. People living in urban areas and close to roads with a high volume of traffic, and high levels of diesel exhaust fumes, have the highest exposure to environmental compounds, and these people are strongly linked with type 1 hypersensitivity disorders and enhanced Th2 responses. These data are consistent with epidemiological research that has consistently detected increased incidences of allergies and asthma in people living in these locations. During recent decades more than 100,000 new chemicals have been used in common consumer products and are released into the everyday environment. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the environmental effects on allergies of indoor and outside exposure. PMID:25374746

  16. Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Sleep Problems in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Boergers, Julie; Ramos, Kara; LeBourgeois, Monique; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Esteban, Cynthia A.; Seifer, Ronald; Fritz, Gregory K.; Klein, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we examine the association of asthma (asthma symptoms, asthma control, lung function) and sleep problems in a group of urban children. The role of allergic rhinitis (AR), a comorbid condition of asthma, on children's sleep problems is also examined. Finally, we investigate whether sleep hygiene moderates the association between asthma and sleep problems, and whether there are differences in these associations based on ethnic background. Methods: Non-Latino White, Latino, and African American urban children with asthma (n = 195) ages 7–9 (47% female) and their primary caregivers participated in a baseline visit involving interview-based questionnaires on demographics, asthma and rhinitis control, and caregiver report of children's sleep problems and sleep hygiene. Children and their caregivers participated in a clinical evaluation of asthma and AR, followed by a month monitoring period of children's asthma using objective and subjective methods. Results: Total sleep problem scores were higher in children of the sample who were from African American and Latino backgrounds, compared to non-Latino white children. Poor asthma control was predictive of higher levels of sleep problems in the entire sample. Poorer AR control also was related to more sleep problems, over and above children's asthma in the sample. This association was more robust in non-Latino white children. Poor sleep hygiene heightened the association between poor asthma control and sleep problems in the entire sample and in African American children. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary interventions integrating the co-management of asthma, AR, and the effects of both illnesses on children's sleep, need to be developed and tailored to children and their families' ethnic background. Citation: Koinis-Mitchell D, Kopel SJ, Boergers J, Ramos K, LeBourgeois M, McQuaid EL, Esteban CA, Seifer R, Fritz GK, Klein RB. Asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sleep problems in urban children. J Clin

  17. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Ihler, Friedrich; Canis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by synthetic cytosine phosphate–guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides promises a new treatment paradigm that aims to modulate the immune response, but it has

  18. A Survey of Clinical Features of Allergic Rhinitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Franco; Dell’Albani, Ilaria; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Bonini, Sergio; Rossi, Oliviero; Senna, Gianenrico; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) has high prevalence and substantial socio-economic burden. Material/Methods The study included 35 Italian Centers recruiting an overall number of 3383 adult patients with rhinitis (48% males, 52% females, mean age 29.1, range 18–45 years). For each patient, the attending physician had to fill in a standardized questionnaire, covering, in particular, some issues such as the ARIA classification of allergic rhinitis (AR), the results of skin prick test (SPT), the kind of treatment, the response to treatment, and the satisfaction with treatment. Results Out of the 3383 patients with rhinitis, 2788 (82.4%) had AR: 311 (11.5%) had a mild intermittent, 229 (8.8%) a mild persistent, 636 (23.5%) a moderate-severe intermittent, and 1518 (56.1%) a moderate-severe persistent form. The most frequently used drugs were oral antihistamines (77.1%) and topical corticosteroids (60.8%). The response to treatment was judged as excellent in 12.2%, good in 41.3%, fair in 31.2%, poor in 14.5%, and very bad in 0.8% of subjects. The rate of treatment dissatisfaction was significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe AR than in patients with mild AR (p<0.0001). Indication to allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was significantly more frequent (p<0.01) in patients with severe AR than with mild AR. Conclusions These findings confirm the appropriateness of ARIA guidelines in classifying the AR patients and the association of severe symptoms with unsuccessful drug treatment. The optimal targeting of patients to be treated with AIT needs to be reassessed. PMID:25366169

  19. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic proctocolitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-IgE-mediated food allergic disorders account for up to 40% of milk protein allergy in infants and young children. We aim to review the recent literature and to provide an update on diagnosis and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP). The peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed have been reviewed. FPIES manifests in infants as profuse, repetitive vomiting and lethargy, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration, or weight loss and failure to thrive, in chronic form. FPIES is caused most commonly by cow's milk (CM) and soy proteins; rice, oat, and other solid foods may also trigger FPIES. FPIES rarely occurs in the exclusively breastfed infants. FPIES is underrecognized; children are often mismanaged as having acute viral gastrointestinal illness, sepsis, or surgical disease, delaying diagnosis of FPIES for many months. Approximately 25% of children with FPIES develop food-specific IgE antibodies and some transition to immediate food allergy; IgE positivity is associated with a more protracted course. FPIES is a self-limiting condition, with most cases resolving by age three to five years. Ondansetron may be helpful in managing acute FPIES. FPIAP is a benign condition of bloody stools in a well-appearing infant, with usual onset between one and four weeks of age. Up to 60% of cases occur in exclusively breastfed infants and resolve with maternal elimination of CM and soy proteins. The majority of cases resolve by age 12 months. FPIES may transition to IgE-mediated food allergy in some patients; IgE positivity to the FPIES food is a marker of a more persistent disease. FPIAP is benign and resolves by age 12 months in most patients. PMID:25976434

  20. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic proctocolitis.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Non-IgE-mediated food allergic disorders account for up to 40% of milk protein allergy in infants and young children. We aim to review the recent literature and to provide an update on diagnosis and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP). The peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed have been reviewed. FPIES manifests in infants as profuse, repetitive vomiting and lethargy, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration, or weight loss and failure to thrive, in chronic form. FPIES is caused most commonly by cow's milk (CM) and soy proteins; rice, oat, and other solid foods may also trigger FPIES. FPIES rarely occurs in the exclusively breastfed infants. FPIES is underrecognized; children are often mismanaged as having acute viral gastrointestinal illness, sepsis, or surgical disease, delaying diagnosis of FPIES for many months. Approximately 25% of children with FPIES develop food-specific IgE antibodies and some transition to immediate food allergy; IgE positivity is associated with a more protracted course. FPIES is a self-limiting condition, with most cases resolving by age three to five years. Ondansetron may be helpful in managing acute FPIES. FPIAP is a benign condition of bloody stools in a well-appearing infant, with usual onset between one and four weeks of age. Up to 60% of cases occur in exclusively breastfed infants and resolve with maternal elimination of CM and soy proteins. The majority of cases resolve by age 12 months. FPIES may transition to IgE-mediated food allergy in some patients; IgE positivity to the FPIES food is a marker of a more persistent disease. FPIAP is benign and resolves by age 12 months in most patients. PMID:25976434

  1. Combination Therapy with Budesonide and Salmeterol in Experimental Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pappová, L; Jošková, M; Kazimierová, I; Šutovská, M; Fraňová, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate bronchodilator, antitussive, and ciliomodulatory activity of inhaled combination therapy with budesonide and salmeterol, and to correlate the results with the anti-inflammatory effect. The experiments were performed using two models of allergic inflammation (21 and 28 days long sensitization with ovalbumine) in guinea pigs. The animals were treated daily by aerosols of budesonide (1 mM), salmeterol (0.17 mM), and a half-dose combination of the two drugs. Antitussive and bronchodilator activities were evaluated in vivo. The ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was assessed in vitro in tracheal brushed samples, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, GM-CSF, and TNF-α) were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We found that the combination therapy significantly decreased the number of cough efforts, airway reactivity, and the level of inflammatory cytokines in both models of allergic asthma. Three weeks long sensitization led to an increase in CBF and all three therapeutic approaches have shown a ciliostimulatory effect in order: salmeterol < budesonid < combination therapy. Four weeks long ovalbumine sensitization, on the other hand, decreased the CBF, increased IL-5, and decreased IL-13. In this case, only the combination therapy was able to stimulate the CBF. We conclude that a half-dose combination therapy of budesonide and salmeterol shows comparable antitussive, bronchodilator, and the anti-inflammatory effect to a full dose therapy with budesonide alone, but had a more pronounced stimulatory effect on the CBF. PMID:27329088

  2. [Specific immunotherapy and relocation in occupational allergic bakers].

    PubMed

    Cirla, A M; Lorenzini, R A; Cirla, P E

    2007-01-01

    Occupational allergy to components of wheat flour is the main cause of rhinitis and asthma of workers in bakeries and similar activities. An immunological mechanism IgE-mediated is involved and the sensitising properties of some proteins of wheat where assessed. Nowadays it is possible to have an extract to be used for specific immunotherapy. The aim of this treatment should be a reduction of individual immunological reactivity and the possibility of going on the particular activity of allergic bakers, pastry makers or pizza makers. An observational crossectional retrospective study was performed on 41 sensitised workers that were diagnosed in the same occupational health unit. All underwent a subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SCIT) with the same schedule and the same extract (Lofarma Allergeni, Milan) for 4 or more years, without avoiding their work activity. The outcome was investigated after five or ten years. Data were collected by a questionnaire. 34 subjects on 41 are still at work with an acceptable quality of life and a normal working efficiency, mainly in their small enterprises. In the "old" subgroup (19 cases), treated in the past, several bakers still at work stopped SCIT even from 4-10 years. In the "new" subgroup (15 cases), still in treatment, symptoms and drug use during the work activity resulted to be reduced or absent in the majority of cases. According to results of other immunotherapies by allergenic vaccines (pollens, mites) also for wheat flour occupational allergy a specific treatment seems to be possible and SCIT may be an useful tool to reduce and control the biological individual effects of allergy. By the occupational point of view wheat flour SCIT allows a relocation in many of cases and may be associated to other intervention of environmental prevention at workplaces, improving the relocation of occupational allergic subjects when requested. PMID:18409768

  3. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  4. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  5. The toxic effects of indoor atmospheric fine particulate matter collected from allergic and non-allergic families in Wuhan on mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yan, Biao; Li, Jinquan; Guo, Junhui; Ma, Ping; Wu, Zhuo; Ling, ZhenHao; Guo, Hai; Hiroshi, Yoshino; Yanagi, U; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Shengwei; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and PM2.5-induced oxidative stress is now commonly known as a proposed mechanism of PM2.5-mediated toxicity. However, the association between allergic symptoms in children and exposure to PM2.5 has not been fully elucidated, particularly the role of PM2.5 on the indoor environment involved in allergy or non-allergy is unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore whether indoor PM2.5 from the homes of children with allergic symptoms had more increased risks of allergy than that of healthy ones and then compare the toxicity and inflammatory response of them. In this study, indoor PM2.5 was collected from the homes of schoolchildren with allergic symptoms and those of healthy ones respectively, and components of PM2.5 were analyzed. PM2.5-mediated oxidative damage and inflammatory response were further evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages based on its effects on the levels of reactive oxygen species accumulation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage or cytokine production. It seems that oxidative stress may contribute to PM2.5-induced toxicity, and PM2.5 from the allergic indoor environment produced more serious toxic effects and an inflammatory response on mouse peritoneal macrophages than that from a non-allergic indoor environment. PMID:26304222

  6. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  7. Trends in Allergic Conditions among Children: United States, 1997-2011

    MedlinePlus

    ... equal to or greater than 200% of the poverty level had the highest prevalence rates. Allergic conditions ... with family income less than 100% of the poverty level, 4.4% had a food allergy and ...

  8. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  9. [Effect of probiotics in prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Xia, Li-Ping; Jiang, Yi

    2016-02-01

    The increasing incidence rate of allergic diseases has attracted global attention, and these diseases greatly threaten children′s health. The common pathogenesis of allergic diseases is the specific IgE- or cell-mediated immune response to common inhalant or food allergens. Epidemiological investigation, analysis of fecal flora, and clinical studies all suggest that the development and progression of allergic diseases are closely related to the early disturbance of intestinal flora. Probiotics can regulate intestinal immune response, increase the barrier function of epithelial cells, inhibit the adhesion and colonization of pathogenic bacteria, and thus restore or reconstruct normal intestinal flora. With the increasing understanding of allergic diseases, the effect of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of such diseases will be taken more and more seriously. PMID:26903069

  10. [The efficacy of treating patients with allergic diseases at a health resort with a gastroenterologic profile].

    PubMed

    Avdeeva, E V; Pavlushchenko, E V; Vaganova, V S; Paniushkina, O N

    1998-01-01

    45 allergic patients were treated in gastrointestinal sanatorium. Balneological and speleo modalities were employed. The clinical symptoms and humoral immunity indicated high efficacy of such treatment. The complex is recommended for introduction in gastrointestinal sanatoria. PMID:9987974

  11. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by mitochondrial ROS in bronchial epithelial cells is required for allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S R; Kim, D I; Kim, S H; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Cho, S H; Lee, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Abnormality in mitochondria has been suggested to be associated with development of allergic airway disorders. In this study, to evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in allergic asthma, we used a newly developed mitochondrial ROS inhibitor, NecroX-5. NecroX-5 reduced the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in airway inflammatory cells, as well as bronchial epithelial cells, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, increased expression of various inflammatory mediators and pathophysiological features of allergic asthma in mice. Finally, blockade of IL-1β substantially reduced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the asthmatic mice. These findings suggest that mitochondrial ROS have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation through the modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, providing a novel role of airway epithelial cells expressing NLRP3 inflammasome as an immune responder. PMID:25356867

  12. Juvenile allergic urethritis with urethro-ejaculatory reflux presenting as acute intermittent bilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik V; Brimioulle, Marina; Govani, Dhaval; Youssef, Talaat

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of juvenile allergic urethritis secondary to double concentrate orange squash of a famous brand in a 3-year-old boy who developed bilateral urethro-ejaculatory reflux (UER) and severe urethral, perineal and scrotal pain referred to both lower limbs intermittently predominantly during and after micturition-simulating features of bilateral intermittent testicular torsion. Accurate history, urinalysis, ultrasound, colour Doppler and food challenge were helpful in diagnosis. Topical steroids, antihistaminic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications together with withdrawal of the allergen produced complete recovery. Allergic urethritis in association with bilateral UER causing secondary seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis is rare. It presented as acute scrotum and responded to innovative treatment. Allergic disease can have a dramatic effect on a child's quality of life. This is the first documented case of allergic urethritis and associated UER presenting as juvenile acute scrotum. Steroids, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents together with avoidance of the allergen helped achieve recovery. PMID:26150614

  13. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  14. Scientists find link between allergic and autoimmune diseases in mouse study

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health, and their colleagues, have discovered that a gene called BACH2 may play a central role in the development of diverse allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, asthma, Crohn's disease, ce

  15. A Case of Psoriasis Replaced by Allergic Contact Dermatitis in a 12-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Browning, John C

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a significant clinical problem in children and one that the use of essential oils and natural remedies probably exacerbates. We report a case of chronic plaque psoriasis replaced by allergic contact dermatitis in a 12-year-old boy. We suspect that the immunologic response to a hapten in lavender oil disrupted the pathogenesis of psoriasis, causing the psoriasis to temporarily "disappear." PMID:26646574

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer. PMID:16364130

  17. Challenges in the management of severe allergic asthma in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Ayse Bilge; Iliaz, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the features of asthma and allergy in the elderly. A significant number of elderly patients with asthma have uncontrolled and severe asthma. This review aims to provide an analysis of the literature on the assessment and phenotype of severe allergic asthma in the elderly. Gaps and pitfalls in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as management of severe allergic asthma in the elderly, are also discussed. PMID:27051308

  18. Patch testing a patient with allergic contact hand dermatitis who is taking infliximab.

    PubMed

    Rosmarin, David; Bush, Michelle; Scheinman, Pamela L

    2008-07-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed allergic contact hand dermatitis while receiving infliximab infusions for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Patch testing showed multiple positive allergens. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful patch testing in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockade therapy. TNF-alpha blockers do not necessarily suppress allergic contact hypersensitivity and are not an absolute contraindication to patch testing. PMID:18468722

  19. Integrated innate mechanisms involved in airway allergic inflammation to the serine protease subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Florsheim, Esther; Yu, Shuang; Bragatto, Ivan; Faustino, Lucas; Gomes, Eliane; Ramos, Rodrigo N; Barbuto, José Alexandre M; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-05-15

    Proteases are recognized environmental allergens, but little is known about the mechanisms responsible for sensing enzyme activity and initiating the development of allergic inflammation. Because usage of the serine protease subtilisin in the detergent industry resulted in an outbreak of occupational asthma in workers, we sought to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation to subtilisin and to determine the immunological mechanisms involved in type 2 responses. By using a mouse model of allergic airway disease, we have defined in this study that s.c. or intranasal sensitization followed by airway challenge to subtilisin induces prototypic allergic lung inflammation, characterized by airway eosinophilia, type 2 cytokine release, mucus production, high levels of serum IgE, and airway reactivity. These allergic responses were dependent on subtilisin protease activity, protease-activated receptor-2, IL-33R ST2, and MyD88 signaling. Also, subtilisin stimulated the expression of the proallergic cytokines IL-1α, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the growth factor amphiregulin in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Notably, acute administration of subtilisin into the airways increased lung IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells, which required protease-activated receptor-2 expression. Finally, subtilisin activity acted as a Th2 adjuvant to an unrelated airborne Ag-promoting allergic inflammation to inhaled OVA. Therefore, we established a murine model of occupational asthma to a serine protease and characterized the main molecular pathways involved in allergic sensitization to subtilisin that potentially contribute to initiate allergic airway disease. PMID:25876764

  20. Novel cytokines and cytokine-producing T cells in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Julia A; Borish, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases reflect various pathways of T lymphocyte inflammation and largely comprise T helper (Th) 2-associated processes. Recent investigations have identified pathways involved in promoting Th2 responses. Additionally, novel T-cell subtypes, each with its own distinct cytokine profile, contribute to the heterogeneous presentations of allergic diseases. This article focuses on recent developments including novel effector (nuocytes, Th9, and Th22) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) families of lymphocytes as well as cytokines that are central in driving Th2 differentiation (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-9, IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], and IL-33). Recent literature and investigations were reviewed. Unregulated IL-25, TSLP, and IL-33 activity results in activation of Th2 cells, mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, and basophils, leading to inflammatory processes that define allergic disease. As such, these cytokines are central mediators capable of instigating the inflammatory processes responsible for allergen-mediated diseases. The previous paradigm of Th1/Th2 imbalance driving allergic disease is expanded by identification of novel T helper families (nuocytes, Th9, Th17, and Th22) with their signature cytokines, which provide alterative avenues for investigation of neutrophil-predominant asthma and other heterogeneous presentations of allergic diseases. IL-25, TSLP, and IL-33 are attractive targets for therapeutics designed to ameliorate Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Moreover, the ability to delineate novel regulatory and effector T-cell lineages among CD4(+) T cells challenges the Th1/Th2 paradigm of allergic disease and invites further avenues of investigation into the role of these cells in allergic disease. PMID:21439160

  1. High prevalence of rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization in Estonia and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Pallasaho, Paula; Kainu, Annette; Juusela, Maria; Meren, Mari; Sovijärvi, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Allergic rhinitis and atopy are more common in urban than rural environments. Non-allergic rhinitis has not been studied to a great extent. We aimed to assess the relationship of rhinitis symptoms with different profiles of allergic sensitization, comparing this in rural and urban environments. Methods The study population consisted of population-based cohorts of adults aged 26–60 from Helsinki, Finland, and rural Saaremaa and urban Tallinn, Estonia. We compared the results of a structured interview and skin prick tests and assessed the risk factors for rhinitis. Results The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms with atopy was 32.7% in Helsinki, 20.8% in Tallinn, and 12.5% in Saaremaa (p<0.001). Rhinitis symptoms without atopy were found in 26.4%, 29.8%, and 29.3% (p=n.s.), respectively. In Helsinki, 87.3% of participants with atopy identified symptoms as allergic, compared to 57.0% in Tallinn and 47.5% in Saaremaa. Childhood in the countryside (OR 0.63), family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.89), and polysensitization (OR 15.99) were significantly associated with rhinitis symptoms with atopy in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common sensitizers were pollens and animals in Helsinki and mites in Estonia. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (OR 1.50) and family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.70) were associated with rhinitis symptoms without atopy. Conclusion Rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization were common in both Finland and Estonia and were associated with environmental tobacco smoke. Family history of allergic rhinitis predisposed to rhinitis symptoms irrespective of atopy status. PMID:26557256

  2. The Effect of PM10 on Allergy Symptoms in Allergic Rhinitis Patients During Spring Season

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Il Gyu; Ju, Youn Hee; Jung, Joo Hyun; Ko, Kwang Pil; Oh, Dae Kyu; Kim, Jeong Hee; Lim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Young Hyo; Jang, Tae Young; Kim, Seon Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asian sand dust (ASD) that originates in the Mongolian Desert in the spring induces serious respiratory health problems throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan). PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm) is a major air pollutant component in ASD. We studied the effects of PM10 on allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the spring season, when ASD frequently develops. Methods: We investigated the changes in allergic symptoms in 108 allergic patients and 47 healthy subjects by comparing their 120-day symptom scores from February to May 2012. At the same time, the contributions of pollen count and PM10 concentration were also assessed. We also compared symptom scores before and 2 days after the daily PM10 concentration was >100 μg/m3. Results: The PM10 concentration during the 120 days was <150 μg/m3. No significant correlations were observed between changes in the PM10 concentration and allergic symptom scores (p > 0.05). However, allergic symptoms were significantly correlated with outdoor activity time (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that a PM10 concentration <150 μg/m3 did not influence allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the 2012 ASD season. PMID:25590148

  3. Epidermal Neuromedin U Attenuates IgE-Mediated Allergic Skin Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Yoshiko; Doi, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Kudo, Akihiko; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although keratinocyte-derived neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) mediates the proinflammatory effects of innate-type mast cell activation, no information is available on the physiological roles. Here, to investigate the effects of NMU on IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation, we determined whether IgE-mediated inflammation associated with severe scratching was induced in Nmu-/- mice administered repeated hapten applications to the ear or footpad. Dry skin was induced by targeted deletion of Nmu. Mice administered repeated hapten application developed IgE-mediated allergic inflammation characterized by severe scratching and increased serum IgE levels only when the ear, and not the footpad, was subjected to scratching, indicating that depletion of NMU from the epidermis alone does not drive such allergic inflammation. Thus, the susceptibility of Nmu-/- mice to allergic inflammation depends primarily on scratching dry skin. Further, allergic skin inflammation mediated by FcεRI cross-linking in Nmu-/-mice was inhibited by prior injection of NMU. These results indicate that NMU plays an important physiological role as a negative regulator during the late stage of IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation. PMID:27463114

  4. Ripe fruit of Rubus coreanus inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Choi, Phil Hyung; Yoo, Jin-Su; Jeon, Hoon; Chae, Byeong-Suk; Park, Jeong-Suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a water extract of the ripe fruits of Rubus coreanus Miq. (Rosaceae) (RFRC) on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. RFRC dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and serum histamine release in mice. RFRC reduced the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. RFRC attenuated histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and human mast cells by the reduction of intracellular calcium. RFRC decreased the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of RFRC on cytokine production was nuclear factor (NF)-κB- and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent. In addition, RFRC suppressed the activation of caspase-1. Our findings provide evidence that RFRC inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions, and for the involvement of calcium, NF-κB, MAPKs and caspase-1 in these effects. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effects of RFRC provide affirmative proof of a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22075758

  5. Elongation factor 1 β/δ of Echinococcus granulosus and allergic manifestations in human cystic echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Ortona, E; Margutti, P; Vaccari, S; Riganò, R; Profumo, E; Buttari, B; Chersi, A; Teggi, A; Siracusano, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergic reactions, such as urticaria, itching and anaphylactic shock, often complicate the course of cystic echinococcosis (CE). To investigate the role of the IgE-immunoreactive recombinant Echinococcus granulosus elongation factor-1 β/δ (EgEF-1 β/δ) in the allergic disorders during CE we determined humoral and cell-mediated responses to this antigen in patients with CE grouped according to the clinical presence or absence of allergic reactions. Immunoblotting analysis showed that serum IgE-binding reactivity to EgEF-1 β/δ differed significantly in patients with and without allergic reactions (38 of 42, 90% vs. 31 of 56, 56%; P < 10−4). EgEF-1 β/δ induced a proliferative response in 14 of 19 (74%) patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) irrespective of the allergic manifestations and skewed Th1/Th2 cytokine activation towards a preferentially Th2 polarization. Epitope mapping identified an immunodominant epitope of 18 residues with 78% identity and 89% similarity with an IgE-immunoreactive Strongyloides stercoralis antigen. Overall these findings suggest that EgEF-1 β/δ is an allergenic molecule that may be a general marker of the intensity of CE immune response and that could lead to a deeper understanding of the specific antigen-induced mechanisms underlying allergic reactions in the human host. PMID:11472433

  6. Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

    PubMed

    Turner, P J; Baumert, J L; Beyer, K; Boyle, R J; Chan, C-H; Clark, A T; Crevel, R W R; DunnGalvin, A; Fernández-Rivas, M; Gowland, M H; Grabenhenrich, L; Hardy, S; Houben, G F; O'B Hourihane, J; Muraro, A; Poulsen, L K; Pyrz, K; Remington, B C; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Mills, E N C; Roberts, G; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2016-09-01

    Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions. PMID:27138061

  7. The association between maternal psychological stress and inflammatory cytokines in allergic young children

    PubMed Central

    Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Anan, Ayumi; Shibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children. Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months) who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS) for perceived stress. Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant. Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children. PMID:26819847

  8. Tap water nasal irrigation in adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Min; Fu, Xiaoyan; Deng, Wenting; Lai, Huangwen; Yang, Chuanhong

    2014-06-01

    Saline nasal irrigation is effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and sodium chloride itself has no antiallergic effects. The mechanism of saline nasal irrigation depends mainly on washing away allergens and inflammatory mediators induced by allergic reactions. Tap water has the same washing effects as saline. In this study, it was investigated if tap water nasal irrigation was effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with seasonal allergic rhinitis were enrolled. Patients were randomized to tap water nasal irrigation group and non-tap water nasal irrigation group for treatment. Patients of both groups were treated with desloratadine. Treatment outcomes were measured using allergic rhinitis Quality of Life (QoL) survey was completed at baseline and after 3 weeks of therapy. There were statistically significant differences in QoL scores between tap water nasal irrigation group and non-tap water nasal irrigation group. The tap water nasal irrigation group had better QoL scores than the non-tap water nasal irrigation group. Tap water nasal irrigation can be a valuable adjuvant therapy for patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. PMID:24091560

  9. [Clinical course and characteristics of cellular and humoral immunity in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Sakevych, V D; Kutsenko, N L; Mykytiuk, M V; Kaĭdashev, I P

    2014-01-01

    In research the condition cellular and humoral immunity is defined at allergic rhinitis--AR (n = 45) for an estimation of mechanisms pathogeny this disease. The AR in 76% of cases has the hereditary nature mainly from outside mothers (36%), begins more often at children's and teenage age (88%) and in 44% is accompanied by other allergic pathology. In structure of a sensibilization of patients the allergic rhinitis the basic place is occupied with pollen, household, fungoid and epidermal allergens, allergic reaction (83% of cases) thus prevailed. As a result of the spent researches rising of relative quantity CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells is taped, at the same time rising of an average level of the general IgE--(198,20 +/- 11,42) IU/ml is noted. In cytokine regulations at patients an allergic rhinitis rising IL-4 and depression IL-10 is noted. Thus, the conducted research suggests that an allergic rhinitis--disease with involving in process of regulation of the immune answer of certain type regulatory T of cells. PMID:24908954

  10. Google unveils a glimpse of allergic rhinitis in the real world.

    PubMed

    Kang, M-G; Song, W-J; Choi, S; Kim, H; Ha, H; Kim, S-H; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Yoon, S; Chang, Y-S

    2015-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) is a Web-based surveillance tool used to explore the searching trends of specific queries on Google. Recent studies have suggested the utility of GT in predicting outbreaks of influenza and other diseases. However, this utility has not been thoroughly evaluated for allergic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the utility of GT for predicting the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. In the USA, GT for allergic rhinitis showed repetitive seasonality that peaked in late April and early May and then rapidly decreased, and a second small peak occurred in September. These trends are highly correlated with the searching trends for other queries such as 'pollen count', antihistamines such as loratadine and cetirizine (all r > 0.88 and all P < 0.001), and even the total pollen count collected from 21 pollen counters across the USA (r = 0.928, P < 0.001). Google Trends for allergic rhinitis was similar to the monthly changes in rhinitis symptoms according to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, sales for Claritin(®) and all over-the-counter antihistamines, and the number of monthly page views of 'claritin.com'. In conclusion, GT closely reflects the real-world epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in the USA and could potentially be used as a monitoring tool for allergic rhinitis. PMID:25280183

  11. Obesity is a risk factor for allergic rhinitis in children of Wuhan (China)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huang; Zhen, Long

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and allergic diseases in children of China is unclear. Objective To analysis the relationship between obesity and overweight and the prevalence of allergic diseases and the impact of gender. Methods Questionnaire based on those used in National Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood in China. The study included 3,327 participants (23.7% aged 2–6 years, 65.8% aged 7–12 years, 10.5% aged 13–14 years) in Wuhan City. Allergic diseases were determined by physicians. Results Overweight was found in 35.68% of participants (8.96% of 2–6 years old, 32.83% of 7–12 years old, and 48.57% of 13–14 years old), obesity in 12.53% (4.18%, 12.01%, and 4.29%, respectively). Obesity (odds ratio [OR], 1.33) increased the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Obesity (OR, 1.48) affected the incidence of allergic rhinitis in girls. There was no relationship between body mass index (BMI) and asthma in child from Wuhan City. Obesity and overweight did not affect the frequency of asthma, food allergy, and drug allergy. Conclusion Obesity increased the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in child. Higher BMI was no relationship with the prevalence of asthma, food allergy, and drug allergy. PMID:27141483

  12. Vehicular Exhaust Particles Promote Allergic Airway Inflammation via an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Notch Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mingcan; Viera-Hutchins, Loida; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Rivas, Magali Noval; Wise, Petra; MGhee, Sean A.; Chatila, Zena K.; Daher, Nancy; Sioutas, Constantinos; Chatila, Talal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) has been linked to heightened incidence of asthma and allergic diseases. However, molecular mechanisms by which PM exposure promote allergic diseases remain elusive. Objective We sought to determine the expression, function and regulation of pathways involved in the promotion by PM of allergic airway inflammation. Methods We employed gene expression transcriptional profiling, in vitro culture assays, and vivo murine models of allergic airway inflammation. Results We identified genes of the Notch pathway, most notably Jagged 1 (Jag1), as targets of PM induction in human monocytes and murine dendritic cells (DCs). PM, especially ultrafine particles (UFP), upregulated T helper cytokine, IgE production and allergic airway inflammation in mice in a Jag1 and Notch-dependent manner especially in the context of the pro-asthmatic IL-4 receptor allele Il4raR576. PM-induced Jag1 expression was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which bound to and activated AhR response elements in the Jag1 promoter. Pharmacological antagonism of AhR or its lineage-specific deletion in CD11c+ cells abrogated the augmentation of airway inflammation by PM. Conclusion PM activate an AhR-Jag1-Notch cascade to promote allergic airway inflammation in concert with pro-asthmatic alleles. PMID:25825216

  13. A 9-year Trend in the Prevalence of Allergic Disease Based on National Health Insurance Data

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byoungin; Park, Yoonhyung; Park, Kwanjun; Kim, Hoseob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate trends in the prevalence of allergic disease over a 9-year period. Methods: Using National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data, the annual number of patients with allergic disease was obtained for each regional subdivisions (small cities, counties, and districts) from 2003 to 2011. Annual populations for each sub-region were obtained and used to calculate the standardized prevalence. To compare prevalence within the study period, data was standardized spatially and temporally. For standardization, demographic data was used to obtain the registered population and demographic structure for 2010, which was used to perform direct standardization of previous years. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to visualize prevalence for individual sub-regions, and allergic diseases were categorized into five groups according to prevalence. Results: The nationwide outpatient prevalence of allergic rhinitis increased approximately 2.3-fold, from 1.27% in 2003 to 2.97% in 2013, while inpatient prevalence also increased approximately 2.4-fold,. The outpatient prevalence of asthma increased 1.2-fold, and inpatient prevalence increased 1.3-fold. The outpatient prevalence of atopic dermatitis decreased approximately 12%, and inpatient prevalence decreased 5%. Conclusions: There was a large difference between prevalence estimated from actual treatment data and prevalence based on patients’ self-reported data, particularly for allergic rhinitis. Prevalence must continually be calculated and trends should be analyzed for the efficient management of allergic diseases. To this end, prevalence studies using NHIS claims data may be useful. PMID:26639744

  14. Specific immunotherapy in combination with Clostridium butyricum inhibits allergic inflammation in the mouse intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanhong; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Peng, Kangsheng; Wu, Wei; Wu, Ruijin; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Gui; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhanju; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The current therapy on allergic inflammation is unsatisfactory. Probiotics improve the immunity in the body. This study aims to test a hypothesis that administration with Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) enforces the effect of specific immunotherapy (SIT) on intestinal allergic inflammation. In this study, an ovalbumin (OVA) specific allergic inflammation mouse model was created. The mice were treated with SIT or/and C. butyricum. The results showed that the intestinal allergic inflammation was only moderately alleviated by SIT, which was significantly enforced by a combination with C. butyricum; treating with C. butyricum alone did not show much inhibitory efficacy. The increase in the frequency of the interleukin (IL)-10-producing OVA-specific B cell (OVAsBC) was observed in mice in parallel to the inhibitory effect on the intestinal allergic inflammation. The in vitro treatment of the OVAsBCs with OVA increased the histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1) phosphorylation, modulated the transcription of the Bcl6 gene, and triggered the OVAsBCs to differentiate to the IgE-producing plasma cells. Exposure to both OVA and butyrate sodium in the culture increased the expression of IL-10 in OVAsBCs. In conclusion, administration with C. butyricum enforces the inhibitory effect of SIT on allergic inflammation in the mouse intestine. PMID:26627845

  15. Epidermal Neuromedin U Attenuates IgE-Mediated Allergic Skin Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mizukawa, Yoshiko; Doi, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Kudo, Akihiko; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although keratinocyte-derived neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) mediates the proinflammatory effects of innate-type mast cell activation, no information is available on the physiological roles. Here, to investigate the effects of NMU on IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation, we determined whether IgE-mediated inflammation associated with severe scratching was induced in Nmu-/- mice administered repeated hapten applications to the ear or footpad. Dry skin was induced by targeted deletion of Nmu. Mice administered repeated hapten application developed IgE-mediated allergic inflammation characterized by severe scratching and increased serum IgE levels only when the ear, and not the footpad, was subjected to scratching, indicating that depletion of NMU from the epidermis alone does not drive such allergic inflammation. Thus, the susceptibility of Nmu-/- mice to allergic inflammation depends primarily on scratching dry skin. Further, allergic skin inflammation mediated by FcεRI cross-linking in Nmu-/-mice was inhibited by prior injection of NMU. These results indicate that NMU plays an important physiological role as a negative regulator during the late stage of IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation. PMID:27463114

  16. Oral mucosal immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Suurna, Maria V.; Rochlin, Kate; Bremberg, Maria G.; Tropper, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sublingual mucosa has been used for many years to apply allergenic extracts for the purpose of specific immunotherapy (IT). Although sublingual IT (SLIT) is both safe and efficacious, the density of antigen-presenting cells is higher in other regions of the oral cavity and vestibule, which make them a potentially desirable target for IT. Objective: To present the concept of oral mucosal IT (OMIT) and to provide pilot data for this extended application of SLIT. Methods: An open-label, 12-month, prospective study was undertaken as a preliminary step before a full-scale clinical investigation. Twenty-four individuals with allergic rhinitis received IT by applying allergenic extracts daily to either the oral vestibule plus oral cavity mucosa by using a glycerin-based toothpaste or to the sublingual mucosa by using 50% glycerin liquid drops. Adverse events, adherence rates, total combined scores, rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire scores, changes in skin reactivity, and changes in serum antibody levels were measured for each participant. Results: No severe adverse events occurred in either group. The adherence rate was 80% for the OMIT group and 62% for the SLIT group (p = 0.61). Decreased total combined scores were demonstrated for both the OMIT group (15.6%) and the SLIT group (22.3%), although this decrease did not reach statistical significance in either group. Both groups achieved a meaningful clinical improvement of at least 0.5 points on rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire. A statistically significant rise in specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) was seen in both groups over the first 6 months of treatment. Conclusion: OMIT and SLIT demonstrated similar safety profiles and adherence rates. Measurements of clinical efficacy improved for both groups, but only changes in IgG4 achieved statistical significance. These pilot data provide enough evidence to proceed with a full-scale investigation to explore the role of OMIT in

  17. MP29-02 for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: a review of clinical pharmacology, efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Berger, William E

    2013-09-01

    This review presents the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety of MP29-02 (Dymista®), a unique product for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is often thought of more as a nuisance than a meaningful medical condition, and the health impact of allergic rhinitis can easily be underestimated. As a result, allergic rhinitis can be undertreated, expectations for relief may not be met, and patients may be left dissatisfied and non-compliant with their medications. MP29-02 is the only currently available allergic rhinitis medication to provide potent early-phase histamine-receptor blocking and long-term anti-inflammatory effects in a single intranasal formulation and delivery system that represents an advance in the therapy of allergic rhinitis, in particular for patients with moderate-to-severe disease. PMID:24070043

  18. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre

  19. Systems Biology of Asthma and Allergic Diseases: A Multiscale Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Schadt, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to understanding living systems that focuses on modeling diverse types of high-dimensional interactions to develop a more comprehensive understanding of complex phenotypes manifested by the system. High throughput molecular, cellular, and physiologic profiling of populations is coupled with bioinformatic and computational techniques to identify new functional roles for genes, regulatory elements, and metabolites in the context of the molecular networks that define biological processes associated with system physiology. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of asthma and allergic diseases, a systems biology approach is attractive, as it has the potential to model the myriad connections and interdependencies between genetic predisposition, environmental perturbations, regulatory intermediaries, and molecular sequelae that ultimately lead to diverse disease phenotypes and treatment responses across individuals. The increasing availability of high-throughput technologies has enabled system-wide profiling of the genome, transcriptome, epigenome, microbiome, and metabolome, providing fodder for systems biology approaches to examine asthma and allergy at a more holistic level. In this article, we review the technologies and approaches for system-wide profiling as well as their more recent applications to asthma and allergy. We discuss approaches for integrating multiscale data through network analyses and provide perspective on how individually-captured health profiles will contribute to more accurate systems biology views of asthma and allergy. PMID:25468194

  20. Immunomodulation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by cinnamon metabolite sodium benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Pahan, Kalipada

    2011-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common human demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in children, is a widely used food additive, which is long known for its microbicidal effect. However, recent studies reveal that apart from its microbicidal effects, NaB can also regulate many immune signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, glial cell activation, switching of T-helper cells, modulation of regulatory T cells, cell-to-cell contact, and migration. As a result, NaB alters the neuroimmunology of EAE and ameliorates the disease process of EAE. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze these newly-discovered immunomodulatory activities of NaB and associated mechanisms that may help in considering this drug for various inflammatory human disorders including MS as primary or adjunct therapy. PMID:21425926