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Sample records for allergic conjunctivitis sac

  1. Allergic conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    Conjunctivitis - allergic seasonal/perennial; Atopic keratoconjunctivitis; Pink eye - allergic ... bumps on the inside of the eyelids (papillary conjunctivitis) Positive skin test for suspected allergens on allergy ...

  2. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... conjunctivitis is not contagious.Some common allergens include:Pollen fromtrees, grass and ragweedAnimal skin andsecretions such as ... symptoms. For example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold ...

  3. Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex H C; Barg, Stefani S N; Leung, Alexander K C

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are IgE-mediated, hypersensitivity conditions characterized by ocular pruritus, epiphora, and hyperemia. Proper diagnosis is usually made clinically based on history and physical examination. Diagnostic procedures are rarely necessary. Non-pharmacological measures, such as environmental modification and proper eye care, should be considered for all patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Pharmacological interventions may also be required. Milder cases can be treated with short-term topical ophthalmic therapy such as a decongestant/ antihistamine combination, a mast cell stabilizer, or a multi-action agent. Moderate to severe cases may require longer usage of the above agents and/or the addition of an oral antihistamine. Refractory cases may necessitate the use of topical ophthalmic corticosteroids and topical NSAIDs. Immunotherapy, whether via the subcutaneous route or the intranasal route, should be considered in the treatment of persistent severe cases refractory to conventional treatment. Despite all the available therapeutic agents, there continues to be a constant need to discover more effective ways to treat seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. This article also discusses recent patents related to the field.

  4. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  5. [Azelastine in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Vakhabova, N T; Bakhritdinova, F A

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of azelastin (eye drops) in allergic conjunctivitis was evaluated. Ophthalmological, specific allergological, bacteriological, and cytological studies were carried out in 3 groups of patients. Group 1 was treated with claritin (orally), group 2 with azelastin (eye drops), and group 3 with both. The treatment was effective in all 3 groups. Regression of the clinical symptoms started earlier in groups 2 and 3 and was observed throughout the entire period of observation.

  6. Consensus document on allergic conjunctivitis (DECA).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, M C; Montero, J; Rondon, C; Benitez del Castillo, J M; Velázquez, E; Herreras, J M; Fernández-Parra, B; Merayo-Lloves, J; Del Cuvillo, A; Vega, F; Valero, A; Panizo, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, M L; González, R; Dordal, M T; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A

    2015-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammatory disease of the conjunctiva caused mainly by an IgE-mediated mechanism. It is the most common type of ocular allergy. Despite being the most benign form of conjunctivitis, AC has a considerable effect on patient quality of life, reduces work productivity, and increases health care costs. No consensus has been reached on its classification, diagnosis, or treatment. Consequently, the literature provides little information on its natural history, epidemiological data are scarce, and it is often difficult to ascertain its true morbidity. The main objective of the Consensus Document on Allergic Conjunctivitis (Documento dE Consenso sobre Conjuntivitis Alérgica [DECA]), which was drafted by an expert panel from the Spanish Society of Allergology and Spanish Society of Ophthalmology, was to reach agreement on basic criteria that could prove useful for both specialists and primary care physicians and facilitate the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of AC. This document is the first of its kind to describe and analyze aspects of AC that could make it possible to control symptoms.

  7. [Allergodil eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2002-07-01

    The authors describe a group of 20 patients with symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis where for a period of 2-6 weeks twice a day into the conjunctival sac of both eyes Allergidol gtt, ophth., ASTA Medica AG FRG was administered. As to subjective sensations the authors evaluated itching, burning, the sensation of a foreign body and lacrimation, as to objective signs oedema of the eyelids, hyperaemia of the conjunctiva and papillary hypertrophy. The authors evaluated also the rate of onset of the effect, its duration and tolerance of the preparation. Subjective symptoms disappeared in 90% patients, hyperaemia of the conjunctivae and papillary hypertrophy receded in 12 patients (60%), in 8 (40%) they disappeared. Regression of subjective complaints occurred in all patients within 20 minutes, the duration of the effect was within the range of 11-13 hours in 18 patients (90%), 6-8 hours in two patients (10%). As to undesirable effects one female patient reported after administration of the eye drops a bitter sensation in the mouth, another one a burning sensation. Evidence was provided that the local H1 antihistaminic Allergodil gtt is effective in monotherapy in mild forms of allergic conjunctivitis.

  8. Allergic conjunctivitis: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. PMID:23497516

  9. Involvement of chymase in allergic conjunctivitis of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nabe, Takeshi; Kijitani, Yurie; Kitagawa, Yuriko; Sakano, Emi; Ueno, Tomoko; Fujii, Masanori; Nakao, Shintaro; Sakai, Masaru; Takai, Shinji

    2013-08-01

    It has been reported that chymase activity was increased in allergic conjunctivitis patients and this activity was correlated with the severity of the disease. However, the precise roles of chymase in allergic conjunctivitis are unclear, and whether chymase inhibitors are effective for allergic conjunctivitis has not been reported even in experimental animal models. In this study, the roles of chymase in the pathogenesis were evaluated using a selective chymase inhibitor, ONO-WH-236, in a guinea pig model of allergic conjunctivitis induced by cedar pollen. Sensitized guinea pigs were challenged by the pollen, followed by assessing redness and edema in the conjuntiva, and counting the frequency of eye scratching as an itch-associated response. Treatment with the ONO-WH-236 (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the induction of redness, edema and scratching behavior. An anti-histaminic drug, ketotifen (3 mg/kg, p.o.), also significantly inhibited conjunctivitis symptoms. Chymase activity was increased in ophthalmic lavage fluid immediately after the pollen challenge. The increase in chymase activity was inhibited by in vivo treatment with ONO-WH-236. Interestingly, increased histamine in the ophthalmic lavage fluid immediately after the challenge was also inhibited by the chymase inhibitor. Administration of human recombinant chymase by eye dropping (0.09 and 0.9 μg/eye) dose-dependently induced scratching behavior, which was inhibited by not only ONO-WH-236 but also ketotifen; however, chymase administration induced only weak redness in the conjunctiva, which was resistant to treatment with anti-histaminic drugs. In conclusion, it was suggested that chymase was released from mast cells after antigen challenge, followed by the induction of conjunctivitis symptoms through histamine release from mast cells. Thus, chymase could be a potential target for pharmacotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

  10. Emedastine and allergic conjunctivitis: new preparation. Poor assessment.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    (1) There is no clearly established reference eye-drop preparation for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Steroid eye drops must be avoided. Virtually the only criterion on which to base the choice among the other antiallergic eye drops is the type and presence of preservatives, as these must be avoided by the small number of patients who are allergic to them. (2) In our opinion the clinical file on the 0.05% emedastine eye drops now available in France fails to answer many practical questions, as it almost solely comprises single-dose clinical pharmacology studies. (3) A trial involving 221 patients with allergic conjunctivitis, during a period of pollination, showed no tangible difference in efficacy between 0.05% emedastine and 0.05% levocabastine eye drops after 6 weeks of treatment. (4) The main adverse effects observed in clinical trials were local, consisting of eye redness, dryness and discomfort. When taken orally, emedastine is known to prolong the QT interval, and it is difficult to determine the precise cardiac risk during ocular administration. (5) 0.05% emedastine eye drops change nothing in the management of allergic conjunctivitis.

  11. [Efficacy of nedocromil sodium in perennial allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Pacor, M L; Biasi, D; Carletto, A; Corrocher, R; Lunardi, C

    1998-10-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of nedocromil sodium 2% eye drops in 35 patients (18 males and 17 females, mean age 32.8 yrs) suffering from perennial allergic conjunctivitis due to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus diagnosed on the basis of anamnesis, Skin Prick Test and RAST. Patients were treated for 8 weeks with nedocromil sodium one drop each eye, four times daily and had to report the severity of the symptoms considered (photophobia, lacrimation, hyperaemia and itching) on a daily card. During the study no other medication was allowed. After 4 weeks symptoms were statistically improved and this beneficial effect increased at the end of the treatment. No side effects were reported. Nedocromil sodium eye drops is therefore a useful treatment in perennial allergic conjunctivitis due to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

  12. Therapeutic Targeting of Eosinophil Adhesion and Accumulation in Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Baiula, Monica; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules. Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target. Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs. This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:23271999

  13. [Therapy of chronic allergic conjunctivitis with sodium cromoglycate (lecrolin)].

    PubMed

    Polunin, G S; Makarov, I A

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of lecrolin (2% sodium cromoglycate) eye drops was assessed in 22 patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Positive effect was attained in all the patients on day 4.0 +/- 1.2. Signs of the disease exacerbation completely disappeared in 68% of patients in 8.3 +/- 2.4 days. No side effects of any type were observed for a month of using lecrolin eye drops.

  14. Efficacy of topical application of 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Ajit Kumar; Singh, Prodip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis is commonly observed eye diseases in Sikkim, India due to the abundance of seasonal pollens, environmental pollutants, and house dust. We evaluated the efficacy of topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of simple allergic conjunctivitis. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was designed consisting of 41 patients with refractory simple allergic conjunctivitis, whose condition responded very poorly to conventional anti-allergic eye drops (azelastine, olopatadine, chlorpheniramine maleate, sodium chromoglycate). Simple allergic conjunctivitis cases were diagnosed and followed up evaluating both subjective and objective findings (itching, photophobia, tearing, chemosis, conjunctival congestion, tarsal papilla, and eyelid edema). Existing ocular treatment was discontinued at enrolment and 0.03% tacrolimus ointment was applied into the conjunctival sac of the affected eyes twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 2 weeks washout period. Patients were followed up at the end of 1st week, 4th week, and at 7th week (2 weeks washout period). Results: Symptoms of simple allergic conjunctivitis (itching, tearing and photophobia) were significantly reduced at the end of 1st week. Signs such as conjunctival chemosis, congestion, tarsal papillae, and eyelid edema were effectively treated in all cases at the end of 1st week. At the end of 4th week, all cases were fully cured and none of the patient had any recurrences up to 7th week. Mean score at 1st day (9.6 ± 3.27) was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by 7th day (1.35 ± 1.19) of treatment. Conclusion: Topical application of tacrolimus ointment is an excellent alternative to anti-allergic and steroids eye drops for the treatment of simple allergic conjunctivitis as it significantly reduces recurrences. PMID:26604594

  15. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Ozod; Petzold, Ursula; Haase, Hans; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Ellers-Lenz, Barbara; Hermann, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) is a selective H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits histamine release and interferes with activation of other mediators of allergic inflammation. The present double-blind study aimed to evaluate azelastine eye drops (Allergodil) in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis compared to placebo. A total of 116 patients with an ocular symptoms score for itching and conjunctival redness > or = 3 (0-6 scale) were randomized to twice-daily 0.05% azelastine eye drops treatment (n = 58) or placebo. Patients maintained daily logs and were clinically evaluated after 7, 21 and 42 days of treatment. Azelastine significantly improved itching and conjunctival redness versus placebo (p < 0.001). Tolerability was rated good or better by 97% of patients with only bitter taste and application site reaction notable adverse experiences. On Day 7, ocular symptoms score improved by 1.5 +/- 0.9 (versus 0.5 +/- 0.8 placebo) with score improvement > or = 2 in 55% with azelastine (versus 14% placebo). Itching and redness further improved at Day 42 (score improvement > or = 2 in 95% with azelastine versus 33% placebo) and completely resolved for 47% azelastine patients (versus 10% placebo). Daily patient logs confirmed the clinically assessed scores. Topical azelastine progressively improved itching and conjunctival redness in patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Continued improvement with prolonged use is consistent with mechanisms other than H1-receptor blockade, such as possible down regulation of adhesion molecule receptors.

  16. Expression of TSLP and Downstream Molecules IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 on the Eye Surface of Patients with Various Types of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis has not been clearly established. Moreover, previous studies fail to consider human models of allergic conjunctivitis. This study investigated the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoiet in TSLP and its downstream molecules in conjunctival scrappings and tear. Methods. This cross-sectional study compares patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) with normal controls. There are 80 people recorded in Shanxi Eye Hospital. Increasingly, 20 are with VKC, 20 are with SAC, 20 are with PAC, and the remaining 20 are normal controls. Conjunctiva were harvested for total RNA extraction and gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells were collected to make pathological sections for immunohistochemical staining. Human tears were evaluated by Luminex microbead assay. A P value less than 0.05 from Dunnett's post hoc test in SPSS means a statistical significant distinction. Results. Positive expression in conjunctival cells of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. The expression of TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA shows a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 concentrations show a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study suggests that TSLP and downstream molecules are expressed in patients with various types of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27504196

  17. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  18. Conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Susana A; Fawley, Jonie D; Alexa Lu, Xiaoqin

    2015-09-01

    Conjunctivitis is the most common cause of red eye in primary care. The 3 most common types of conjunctivitis are viral, allergic, and bacterial, and they can present in either acute or chronic forms; the age of the patient, time of year and physical examination findings are paramount to distinguish the different types of conjunctivitis. Distinguishing between acute viral and bacterial conjunctivitis remains difficult. Patients with prolonged symptoms, poor response to initial management, or evidence of severe disease should be referred to ophthalmology for consultation.

  19. The anatomical and functional relationship between allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bielory, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous anatomic connections between the allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis. The most obvious reason is the physical connection via the nasolacrimal apparatus. However, a closer look at innervation, circulatory, lymphatic, and neurogenic systems reveals much more than a physical connection. The eye is richly innervated by parasympathetic nerves that enter the eyes after traveling in conjunction with the parasympathetic input to the nasal cavity. Parasympathetic innervation governing the tear film and nasal secretion can intersect at the pterygopalatine ganglion. Neurogenic inflammation affects both the eye and the nose as evidenced by the presence of the same neurogenic factors. Venous flow is in the SOV area connecting the eye and the nose, once thought to be without valves. In the past, this thinking is the basis for concern about the danger triangle of the face. Recent literature has shown otherwise. Although valves are present, there are still pathways where bidirectional flow exists and a venous connection is made. The most likely area for venous communication is the pterygoid plexus and cavernous sinus. The venous flow and connections also offers a pathway for allergic shiners. Understanding the mutual connections between the nasal mucosa and the ocular surface can also affect treatment strategies. PMID:24498515

  20. The anatomical and functional relationship between allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Hom, Milton M; Bielory, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous anatomic connections between the allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis. The most obvious reason is the physical connection via the nasolacrimal apparatus. However, a closer look at innervation, circulatory, lymphatic, and neurogenic systems reveals much more than a physical connection. The eye is richly innervated by parasympathetic nerves that enter the eyes after traveling in conjunction with the parasympathetic input to the nasal cavity. Parasympathetic innervation governing the tear film and nasal secretion can intersect at the pterygopalatine ganglion. Neurogenic inflammation affects both the eye and the nose as evidenced by the presence of the same neurogenic factors. Venous flow is in the SOV area connecting the eye and the nose, once thought to be without valves. In the past, this thinking is the basis for concern about the danger triangle of the face. Recent literature has shown otherwise. Although valves are present, there are still pathways where bidirectional flow exists and a venous connection is made. The most likely area for venous communication is the pterygoid plexus and cavernous sinus. The venous flow and connections also offers a pathway for allergic shiners. Understanding the mutual connections between the nasal mucosa and the ocular surface can also affect treatment strategies.

  1. Efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, M; McKenzie, S H; Steven, I; Cooper, C; Lanz, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ketotifen blocks histamine H1 receptors, stabilises mast cells, and prevents eosinophil accumulation. These multiple, pharmacological mechanisms provided the rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of ketotifen 0.025% eye drops in subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) in an environmental setting. Methods: This was a double masked, randomised, multicentre trial conducted in Australia. Subjects were randomly assigned to ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution, placebo (as vehicle), or levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic suspension, twice daily in each eye for a 4 week period. Subjects were assessed at follow up (days 5–8) and termination (days 25–31) visits. The primary efficacy variable was the responder rate, based on the subjects’ assessment of global efficacy at the follow up visit. Results: 519 subjects were randomised to treatment. At the follow up visit, the responder rate, based on subjects’ assessment of global efficacy, was significantly greater in the ketotifen group (49.5%) than in the placebo group (33.0%) for subjects with a positive diagnostic test for pollen allergy (p = 0.02). The investigators’ assessment of responder rates also showed that ketotifen was superior to placebo (p = 0.001). Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than levocabastine (p<0.05) for relief of signs and symptoms of SAC, at both the follow up and the termination visit. The type and frequency of adverse events were similar across treatment groups. Conclusions: In an environmental setting, ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of SAC, and in preventing their recurrence. Ketotifen consistently showed the best efficacy in comparison with both placebo and levocabastine. These results indicate that ketotifen eye drops are a valuable treatment option for this condition. PMID:14507747

  2. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junmi; Tanaka, Hideo; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Nomura, Eiichi; Ito, Norihiko; Nomura, Naoko; Yamane, Masayuki; Hida, Tomonobu; Goshima, Yoshio; Hatano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A) in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW) in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U) eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α) release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future. PMID:25709899

  3. Novel transglutaminase inhibitors reverse the inflammation of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Joonhong; Kim, Tae-Im; Yoon, Young-Hee; Kim, Joo-Yong; Kim, Soo-Youl

    2003-01-01

    Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce proteins that inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2), including uteroglobin and lipocortin-1 (annexin I). Uteroglobin and lipocortin-1 retain several conserved sequences. Based on these sequences, several nonapeptides (antiflammins) were synthesized. These nonapeptides were shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, possibly by inhibiting PLA2. Subsequent research showed that PLA2 is activated by transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2). We hypothesize here that TGase 2 inhibitors may increase the anti-inflammatory efficacy of inhibiting PLA2 activity. To test this theory, we constructed recombinant peptides containing sequences from pro-elafin (for inhibition of TGase 2), and from lipocortin-1, lipocortin-5, and uteroglobin (for inhibition of PLA2). The recombinant peptides, which had dual inhibitory effects on purified TGase 2 and PLA2, reversed the inflammation of allergic conjunctivitis to ragweed in a guinea pig model. The present work suggests that novel recombinant peptides may be safe and effective agents for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:12511595

  4. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  5. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients' quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  6. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  7. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Uchio, Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution significantly suppressed ocular itching and hyperemia compared with levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic solution, and the number of patients who complained of ocular discomfort was lower in the olopatadine group than in the levocabastine group. Conjunctival cell membrane disruption was observed in vitro in the ketotifen fumarate group, epinastine hydrochloride group, and azelastine hydrochloride group, but not in the olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution group, which may potentially explain the lower discomfort felt by patients on instillation. Many other studies in humans have revealed the superiority of olopatadine 0.1% hydrochloride eye drops to several other anti-allergic eye drops. Overseas, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% ophthalmic solution for a once-daily regimen has been marketed under the brand name of Pataday®. It is expected that olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with a more severe spectrum of allergic conjunctival diseases, such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis or atopic keratoconjunctivitis, in the near future. PMID:19668750

  8. Specific IgG for cat allergens in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Miyama, Anri; Mimura, Tatsuya; Noma, Hidetaka; Goto, Mari; Kamei, Yuko; Kondo, Aki; Saito, Yusuke; Okuma, Hiroko; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are involved in type II and type III hypersensitivity. We evaluated the relation between perennial allergic conjunctivitis and serum levels of specific IgG for cat allergens. A prospective study was conducted in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (seasonal group, n = 10), patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (perennial group, n = 10), and healthy control subjects (control group, n = 10). Serum levels of specific IgE and IgG for cat allergens and total tear IgE were measured, and a skin prick test was also performed. In addition, a severity score associated with allergic conjunctivitis was calculated (0-30). The positive rates and scores of for total tear IgE, serum cat-specific IgE, and serum cat-specific IgG were all higher in the seasonal and perennial groups than in the control group (all p < 0.05). Serum cat-specific IgG levels were higher in the perennial group than in the seasonal group (p = 0.0156), but there was no significant difference in the grade of cat-specific IgE between the two groups (p = 0.3008). On multivariate analysis, the mean wheal diameter for cat allergen was associated with the serum level of cat-specific IgG (not IgE) in all patients [odds ratio (OR) = 31.979, p < 0.0001]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total objective score was strongly associated with serum cat-specific IgG (OR = 23.015, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that specific IgG antibodies may be involved in perennial allergic symptoms caused by indoor allergens such as cat allergens.

  9. Ocular itch associated with allergic conjunctivitis: latest evidence and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Stacey; Smith, Lisa M.; Gomes, Paulo J.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is one of the most common allergic conditions worldwide. Its incidence is increasing due to changing climate, pollution, increased pollen loads, and the subject’s heightened immunological sensitivity in response to these environmental changes. The pathophysiology predominantly involves immunoglobulin E-related mast-cell activation, with release of histamine and other mediators contributing to the propagation of the response by calling in other immune cells and further inflammation. This article presents the evolution of ocular allergy treatments, from vasoconstrictors, to antihistamines and mast-cell stabilizers, to the dual-acting agents, as well as corticosteroid and immunomodulatory options. Future targets for allergy treatment are also discussed. PMID:26770669

  10. Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) A A A ... are common with allergic conjunctivitis. How Long Is Conjunctivitis Contagious? Conjunctivitis that's caused by bacteria is contagious ...

  11. Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Print A A ... are common with allergic conjunctivitis. How Long Is Conjunctivitis Contagious? Conjunctivitis that's caused by bacteria is contagious ...

  12. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Chigbu, DeGaulle I; Coyne, Alissa M

    2015-01-01

    Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:26185412

  13. Doxycycline exerts multiple anti-allergy effects to attenuate murine allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenru; Wan, Qian; Han, Longhui; Huang, Jingwen; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Song Guo; Liang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Allergic diseases, which affect up to 20-30% of the world population, are still therapeutic challenge for allergists. Tetracyclines, which belong to an antibiotic drug family that possesses a striking variety of non-antibiotic properties, have been successfully applied to a wide range of diseases. However, their roles in allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis and their underlying anti-allergy mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we reported that treatment with doxycycline significantly reduced IgE release from mouse B cells and the degranulation and inflammatory cytokines production of mouse mast cells (MCs) activated by IgE-dependent way. Furthermore, doxycycline treatment significantly inhibited histamine-induced vascular hyperpermeability in vitro. Mechanistically, the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of B cells, MCs and histamine may occur via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In vivo, our results demonstrated that treatment with doxycycline significantly attenuated clinical symptoms of mouse models of experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) with a significant decrease in inflammatory cell frequency, IgE production, histamine release, and a decrease in TNF-α and IL-4 production. Using mouse models of MCs-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA), we further confirmed anti-allergy effects of doxycycline and doxycycline-mediated inhibitory effects on MCs. Furthermore, our results showed that doxycycline significantly attenuate histamine-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction (HISA) with a significantly downregulation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VE-cadherin pathway. The doxycycline-mediated anti-allergy effects during EAC, PSA and HISA were abrogated when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. These findings suggest that doxycycline inhibits B cell, MC and histamine function and attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis by possible modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  14. Azelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patricia B; Crandall, Elizabeth; Sheppard, John D

    2010-01-01

    Over 50% of patients who seek treatment for allergies present with ocular symptoms. Our current ability to control ocular allergic symptoms is greater than ever before. Newer dual-acting topical eyedrops attack multiple facets of the allergic cascade. Azelastine has antihistaminic effects providing immediate relief, mast cell stabilization providing early-phase intervention, and inhibition of expression and activation of anti-inflammatory mediators which characterize the late phase of the immune reaction. The ophthalmic eyedrop formulation is approved for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children aged over 3 years. In clinical trials comparing azelastine with other dual-acting eyedrops, such as levocabastine and olopatadine, azelastine was reported to be slightly less efficacious and to sting briefly upon administration. Even so, many patients experienced the full benefit of symptom relief, and preferred azelastine. As a broad-spectrum drug, azelastine offers many desirable properties for management of ocular allergies. Because it can often produce maximal effect with just twice-daily dosing, azelastine is a particularly good choice for the allergic population in whom minimizing exposure to topical products and preservatives is a key concern. PMID:20856595

  15. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leino, M; Ennevaara, K; Latvala, A L; Nordgren, P; Posti, A M; Suves, R; Takalo, E

    1992-10-01

    A 4 week, multicentre, double-blind, double dummy, placebo controlled group comparative study was carried out during the birch pollen season to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops (twice daily) and 2% sodium cromoglycate eye drops (four times daily). Participants with a history of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) were randomized to receive nedocromil sodium (60), sodium cromoglycate (61) or placebo (64). Clinical assessment of SAC showed improvement with both active treatments compared to placebo but symptomatology was low and only changes in photophobia and grittiness reached significance (P < 0.05). Patient diaries showed significant control of itching by both active treatments, compared to placebo, with no differences between the active preparations. Patients' opinions indicated a marked placebo effect: 73% of this group reported full or moderate control of symptoms, compared with 75% in sodium cromoglycate and 80% in the nedocromil sodium group. Unusual symptoms were most common (27 patients) with nedocromil sodium eye drops: P < 0.05 vs. placebo (15 patients). There were no serious adverse events. Nedocromil sodium eye drops (b.d.) and sodium cromoglycate eye drops (q.i.d.) were both considered clinically more effective than placebo in controlling symptoms of SAC due to birch pollen.

  16. Effects of Exposure to Ozone on the Ocular Surface in an Experimental Model of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Tae-im

    2017-01-01

    Based on previous findings that ozone can induce an inflammatory response in the ocular surface of an animal model and in cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells, we investigated whether exposure to ozone exacerbates symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. We evaluated the effects of exposure to ozone on conjunctival chemosis, conjunctival injection, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, production of inflammatory cytokines in tears, and aqueous tear production in a mouse model of allergic conjunctivitis. To validate our in vivo results, we used interleukin (IL)-1α-pretreated conjunctival epithelial cells as an in vitro substitute for the mouse model. We evaluated whether exposure to ozone increased the inflammatory response and altered oxidative status and mitochondrial function in IL-1α-pretreated conjunctival epithelial cells. In the in vivo study, ozone induced increases in conjunctival chemosis, conjunctival injection, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, and production of inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by a decrease in tear volume. In the in vitro study, exposure to ozone led to additional increases in IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels, which were already induced by treatment with IL-1α. Ozone did not induce any changes in cell viability. Pretreatment with IL-1α increased the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase, and exposure to ozone led to additional increments in the expression of this antioxidant enzyme. Ozone did not induce any changes in mitochondrial activity or expression of mitochondrial enzymes and proteins related to mitochondrial function, with the exception of phosphor-mammalian target of rapamycin. Treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole, a free radical scavenger, attenuated the ozone-induced increases in IL-6 expression in IL-1α-pretreated conjunctival epithelial cells. Therefore, we conclude that exposure to ozone exacerbates the detrimental effects on the integrity of the ocular

  17. [Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditen) eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2004-09-01

    A group of 25 patients with signs of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis treated during the period of 2 to 6 month with ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops 2-3 times daily (Zaditen eye drops, Novartis Ophthalmic, AG, Switzerland) is described here. As subjective symptoms of itching, stinging, tearing, and mucous discharge were observed and evaluated, as well as objective signs of hyperemia of the conjunctiva and hypertrophy of the tarsal papillae. Similarly the onset of action, duration time, and toleration of the drug were assessed. Subjective symptoms disappeared after 10 days of treatment duration in 60% to 80% patients, after two months of treatment were present in the range 0% to 20%. Objective signs diminished after 10 days of treatment in 60%-72% patients, and after 2 months in 72% to 96% of patients. Hypertrophy of papillae of the tarsal conjunctiva did not totally disappear even after 6 month of treatment with ketotifen fumarate eye drops. Onset of action in all patients was 20 minutes or less, the duration of action was in the range of 8-13 hours. The drug was found as a good tolerable by all patients. Sixteen per cent of patients felt some burning following the instillation. The study states that ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops are effective in a monotherapy of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Due to its multiple action, the drug prevents the allergic reaction as well. Subjective symptoms are influenced faster and more effective than the objective signs. The treatment of objective signs needs prolonged use of these drops.

  18. Role of CCL7 in Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions in Murine Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chuan-Hui; Collins, Andrea M.; Boettner, Douglas R.; Yang, YanFen

    2017-01-01

    Molecules that are necessary for ocular hypersensitivity reactions include the receptors CCR1 and CCR3; CCL7 is a ligand for these receptors. Therefore, we explored the role of CCL7 in mast cell activity and motility in vitro and investigated the requirement for CCL7 in a murine model of IgE-mediated allergic conjunctivitis. For mast cells treated with IgE and Ag, the presence of CCL7 synergistically enhanced degranulation and calcium influx. CCL7 also induced chemotaxis in mast cells. CCL7-deficient bone marrow–derived mast cells showed decreased degranulation following IgE and Ag treatment compared with wild-type bone marrow–derived mast cells, but there was no difference in degranulation when cells were activated via an IgE-independent pathway. In vivo, CCL7 was upregulated in conjunctival tissue during an OVA-induced allergic response. Notably, the early-phase clinical symptoms in the conjunctiva after OVA challenge were significantly higher in OVA-sensitized wild-type mice than in control challenged wild-type mice; the increase was suppressed in CCL7-deficient mice. In the OVA-induced allergic response, the numbers of conjunctival mast cells were lower in CCL7-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that CCL7 is required for maximal OVA-induced ocular anaphylaxis, mast cell recruitment in vivo, and maximal FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation in vitro. A better understanding of the role of CCL7 in mediating ocular hypersensitivity reactions will provide insights into mast cell function and novel treatments for allergic ocular diseases. PMID:27956527

  19. Antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes in murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Abokyi, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Kyei, Samuel; Asiamah, Emmanuel A.; Atobiga, Clement Nsobire; Awuah, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes (ALPS) in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Materials and Methods: Prior to topical challenge (instillation of 1.5 mg OVA in 10 μL phosphate buffered saline into their conjunctival sacs) to induce AC, groups of sensitized Imprinting Control Region mice (injected IP, on day 1 and 7, with 0.2 ml solution of 100 μg OVA and 0.01 mg aluminum hydroxide in phosphate buffered saline), were treated with 5 mg/kg cetirizine, 10, 50 or 100 mg/kg of ALPS, or 2 ml/kg normal saline per os. Conjunctival redness, lid edema, tearing and lid scratching (clinical symptoms of AC) were scored. Serum OVA specific immunoglobulins were determined using ELISA. Histopathological assessment of the conjunctival mucosal tissue was conducted. The extract was screened for secondary plant metabolites. Results: Pretreatment with the extract significantly (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) and dose-dependently reduced the scores for clinical symptoms, which were marked in vehicle-pretreated mice. Pretreatment also lowered (P ≤ 0.01–0.001) serum OVA specific immunoglobulins. Mast cell infiltration and degranulation in conjunctival stroma (measured by an inflammatory score) in histopathological studies was also significantly low (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) on pretreatment. Conclusion: The ALPS exhibited interesting antiallergic activity and hence could be useful in managing AC. PMID:25276062

  20. Topical treatments for seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G; Shah, Anupa; Henshaw, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; Sheikh, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Background: Evidence for the effectiveness of topical treatments, in providing symptomatic relief from ocular allergy, remains uncertain. Aims: To assess the effectiveness and relative efficacy of topical treatments for the management of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Design of study: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting: A literature search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, and EMBASE bibliographic databases. Method: Double-masked randomised controlled trials were identified, that compared the use of topical mast cell stabilisers (sodium cromoglycate, nedocromil, lodoxamide) with placebo, topical antihistamines with placebo, and topical mast cell stabilisers with topical antihistamines. Results: A meta-analysis of six trials showed that patients using sodium cromoglycate were 17 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4 to 78) more likely to perceive benefit compared with those using a placebo, although this estimate may be partially influenced by publication bias. Five trials indicated that those patients using nedocromil were 1.8 times (95% CI = 1.3 to 2.6) more likely to perceive their allergy to be moderately or totally controlled than those using a placebo. Four trials showed that those using antihistamines were 1.3 times (95% CI = 0.8 to 2.2) more likely to perceive a ‘good’ treatment effect than those using mast cell stabilisers, although this beneficial effect was not statistically significant. Limited evidence suggests that antihistamines might have a faster therapeutic effect compared to mast cell stabilisers. Conclusion: Overall, these findings confirm the benefit of topical mast cell stabilisers and antihistamines over placebo for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. There is, however, insufficient evidence to recommend the use of one type of medication over another. Treatment preferences should therefore be based on convenience of use (with reduced frequency of instillation for some preparations), patient preference, and costs

  1. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis in young children.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, A; Marzetto, M

    1998-01-01

    In a randomised, multicentre study, the effect of azelastine eye drops (n = 51 patients) was compared in a double-blind manner with placebo eye drops (n = 30 patients) and in an open manner with levocabastine eye drops (n = 32 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving 113 children (aged 4 to 12 years) suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis. The primary variable was the response rate defined as the number of patients showing an improvement after three days of treatment of at least three score points, from a minimum baseline score of six, in the main ocular symptoms of itching, conjunctival redness and lacrimation (each assessed on a four-point scale). Patients discontinuing due to inefficacy were regarded as non-responders. The mean response rate in the azelastine eye drops group (74%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that in the placebo group (39%) and comparable with that in the levocabastine group. The response rates assessed by the patients in their diaries were very similar. Significant differences (p < 0.01) for azelastine compared with placebo were observed on days 3 and 14 in the mean sum scores for the three main symptoms and for a total of eight eye symptoms. The overall assessment of efficacy confirmed the superiority of both active treatments compared with placebo. Adverse drug reactions were reported in 23% of placebo-, 35% of azelastine- and 38% of levocabastine-treated patients. These were mainly local irritant effects. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 80%, 84% and 91% of placebo-, azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, respectively. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well-tolerated in children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  2. Comparison of azelastine eye drops with levocabastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Giede, C; Metzenauer, P; Petzold, U; Ellers-Lenz, B

    2000-01-01

    A randomised, multicentre parallel group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.05% azelastine eye drops (101 patients) in an open manner with 0.05% levocabastine eye drops (103 patients) and in a double-blind manner with placebo (103 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. The three main eye symptoms, scored on a four-point scale, were itching, lacrimation and conjunctival redness; the primary efficacy variable was the responder rate on day 3. Responders were patients whose sum score of the three main eye symptoms decreased by at least three points from a baseline score of at least six points. In addition to these main symptoms, five other symptoms were recorded on days 0, 3, 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main eye symptoms and swollen eyelids. The responder rate after 3 days of treatment was 69% in patients treated with azelastine, 59% in patients treated with levocabastine and 51% in the placebo group. Only the difference in responder rates between azelastine and placebo eye drops was statistically significant (p = 0.02). The improvements in other ocular symptoms and entries in the patients' diaries closely reflected the changes reported by the investigators. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. Nine patients (three in the azelastine, five in the levocabastine and one in the placebo group) terminated the study prematurely due to poor tolerability. Adverse drug reactions, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported in 37% of patients receiving azelastine eye drops, 31% of patients receiving levocabastine and 9% of placebo patients. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 86% of azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, and in 95% of the patients receiving placebo. The results of this study indicate that azelastine possesses a tolerability profile at least comparable to that

  3. Single dose of ketotifen fumarate .025% vs 2 weeks of cromolyn sodium 4% for allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jack V; Michaelson, Clifford; McWhirter, Cecilia L; Shams, Naveed B K

    2002-01-01

    This single-masked, contralateral-eye, active-controlled allergen-challenge study compared ketotifen fumarate .025% and cromolyn sodium 4% ophthalmic solutions in the prevention of ocular itching, tearing, and redness induced by allergen challenge. After a confirmatory conjunctival provocation test (CPT), 56 patients randomly received masked study medication (placebo in one eye, cromolyn in the other eye) four times daily for 2 weeks. At visit 3, patients received one drop of ketotifen in the eye previously treated with placebo and cromolyn in the other eye. Ocular comfort was assessed 30 seconds postinstillation, and a CPT was conducted 15 minutes and 4 hours postinstillation to evaluate ocular itching, tearing, and redness. Forty-seven patients were analyzed for efficacy. At the 15-minute and 4-hour challenges, ketotifen was superior to cromolyn in preventing itching (P < .001) at all assessments and redness (ciliary, conjunctival, and episcleral) (P < or = .001) at most assessments. Tearing scores were higher in cromolyn-treated eyes than in ketotifen-treated eyes. Patients reported greater comfort in the ketotifen-treated than in the cromolyn-treated eye (P = .066). The most common adverse event was burning/stinging with cromolyn. A single dose of ketotifen was superior to a 2-week four-times-daily regimen of cromolyn in alleviating symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis in the conjunctival allergen-challenge model.

  4. Ablation of type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by eotaxin-1/CCR3 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takao; Ohbayashi, Masaharu; Kuo, Chuan Hui; Komatsu, Naoki; Yakura, Keiko; Tominaga, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Higashi, Hidemitsu; Murata, Meguru; Takeda, Shuzo; Fukushima, Atsuki; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Ono, Santa Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    The immune response is regulated, in part, by effector cells whose activation requires multiple signals. For example, T cells require signals emanating from the T cell antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecules for full activation. Here, we present evidence indicating that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in vivo also require cognate signals to activate mast cells. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva are ablated in mice deficient in eotaxin-1, despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and levels of IgE. To further define the co-stimulatory signals mediated by chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells. Our results show that CCR3 blockade significantly suppresses allergen-mediated hypersensitivity reactions as well as IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. We propose that a co-stimulatory axis by CCR3, mainly stimulated by eotaxin-1, is pivotal in mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:19147836

  5. Ablation of type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by eotaxin-1/CCR3 blockade.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Dai; Nakamura, Takao; Ohbayashi, Masaharu; Kuo, Chuan Hui; Komatsu, Naoki; Yakura, Keiko; Tominaga, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Higashi, Hidemitsu; Murata, Meguru; Takeda, Shuzo; Fukushima, Atsuki; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothenberg, Marc E; Ono, Santa Jeremy

    2009-02-01

    The immune response is regulated, in part, by effector cells whose activation requires multiple signals. For example, T cells require signals emanating from the T cell antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecules for full activation. Here, we present evidence indicating that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in vivo also require cognate signals to activate mast cells. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva are ablated in mice deficient in eotaxin-1, despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and levels of IgE. To further define the co-stimulatory signals mediated by chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells. Our results show that CCR3 blockade significantly suppresses allergen-mediated hypersensitivity reactions as well as IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. We propose that a co-stimulatory axis by CCR3, mainly stimulated by eotaxin-1, is pivotal in mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions.

  6. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  7. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution 1.5%

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Mark T; Williams, Jon I; Gomes, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the pooled per-protocol ocular end points from two conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) clinical trials of the dual-action antihistamine bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution (BBOS) 1.5%. Methods Two Phase III, placebo-controlled, double-masked, randomized clinical trials were conducted at a total of six separate centers using the CAC model of allergic conjunctivitis. The same study design was employed for both clinical trials, with subjects randomly assigned to either BBOS 1.5% (n=78) or placebo (n=79) treatment. Each subject received one eye drop of the test agent bilaterally at different study visits 15 minutes, 8 hours, or 16 hours prior to a CAC. Primary ocular end points included changes in ocular itching reported at 3, 5, and 7 minutes and conjunctival hyperemia assessed at 7, 15, and 20 minutes following each CAC. Secondary ocular end points included chemosis as well as episcleral and ciliary hyperemia judged by investigators, and tearing (scored as either absent or present) and eyelid swelling judged by subjects. Results A statistically significant reduction in ocular itching was observed for BBOS 1.5% treatment compared to placebo at all time points (P<0.0001), while measures for onset and 8-hour persistence of action also reached clinical significance (ie, ≥1.0 unit difference) at a majority of time points. In addition, a significant reduction in conjunctival hyperemia was achieved at a majority of time points during the onset of action CAC test. Secondary end points were also significantly improved compared to placebo, most prominently for reduced tearing at all study visits and reduced eyelid swelling at the onset of action and 8-hour study visits. Adverse events were generally mild and transient. Conclusion BBOS 1.5% rapidly reduced CAC-induced ocular itching with duration of effectiveness of at least 8 hours after dosing. Certain secondary signs of inflammation were also significantly reduced. PMID:25152611

  8. The effect of ketotifen on inflammatory markers in allergic conjunctivitis: an open, uncontrolled study

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Andrea P; Urrets-Zavalia, Julio; Berra, Alejandro; Mariani, Ana Lía; Gallino, Norberto; Demel, Eduardo Gomez; Gagliardi, Julio; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Urrets-Zavalia, Enrique; M Serra, Horacio

    2003-01-01

    Background The efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drop treatment in allergic conjunctivitis (AC) management is perfectly known by several studies, but the mechanism of action at the biochemical levels is poorly understood so we decided to perform an open, uncontrolled study in order to investigate the effect of the topical administration of ketotifen fumarate 0.05% on biochemical markers of inflammation on conjunctival cells in patients with AC. Methods Nineteen patients with symptoms and signs of AC (itching, discharge, burning, redness, increase in the watery discharge, swelling and follicles) and with a history of allergy were prescribed with two daily instillation of one drop of eyewash ketotifen fumarate 0,05% in both eyes during thirty days. They were studied by measuring clinical and immunologic parameters. Results Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total symptoms and signs score for each patient as well as each symptoms and signs at all time points compared with day 0 (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.016, respectively). Although the percentage of HLA-DR+ epithelial cells diminished only in 58% of patients, the numbers of CD29+ and eotaxin+ epithelial cells dropped significantly in 68% and 73 % of them (p < 0.0062 and <0.0082, respectively) as a consequence of the treatment. In 9 out of 19 patients a simultaneous decrease in the percentage of epithelial cells positive for CD29 and eotaxin was observed. Conclusion Ketotifen besides the well-known effect in reducing signs and symptoms of AC significantly diminished production of eotaxin and expression of CD29 by epithelial cells in patients with seasonal AC. PMID:12515585

  9. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  10. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  11. [Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K; Finis, D; Meller, S; Buhren, B A; Wagenmann, M; Geerling, G

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) as well as intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis are widespread diseases. Because a combined occurrence of ocular and nasal symptoms is very common the summarising term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is frequently used. SAC and PAC representing the two acute forms of allergic conjunctivitis account for more than 90 % of all cases of allergic conjunctivitis. Compared to the chronic forms of allergic conjunctivitis their course of disease is milder. Nevertheless because of their high prevalence and the proven influence on patients' quality of life they possess clinical and socioeconomic relevance. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is caused by a type 1 IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is provoked by aeroallergens in the majority of cases. The pathognomonic sign is itching. Besides, typical ocular findings are chemosis, conjunctival injection, watery secretion and lid swelling. Otorhinolaryngologists' findings include rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and sneezing. Problems in breathing through the nose resulting from nasal obstruction can cause impaired nighttime sleep and daytime somnolence. In addition to a reduction of allergen exposure by modification of environment and life style factors, in mild forms of SAC and PAC artificial tears are recommended. Topical antihistamines can generate rapid relief from acute symptoms and itching. Topical mast cell stabilisers however provide long-term effects. Dual action drugs that combine antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers show increased patient compliance due to reduced application frequency. Use of topical steroids should be cautious and only temporary. For prolonged treatment periods unpreserved anti-allergic eye-drops should be preferred. Combined topical antihistamines and new-generation topical nasal steroids often used by otorhinolaryngologists demonstrate a good safety profile without systemic side effects. In summary

  12. Effect of pollen-mediated oxidative stress on immediate hypersensitivity reactions and late-phase inflammation in allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Bacsi, Attila; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Choudhury, Barun K.; Sur, Sanjiv; Boldogh, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic eye diseases are complex inflammatory conditions of the conjunctiva that are becoming increasingly prevalent and present an increasing economic burden because of direct and indirect health expenditures. Objective We sought to identify factors that may synergize with antigen-induced allergic inflammation and lead to allergic conjunctivitis. We used a murine model of allergic conjunctivitis to test the effect of oxidative stress generated by pollen oxidases using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NAD[P]H) as an electron donor present in pollen grains. Methods Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by hydrated Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen (short ragweed pollen; RWP) grains was determined by using 2′-7′-dihydro-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and Amplex Red assay. The RWP-induced changes in intracellular ROS levels were examined in A549 cells, human primary bronchial epithelial cells, and murine conjunctiva. Results Ragweed pollen grains contain NAD(P)H oxidase activity, which is diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive and quinacrine-sensitive and sodium azide-resistant. These NAD(P)H oxidases generate a superoxide anion that can be converted to H2O2 by pollen grain–associated superoxide dismutase. These diffusible oxygen radicals from pollen grains increase intracellular ROS levels in cultured epithelial cells and murine conjunctiva. Similar phenomena were observed in sensitized and naive mice, indicating that the RWP-induced oxidative stress in conjunctival epithelium is independent of adaptive immunity. Inactivation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity in RWP decreases the immediate-type hypersensitivity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the conjunctiva. Conclusion Our data suggest that ROS generated by NAD(P)H oxidases in pollen grains intensify immediate allergic reactions and recruitment of inflammatory cells in murine conjunctiva. PMID:16210058

  13. Comparison of effects of alcaftadine and olopatadine on conjunctival epithelium and eosinophil recruitment in a murine model of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Santa J; Lane, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antihistamines constitute the first line of therapy for allergic conjunctivitis, and are safe and effective in relieving the signs and symptoms of ocular allergy. Despite this, they are less effective than some other drugs in relieving delayed symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. Recent evidence suggests that changes in the conjunctival epithelium may underlie aspects of delayed reactions. In this study we compared two antihistamines, olopatadine and alcaftadine, for their ability to modify epithelial cell changes associated with allergic conjunctivitis at time points selected to reflect late-phase reactions. Methods: Studies employed a modified conjunctival allergen challenge model. Sensitized mice were challenged with topical allergen with or without drug treatments. Treatment groups were assayed for acute-phase (15 minutes) and delayed-phase (24 hours) responses. Groups were scored for allergy symptoms (redness, itch, tearing, and edema) and for conjunctival mast cell numbers. Delayed-phase groups were also examined for eosinophil numbers and for tight junctional protein expression. Results: Olopatadine-treated and alcaftadine-treated animals had similar efficacy profiles and mast cell numbers, suggesting both were effective at ameliorating symptoms of the acute phase. In contrast, alcaftadine-treated animals had significantly lower conjunctival eosinophil infiltration than either controls or olopatadine-treated animals. Allergen challenge caused a significant decrease in expression of the junctional protein, ZO-1, and this decrease was prevented by alcaftadine but not by olopatadine. Conclusion: Alcaftadine displays therapeutic properties beyond its antihistamine action. These include an ability to reduce conjunctival eosinophil recruitment, and a protective effect on epithelial tight junction protein expression. PMID:21340041

  14. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Tacrolimus Ophthalmic Suspension 0.1% in Severe Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Kumagai, Naoki; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Hayashi, Kunihiko

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the efficacy of tacrolimus ophthalmic suspension 0.1% in treating severe allergic conjunctivitis. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Fifty-six patients with severe allergic conjunctivitis in whom topical antiallergic agents and corticosteroids had been ineffective were randomized to tacrolimus or placebo treatment. Patients were treated either with tacrolimus or placebo twice-daily for 4 weeks. Severity of objective signs in palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, limbus, and corneal involvement was assessed using 4 grades. Seven subjective symptoms were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) assessment. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the total score of objective signs at the end of treatment. The secondary efficacy endpoints included change in the score for each objective sign and change in the VAS for each subjective symptom. Safety was assessed based on the severity and the incidence of adverse events. Results Mean change from baseline in total score for objective signs was significantly greater in the tacrolimus (−5.6 ± 5.1) than in the placebo group (−0.1 ± 4.5; P < 0.001). Tacrolimus significantly improved giant papillae (P = 0.001) and corneal involvement (P = 0.005). Five subjective symptoms (itching, discharge, hyperemia, lacrimation, and foreign body sensation) were significantly better in the tacrolimus than in the placebo group. The most frequent treatment-related adverse event in the tacrolimus group was mild ocular irritation upon topical instillation, which was well-tolerated. Conclusion Tacrolimus ophthalmic suspension 0.1% is effective in treating severe allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:20307214

  15. New developments in the treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lierl, Michelle B

    2014-08-01

    The primary care physician is the first line of treatment for allergic rhinitis, which affects approximately one-fourth of children in the United States. There is an increasing trend toward self-management by patients or parents due to high-deductible insurance plans and the over-the-counter availability of allergy medications. The primary care physician can offer guidance on appropriate selection of medications and potential adverse effects. Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a potential contributing factor in patients with allergic diseases, and studies are underway to determine whether supplementation with vitamin D is helpful for these conditions. Sublingual immunotherapy has recently received US Food and Drug Administration approval for grass and ragweed allergens; many children will be interested in this alternative to allergy shots. The relative advantages and disadvantages of sublingual vs subcutaneous immunotherapy are discussed.

  16. Azelastine eye-drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Giede-Tuch, C; Westhoff, M; Zarth, A

    1998-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis of > or = 1 year's duration. A total of 151 patients received 0.025% or 0.05% azelastine eye-drops or placebo b.i.d. for 14 days according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dosing design; 129 patients completed the study as planned. The three target symptoms, scored on 4-point scales, were itching, lacrimation, and redness of the eyes; responders were patients whose symptom sum score decreased by > or = 3 from a baseline score of > or = 6 by day 3. Mean scores of these and five other symptoms were recorded also on days 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main symptoms and swollen eyelids. Responder rates were 73% for 0.025% (P=0.115 vs placebo) and 82% for 0.05% azelastine eye-drops (P=0.011 vs placebo) and 56% for placebo. The time courses of the mean (investigators' and patients') scores for the three main symptoms reflected the dose-dependent effect of azelastine eye-drops. One patient each from the two azelastine groups and three from the placebo group withdrew because of inefficacy. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 14 and 24 patients receiving 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops, respectively, and by eight placebo patients. These reactions were mainly slight application site reactions and taste perversion (bitter or unpleasant taste). Azelastine eye-drops are effective and well tolerated at a dose of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  17. Cedar pollen aggravates atopic dermatitis in childhood monozygotic twin patients with allergic rhino conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yukako; Matsui, Saki; Kijima, Akiko; Kitaba, Shun; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST) scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0) in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6). The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters) and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister) reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  18. 410 Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Allergic Conjunctivitis Patients in a Reference Center of Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Contreras, Atzin; Ayala-Balboa, Julio; Alonso-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In our country (Mexico) there are few reports about epidemiological characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis patients; despite these studies give us some information about patient profile, in most cases these studies are not always comparable due to the use of different methodologies, that is, Include only a portion of the population (elderly, infants) or there are limited to one region of the city. The purpose of this study was to know the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis (AC)-patients in the biggest reference center of ocular diseases in Mexico (Institute of Ophthalmology “Conde de Valenciana”) Methods Data were obtained from clinical records. Six hundred fifteen patients with diagnosis of AC were included. Epidemiological characteristics included sex, age, residence; clinical-immunological characteristics included atopy, coexistence of other allergies, total IgE, cutaneous reactivity to skin prick test (SPT), sixty allergens were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed to obtain frequencies and t test was used to find significant differences, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results AC-Patients who received medical consultation at the Institute of Ophthalmology where predominantly from State of Mexico (47.25%), Mexico City (37.5%), and in less frequency Hidalgo, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Michoacan, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Chiapas and Guanajuato. 88% of AC-patients were positive to SPT (SPT+), while 12% were negative to SPT (SPT-). Age of diagnosis was significant different between SPT-AC-patients and SPT+AC-patients (14.5-years vs 17.9-years, P = 0.02). Male SPT-AC-patients were diagnosed younger than male SPT+AC-patients (P = 0.001). IgE concentration was significant increased in male SPT+AC-patients than female SPT+AC-patients (P = 0.006). The most common skin reactivity was against Dermatophagoides sp (59.1%), Aedes sp(54.55%) and Blatella-Periplaneta sp.(31.14%); we did not

  19. Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... who also have other allergic conditions, such as hay fever. Triggers of allergic conjunctivitis include grass, ragweed pollen, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Neonatal Infections Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) First Aid: Pinkeye Your Child's Vision Eye Injuries ...

  20. Topical ocular treatment with monoclonal antibody Fab fragments targeting Japanese cedar pollen Cry j 1 inhibits Japanese cedar pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Nobuaki; Nabe, Takeshi; Yoshino, Shin

    2017-03-05

    Fab fragments (Fabs) of antibodies having the ability only to bind to specific allergens lack effector functions due to the absence of the Fc portion. In the present study, we examined whether IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) Fabs targeting Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) Cry j 1 were able to regulate JCP-induced allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice actively sensitized with JCP were repeatedly challenged by topical administration of JCP eye drops. Fabs prepared by the digestion of anti-JCP IgG1 mAbs (P1-3 and P1-8) with papain were applied to the eye 15min before the JCP challenges followed by measurement of the clinical conjunctivitis score. In the in vitro experiments, P1-3 and P1-8 showed specific binding to JCP Cry j 1. Furthermore, intact P1-3 binding to Cry j 1 was inhibited by P1-3 Fabs, but not P1-8 Fabs; additionally, P1-8 Fabs, but not P1-3 Fabs, suppressed the intact P1-8 binding, suggesting that the epitopes of Cry j 1 recognized by P1-3 and P1-8 were different. Topical ocular treatment with P1-3 Fabs or P1-8 Fabs was followed by marked suppression of JCP-induced conjunctivitis (P<0.01). In histological evaluation, P1-8 Fabs showed a reduction in eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva (P<0.01). These results demonstrated that topical ocular treatment with IgG1 mAb Fabs to Cry j 1 was effective in suppressing JCP-induced allergic conjunctivitis in mice. Furthermore, it suggests the possibility that some epitopes recognized by Fabs could be used as a tool to regulate allergic conjunctivitis.

  1. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Antiallergic Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum L. in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Abokyi, Samuel; Wiredu, Eric Addo

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used traditionally as a remedy for conjunctivitis in Ghana. This study therefore evaluated the antiallergic potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) in ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis and attempted to predict its mode of action. Clinical scores for allergic conjunctivitis induced by intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization (100 : 10 μg OVA/Al(OH)3 in phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) and topical conjunctival challenge (1.5 mg OVA in 10 μL PBS) in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were estimated after a week's daily treatment with 30–300 mg kg−1 HIE, 30 mg kg−1 prednisolone, 10 mg kg−1 chlorpheniramine, or 10 mL kg−1 PBS. Ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgE and total IgE in serum were estimated using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Histopathological assessment of the exenterated conjunctivae was also performed. The 30 and 300 mg kg−1 HIE treatment resulted in a significantly (p ≤ 0.001) low clinical score of allergic conjunctivitis. Ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgE as well as total serum IgE also decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.01–0.001). The conjunctival tissue in HIE treated guinea pigs had mild mononuclear infiltration compared to the PBS-treated ones, which had intense conjunctival tissue inflammatory infiltration. HIE exhibited antiallergic effect possibly by immunomodulation or immunosuppression. PMID:26681960

  2. Efficacy and safety of olopatadine hydrochloride 0.77% in patients with allergic conjunctivitis using a conjunctival allergen-challenge model

    PubMed Central

    Torkildsen, Gail; Narvekar, Abhijit; Bergmann, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptom relief for the duration of 24 hours after treatment would benefit patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of olopatadine 0.77% with vehicle or olopatadine 0.2% in patients with allergic conjunctivitis in a conjunctival allergen-challenge clinical study. Patients and methods In this Phase III, multicenter, double-masked, parallel-group, randomized trial, patients with allergic conjunctivitis received olopatadine 0.77%, its vehicle, or olopatadine 0.2%, administered once at visits 3A (day 0), 4A (day 14 ±2), and 5 (day 21 +3). Allergic conjunctivitis-associated sign and symptom assessments included ocular itching, conjunctival redness, total redness, chemosis, and tearing scores. Adverse events and ocular safety parameters were also assessed. Results A total of 202 qualifying patients were randomized. Olopatadine 0.77% was superior (P<0.001) to vehicle for treatment of ocular itching at 3, 5, and 7 minutes postchallenge at onset of action and 16- and 24-hour duration of action. Conjunctival redness mean scores were significantly lower for olopatadine 0.77% versus vehicle at all three post-conjunctival allergen-challenge time points: onset (−1.52 to −1.48; P<0.001), 16 hours (−1.50 to −1.38; P<0.01), and 24 hours (−1.58 to −1.38; P<0.05). At 24 hours, olopatadine 0.77% was superior to olopatadine 0.2% at all three postchallenge time points for ocular itching (P<0.05), conjunctival redness (P<0.05), and total redness (P<0.05). No clinically relevant differences in safety parameters or adverse events were observed between the treatment groups. Conclusion Olopatadine 0.77% is superior to both its vehicle and olopatadine 0.2% for the treatment of allergen-mediated ocular itching and conjunctival redness. Ocular itching symptom relief is maintained over 24 hours, supporting once-daily dosing and demonstrating a comparable safety profile to olopatadine 0.2%. PMID:26392751

  3. 60 Tear IFN-G is Increased After Sublingual Immunotherapy in Allergic Conjunctivitis Patients and Correlates With Clinical Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Velazquez, Gustavo; Santacruz, Concepcion; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Chavez, Raul; Ayala-Balboa, Julio; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Mayra; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite success of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the treatment of allergy diseases, more research is needed related to ocular allergy. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze the ocular microenvironment provided by tear cytokines in allergic conjunctivitis (AC) patients treated with SLIT and to correlate tear and serum cytokines with ocular findings. Methods 19 AC-patients were included in this study. AC diagnosis was based on a clinical history and full ophthalmologic examination according to the diagnosis standards of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Routine immunological studies were performed to corroborate allergic status Negative coproparasitoscopic results were documented. This study was approved by Scientific and Ethics Committees if Institute of Ophthalmology “Conde de la Valenciana,” Mexico City an all subjects gave their informed consent to obtain samples. Tear and serum samples were collected to determine cytokines IL2, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-10 by cytometric bead arrays (CBA), following manufacturer's instructions. Results After 6 months of treatment with SLIT we observed significant higher IFN-g concentration, without significant changes in IL2, IL4, IL5, TNFa or IL10. We observed significant clinical improvement since 3 months of treatment and it was maintained until the end of 6 months. Clinical improvement correlated with IFN-g concentration. Conclusions Clinical outcome in AC-patients treated with SLIT could be tear IFN-g dependent.

  4. Dose-dependent protection by azelastine eye drops against pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Horak, F; Berger, U E; Menapace, R; Toth, J; Stübner, P U; Marks, B

    1998-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) eye drops at three different doses (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%) were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 24 subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, who were challenged, out of season, by airbone allergen in the "Vienna Challenge Chamber" (VCC). Subjects received a single dose of azelastine eye drops 60 min before the start of a 4 h challenge in the VCC. Additional local challenge, mimicking a gust of wind, was administered 15 min before the end of the session. Each of the 4 study days was separated by a 2 week washout period. Azelastine eye drops showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the development of itching of the eyes. The effect was most pronounced 15 min after the additional local challenge. A maximal effect was achieved at a dose of 0.05%. Similar effects were observed on lacrimation. Azelastine eye drops also dose-dependently inhibited the degree of conjunctival redness, measured by digital imaging, and tended to reduce the low incidence of chemosis observed. Ranking of the results of all symptoms for each treatment group confirmed the optimal effect at a dose of 0.05%. Azelastine eye drops had no effect on nasal and bronchial symptoms or on measurements of airways function (FEV1). No adverse effects of the treatments were reported. The data support the use of 0.05% azelastine eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis.

  5. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  6. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread of ... return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria ...

  7. Double-masked, randomized, parallel-group study comparing olopatadine 0.1% ophthalmic solution with cromolyn sodium 2% and levocabastine 0.05% ophthalmic preparations in children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Turner, Darell; Gross, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that >50% of medications have not been tested in children. Physicians need pediatric data to guide them in treating children. Olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.1% is a topical antiallergic agent that is both an antihistamine with high affinity and selectivity for the histamine H1 receptor and a mast cell stabilizer that inhibits the release of histamine and other proinflammatory mediators from human conjunctival mast cells. The efficacy and tolerability of olopatadine has been demonstrated by comparative studies in adults and children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC). Objective: Pediatric patient data were extracted from 2 clinical trials to assess the efficacy and tolerability of olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.1% compared with those of cromolyn sodium ophthalmic solution 2% and levocabastine ophthalmic solution 0.05% as treatment for SAC in children. Methods: In study 1, conducted at 15 centers in 7 countries (Europe and Australia) from October 1995 to December 1997, olopatadine was instilled BID and placebo (vehicle) BID for 6 weeks and compared with cromolyn instilled QID. Study 2, conducted at 17 centers in 8 countries (Europe and Australia) from November 1998 to June 2000, compared olopatadine BID with levocabastine BID. In both studies, children of either sex and any race, aged 4 to 11 years, and having proven grass pollen allergies were assigned to treatment in a double-masked, randomized fashion. Slit-lamp examination, the physician's impression scale, and self-ratings were used to obtain efficacy data. Data analyses were based on pollen concentrations. The tolerability assessments were based on visual acuity, pupil diameter, intraocular pressure, and a dilated fundus examination. Results: Study 1 comprised 30 children (olopatadine [n = 13] and cromolyn sodium [n = 17]; 18 boys, 12 girls; mean age, 7.9 years [range, 4–11 years]). Study 2 comprised 22 children (olopatadine [n = 10] and

  8. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of two concentrations of azelastine eye drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, G; Mivsek-Music, E; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Obtulowicz, K; Secchi, A

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye drops twice daily administered for 14 days to patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A total of 278 patients were recruited and 226 patients were evaluable for per protocol analysis. The target parameter was the response rate. Four eye symptoms, including the main symptom (itching) were recorded by patients in diaries and eight symptoms were assessed by physicians before and after seven and 14 days of treatment. Severity of symptoms was measured on a four-point scale. The response rates for itching (improvement of at least one score point within the first three days) according to patient assessment were 43% for placebo, 52% for 0.025% and 56% for 0.05% azelastine (NS). However, a more objective assessment of the three main eye symptoms by physicians showed a concentration-dependent improvement in response rate compared with placebo (a decrease of > or = 3 points from a baseline total score of > or = 6), which reached statistical significance for 0.05% azelastine on Day 7 (p < 0.002). In the evaluable patient population, the scores of the three main eye symptoms as well as of all eight recorded eye symptoms, as assessed by the physician, were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the 0.05% azelastine eye drops group in comparison with the placebo group at Day 7. Inefficacy was the cause of withdrawal in five and three patients on 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine, respectively, and in six patients on placebo. Adverse drug effects, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported by 14% (0.025%), 20% (0.05%) and 15% (placebo) of the patients. No serious side-effects occurred. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated at a concentration of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  9. Evaluation of alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution in acute allergic conjunctivitis at 15 minutes and 16 hours after instillation versus placebo and olopatadine 0.1%

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Jack V; Edwards-Swanson, Kimberly; Ingerman, Avner

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of alcaftadine 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% ophthalmic solutions in treating the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% and placebo using the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) model. Methods One hundred and seventy subjects were randomized and 164 subjects completed all visits. CAC was performed to determine and confirm subjects’ eligibility at visits 1 and 2, respectively. The CAC was repeated at visit 3 (day 0 ± 3), 16 hours after study medication instillation, and at visit 4 (day 14 ± 3), 15 minutes after instillation. Ocular itching and conjunctival redness were evaluated after an allergen challenge, along with several secondary endpoints. Results Alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine 0.1% treatments exhibited significantly lower mean scores compared with placebo for ocular itching and conjunctival redness at visits 3 and 4. Most adverse events were self-limiting and mild in severity. No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred. Conclusion Treatment with alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution resulted in mean differences of >1 unit (ocular itching) and approximately >1 unit (conjunctival redness), which was significant (P < 0.001) compared with placebo treatment. All doses of alcaftadine were safe and well tolerated in the population studied. PMID:21339800

  10. Levocetirizine Inhibits Migration of Immune Cells to Lymph Nodes and Induces Treg Cells in a Murine Type I Allergic Conjunctivitis Model

    PubMed Central

    García-Zepeda, Sihomara; Estrada-Muñiz, Elizabet; Elizondo, Guillermo; Terrazas, Luis I; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Quintana-Hau, Juan D; Tornero-Montaño, Rubén; Baiza-Durán, Leopoldo; Vega, Libia

    2012-01-01

    Background & Purpose: Levocetirizine is a histamine H(1) receptor antagonist. Here, we utilised DO11.10TCR transgenic mice to establish an antigen-specific T cell-dependent allergic conjunctivitis (AC) model to determine the effect of the topical application of an ophthalmic formulation of Levoceritizine as a treatment for AC. Experimental Approach: DO11.10 mice (n=6/each) were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, 50 µg) and treated with a Levocetirizine ophthalmic formulation (0.001–0.02% v/w) or placebo (vehicle) for 24–72 h. Serum, aqueous/vitreous humour and conjunctiva were obtained. Immunoglobulin (Ig)-E, interleukin (IL)-10 and lipoxin (LX)A4 were determined by ELISA. Levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interferon (IFN)-γ and 18rS expression were measured by RT-PCR. Proportions of total and activated antigen-presenting cells (APC), recruited T lymphocytes (CD4+), activated T lymphocytes (CD25+) and T regulatory cells (Treg) were measured by flow cytometry. Key Results: OVA exposure induced AC in the animal model indicated by increased expression of LXA4, TNF-α and TGF-β. Levocetirizine treatment (0.01–0.02% v/w) reduced LXA4 in the eye humours. This treatment approach increased systemic IL-10 secretion and reduced TNF-α and TGF-β expression in conjunctiva without changing IFN-γ expression. Levocetirizine reduced APC levels in draining lymph nodes but increased the proportion of total lymphocytes recruited and their differentiation to Treg cells. Conclusions & Implications: Levocetirizine effectively reduces the activation and migration of APC to local draining lymph nodes and induces differentiation of Treg cells as one possible mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:23284599

  11. Neonatal conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn conjunctivitis; Conjunctivitis of the newborn; Ophthalmia neonatorum; Eye infection - neonatal conjunctivitis ... diseases spread through sexual contact to prevent newborn conjunctivitis caused by these infections. Putting eye drops into ...

  12. Fas deficiency in mice with the Balb/c background induces blepharitis with allergic inflammation and hyper-IgE production in conjunction with severe autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Suzuka; Futatsugi-Yumikura, Shizue; Fukuoka, Ayumi; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Kenji; Yonehara, Shin

    2013-05-01

    Fas (CD95) is a cell surface death receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which mediates apoptosis-inducing signaling when activated by Fas ligand or its agonistic antibody. lpr mice with a loss of apoptosis-inducing function mutation in the Fas gene develop systemic autoimmune disease and lymphadenopathy but not allergic inflammation. In the case of Fas mutations including lpr and knockout (KO), background genes determine the incidence and severity of lymphadenopathy and histopathological manifestation of systemic autoimmunity: MRL-lpr/lpr mice and C57BL/6-lpr/lpr or C57BL/6 Fas KO mice develop severe and minimum disease, respectively. We generated Fas KO mice with the Balb/c background that show severer autoimmune phenotypes than MRL-lpr/lpr mice, such as critical infiltration of mononuclear cells into lung, liver and spleen, elevated serum levels of auto-antibodies and a decreased life span. To our astonishment, Balb/c Fas KO mice spontaneously develop blepharitis with not only autoimmune inflammation with deposition of auto-antibody but also allergic inflammation with infiltration by eosinophils and mast cells and show the capacity to strongly increase serum level of IgE and IgG1 along with their aging. Thus, Fas expression regulates development of not only autoimmune disease but also allergic inflammation.

  13. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  14. [Cicatricial conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Gueudry, J; Vera, L; Muraine, M

    2010-10-01

    Cicatricial conjunctivitis is chronic conjunctivitis with conjunctival fibrosis and may lead to alterations of conjunctival architecture, which are potentially sight-threatening. The patient's medical history, physical exam, and laboratory tests often provide the diagnosis of the underlying disease. Causes of conjunctival cicatrization are autoimmune diseases such as ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, thermal and chemical burns, postinfectious conjunctivitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, etc. Medical management varies according to specific causes and may lead to severe side effects. Furthermore, strategies may be necessary to restore corneal transparency and normal palpebral architecture.

  15. Conjunction Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2007-01-01

    This spring, as the school year starts to wind down, there will be many opportunities for students to observe bright planets and to wrap up the year with some great conjunctions and close occultation with the Moon, planets, bright stars, and star clusters). These observations can be coordinated with student observations of the Moon's phase cycle…

  16. Sac phosphatase domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W E; Cooke, F T; Parker, P J

    2000-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in controlling cellular functions such as endocytosis, exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton have included new insights into the phosphatases that are responsible for the interconversion of these lipids. One of these is an entirely novel class of phosphatase domain found in a number of well characterized proteins. Proteins containing this Sac phosphatase domain include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Sac1p and Fig4p. The Sac phosphatase domain is also found within the mammalian phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase synaptojanin and the yeast synaptojanin homologues Inp51p, Inp52p and Inp53p. These proteins therefore contain both Sac phosphatase and 5-phosphatase domains. This review describes the Sac phosphatase domain-containing proteins and their actions, with particular reference to the genetic and biochemical insights provided by study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:10947947

  17. Endolymphatic sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Wick, Cameron C; Manzoor, Nauman F; Semaan, Maroun T; Megerian, Cliff A

    2015-04-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are slow-growing, locally aggressive, low-grade malignancies that originate from the epithelium of the endolymphatic duct and sac. ELST often present with sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo, which may mimic Meniere disease. Large tumors may present with additional cranial neuropathies. Management is primarily via microsurgical excision. Radiation therapy has a limited role for residual or unresectable disease. Early detection may enable hearing preservation techniques. ELST have an association with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

  18. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever; Nasal allergies; Seasonal allergy; Seasonal allergic rhinitis; Allergies - allergic rhinitis; Allergy - allergic rhinitis ... an allergen that also trigger symptoms. ALLERGY SHOTS Allergy shots ... are sometimes recommended if you cannot avoid the ...

  19. Endolymphatic sac tumour.

    PubMed

    Zulkarnaen, Mohammad; Tang, Ing Ping; Wong, Siong Lung

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of a papillary tumour at the cerebellopontine angle in a 41-year-old man. He presented with left-sided facial and ear pain associated with dizziness, nystagmus and hearing loss. CT scan of the temporal bone showed a destructive tumour at the left cerebellopontine angle. Surgical excision was performed and the diagnosis of the endolymphatic sac tumour was made. Endolymphatic tumour is a low grade adenocarcinoma that originates from the endolymphatic sac. The definitive diagnosis requires a combination of clinical features, radiological finding and pathological correlation.

  20. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common causes of allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor ... may seem drastic, but it often helps ease seasonal symptoms. True False False. It's hard to escape allergy triggers. Many forms of pollen (especially grasses) and ...

  1. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  2. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.

  3. Allergic Rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... out what I'm allergic to?Is my allergy seasonal?I am allergic to _____. Am I at risk for any other allergies?What changes can I make at home to ... org editorial staff Tags: allergen, allergic rhinitis, allergies, allergy, ... ragweed, seasonal rhinitis Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, ...

  4. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Etsuko; Uchio, Eiichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shoji, Jun; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as "a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms." Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  5. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  6. Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Conjuntivitis About Pinkeye Conjunctivitis, commonly called pinkeye, is an inflammation of ...

  7. Probabilistic Subset Conjunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Rajeev; Jedidi, Kamel

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce subset conjunction as a classification rule by which an acceptable alternative must satisfy some minimum number of criteria. The rule subsumes conjunctive and disjunctive decision strategies as special cases. Subset conjunction can be represented in a binary-response model, for example, in a logistic regression, using only…

  8. Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Margaret M.; Day, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the result of an immediate hypersensitivity immune response of the nasal mucosa to one or more allergens. Clinical features may be indistinguishable from non-allergic rhinitis. Accurate diagnosis demands specialized laboratory investigations, meticulous history and careful physical examination. Management includes control of allergen and irritant exposures, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Recent development of intranasal corticosteroid aerosols has significantly reduced morbidity. Modified allergens for immunotherapy show promise but require further study. PMID:21286562

  9. Aquarius/SAC-D mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Amit; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Torrusio, Sandra; Durham, David; Falcon, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key parameter in the global water cycle but it is not yet monitored from space. Conventional in situ SSS sampling is too sparse to give the global view of salinity variability that a remote sensing satellite can provide. The Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will make pioneering space-based measurements of global SSS with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize salinity variations (spatial and temporal), investigate the linkage between ocean circulation, the Earth's water cycle, and climate variability. It is being jointly developed by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina, the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The Project is currently in implementation phase with the flight Aquarius Instrument undergoing environmental testing at NASA-JPL/Caltech in California, USA and the SAC-D instruments and spacecraft development undergoing at CONAE/INVAP facilities in Argentina. Aquarius/SAC-D launch is scheduled for May 2010.

  10. Haemangiopericytoma of the lacrimal sac.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihide; Wu, Albert; Sun, Michelle T; Inatani, Masaru; Katori, Nobutada; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours which infrequently occur in the lacrimal sac. Only 8 cases of lacrimal sac HPC have previously been reported. The authors report 2 additional cases presenting clinically with epiphora and a mass. One case recurred 3 times during an 18-year period. The other case did not recur during 51 months of follow-up. The tumours showed immunohistochemical features consistent with a diagnosis of HPC. The authors recommend wide excision for these tumours and careful long-term follow-up to detect recurrence which is not uncommon.

  11. Overextension in Verb Conjunctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jönsson, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Hampton (1988) discovered that people are subject to "overextension"--they categorize some things as falling under a conjunction (e.g., they categorize chess as a "sport which is also a game") but not as falling under both of the corresponding conjuncts (e.g., they do not categorize chess as a "sport"). Although…

  12. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  13. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  14. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  15. Allergic vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to blood vessels, primarily in the skin. Causes Hypersensitivity vasculitis is caused by an allergic reaction to ... affects people older than age 15. Often, the cause of the problem cannot be found even with ... vasculitis may look like necrotizing vasculitis , which can ...

  16. Clinical measurement of eosinophil numbers in eosinophilic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2014-01-01

    Cytological examination of conjunctival scrapings is a valuable technique in differentiating various types of conjunctivitis. Brush conjunctival cytology is easy to use, and it may show a rich cell sample also from the deeper conjunctival layers. It is atraumatic and suitable for tarsal conjunctival cytology. The Papanicolaou staining can be used for examination of epithelial cells and inflammatory cells. The semiquantitative counting method is rapid to use and gives some information about the severity and nature of the inflammation. Our modified method identifies the presence of eosinophils which are the hallmark both in allergic conjunctivitis and in non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC). NAEC is quite common affecting in most cases middle-aged or older people with the majority being women. NAEC is often connected with dry eye which in many cases can be seen in conjunctival cytology.

  17. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  18. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    PubMed

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  19. Levocabastine versus cromolyn sodium in the treatment of pollen-induced conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Cerqueti, P M; Sacca, S; Cilli, P; Canonica, G W

    1990-08-01

    Thirty patients with allergic conjunctivitis, caused by Parietaria or grass pollens, participated in a double-blind parallel study comparing levocabastine to cromolyn sodium, both given as eye drops. Symptom and sign scores were recorded during a 4-week period. The patients received only these drugs during the time of observation. The evaluation of the clinical signs and symptoms by the clinicians and by the patients revealed a significant improvement of conjunctivitis in all patients. The intergroup comparison was equal in the two groups treated respectively with levocabastine and cromolyn. Therefore, levocabastine and cromolyn are effective in the treatment of pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis.

  20. Effect of mild conjunctivitis complication on tear balance in dry eye.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroko; Imanaga, Yoshichika

    2012-10-01

    Inflammation of the ocular surface influences the stability of tear fluid. Mild conjunctivitis is often associated with dry-eye patients. The effect of mild conjunctivitis complication on tear break-up time (BUT) in patients with dry eyes was investigated. A total of 93 patients with dry eyes, excluding those having moderate to severe conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, previous ocular surgery, or who use contact lenses, were divided into those with and without mild conjunctivitis, and the BUT was compared. Fifty-four cases were complicated by mild conjunctivitis, conjunctival papilla formation was observed in 40 of these, and the mean BUT was 3.54±1.02 s. The mean BUT in 39 patients without conjunctivitis was 3.41±1.04 s, showing no significant difference between the groups (p=0.56). Allergic conjunctivitis was frequently observed in patients with dry eyes, but the complication of mild conjunctivitis had no influence on BUT.

  1. Quantitative determination of histamine in tears during conjunctivitis by a novel HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Venza, Isabella; Visalli, Maria; Ceci, Guglielmo; Teti, Diana

    2004-01-01

    The histamine content of tears of healthy sex- and age-matched subjects and patients affected by allergic or nonallergic inflammatory ocular diseases was determined through a new competitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Tear samples from 50 healthy subjects, 30 patients affected by seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 12 patients with bacterial conjunctivitis associated with Haemophilus influenzae and 8 patients with bacterial conjunctivitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae were analyzed for histamine concentration by O-phthaldialdehyde precolumn derivatization-based HPLC. In physiological conditions, the tear histamine content was low (2.26 ng/ml) and did not vary in relation to age and sex. Histamine levels were significantly higher in all the patients studied, to a greater extent in those affected by allergic (23.61 ng/ml) or Haemophilus influenzae-associated (21.53 ng/ml) conjunctivitis.

  2. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  3. NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses a brief history of NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment (CA) activities, an overview of NASA CA process for ISS and Shuttle, and recent examples from Human Spaceflight conjunctions.

  4. Deriving the Distribution of Conjunctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoerner, Ed

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes an explanation for the limited possibilities of realized conjunctions in multitermed coordinations. It argues that conjunction "&" heads a fully articulated phrase (&P), which can iterate &P shells, similar to "V" in Larson's (1988) VP-shell hypothesis. This structure enables a single & to unify any number of conjuncts, and…

  5. Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.

    PubMed

    Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission.

  6. Altered hyaluronic acid content in tear fluid of patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, Juliana L; Regatieri, Caio V; Coelho, Bruno; Barbosa, José B; De Freitas, Denise; Nader, Helena B; Martins, João R

    2015-03-01

    The adenoviral conjunctivitis is one of the biggest causes of conjunctival infection in the world. Conjunctivitis causes relatively nonspecific symptoms, as hyperaemia and chemosis. Even after biomicroscopy, complex laboratory tests, such as viral culture, are necessary to identify the pathogen or its etiology. To contribute to the better understanding of the pathobiology of the adenoviral conjunctivitis, the tear fluids of patients with unilateral acute adenovirus conjunctivitis (UAAC), normal donors (control) and patients with allergic conjunctivitis were analyzed. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips from control, allergic conjunctivitis and UAAC patients, diagnosed by clinical signs. UAAC tears were tested positive in viral cultures. After the elution, HA was quantified using an ELISA-like fluorometric assay and the protein profile was determined by SDS-PAGE. A profound increase in the HA tear content in UAAC patients was found when compared to control and ALC. This HA increase in UAAC tears remarkably was not observed in tears from contralateral eyes without clinical signs, nor in allergic conjunctivitis. In addition a distinct profile of UAAC tear proteins was observed in patients with UAAC. The quantification of HA in the tear fluid is a rapid, sensitive and specific test. This molecule might be a biomarker candidate for acute conjunctivitis.

  7. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologic agents, or, finally, immunotherapy. Successful treatment requires accurate assessment of the offending agent and proper use of the above-mentioned modalities. PMID:21263880

  8. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 < z < 2 is a key epoch in this respect: elliptical galaxies start to become the dominant population in cluster cores, and star formation in spiral galaxies is being quenched. Until recently, however, this redshift range was essentially unreachable with available instrumentation, with clusters at these redshifts exceedingly challenging to identify from either ground-based optical/nearinfrared imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 < z < 2.5 clusters, thus provide the ultimate catalog for high-redshift MIR selected clusters: a lasting legacy for Spitzer. The study we propose will increase by more than a factor of 10 the number of high-redshift clusters discovered by all previous surveys

  9. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  10. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  11. Olopatadine ophthalmic solution suppresses substance P release in the conjunctivitis models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions are treated for allergic conjunctival diseases that are a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist and an inhibitor of the release of mediators including histamine from the human mast cells. Substance P (SP) levels are increased in tears of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. However, little is known about the regulation of SP release by anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions. Objective We investigated that the effect of olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions (olopatadine 0.1% and olopatadine 0.2%) on rat conjunctivitis models compared with other anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions. Methods Conjunctivitis was induced by subconjunctival injection of histamine or intravenous injection of ovalbumin in rats passively sensitized with anti-ovalbumin anti-serum. The releases of SP were determined in the conjunctiva and tears using rat antigen-induced conjunctivitis models. Results Olopatadine 0.1% and 0.2% significantly inhibited the increased conjunctival dye leaked in the histamine- or antigen-induced hyperpermeability. The inhibitory effects by olopatadine were more potent than by other tested anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions. Moreover, olopatadine significantly inhibited the release of SP from the conjunctiva. Conclusion These results indicate that olopatadine ophthalmic solutions appear to exert additional SP release inhibition besides dual-action such as selective histamine H1 receptor antagonistic action and mast cell stabilization action. PMID:22701861

  12. SAC Availability for the IRIS Community

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P; Snoke, A

    2005-04-06

    SAC (also known as SAC2000) is a signal processing and analysis code that has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the past 20+ years for a variety of seismic and geophysical research projects. SAC has evolved into a general purpose interactive program designed for the study of sequential signals, especially time-series data. Emphasis has been placed on analysis tools used by research seismologists in the detailed study of seismic events. Analysis capabilities include general arithmetic operations, Fourier transforms, three spectral estimation techniques, IIR and FIR filtering, signal stacking, decimation, interpolation, correlation, and seismic phase picking. SAC also contains an extensive graphics capability. SAC is used extensively by the seismic community because: (1) it has a broad range of well-tested, efficient data analysis capabilities (examples include: data inspection, phase picking, signal correction, quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis), (2) it is easy to use and reliable, (3) it has a macro programming language that allows users to develop innovative new analysis techniques, (4) it has interfaces to the Unix operating system, Matlab (www.mathworks.com), and the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software (Wessel and Smith, 1991, 1998 and gmt.soest.hawaii.edu) that make it very flexible, allowing researchers to solve many research problems innovatively with minimal programming effort, and (5) the suite of analysis capabilities are integrated so that innovative processing schemes are easily implemented. SAC is also widely used because of its user oriented development philosophy, which has led to consistent, easy to use capabilities that are backward compatible. A sample of some of SAC's capabilities is displayed in Figure 1.

  13. Conjunctivitis and Total IgE in Lacrimal Fluid: Lacrytest Screening

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Susana; Arrondo, Elena; Bartra, Joan; Torres, Ferran; Basagaña, María; del Mar San Miguel, M.; Alonso, Rosario; Cisteró-Bahima, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Total tear IgE has been considered to play an important role in allergic conjunctivitis, and measurement has been considered useful for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether Lacrytest®, a new commercialised method to detect IgE levels in lacrimal fluid, could constitute a screening test for the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and a control group were included. Clinical history, ophthalmic examination, skin prick test and conjunctival provocation test were obtained. Lacrytest® was later performed in all groups. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: thirty with IgE-mediated conjunctivitis and, nine with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and fifteen controls. Lacrytest® was negative in all controls, positive in 20% of the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group and in 88.9% of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis group. Global statistically-significant differences were found among the three groups (P = .003). Sensitivity of the test in the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group was 20%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 38.46%, while in VKC sensitivity was 88.88%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 93.75%. Our data confirm that this test is not useful for screening allergic conjunctivitis. Lacrytest®, while not providing any useful information to an allergist, could be helpful for ophthalmologists to confirm an IgE-mediated or VKC conjunctivitis. PMID:20975798

  14. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  15. A Surprise in the Lacrimal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Nilay; Akcay, Emine; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Ozen, Umut; Ozturk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    To present a case with recurrent dacryocystitis as an unusual complication of medial orbital wall fracture repair with cartilage tissue graft. A 20-year-old male had facial trauma and underwent surgery to reconstruct right medial orbital wall fracture. During follow–up, he presented with continuous epiphora, mucopurulent discharge from the right eye. A thorough history taking indicated that medial orbital fracture was reconstructed with postauricular cartilage. We planned a standard external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). During the creation of lacrimal sac flaps, hard tissue was noted in the lacrimal sac. This tissue was excised and sent for pathological examination. The pathological examination revealed cartilage tissue. There were no further ipsilateral symptoms or complications after DCR. In patients with lacrimal system injury related to orbital wall fracture, iatrogenic foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac should be considered in patients with recurrent dacryocystitis who had reconstructive surgery for facial and orbital trauma. PMID:27555715

  16. Acute Scrotum Caused by Hernia Sac Torsion.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Aoki, Katsuya; Shimada, Keiji; Samma, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    A 9-year-old boy was referred to us with an acute pain attack of the left scrotal contents. Ultrasonography showed a normal blood supply to the left testis, suggesting an incarcerated left inguinal hernia. Surgical exploration did not demonstrate an incarcerated left inguinal hernia. After exploration of the left testis, a dark red pedunculated cystic mass, separate from the left testis, was found to be twisted. Immunohistochemical studies of the excised cyst demonstrated torsion of the hernia sac of the peritoneum. In conclusion, we encountered a case of acute scrotum which was probably caused by torsion of the hernia sac.

  17. Conjunction Illusions and Conjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Nakamura, K.; Reyna, V. F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the overdistribution principle implies that episodic memory is infected by conjunction illusions. These are instances in which an item that was presented in a single context (e.g., List 1) is falsely remembered as having been presented in multiple contexts (e.g., List 1 and List 2). Robust conjunction illusions were detected in source-monitoring designs in which conjunctive probes (Was bagpipe presented on List 1 and List 2?) were added to the traditional nonconjunctive probes (Was bagpipe presented on List 1?). In Experiment 1, the levels of those illusions were comparable to what would be expected on the basis of results from prior overdistribution experiments. In Experiments 2 and 3, conjunction illusions were neither eliminated nor reduced by a manipulation that should have had such effects if the illusions are by-products of subjective differences in retrieved memory support. Also, conjunction illusions sometimes rose to the level of conjunction fallacies: In certain conditions, subjects thought that items were more likely to have occurred in all the presentation contexts than in any single context, which is impossible. Two general approaches to explaining overdistribution, representational accounts and retrieval accounts, are considered. PMID:24911136

  18. Clinical and histopathological aspects in two cases of ligneous conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen LuminiŢa; Mănescu, Maria Rodica; Deca, Andreea Gabriela; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania; Jurja, Sanda

    2016-01-01

    Ligneous conjunctivitis represents a very rare form of chronic membranous conjunctivitis, with unknown etiology; less than 200 cases have been reported in the literature, most of them in infants and children. After 40 years, this condition appears in exceptional circumstances. We present, in this study, two patients (of 55 and 64 years old) with very severe forms of ligneous conjunctivitis, certified by histopathological examination, one of them being previously diagnosed with Lyell's syndrome. The histological examination in ligneous conjunctivitis is important for diagnostic but also to elucidate the etiopathological context. A discontinued hyperplastic conjunctiva with numerous nuclear abnormalities and marked intra- and inter-cellular edema was characteristic for both cases. The epithelium layer presents large area of extension into the connective tissue, in the form of cysts and gland-like structures, or creating deep epithelial lacunas, with goblet cells. The connective subepithelial tissue presents diffuse inflammatory infiltration, with round cells, especially near vessels. Inside the conjunctival tissue, big hyaline areas with rare cellularity are detected. The amorphous deposits containing fibrillar material are also present. At the level of pseudo-membranes, we recorded a massive exudation of fibrin with an inflammatory cellular infiltration, and large areas containing an amorphous eosinophilic hyaline material. The association of ligneous conjunctivitis with Lyell's syndrome in one of our patients suggests its immuno-allergic etiology.

  19. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns ... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Language: English Español (Spanish) File ...

  20. Mars solar conjunction prediction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kulshrestha, Shivali; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2016-01-01

    During the Mars solar conjunction, telecommunication and tracking between the spacecraft and the Earth degrades significantly. The radio signal degradation depends on the angular separation between the Sun, Earth and probe (SEP), the signal frequency band and the solar activity. All radiometric tracking data types display increased noise and signatures for smaller SEP angles. Due to scintillation, telemetry frame errors increase significantly when solar elongation becomes small enough. This degradation in telemetry data return starts at solar elongation angles of around 5° at S-band, around 2° at X-band and about 1° at Ka-band. This paper presents a mathematical model for predicting Mars superior solar conjunction for any Mars orbiting spacecraft. The described model is simulated for the Mars Orbiter Mission which experienced Mars solar conjunction during May-July 2015. Such a model may be useful to flight projects and design engineers in the planning of Mars solar conjunction operational scenarios.

  1. [Follicular conjunctivitis of unknown origin].

    PubMed

    Goebels, S; Hasenfus, A K; Kellner, B K; Löw, U; Seitz, B

    2012-01-01

    A 40-year-old female chemical laboratory assistant presented at our clinic with chronic conjunctivitis of 4 years' standing. We initially misdiagnosed her symptoms as giant papillary conjunctivitis. Topical treatment failed to produce an improvement and a biopsy was performed. Histopathological analysis showed bilateral follicular lymphoma, a subtype of the B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient was referred for radiotherapy. At follow-up 18 months later the patient was symptom-free.

  2. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles.

    PubMed

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Gonçalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-09-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which we attribute to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, we showed that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, we noticed a delayed type of irritation after 72 hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is, as far as we know, the first time that a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil in tent-cloth is described.

  3. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  4. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic asthma have another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes ... eczema ( atopic dermatitis ), followed by food allergies, then hay fever, and finally asthma. However, not all individuals with ...

  5. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  7. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Actual SAC105, SAC305, and SAC405 Solder Joints by Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Yu, D.; Park, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the mechanical properties of three lead-free solder alloys 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405), 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), and 98.5Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) at the solder joint scale. Several actual ChipArray ® ball grid array (CABGA) packages were cross-sectioned, polished, and used as test vehicles. Compressive tests were performed using a nanocharacterization system over the temperature range of 25°C to 105°C. Images of the cross-sectioned solder joints were recorded by microscope during the tests. The recorded images were then processed by using a digital image correlation (DIC) program to calculate the displacement and strain fields on the solder joints. Finite-element method (FEM) modeling was used to extract the Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the solder alloys over the temperature range. The methodology developed in this paper enables characterization of the mechanical properties of the actual solder joints at low strain range with high accuracy.

  8. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  9. What is inside the hernia sac?

    PubMed Central

    Virgínia, Ana Araújo; Santos, Cláudia; Contente, Helena; Branco, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Most ovarian inguinal hernias occur in children and are frequently associated with congenital genitalia defects. The authors present the case of a multiparous 89-year-old woman, without any genitalia defect, who was brought to the emergency department with an irreducible inguinal hernia. The patient was proposed for emergency surgery during which we encountered an ovary and a fallopian tube inside the hernial sac. An oophorosalpingectomy and a Lichtenstein procedure were carried out and the postoperative period was uneventful. This case shows that, even though it is rare, a hernial sac may contain almost any intra-abdominal organ, including those least frequent such as the appendix, an ovary or the fallopian tubes. PMID:27511751

  10. Use of intranasal cromolyn sodium for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Paul H; Ehrlich, Paul M; Fineman, Stanley M; Meltzer, Eli O; Skoner, David P

    2002-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects 10% to 20% of Americans. It frequently coexists with other conditions, such as allergic conjunctivitis, sinusitis, and asthma, and is associated with impaired occupational function and performance in school, decreased quality of life, and increased health care costs. An efficacious agent with minimal adverse effects and a lack of drug interactions is needed to help simplify treatment of allergic rhinitis, especially in patients with comorbidities. Controlled studies of intranasal cromolyn sodium therapy for patients with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis are reviewed, and appropriate candidates for treatment with this agent are discussed. Cromolyn inhibits the degranulation of sensitized mast cells, thereby blocking the release of inflammatory and allergic mediators. It reduces symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and, when used prophylactically, cromolyn can prevent symptoms from occurring. Controlled studies comparing cromolyn with placebo, intranasal corticosteroids, and antihistamines have shown the efficacy of cromolyn in relieving rhinitis symptoms. In addition, because cromolyn is poorly absorbed systemically, it is well tolerated and not associated with drug interactions. Intranasal cromolyn has an excellent safety record, is available as an over-the-counter medication, and has been proved to be efficacious in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  11. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  12. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  13. Allergic enteritis in children

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Gawryjołek, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal form of food allergy is very common in children. The most frequently observed types are allergic proctitis and proctocolitis. In most cases the symptoms subside within the first 2 months of life. The babies seem healthy, and the only abnormality is a small amount of blood in stool. Symptoms can also include small intestine inflammation and colitis. Patients may present with irritability, abdominal pain, flatulence, colic, postprandial vomiting, chronic diarrhoea, and hindered physical development. The diagnosis of allergic enteritis is based on the clinical examination and the results of additional tests including an endoscopy of the lower digestive tract with histopathological assessment. Cow’s milk proteins are the most common nutrition proteins responsible for the development of the symptoms of allergic enteritis. The most essential method of treating allergic enteritis is the elimination diet. The symptoms should subside within 1–2 weeks from the beginning of the diet. PMID:28337229

  14. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  15. Comparative effectiveness and molecular pharmacological mechanisms of antiallergic agents on experimental conjunctivitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Merayo-Lloves, J; Zhao, T; Foster, C S

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of antiallergic agents in the treatment of experimental murine ragweed conjunctivitis. SWR/J mice were divided into eight groups: 1; normal controls (unmanipulated); 2, untreated; 3, lodoxamide; 4, cromolyn; 5, livocarbastine; 6, nedocromil; 7, buffer solution (BS); and 8, tetrandine (TDR). Groups 2-8 were exposed to ragweed pollen through topical application to conjunctival and nasal mucosa, followed by conjunctival challenge with the allergen. Allergic conjunctivitis was evaluated by scoring of the clinical signs and histopathology. mRNA gene expression of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in conjunctiva was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction techniques. Exposed mice developed allergic conjunctivitis clinically and histologically that was modulated by topical lodoxamide, cromolyn, livocarbastine, or nedocromil eye drops or TDR intraperitoneally injected. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated that the drugs and TDR significantly reduced conjunctival eosinophil infiltration and the number of intact and degranulating mast cells. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA gene expression in conjunctiva of treated mice was inhibited compared with untreated and BS-treated controls. No IL-6 mRNA expression was observed even on the conjunctiva of the untreated mice. The antiallergic drugs and TDR exerted a similar action on the murine model of allergic conjunctivitis and demonstrated pharmacologic effectiveness on the conjunctival mRNA expression of cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.

  16. [Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, Juan Carlos; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aída; Cariño-Cartagena, Diego Antonio; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  17. Epigenetics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases of childhood, affecting more than 7 million children in the United States. Epidemiological evidence supports the idea that the inception of allergic diseases is typically before the pre-school years, even when chronic symptoms do not emerge until adulthood. The role of epigenetic mechanisms (particularly DNA methylation) in allergic disease is under active investigation because these mechanisms are known to be at the interface among gene regulation, environmental stimuli and developmental processes, all of which are essential for the pathogenesis for asthma and allergy. This article specifically reviews genome-wide DNA methylation studies in allergic disease. Recent findings Differential DNA methylation at specific regions appears to be associated with concurrent allergic disease. A few studies have identified methylation signatures predictive of disease. Summary DNA methylation signatures have been shown be associated with several allergic disease phenotypes, typically concurrently with disease. The few that have been found to precede diagnosis are especially interesting because they highlight an early trajectory to disease. PMID:26418323

  18. The ocular surface: from physiology to the ocular allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Galicia-Carreón, Jorge; Santacruz, Concepción; Hong, Enrique; Jiménez-Martínez, María C

    2013-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva secondary to an immune response to exogenous antigens, usually called allergens. In fact, AC is a syndrome that involves the entire ocular surface, including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, and tear film. The signs and symptoms of AC have a meaningful effect on comfort and patient health, and could be influenced by environment, genetics and immune regulation mechanisms, all of which work together in a complex immunological homeostasis. Dysregulation in such immune responses could turn into a variety of ocular allergic diseases (OAD). This review describes some of the current understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in different OAD.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.

  20. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  1. Fuzzy associative conjuncted maps network.

    PubMed

    Goh, Hanlin; Lim, Joo-Hwee; Quek, Chai

    2009-08-01

    The fuzzy associative conjuncted maps (FASCOM) is a fuzzy neural network that associates data of nonlinearly related inputs and outputs. In the network, each input or output dimension is represented by a feature map that is partitioned into fuzzy or crisp sets. These fuzzy sets are then conjuncted to form antecedents and consequences, which are subsequently associated to form if-then rules. The associative memory is encoded through an offline batch mode learning process consisting of three consecutive phases. The initial unsupervised membership function initialization phase takes inspiration from the organization of sensory maps in our brains by allocating membership functions based on uniform information density. Next, supervised Hebbian learning encodes synaptic weights between input and output nodes. Finally, a supervised error reduction phase fine-tunes the network, which allows for the discovery of the varying levels of influence of each input dimension across an output feature space in the encoded memory. In the series of experiments, we show that each phase in the learning process contributes significantly to the final accuracy of prediction. Further experiments using both toy problems and real-world data demonstrate significant superiority in terms of accuracy of nonlinear estimation when benchmarked against other prominent architectures and exhibit the network's suitability to perform analysis and prediction on real-world applications, such as traffic density prediction as shown in this paper.

  2. The cost of treating allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Stempel, David A; Woolf, Roger

    2002-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a high-cost, high-prevalence disease. In the year 2000, over $6 billion was spent on prescription medications to treat this illness. Although it is not associated with severe morbidity and mortality, allergic rhinitis has a major effect on the quality of life of the more than 50 million Americans with this illness. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) and nonsedating antihistamines (NSAH) are the most common prescription medications for this disease. INCS are recognized as the most effective treatment regimen for chronic symptoms. NSAH are perceived as important in the treatment of patients with mild disease, or as add-on therapy to INCS. When the literature is reviewed, the INCS produce the greatest decrease in total nasal symptom scores, the largest effect size, when compared with NSAH. Both classes of medications produce similar effects on concurrent allergic conjunctivitis. Further recent studies indicate that the INCS are also superior when used on an as-needed basis, and that there is little clinical benefit from the addition of loratadine to intranasal fluticasone. INCS have lower average wholesale prices as a class than the NSAH. Since the INCS are the dominant medication in efficacy studies and cost less, cost-effectiveness studies always favor intranasal corticosteroids.

  3. Tregs and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Douglas S.; Larché, Mark; Durham, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing in prevalence and affect up to 15% of populations in Westernized countries. The description of Tregs as T cells that prevent development of autoimmune disease led to considerable interest in whether these Tregs were also normally involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens and whether it might be possible to manipulate Tregs for the therapy of allergic disease. Current data suggest that Th2 responses to allergens are normally suppressed by both CD4+CD25+ Tregs and IL-10 Tregs. Furthermore, suppression by these subsets is decreased in allergic individuals. In animal models, Tregs could be induced by high- or low-dose inhaled antigen, and prior induction of such Tregs prevented subsequent development of allergen sensitization and airway inflammation in inhaled challenge models. For many years, allergen-injection immunotherapy has been used for the therapy of allergic disease, and this treatment may induce IL-10 Tregs, leading to both suppression of Th2 responses and a switch from IgE to IgG4 antibody production. Improvements in allergen immunotherapy, such as peptide therapy, and greater understanding of the biology of Tregs hold great promise for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease. PMID:15545986

  4. [Leukotrien antagonists in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Leukotrienes comprise a family of products of the 5-lipoxigenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. The cysteinil leukotrienes C4, D4 and E4 account for the biologic activity that was previously termed "slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis". The proinflammatory effects of cysteinil leukotrienes (cys LTs) have been well described in asthma and rhinitis. The cys LTs induce broncospasm (1,000 times more potent than histamine), edema, mucus, hypersecretion, attract inflammatory cells like eosinophils, increase airway hyperreactivity, vascular leakage, and stimulate takikinins. The leukotriene synthesis can be inhibited in two different places; through inhibition of 5 lipooxigenase activating protein (FLAP) in the 5 lipooxigenase pathway, with the drug Zyleuton, or blocking the cysLT1 receptor with the drugs Montelukast, Pranlukast, Zafirlukast. The cysLTs play an important role in pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and comorbid diseases like rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Antileukotrienes are prescribed in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a complex IgE inflammatory disease of the upper airways. It is the most common allergic disease ocurring in 10 to 20% of adults and up to 30% of children. It may be seasonal or perennial, intermittent or persistent. Sneezing, itching, watery rhinorrea and nasal obstruction are classic symptoms. Ocular itching, lacrimation and redness also occur frequently as almost 50% of the patients also have allergic conjunctivitis. Allergic rhinitis may be mild, moderate or severe disease. It may impair cognition, school and work performance. It affects productivity, behavior and mood changes, causes sleep disturbance and diminish the patient's quality of life. Allergic rhinitis is a common comorbid condition with asthma, sinusitis, otitis media, nasal polyposis and recurrent respiratory infections. The purpose of this rewiew article is to know the importante of leukotrienes, its receptors and the clinical

  5. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Medications and drug allergic reactions TTR Share | Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions This article has been ... by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Everyone reacts to medications differently. One person may develop a rash while ...

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  7. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor in Two Dogs.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K J; Clear, V; Youmans, K; Hardcastle, M R; Nelson, N; Petersen, A; Kiupel, M

    2017-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neoplasms of the inner and middle ear described in humans. Diagnosis of such neoplasms is difficult and largely dependent on a combination of histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical findings. Although the neoplastic cells lack cellular features of malignancy, these are clinically aggressive tumors that often invade the surrounding temporal bone. Here, we describe 2 dogs with middle ear masses that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical similarities with human ELSTs. Advanced imaging of the masses revealed evidence of aggressive behavior such as bony lysis of the temporal bone. Histologically, the neoplastic epithelial cells formed papillary structures, lacked mitotic figures, and had mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. The neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 but were negative for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and thyroglobulin. Local invasion and bone destruction but no evidence of metastases suggest a clinical behavior similar to human ELSTs.

  8. Krukenberg tumor with yolk sac tumor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zamecnik, Michal; Voltr, Lubomir; Stuk, Jan; Chlumska, Alena

    2008-04-01

    An unusual case of bilateral Krukenberg tumor with foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation occurring in a 50-year-old patient is reported. The primary tumor was in the gastric antrum, and it showed morphology of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with diffuse and solid growth pattern. A component of typical YST was not found in the gastric primary and lymph node metastases, although some cells in these locations were positive for alpha-fetoprotein. In the ovarian metastases, YST element showed microcystic/reticular and solid patterns, whereas the adenocarcinoma component was of diffuse type with signet ring cells and with some undifferentiated areas. The case represents further example of the somatic cell-derived tumor with focal germ cell-type differentiation and the first report of YST differentiation in Krukenberg tumor.

  9. Rigorous computation of orbital conjunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, Roberto; Morselli, Alessandro; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Lavagna, Michèle

    2012-09-01

    The manuscript addresses the problem of computing conjunctions either between Near Earth Objects and our planet or space debris and operative spacecraft. The problem is formulated as a global optimization problem, solved rigorously using Taylor models. With this technique, narrow bounds of the objective function are computed on sub-portions of the search space by combining high order Taylor approximations of the function with interval enclosures of the remainder terms. An algorithm based on differential algebra is then presented to nonlinearly describe the effect that uncertainties on the initial states produce on the time and distance of closest approach. This is represented with high order Taylor maps which can be potentially used for the implementation of innovative algorithms for risk assessment, avoiding the main assumptions of current approaches. Asteroid Apophis and a threatening condition between two geostationary satellites are considered as examples to analyze the features of the proposed methods.

  10. [Apoptosis in allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Rojas Ramos, E; Martínez Jiménez, N E; Martínez Aguilar, N E; Garfias Becerra, J

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis (cell programmed death) it is a mechanism that implicate a physiological suicide, to keep the cellular homeostasis in big amount of tissues. Fas (APO-1; CD95) system is one of the most important cellular responsible via to induce apoptosis on different tissues. Eosinophillia on peripheral blood and tissues are the main characteristics on allergic like asthma. Eosinophil apoptosis is upper regulated in those diseases by IL-5 y GM-CSF. Corticoids, teophyllin and some macrolids have been used like apoptosis inductors on eosinophills, these could be a novel mechanism to promote a better solution on inflammatory allergic diseases.

  11. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or absence of air sacs is correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, a probable minimum and maximum date of the loss of air sacs can be estimated from fossil hyoid bones. Australopithecus afarensis still had air sacs about 3.3 Ma, while Homo heidelbergensis, some 600 000 years ago and Homo neandethalensis some 60 000 years ago, did no longer. The reduced distinctiveness of articulations produced with an air sac is in line with the hypothesis that air sacs were selected against because of the evolution of complex vocal communication. This relation between complex vocal communication and fossil evidence may help to get a firmer estimate of when speech first evolved.

  12. On the robustness of SAC silencing in closed mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Donovan; Liu, Jian

    Mitosis equally partitions sister chromatids to two daughter cells. This is achieved by properly attaching these chromatids via their kinetochores to microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles. Once the last kinetochore is properly attached, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Due to the dynamic nature of microtubules, however, kinetochore-microtubule attachment often goes wrong. When this erroneous attachment occurs, it locally activates an ensemble of proteins, called the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins (SAC), which halts the mitotic progression until all the kinetochores are properly attached by spindle microtubules. The timing of SAC silencing thus determines the fidelity of chromosome segregation. We previously established a spatiotemporal model that addresses the robustness of SAC silencing in open mitosis for the first time. Here, we focus on closed mitosis by examining yeast mitosis as a model system. Though much experimental work has been done to study the SAC in cells undergoing closed mitosis, the processes responsible are not well understood. We leverage and extend our previous model to study SAC silencing mechanism in closed mitosis. We show that a robust signal of the SAC protein accumulation at the spindle pole body can be achieved. This signal is a nonlinear increasing function of number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and can thus serve as a robust trigger to time the SAC silencing. Together, our mechanism provides a unified framework across species that ensures robust SAC silencing and fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Intramural research program in NHLBI at NIH.

  13. General effects of hyperosmolar agents on the endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Erwall, C

    1988-11-01

    The effects of glycerol, urea and mannitol on the structure of the murine endolymphatic sac were investigated at various time intervals after their administration. Within 15 min after administration of glycerol and urea the lumen of the endolymphatic sac was partially collapsed and the density of its contents was increased. At the same time many light epithelial cells displayed abundant intracytoplasmic granules containing floccular and/or lamellar material. A similar type of material was observed in the lumen in close proximity to these cells. This suggested that macromolecular substances were secreted into the endolymphatic sac lumen from these cells. Mannitol induced similar changes, though less pronounced. It is proposed that the changes in the endolymphatic sac following systemic administration of hyperosmolar substances reflect an ability of the endolymphatic sac to compensate for endolymphatic volume and pressure changes caused by these agents.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  15. Prevention of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1994-08-01

    Allergic disease produces substantial pediatric morbidity and individual dysfunction, making its mechanisms an appropriate target for clarification and preventive strategies. Disease expression seems to reflect a constellation of determinants that controls IgE production variably, affects specific function of target organs, and determines exposure to putative allergens. Bases for the two former factors are being defined rapidly and appear to be controlled genetically. Therefore, although stronger eugenic motivation will be required to exploit even present information for effective prevention, parental phenotypes can provide a rough indication of postconceptive risk. Despite many divergent data, current evidence fails to support the value of gestational strategies undertaken to prevent allergic disease in the newborn; however, this risk apparently may be reduced by avoiding postnatal allergens. The protection afforded seems to be allergen-specific rather than somehow serving to abate "the allergic tendency." Evidence increasingly is persuasive that sensitization to pollens, foods, and possibly other agents is prone to occur in the first 6 to 12 months of life. Strategies that exclude potent food allergens from the diets of high-risk infants appear to reduce the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, but seem far less able to influence respiratory symptoms. Efforts to limit exposure to potent inhalant allergens (eg, dust mites, animal "danders") are now also feasible and offer quite effective secondary and, perhaps, primary prevention. Trials of these strategies and clarification of other domestic contaminant effects on child health offer "homely" but valid and potentially useful approaches to reducing the impact of allergic disease.

  16. Sphingolipids: A Potential Molecular Approach to Treat Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wai Y.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is an immune response to foreign antigens, which begins within minutes of exposure to the allergen followed by a late phase leading to chronic inflammation. Prolonged allergic inflammation manifests in diseases such as urticaria and rhino-conjunctivitis, as well as chronic asthma and life-threatening anaphylaxis. The prevalence of allergic diseases is profound with 25% of the worldwide population affected and a rising trend across all ages, gender, and racial groups. The identification and avoidance of allergens can manage this disease, but this is not always possible with triggers being common foods, prevalent air-borne particles and only extremely low levels of allergen exposure required for sensitization. Patients who are sensitive to multiple allergens require prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Current treatments are often suboptimal and associated with adverse effects, such as the interruption of cognition, sleep cycles, and endocrine homeostasis, all of which affect quality of life and are a financial burden to society. Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. Herein, we review the current knowledge of allergic inflammation and discuss the role of sphingolipids as potential targets to regulate inflammatory development in vivo and in humans. We also discuss the benefits and risks of using sphingolipid inhibitors. PMID:23316248

  17. A Qualitative Analysis of Supervision in SAC Minuteman ICBM Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    8217~44IAA A -’ ff3 4% At S. ~ At .~ 4 ’ 󈧦k (A444 4 qg~ 1 ~ ~ H St P /4 .4.,* 4’ SN, h$ A 4., 4,f A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN Master’s Thesis SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE 4. PERFORMING o1. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...112-83 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics

  18. [Allergic vasculitis in brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Mérad-Boudia, A; Ghernaout-Benchouk, S

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram negative bacillus of the Brucella gender. Skin manifestations have been reported in 1.5 to 11 p. 100 of the cases. Allergic vasculitis is rare. Recently a 24-year-old man was hospitalized for signs of infection. He had been treated with tetracycline. The clinical picture was suggestive of brucellosis and the Wright test was positive at 1/1,280. There were violet and purpuric papulae on the limbs, arthritis of the knee and ankle joints and renal involvement (haematuria, proteinuria). Histology revealed fibrinoid and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the small veinules of the subpapillary plexus. Outcome was favourable with rifampicin, doxycycline and adjuvant dapsone, together with bed rest. Several types of skin manifestations have been reported in brucellosis although cases of allergic vasculitis are rare.

  19. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  20. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  1. Management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Solelhac, Geoffroy; Charpin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke.

  2. Allergic Inflammation—Innately Homeostatic

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Laurence E.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  3. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  5. Chronological Change of the Sac after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hyun; Park, Hyung Sub; Ahn, Sanghyun; Min, Sang-Il; Min, Seung-Kee; Ha, Jongwon; Lee, Taeseung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential risk factors of type II endoleak and sac growth after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and the outcomes of secondary interventions. Materials and Methods: Ninety seven patients underwent elective EVAR for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms in two tertiary centers between April 2005 and July 2013. Clinical and imaging parameters were compared among sac growth (>5 mm) and non-growth groups. Risk factors associated with sac growth and persistent type II endoleak were analyzed. The outcomes of reinterventions for persistent type II endoleak were determined. Results: Sac growth was observed in 20 cases (20.6%) and endoleak was found in 90% of them compared to 28.6% (22/77) in the non-growth group (P<0.001). The majority of endoleaks were type II (36/40) and 80.5% were persistent. Sac diameter, neck diameter and number of patent accessory arteries were also statistically significant for sac growth. On multivariate analysis, grade of calcification at the neck, grade of mural thrombus at the inferior mesenteric artery and number of patent accessory arteries were risk factors of persistent type II endoleak. Twenty six reinterventions were done for 16 patients with persistent type II endoleak, with a technical success rate of 88.5%, yet 55.5% showed sac growth regardless of technical success. There were no ruptures during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Sac growth after EVAR was mostly associated with persistent type II endoleak. Secondary interventions using transarterial embolization is partially effective in achieving clinical success. PMID:28042554

  6. Job Attitudes of SAC (Strategic Air Command) Pilots Compared.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    capitalize on attitudinal strengths and compensate for attitudinal weaknesses. JO OV I I tlli ’ All’ ABiLiT if 01- ABSVTRACT 21 AU3STRACT SECURITY...strengths and compensate for attitudinal weaknesses. Also! SAC commanders were advised what work issues they should be concerned about. IV. Results and...how they can capitalize on attitudinal strengths and compensate for attitudinal weaknesses; also to advise leaders within SAC what work issues they

  7. [. Oсumethyl in the treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, N R

    Treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva (conjunctivites and blepharoconjunctivites) often presents difficulties due to peculiarities of their pathogenesis - allergic and vascular reactions, disorder of lacrimal production, meibomian gland dysfunction, and possible bacterial contamination. It has been suggested to use Ocumethyl, which contains zinc sulfate (binding, drying, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic effect), diphenhydamine hydrochloride (an Н1-antihistamine that decreases capillary permeability and helps resolve conjunctival and eyelid edema), naphazoline hydrochloride (a sympathomimetic notable for its strong, rapid, and long-lasting vasoconstrictive effect), and methylene blue (antiseptic effect, disintoxication, and antioxidant activity). A total of 80 patients with chronic allergic conjunctivitis, blepharoconjuntivitis, or giant papillary conjunctivitis associated with contact lens wearing were treated with Ocumethyl instillations (3 times daily for 15-30 days). A clinically significant effect was obtained in 77-91% of patients depending on the disease entity.

  8. Characteristics and predictors of allergic rhinitis undertreatment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Murgia, N; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Pala, A P; Casciari, C; dell'Omo, M; Viegi, G

    2016-03-01

    Although allergic rhinitis is considered a raising medical problem in many countries it is often undertreated. The reasons for this phenomenon are not completely clear.The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment.A sample of 518 allergic rhinitis patients recruited by their primary care physicians, as a part of the ARGA study, were invited to fill in a specific questionnaire regarding rhinitis symptoms, treatment, and rhinitis-related work/social disability. Chi-square test and logistic regression were performed to assess risk factors for allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment.Over one out of four patients had no treatment despite the symptoms and 13.5% were inadequately treated. Participants with asthma (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.75) and conjunctivitis (0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71) were at lower risk of allergic rhinitis under-/no treatment: in asthmatics this reduction was related mainly to the concomitant asthma treatment (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.37).Asthmatics with under-/not treated rhinitis had the highest prevalence of rhinitis-related quality of life impairment.Under-/no treatment for allergic rhinitis is still rather frequent despite the relevance of this disease. The simultaneous presence of asthma and an anti-asthmatic therapy are able to influence positively the treatment. Targeted interventions toward a better characterization and a tight follow-up of rhinitis patient without asthma are needed.

  9. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bains, Sonia N; Judson, Marc A

    2012-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by an exaggerated T(H)2 response to the ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA develops in a small fraction of patients with cystic fibrosis and asthma, suggesting that intrinsic host defects play a major role in disease susceptibility. This article reviews current understanding of the immunopathology, clinical and laboratory findings, and diagnosis and management of ABPA. It highlights clinical and laboratory clues to differentiate ABPA from cystic fibrosis and asthma, which are challenging given clinical and serologic similarities. A practical diagnostic algorithm and management scheme to aid in the treatment of these patients is outlined.

  10. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  12. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  13. [Frequency of sensitization to aeroallergens in patients with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Morales, Guillermina; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aida; Arroyo-Cruz, Mariana Esther; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la conjuntivitis alérgica es una enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta directamente a la conjuntiva, la patogénesis de la conjuntivitis alérgica es predominantemente una reacción de hipersensibilidad tipo I mediada por IgE. Se relaciona principalmente con la sensibilización a aeroalergenos extra e intradomiciliarios. En términos clínicos se clasifica como estacional o perenne. El cuadro clínico consiste en prurito ocular, hiperemia conjuntival, epífora y fotofobia. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos en pacientes con conjuntivitis alérgica estacional o perenne que acuden al Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital General de México. Material y método: estudio transversal y descriptivo efectuado en pacientes con conjuntivitis alérgica estacional o perenne. Previo consentimiento informado, se realizó la historia clínica completa, así como estudios de laboratorio y pruebas cutáneas a aeroalergenos; se determinó la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos. Resultados: se encontró con mayor frecuencia la sensibilización a pólenes de Quercus, Alnus y Fraxinus, seguidos de Dermatophagoides spp. Predominó el género femenino entre la segunda y cuarta décadas de la vida. Conclusiones: la conjuntivitis alérgica es una enfermedad frecuente asociada con rinitis alérgica. Los alergenos asociados con mayor frecuencia en este estudio fueron los pólenes y ácaros del polvo doméstico.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  15. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harnsberger, H R; Dahlen, R T; Shelton, C; Gray, S D; Parkin, J L

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare temporal bone computed tomography (CT) to high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a novel thin-section fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence in identifying and characterizing patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. Sixteen patients with sensorineural hearing loss and a CT diagnosis of large vestibular aqueduct(s) underwent high-resolution fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging with dual, 3-in phased array receiver coils centered over the external auditory canals. Magnetic resonance imaging parameters included axial and oblique sagittal fast spin echo with an effective slice thickness of 1 mm contiguous. Thirty-eight patients with 76 normal inner ears who underwent MR imaging using this technique had their endolymphatic duct measured. MR alone identified the enlarged endolymphatic sac seen along with the large endolymphatic duct in all cases. Three cases (five inner ears) with enlarged bony vestibular aqueducts on CT showed no evidence of endolymphatic duct or sac enlargement on MR. MR alone identified a single case of mild cochlear anomaly in conjunction with an enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac. In the normal population the size of the normal endolymphatic duct at its midpoint measured from 0.1 to 1.4 mm. Thin-section, high-resolution fast spin echo MR imaging of the inner ear may be superior to CT in the evaluation of patients with the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

  16. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious.

  17. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  18. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems.

  19. The prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis among patients with acute conjunctivitis in Kasr Alainy ophthalmology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mowafy, Maha Abdelrahman; Saad, Nagwa Eid; El-Mofty, Hala Mohamed; ElAnany, Mervat Gaber; Mohamed, Marwa Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Trachoma is a leading cause of avoidable blindness and endemic conjunctivitis in 57 countries. It infects approximately 84 million people globally, and continues to threaten over 10% of the world's population with the risk of blindness. Methods This is a cross sectional descriptive study assessing patients presenting with acute conjunctivitis. A full history was taken from patients followed by examination of both eyes. A conjunctival swab was taken and a sample of tears was collected and handled at the central laboratory unit at Kasr AlAiny hospital for culture and sensitivity of the swab and ELISA for tears searching for Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M of chlamydia trachomatis. Results The prevalence of bacterial conjunctivitis encounted for 45.7% and non-bacterial 54.3% of the studied group. The anti-chlamydial antibodies were positive in the tears of 31.1% of patients. While the other bacterial organisms responsible for 14.6%. Conclusion The study concluded that trachoma accounts for one third of the cases of acute conjunctivitis while the other bacterial organisms responsible for about 14.6%. More than half of the cases have other causes as viral, allergic, mechanical or chemical induced conjunctivitis. PMID:25374648

  20. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  1. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  2. The short-circuited everted sac of rat colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Goerg, K J; Wanitschke, R; Soergel, K H; Wood, C M; Nell, G

    1981-01-01

    A short-circuited preparation of everted rat colon sacs is described. The serosal current electrode is a AgAgCl wire. A cylindrical agar bridge or AgAgCl electrode may be employed on the mucosal side. Effects of Ag+ ions liberated from the electrodes on ion transport could not be demonstrated. Fluid and sodium are absorbed ad bicarbonate secreted. Potassium and chloride movements are not significantly different form zero. The preparation remains stable for at least 2 h. Sodium absorption is diminished by 50% and bicarbonate secretion abolished in the absence of glucose. In principle, similar ion transport properties were found as in Ussing-chamber preparations. The advantage of the everted sac is the capability of measuring net transport of fluid and electrolytes simultaneously and directly because of the large surface/inner volume ratio of the sac.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G; Wilson, S R; Hullinger, G A

    2003-05-01

    Tumors of the perianal area of dogs are common and include multiple tumor types. Whereas perianal adenomas occur often, adenocarcinomas of the apocrine glands of the anal sac occur less frequently. A review of the literature revealed no reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising from the epithelial lining of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinomas originating from the lining of the anal sac were diagnosed in five dogs. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of variably sized invasive nests and cords of epithelial cells displaying squamous differentiation. Four of the five dogs were euthanatized because of problems associated with local infiltration by the tumors. In the fifth dog, there was no evidence of tumor 7 months after surgical removal, but further follow up was not available.

  4. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  5. Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Monica D.; Larina, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell, and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos. PMID:25191274

  6. Clinical inquiries. Intranasal steroids vs antihistamines: which is better for seasonal allergies and conjunctivitis?

    PubMed

    Parle-Pechera, Suzanna; Powers, Laurel; St Anna, Leilani

    2012-07-01

    Intranasal steroids provide better relief for adult sufferers, according to nonstandardized, nonclinically validated scales. Steroids reduce subjective total nasal symptom scores (TNSS)--representing sneezing, itching, congestion, and rhinorrhea--by about 25% more than placebo, whereas oral antihistamines decrease TNSS by 5% to 10% (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, systematic review of randomized controlled trials [RCTs], most without clinically validated or standardized outcome measures). Intranasal steroids improve subjective eye symptom scores as well as (or better than) oral antihistamines in adults who also have allergic conjunctivitis (SOR: A, systematic review, RCTs).

  7. Characterization of hematopoietic progenitors from human yolk sacs and embryos.

    PubMed

    Huyhn, A; Dommergues, M; Izac, B; Croisille, L; Katz, A; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1995-12-15

    Hematopoiesis first arises in the extraembryonic yolk sac, and it is generally believed that yolk sac-derived stem cells migrate and seed the fetal liver at approximately week 6 of development in humans. Recently, the identification at day 8.5 to 9 of multipotential stem cells in intraembryonic sites different from the liver suggests that the establishment of hematopoiesis might be more complex than initially believed. In an attempt to understand initial steps of hematopoiesis during human ontogeny, we characterized clonogenic myeloid progenitor cells in human yolk sacs and corresponding embryos at 25 to 50 days of development. Most erythroid colonies derived from the yolk sacs differed from adult marrow-derived progenitors in that they also contained cells of the granulomacrophagic lineage, suggesting that they were pluripotent and exhibited a different response to cytokines. Furthermore, a subclass of nonerythroid progenitors generated very large granulomacrophagic colonies, some of which generated secondary erythroid colonies on replating. Analysis of the distribution of progenitors revealed that in contrast to erythroid progenitors, whose numbers were equally distributed between the yolk sac and the embryo, 80% of the nonerythroid progenitors were found in the embryo at stages II and III. Interestingly, a high proportion of nonerythroid progenitors (including high proliferative potential cells) was present in colony assays initiated with cells remaining after the liver has been removed. These findings were validated in colony assays established with CD34+ cells purified from extraembryonic yolk sacs and intraembryonic tissues. Increased knowledge about the biology of hematopoietic stem cells early in life may help to further understanding of the mechanisms associated with the restriction in proliferative and differentiative potential observed in the adult hematopoietic stem cell compartment.

  8. The Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Samuel O.

    1964-01-01

    Allergic inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, like other atopic disorders, occurs primarily as the result of an antigenantibody reaction between external allergens and circulating skin-sensitizing antibodies. In addition, the disease process is frequently complicated by bacterial or viral infection. Effective treatment of allergic rhinitis, therefore, consists of: (1) changing the patient's environment in order to remove the offending allergens, (2) removing the patient from his environment, (3) altering the patient's response to environmental allergens by means of hyposensitization injections, (4) suppressing the allergic reaction with drugs, and (5) eliminating bacterial infection. Usually more than one of these therapeutic measures is required for the individual patient. PMID:14175878

  9. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  10. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  11. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  12. Sac Hygroma After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Successful Treatment with Endograft Relining

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Robert K. Palestrant, Sarah; Ryu, Jessica; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey

    2007-06-15

    Aneurysm sac expansion following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is typically associated with endoleaks that can be readily diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound, or catheter-directed arteriography. Sac hygromas are a cause of sac expansion without apparent endoleak and are presumed to be a result of ultrafiltration of serum manifested by accumulation of fibrinous, gelatinous material within the aneurysm sac following EVAR. Although there are no reported associated ruptures, sac expansion is nevertheless disconcerting and intervention is presumably indicated. We report a case of an expanding aneurysm after EVAR secondary to sac hygroma that was successfully treated with relining of the existing, original endograft.

  13. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  14. Mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis and hernial sacs.

    PubMed

    Grove, A; Jensen, M L; Donna, A

    1989-01-01

    Three histologically and immunohistochemically well-documented cases of mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis and hernial sac are presented. Analysis and follow-up data on our three patients and a review of 30 previously reported cases have revealed a varied and often unpredictable clinical course. A classification into high- and lowgrade malignant tumours is suggested, based on clinical and pathological findings.

  15. Unusual presentation of Enterobius vermicularis in conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Ranadeep; Banerjee, Arup Kumar

    2015-10-01

    We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the conjunctival sac of a two-and-a-half year old boy from Alipurduar, West Bengal, India. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the English literature, one from Assam, India in 1976, and the other from Illinois and California in 2011.

  16. [Sarcoidosis of the lacrimal sac as a cause of dacriostenosis].

    PubMed

    Burduk, Paweł K; Seredyka-Burduk, Małgorzata; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech; Dalke, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. The course of sarcoidosis ranges from asymptomatic to severe. It could affect people of all ages. The disease affects predominantly the lungs and lymph nodes, skin, abdominal organs or eyes. Sarcoidosis of lacrimal sac is very uncommon. We describe a young man with lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa sarcoidosis present with epiphora. Few years before the onset of dacriocystitis the patient was treated because of lymph nodes sarcoidosis. The lacrimal sac sarcoidosis developed five years after systemic disease remission. An endoscopic dacriocystorhinostomy with intubation of nasolacrimal duct was performed. We used postoperatively systemic and local steroids for 3 months period. The patient is under observation for over four years with good health. The abnormal looking nasal or lacrimal sac mucosa could be associated with granulomatous disease as sarcoidosis and Wegener's or malignancies. If the sarcoidosis is established, it could be the first manifestation of sarcoidosis leading to future systemic sarcoidosis development or it may develop many years after the onset of systemic disease. Endoscopic dacriocystorhinostomy with intubation followed by intensive therapy with systemic and local corticosteroids may be helpful to maintain lacrimal drainage patency.

  17. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Magda L.; Joergensen, Gitte H.

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity. PMID:26986760

  18. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  19. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; Denissen, Ronald; Quinn, David A.

    2017-01-01

    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.

  20. Collaborative Work Environment for Operational Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, F.; Christy, S.

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some sort of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented thought Middle Man entities. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between all members of CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver SpOD Space Operational Data. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on a laptop by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. The dedicated secure webserver is a key element to share data and information between actors. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience with regards to its collaborative work environment components: - JAC software which is not a classical Flight Dynamics software, its MMI is designed to be very quickly taken over (by teams not using it on daily basis) while also offering all the expertise levels required by the Middle Man team. JAC is used by CAESAR on-call team and all FD teams who subscribed to CAESAR. JAC is also distributed by CNES and therefore already used by some operational teams for Conjunction

  1. SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

    In comp liance with the objectives established in the National Space Program, Argentina in Space 1997-2008 ((Plan Espacial Nacional, Argentina en el Espacio 1997-2008), the National Commission on Space Activities (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales - CONAE) undertook the design, construction, and launching of the SAC-C satellite in close collaboration with NASA. The purpose of this Mission is to carry out observations of interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. Ten instruments on board the SAC-C perform different studies related to the ground and sea ecosystems, the atmosphere and the geomagnetic field. There are also technological experiments for determination of the satellite attitude and velocity as well as for the studies of the influence of space radiation on advanced electronic components . The inclusion of SAC-C in the AM Constellation, jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of important international cooperation which synergies the output of any single Mission. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken including several jointly sponsored technical workshops and collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments. A flight campaign of the NASA AVIRIS instrument was performed in Argentine during January and February 2001, for calibration of SAC-C and EO 1 cameras and the development of joint scientific works. In Cordoba Space Center a jointly operated ground GPS reference

  2. Expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in midgestation mouse yolk sac and mouse visceral yolk sac carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, A R; Habib, G M; Damjanov, A; Matacic, S; Damjanov, I; Lebovitz, R M; Lieberman, M W

    1995-08-01

    gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma GT) is a crucial enzyme for the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous mediators of biological functions (leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and hepoxillins). Yet little is known about its potential role during development. It is a single copy gene expressed from at least seven promoters. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry we demonstrate that gamma GT first appears in the midgestational yolk sacs of mouse embryos. Established cell lines with phenotypic features of yolk sac endoderm (JC-44) or embryonic stem cells were also assayed for the expression of gamma GT. Significant levels were detected in JC-44 cells and higher levels were found in JC-44-derived embryoid bodies. Because this cell line appears to be a good in vitro counterpart of yolk sac differentiation, we characterized the gamma GT mRNA types expressed in JC-44 cells. By ribonuclease protection analysis, gamma GT RNA types IV and VI represent about 80% of the total gamma GT RNA in JC-44 embryoid bodies. Reverse transcription-mediated polymerase chain reaction detected low amounts of gamma GT RNA types I, III, and V. Expression of gamma GT in yolk sac follows a pattern seen in many tissues in which one or two gamma GT RNA types dominate the expression profile; however, the reason for this tissue specificity is unknown.

  3. Mastocytosis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, P; Lombardo, C; Zanotti, R

    2014-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, mainly skin and bone marrow. It can cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations-other than urticaria pigmentosa-that can lead to inappropriate release of mediators by mast cells. The most severe manifestation is anaphylaxis. The triggers of anaphylaxis in adults with mastocytosis are numerous, but Hymenoptera stings seem to be the most frequent, followed by foods and drugs. Therefore, to prevent severe reactions, it is very important to recognize and avoid potential triggers; in addition, venom-allergic patients must receive lifelong immunotherapy, which has proven very effective. Given that published data on drug anaphylaxis in patients with mast cell disorders are scarce, it is not currently possible to provide clear recommendations. The risk of systemic reactions during general anesthesia can be reduced by assessing risk on an individual basis (previous reaction to a drug or reaction during surgery) and by avoiding specific trigger factors (patient temperature changes, infusion of cold solution, tissue trauma, friction, and other mechanical factors).

  4. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A; Bush, Robert K; Demain, Jeffrey G; Luong, Amber; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    There remains a lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports, and an electronic survey was conducted of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 US physicians in the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology database of members and fellows, 245 health professionals (48%) had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE because 44.9% used ≥417 kU/L, whereas 42.0% used ≥1000 kU/L. Analysis of these findings suggests that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. With regard to pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids plus inhaled corticosteroids plus antifungal agent were used with 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited.

  5. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  6. 2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) The Data Collection Form SF-SAC is available on the FAC Web site....

  7. Cohesion in Interlanguage: A Study of Conjunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Leslie M.

    A study of textual cohesion in the oral discourse of learners of English as a second language had as subjects 19 Asians from 4 language backgrounds, who were living and, in most cases, studying English in the United States. Analysis of taped conversations focused on the use of conjunctive adjuncts of three kinds: (1) simple adverbs (e.g., and,…

  8. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  9. [Gonococcal conjunctivitis in a young woman].

    PubMed

    Biance-Valero, E; Quiniou, P-Y; Valero, B; Navarrot, J-C; Soullié, B

    2013-12-01

    We describe the management of a female patient who developed an uncomplicated unilateral purulent conjunctivitis with no other clinical signs. The typical clinical presentation and Gram stain of the discharge suggested gonococcal conjunctivitis, allowing treatment to be initiated. Indeed, a strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and tetracycline was isolated. In collaboration with the patient's primary care physician, management included lavage of the infected eye, systemic antibiotic treatment with erythromycin and topical antibiotic treatment with azithromycin, followed by local steroid treatment in response to persistent hyperemia, which was discontinued and replaced by azithromycin again because of recurrent discharge. Eleven days after the first consultation, a complete cure was achieved without sequelae, and a final check to rule out a residual gonococcal carrier state is planned. Gonococcal conjunctivitis, a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency, is a potentially blinding sexually transmitted disease with which general practitioners and ophthalmologists are not well aquainted. Although rare in developed countries, its incidence is rising in parallel with the global recrudescence of gonococcal infections. This case of gonococcal conjunctivitis is discussed as a review of the clinical and biological elements necessary for diagnosis and therapeutic management, which must occur as early as possible, taking into account rapidly increasing gonococcal resistance to antimicrobial therapies, so as to interrupt spread of the disease.

  10. Optimal Pumping Strategy with Conjunctive Operational Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C.-H.; Tan, C.-C.; Lin, C.-Y.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater often supplies surface water first. If surface water is insufficient, then groundwater is used. The traditional operation strategy may cause the problem that the pumped groundwater is excessively centralized. In this study, we proposed a new strategy and conjunctive operational rules to manage both surface and groundwater and to allow pumping groundwater during the non-drought periods. We link the groundwater simulation model with the management model, and use the global optimization algorithm to simultaneously optimize the spatial and temporal distribution curve which subject to the constraints of available surface water and the safety yield of groundwater. The Lanyang River watershed located in northeastern Taiwan is chosen as a study area. The trends of the historical weather records show that the probabilities of higher intensity rainfall and longer non-rainfall periods are increasing in the Lanyang River watershed. There is no reservoir in the Lanyang River watershed, and thus it may be more vulnerable to water shortage. In the study, we expect the conjunctive operational rule curve of surface water and groundwater can reduce the water shortage effectively comparing to utilizing the surface water only. Keywords: Conjunctive Uses, Water Supply, Groundwater, Optimization, Water Management

  11. Using Cryptography to Improve Conjunction Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, B.; Welser, B.; Baiocchi, D.

    2012-09-01

    Coordination of operations between satellite operators is becoming increasingly important to prevent collisions. Unfortunately, this coordination is often handicapped by a lack of trust. Coordination and cooperation between satellite operators can take many forms, however, one specific area where cooperation between operators would yield significant benefits is in the computation of conjunction analyses. Passively collected orbital are of generally of too low fidelity to be of use in conjunction analyses. Each operator, however, maintains high fidelity data about their own satellites. These high fidelity data are significantly more valuable in calculating conjunction analyses than the lower-fidelity data. If operators were to share their high fidelity data overall space situational awareness could be improved. At present, many operators do not share data and as a consequence space situational awareness suffers. Restrictive data sharing policies are primarily motivated by privacy concerns on the part of the satellite operators, as each operator is reluctant or unwilling to share data that might compromise its political or commercial interests. In order to perform the necessary conjunction analyses while still maintaining the privacy of their own data, a few operators have entered data sharing agreements. These operators provide their private data to a trusted outside party, who then performs the conjunction analyses and reports the results to the operators. These types of agreements are not an ideal solution as they require a degree of trust between the parties, and the cost of employing the trusted party can be large. In this work, we present and analyze cryptographic tools that would allow satellite operators to securely calculate conjunction analyses without the help of a trusted outside party, while provably maintaining the privacy of their own orbital information. For example, recent advances in cryptographic protocols, specifically in the area of secure

  12. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 41, App. A, Nt. Appendix A to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and...

  13. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs.

  14. Epidemiology of chronic (perennial) rhinitis in Singapore: prevalence estimates, demographic variation and clinical allergic presentation.

    PubMed

    Ng, T P; Tan, W C

    1994-01-01

    We conducted a population-based study involving a stratified cluster disproportionate random sample of 2868 adults aged 20 to 74 years selected from five housing estates (Yishun, Toa Payoh, Jurong East, Geylang/Eunos and Bukit Merah). Chronic rhinitis was defined as the usual presence of symptoms of blocked or running nose, apart from colds or the flu, lasting for more than a year. Allergic rhinitis was considered to be present if these symptoms were associated with conjunctivitis or recognisable provocation by commonly known allergens, namely house dust, dogs, cats, birds, pollen, or medicines. The estimated general population prevalence of chronic rhinitis was 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8-12.7). Higher prevalences were noted in males, in younger adults, in Indians and Chinese, in those with higher socio-economic status, and in Toa Payoh, Jurong East and Geylang/Eunos. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 5.5% (95% CI 4.5-6.5). The most common 'allergenic' factor in allergic rhinitis was house dust (73%); provocation by birds, cats or dogs (5%), grass or tree pollens (5%), and medicine (5%) was less common but likely to have been under-recognised. Provocation by change in temperature (54%) and early in the morning (64%) was equally frequent in both 'allergic' and 'non-allergic' rhinitis; cigarette smoke, petrol and diesel fumes, food and work environment were less common (4-12%). Allergic rhinitis was highly significantly associated with asthma (13.9% in allergic rhinitis, 4.4% in non-allergic rhinitis, and 2.2% in non-rhinitic subjects).

  15. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced

  16. SacB-SacR Gene Cassette As the Negative Selection Marker to Suppress Agrobacterium Overgrowth in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Miao, Jiamin; Traore, Sy; Kong, Danyu; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xunzhong; Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Liu, Zongrang; Zhao, Bingyu

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium supplemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of A. tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant A. tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcription factor. PMID:27833912

  17. SacB-SacR Gene Cassette As the Negative Selection Marker to Suppress Agrobacterium Overgrowth in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Miao, Jiamin; Traore, Sy; Kong, Danyu; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xunzhong; Nimchuk, Zachary L; Liu, Zongrang; Zhao, Bingyu

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium supplemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of A. tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant A. tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcription factor.

  18. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future.

  19. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  20. Complementary therapies in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Baykal, Bahadir; Ulusoy, Seckin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed.

  1. Excited states of Ne isoelectronic ions: SAC-CI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A. K.; Ehara, M.; Nakatsuji, H.

    2001-01-01

    Excited states of the s, p, and d symmetries up to principal quantum number n = 4 are studied for the first eight members of Ne isoelectronic sequence (Ne to Cl7+) by the SAC-CI (symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction) method. The valence STO basis sets of Clementi et al. and the optimized excited STO are used by the STO-6G expansion method. The calculated transition energies agree well with the experimental values wherever available.

  2. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon; Surh, Charles D

    2017-02-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota.

  3. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon

    2017-01-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota. PMID:28261020

  4. Endometriosis in a spigelian hernia sac: an unexpected finding.

    PubMed

    Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2015-01-01

    Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like "chocolate cysts" was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation.

  5. JAC Software, Solving Conjunction Assessment Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, F.

    2014-09-01

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on laptops by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience and how each new encountered issue has enriched JAC Software functions. JAC has got two levels: - JAC Basic version, to be aware of the situation described with CMs : automatic download of CM from websites with secure password management, capacity to manage CM from different providers, management of the downloaded CM database, visualization of the key data given by the different CM related to each close approach, visualization of the evolution of those key data through tables-graphs-3Danimations, capacity to copy/paste and edit CM data to illustrate sensibility of key parameters, capacity to use several pre-defined dispersions for each primary, printable summary of analysis, statistics on CM in database, - JAC Expert version, to take and validate a decision of avoidance action: sensitivity analysis to errors, thresholds chosen by the user, simulation of maneuvers on the satellite of interest to determine their effect in terms of mitigation of the identified risk. JAC Expert version also includes a monitoring capacity to enable 24/7 analysis. JAC Basic and JAC Expert are

  6. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  7. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  8. Human Spaceflight Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    I. During each nine-hour shift (or upon request), the Orbital Safety Analyst (OSA) at JSpOC updates the entire tracked catalog with the latest tracking data from the SSN and screens this catalog against NASA s assets. a) For ISS operations, a 72-hour advance screening is performed. b) For Shuttle orbit operations, a 36-hour advance screening is performed. c) If a vehicle is performing a maneuver during the screening period, OSA uses post-reboost-trajectory data supplied by Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H) for screening. II. An automated process is used to detect any conjunctions within 10 x 40 x 40 km box (centered on the vehicle) using Special Perturbation (SP) processing: a) Box dimensions are Radial x Downtrack x Crosstrack. b) Any object found within this box has the tracking tasking level increased to improve (hopefully) its uncertainty in its current and predicted orbital trajectory. c) OSA informs NASA if any object is found inside a 2 x 25 x 25 km box then creates and sends an Orbital Conjunction Message (OCM) to NASA which contains detailed information about the conjunction. d) For Shuttle, the box size used for screening and reporting is altered for special operations (day of rendezvous, launch screening, etc.).

  9. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  10. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  11. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN FIRST GRADE SCHOOL CHILDREN IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Kherkheulidze, M; Chkhaidze, I; Adamia, N; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of incidence of allergic rhinitis and respiratory infections and evaluation of quality of life of first grade school age children with allergic rhinitis. The cross sectional study in randomly selected regions and schools was conducted using specially developed parent questionnaire and mini rhino conjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (MiniRQLQ). On the first was used special questionnaire, and on the second phase MiniRQLQ was used in cases with allergic rhinitis. Total of 1530 parent of 6-8 years children were interviewed, 1499 first phase questionnaires and 174MiniRQLQ were analyzed by SPSS 19 program. From 1499 children 799 (53.3%) were girls and 700 (46.7%) - boys. The 810 (54%) live in urban, 524 (35%) in rural area and 165 (11%) in high mountains. The study revealed that 2.3% of children have respiratory infections 7-8 times per year, 19.9% 3-5 times, 53.4% 1-2 times and 24.2% became ill very rarely. There was statistically significant difference between the frequency of respiratory infection in rural and urban area (p<0,001).The frequency of chronic diseases reported by parents is 18.3% (n=274), from those 201 (73.3%) are allergic disorders (asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis), that is 13.4% of total respondents. The incidence of allergic rhinitis was 11.6%, most frequent symptom was rhinorrhea 168 (11.2%), recurrent sneezing episodes during last year was seen in 153 (10.2%), nasal pruritus was reported in 137 (9.1%), nasal obstruction in 117 (7.8%). The eye symptoms were reported in 62 (4.2%). The symptoms of allergic rhinitis is significantly higher in urban population then in rural area (P<0.02), as well as in boys (P<0.05). The 109 (62.6%) of respondents answer that symptoms and mostly nasal obstruction affected their quality of life, especially on recreational activities and sleep. In 91 (52.9%) patients with already diagnosed allergic rhinitis treatment was prescribed according international guidelines. In

  12. Update on vaccination guidelines for allergic children.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2009-11-01

    Children with allergic or atopic diseases require immunization just like non-atopic children. However, vaccination of such children requires some special considerations and precautions. Children may be allergic to specific vaccine constituents such as gelatin or egg. Children who have suffered an apparent allergic reaction to a vaccine should be evaluated by an allergist to determine the culprit allergen and to make recommendations regarding future vaccination. In rare circumstances, certain vaccines may cause acute exacerbations of allergic diseases, but the contention that vaccination causes allergic disease is not substantiated by any available evidence.

  13. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  15. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy.

  16. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  17. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  18. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight(®) intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight(®) group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight(®) treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  19. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  20. Epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    McMoli, T. E.; Bordoh, A. N.; Munube, G. M.; Bell, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    Enterovirus 70 has recently emerged as a causative agent of epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( AHC ). This paper is a report of the first association of enterovirus 70 with epidemic AHC in Nigeria. Despite numerous symptoms, including reduction in visual acuity, eventual recovery in 2 to 3 weeks with no functional loss was the rule except in 11 patients. Five of these patients ended up with superficial corneal scarring. Two had evisceration for unresolving panophthalmitis, while 4 went blind from ruptured corneal abscesses or ulcers. All the 11 patients had treated themselves or used traditional medications. None of the patients had signs of involvement of the central nervous system. PMID:6326796

  1. Flow diversion and coil embolization may perform best in conjunction for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a hemodynamic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, Robert; Ma, Ding; Siddiqui, Adnan; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Coiling and flow diversion is the current standard for treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Coils deployed into the IA sac trigger its thrombotic occlusion, while flow diverters (FDs) deployed across the IA ostium redirect blood flow and reconstruct the parent vessel. Despite the wide adoption of these interventions, poor treatment outcomes have been reported. Recent clinical reports indicate that IA patients treated with both coils and FDs had better outcomes, compared to individual strategies alone. To better understand the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying coiling and flow diversion, we applied our advanced FEM-based device modeling toolset in conjunction with CFD to investigate 3 clinical strategies: coiling, FD, and FD with adjunctive coiling. Using 3 patient-specific IAs as test beds, we assessed the hemodynamic modifications induced by each strategy. Hemodynamic modifications in inflow rate, velocity, and wall shear stress revealed that coils were most effective at reducing intra-aneurysmal flow, while FD worked best at reducing flow into the IA sac. When coils were combined with FD, these effects appeared to be synergistically enhanced. Our modeling results support clinical observations that flow diversion and coiling may work best in conjunction for treating IAs. Funded by the National Institutes of Health (1R01 NS 091075-01).

  2. [Annual change of the pet in allergic patients home for ten years].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y; Kudoh, M; Tomita, S; Hasegawa, M; Akiyama, K

    1999-01-01

    There are only few paper in Japan which reports the prevalence of pet keepers in the allergic population and also of the type of pets they keep. We made investigation on these points in 1337 allergic patients employing a questionnaire. Among 1337 patients, allergic conjunctivitis patients were found in 67, eczema patients in 118, allergic rhinitis patients in 368 and bronchial asthmatic patients in 1043. These number contained those who overlapped in symptoms. Approximately 43% of allergy patients are currently keeping the pet at present while 11.2% of the patient had kept the pet in the past. There were two peaks in the age when they began to keep a pet, 6 to 12 and 30 to 40 years of age. Trend in the past decade showed that both the dog and cat bred in foreign countries were increasing. About 80% of patients who own the foreign bred dogs keep them indoor. This ratio is increasing gradually. Another conspicuous change is the sharp increase in those who keep hamsters which occupied 20% of all the pet keeper in 1997. Percentages of the patient who recognizes the aggravation of their symptoms in eye, nose, skin and also as asthma often pet keeping is a about 10%. One out of 4 patients who keep the pet has a family member with rhinitis and/or asthma. We concluded that too many of the allergic patients keep the pet against their benefit and they must be informed that the pet could be the cause of allergy symptoms.

  3. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya Nishimura, Jun-ichi Hase, Soichiro Yamasaki, Motoshige

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  4. [Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Lévêque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

    2010-04-01

    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health.

  5. Tuberculous Conjunctivitis in an Anophthalmic Socket.

    PubMed

    Al Habash, Ahmed; Malik, Faisal; Al Abdulsalam, Omar; Al Abdulsalam, Abdulrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous (TB) conjunctivitis was not an uncommon condition before the early 20(th) century but is currently a rare occurrence, especially in the developed countries. We report a 27-year-old Saudi female who underwent enucleation of the right eye at the age of 20 following a penetrating eye injury. She had a history of miliary TB that was treated at the age of 22. She was presented with chronic purulent discharge from her right an anophthalmic socket for 2 months. Cultures for bacteria and fungi were sterile. There was no response to empirical topical antibiotics and steroids. Direct microscopic examination of conjunctival scrapings with the Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed no microorganisms. Histopathological examination revealed epithelioid granulomas. Polymerase chain reaction was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. TB conjunctivitis was suspected from the history of miliary TB and presence of epithelioid granulomas. The definitive diagnosis was made after prompt resolution of the ocular signs with no recurrence only after systemic anti-TB therapy.

  6. Semantic transparency affects memory conjunction errors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mungchen; Rotello, Caren M.

    2009-01-01

    Memory conjunction errors occur when aspects of two different events are falsely recognized or recalled as having occurred as parts of the same event. One theoretical account of conjunction errors is rooted in traditional dual-process models of recognition judgments, in which responses are based on an item’s familiarity or the retrieval of recollected details associated with the encoding of that item. We manipulated the familiarity of test probes by varying their semantic overlap with studied items, taking advantage of the inherent semantic transparency of compound words. Transparent compounds are those whose component parts (lexemes) are semantically related to the meaning of the entire word. In contrast, opaque compounds’ lexemes do not contribute directly to the meaning of the compound. We showed that the familiarity of semantically transparent assembly lures created from their lexemes (study dog and house, test on doghouse) is greater than the familiarity of opaque assembly lures (study back and draw, test on drawback). A response-signal experiment revealed no evidence for the use of a recall-to-reject process for either semantically transparent or opaque lures. PMID:19966238

  7. PREPARATION OF COLLODION SACS FOR USE IN BACTERIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Frederick L.

    1921-01-01

    A standardized method is described in detail by which collodion sacs suitable for intraperitoneal incubation and for other bacteriological experiments may be produced in large numbers, sterilized, and handled with convenience and the minimum danger of contamination. Various factors influencing permeability have been subjected to experiment. Like Brown, we found that immersion in alcohol is the most important factor, but the high permeability conferred by alcohol treatment is lost during heat sterilization if the membrane was previously allowed to dry. Quantitative experiments on the dialysis of sodium chloride, and simple tests with other substances indicate the general character of the membranes and their probable field of usefulness in bacteriology. PMID:19868478

  8. Anatomy and imaging of the lesser peritoneal sac

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, W.J.; Foley, W.D.; Lawson, T.L.; Stewart, E.T.; Taylor, A.

    1985-03-01

    The development of high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) imaging has substantially improved the radiologic examination of the lesser peritoneal sac (LPS). The fact that LPS anatomy remains obscure and difficult to remember often causes problems in the interpretation of CT as well as conventional radiologic examinations of the upper abdomen. This report reviews the embryologic development of the LPS, introduces a useful method for remembering three-dimensional LPS anatomy, and discusses LPS abnormalities on imaging examinations, with a special emphasis on the CT findings.

  9. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  10. Results and validation of marine surface wind speed obtained from SAC-D/Aquarius MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, C. B.; Etala, P.; Echevarría, P.; Hejazin, Y.; Jacob, M. M.; Jones, L.

    2012-12-01

    MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is a radiometer on board SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The SAC-D/Aquarius science mission was developed jointly by the Nacional Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA), that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity. MWR is a three channel push broom, Dicke radiometer, that has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking at 36.5 GHz (in vertical and horizontal polarization) and 8 aft-looking at 23.8 GHz (in horizontal polarization), with a swath of approximately 380 Km. The beams are arranged to have two incidence angles, one of 52° (odd beams) and one of 58° (even beams) for both forward and aft-looks. Since recently, CONAE with collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory), are generating geophysical parameters, all over the sea surface, using brightness temperature measurements from MWR. These parameters include columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain rate, which are ancillary data for the Aquarius salinity measurements. We present in this paper the first results of wind speed over the sea, obtained using the MWR data. The wind speed retrieval algorithm is based on the microwave radiative transfer theory by Wentz [1]. The algorithm developed uses MWR brigthness temperature at 36.5 GHz in both polarizations and sea surface temperature obtained from GDAS. As a result, the neutral stability ocean surface wind speed at 10 m height and the atmospheric trasnmissivity at 36.5 GHz are retrieved. In addition, a validation process in collaboration with the Naval Hydrographic Service of Argentina (SHN) has started. The final goal of this on-going work is to assess the quality of MWR wind data in conjunction with surface wind observations from other sources in a data assimilation system. At this

  11. SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602

  12. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  14. Indirect inguinal hernia sac containing testis and spermatic cord in an adult patient with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Yusuf; Karaman, Kerem; Altintoprak, Fatih; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep; Zengin, Ismail; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener; Demir, Hakan

    2014-03-07

    Sliding hernias are those in which part of the sac wall is formed by a retroperitoneal organ and/or its mesentery protruding outside the abdominal wall cavity. The hernia sac may contain jejunum, ileum, vermiform appendix, Meckel's diverticulum, stomach, ovary, fallopian tube or urinary bladder. Our report features an adult case with cryptorchidism in which testis and spermatic cord constitute a component of the indirect inguinal hernia sac.

  15. Indirect inguinal hernia sac containing testis and spermatic cord in an adult patient with cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Yusuf; Karaman, Kerem; Altintoprak, Fatih; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep; Zengin, Ismail; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener; Demir, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Sliding hernias are those in which part of the sac wall is formed by a retroperitoneal organ and/or its mesentery protruding outside the abdominal wall cavity. The hernia sac may contain jejunum, ileum, vermiform appendix, Meckel's diverticulum, stomach, ovary, fallopian tube or urinary bladder. Our report features an adult case with cryptorchidism in which testis and spermatic cord constitute a component of the indirect inguinal hernia sac. PMID:24876399

  16. Hypostase, embryonic sac and endosperm in Anethum graveolens L., and in various families.

    PubMed

    Szujkó-Lacza, J

    1978-01-01

    The presence of pyriform hypostase tissue was investigated before double fertilization till the fusion of free endosperm nuclei in the embryonic sac of A. graveolens. Hypostase a glandular tissue, can secrete its cell contents into the embryonic sac during the development of free endosperm nuclei. Of 78 randomly selected families, 19 display different numbers of species with hypostase. In 15 of these families the hypostase is present together with the Polygonum type of embryonic sac and nuclear type of endosperm.

  17. New treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tkachyk, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new treatments for allergic rhinitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most studies supporting the principles in this paper are double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Good evidence supports use of antihistamines, nasal steroid sprays, and immunotherapy. Fewer trials have been done on the new antileukotrienes. MAIN MESSAGE: Allergic rhinitis causes significant morbidity, which can be successfully treated. Newer antihistamines, developed to replace terfenadine and astemizole which have potential side effects, include loratadine, cetirizine, and the newest, fexofenadine. Intranasal steroid sprays are also effective, particularly for people with nasal stuffiness. One study showed some growth retardation in children using beclomethasone over a prolonged period (1 year). The newer steroid sprays, such as fluticasone, budesonide, and mometasone furoate aqueous, however, have not been studied in the same way and are usually recommended for shorter periods. The newest group of medications showing real promise are the antileukotrienes, including zafirlukast and montelukast. Taken orally, these medications avoid the discomfort of nasal sprays and seem to have few side effects. Immunotherapy offers a new option: a short-course, preseasonal series of six to 11 injections that reduces the burden on patients for year-round therapy. Combinations of these therapies are also possible. CONCLUSIONS: With new medications and immunotherapy options, family physicians can offer effective treatment to patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:10349070

  18. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  19. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  20. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  1. Etiology and differential diagnosis of non-trachomatous follicular conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Thygeson, P.

    1957-01-01

    The author points out that while previously only follicular conjunctivitis of the inclusion or swimming-pool type, and of the Béal type, was classified as “acute follicular conjunctivitis”, it is now necessary to enlarge this group to include at least four other clinical or etiological entities: epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, acute herpetic keratoconjunctivitis, Newcastle disease conjunctivitis, and pharyngoconjunctival fever. The author then defines and describes chronic follicular conjunctivitis, toxic follicular conjunctivitis (molluscum contagiosum) and folliculosis. Imagesp1001-a PMID:13472441

  2. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  3. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomov, Ognian C. Filios, Catherine Sbrissa, Diego Chen, Xuequn Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or

  4. Clinical and laboratory findings in chronic conjunctivitis in cats: 91 cases (1983-1991).

    PubMed

    Nasisse, M P; Guy, J S; Stevens, J B; English, R V; Davidson, M G

    1993-09-15

    Clinical findings and laboratory test results from 91 cats with chronic conjunctivitis were studied to determine the causes of the disease and the sensitivity of diagnostic procedures used, and to identify correlations between results of various diagnostic procedures and clinical or signalment variations. Mean age of affected cats was 2.9 +/- 2.7 years (+/- SD), with a range from 1 month to 11 years. Conjunctivitis was more likely to be bilateral (56 cats) than unilateral (35 cats). In cats tested for FeLV or feline immunodeficiency virus infection, 15 and 8.5%, respectively, of the results were positive, compared with 4 and 2.6% for the general hospital population. Culturing or immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) and Chlamydia psittaci IFA resulted in identification of pathogens (positive test results) in 19% (FHV-1) and 18% (C psittaci) of tested cats. For FHV-1, culturing was more sensitive than was IFA, yielding positive results in 19 vs 8.8% of cases. In only 1 cat were FHV-1 and chlamydiae recovered. The probability of positive test results for FHV-1 or chlamydiae was unrelated to concurrent corneal disease, unilateral vs bilateral involvement, or age. Cause of conjunctivitis could not be definitively determined in the remaining 35 cases tested for both agents. Bacterial species considered to be potentially pathogenic were isolated from conjunctival sac specimens in only 1 of 38 attempts. Cytologic changes considered compatible with chlamydial or FHV-1 infection (intracytoplasmic inclusions or multinucleated epithelial cells, respectively) were found in 8 and 5 cases, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Reducing the Familiarity of Conjunction Lures with Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Marianne E.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to test whether conjunction errors were reduced after pictorial encoding and whether the semantic overlap between study and conjunction items would impact error rates. Across 4 experiments, compound words studied with a single-picture had lower conjunction error rates during a recognition test than those words…

  6. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  7. Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis executive summary.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis.

  8. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible.

  10. On selecting satellite conjunction filter parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore; Finkleman, David

    2014-06-01

    This paper extends concepts of signal detection theory to predict the performance of conjunction screening techniques and guiding the selection of keepout and screening thresholds. The most efficient way to identify satellites likely to collide is to employ filters to identify orbiting pairs that should not come close enough over a prescribed time period to be considered hazardous. Such pairings can then be eliminated from further computation to accelerate overall processing time. Approximations inherent in filtering techniques include screening using only unperturbed Newtonian two body astrodynamics and uncertainties in orbit elements. Therefore, every filtering process is vulnerable to including objects that are not threats and excluding some that are threats, Type I and Type II errors. The approach in this paper guides selection of the best operating point for the filters suited to a user's tolerance for false alarms and unwarned threats. We demonstrate the approach using three archetypal filters with an initial three-day span, select filter parameters based on performance, and then test those parameters using eight historical snapshots of the space catalog. This work provides a mechanism for selecting filter parameters but the choices depend on the circumstances.

  11. Toroidal path filter for orbital conjunction screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2012-07-01

    For satellite conjunction prediction containing many objects, timely processing can be a concern. Various filters are used to identify orbiting pairs that cannot come close enough over a prescribed time period to be considered hazardous. Such pairings can then be eliminated from further computation to quicken the overall processing time. One such filter is the orbit path filter (also known as the geometric pre-filter), designed to eliminate pairs of objects based on characteristics of orbital motion. The goal of this filter is to eliminate pairings where the distance (geometry) between their orbits remains above some user-defined threshold, irrespective of the actual locations of the satellites along their paths. Rather than using a single distance bound, this work presents a toroid approach, providing a measure of versatility by allowing the user to specify different in-plane and out-of-plane bounds for the path filter. The primary orbit is used to define a focus-centered elliptical ring torus with user-defined thresholds. An assessment is then made to determine if the secondary orbit can touch or penetrate this torus. The method detailed here can be used on coplanar, as well as non-coplanar, orbits.

  12. Performances of the SAC-D NIRST flight model radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Mélanie R.; Marchese, Linda; Côté, Patrice; Châteauneuf, François; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Ngo Phong, Linh

    2009-08-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales of Argentina. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency, the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared and two bands in the thermal infrared. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on microbolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. This paper will first present an overview of the design of the NIRST camera module. The manufacturing and qualification activities for the Flight Model will be described and key performance parameters, as measured during the verification campaign, will be reported.

  13. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection.

  14. Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor – a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Künzel, Julian; Agaimy, Abbas; Hornung, Joachim; Lell, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver; Semrau, Sabine; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare low-grade locally aggressive neoplasm of the inner ear that may occur sporadically or in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. We herein present a case of sporadic ELST in a 39-year-old man, treated using an interdisciplinary approach (surgery + radiotherapy), with a 10-year follow-up. The patient presented with hearing loss of sudden onset. The treatment of choice for ELST is radical tumor resection, which is associated with a good long-term prognosis. Remission may last for years, but there may be local recurrences, probably as a result of incomplete resection. Adjuvant radiotherapy is an option in case of recurrence and could be discussed after incomplete resection. The purpose of this report is to call attention to ELSTs, which are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and variety of presentations. PMID:24966979

  15. Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain.Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919.Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti.From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

  16. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC... Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. (a) The FAC-C certification program is... thereunder are not required to re-take training courses, but shall follow FAC-C training requirements...

  17. Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Ménière's Disease – Current Opinion and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Flores García, Maria de Lourdes; Llata Segura, Carolina de la; Cisneros Lesser, Juan Carlos; Pane Pianese, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The endolymphatic sac is thought to maintain the hydrostatic pressure and endolymph homeostasis for the inner ear, and its dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of Ménière's disease. Throughout the years, different surgical procedures for intractable vertigo secondary to Ménière's disease have been described, and though many authors consider these procedures as effective, there are some who question its long-term efficacy and even those who think that vertigo control is achieved more due to a placebo effect than because of the procedure itself. Objective To review the different surgical procedures performed in the endolymphatic sac for the treatment of Ménière's disease. Data Sources PubMed, MD consult and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis We focus on describing the different surgical procedures performed in the endolymphatic sac, such as endolymphatic sac decompression, endolymphatic sac enhancement, endolymphatic sac shunting and endolymphatic duct blockage, their pitfalls and advantages, their results in vertigo control and the complication rates. The senior author also describes his experience after 30 years of performing endolymphatic sac surgery. Conclusions The endolymphatic sac surgery, with all its variants, is a good option for patients with incapacitating endolymphatic hydrops, providing a high percentage of vertigo control and hearing preservation. PMID:28382128

  18. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  19. Involvement of Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase in the metabolism of phosphatidylserine in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Mutation of SAC1 causes not only the accumulation of phosphoinositides but also reduction of the phosphatidylserine (PS) level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the PS reduction in SAC1-deleted cells. Incorporation of (32) P into PS was significantly delayed in sac1∆ cells. Such a delay was also observed in SAC1- and PS decarboxylase gene-deleted cells, suggesting that the reduction in the PS level is caused by a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of PS. A reduction in the PS level was also observed with repression of STT4 encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase or deletion of VPS34 encoding phophatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, the combination of mutations of SAC1 and STT4 or VPS34 did not restore the reduced PS level, suggesting that both the synthesis and degradation of phosphoinositides are important for maintenance of the PS level. Finally, we observed an abnormal PS distribution in sac1∆ cells when a specific probe for PS was expressed. Collectively, these results suggested that Sac1 is involved in the maintenance of a normal rate of biosynthesis and distribution of PS.

  20. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  2. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes.

  3. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  5. pH sensing via bicarbonate-regulated “soluble” adenylyl cyclase (sAC)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nawreen; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a source of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is directly regulated by bicarbonate (HCO−3) ions. In living cells, HCO−3 ions are in nearly instantaneous equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonic anhydrases. Numerous biological processes are regulated by CO2, HCO−3, and/or pH, and in a number of these, sAC has been shown to function as a physiological CO2/HCO3/pH sensor. In this review, we detail the known pH sensing functions of sAC, and we discuss two highly-studied, pH-dependent pathways in which sAC might play a role. PMID:24324443

  6. Clinical significance of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during dacryocystorhinostomy: A comprehensive review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Koturović, Zoran; Knežević, Miroslav; Rašić, Dejan M.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide the information about the incidence and types of pathology of secondary acquired obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system caused by primary lacrimal sac non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. After a thorough literature search, 17 case-control studies were found and selected, data were extracted and categorized, to evaluate specific lacrimal sac pathology mimicking inflammation. A total of 3865 histopathologically examined lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens from 3662 patients, taken during dacryocystorhinostomy for clinically presumed primary chronic dacryocystitis, were analyzed. The most common reported histopathological finding was non-specific chronic inflammation with or without fibrosis (94.15% of cases). Lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 226 (5.85%) cases. Unsuspected lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 55/226 (24.34%) cases. Almost 45% of primary lacrimal sac malignant neoplasms were not suspected, preoperatively and intraoperatively. Tumor-like lesions of the lacrimal sac were the most common pathology found: (1) lacrimal stones-dacryoliths, (2) pyogenic granuloma, (3) granulation tissues, (4) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and (5) lacrimal sac-specific inflammation (Wegener’s granulomatosis and sarcoidosis). Neoplastic pathology was found in 55/3865 (1.42%) lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens; of those, malignant cases were 2.24 times more frequent than benign. Lymphoma was the most common preoperatively unsuspected or intraoperatively unexpected neoplastic pathology. This analysis of the relevant literature highlights the value of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during surgery for clinically presumed primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. PMID:27754826

  7. Clinical significance of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during dacryocystorhinostomy: A comprehensive review of literature.

    PubMed

    Koturović, Zoran; Knežević, Miroslav; Rašić, Dejan M

    2017-02-21

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide the information about the incidence and types of pathology of secondary acquired obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system caused by primary lacrimal sac non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. After a thorough literature search, 17 case-control studies were found and selected, data were extracted and categorized, to evaluate specific lacrimal sac pathology mimicking inflammation. A total of 3865 histopathologically examined lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens from 3662 patients, taken during dacryocystorhinostomy for clinically presumed primary chronic dacryocystitis, were analyzed. The most common reported histopathological finding was non-specific chronic inflammation with or without fibrosis (94.15% of cases). Lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 226 (5.85%) cases. Unsuspected lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 55/226 (24.34%) cases. Almost 45% of primary lacrimal sac malignant neoplasms were not suspected, preoperatively and intraoperatively. Tumor-like lesions of the lacrimal sac were the most common pathology found: (1) lacrimal stones-dacryoliths, (2) pyogenic granuloma, (3) granulation tissues, (4) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and (5) lacrimal sac-specific inflammation (Wegener's granulomatosis and sarcoidosis). Neoplastic pathology was found in 55/3865 (1.42%) lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens; of those, malignant cases were 2.24 times more frequent than benign. Lymphoma was the most common preoperatively unsuspected or intraoperatively unexpected neoplastic pathology. This analysis of the relevant literature highlights the value of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during surgery for clinically presumed primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  8. Current management of allergic rhinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Georgalas, Christos; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Fokkens, Wytske

    2010-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, including the discovery of new inflammatory mediators, the link between asthma and allergic rhinitis ('one airway-one disease' concept) and the introduction of novel therapeutic modalities. These new insights have been documented in the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines and have led to the creation of evidence-based management algorithms. We now understand the importance of a common strategy for treating allergic inflammation of the upper and lower airway as a way of improving outcome, reducing hospital admissions, providing better quality of life and perhaps, altering the natural course of the 'allergic march'. A therapeutic ladder is suggested: Whereas for mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, allergen avoidance should be the first line of treatment with subsequent addition of a second generation topical or oral antihistamine, nasal saline or cromoglycate, in cases of moderate to severe allergic rhinitis, a nasal steroid is the treatment of choice. If a patient with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis fails to improve after 4 wk of adequate treatment, patient compliance or the diagnosis must be re-assessed. In such cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, a careful clinical examination including nasal endoscopy is mandatory to assess for other potential causes of nasal obstruction. In children who suffer from concomitant allergic rhinitis and asthma, a management algorithm that addresses concurrently asthma and allergic rhinitis is vital, both from a theoretical and from a practical point of view: Parents overwhelmingly prefer a single strategy for the treatment of their child's upper and lower airway symptoms; however, the overall quality of life in children with severe asthma can be significantly improved if rhinitis is adequately addressed.

  9. Leukotrienes orchestrating allergic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Sezin, Tanya; Kim, Nancy D

    2013-11-01

    Leukotrienes constitute a group of lipid mediators, which may be subdivided into two groups, with leukotriene B4 on the one hand and cysteinyl leukotrienes on the other. Although leukotrienes are abundantly expressed in skin affected by diverse chronic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, their pathological roles in these diseases have remained elusive. Recent data now reveal that both leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are indispensable in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with leukotriene B4 initiating the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and TH 2 cells into the skin, and cysteinyl leukotrienes later inducing characteristic structural alterations of chronically affected skin, specifically skin fibrosis and keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, these results reveal a sequential cooperation of LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes to initiate and perpetuate allergic skin inflammation. These new insights highlight leukotrienes as promising therapeutic targets in allergic skin inflammation and should encourage more research into the role of leukotrienes in other inflammatory skin diseases.

  10. Innate immunity in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Minnicozzi, Michael; Sawyer, Richard T; Fenton, Matthew J

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system consists of multiple cell types that express germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Allergens are frequently found in forms and mixtures that contain PAMPs and DAMPs. The innate immune system is interposed between the external environment and the internal acquired immune system. It is also an integral part of the airways, gut, and skin. These tissues face continuous exposure to allergens, PAMPs, and DAMPs. Interaction of allergens with the innate immune system normally results in immune tolerance but, in the case of allergic disease, this interaction induces recurring and/or chronic inflammation as well as the loss of immunologic tolerance. Upon activation by allergens, the innate immune response commits the acquired immune response to a variety of outcomes mediated by distinct T-cell subsets, such as T-helper 2, regulatory T, or T-helper 17 cells. New studies highlighted in this review underscore the close relationship between allergens, the innate immune system, and the acquired immune system that promotes homeostasis versus allergic disease.

  11. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  12. Occlusive irritant dermatitis: when is "allergic" contact dermatitis not allergic?

    PubMed

    Miller, Sara; Helms, Amy; Brodell, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    CASE 1: A 38-year-old teacher presented with a 3- to 4-week history of a linear, erythematous, vesicular, and pruritic eruption of her left wrist. She had been wearing a new elastic bracelet for 4 weeks before the onset of her eruption. Although there was no history of allergy to rubber products or jewelry, an allergic contact dermatitis to rubber was suspected. Patch testing to rubber chemicals and the elastic bracelet revealed no reactions at 48, 72, and 96 hours. She stopped wearing the bracelet and used a corticosteroid cream with rapid resolution of the problem. The patient resumed wearing the bracelet, and there has been no recurrence in the past 2 months. CASE 2: A 12-year-old boy presented with a 1-month history of an itchy, scaly, erythematous 1-cm patch over the midline of his lower lip. The patient complained of tiny blisters initially with persistent erythema, mild scaling, and associated pruritus. The patient plays the saxophone and he had been practicing more intensely (3 to 4 h/d) for a musical competition. Allergic reaction to his wood reed was suspected, but patch testing with a moistened portion of his reed and reed shavings in a drop of water revealed no reaction at 48 and 72 hours. Treatment with hydrocortisone 1% cream bid for 3 days led to complete resolution of the dermitis and pruritus. Playing the saxophone 1 h/d has not led to any recurrence. CASE 3: A 33-year-old woman presented with erythema, scaling, and pruritus of 1 month's duration beneath her engagement and wedding rings, which were worn together on her left fourth finger (Figure 3). Although she had no history of previous sensitivity to earrings, watch clasp, blue jean rivets, or other jewelry, allergic contact dermatitis to nickel was suspected. Patch testing was performed to the common metal allergens nickel, cobalt, chromium, and gold. Readings at 48 hours and 1 week revealed no positive reactions. The patient wore her rings on the right hand for 1 week and used fluocinonide 0

  13. New treatment options in allergic rhinitis: patient considerations and the role of ciclesonide

    PubMed Central

    Braido, F; Lagasio, C; Piroddi, IMG; Baiardini, I; Canonica, GW

    2008-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease affecting 5%–50% of the worldwide population and its prevalence is increasing (Herman 2007). In addition, AR is associated with asthma and other co-morbidities such as conjunctivitis and sinusitis. The main symptoms are nasal congestion, rhinorrea, sneezing, itching, and post-nasal drainage induced after allergen exposure by an IgE-mediated inflammation of the membranes lining the nose. AR is not a life-threatening disease, but it has been shown to have a significant impact on quality of life. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines propose a classification of AR in intermittent and persistent, each graded as mild or moderate-severe, and provide a stepwise approach to the treatment. Inhaled steroids and antihistamine are the main tools in AR therapy but more safe and effective drugs are, however, needed. Inhaled steroid ciclesonide appears to be safe and effective. PMID:18728855

  14. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  15. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  16. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  17. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  18. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  19. Therapeutic effects of 0.1% tacrolimus eye drops for refractory allergic ocular diseases with proliferative lesion or corneal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of topical 0.1% tacrolimus in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement. Methods This prospective observational study included 1436 patients with refractory allergic conjunctivitis whose condition had responded poorly to conventional antiallergic drugs and/or topical steroids and/or topical cyclosporine. All patients received tacrolimus eye drops twice daily during the study period. Ten clinical signs and six clinical symptoms were rated on a four-grade scale. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total clinical signs and symptoms score at the last observation or following 6 months of treatment. Results Total signs and symptoms score significantly decreased after 1 month of treatment (p<0.001). Giant papillae and corneal lesions were also reduced by tacrolimus eye drop use (p<0.001). The drug proved effective in patients whose condition did not respond well to topical cyclosporine therapy. About 50% of all patients using topical steroids were weaned. The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (3.20%). Conclusions Tacrolimus eye drops are highly effective in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement, and may reduce or replace topical steroid use. Trial registration number UMIN 000008640. PMID:24695688

  20. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as

  1. Allergic diseases in farmers' children.

    PubMed

    Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have reported lower rates of allergic sensitization and allergies in children living in rural as compared to urban communities. This has been attributed to the lower levels of air pollution in rural areas. The question arises whether other factors in the rural environment could explain the lower prevalence rates of allergic sensitization and hay fever. A first report from rural South Bavaria in Germany demonstrated that children living in a home where coal and wood were used for heating had a significantly lower risk of suffering from hay fever (odds ratio 0.57 (0.34-0.98)), of being sensitized to common allergens (OR 0.67 (0.49-0.93)) and of having bronchial hyperresponsiveness (OR 0.55 (0.34-0.90)) than their peers living in homes with other heating systems. Subsequently, the Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution (SCARPOL) tested the hypothesis that farming as parental occupation was associated with a lower risk of hay fever and atopy. A total of 1620 (86.0%) 6-15-year-old schoolchildren living in three rural communities of Switzerland were examined using a standardized questionnaire completed by the parents and IgE antibodies against six common aeroallergens in serum samples of 404 (69.3.0%) of the 13-15-year-olds. Farming as parental occupation was significantly associated with lower rates of reported hay fever symptoms and allergic sensitization. Comparing children from farming with those from non-farming environments, the adjusted OR was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.12-0.89) for sneezing attacks during the pollen season, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13-0.73) for a sensitization to allergens. These results have recently been confirmed in a new and much larger survey in rural South Bavaria. Several alternative explanations have to be considered when interpreting these findings, namely, selection bias, the development of tolerance, increased microbial stimulation and a more traditional lifestyle (diet and housing

  2. [Asthma and allergic diseases in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, B; Lindström, M; Forsberg, B

    1992-01-01

    Until recently the prevalence of asthma in Sweden was assessed to be 2-3 per cent. An increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was noted among new conscripts undergoing health work-ups prior to military service with the most marked increase in northern Sweden, were 5 per cent of conscripts were reported to have asthma. In southern Sweden the prevalence remained about 2 per cent. More recent questionnaire studies in mid- and southern Sweden have reported similar rates of respiratory symptoms and use of anti-asthmatic drugs as in northern Sweden, suggesting that there may be no difference in asthma prevalence between the north and the south of the country. The exact prevalence of allergic diseases among Swedish adults is still not clear, but 40 per cent of adults in northern Sweden report that they often have wheezing in the chest, attacks of breathlessness, longstanding cough or sputum production. In questionnaire studies among children about 40 per cent of respondents have reported that they had asthma, allergic rhinitis or other type of hypersensitivity. The absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma and allergic disorders in epidemiological studies makes comparison of prevalence difficult. It is thus not possible to be sure that the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders in Sweden has recently increased. Risk factors for the development of asthma and allergic disorders are under study in Sweden. Several studies report an association in children between urban living and allergic disorders.

  3. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  4. Guidance in vitro of the pollen tube to the naked embryo sac of torenia fournieri

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, T; Kuroiwa, H; Kawano, S; Kuroiwa, T

    1998-01-01

    The precise guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac is critical to the successful sexual reproduction of flowering plants. We demonstrate here the guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac in vitro by using the naked embryo sac of Torenia fournieri, which protrudes from the micropyle of the ovule. We developed a medium for culture of both the ovule and the pollen tube of T. fournieri and cocultivated them in a thin layer of solid medium. Although pollen tubes that had germinated in vitro passed naked embryo sacs, some pollen tubes that grew semi-in vitro through a cut style arrived precisely at the site of entry into the embryo sac, namely, the filiform apparatus of the synergids. When pollen tubes were unable to enter the embryo sac, they continuously grew toward the same filiform apparatus, forming narrow coils. Pollen tubes selectively arrived at complete, unfertilized embryo sacs but did not arrive at those of heat-treated ovules or those with disrupted synergids. These results convincingly demonstrate that pollen tubes are specifically attracted to the region of the filiform apparatus of living synergids in vitro. PMID:9836742

  5. DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE IN CONJUNCTION WITH PERIODIC ALLERGEN CHALLENGE DOES NOT LEAD TO ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION. (R826442)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de la polinosis se ha duplicado en las últimas dos décadas. Diversos estudios sugieren que incluso 50% de los adultos residentes del Distrito Federal pueden tener datos de alergia respiratoria y que los pólenes de árboles, pastos y malezas constituyen una causa frecuente. Conocer la prevalencia de sus familias y cruces antigénicos permite ofrecer diagnósticos y tratamientos adecuados. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia de sensibilización a pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas en adultos con alergia respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal en el periodo de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2013. Material y método: estudio transversal, observacional y retrospectivo efectuado con pacientes que acudieron al servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI de la Ciudad de México, de 2007 a 2013, con diagnóstico de rinitis, asma y conjuntivitis alérgica. Analizamos los resultados de las pruebas cutáneas para pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas de los pacientes. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se incluyeron 672 pacientes, 70% hombres, la edad promedio fue de 34 ± 16 años. En relación con su ocupación 31% eran estudiantes, 48% trabajadores y 21% amas de casa. El 53% tenía rinitis alérgica, 47% asma y 40.5% tenía ambos padecimientos. Se encontró prevalencia de sensibilización a malezas de 56%, a árboles de 33% y a gramíneas de 11%. Conclusiones: la sensibilización a malezas constituye en México la primera causa de polinosis respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal, el polen del amaranto fue el más prevalente en esta zona. La sensibilización a los árboles es la segunda causa de polinosis, con predominio de las familias Betulaceae, Fagaceae y Oleacea. La sensibilización a gramíneas constituye la tercera causa de polinosis respiratoria. Las más frecuentes son la familia Pooideae (Lolium perenne) y la familia Chloroideae (Cynodon dactylon).

  7. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth.

  8. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  9. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  10. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  11. Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doo Hee

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment options for allergic rhinitis (AR) include allergen avoidance and environmental control, pharmacotherapy, nasal surgery and immunotherapy. Among these, immunotherapy is the only therapeutic option that modifies fundamental immunologic mechanism by inducing desensitization. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been used for 1 century since 1911 and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been demonstrated to be effective in asthma and AR. However, SCIT has several disadvantages such as inconvenience, invasiveness and potentially severe systemic reactions. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has recently received much attention around the world as a treatment for AR and is now widely used to replace the subcutaneous route. SLIT has recently been introduced in Korea and is now available for AR treatment in the Asia-Pacific region. This review offers better understanding of SLIT for AR by summarizing published articles and our previous works regarding proposed mechanisms, indication and efficacy, safety and adverse events, and compliance. PMID:22053308

  12. Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the "Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases" describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient's character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the "Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression", is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.

  13. Ocular delayed hypersensitivity: a pathogenetic mechanism of chlamydial-conjunctivitis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, N G; Hadlow, W J; Moos, A B; Caldwell, H D

    1986-01-01

    We used a naturally occurring, Chlamydia psittaci-caused eye disease in guinea pigs, guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, as an animal model to understand both the immune response and the pathogenesis of chlamydial eye infections. When instilled into the conjunctival sac of guinea pigs that had been previously infected and were immune, viable chlamydiae or a Triton X-100-soluble extract of them produced a short-lived (12-48 hr) eye disease indistinguishable clinically and histologically from that observed during primary chlamydial eye infection. The clinical and histologic findings were consistent with those of ocular delayed hypersensitivity. Ocular delayed hypersensitivity was induced by primary chlamydial infection at mucosal sites other than conjunctival, such as vaginal and intestinal. Preliminary characterization of the hypersensitivity allergen shows that it is heat sensitive and common to the genus Chlamydia. The allergen is apparently not surface-exposed on chlamydiae and requires viable but not replicating organisms for activity. Our observation should be useful in understanding pathogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis-caused infections in humans, in particular those that produce chronic inflammatory diseases, such as blinding trachoma and urogenital diseases. Images PMID:3463978

  14. School Students' Reasoning about Conjunction and Conditional Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to provide baseline data in the area of conjunction and conditional events. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed improvement with grade in expressing probability numerically and distinguishing conditional events, but no change in incidence of conjunction errors. (Author/MM)

  15. Disseminated adenovirus disease in heart transplant recipient presenting with conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Bruminhent, J; Athas, D M; Hess, B D; Flomenberg, P

    2015-02-01

    We report a 65-year-old heart transplant recipient who presented with conjunctivitis, likely acquired from a family member who worked at a daycare center during an outbreak of conjunctivitis. He developed a severe adenoviral pneumonitis, which was successfully treated with intravenous cidofovir combined with a reduction of immunosuppression.

  16. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to enterovirus 70 in India.

    PubMed Central

    Maitreyi, R. S.; Dar, L.; Muthukumar, A.; Vajpayee, M.; Xess, I.; Vajpayee, R. B.; Seth, P.; Broor, S.

    1999-01-01

    An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in Delhi, India, during August and September 1996. The etiologic agent was confirmed as enterovirus type 70 by a modified centrifugation-enhanced culture method followed by immunofluorescence and neutralization tests. After nearly a decade, this virus is reemerging as a cause of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in India. PMID:10221880

  17. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets.

  18. A Single Conjunction Risk Assessment Metric: the F-Value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; Newman, Lauri K.

    2009-01-01

    The Conjunction Assessment Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center provides conjunction risk assessment for many NASA robotic missions. These risk assessments are based on several figures of merit, such as miss distance, probability of collision, and orbit determination solution quality. However, these individual metrics do not singly capture the overall risk associated with a conjunction, making it difficult for someone without this complete understanding to take action, such as an avoidance maneuver. The goal of this analysis is to introduce a single risk index metric that can easily convey the level of risk without all of the technical details. The proposed index is called the conjunction "F-value." This paper presents the concept of the F-value and the tuning of the metric for use in routine Conjunction Assessment operations.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Kakar, S; Bhalla, P; Maria, A; Rana, M; Chawla, R; Mathur, N B

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31%) neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  20. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet.

  1. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  2. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  3. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  4. Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro; Takayama, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  5. Design of the SAC-D/NIRST camera module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, Jonny; Châteauneuf, François; Marchese, Linda; Coté, Patrice; Leclerc, Mélanie; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Phong, Linh N.

    2007-09-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America (USA) and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission targets the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events on the ground related to fires and volcanic events, and will measure their physical parameters. Furthermore, NIRST will take measurements of sea surface temperatures mainly off the coast of South America as well as other targeted opportunities. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared centered at 3.8 um with a bandwidth of 0.8 um, and two bands in the thermal infrared, centered respectively at 10.85 and 11.85 um with a bandwidth of 0.9 um. The temperature range is from 300 to 600 K with an NEDT < 0.5 K for the mid-infrared band and from 200 to 400 K with an NEDT < 0.4 K for the thermal bands. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on micro-bolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. Two arrays of 512x3 uncooled bolometric sensors will be used to measure brightness temperatures. The instantaneous field-of-view is 534 microradians corresponding to a ground sampling distance of 350 m at the subsatellite point. A pointing mirror allows a total swath of +/- 500 km. This paper describes the detailed design of the NIRST camera module. Key performance parameters are also presented.

  6. Uptake of microparticles by rat visceral yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Pratten, M K; Lloyd, J B

    1997-09-01

    The visceral yolk sac (VYS) is responsible for a major part of the amino acid nutrition of the early post-implantation rat embryo and possibly also at the fetal stage of gestation. The mechanism involves endocytic uptake of proteins by the tissue's epithelial cells followed by intralysosomal digestion to amino acids. The amino acid so generated are used for protein synthesis in both the embryo and the VYS. Previous reports had indicated that the endocytic capacity of the VYS might be limited to exclude larger macromolecules. This study demonstrates that Percoll, which comprises 30-nm silica particles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), is as effectively captured by the 17.5-day rat VYS cultured in vitro as PVP itself. Uptake of 125I-labelled Percoll was progressive with time over 5 h and was inhibited by a low incubation temperature, 2,4-dinitrophenol (50 micrograms/ml), EGTA (5 mM), colchicine (10 micrograms/ml) or cytochalasin B (10 micrograms/ml). After uptake of 125I-labelled Percoll, VYSs released only 20 per cent of their radioactivity when re-incubated in fresh medium for 3 h. These data, and electron micrographs showing Percoll in intracellular vacuoles, are all consistent with uptake by endocytosis. Percoll's rate of uptake by the VYS indicates that, like 125I-labelled PVP, it enters the cell chiefly by fluid-phase pinocytosis. It is concluded that endocytosis by the VYS will efficiently capture even the largest globular proteins, and that previous indications of a relatively low size exclusion reflected the loosely coiled configuration of the synthetic polymers used in the earlier studies.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  8. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human.

  9. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  10. Coagulopathy associated with sac reperfusion for reversing paraplegia after endovascular repair of type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lioupis, Christos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Clough, Rachel; Matharu, Nick; Modarai, Bijan; Carrell, Tom; Taylor, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Sac perfusion may be helpful in preventing or reversing spinal cord injury after endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms and it has been used as an adjunct to the standard physiologic measures of sustained hypertension and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Coagulopathy as a result of endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair has been reported, and very rare cases of treatment after repair of these endoleaks have been described. We report a 73-year-old man who had endovascular repair of a type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm with a branched stent graft. Sac reperfusion was initiated to manage postoperative paraplegia. The paraplegia partially resolved but severe hemorrhagic complications developed that were attributed to sac perfusion-related hyperfibrinolysis. Discontinuation of sac perfusion resolved the coagulopathy but resulted in paraplegia.

  11. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  12. Tarlov Cyst Is Correlated with a Short Broad Terminal of the Thecal Sac.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chaoran; Zheng, Xuesheng; Zhang, Nu

    2016-12-27

    Background In clinical practice, we noted that the end section of the thecal sac is apparently different in patients with Tarlov cyst compared with that of the normal population. We conducted this clinical study based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Our study included 30 patients with Tarlov cyst and 30 healthy volunteers as the control. The L4, L5 cross-section areas, the L4, L5 anteroposterior diameters, and the terminal length of the thecal sac were measured from the lumbosacral spine MRI. Results The L4, L5 cross-section areas and the L4, L5 anteroposterior diameters are larger for the Tarlov cyst patients than the controls, but the terminal length of the thecal sac is shorter. Conclusion The Tarlov cyst is correlated with a short broad end of the thecal sac. Possibly, this anatomical variant is a causative factor of Tarlov cyst.

  13. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1) Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2) Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3) Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4) Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the

  14. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, Ruby; Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets.

  15. [Expression of allergic reactions to oxaliplatin].

    PubMed

    Arii, Daisuke; Ikeno, Yohei; Murooka, Kunihiko; Nojima, Michio; Kidokoro, Akio

    2012-04-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP), a platinum-containing antineoplastic agent, is a key drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, it is often difficult to continue with its treatment because of the expression of allergic reactions. This study was an investigation of the expression of allergic reactions resulting from administration of L-OHP. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing therapeutic regimens including L-OHP, from April 2009 to November 2010 in Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital. The results showed that allergic reactions were expressed in 15 out of 81 patients (18. 5%). A high correlation was found between the time from administration until expression of the allergic reaction, and the number of treatment courses (r=-0. 521, p=0. 047). When patient characteristics were compared between the allergic reaction group and the no-reaction group, it was suggested that differences due to the regimen or the presence or absence of liver metastasis, which is considered to be related to drug metabolism, had no effect. Items showing significant differences were sexual difference(p=0. 022)and the effect of changes depending on the dose form of L-OHP(p=0. 003). It was possible to continue treatment with L-OHP in six patients even after expression of allergic reactions. Anti-allergy measures such as additional administration of steroids or antihistamines were suggested to be useful for continuing treatment.

  16. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value.

  17. Perforated appendix in hernial sac mimicking torsion of undescended testis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Renu; Mahajan, J K; Rao, K L N

    2008-04-01

    In pediatric surgical practice, finding of the vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia sac is not that uncommon; however, a perforation is rare. There are only a few case reports of a perforated appendix with periappendicular abscess in the inguinal hernial sac in a neonate. We report an unusual case of inguinal hernia containing a perforated appendix that was clinically mimicking testicular torsion of the undescended testis.

  18. The SAC Mentality: The Origins of Strategic Air Command’s Organizational Culture, 1948-51

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    emergency action messages to determine if the alert response was an actual launch against the Soviet Union or just another exercise. SAC warriors...phoenix, SAC would not rise again. Forty years of alert posturing and preparation for an apocalyptic war caused the command and its war- riors to develop...Kenney of his transfer to Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Vandenberg also terminated the cross-training program. More importantly, he alerted Lt Gen Curtis Le

  19. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  20. Factors that influence the generation of autobiographical memory conjunction errors.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Aleea L; Monk-Fromont, Edwin; Schacter, Daniel L; Addis, Donna Rose

    2016-01-01

    The constructive nature of memory is generally adaptive, allowing us to efficiently store, process and learn from life events, and simulate future scenarios to prepare ourselves for what may come. However, the cost of a flexibly constructive memory system is the occasional conjunction error, whereby the components of an event are authentic, but the combination of those components is false. Using a novel recombination paradigm, it was demonstrated that details from one autobiographical memory (AM) may be incorrectly incorporated into another, forming AM conjunction errors that elude typical reality monitoring checks. The factors that contribute to the creation of these conjunction errors were examined across two experiments. Conjunction errors were more likely to occur when the corresponding details were partially rather than fully recombined, likely due to increased plausibility and ease of simulation of partially recombined scenarios. Brief periods of imagination increased conjunction error rates, in line with the imagination inflation effect. Subjective ratings suggest that this inflation is due to similarity of phenomenological experience between conjunction and authentic memories, consistent with a source monitoring perspective. Moreover, objective scoring of memory content indicates that increased perceptual detail may be particularly important for the formation of AM conjunction errors.

  1. [Effects of indoor exposures on respiratory and allergic disorders].

    PubMed

    Simoni, Marzia; Lombardi, Enrico; Berti, Giovanna; Rusconi, Franca; La Grutta, Stefania; Piffer, Silvano; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Galassi, Claudia; Forastiere, Francesco; Viegi, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that indoor pollution increases the risk for chronic pulmonary diseases and acute respiratory symptoms in children/adolescents. Some associations have been confirmed by studies. Other relations are still unclear, such as those regarding dog and cat ownership. In this study we assessed the relationships of the exposure to mould and dog/cat ownership with respiratory/allergic symptoms/diagnoses, such as wheezing, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, eczema, and cough/phlegm in 20,016 children (6-7 yrs old) and 13,266 adolescents (13-14 yrs old) from 12 Italian areas. Early mould exposure (in the first year of life) was positively related to all considered symptoms/diagnoses (significantly for wheezing, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis in both children and adolescents, and for cough/phlegm among children); current exposure (in the last year) was a significant risk factor for wheeze, among children. In the latter, dog exposure only in the first year of life increased the risk for wheezing and cough/phlegm, whereas the presence of a dog lifetime seemed a protective factor (though not significant) for all symptoms/diagnoses; negative relations (but not significant) suggested a protective effect by the cat for asthma, independently of exposure period. Among adolescents, the presence of a dog both lifetime and only in the first year of life was significantly related to cough/phlegm; except for rhino-conjunctivitis, all symptoms/diagnoses were negatively related to the presence of a cat lifetime (though not significantly). In conclusion, our results confirmed the effects of mould exposure, especially when it occurs early, on the prevalence of respiratory disorders such as asthma, rhinitis and cough in the pediatric age. The complex relations between keeping a dog or cat at home and respiratory/allergic symptoms/diseases in childhood warrants further studies.

  2. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-04-13

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL-Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin.

  3. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  4. Sac1-Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M; Burd, Christopher G

    2014-08-18

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1-Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  5. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  6. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management.

  7. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  8. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  9. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway.

  10. The allergic march: can we prevent allergies and asthma?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    The allergic march is a progression of atopic disease from eczema to asthma, and then to allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. It appears to be caused by a regional allergic response with breakdown of the local epithelial barrier that initiates systemic allergic inflammation. Genetic and environmental factors predispose to developing the allergic march. There are data to support 4 possible interventions to prevent the allergic march from progressing to asthma: (1) supplements of dietary probiotics, (2) exclusive breast feeding during the first few months of life, or, alternatively (3) use of extensively hydrolyzed infant formulas, (4) treatment with inhalant allergen immunotherapy by either subcutaneous or sublingual methods.

  11. Conjunction challenges of low-thrust geosynchronous debris removal maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul V.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-06-01

    The conjunction challenges of low-thrust engines for continuous thrust re-orbiting of geosynchronous (GEO) objects to super-synchronous disposal orbits are investigated, with applications to end-of-life mitigation and active debris removal (ADR) technologies. In particular, the low maneuverability of low-thrust systems renders collision avoidance a challenging task. This study investigates the number of conjunction events a low-thrust system could encounter with the current GEO debris population during a typical re-orbit to 300 km above the GEO ring. Sensitivities to thrust level and initial longitude and inclination are evaluated, and the impact of delaying the start time for a re-orbiting maneuver is assessed. Results demonstrate that the mean number of conjunctions increases hyperbolically as thrust level decreases, but timing the start of the maneuver appropriately can reduce the average conjunction rate when lower thrust levels are applied.

  12. Conjunctive programming: An interactive approach to software system synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    This report introduces a technique of software documentation called conjunctive programming and discusses its role in the development and maintenance of software systems. The report also describes the conjoin tool, an adjunct to assist practitioners. Aimed at supporting software reuse while conforming with conventional development practices, conjunctive programming is defined as the extraction, integration, and embellishment of pertinent information obtained directly from an existing database of software artifacts, such as specifications, source code, configuration data, link-edit scripts, utility files, and other relevant information, into a product that achieves desired levels of detail, content, and production quality. Conjunctive programs typically include automatically generated tables of contents, indexes, cross references, bibliographic citations, tables, and figures (including graphics and illustrations). This report presents an example of conjunctive programming by documenting the use and implementation of the conjoin program.

  13. OD Covariance in Conjunction Assessment: Introduction and Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Duncan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary covariances combined and projected into conjunction plane (plane perpendicular to relative velocity vector at TCA) Primary placed on x-axis at (miss distance, 0) and represented by circle of radius equal to sum of both spacecraft circumscribing radiiZ-axis perpendicular to x-axis in conjunction plane Pc is portion of combined error ellipsoid that falls within the hard-body radius circle

  14. Conjunctivitis due to Neisseria sicca: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eser, Ilker; Akcali, Alper; Tatman-Otkun, Muserref; Taskiran-Comez, Arzu

    2014-03-01

    We report the first case, in Medline-based literature, of conjunctivitis caused by gram negative diplococcus, Neisseria sicca. Although it is not widely accepted as such, isolation from cultures of repeated eye swab samples suggests that N. sicca may be a pathogen in conjunctival infections. Positive culture for this organism should not be readily dismissed. Such conjunctivitis responded favorably to treatment with netilmicin eye drops.

  15. Conjunctivitis due to Neisseria sicca: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Eser, Ilker; Akcali, Alper; Tatman-Otkun, Muserref; Taskiran-Comez, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case, in Medline-based literature, of conjunctivitis caused by gram negative diplococcus, Neisseria sicca. Although it is not widely accepted as such, isolation from cultures of repeated eye swab samples suggests that N. sicca may be a pathogen in conjunctival infections. Positive culture for this organism should not be readily dismissed. Such conjunctivitis responded favorably to treatment with netilmicin eye drops. PMID:23552355

  16. Memory conjunction clusters: Influence of familiarity and recollection.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K

    2016-07-01

    In the memory conjunction paradigm, the number of times that constituents of conjunction lures were studied and the method of presentation were varied. In two experiments, participants were presented with eight parent items that could be recombined at test to form a conjunction lure. The constituents that were shared between the parent items and the conjunction lures were either presented in the same words (e.g., blackmail and jailbird presented four times each for the conjunction lure blackbird) or in different words (e.g., the targets footstool, footlocker, foothill, footbridge, baseball, softball, basketball, and golfball for the conjunction lure football). In both experiments, rates of false recognition were higher in the Different condition as opposed to the Same condition. These results provide evidence that participants in the Same condition were able to utilise a recall-to-reject strategy by remembering the repeatedly presented parent word. In the Different condition, participants were not able to utilise that strategy and instead relied on the familiarity of the repeatedly presented constituents which led to higher rates of false recognition.

  17. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3−, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3− sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3−-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  18. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved.

  19. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Conk-Dalay, Meltem; Cakli, Hamdi; Bal, Cengiz

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing globally due to various causes. It affects the quality life of a large group of people in all around the world. Allergic rhinitis still remains inadequately controlled with present medical means. The need of continuous medical therapy makes individuals anxious about the side effects of the drugs. So there is a need for an alternative strategy. Effects of spirulina, tinospora cordifolia and butterbur were investigated recently on allergic rhinitis in just very few investigations. Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. This double blind, placebo controlled study, evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of spirulina for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Spirulina consumption significantly improved the symptoms and physical findings compared with placebo (P < 0.001***) including nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching. Spirulina is clinically effective on allergic rhinitis when compared with placebo. Further studies should be performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this effect.

  20. Allergic rhinitis and chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Rajati, Mohsen; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Khadivi, Ehsan; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Allergic inflammation in upper airways can act as a predisposing factor for infectious ear diseases. There are some evidences about the role of allergic rhinitis in chronic otitis media with effusion, but its role in establishing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) has not been clearly shown. 68 adult patients with established CSOM, who were candidates for ear surgery, and 184 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated for the presence of allergic rhinitis. Standard questionnaire was filled out for all participants. All patients and controls underwent skin prick test for 28 common regional aeroallergens, and serum total IgE was measured by means of ELISA method. Allergic rhinitis were defined as a positive responses to the questionnaire, positive skin prick test to at least one allergen, and/or high level of serum total IgE. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 20 (29.41%) and 41 (22.28%) of patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.241) (OR = 1.28, CI = 0.69-2.36). Outdoor allergens, especially grass pollen, were the most prevalent allergens among both groups, but indoor allergens like mites and molds have a low prevalence. The study did not show a significant difference in the prevalence of AR in the CSOM patients compared to the controls. The intermittent nature of allergy and other less known intervening factors in the etiopathogenesis of CSOM make such a conclusion difficult.

  1. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors.

  2. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  3. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animal dander are also called allergic rhinitis. Hay fever is another word often used for this problem. ... to ask your doctor about allergic rhinitis - child; Hay fever - what to ask your doctor - child; Allergies - what ...

  4. Role of cockroach proteases in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen

    2012-10-01

    Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.

  5. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  6. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  8. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    PubMed Central

    You, Yongsheng; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs) in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5%) and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%). The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:27242921

  9. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  10. The Evolutionary Economics of Embryonic-Sac Fluids in Squamate Reptiles.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Naulleau, Guy; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    The parchment-shelled eggs of squamate reptiles take up substantial water from the nest environment, enabling the conversion of yolk into neonatal tissue and buffering the embryo against the possibility of subsequent dry weather. During development, increasing amounts of water are stored in the embryonic sacs (i.e., membranes around the embryo: amnion, allantois, and chorion). The evolution of viviparity (prolonged uterine retention of developing embryos) means that embryonic-sac fluid storage now imposes a cost (increased maternal burdening), confers less benefit (because the mother buffers fetal water balance), and introduces a potential conflict among uterine siblings (for access to finite water supplies). Our data on nine species of squamate reptiles and published information on three species show that the embryonic-sac fluids comprise around 33% of neonatal mass in viviparous species versus 94% in full-term eggs of oviparous squamates. Data on parturition in 149 vipers (Vipera aspis, a viviparous species) show that larger offspring store more fluids in their fetal sacs and that an increase in litter size is associated with a decrease in fluid-sac mass per offspring. Overall, the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity may have substantially altered selective forces on offspring packaging and created competition among offspring for access to water reserves during embryonic development.

  11. Rectal sac distention is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the pupa of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takumi; Sakurai, Sho; Iwami, Masafumi

    2009-03-01

    Holometabolous insects do not excrete but store metabolic wastes during the pupal period. The waste is called meconium and is purged after adult emergence. Although the contents of meconium are well-studied, the developmental and physiological regulation of meconium accumulation is poorly understood. In Bombyx mori, meconium is accumulated in the rectal sac; thereby, the rectal sac distends at the late pupal stage. Here, we show that rectal sac distention occurs between 4 and 5 days after pupation. The distention is halted by brain-removal just after larval-pupal ecdysis but not by brain-removal 1 day after pupation. In the pupae, brain-removal just after ecdysis kept the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer low during early and mid-pupal stages. An injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) evoked the distention that was halted by brain-removal in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, brain-removal caused the lack of ecdysteroid, and rectal sac distention did not appear in the brain-removed pupae because of the lack of ecdysteroid. We conclude that rectal sac distention is one of the developmental events regulated by 20E during the pupal period in B. mori.

  12. Vocal sac development and accelerated sexual maturity in the lesser swimming frog, Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Javier; Barrasso, Diego A; Agostini, M Gabriela; Quinzio, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual maturity involves the differentiation of the reproductive system, the maturation of germ cells, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Even though this topic has received much attention, little is known about the sequence of events that encompass reproductive maturation in anurans and what it could reveal about the developmental basis of life cycle evolution. The discovery of froglets of Pseudis minuta with incipient vocal sacs calling in breeding pools alongside several larger adult specimens with fully developed vocal sacs raised the question of the timing of sexual maturity in this species. Here we describe the sequence and timing of differentiation, development and maturation of the vocal sac apparatus and the testes in P. minuta (Anura, Hylidae), in order to establish a timeline of events leading to sexual maturity. Differentiation of the vocal sac apparatus begins at the final metamorphic stages, earlier than reported for other species, and the vocal sac acquires its final shape during the early postmetamorphic period. These modifications occur after gonadal differentiation, which begins early during the larval period and proceeds with a highly accelerated rate of development (e.g., secondary spermatids appear well before metamorphic climax), a situation reported previously for other anuran species only in the genus Pseudis. These results, together with a skeletochronological analysis showing that some calling specimens presented no lines of arrested growth, indicate acceleration in the timing of sexual maturity in Pseudis, and raise questions about the interdependence/decoupling during the development of the different components involved in reaching the adult stage.

  13. A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.

    1995-08-01

    We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

  14. Treating the Ocular Component of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Related Eye Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bielory, Leonard; Katelaris, C. H.; Lightman, Susan; Naclerio, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Context Allergy symptoms that affect the eyes are common in adults and children worldwide, and are often associated with nasal allergy symptoms, prompting the term ‘rhinoconjunctivitis’ to describe the condition. However, this condition has not always been recognized, and earlier literature reported allergic conjunctivitis only within a subset of nasal allergy patients. Evidence Acquisition To assess the current state of ocular allergy epidemiology, pathophysiology, and currently available treatment options, we performed a MEDLINE search for articles regarding ocular allergy, rhinoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). Evidence Synthesis The more severe forms of ocular allergy are not only distressing, but can also threaten a patient's vision. Each type of ocular allergy is associated with ocular redness, itching, and tearing; however, AKC and VKC can threaten the cornea, and research has revealed that involvement of different immune cell populations (mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes) may cause these more severe symptoms. A variety of treatment options exist to control ocular allergy symptoms. Nonpharmacologic options include allergen avoidance and lubrication with saline, and if these fail to be sufficiently effective, symptom relief may be provided by medicinal agents that are either applied topically to the eye or taken orally. Recent evidence suggests that nasal allergy treatments applied topically to the nose may also positively affect ocular allergy symptoms, which raises the interesting possibility that a parasympathetic nasal-ocular neural reflex pathway may be involved in the stimulation of allergic responses in the eye. Conclusions Ocular allergy is underdiagnosed and has a significant impact on the life of the patient. It is vital to reach a better understanding of ocular allergic mechanisms and inflammation, which may lead to improved treatment. PMID

  15. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  16. The burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Ozdoganoglu, Tunis; Songu, Murat

    2012-02-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common health problems that cause major illness and disability worldwide. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is estimated to range from 10% to 20% in the USA and Europe. Multiple factors contribute to the wide range of reported prevalence rates. These include type of prevalence rate reported (current or cumulative), study selection criteria, age of participants, differences in survey methods, varied geographic locations and socioeconomic status, any of which are significant enough to confound direct comparison between studies. There is no standard set of diagnostic criteria for allergic rhinitis. In most studies, the criteria for diagnosis are based on the subject's reporting, solely by questionnaire and rarely confirmed by skin testing. In addition, most studies focus on hay fever, leaving perennial allergic rhinitis underestimated. Sinus imaging is generally not performed and, therefore, rhinosinusitis not differentiated. Some investigators report 'current' prevalence while others report 'cumulative' or 'lifetime' prevalence. Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that asthma and rhinitis often coexist in the same patients. The prevalence of asthma is <2% in subjects without rhinitis while it varies from 10% to 40% in patients with rhinitis. Furthermore, the majority of patients with asthma experience rhinitis, which is a factor in the risk for asthma. Despite recognition that allergic rhinitis and asthma are global health problems, there are insufficient epidemiologic data and more data are needed with regard to their etiologic risk factors and natural history. This aim of this review is to enable the reader to discuss prevalence, risk factors and prognosis of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  17. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization.

  18. [Healthcare-associated Neisseria meningitidis W135 conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Unal Yılmaz, Gülizar; Alkan, Metin; Vatansever Özbek, Ulfet; Tuğrul, H Murat

    2013-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an unusual pathogen among the causes of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Meningococcal conjunctivitis may present as primary or secondary infection, while primary meningococcal conjunctivitis may emerge as invasive or non-invasive forms. N.meningitidis W135 strain is not common in Turkey, and is rarely reported as the cause of meningitis. Moreover, no cases of conjunctivitis due to N.meningitidis W135 were reported from Turkey. In this report a case of N.meningitidis W135 conjunctivitis has been presented who acquired the infection from another patient with meningococcal meningitis by close contact in the hospital environment. A 2-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital with poor health condition, feeding difficulty and weight loss. He was hospitalized in intensive care unit and fluid replacement started due to severe dehydration. The infant had stigmata of Down's Syndrome, and since conjunctivitis were detected on physical examination, swab samples were obtained from both eyes for direct microscopic examination and cultivation. Abundant lekocytes and gram-negative diplococci were observed in Gram-stained smears, and bacterial growth were detected in the culture from left eye samples. The isolate have been identified as N.meningitidis by conventional microbiological methods, and serotyping of the isolate yielded W135 strain. The infant was treated with systemic cefotaxime and ampicillin-sulbactam, together with topical tobramycin and gentamycin. Since no symptoms of meningitis appeared during the follow-ups, the case was diagnosed as non-invasive primary meningococcal conjunctivitis. Investigation for a probable source revealed that the infant had close contact with a six-year-old boy with high fever, unconsciousness and vomiting a week ago in the outpatient clinic of Tekirdag State Hospital. N.meningitidis was also isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture of probable index case with meningitis and identified as W135 strain

  19. Satellite orbital conjunction reports assessing threatening encounters in space (SOCRATES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Alfano, S.

    2006-05-01

    While many satellite operators are aware of the possibility of a collision between their satellite and another object in earth orbit, most seem unaware of the frequency of near misses occurring each day. Until recently, no service existed to advise satellite operators of an impending conjunction of a satellite payload with another satellite, putting the responsibility for determining these occurrences squarely on the satellite operator's shoulders. This problem has been further confounded by the lack of a timely, comprehensive data set of satellite orbital element sets and computationally efficient tools to provide predictions using industry-standard software. As a result, hundreds of conjunctions within 1 km occur each week, with little or no intervention, putting billions of dollars of space hardware at risk, along with their associated missions. As a service to the satellite operator community, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) offers SOCRATES-Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space. Twice each day, CSSI runs a list of all satellite payloads on orbit against a list of all objects on orbit using the catalog of all unclassified NORAD two-line element sets to look for conjunctions over the next seven days. The runs are made using STK/CAT-Satellite Tool Kit's Conjunction Analysis Tools-together with the NORAD SGP4 propagator in STK. This paper will discuss how SOCRATES works and how it can help satellite operators avoid undesired close approaches through advanced mission planning.

  20. Diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Joseph A; Parekh, Nirav N; Desai, Naman S

    2014-10-01

    Wound closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey USA) has recently increased in popularity across a wide spectrum of physicians ranging from surgeons to emergency medicine practitioners. Generally, very few complications are associated with Dermabond and are usually related to application techniques. Uncommonly, patients present with allergic reactions to the adhesive compounds; these allergies are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis or another infectious process, and are incorrectly treated. This report describes a rare case of a diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond following its use to close a surgical incision, its prompt identification, and treatment after presentation to an emergency department.

  1. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  2. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  3. Allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis: false beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large

  4. Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, John E

    2003-11-01

    Insect stings are an important cause of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can also occur from insect bites but is less common. Insect venoms contain several well-characterized allergens that can trigger anaphylactic reactions. Effective methods to diagnose insect sting allergy and assess risk of future sting reactions have been developed. Management strategies using insect avoidance measures, self-injectable epinephrine, and allergen immunotherapy are very effective in reducing insect-allergic patients' risk of reaction from future stings. Diagnostic and management strategies for patients allergic to insect bites are less developed.

  5. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  6. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2015-01-30

    This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research.

  7. [A case of ascending colon carcinoma metastasized to an inguinal hernia sac].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasuhiro; Kato, Takeshi; Katayama, Kinzo; Doi, Takashi; Oshima, Kazuteru; Handa, Rio; Hoshi, Minako; Makari, Yoichi; Oshima, Satoshi; Iijima, Shohei; Kurokawa, Eiji; Kikkawa, Nobuteru

    2007-11-01

    While inguinal hernia is one of the most common diseases, metastatic cancer of an inguinal hernia sac is rare. We report a case of ascending colon cancer metastasized to an inguinal hernia sac. A 60-year-old man, who was undergone a right hemicolectomy for an ascending colon cancer, was pointed out a palpable inguinal mass at one year and eight months after the operation. He was diagnosed as inguinal hernia, and herniorrhaphy was performed. In the operation, a tumor of the inguinal hernia sac, which invaded to spermatic cord, could be found and was removed with right testis. Bassini's method was performed after the resection of the inguinal tumor. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was metastasis of colon carcinoma. Examination of the entire body showed no other metastasis. As for the advanced colon cancer, we need to mention the possibility of metastatic saccular tumor.

  8. Successful treatment of hydatid cyst of lesser sac with PAIR therapy.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Afshan; Ghani, Umar Fayyaz

    2013-12-01

    Hydatid disease has varied presentations and may involve any part of the body with hydatid disease of the liver being the most common site. Hydatid disease of lesser sac is a rare entity. Different treatment options of hydatid liver disease are available which include surgical, medical and radiological management. Surgical management has its limitations in terms of cost, morbidity, mortality, rate of recurrence and patient fitness to undergo surgery. Medical management alone carries a low chance of cure. Radiological management with PAIR therapy (percutaneous aspiration, injection and re-aspiration) of hydatid liver disease has been well described in literature. However, hydatid disease of lesser sac in itself is a rare entity and its treatment with PAIR procedure has not been described before. We describe a case of hydatid disease of lesser sac treated with the PAIR procedure.

  9. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-09-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system.

  10. User's guide to SAC, a computer program for computing discharge by slope-area method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    This user's guide contains information on using the slope-area program, SAC. SAC can be used to compute peak flood discharges from measurements of high-water marks along a stream reach. The Slope-area method used by the program is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) procedure presented in Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, beok 3, chapter A2, "Measurement of Peak Discharge by the Slope-Area Method." The program uses input files that have formats compatible with those used by the water-surface profile program (WSPRO) described in the Federal Highways Administration publication FHWA-IP-89-027. The guide briefly describes the slope-area method documents the input requirements and the output produced, and demonstrates use of SAC.

  11. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  12. Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kempermann, G; Neumann, H P; Scheremet, R; Volk, B; Mann, W; Gilsbach, J; Laszig, R

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal bone. Histological appearance, immunocytochemical findings, and the clinical context gave evidence that the tumours had to be reclassified as endolymphatic sac tumours--extremely rare entities. The report supports the hypothesis, suggested by the few earlier case reports, that endolymphatic sac tumours could be one of the inherent tumour manifestations in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Images PMID:8795608

  13. An atypical case of lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyu-Nam; Huh, Hyun-Do; Park, Jong-Moon; Seo, Seong-Wook

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. A systemically healthy 1-year-old girl came to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of tearing on the temporal side of the right lateral canthus since birth. On examination, a small orifice was found in the skin on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. There was no evidence of inflammation or swelling within the opening. Surgeons carried out an operation under general anesthesia. They passed a probe through the lacrimal orifice and advanced it toward the lacrimal sac. Next, they introduced saline to the inferior punctum and found that it drained to the lateral fistula. The lower lid stretched as the dissected fistula was pulled. After the operation, the patient was free of the symptom. This paper is to report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

  14. Improved Conjunction Analysis via Collaborative Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Vallado, D.; Chan, J.; Buckwalter, B.

    2009-03-01

    Satellite operators are becoming increasingly aware of the threat of on-orbit collisions—between satellites or with orbital debris. Successful conjunction monitoring and collision avoidance activities require accurate orbital information for as many space objects as possible. Current sources of orbital data are of low fidelity, as a result of how those data are generated, and are of limited value to conjunction analysis. However, satellite operators have much better data for their own satellites. When that data is shared among operators, overall space situational awareness can be significantly improved. This paper will demonstrate the potential improvements and discuss an operational implementation— SOCRATES-GEO—which uses operator data to improve conjunction monitoring.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis in a male teenager: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sulis, Giorgia; Urbinati, Lucia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Franco; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Matteelli, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    An 18 year old man was seen at a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) clinic for counselling and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection which had been diagnosed during a screening survey of high school students. For two months he had reported conjunctival hyperaemia, increased tearing, itching, and mucopurulent secretions, predominantly on the left eye. His ophthalmologist had made a diagnosis of follicular conjunctivitis and lower superficial punctate keratitis (left eye more than right eye), irresponsive to topical treatment. Chlamydial conjunctivitis was suspected and confirmed by a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) performed on conjunctival scraping. The patient was treated with azithromycin 1 g single dose orally and tetracycline/betamethasone eye ointment for one month. A complete resolution of symptoms was observed three months after aetiological treatment. This case highlights the need to include C. trachomatis infection in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic follicular conjunctivitis among sexually active young individuals.

  16. Topical Plasminogen as Adjunctive Treatment in Recurrent Ligneous Conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ang, Michael J; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos I; Chang, Shu-Hong; Kohn, Jocelyn; Chokron Garneau, Helen; Goldberg, Robert A

    Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare, autosomal recessive, membranous conjunctivitis characterized by a deficiency in type 1 plasminogen. The absence of normal plasmin activity results in the formation of fibrin-rich, membranous material that typically manifests on the palpebral conjunctiva. Surgical treatment often causes irritation of the conjunctiva and accelerated recurrence of pseudomembranes. In this interventional case report, the authors document the results of treatment with topical plasminogen following conjunctival pseudomembrane excision in a 32-year-old woman. The patient underwent pseudomembrane excision in the OS followed immediately by hourly topical application of plasminogen eye drops. The plasminogen was prepared from pooled human plasma purchased under Food and Drug Administration approval from DiaPharma. Follow-up evaluation at 1 week, 1 month, and 5 months showed no evidence of recurrent pseudomembranous change. Adjunctive topical plasminogen application appears to be an effective and safe method of controlling pseudomembrane recurrence in patients with ligneous conjunctivitis.

  17. Scalable Conjunction Processing using Spatiotemporally Indexed Ephemeris Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budianto-Ho, I.; Johnson, S.; Sivilli, R.; Alberty, C.; Scarberry, R.

    2014-09-01

    The collision warnings produced by the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) are of critical importance in protecting U.S. and allied spacecraft against destructive collisions and protecting the lives of astronauts during space flight. As the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) improves its sensor capabilities for tracking small and dim space objects, the number of tracked objects increases from thousands to hundreds of thousands of objects, while the number of potential conjunctions increases with the square of the number of tracked objects. Classical filtering techniques such as apogee and perigee filters have proven insufficient. Novel and orders of magnitude faster conjunction analysis algorithms are required to find conjunctions in a timely manner. Stellar Science has developed innovative filtering techniques for satellite conjunction processing using spatiotemporally indexed ephemeris data that efficiently and accurately reduces the number of objects requiring high-fidelity and computationally-intensive conjunction analysis. Two such algorithms, one based on the k-d Tree pioneered in robotics applications and the other based on Spatial Hash Tables used in computer gaming and animation, use, at worst, an initial O(N log N) preprocessing pass (where N is the number of tracked objects) to build large O(N) spatial data structures that substantially reduce the required number of O(N^2) computations, substituting linear memory usage for quadratic processing time. The filters have been implemented as Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) plug-ins for the Continuous Anomalous Orbital Situation Discriminator (CAOS-D) conjunction analysis architecture. We have demonstrated the effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability of the techniques using a catalog of 100,000 objects, an analysis window of one day, on a 64-core computer with 1TB shared memory. Each algorithm can process the full catalog in 6 minutes or less, almost a twenty-fold performance improvement over the

  18. sAC as a model for understanding the impact of endosymbiosis on cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2014-12-01

    As signaling pathways evolve, selection for new functions guides the co-option of existing material. Major transitions in the history of life, including the evolution of eukaryotes and multicellularity, exemplify this process. These transitions provided both strong selection and a plenitude of available material for the evolution of signaling pathways. Mechanisms that evolved to mediate conflict during the evolution of eukaryotes may subsequently have been co-opted during the many independent derivations of multicellularity. The soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) signaling pathway illustrates this hypothesis. Class III adenylyl cyclases, which include sAC, are found in bacteria, including the α-proteobacteria. These adenylyl cyclases are the only ones present in eukaryotes but appear to be absent in archaeans. This pattern suggests that the mitochondrial endosymbiosis brought sAC signaling to eukaryotes as part of an intact module. After transfer to the proto-nuclear genome, this module was then co-opted into numerous new functions. In the evolution of eukaryotes, sAC signaling may have mediated conflicts by maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In the evolution of multicellularity, in different lineages sAC may have been co-opted into parallel tasks originally related to conflict mediation. Elucidating the history of the sAC pathway may be relatively straightforward because it is ubiquitous and linked to near universal metabolic by-products (CO₂/HCO(3)(-)). Other signaling pathways (e.g., those involving STAT and VEGF) present a greater challenge but may suggest a complementary pattern. The impact of the mitochondrial endosymbiosis on cell signaling may thus have been profound. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of soluble adenylyl cyclase in health and disease.

  19. A Tuned Single Parameter for Representing Conjunction Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plakaloic, D.; Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, R. C.; Newman, L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment risk analysis is a subjective enterprise that can benefit from quantitative aids and, to this end, NASA/GSFC has developed a fuzzy logic construct - called the F-value - to attempt to provide a statement of conjunction risk that amalgamates multiple indices and yields a more stable intra-event assessment. This construct has now sustained an extended tuning procedure against heuristic analyst assessment of event risk. The tuning effort has resulted in modifications to the calculation procedure and the adjustment of tuning coefficients, producing a construct with both more predictive force and a better statement of its error.

  20. Neonatal Conjunctivitis Leading to Neonatal Sepsis--A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dey, A C; Hossain, M I; Dey, S K; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal conjunctivitis is the most common occular disease in neonates. Most infections are acquired during vaginal delivery. In spite most of these cases are benign; some of them may progress to systemic complications like loss of vision if left untreated. The authors present a case of a newborn who developed late onset neonatal sepsis from E. coli positive conjunctivitis. The baby was treated with Injection Meropenem and Injection Amikacin for 10 days. The course was uneventful, after that baby responded well and discharged home on 24th day.

  1. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Nakhla, Sammy G.; Sundararajan, Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. PMID:27144043

  2. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare tumors arising from the epithelium of the endolymphatic sac and duct that can be either sporadic or associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. We report a case of a VHL patient with histologically proven residual ELST who underwent Ga DOTATATE PET/CT showing increased activity (SUVmax, 6.29) by the ELST. The presented case of a VHL-associated ELST with increased Ga DOTATATE uptake indicates cell-surface expression of somatostatin receptors by this tumor, suggesting the potential application of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides in the workup and management of these patients.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of the human endolymphatic sac: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Galey, F R; House, W F

    1980-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to examine and compare one normal endolymphatic sac with one endolymphatic sac from a patient with Meniere's disease. The surgical procedure for obtaining these specimens and their preparation for scanning electron microscopy are described. The luminal surface of the rugose portion of both specimens was lined with two populations of epithelial cells: one with a dome-shaped apical surface, the other with a flattened polygonal surface. The surface of dome-shaped cells in both specimens was covered with microvilli. Neither specimen had observable loss of epithelial integrity or fibrosis.

  4. Future treatments of allergic diseases and asthma.

    PubMed

    Stirling, R G; Chung, K F

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the inflammatory and immunological mechanisms of allergic diseases have illuminated many potential therapeutic strategies that may prevent or even reverse the abnormalities of allergic inflammation. As the roles of effector cells, and of signalling and adhesion molecules are better understood, the opportunities to inhibit or prevent the inflammatory cascade have increased. In addition, there have been advances in the synthesis of proteins, monoclonal antibodies and new small molecule chemical entities, which provide further valuable flexibility in the therapeutic approach to asthma. Such new approaches are aimed at prevention of T-cell activation; redressing the imbalance of T helper cell populations thus inhibiting or preventing Th-2-derived cytokine expression; and the inhibition or blockade of the downstream actions of these cytokines such as effects on IgE and eosinophils. Approaches such as these allow both broad and highly specific targeting, and may pave the way towards the prevention and reversal of the immunological and inflammatory processes driving asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The development of effective agents with effects beyond those provided by current therapies coupled with lesser side-effects will further address the unmet needs of allergic disease.

  5. [Allergic dermatitis: new concepts for old diseases].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, Martín; Ayala Balboa, Julio César; Mendoza Vázquez, Victor Cristóbal

    2003-01-01

    The skin is the largest body's organ, with a well defined functional lymphoid tissue. This organ can be the target of several hypersensitivity-mediated diseases, that are both, genetically determined and influenced by environmental factors. In this paper the main clinical features and the current treatment modalities for the most frequent allergic cutaneous diseases are reviewed.

  6. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  7. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials.

  8. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  9. [Recent advances in extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M

    2008-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis), especially humidifier lung, has been more frequently diagnosed over the last decades, whereas farmer's lung has decreased over the same time period. Today two types of the chronic course of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be distinguished. The recurrent chronic course with a good prognosis may be differentiated from the insidious course with a poor prognosis by means of different histological patterns (UIP, NSIP, BOOP pattern). The characteristic neutrophilic infiltration of the lung in the insidious course cannot be detected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) methods. Furthermore, lymphocytosis in the BAL can be absent or present at a low level. The CD4/CD8 ratio is not always decreased and may be normal or even increased in these insidious cases with a poor prognosis. Granulomas in the lung tissue, however, point to a good prognosis. In the diagnostic work-up of machine operator's and humidifier lung, it is advisable not only to look for serum antibodies against bacteria and molds but also for rapid growing mycobacteria in a sample of machine or humidifier water. IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors occur frequently in allergic alveolitis, especially in humidifier lung. The patients, however, do not suffer from arthritis. The IgM rheumatoid factor may simulate IgM antibodies against numerous infectious agents (e. g., Bordetella pertussis or Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Taking this phenomenon into account may improve the current differential diagnosis of allergic alveolitis.

  10. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  11. Conjunctions in Argumentative Writing of Libyan Tertiary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Muftah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was an attempt to investigate the use of conjunctions in argumentative essays written by English as a Foreign Language fourth-year undergraduate Libyan students majoring in English at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A corpus of 32 argumentative essays was collected from a sample of 16 students in order to be investigated…

  12. The Conjunction Fallacy and the Many Meanings of "And"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertwig, Ralph; Benz, Bjorn; Krauss, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    According to the conjunction rule, the probability of A "and" B cannot exceed the probability of either single event. This rule reads "and" in terms of the logical operator [inverted v], interpreting A and B as an intersection of two events. As linguists have long argued, in natural language "and" can convey a wide range of relationships between…

  13. Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Despite Successful Treatment of Male Urethritis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peters, Remco P H; Verweij, Stephan P; McIntyre, James A; Schaftenaar, Erik

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of progressive, cephalosporin-susceptible, Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis despite successful treatment of male urethritis syndrome. We hypothesize that conjunctival infection progressed due to insufficient penetration of cefixime and azithromycin and point out that extragenital infection and male urethritis may not be cured simultaneously in settings where the syndromic approach is used.

  14. Conjunction Errors in Recognition: Emergent Structure and Metacognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verde, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Pictures consisted of component halves from either the same photographic scene (SS) or different scenes (DS). SS pictures possessed the emergent property of forming a continuous scene. In Experiment 1, conjunction lures were created by rearranging halves from studied DS pictures into new DS or SS lures. Despite equally familiar components,…

  15. Time Dependence of Collision Probabilities During Satellite Conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Doyle T.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team has recently implemented updated software to calculate the probability of collision (P (sub c)) for Earth-orbiting satellites. The algorithm can employ complex dynamical models for orbital motion, and account for the effects of non-linear trajectories as well as both position and velocity uncertainties. This “3D P (sub c)” method entails computing a 3-dimensional numerical integral for each estimated probability. Our analysis indicates that the 3D method provides several new insights over the traditional “2D P (sub c)” method, even when approximating the orbital motion using the relatively simple Keplerian two-body dynamical model. First, the formulation provides the means to estimate variations in the time derivative of the collision probability, or the probability rate, R (sub c). For close-proximity satellites, such as those orbiting in formations or clusters, R (sub c) variations can show multiple peaks that repeat or blend with one another, providing insight into the ongoing temporal distribution of risk. For single, isolated conjunctions, R (sub c) analysis provides the means to identify and bound the times of peak collision risk. Additionally, analysis of multiple actual archived conjunctions demonstrates that the commonly used “2D P (sub c)” approximation can occasionally provide inaccurate estimates. These include cases in which the 2D method yields negligibly small probabilities (e.g., P (sub c)) is greater than 10 (sup -10)), but the 3D estimates are sufficiently large to prompt increased monitoring or collision mitigation (e.g., P (sub c) is greater than or equal to 10 (sup -5)). Finally, the archive analysis indicates that a relatively efficient calculation can be used to identify which conjunctions will have negligibly small probabilities. This small-P (sub c) screening test can significantly speed the overall risk analysis computation for large numbers of conjunctions.

  16. Distinct perceptual rhythms for feature and conjunction searches

    PubMed Central

    Dugué, Laura; Xue, Alice M.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Feature and conjunction searches are widely used to study attentional deployment. However, the spatiotemporal behavior of attention integration in these tasks remains under debate. Are multiple search stimuli processed in parallel or sequentially? Does sampling of visual information and attentional deployment differ between these two types of search? If so, how? We used an innovative methodology to estimate the distribution of attention on a single-trial basis for feature and conjunction searches. Observers performed feature- and conjunction-search tasks. They had to detect and discriminate a tilted low-spatial-frequency grating among three low-spatial-frequency vertical gratings (feature search) or low-spatial-frequency vertical gratings and high-spatial-frequency tilted gratings (conjunction search). After a variable delay, two probes were flashed at random locations. Performance in reporting the probes was used to infer attentional deployment to those locations. By solving a second-degree equation, we determined the probability of probe report at the most (P1) and least (P2) attended locations on a given trial. Were P1 and P2 equal, we would conclude that attention had been uniformly distributed across all four locations. Otherwise, we would conclude that visual information sampling and attentional deployment had been nonuniformly distributed. Our results show that processing was nonuniformly distributed across the four locations in both searches, and was modulated periodically over time at ∼5 Hz for the conjunction search and ∼12 Hz for the feature search. We argue that the former corresponds to the periodicity of attentional deployment during the search, whereas the latter corresponds to ongoing sampling of visual information. Because different locations were not simultaneously processed, this study rules out a strict parallel model for both search types. PMID:28362897

  17. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-74 Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C certification, all warranted Contracting Officers, regardless of series,...

  18. The actin-related protein Sac1 is required for morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Qilin; Jia, Chang; Wang, Yuzhou; Xiao, Chenpeng; Dong, Yijie; Xu, Ning; Wang, Lei; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is a common pathogenic fungus and has aroused widespread attention recently. Actin cytoskeleton, an important player in polarized growth, protein secretion and organization of cell shape, displays irreplaceable role in hyphal development and cell integrity. In this study, we demonstrated a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sac1, in C. albicans. It is a potential PIP phosphatase with Sac domain which is related to actin organization, hyphal development, biofilm formation and cell wall integrity. Deletion of SAC1 did not lead to insitiol-auxotroph phenotype in C. albicans, but this gene rescued the growth defect of S. cerevisiae sac1Δ in the insitiol-free medium. Hyphal induction further revealed the deficiency of sac1Δ/Δ in hyphal development and biofilm formation. Fluorescence observation and real time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis suggested both actin and the hyphal cell wall protein Hwp1 were overexpressed and mislocated in this mutant. Furthermore, cell wall integrity (CWI) was largely affected by deletion of SAC1, due to the hypersensitivity to cell wall stress, changed content and distribution of chitin in the mutant. As a result, the virulence of sac1Δ/Δ was seriously attenuated. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Sac1, as a potential PIP phosphatase, is essential for actin organization, hyphal development, CWI and pathogenicity in C. albicans.

  19. Absence of yolk sac hematopoiesis from mice with a targeted disruption of the scl gene.

    PubMed Central

    Robb, L; Lyons, I; Li, R; Hartley, L; Köntgen, F; Harvey, R P; Metcalf, D; Begley, C G

    1995-01-01

    The scl gene encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor which was identified through its involvement in chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia. To elucidate its physiological role, scl was targeted in embryonic stem cells. Mice heterozygous for the scl null mutation were intercrossed and their offspring were genotyped. Homozygous mutant (scl-/-) pups were not detected in newborn litters, and analysis at earlier time points demonstrated that scl-/- embryos were dying around embryonic day 9.5. The scl-/- embryos were pale, edematous, and markedly growth retarded after embryonic day 8.75. Histological studies showed complete absence of recognizable hematopoiesis in the yolk sac of these embryos. Early organogenesis appeared to be otherwise normal. Culture of yolk sac cells of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous littermates confirmed the absence of hematopoietic cells in scl-/- yolk sacs. Reverse transcription PCR was used to examine the transcripts of several genes implicated in early hematopoiesis. Transcripts of GATA-1 and PU.1 transcription factors were absent from RNA from scl-/- yolk sacs and embryos. These results implicate scl as a crucial regulator of early hematopoiesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624372

  20. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in an inguinal hernial sac: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, M; Lakhar, B; Shetty, D; Ullal, S

    2000-01-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, which is a rare neoplasm, usually presents with abdominal complaints. Though such tumours have been reported from tunica vaginalis testis presenting as para-testicular mass, there is only one documented case of the tumour arising from the inguinal hernial sac. In this paper, we are reporting a rare presentation of this tumour.

  1. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Singh, Swati; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR) in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis. Results A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60) years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13) showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15) and 40% (six of 15), respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15). One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium. Conclusion An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR. PMID:27462137

  2. Follow-Up Survey of Former SAC Students Who Transferred to a Four Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

    In 1982, a follow-up study was conducted of Santa Ana College (SAC) graduates who had transferred to and were currently attending four neighboring four-year colleges: California State University, Fullerton; California State University, Long Beach; California Polytechnic University; and the University of California, Irvine. Surveys were mailed to…

  3. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  4. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  5. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, María J.; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

  6. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties.

  7. Characteristics of an adenovirus type 19 conjunctivitis isolate and evidence for a subgroup associated with epidemic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Newland, J C; Cooney, M K

    1978-01-01

    Although adneovirus type 19 (Ad19) was first described in 1955, this virus was not associated with disease until its isolation from outbreaks of conjunctivitis in 1973. A strain of Ad19 isolated from a case of conjunctivitis in Seattle in 1974 was compared with the reference strain (3911). Plaque number and size were enhanced by 30 mM MgCl2. Low pH and chloroform treatment had no effect on either strain's activity, but the two strains were sensitive to pH 8. Growth curves were characteristic of adenoviruses, but differences were seen in the amount of virus released. The ratios of particles to plaque-forming units (approximately 10,000:1) were similar for both. Both virus preparations contained high concentrations of group-specific complement-fixing antigen. Cross-reactions were seen by hemagglutination inhibition and immunoelectron microscopy between antisera to Ad8, Ad9, and Ad10 versus both strains of Ad19, but were not seen by neutralization. We would like to suggest, based on exclusive conjunctivitis association and cross-reactions, that the four cross-reacting serotypes, Ad8, Ad9, Ad10, and Ad19, represent a subgroup of adenoviruses specfically associated with conjunctivitis. Images PMID:30698

  8. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  9. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits.

  10. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrera, Marta; Aguilar, Isabel; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others.

  11. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  12. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  13. Characterization of Sac10a, a hyperthermophile DNA-binding protein from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Stephen P; Kahsai, Mebrahtu A; Gupta, Ramesh; Shriver, John W

    2004-10-19

    Sac10a is a member of a group of basic DNA-binding proteins thought to be important in chromatin structure and regulation in the archaeon Sulfolobus. We describe here the isolation, gene identification, and biophysical characterization of native Sac10a. The protein exists as a 23.8 kDa homodimer at pH 7 and unfolds with a T degrees of 122 degrees C. Dissociation of the dimer into folded globular subunits is promoted by decreased pH and salt concentration. Thermal unfolding of the monomeric subunits occurred with two transitions, indicating two independent domains. The dimer demonstrated a high affinity for duplex poly(dAdT) with a K(D) of 5 x 10(-)(10) M and a site size of 17 bp (in 0.15 M KCl, pH 7), with only weak binding (K(D) > 5 x 10(-)(6) M) to poly(dA)-poly(dT), poly(dGdC), poly(dG)-poly(dC), and Escherichia coli DNA under similar conditions. Binding to poly(dAdT) resulted in distortions in the DNA duplex that were consistent with overwinding as indicated by inversion of the CD spectrum of the DNA. The monomeric subunits are predicted to adopt a winged helix DNA-binding motif which dimerizes through formation of a two-stranded coiled coil involving an extended C-terminal helix with more than four heptad repeats (about 45 A in length). This is the first example of the conserved archaeal transcription regulator domain COG3432 to be characterized. Sequences for homologous proteins containing both COG3432 and predicted coiled coil domains occur in the genomes of both crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus, Pyrobaculum, Aeropyrum) and euryarchaeota (Methanosarcina, Methanococcus, Archaeoglobus, Thermoplasma), with multiple genes in some species. Sac10a shows no sequence similarity to the other Sulfolobus chromatin proteins Sac7d, Sac8, Sso10b2, and Alba.

  14. Primitive fitting based on the efficient multiBaySAC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes' Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further

  15. IMPACT: Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, J.; Brennan, S.; Godinez, H. C.; Higdon, D. M.; Klimenko, A.; Larsen, B.; Lawrence, E.; Linares, R.; McLaughlin, C. A.; Mehta, P. M.; Palmer, D.; Ridley, A. J.; Shoemaker, M.; Sutton, E.; Thompson, D.; Walker, A.; Wohlberg, B.

    2013-12-01

    Low-Earth orbiting satellites suffer from atmospheric drag due to thermospheric density which changes on the order of several magnitudes especially during space weather events. Solar flares, precipitating particles and ionospheric currents cause the upper atmosphere to heat up, redistribute, and cool again. These processes are intrinsically included in empirical models, e.g. MSIS and Jacchia-Bowman type models. However, sensitivity analysis has shown that atmospheric drag has the highest influence on satellite conjunction analysis and empirical model still do not adequately represent a desired accuracy. Space debris and collision avoidance have become an increasingly operational reality. It is paramount to accurately predict satellite orbits and include drag effect driven by space weather. The IMPACT project (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), funded with over $5 Million by the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development office, has the goal to develop an integrated system of atmospheric drag modeling, orbit propagation, and conjunction analysis with detailed uncertainty quantification to address the space debris and collision avoidance problem. Now with over two years into the project, we have developed an integrated solution combining physics-based density modeling of the upper atmosphere between 120-700 km altitude, satellite drag forecasting for quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and conjunction analysis with non-Gaussian uncertainty quantification. We are employing several novel approaches including a unique observational sensor developed at Los Alamos; machine learning with a support-vector machine approach of the coupling between solar drivers of the upper atmosphere and satellite drag; rigorous data assimilative modeling using a physics-based approach instead of empirical modeling of the thermosphere; and a computed-tomography method for extracting temporal maps of thermospheric densities

  16. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid–solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  17. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.

  18. [Gonococcal conjunctivitis complicated by perforating corneal abscess in an adult].

    PubMed

    Gambrelle, J; Ponceau, B; Duquesne, N; Crepet, H; Fleury, J; Burillon, C; Grange, J D; Kodjikian, L

    2007-09-01

    We present a case of bilateral purulent conjunctivitis complicated by ocular perforation of the right eye secondary to fulminant corneal melt in a 29-year-old man. He developed urethritis after a sexual contact with a prostitute 3 weeks previously. Microbiological analyses of conjunctival and urinary cultures were positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillins, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. Progression was favorable with a 15-day course of high doses of parenterally administered antibiotics associating imipenem and fosfomycin. Keratoplasty was done after 3 months. This observation is a good example of the problems raised by gonococcal conjunctivitis in adults. Extremely rare in developed countries, it remains widely unrecognized by ophthalmologists. It is a sexually transmitted disease usually resulting from autoinoculation from an infected genital site. The risk of marginal purulent corneal melt, which can lead to fulminant perforation, warrants prompt microbiological analysis and early parenteral antibiotic treatment.

  19. An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Melaka, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, O; Chua, K B; Ng, K P; Hooi, P S; Pallansch, M A; Oberste, M S; Chua, K H; Mak, J W

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports a second outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to coxsackievirus A24 in peninsular Malaysia. Between June 2002 and early October 2003, 10,327 patients, comprising 3,261 children and 7,066 adults, were treated for acute conjunctivitis in 11 government health clinics in the Melaka Tengah district of the state of Melaka. The figure grossly underestimates the size of the outbreak; as no patients treated in private clinics in the same district were included. Institution and household surveillance showed that the commonest presenting clinical feature of the illness was eye-discharge (91.2%), followed by foreign body sensation (81.8%), pain (78.3%) and subconjunctival haemorrhage (74.4%). The mean duration of illness was 6.5 and five days for patients with and without subconjunctival haemorrhage respectively.

  20. Diversity of gut Bifidobacterium species is not altered between allergic and non-allergic French infants.

    PubMed

    Waligora-Dupriet, A J; Campeotto, F; Romero, K; Mangin, I; Rouzaud, G; Ménard, O; Suau, A; Soulaines, P; Nicolis, I; Kapel, N; Dupont, C; Butel, M J

    2011-06-01

    Some clinical studies have suggested a relationship between allergic diseases and gut microbiota. We aimed to study bifidobacterial colonization at species and strain levels in ten allergic French infants included at their first clinical consultation and 20 controls matching for age at sampling, mode of delivery, per partum antibiotics, type of feeding and antibiotics in the first weeks of life. The faecal microbiota was analyzed by culture methods and TTGE. Bifidobacterial species and strains were identified using multiplex PCR and Box-PCR fingerprinting. No differences were observed between groups in the number of colonized infants or in the levels of colonization by the main aerobic and anaerobic genera. All infants were colonized with high levels of Bifidobacterium except for one in each group. One to 5 Bifidobacterium species and 1 to 7 strains were observed per subject independently of allergic status and age at sampling. Our study showed the infants to be colonized by several species and strains, including several strains from the same species. This diversity in Bifidobacterium colonization was not related with the allergic status and showed that the link between Bifidobacterium colonization and allergic diseases is complex and cannot be restricted to the role attributed to Bifidobacterium species.

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy.

  2. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  3. Silencing nociceptor neurons reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E.; Burkett, Patrick R.; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J.F.; Pascal, Maud A.; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L.; Tran, Johnathan V.; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M.; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Bean, Bruce P.; Levy, Bruce D.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8+ sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4+ and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  4. [Allergic vascularities with clinical skin manifestations].

    PubMed

    Puissant, A

    1981-01-01

    After describing the cutaneous and histo-pathological symptoms of allergic vasculazities, the author describes: Gougerot's tri-symptomatic disease, its differential diagnoses, and its various aetiologies. The pathology of the latter leads us to consider immune complexes, but our study does not deal with it in detail. Purpura rheumatica produces gammaglobulins A. Urticarial vasculazities may or may not be accompanied by anomalies of the complementary system; they may be transposed auto-immune disorders such as lupus erythematosus; their development is fairly unpredictable., Acute hemorrhagic oedema of the skin of nurslings also has allergic vasculazities at its basis. The author also mentions the transitory state between these different pictures, notably polyarteritis nodosa, granulomatotic pulmonary angitis of Churg and Strauss, and Wegener's granulomatosis.

  5. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  6. Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    non- linear hybrid systems by linear algebraic methods. In Radhia Cousot and Matthieu Martel, editors, SAS, volume 6337 of LNCS, pages 373–389. Springer...Tarski. A decision method for elementary algebra and geometry. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 59, 1951. [36] Wolfgang Walter. Ordinary...Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations Khalil Ghorbal1 Andrew Sogokon2 André Platzer1 July 2014

  7. Simulation and analysis of conjunctive use with MODFLOW's farm process.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R T; Schmid, W; Faunt, C C; Lockwood, B

    2010-01-01

    The extension of MODFLOW onto the landscape with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates fully coupled simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow and runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. This allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within "water-balance subregions" comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Simulation of micro-agriculture in the Pajaro Valley and macro-agriculture in the Central Valley are used to demonstrate the utility of MF-FMP. For Pajaro Valley, the simulation of an aquifer storage and recovery system and related coastal water distribution system to supplant coastal pumpage was analyzed subject to climate variations and additional supplemental sources such as local runoff. For the Central Valley, analysis of conjunctive use from different hydrologic settings of northern and southern subregions shows how and when precipitation, surface water, and groundwater are important to conjunctive use. The examples show that through MF-FMP's ability to simulate natural and anthropogenic components of the hydrologic cycle, the distribution and dynamics of supply and demand can be analyzed, understood, and managed. This analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding them in the simulation and are difficult to estimate a priori.

  8. Scalable Conjunction Processing using Spatiotemporally Indexed Ephemeris Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 ABSTRACT The collision warnings produced by the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) are of...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB,NM,87117 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING... AFRL ) to provide an extensible net-centric framework for conjunction analysis and optimized SSN tasking based on streaming updates of the Space

  9. Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum keratitis and conjunctivitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, A; Lal, S

    2000-02-01

    A case of keratitis and conjunctivitis in an 86-year-old man caused by Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is reported. Corynebacteria are uncommon causes of ocular surface infections. However, the presence of corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects in an immunocompromised patient can result in severe infection by a commensal organism such as C. pseudodiphtheriticum. The significance of a positive culture in these settings should not be overlooked.

  10. Magnetotherapy in the treatment of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Jarosław; Pasek, Tomasz; Herba, Ewa; Misiak, Anna; Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Ocular infections are one of the most frequent causes of ailments among the patients coming to ophthalmologic offices. This article presents one of the physical medicine's methods--magnetotherapy--which uses the alternating low frequency magnetic fields in the therapy of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis in a 49-year-old female patient. Basing on the obtained results it was stated that this method broadens the treatment possibilities becoming a precious supplement and support treatment method in ophthalmology.

  11. Conjunctive Faith: A Critique and Analysis from an Evangelical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    and the structural-developmen- tal theories of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg. Once the structure of Conjunctive Faith had been defined, then an...Influence of Erik Erikson . ....... 27 The Influence of Jean Piaget .. ........ 29 The Influence of Lawrence Kohlberg ...... .. 30 Contributions of the...34 3 5 Piaget’s work, which predated Kohlberg’s, provid- ed some important thoughts for faith development research. The Influence of Jean Piaget The

  12. Simulation and analysis of conjunctive use with MODFLOW's farm process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Schmid, W.; Faunt, C.C.; Lockwood, B.

    2010-01-01

    The extension of MODFLOW onto the landscape with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates fully coupled simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow and runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. This allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within " water-balance subregions" comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Simulation of micro-agriculture in the Pajaro Valley and macro-agriculture in the Central Valley are used to demonstrate the utility of MF-FMP. For Pajaro Valley, the simulation of an aquifer storage and recovery system and related coastal water distribution system to supplant coastal pumpage was analyzed subject to climate variations and additional supplemental sources such as local runoff. For the Central Valley, analysis of conjunctive use from different hydrologic settings of northern and southern subregions shows how and when precipitation, surface water, and groundwater are important to conjunctive use. The examples show that through MF-FMP's ability to simulate natural and anthropogenic components of the hydrologic cycle, the distribution and dynamics of supply and demand can be analyzed, understood, and managed. This analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding them in the simulation and are difficult to estimate a priori. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  13. The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Process: Overview and Operational Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft

    2008-01-01

    Orbital debris poses a significant threat to spacecraft health and safety. Recent events such as China's anti-satellite test and the Breeze-M rocket explosion have led to an even greater awareness and concern in the satellite community. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established requirements that routine conjunction assessment screening shall be performed for all maneuverable spacecraft having perigees less than 2000 km or within 200 km of geosynchronous altitude. NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed an operational collision risk assessment process to protect NASA s high-value unmanned (robotic) assets that has been in use since January 2005. This paper provides an overview of the NASA robotic conjunction assessment process, including descriptions of the new tools developed to analyze close approach data and of the risk mitigation strategies employed. In addition, statistical data describing the number of conjunctions experienced are presented. A debris avoidance maneuver performed by Aura in June of 2008 is described in detail to illustrate the process.

  14. Quantum structure of negation and conjunction in human thought.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., Fruits and Vegetables, and their conjunction Fruits And Vegetables, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, Fruits And Not Vegetables, Not Fruits And Vegetables, and Not Fruits And Not Vegetables. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an "emergent reasoning" and a "logical reasoning," and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure.

  15. Quantum structure of negation and conjunction in human thought

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., Fruits and Vegetables, and their conjunction Fruits And Vegetables, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, Fruits And Not Vegetables, Not Fruits And Vegetables, and Not Fruits And Not Vegetables. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an “emergent reasoning” and a “logical reasoning,” and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure. PMID:26483715

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Casey; Bidinger, Jeff; Hivnor, Chad; Hoover, Aaron; Henning, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Cyanoacrylates are widely used as topical skin adhesives in emergency departments, clinics, and operating rooms. We report 4 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) following postsurgical closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. These patients were challenged with a novel method of use testing to confirm sensitivity to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. The popularity of skin adhesives makes this emerging allergen worthy of examination. It is possible that cyanoacrylate allergy currently is underrecognized.

  17. Pulmonary mycotic infections; allergic and immunologic factors.

    PubMed

    KEENEY, E L

    1954-12-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated.Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions-precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction-the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections-for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed.

  18. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  19. Allergic respiratory diseases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bom, A Todo; Pinto, A Mota

    2009-11-01

    In industrialized countries there has been a significant increase in life expectancy, but chronic diseases are still important causes of death and disability in the elderly. Individuals over 65 years of age have a decrease in organic functions and lungs can lose more than 40% of their capacity. Although asthma and allergic rhinitis are more common in young people their prevalence in the elderly is increasing and the mortality reported in these patients is high. Asthmatic airways show an accumulation of activated eosinophils and lymphocytes determining structural changes of the bronchi. Local allergic inflammation, changes in T cell phenotypes and in apoptosis contribute to systemic inflammation. An increased risk of respiratory infections and neoplasic diseases has been recognized. These patients have increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic diseases are associated with an impairment of lung function and with systemic inflammation. Summing up older asthmatic patients have an increased risk to premature disability and death. A proper therapeutic approach to asthma can minimize this evolution. To identify the triggers is an important goal that allows reducing medication needs. Corticosteroids dampen allergic inflammation; therefore, they are the first choice in the treatment of patients with persistent asthma and rhinitis. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have reduced side effects and can be used if necessary. The elderly may have difficult access to health care. They should be educated about their disease and receive a written treatment plan. This information improves the quality of life, socialization and disease outcome in older people.

  20. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.

  1. Montelukast in the management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, Jaime A; Marshall, Gailen D

    2007-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disorder seen in the outpatient clinic setting diagnosed by history, physical exam and objective testing. According to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document, it is classified by chronicity (intermittent or persistent), and severity which is based on symptoms and quality of life (mild, or moderate/severe). It has enormous socioeconomic costs and significant reduction in quality of life. Allergen avoidance should be implemented, particularly in children, to reduce level of exposure; unfortunately efforts are often inadequate. Montelukast, a novel medication, is an antagonist to the leukotriene receptor. It is nonsedating, dosed once daily, and has a safety profile similar in adults and children with approval down to 6 months of age. A review of the literature undoubtedly establishes montelukast as a viable alternative for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Its benefits are equivalent to antihistamines, when used as monotherapy, but less than intranasal corticosteroids. The addition of an antihistamine to montelukast does appear to have added benefits and at times is reported to be equivalent to intranasal corticosteroids. PMID:18360641

  2. Voice change in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva; Bende, Mats; Brynnel, Moa; Johansson, Inger; Kappel, Sofi; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2008-07-01

    Voice problems are seldom reported in pollen allergy, although the allergic reaction involves the entire airways. The objective of this study was to investigate voice dysfunction during the pollen season in patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty patients with verified birch pollen allergy and 30 controls were investigated twice, during the pollen season and outside the pollen season. Both times they scored respiratory and voice symptoms, the latter with the validated questionnaire Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and performed standardized voice recordings. These recordings were analyzed in a controlled manner by a professional voice therapist. During the allergy season, patients reported more respiratory and voice symptoms compared with controls. Those with blinded scored voice dysfunction scored their voice quality during springtime as 31 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-42 mm), compared with 13 mm (95% CI 6-21 mm for participants without voice dysfunction (P<0.01). Furthermore, the group with experienced voice dysfunction scored significantly higher on the VHI in the functional and physical domains and in the total VHI score. Although voice problems during the pollen season are rarely discussed, in allergic rhinitis the larynx may also be involved. These findings support that some patients experience voice change, an experience which can be objectively confirmed.

  3. [Allergic reactions caused by latex: warning to health workers].

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Lopes, M H

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a bibliographic survey is made of all articles, published during the last few years, dealing with allergic reactions to latex. The first article on allergic reactions associated with latex was published in Britain, in 1979. Since then, the number of cases reported have increased (Barton, 1993). Type I allergic reaction (immediate reaction) and Type IV (delayed reaction) are part of the latex allergic process (Steelman, 1995). Contact allergy is due to inadequate washing during manufacture, which results in the retention of water-soluble proteins that cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. A wide variety of allergic reactions that vary from contact dermatitis to anaphylatic shock are described in literature. These finding show that a health team must know the probable implications of latex allergy.

  4. Combining anti-cancer drugs with artificial sweeteners: synthesis and anti-cancer activity of saccharinate (sac) and thiosaccharinate (tsac) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2].

    PubMed

    Al-Jibori, Subhi A; Al-Jibori, Ghassan H; Al-Hayaly, Lamaan J; Wagner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harry; Timur, Suna; Baris Barlas, F; Subasi, Elif; Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    The new platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] (sac=saccharinate) and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2] (tsac=thiosaccharinate) have been prepared, the X-ray crystal structure of cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] x H2O reveals that both saccharinate anions are N-bound in a cis-arrangement being inequivalent in both the solid-state and in solution at room temperature. Preliminary anti-cancer activity has been assessed against A549 human alveolar type-II like cell lines with the thiosaccharinate complex showing good activity.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from falcarinol isolated from Schefflera arboricola.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Hammershøy, O; Boll, P M

    1986-02-01

    From the plant Schefflera arboricola, which has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis, we have isolated and determined the elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis as falcarinol, heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-3-ol. Three polyacetylenes closely related to falcarinol, namely falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone were tested simultaneously. Falcarinol, but not falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, elicited allergic contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old female plant-nursery worker.

  6. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  7. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E. Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diabetes is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects (NTDs). With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphology of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis, therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation due to vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is inversely related to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1 (Trx), c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to reduction in diabetes-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is negatively affected by maternal diabetes. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26432466

  8. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects.

    PubMed

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2016-02-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects. With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes mellitus-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes mellitus in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphologic condition of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis; therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation because of vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is related inversely to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, which include hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1, c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to a reduction in diabetes mellitus-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is affected negatively by maternal diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies.

  9. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Grace K.; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Assa'ad, Amal H.; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E.; Ryan, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. METHODS: Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8–5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7–7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0–9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. PMID:26715608

  10. A Rare Case of Recurrent Pacemaker Allergic Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Muhammed; Shah, Pooja; Elkhalili, Walid; Suleiman, Addi; Shaaban, Hamid; Shah, Pradip A.; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to pacemaker device components are uncommon. However, when they occur, they usually mimic pacemaker infection, which results in multiple device replacements and increased morbidity burden. Here we present a 40-year-old female with pacemaker insertion due to complete heart block and who had multiple device replacements because of allergic sensitivity to various pacemaker component-encasing materials, confirmed by allergic testing to these materials. She had complete resolution of her symptoms after replacement with gold-plated device, to which she was not allergic. PMID:26240735

  11. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  12. Torsion of the hernia sac within a hydrocele of the scrotum in a child.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akihiko; Nagatomi, Yutaka; Sakai, Masato; Oshi, Masaya

    2004-09-01

    Torsion of the hernia sac is a rare disease that presents as acute scrotum in children. Including the present case, only six cases have been reported in the English literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with pain and swelling of his right scrotum. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic region adjacent to the normal right testis. The inflammatory changes of the right scrotum deteriorated. The patient underwent surgery and a necrotic cyst was recognized within a hydrocele of the scrotum. The cyst was not connected with the testis or epididymis and was twisted at an angle of 270 degrees. The cause of the necrotic cyst observed was anatomical and pathological torsion of the hernia sac.

  13. Pinocytosis in the rat visceral yolk sac. Effects of temperature, metabolic inhibitors and some other modifiers.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R; Lloyd, J B

    1978-12-18

    Low temperature,2,4-dinitrophenol and moniodoacetate could each completely abolish the pinocytic uptake of 125I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone, 125I-labelled bovine serum albumin or colloidal 198 Au by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro. Cytochalasin B and colchicine caused a partial and dose-dependent inhibition. It is concluded that the mechanism of pinocytic uptake of these substrates is not micropinocytosis as conventionally defined. Removal of extracellular calcium or the presence of theophylline inhibited liquid-phase pinocytosis by the rat yolk sac, whereas addition of ouabain caused a biphasic response: a slight stimulation of pinosome formation at a low concentration, and an inhibitory effect at a higher concentration.

  14. Multi-level security for computer networking - SAC digital network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D. L.

    The functional features and architecture of the SACDIN (SAC digital network) are detailed. SACDIN is the new data transmission segment for directing SAC's strategic forces. The system has 135 processor nodes at 32 locations and processes, distributes and stores data of any level of security classification. The sophistication of access nodes is dependent on the location. A reference monitor mediates the multilevel security by implementation of the multi-state machine concept, i.e., the Bell-LaPadula model (1973, 1974), which concludes that a secure state can never lead to an unsecure state. The monitor is controlled by the internal access control mechanism, which resides in PROM. Details of the access process are provided, including message flow on trusted paths appropriate to the security clearance of the user.

  15. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Micco, Teresa; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Necropsy showed a white, 3 x 3 x 2-cm, hard, gritty sternal mass. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum. Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative. This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines.

  16. A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Amadori, Maurizio; Armato, Enrico; Pavon, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment. PMID:24991442

  17. A case of primary intracardiac yolk sac tumour with extracardiac extension

    PubMed Central

    Kunhi, Moosa; Sanagar, Sachin; Jagadeesh, N.; Gangadharan, Vadanattathil P.; Kumar., Anand; Mahadevan, Pushpa

    2016-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumour is a rare entity as secondaries in the heart are more common. A 2-year-old child was having repeated respiratory tract infection with poor oral intake and poor activity for 3 months. His symptoms progressed from New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II to IV. On evaluation he had an intracardiac mass with extracardiac extension. Emergency tumour excision under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was performed with provisional diagnosis of sarcoma. But Serum markers, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the child was receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Extensive literature review revealed only four cases of primary intracardiac yolk sac tumour published till date. Our case report is unique, in that intracardiac tumour had extracardiac extension by infiltration through right atrial wall. Previous four reports mention purely intracardiac mass. PMID:27887023

  18. Papillary neoplasm of the endolymphatic sac in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, M B; Uro, E; Rouquette, I; Yardeni, E; Rumeau, J L

    1994-01-01

    Glandular tumours involving the middle ear and the mastoid are rare, and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma is difficult. Two distinct histopathological patterns are accepted. While their clinical presentation differs, both require primary surgical treatment and both have a high rate of local recurrence. The papillary form takes a more aggressive course and wider regional spread. This pattern occurs predominantly in women. Its microscopic appearance and clinical course have been extensively described by Heffner who considered it as "low-grade adenocarcinoma of probable endolymphatic sac origin". A few cases have been associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. The case of a 32 year old black woman is described. It is suggested that papillary adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac should be considered in the spectrum of neoplasms seen in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Images PMID:7962613

  19. Total laparorobotic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm with sac exclusion obliteration and aortobifemoral bypass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Timothy; Prema, Jateen; Zagaja, Gregory; Shalhav, Arieh; Bassiouny, Hisham S

    2009-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with coronary artery disease, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease was found to have an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) of 5.5 cm on surveillance for his peripheral vascular disease. Cardiac stress testing demonstrated no evidence of myocardial ischemia, and he opted to undergo open repair of his aneurysm. Laparorobotic repair of the infrarenal AAA using the da Vinci robotic system was performed with an aortobifemoral bypass. We describe a novel technique for AAA exclusion using a cerclage method, which greatly facilitates repair of infrarenal AAAs using laparorobotic techniques. Laparorobotic repair of infrarenal AAA can be greatly facilitated by AAA sac exclusion and obliteration without the need to ligate all lumbar arteries or to open the aneurysm. This virtually avoids blood loss from the sac and minimizes the possibility for open conversion as a result of poor visualization. Minimally invasive aortic intervention for aneurysmal disease using laparascopic methods has been reported in the literature. Problems associated with this technique include a prolonged learning curve and difficulty completing intracorporeal anastomoses. Robotic surgery provides an advantage over laparoscopic surgery in its ability to provide greater degrees of freedom in a relatively small field of view along with superior high-definition, three-dimensional visualization. To date, there have been no known reports of using robotic surgery in the United States as a sole method for repair of AAA. We report our technique of combining robotic surgery with a novel procedure for sac exclusion and obliteration to successfully repair AAA without the need for opening the aneurysm sac and endoaneurysmorrhaphy.

  20. KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database for retrieving the relationships between metabolites and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Parvin, Aziza Kawsar; Ono, Naoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Hirai Morita, Aki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Databases (DBs) are required by various omics fields because the volume of molecular biology data is increasing rapidly. In this study, we provide instructions for users and describe the current status of our metabolite activity DB. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the metabolites of organisms and the chemical-level contribution of metabolites to human health, we constructed a metabolite activity DB known as the KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB. It comprises 9,584 triplet relationships (metabolite-biological activity-target species), including 2,356 metabolites, 140 activity categories, 2,963 specific descriptions of biological activities and 778 target species. Approximately 46% of the activities described in the DB are related to chemical ecology, most of which are attributed to antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulators. The majority of the metabolites with antimicrobial activities are flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolites with plant growth regulatory effects include plant hormones. Over half of the DB contents are related to human health care and medicine. The five largest groups are toxins, anticancer agents, nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents and non-therapeutic agents, such as flavors and fragrances. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB is integrated within the KNApSAcK Family DBs to facilitate further systematized research in various omics fields, especially metabolomics, nutrigenomics and foodomics. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB could also be utilized for developing novel drugs and materials, as well as for identifying viable drug resources and other useful compounds.

  1. [Primary high malignancy B-cell lymphoma of the lacrimal sac].

    PubMed

    Brosig, J; Warzok, R; Clemens, S

    1998-06-01

    Case report on a 44-year-old woman in good health with the symptoms of epiphora, a plump elastic, not distressing swelling under the medial canthal tendon of 1 cm size on the right side. In ultrasonography and intraoperatively a tumour of moderate reflectivity with infiltration of the lacrimal sac was found. The histological evaluation, including immunohistochemical studies of the removed lesion, revealed a malignant B-cell lymphoma.

  2. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB)

    PubMed Central

    Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on mast cell-mediated allergic responses in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Hong; Jia, Jihui; He, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has commonly been used for the treatment of various allergic diseases. However, its precise anti-allergic rhinitis effect and mechanism remain unknown. In the present study, the effect of curcumin on allergic responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis mouse was investigated. We explored the effect of curcumin on the release of allergic inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and inflammatory cytokines. Also, we found that curcumin improved rhinitis symptoms, inhibited the histopathological changes of nasal mucosa, and decreased the serum levels of histamine, OVA-specific IgE and TNF-α in OVA-induced allergic rhinitis mice. In addition, curcumin suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Moreover, curcumin significantly inhibited PMA-induced p-ERK, p-p38, p-JNK, p-Iκ-Bα and NF-κB. These findings suggest that curcumin has an anti-allergic effect through modulating mast cell-mediated allergic responses in allergic rhinitis, at least partly by inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

  4. Missed sclera buckle as a cause of recurrent conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Egle; Abdelaziz, Lamis; Barbara, Ramez; Metcalfe, Timothy

    2012-09-07

    A 63-year-old woman was referred to the eye clinic with a 2-year history of unresolving right eye discomfort, irritation and recurrent conjunctivitis, managed by her general practitioner, where frequent use of topical antibiotics and ocular lubricants provided little and transient relief. The right eye was blind following a complicated retinal detachment surgery 30 years ago. Examination revealed an extruding silicone sponge scleral buckle from a previous retinal detachment surgery in the superior conjunctival fornix, under the right upper lid. This was subsequently surgically removed and her symptoms resolved.

  5. Improved Conjunction Analysis via Collaborative Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T.; Vallado, D.; Chan, J.; Buckwalter, B.

    With recent events such as the Chinese ASAT test in 2007 and the USA 193 intercept in 2008, many satellite operators are becoming increasingly aware of the potential threat to their satellites as the result of orbital debris or even other satellites. However, to be successful at conjunction monitoring and collision avoidance requires accurate orbital information for as many space objects (payloads, dead satellites, rocket bodies, and debris) as possible. Given the current capabilities of the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), approximately 18,500 objects are now being tracked and orbital data (in the form of two-line element sets) is available to satellite operators for 11,750 of them (as of 2008 September 1). The capability to automatically process this orbital data to look for close conjunctions and provide that information to satellite operators via the Internet has been continuously available on CelesTrak, in the form of Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space (SOCRATES), since May 2004. Those reports are used by many operators as one way to keep apprised of these potential threats. However, the two-line element sets (TLEs) are generated using non-cooperative tracking via the SSN's network of radar and optical sensors. As a result, the relatively low accuracy of the data results in a large number of false alarms that satellite operators must routinely deal with. Yet, satellite operators typically perform orbit maintenance for their own satellites, using active ranging and GPS systems. These data are often an order of magnitude more accurate than those available using TLEs. When combined (in the form of ephemerides) with maneuver planning information, the ability to maintain predictive awareness increases significantly. And when satellite operators share this data, the improved space situational awareness, particularly in the crowded geosynchronous belt, can be dramatic and the number of false alarms can be reduced

  6. Conjunctivitis induced by a red bodied mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis.

    PubMed

    Parcell, Benjamin J; Sharpe, Graeme; Jones, Brian; Alexander, Claire L

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of an unusual case of conjunctivitis caused by a trombiculid red mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis. The patient's condition improved only after its removal and with application of carbomer gel eye drops. There have been reports of increasing numbers of severe cases of trombiculosis over the last 15 years particularly in Germany and a number of cases have also been reported in the United Kingdom. Cases where trombiculid larvae feed on any region of the head or face of humans are unknown. In addition it is most likely the patient acquired the infection from her pet cat and this is the first description of acquisition from this animal.

  7. A very close conjunction between Uranus and a Hipparcos star.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qing-Yu

    According to the most recent ephemerides, Uranus and its satellites will pass by two bright stars during Sept. 6 - 11, 2001. The two stars are among Hipparcos Catalogue (star number 106829) and ACT Catalogue (AC2000: 2588165), respectively. During this period of time, the shortest angle distance between the Hipparcos star and Uranus will be 5.90". The shortest one among the distances between the star and each Uranian primary satellite (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon) will be 2.08". The CCD observations on a telescope with a long focal length will be of great importance for this very close conjunction phenomenon.

  8. Massive eosinophilic reaction to desipramine in conjunction with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kraus, R P; Clarke, R J; Remick, R A

    1984-03-01

    The authors report on a female patient with bipolar affective disorder who presented with marked eosinophilia in conjunction with pneumonia five days after a medication change from amitriptyline to desipramine (for intolerable dry mouth). She improved with discontinuance of medications and supportive management, and her eosinophilia normalized. Reinstitution of desipramine was followed by prompt appearance of asymptomatic eosinophilia, which resolved with discontinuation of desipramine. A subsequent depression managed with amitriptyline was followed by no abnormal white blood count findings. Eosinophilia is occasionally encountered in imipramine or desipramine therapy and, although usually asymptomatic, appears to be manageable by switching to amitriptyline or nortriptyline.

  9. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

  10. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles From Champ and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) shout forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

  11. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  12. Characterization of calcium carbonate crystals in pigeon yolk sacs with different incubation times.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Hu, Jingxiao; Tong, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Calcium carbonate crystals are known to form in the yolk sacs of fertile pigeon eggs at late stages of incubation. The composition and structure of these crystals were investigated, the crystallization environment was inspected, and the physical chemistry constants of the yolk fluid were determined through the incubation period. Polarized light microscopy was used to observe the generation and distribution of calcium carbonate crystals in the yolk sac. In addition, X-ray diffraction was employed to analyze the composition and crystal phase of the yolk sac. A decalcification and deproteination method was established to analyze the ultrastructure and composition of the crystals, as well as the internal relationship between inorganic and organic phases of the crystals. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the characteristics of the crystals. Our results demonstrated that the calcium carbonate crystals were mainly composed of vaterite and calcite, with vaterite being the major component. Vaterite, a type of biomaterial generated by an organic template control, presented as a concentric hierarchical spherical structure. The organic nature of the biomaterial prevented vaterite from transforming into calcite, which is more thermodynamically stable than vaterite. Additionally, the configuration, size, and aggregation of vaterite were also mediated by the organic template. This bio-vaterite was found during the incubation period and is valuable in calcium transport during embryonic development.

  13. Morphological specializations of the yolk sac for yolk processing in embryonic corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-03-23

    Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes. Our observations reveal that the yolk sac cavity is invaded by endodermal cells that proliferate, absorb yolk spheres, and form aggregates of interconnected cells within the liquid yolk mass. As development proceeds, small blood vessels arise from the yolk sac omphalopleure, penetrate into the yolk mass, and become tightly encased in the endodermal cells. The entire vitellus ultimately becomes converted into a mass of vascularized, "spaghetti-like" strands of yolk-laden cells. The resulting arrangement allows yolk to be digested intracellularly and yolk products to be transported to the developing embryo. Indirect evidence for this pattern in other species raises the possibility that it is ancestral for squamates and quite possibly Reptilia in general.

  14. Expression of aquaporins in the cochlea and endolymphatic sac of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shi-Xun; Liu, Zhao-Hua

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that the aquaporin (AQP) family forms membrane pores selectively permeable for water and some small solutes such as glycerol and urea, and thus plays important roles in regulating the fluid in many organs involved in fluid transport such as kidney, lung and brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate the cellular localization and its significance of aquaporins (AQPs) in various subregions of the cochlea and endolymphatic sac of guinea pig. The expression patterns of AQP1, 2, 3 and 4 were immunolabeled with the specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies against the rat AQP1, 2, 3 and 4. Our immunohistochemical examination showed that in the cochlea, AQP1, 3 and 4 were widely distributed in various locations including stria vascularis, spiral ligament, the organ of Corti and spiral ganglion in the similar patterns except that AQP3 in the stria vascularis was lightly weaker than AQP1 and AQP4. AQP2 was labeled only in Reissner's membrane. In the endolymphatic sac, AQP1, AQP3 and AQP4 were strongly expressed in the epithelial cells and subepithelial cells similarly with the exception that AQP3 was lightly weaker than AQP1 and AQP4. No AQP2 immunoreactivity was detected in the endolymphatic sac. Theses results suggest that different members of the AQP family in the labyrinth may work in concert to regulate endolymph and to maintain homeostasis in the inner ear.

  15. Asymmetric cell division of rice zygotes located in embryo sac and produced by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell. This unequal division of the zygote is a putative first step for formation of the apical-basal axis of plants and is a fundamental feature of early embryogenesis and morphogenesis in angiosperms. Because fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis occur in embryo sacs, which are deeply embedded in ovular tissue, in vitro fertilization of isolated gametes is a powerful system to dissect mechanisms of fertilization and post-fertilization events. Rice is an emerging molecular and experimental model plant, however, profile of the first zygotic division within embryo sac and thus origin of apical-basal embryo polarity has not been closely investigated. Therefore, in the present study, the division pattern of rice zygote in planta was first determined accurately by observations employing serial sections of the egg apparatus, zygotes and two-celled embryos in the embryo sac. The rice zygote divides asymmetrically into a two-celled embryo consisting of a statistically significantly smaller apical cell with dense cytoplasm and a larger vacuolated basal cell. Moreover, detailed observations of division profiles of zygotes prepared by in vitro fertilization indicate that the zygote also divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo as in planta. Such observations suggest that in vitro-produced rice zygotes and two-celled embryos may be useful as experimental models for further investigations into the mechanism and control of asymmetric division of plant zygotes.

  16. Erythropoiesis in the yolk sac of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R J; Cabral-Anderson, L J

    1976-12-01

    The process of erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis in the yolk sac of the bat (Tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala) has been studied through the use of both light and electron microscopy. Stem cells arise from the leading edge of the migrating splanchnic mesoderm and transform into primitive erythroblasts. Differentiation involves either contact or association with the endodermal cells, since all erythropoietic activity occurs on the endodermal side of the expanding vascular bed, and many of the cells are in close apposition to the lateral or basal plasma membranes of the endodermal cells. Endodermal cells also phagocytize developing primitive erythroblasts during the later stage of the process when erythropoiesis is subsiding in the yolk sac. Cells destined to become the endothelium of the expanding vascular bed also arise from the leading edge of the migrating splanchnic mesoderm. Their process of differentiation involves the development of cytoplasmic extensions that may surround a group of differentiating erythroblasts, enclosing them in the newly formed lumen of the blood vessel. The cytoplasmic extensions make contact and develop junctional complexes with similar processes from other cells to complete the lumen of the lengthening vascular bed. Cells of the granulocyte series or megakaryocytes are not observed in the yolk sac of the bat as has been described in certain other species.

  17. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of air sac lesions induced by two strains of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, A; Mondal, S P; Buckles, E L

    2011-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory coronavirus of domestic chickens. Although mortality is low, infection with IBV results in substantial losses for the egg and meat chicken industries. Despite the economic importance of IBV and decades of research into the pathogenesis of infection, significant gaps in our knowledge exist. The aim of this study was to compare the early progression of air sac lesions in birds receiving a vaccine strain of the virus or a more virulent field strain. The air sacs are lined by different types of epithelia and are relatively isolated from the environment, so they represent a unique tissue in which to study virus-induced lesions. Both the pathogenic and vaccine strains of the virus produced significant lesions; however, the lesions progressed more rapidly in the birds receiving the pathogenic strain. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that in birds infected with the pathogenic strain of virus, IBV spike protein is detected first in the ciliated cells lining the air sac. These preliminary data provide important clues regarding potential mechanisms for IBV tissue tropism and spread and show that the nature of the virus isolate influences the early progression of IBV infection.

  18. The role of topical moxifloxacin, a new antibacterial in Europe, in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Benitez-Del-Castillo, Jose; Verboven, Yves; Stroman, David; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    -time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC(24))/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) and thus favourable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics. This can result in reduced time-to-cure and a lower number of treatment failures, leading to better disease management and a healthcare-economic benefit arising from the associated reduction in utilization of healthcare resources. The high potency and mean concentration in conjunctival tissue combined with the long residence time of topical moxifloxacin enables a dosing strategy of three times daily for 5 days. Topical moxifloxacin is also the first ophthalmic antibacterial in Europe provided as a multidose, self-preserved, topical solution, thus avoiding the risk of benzalkonium chloride preservative-related allergic reactions and swelling. In addition, topical moxifloxacin has a near neutral pH (6.8) and is well tolerated by patients. Given the characteristics of the novel topical fluoroquinolones, a change in the healthcare treatment strategy for acute infectious conjunctivitis is to be recommended. Topical application of fluoroquinolones, such as moxifloxacin multidose self-preserved solution, should be considered earlier in the treatment path for conjunctivitis. Notwithstanding the premium price attached to this novel topical antibacterial, use of topical moxifloxacin for bacterial conjunctivitis can be cost effective and even generate total healthcare budget savings by reducing both the costs of managing treatment failures and the use of clinicians' time to manage such failures.

  19. Eosinophil as a cellular target of the ocular anti-allergic action of mapracorat, a novel selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Baiula, Monica; Spartà, Antonino; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Bucolo, Claudio; Ward, Keith W.; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Govoni, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Glucocorticoids can either suppress gene transcription (transrepression) or activate it (transactivation). This latter process may contribute to certain side effects caused by these agents. Mapracorat (also known as BOL-303242-X or ZK 245186) is a novel selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist that maintains a beneficial anti-inflammatory activity but seems to be less effective in transactivation, resulting in a lower potential for side effects; it has been proposed for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. This study assessed the anti-allergic activity of mapracorat at the ocular level and whether eosinophils and mast cells are targets of its action. Methods With in vitro studies apoptosis was evaluated in human eosinophils by flow cytometry and western blot of caspase-3 fragments. Eosinophil migration toward platelet-activating factor was evaluated by transwell assays. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)/regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTES) were measured using a high-throughput multiplex luminex technology. Annexin I and the chemochine receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were detected by flow cytometry. With in vivo studies, allergic conjunctivitis was induced in guinea pigs sensitized to ovalbumin by an ocular allergen challenge and evaluated by a clinical score. Conjunctival eosinophils were determined by microscopy or eosinophil peroxidase assay. Results In cultured human eosinophils, mapracorat showed the same potency as dexamethasone but displayed higher efficacy in increasing spontaneous apoptosis and in counteracting cytokine-sustained eosinophil survival. These effects were prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Mapracorat inhibited eosinophil migration and IL-8 release from eosinophils or the release of IL-6, IL-8, CCL5/RANTES, and TNF-α from a human mast cell line with equal

  20. Prevalence of allergic sensitization to regional inhalants among allergic patients in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baratawidjaja, I R; Baratawidjaja, P P; Darwis, A; Soo-Hwee, L; Fook-Tim, C; Bee-Wah, L; Baratawidjaja, K G

    1999-03-01

    Sensitization towards a panel of eight regional inhalant allergens was evaluated among 107 patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. A total of 32 children (age 5-13 years, mean 9 years; 18 male, 14 female), 75 adolescents and adults (aged 14-66 years, mean 32 years; 21 male, 54 female) and 20 normal control volunteers (aged 16-46, mean 30 years; 4 male, 16 female) were evaluated via skin prick test. A weal response of 3 x 3 mm or greater was taken to be positive. The sensitization rates among individuals to these allergens were: house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (77.57%), Blomia tropicalis (71.96%), Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis (33.64%), pollen, palm oil Elaeis guineensis (22.43%), Acacia auriculiformis (12.15%), fern spore, resam Dicranopteris spp (11.21%), fungal spores: Curvularia fallax (8.41%) and Exserohilum rostratum (13.08%). There were significantly higher frequencies of sensitization to these allergens among allergic individuals compared to normal controls, and among atopic individuals with two allergy manifestations (rhinitis and asthma) compared to those with only one. No difference was noted between children and adults in the allergic group. In conclusion, the allergic patients were highly sensitized to dust mites and sensitization to regional pollen and spores was also documented. They should be considered as relevant and be included in skin test batteries in Indonesia.