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Sample records for allergic contact sensitizing

  1. Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vega, Francisco; Ramos, Tania; Las Heras, Paloma; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant allergic reactions to multiple drugs are uncommon. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. It is notable that one of the reactions was caused by oral nystatin, which generally is not considered to be allergenic due to its poor intestinal absorption. Diagnoses were confirmed on patch testing with histologic examination along with oral challenge testing. We also used challenge testing to rule out cross-reactivity among nystatin and other macrolide drugs, both antifungals and antibiotics.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  4. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  5. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from tylosin in pharmacy compounders and cross-sensitization to macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Malaiyandi, Viba; Houle, Marie Claude; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Tylosin is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic that is restricted to veterinary use. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by tylosin has been reported in the literature from the farming industry and veterinary medicine. It is also reported as the most common antibiotic to cause ACD in the previously mentioned occupational settings. We present 2 cases of airborne ACD from tylosin among veterinary pharmaceutical compounding technicians. To our knowledge, only one other case of patch test-confirmed tylosin ACD has been reported in the manufacturing setting. Based on our results, cross-sensitization to other clinically relevant macrolides does not appear to be a concern. Our cases highlight the importance of patch testing among pharmaceutical compounders where the incidence of an airborne contact may be greater, given that the exposure is to the powdered form of potential allergens.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  7. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nripen S; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; Maguire, Tim J; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L

    2012-03-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensitizers and irritants. The in silico approaches that have been discussed include Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and QSAR based expert models that correlate chemical molecular structure with biological activity and mechanism based read-across models that incorporate compound electrophilicity. The cell and tissue based assays rely on an assortment of mono and co-culture cell systems in conjunction with 3D skin models. Given the complexity of allergen induced immune responses, and the limited ability of existing systems to capture the entire gamut of cellular and molecular events associated with these responses, we also introduce a microfabricated platform that can capture all the key steps involved in allergic contact sensitivity. Finally, we describe the development of an integrated testing strategy comprised of two or three tier systems for evaluating sensitization potential of chemicals.

  8. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  10. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  13. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  15. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Casey; Bidinger, Jeff; Hivnor, Chad; Hoover, Aaron; Henning, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Cyanoacrylates are widely used as topical skin adhesives in emergency departments, clinics, and operating rooms. We report 4 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) following postsurgical closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. These patients were challenged with a novel method of use testing to confirm sensitivity to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. The popularity of skin adhesives makes this emerging allergen worthy of examination. It is possible that cyanoacrylate allergy currently is underrecognized.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  19. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with allergy to intraoral metals.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Brambilla, Lucia; Ferrucci, Silvia; Zerboni, Roberto; Somalvico, Francesco; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2014-10-15

    Contact (allergic) dermatitis is a skin disorder related to natural exposure to various allergens. Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) describes a cutaneous eruption in response to systemic exposure to an allergen. The exact pathologic mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we describe a 36-year-old woman with symmetric systemic allergic contact dermatitis, unresponsive to conventional treatment, associated with dental alloy-contact hypersensitivity. We did skin patch testing and the blood lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) from the dental allergen series to assess contact allergy to restorative dental materials. On patch testing, positive allergic contact dermatitis reactions to metals occurred (nickel, potassium dichromate, and gold). Nickel hypersensitivity was confirmed by LTT, which also revealed silver-amalgam sensitization. Our case report highlights the need to consider adverse reactions to base-metal dental alloys in the differential diagnosis of cases of systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  1. Occlusive irritant dermatitis: when is "allergic" contact dermatitis not allergic?

    PubMed

    Miller, Sara; Helms, Amy; Brodell, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    CASE 1: A 38-year-old teacher presented with a 3- to 4-week history of a linear, erythematous, vesicular, and pruritic eruption of her left wrist. She had been wearing a new elastic bracelet for 4 weeks before the onset of her eruption. Although there was no history of allergy to rubber products or jewelry, an allergic contact dermatitis to rubber was suspected. Patch testing to rubber chemicals and the elastic bracelet revealed no reactions at 48, 72, and 96 hours. She stopped wearing the bracelet and used a corticosteroid cream with rapid resolution of the problem. The patient resumed wearing the bracelet, and there has been no recurrence in the past 2 months. CASE 2: A 12-year-old boy presented with a 1-month history of an itchy, scaly, erythematous 1-cm patch over the midline of his lower lip. The patient complained of tiny blisters initially with persistent erythema, mild scaling, and associated pruritus. The patient plays the saxophone and he had been practicing more intensely (3 to 4 h/d) for a musical competition. Allergic reaction to his wood reed was suspected, but patch testing with a moistened portion of his reed and reed shavings in a drop of water revealed no reaction at 48 and 72 hours. Treatment with hydrocortisone 1% cream bid for 3 days led to complete resolution of the dermitis and pruritus. Playing the saxophone 1 h/d has not led to any recurrence. CASE 3: A 33-year-old woman presented with erythema, scaling, and pruritus of 1 month's duration beneath her engagement and wedding rings, which were worn together on her left fourth finger (Figure 3). Although she had no history of previous sensitivity to earrings, watch clasp, blue jean rivets, or other jewelry, allergic contact dermatitis to nickel was suspected. Patch testing was performed to the common metal allergens nickel, cobalt, chromium, and gold. Readings at 48 hours and 1 week revealed no positive reactions. The patient wore her rings on the right hand for 1 week and used fluocinonide 0

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  3. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  5. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  6. A study of cells present in lymph draining from a contact allergic reaction in pigs sensitized to DNFB.

    PubMed Central

    Lens, J W; Drexhage, H A; Benson, W; Balfour, B M

    1983-01-01

    Pigs were skin-painted with the contact sensitizing agent 1-fluoro 2,4 dinitrobenzene (DNFB) and lymph cells coming from the site were collected. Half the animals were sensitive to DNFB and half were normal controls. Special attention was paid to cells belonging to the veiled cell series. At 20 hr after DNFB application, some blast cells--on morphological grounds belonging to the veiled cell series--could be observed in the lymph of presensitized animals. But the most predominant finding in these pigs was that, approximately 30 hr after painting, the total cell output began to increase, reaching 10 times the normal level at 70 hr. The increase in the output of lymphoblasts was the most marked, suggesting peripheral sensitization. Such changes were not observed in normal animals. Here the most striking alterations were seen in the veiled cells. Some of these cells were moving ponderously about, apparently in pursuit of other lymph-borne cells, and this activity resulted in the formation of large cellular aggregates. Since it is known that veiled cells are involved in antigen handling, this behaviour probably facilitates the induction of the T-cell immune response. By contrast, the veiled cells from presensitized animals behaved in a more normal manner and the proportion found in aggregates was only briefly increased. In these animals lymphocytes were seen to interact with veiled cells in a manner reminiscent of peripolesis, apparently recognizing antigenic signals on the surface of the veiled cells. It is discussed that this might result in deletion of the antigen-presenting veiled cells, thus controlling the magnitude of the immune response. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6862518

  7. [Allergic contact eczema to ninhydrin].

    PubMed

    Schlacke, K H; Fuchs, T

    1989-01-01

    Use of a surgical marking pen to indicate test areas on the skin during epicutaneous evaluation caused eczema in three female patients undergoing patch testing. Close scrutiny of the individual components of this surgical marking pen revealed contact dermatitis to ninhydrine, a substance whose allergenic potential has hardly been noted in the relevant literature.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind.

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, S.; Zilmer, K.; Leping, V.; Zilmer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL-) 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01) and TPX (P < 0.0001) were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05) and TAC (P < 0.0001) were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely), as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001), but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies. PMID:25183967

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting.

  11. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-03-01

    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  12. An overview of parabens and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and industrial products. However, since the 1960s, controversy has surrounded its use and safety as a potential cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite the cloud of suspicion that has hovered over parabens ever since, these ubiquitous compounds have withstood four decades of extensive skin testing conducted by a variety of organizations, both North American and European, and now, it seems parabens have shown to be one of the least sensitizing preservatives in commercial use. Of the very limited reports of paraben-induced allergic contact dermatitis, these cases are often attributable to the application of parabens on damaged skin.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from falcarinol isolated from Schefflera arboricola.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Hammershøy, O; Boll, P M

    1986-02-01

    From the plant Schefflera arboricola, which has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis, we have isolated and determined the elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis as falcarinol, heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-3-ol. Three polyacetylenes closely related to falcarinol, namely falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone were tested simultaneously. Falcarinol, but not falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, elicited allergic contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old female plant-nursery worker.

  15. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate.

    PubMed

    Antonia Pastor-Nieto, María; Olivares, Mercedes; Sánchez-Herreros, Consuelo; Belmar, Paulina; De Eusebio, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to treat certain types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Metvix cream applied topically in PDT is composed of the active substance methyl aminolevulinate and 14 excipients composing the vehicle. One case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reported. A 49-year-old nurse's aide working in a PDT unit in the dermatology department developed a dermatitis involving the eyelids and fingers. The lesions began a few months after she started working in that unit. Patch tests were performed with the standard series (Spanish Group for Research into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies [GEIDAC]), cosmetics series, Metvix cream "as is," the Metvix vehicle supplied by the manufacturer, and some of the excipients separately (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipagin M], propyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipasol M], isopropyl myristate, cetostearyl alcohol [Lanette N], and disodium edetate). After day-2, day-4, and day-7 readings, positive results were achieved only with Metvix cream "as is." Tests performed on a control group of 15 individuals were negative. Literature on cases of allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reviewed. It should be emphasized that the present case is the first occupational case reported so far.

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  17. [Allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; In-Nami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Compression stockings are used for patients under general anesthesia to prevent occurrence of deep venous thrombosis. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings. A 53-year-old house wife had a history of sensitivity like skin eruption and disstasis to rubber products such as rubber band. Left nephrectomy for rupture of renal angiomyolipoma was scheduled under general and epidural anesthesia. Further examination for gum allergy was not performed before the operation, although latex allergy was suspected. The operation was performed uneventfully under latex-safe environment in the operating room under guideline for latex allergy. Postoperatively, ringed edematous erythema and wheal occurred in her bilateral thighs compressed with the upper part of compression stockings. The skin symptoms continued for more than four days. After disappearance of the skin symptoms, she was discharged from the hospital on the ninth day after the operation. Synthetic rubber, neoprene, in the upper part of compression stockings to prevent slipping down might cause allergic contact dermatitis. We should take care of occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings in patients with rubber allergy.

  18. Pediatric Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Lessons for Better Care.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Silverberg, Nanette; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Treat, James; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an immune-mediated condition that is likely underrecognized in children. ACD is the result of primary sensitization and secondary elicitation by allergy-provoking haptens. A detailed clinical history and physical examination may yield diagnosis. Patch testing is the criterion standard diagnostic tool for confirming the diagnosis of ACD in both children and adults. Herein, we present an overview of pediatric ACD, an analysis of relevant current literature on the topic, focused management recommendations, and a discussion of existing knowledge gaps that must be addressed by future research.

  19. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: understanding the chemistry will help our diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Rozas-Muñoz, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Pujol, R M; Giménez-Arnau, A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  2. Persistent allergic contact dermatitis to plastic toilet seats.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Sara; Adams, David R; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to various components of toilet seats is being recognized and reported with increasing frequency. This report details the case of an young girl who was found to be allergic to plastic found in both a toilet seat and a school chair. It highlights particular problems with patch testing young children and the difficulty in confirming allergy to plastics.

  3. [Allergic contact dermatitis to common ivy (Hedera helix L.)].

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, C; Schneider, L A; Hinrichs, R; Staib, G; Weber, L; Weiss, J M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2003-10-01

    Common ivy (Hedera helix L.) is a ubiquitous plant in Europe whose major allergen falcarinol has moderate allergic potential. It is not related to poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.). There are no cross reactions between the allergens of common ivy (falcarinol) and poison ivy (urushiol). Contact with common ivy or falcarinol may lead to sensitization and then a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. There are only few cases described in the literature. We report on a male hobby gardener with appropriate clinical history and positive patch test. The pathogenic mechanism is a type IV reaction following a sensitization exposure. Gardeners and landscape architects with frequent exposure to common ivy and thus a high risk of sensitization should wear appropriate protective clothing.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

    2004-03-01

    A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical

  5. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities.

    PubMed

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  6. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  8. [Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader].

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, M C; Goday-Buján, J J; Almagro, M; Fonseca, E

    2009-05-01

    Diethylthiourea, like other thioureas, is often used by the rubber industry and in the manufacture of neoprene. We present a patient who suffered allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader and who required admission to hospital and systemic treatment. We review the literature on allergy to diethylthiourea. Thioureas are not included in the standard GEIDAC (Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group) battery of patch tests. In these cases, it is necessary to use a special battery of rubber allergens, which includes thiourea compounds, for diagnosis of the disease and to ensure that cases of contact allergic dermatitis to thioureas do not go undiagnosed.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis: pathophysiology applied to future therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lily Y; Cruz, Ponciano D

    2004-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common reason for patient visits to primary-care clinics and represents up to 7% of all dermatologic consultations in the US. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the pathophysiology of contact dermatitis, particularly the allergic form. A better understanding of pathologic mechanisms has led to improved management of cases and will continue to advance treatment modalities. The present paper reviews the pathogenesis and current treatment of allergic contact dermatitis and speculates on the prospects for improved future therapy.

  10. A case of allergic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol in an ultrasonic gel, sensitized at a leakage skin injury due to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Yuji; Honda, Tetsuya; Fujii, Shinobu; Matsushima, Satoko; Osaki, Yukio

    2005-08-01

    A 63-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma consequent to chronic viral hepatitis C presented with severe dermatitis on the lower right side of the back after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) via the 10th intercostal artery, because his hepatic artery had already collapsed due to repeated usage for TACE. The regional skin showed redness and hardness with pustules. Histologically, there was epidermal and appendage necrosis, as well as exocytosis of red blood cells. With a diagnosis of skin injury due to leakage of lipiodol ultrafluid, mitomycin, and epirubicin, administered via the 10th intercostal artery, onto the skin tissue, topical application of 0.06% fluocinonide-containing cream was prescribed. After several weeks of conservative local treatment, the leakage skin injury improved significantly, leaving pigmentation, hardness, and a small necrotic mass, as reported elsewhere (Honda T, Matsushima S, Fujii S, et al. A case of skin injury following transcatheter arterial chemotherapy through intercostal artery for hepatocellular carcinoma. Skin Res 2003; 2: 18-22). Subsequently, the patient again consulted the Dermatology Department with further dermatitis in an almost identical skin region on the right side of the abdomen (irregularly spreading erythematous and edematous eruptions with itching; Fig. 1). As he had undergone an ultrasonic examination 2 days earlier, allergic contact dermatitis from the ultrasonic gel was suspected. The contact dermatitis was treated with a topical corticosteroid hormone-containing ointment. Patch testing was performed with Ultra Phonic Conductivity Gel (Pharmaceutical Innovations Inc., Newark, NJ, USA), with which the patient had undergone a series of ultrasonic examinations, and Sono Jelly (Toshiba Medical Supply Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) as a reference, as well as white petroleum as a negative control. A positive result was obtained for Ultra Phonic Conductivity Gel, whereas Sono Jelly was negative (Fig. 2a

  11. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis.

  12. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Topkarci, Zeynep; Ozarmağan, Güzin

    2007-08-01

    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, propylene glycol, the patient's favourite lipstick and propyl gallate. No reaction was seen with Zovirax ophthalmic ointment and Zovirax tablet. The propylene glycol component of the Zovirax cream and the propyl gallate component of the lipstick were regarded as the responsible contact sensitizers. The differential diagnosis was challenging due to concomitant contact sensitization with these agents.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause.

  14. [Allergic contact eczema because of diethylthiourea in neoprene rubber].

    PubMed

    Buus, Sanne Krogsbøll; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-03-11

    Three cases are reported of acute allergic contact dermatitis caused by diethylthiourea in the neoprene rubber used in a diving suit and orthopedic braces. Patch testing should be done with the specific thiourea compounds, because testing with material from the suspected products may be negative. Cross-reactivity between thiourea compounds is uncommon.

  15. Hand dermatitis: a focus on allergic contact dermatitis to biocides.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa E; Lampel, Heather P; Bhutani, Tina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-07-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common disease of the skin resulting in significantly decreased quality of life. Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent cause of hand dermatitis. Recent studies have revealed that biocides used as preservatives are frequent allergens affecting the hands. This article reviews common biocides implicated in hand dermatitis.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  17. Allergic contact urticaria from natural rubber latex in healthcare and non-healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Valks, Ruud; Conde-Salazar, Luis; Cuevas, Manuela

    2004-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of natural rubber latex (NRL) sensitization and allergic contact urticaria from NRL in healthcare and non-healthcare workers, we studied all 1171 patients who attended our clinic during 2001 and 2002. Prick testing for NRL and patch testing with European standard series were performed in all patients and an additional rubber series in those who had contact with rubber. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels against NRL and tropical fruits were measured when prick testing was positive. Sensitization to NRL (positive prick test and specific IgE levels) was much more common in healthcare workers than that in non-healthcare workers, 16.7 versus 2.3%. Among the non-healthcare workers, sensitization to NRL was more common in food handlers (17.1%), construction workers (6.6%), painters (6.2%), hairdressers (5.1%) and cleaners (3.8%). The difference in the prevalence of specific IgE to tropical fruits was not significant. Allergic contact urticaria from NRL was also much more frequent in healthcare workers, 71.4 versus 28.6%. In conclusion, sensitization to NRL and allergic contact urticaria from NRL are more common in healthcare workers, but this is a growing problem in non-healthcare workers and should be investigated in all workers with a history of NRL intolerance or who have contact with NRL.

  18. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-09-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1-like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future.

  19. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    PubMed Central

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1–like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future. PMID:24880633

  20. [Allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp].

    PubMed

    Koch, L; Aberer, W

    2017-04-10

    Contact allergy represents an important differential diagnosis to other skin diseases of the scalp. The typical efflorescences, spreading in the periphery, pruritus, and the clinical history support the differential diagnosis. Since the scalp is particularly resistant to contact dermatitis, allergens applied to this area often produce dermatitis of the eyelids, ears and neck. Nevertheless, potent allergens such as para-phenylendiamine can also cause severe reactions of the scalp. The most important allergens eliciting contact allergy of the scalp are found in bleaches and dyes, shampoos and conditioners, products for perm waves and straighteners as well as topical drugs. Besides active ingredients or drugs, vehicles and preservative agents represent additional allergens. The use of topical steroids and oral antihistamines usually results in rapid resolution of the dermatitis, systemic steroids are only necessary in severe cases. Epicutaneous patch testing on the basis of available series combined with the ingredients of the suspected elicitors confirms the diagnosis and facilitates allergen avoidance as well as the selection of alternative products.

  1. [Allergic contact eczema due to 'tea tree' oil].

    PubMed

    van der Valk, P G; de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J; Weijland, J W

    1994-04-16

    In four patients, three women aged 45, 29 and 52 years and a man aged 45 years, allergic contact dermatitis due to 'tea tree' oil was diagnosed. The case of the man was published before. 'Tea tree' oils are essential oils distilled from the leaves of myrtaceous trees and shrubs occurring in Australia and South-East Asia. The 'tea tree' oil available in the Netherlands is distilled from the Melaleuca alternifolia and mainly contains eucalyptol. Eucalyptol is probably the most important allergen.

  2. SKIN SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (BASIC COURSE): THE GLOBAL REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE; 1 OF 4 SPEAKERS FOR AN SOT BASIC COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  3. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  4. Allergic contact granuloma: an uncommon reaction to pierced earrings in a child.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Lee, Jason B; Hyde, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis associated with pierced earrings typically presents as erythematous patches and plaques, with prominent spongiosis histologically. The most common inciting metal is nickel. Allergic contact granulomatous reactions to pierced earrings are rare, and are often more nodular in appearance and associated with metals other than nickel. We hereby report the first case of allergic contact granulomas associated with pierced earrings in a child.

  5. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis to fiberglass in a factory worker of wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-09-01

    Fiberglass is extensively used due to its properties of thermal, acoustic and electrical insulation, and also to reinforce other materials such as plastics. Irritant contact dermatitis to fiberglass is a well established occupational dermatose and is due to penetration of small fragments in the cornified layer of the skin. On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rare and is more often triggered by sensitivity to the additives and resins used in the manufacture of fiberglass products. We report a case of ACD to fiberglass in a factory worker of fiberglass reinforced products.

  6. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible.

  7. Eyeglass frame allergic contact dermatitis: does tacrolimus prevent recurrences?

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tokio; Iijima, Masafumi; Maibach, Howard I

    2005-10-01

    A 35-year-old man developed well-demarcated, oedematous and erosive erythematous lesions on the nasal bridge and retroauricular regions bilaterally. His eyeglass frame was repaired by an optician 2 weeks prior to symptom onset. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to scrapings of nose pads and temples of the frame in petrolatum. Because the patient did not take our exhortation to change eyeglass frames, we advised him to cover their nose pads and temples with vinyl tape to prevent direct skin contact. Although topical corticosteroid therapy produced clinical resolution temporally, recurrences were not prevented. After starting tacrolimus ointment therapy, recurrence has not occurred for 9 months. Tacrolimus may be effective for allergic contact dermatitis patients who cannot avoid repeated allergen exposure, as it may not only reduce inflammation but inhibit recurrences.

  8. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  10. Astragaloside IV ameliorates allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors in the initial stage of sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai-fan; Yu, Xi; Wei, Xiao; Gui, Li-li; Liu, Hai-liang; Wang, Xiao-yu; Tao, Yu; Jiang, Guo-rong; Hong, Min

    2016-01-01

    To illuminate the anti-allergy mechanism of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), we assessed its effects in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). AS-IV administered in the sensitization phase, rather than in the elicitation phase, dramatically alleviated the symptoms of allergic inflammation. We hypothesized that AS-IV exerts its anti-allergy effects by regulating the production of key pro-allergic cytokines based on the fact that interleukin (IL)-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels increase significantly in the initial stage of the sensitization phase. AS-IV administered in the initial stage of ACD inhibited TSLP and IL-33 expression and reduced the proportion of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). An in vitro study showed that the production of pro-allergic cytokines was significantly inhibited in AS-IV presenting HaCaT cells. We also verified that AS-IV administered only in the initial stage markedly alleviated inflammation, including ear swelling, Th2 cytokine expression, and histological changes. Taken together, these results suggest that AS-IV effectively ameliorates the progression of allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors, including TSLP and IL-33, and can be used to prevent and/or treat patients with ACD. Our data also suggest that these key pro-allergic cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for allergic diseases. PMID:27917896

  11. Contact sensitivity to Irgasan DP 300.

    PubMed

    Roed-Petersen, J; Auken, G; Hjorth, N

    1975-10-01

    Two persons had allergic contact dermatitis caused by Irgasan 0,2% in a deodorant foot-powder and 0,12% in a deodorant stick respectively. Both had positive patch test reactions to Irgasan 2% pet. One patient was further tested with Irgasan 1% pet. and 0,5% pet. She had positive reactions to these dilutions. In a blind half-sided usage test, a soap bar containing 0,5% Irgasan caused mild itching and a percepitble erythema, although the use of this soap was otherwise tolerated for one month. The soap bar without Irgasan caused no reactions. Although primary sensitization from Irgasan toilet soaps has not been reported, a previously sensitized person may react to the use of Irgasan in soaps.

  12. Immunology and genetics of tumour necrosis factor in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Daan; Schuttelaar, Marie L

    2017-05-01

    During the sensitization phase of allergic contact dermatitis, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role by promoting epidermal Langerhans cell migration to draining lymph nodes. It also plays a role during the elicitation phase. The TNF gene (TNF) is located within the major histocompatibility complex region. Many single-nucleotide variants exist in the promoter region of TNF, and these may either increase or decrease mRNA transcription and therefore lead to higher or lower levels of TNF. The most extensively studied single-nucleotide variant of TNF is a base pair substitution in the promoter region at location -308 relative to the transcription start site (rs1800629, TNF -308G>A), which is believed to increase transcription and lead to higher TNF levels. The role of TNF in allergic contact dermatitis and the functionality of TNF -308G>A are reviewed in this article. The association between genetic variants and disease can be studied in a case-control design. Only a few case-control studies investigating the association between TNF -308G>A and allergic contact dermatitis have been published, with contradictory results. These are reviewed critically, and suggestions for future case-control studies on this topic are made.

  13. Nickel release from metals, and a case of allergic contact dermatitis from stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Sipiläinen-Malm, T; Estlander, T; Zitting, A; Jolanki, R; Tarvainen, K

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by nickel is increasing. The probable cause is the increased use of nickel-containing metals in intimate contact with the skin. The critical factor is the amount of nickel released from these metals (bioavailable nickel) onto the skin. In the present study, we determined, with flame atomic absorbtion spectrometry, the amount of nickel released into synthetic sweat from metal samples. The results of this method were compared with the results of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test, which is considered to be a reliable means of identifying whether nickel-containing metals may cause allergy symptoms in sensitive individuals. Out of 10 samples studied, only small amounts (< 0.5 microgram/cm2/week) were released from 2 samples, and the DMG test was negative. From 5 samples, more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week was released, and the DMG test was positive. For 3 samples, however, the DMG test was negative, though the flame atomic absorption spectrometry test showed considerable release of nickel. Therefore, although the DMG test can be used as a first line test for determining nickel release, some DMG-negative metal materials probably induce nickel sensitization, and should by no means be advertised as safe in this respect. We also report a nickel-allergic patient who developed ACD from stainless steel, indicating that some types of stainless steel release enough nickel to elicit allergic symptoms.

  14. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Tomoko; Oiso, Naoki; Hirao, Ayaka; Kawada, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition. PMID:21173928

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Brod, Bruce A; Treat, James R; Rothe, Marti Jill; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last ten years, there has been an increased awareness of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, in addition to adults. Historically, ACD was not considered a significant disease in the pediatric population. This may have been due to failure to employ patch testing, which is the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis of ACD. A number of epidemiologic studies now reflect upon the significance of positive patch tests in children and its utility in diagnosing ACD. While there is significant overlap among the most common allergens in children and adults, the patterns of exposure and sources of allergens can significantly differ, because children have distinct experiences related to their exposure to personal care products, articles of clothing, and time spent in play as opposed to work. Evaluation of the pediatric patient with dermatitis involves specialized knowledge in taking the pediatric history and specific techniques employed for successful patch test application.

  17. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis in the allergist office.

    PubMed

    Fonacier, Luz; Charlesworth, Ernest N

    2003-07-01

    The identification of allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is key to the management of this disease. The patch test (PT) is the only safe, objective, scientific, and practical method for the diagnosis of ACD. There is no single PT panel that will screen all the relevant allergens in a patient's environment. It is generally thought that 20 to 30 allergens in routine screening tests can identify 50% to 70% of clinically relevant ACD. However, the usefulness of patch testing is enhanced with the number of allergens tested. Although the PT might be simple to apply, it might be difficult to read, interpret, and correlate to the patient's symptoms. A familiarity with the patient's environment, the process of the industry in that environment, and the uses of various chemicals in the industry is needed in most cases.

  18. Skin homing and recruitment of leukocytes in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marrakchi, Slaheddine; Turki, Hamida

    2008-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disorder that has a high socio-economic impact with regard to the increasing number of industrial allergens that has potential harmful effect on the skin of manual workers. Its management relies on the use of topical anti-inflammatory drugs as well as the avoidance of the allergens inducing the disease. However, with regard to the ubiquitous character of many chemicals in the environment, treatment of the disease remains unsatisfactory. Understanding the molecular basis of the disease is of major importance in prospect of designing new therapeutic modalities. In this article, the various stages of the disease are reviewed as well as the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the disease that would help to conceive new concepts for drug intervention. The article also reviews some of the recent patent relevant to the field.

  19. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD.

  20. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed.

  1. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Background Metal-working fluids contain complex mixtures of chemicals and metal workers constitute a potential risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis. Case presentation Two metal workers developed allergic contact dermatitis on the hands and lower arms from exposure to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin in the standard series. Conclusions These cases emphasize that well-known contact allergens may show up from unexpected sources of exposure. Further, it can be a long-lasting, laborious process to detect an occupational contact allergen and cooperation from the patient and the manufacturer of the sensitizing product is essential. PMID:12685935

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children.

  3. Prevalence of allergic sensitization to regional inhalants among allergic patients in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baratawidjaja, I R; Baratawidjaja, P P; Darwis, A; Soo-Hwee, L; Fook-Tim, C; Bee-Wah, L; Baratawidjaja, K G

    1999-03-01

    Sensitization towards a panel of eight regional inhalant allergens was evaluated among 107 patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. A total of 32 children (age 5-13 years, mean 9 years; 18 male, 14 female), 75 adolescents and adults (aged 14-66 years, mean 32 years; 21 male, 54 female) and 20 normal control volunteers (aged 16-46, mean 30 years; 4 male, 16 female) were evaluated via skin prick test. A weal response of 3 x 3 mm or greater was taken to be positive. The sensitization rates among individuals to these allergens were: house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (77.57%), Blomia tropicalis (71.96%), Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis (33.64%), pollen, palm oil Elaeis guineensis (22.43%), Acacia auriculiformis (12.15%), fern spore, resam Dicranopteris spp (11.21%), fungal spores: Curvularia fallax (8.41%) and Exserohilum rostratum (13.08%). There were significantly higher frequencies of sensitization to these allergens among allergic individuals compared to normal controls, and among atopic individuals with two allergy manifestations (rhinitis and asthma) compared to those with only one. No difference was noted between children and adults in the allergic group. In conclusion, the allergic patients were highly sensitized to dust mites and sensitization to regional pollen and spores was also documented. They should be considered as relevant and be included in skin test batteries in Indonesia.

  4. A study of chromium induced allergic contact dermatitis with 54 volunteers: implications for environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J; Paustenbach, D; Adams, R; Fowler, J; Marks, J; Morton, C; Taylor, J; Horowitz, S; Finley, B

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, dose-response patch test studies by various methods have been conducted in an attempt to identify the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) that produces an allergic response in Cr(VI) sensitive subjects. These data are not adequate, however, to provide an accurate estimate of the MET because of the variability in the patch testing techniques and the variability in diagnostic criteria used. Furthermore, the data were not reported in terms of mass of allergen per surface area of skin (mg Cr/cm2-skin), which is necessary for conducting occupational or environmental health risk assessments. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine the MET (mg allergen/cm2) for Cr(VI) and trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by patch testing techniques. A patch test method that delivers a controlled amount of allergen per surface area of skin was used. A group of 54 Cr(VI) sensitised volunteers were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) to determine the cumulative response rate at several concentrations. The results indicate that the 10% MET for Cr(VI) based on the cumulative response was 0.089 micrograms Cr(VI)/cm2-skin. Only one of the 54 volunteers may have responded to 33 micrograms Cr(III)/cm2-skin, otherwise Cr(III) was unable to produce allergic contact dermatitis in these highly sensitive volunteers. Two supplemental studies were also conducted to assess whether the surface area of the patch and the concentration of Cr(VI) in the patch (related to patch thickness) were likely to influence the results. The data from these studies were used to assess the risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis due to contact with Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in soil. The findings indicated that soil concentrations at least as high as 450 ppm Cr(VI) and 165,000 ppm Cr(III) should not pose an allergic contact dermatitis hazard for at least 99.99% of the people in the community who might be exposed. PMID:8044228

  5. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Eyelid dermatitis and/or periocular dermatitis (ED/PD) is commonly seen in a variety of skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, but is most often associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Here, a case of ACD in an 82-year-old man is described; he used 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops and exhibited pruritic erythema on the eyelids. Patch test for diclofenac sodium eye drops was positive. Further patch tests revealed a positive reaction to diclofenac sodium (monosodium 2-[2, 6-dichlorophenylamino] phenylacetate), which was the main component in the eye drop medicine. Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and is frequently used in everyday oral medications, topical ointments, gel agents and eye drops. Case reports on ACD caused by diclofenac sodium eye drops are extremely rare. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider ACD due to diclofenac sodium when a patient with ED/PD has a history of use of diclofenac sodium eye drops.

  7. Hair-care practices in African American women: potential for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Alicia; Sood, Apra

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when the skin is re-exposed to a substance to which it was previously sensitized. One significant source of exposure to sensitizing chemicals is through personal grooming and beauty products. While the role of cosmetics and hair-care products in the development of ACD is well-documented, there has been very little literature that specifically addresses the role of hair-care practices of patients with tightly curled hair, such as in patients of African descent, in the development of ACD in this population. This review provides an integrated summary of the hair-care practices of female African American patients and the potential for exposure to sensitizing agents at each stage. This review will also discuss the challenges faced in recognizing and assessing ACD in these patients.

  8. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

  10. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-15

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel.

  11. Antigen-Specific Induction of Osteopontin Contributes to the Chronification of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seier, Anne M.; Renkl, Andreas C.; Schulz, Guido; Uebele, Tanja; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Liaw, Lucy; Kon, Shigeyuki; Uede, Toshimitsu; Weiss, Johannes M.

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a T cell-mediated immune response, which in its relapsing chronic form is of high socioeconomic impact. The phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) has chemotactic and Th1 cytokine functions and in various models is essential for robust T cell-mediated immunity. Here we demonstrate that OPN is abundantly expressed by both effector T cells and keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis lesions. T cells from nickel-allergic donors secrete high levels of OPN following antigen-specific stimulation. OPN may substitute for missing IFN-γ secretion in T effector cells because low IFN-γ-producing T cell clones secrete high levels of OPN, and OPN down-modulates their interleukin-4 expression. Furthermore, interferon-γ from T effector cells augments OPN in allergic contact dermatitis by inducing OPN in keratinocytes, which in turn polarizes dendritic cells and attracts inflammatory cells. In the murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model for allergic contact dermatitis, OPN is strongly induced in antigen-specific proliferating T cells, and OPN null mice display a reduced chronic CHS inflammatory response due to a decreased influx of effector T cells. Importantly, because of its function for chronic allergic contact dermatitis, OPN may well be a therapeutic target, because anti-OPN antibody treatment in part suppresses established chronic CHS. PMID:20008129

  12. Allergic Diseases and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Inchul; Kim, Inah; Park, Hye Jung; Roh, Jaehoon; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a clinical syndrome representing multi-organ and psychological symptoms caused by chronic exposure to various chemicals in low concentrations. We evaluated the prevalence and related factors of MCS targeting Korean adults using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI©). Methods A total of 446 participants were recruited from Severance Hospital. Participants underwent a questionnaire interview including questions on sociodemographic factors, occupational and environmental factors, allergic diseases, and the QEESI©. Among them, 379 participants completed the questionnaire and the QEESI©. According to the QEESI© interpretation results, participants were divided into very suggestive (VS) group and less suggestive (LS) group. Results The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher in allergic patients than non-allergic participants (19.7% and 11.3%, respectively, P=0.04). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, ages of 30-39 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.25-6.95) and those of 40-49 (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.02-6.21) were significantly related to MCS compared to those aged less than 30 years. Female sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.18), experience of dwelling in a new house (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03), and atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04-3.69) were also significantly related to MCS. However, only age of 30-39 in the allergic group was significant in the stratified analysis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher among allergic patients than non-allergic participants. People with experience of dwelling in a new house and atopic dermatitis were more at risk of being intolerant to chemicals. Further studies to provide the nationally representative prevalence data and clarify risk factors and mechanisms of MCS are required. PMID:25228997

  13. Clinical evaluation of fifty-six patients referred with symptoms tentatively related to allergic contact stomatitis.

    PubMed

    van Loon, L A; Bos, J D; Davidson, C L

    1992-11-01

    During a 7-year period, 56 patients were referred to the Department of General Pathology and Internal Medicine and the Department of Dental Materials, University of Amsterdam, to determine whether contact allergic reactions to dental materials were the cause of their complaints. On the first consultation with the patient a detailed history focusing on the complaints themselves, general medical history, and special clinical history of allergic skin reaction was obtained. Oral examinations were performed, and all patients were referred to the allergy clinic at the department of dermatology for skin tests. There was a strong female predominance in the referred group. Most of the patients with allergic contact stomatitis mentioned a burning sensation in the mouth. In only 16 of the 56 patients could the diagnosis of allergic contact stomatitis be established. From this study it can also be concluded that the combination of a positive allergic history and positive allergic skin reactions with or without visible oral signs are important for the diagnosis of allergic contact stomatitis.

  14. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tomono, Ayana; Suwa, Eriko; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus. PMID:23661987

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from a perinone-type dye C.I. Solvent Orange 60 in spectacle frames.

    PubMed

    Shono, M; Kaniwa, M A

    1999-10-01

    This is the 1st case report of allergic contact dermatitis from a perinone-type plastic dye, C.I. Solvent Orange 60, used in the earpieces of spectacle frames. Sensitization of this dye was confirmed by patch tests and chemical analysis of the causative earpieces and coloring agents. Solvent Orange 60 is suspected of being the contact allergen in at least 2 other Japanese cases of spectacle earpiece dermatitis, and provoked strong reactions on sensitized individuals. Its use in products that are applied on human skin for a prolonged period of time, such as spectacle frames or hearing aids, would best be avoided.

  16. Mechanisms of chemical-induced innate immunity in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Martin, S F; Esser, P R; Weber, F C; Jakob, T; Freudenberg, M A; Schmidt, M; Goebeler, M

    2011-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most prevalent occupational skin diseases and causes severe and long-lasting health problems in the case of chronification. It is initiated by an innate inflammatory immune response to skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals that results in the priming of chemical-specific, skin-homing CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17 and CD4(+) Th1/Th17 cells. Following this sensitization step, T lymphocytes infiltrate the inflamed skin upon challenge with the same chemical. The T cells then exert cytotoxic function and secrete inflammatory mediators to produce an eczematous skin reaction. The recent characterization of the mechanisms underlying the innate inflammatory response has revealed that contact allergens activate innate effector mechanisms and signalling pathways that are also involved in anti-infectious immunity. This emerging analogy implies infection as a potential trigger or amplifier of the sensitization to contact allergens. Moreover, new mechanistic insights into the induction of ACD identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention. We summarize here the latest findings in this area of research.

  17. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  18. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-04-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the literature but an erythema multiforme-like presentation is rare.

  19. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from alkanolamineborates in metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Hradil, E; Eriksohn, I L; Gruvberger, B; Widström, L

    1995-01-01

    Alkanolamineborates are extensively used in coolants as corrosion inhibitors. In this paper, 3 machinists with contact allergy to alkanolamineborates are reported. To avoid false-positive test reactions due to the alkalinity of the alkanolamineborates, they should be tested when dissolved in an acidic buffer. When various alkanolamineborates were tested in dilution series in the 3 patients, 2 types of reactivity patterns emerged, indicating the existence of at least 2 separate sensitizers in alkanolamineborates. The raw materials, ethanolamines and boric acid, did not yield any positive patch test reactions. Thin-layer chromatography investigations demonstrated that each alkanolamineborate consists of many substances, which differed in part between different alkanolamineborates. The present study shows that it is not possible to use 1 particular alkanolamineborate for tracing contact allergy to alkanolamineborates in general.

  20. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4⁺ cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders.

  1. Xanthii Fructus inhibits allergic response in the ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Nam-Gil; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Im, Yong-Seok; Lee, Ka-Yeon; Jun-Kum, Chang; Kim, Ho-Seok; Cho, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthii Fructus (XF) is widely used in traditional anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory Asian medicine. Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by markedly increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the nasal mucosa. We investigated the effects of XF in the allergen-induced rhinitis model. Materials and Methods: Following ovalbumin (OVA)/alum intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7 and 14, the BALB/c mice (albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mice) were challenged intranasally with OVA for 10 days a week after the last sensitization. The number of sneezes was recorded for 10 days; additionally, the levels of cytokines, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific serum IgE were estimated. Eosinophil infiltration, thickness of nasal mucosa and expression of caspase-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the effect of XF on the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) in human mast cell-1 (HMC-1), by Western blotting. Results: The administration of XF significantly decreased sneezing and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). XF inhibited the changes in thickness of the nasal septum, influx of eosinophils and expression of capase-1. In addition, XF inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB in phorbol-myristate-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion: This study suggests that XF acts a potent anti-allergic drug which alleviates the allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model. PMID:26664025

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from exotic woods: importance of patch-testing with patient-provided samples.

    PubMed

    Podjasek, Joshua O; Cook-Norris, Robert H; Richardson, Donna M; Drage, Lisa A; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Exotic woods from tropical and subtropical regions (eg, from South America, south Asia, and Africa) frequently are used occupationally and recreationally by woodworkers and hobbyists. These exotic woods more commonly provoke irritant contact dermatitis reactions, but they also can provoke allergic contact dermatitis reactions. We report three patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to exotic woods. Patch testing was performed and included patient-provided wood samples. Avoidance of identified allergens was recommended. For all patients, the dermatitis cleared or improved after avoidance of the identified allergens. Clinicians must be aware of the potential for allergic contact dermatitis reactions to compounds in exotic woods. Patch testing should be performed with suspected woods for diagnostic confirmation and allowance of subsequent avoidance of the allergens.

  3. Two cases with nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia: a rare clinical form of allergic contact stomatitis?

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Esen; Babuna, Goncagül

    2011-03-15

    Allergic contact stomatitis (ACS) can occur with variable clinical presentations such as erythematous, erosive, and lichenoid forms. Burning mouth symptoms may also be a result of allergic contact stomatitis. Additionally, gingival hyperplasia has been reported in exceptional cases of ACS caused by dental metals. Here, two rare cases are presented of nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia with gingival and upper palatal involvement from metal-porcelain crowns and metal-acrylic upper denture, respectively. In both cases the diagnosis was made on the basis of the positive patch test results to nickel sulfate and the regression of the lesions after removing the nickel containing dental materials. Nickel-induced ACS should be borne in mind in every case of oral mucosal hyperplasia appearing after dental procedures, especially in the presence of previous allergies and sensitization risks such as ear piercing. It might be further suggested to include this variant within the clinical forms of ACS.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate after photodynamic therapy in 9 patients.

    PubMed

    Hohwy, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Sølvsten, Henrik; Sommerlund, Mette

    2007-11-01

    This report describes 9 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate used for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The risk of developing contact allergy to methyl aminolevulinate in PDT treated patients was calculated to 1% after an average of 7 treatments (range 2-21).

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) cream used in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Harries, Matthew J; Street, Gill; Gilmour, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Lesley E; Beck, Michael H

    2007-02-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used in the treatment of superficial skin malignancies including actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Contact allergy to the prodrug is rarely reported. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate cream used in PDT.

  6. Propylene glycol: an often unrecognized cause of allergic contact dermatitis in patients using topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Al Jasser, M; Mebuke, N; de Gannes, G C

    2011-05-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is considered to be a ubiquitous formulary ingredient used in many personal care products and pharmaceutical preparations. It is an organic compound commonly found in topical corticosteroids (CS). Cutaneous reactions to PG are mostly irritant, but allergic contact dermatitis to PG is well-documented. Cosensitization to PG and topical CS can occur, making it challenging to choose the appropriate topical CS in a PG-allergic patient. This review is aimed at guiding clinicians in the selection of a suitable topical corticosteroid when presented with patients allergic to PG.

  7. Mast Cells Limit the Exacerbation of Chronic Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Response to Repeated Allergen Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Rivera, Vladimir-Andrey; Siebenhaar, Frank; Zimmermann, Carolin; Siiskonen, Hanna; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic T cell-driven inflammatory skin disease that is caused by repeated exposure to contact allergens. Based on murine studies of acute contact hypersensitivity, mast cells (MCs) are believed to play a role in its pathogenesis. The role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis has not been investigated, in part because of the lack of murine models for chronic contact hypersensitivity. We developed and used a chronic contact hypersensitivity model in wild-type and MC-deficient mice and assessed skin inflammatory responses to identify and characterize the role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. Ear swelling chronic contact hypersensitivity responses increased markedly, up to 4-fold, in MC-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) (Sash) and MCPT5-Cre(+)iDTR(+) mice compared with wild-type mice. Local engraftment with MCs protected Sash mice from exacerbated ear swelling after repeated oxazolone challenge. Chronic contact hypersensitivity skin of Sash mice exhibited elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-17α, and IL-23, as well as increased accumulation of Ag-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells. The CD8(+) T cell mitogen IL-15, which was increased in oxazolone-challenged skin of Sash mice during the accumulation of cutaneous TRM cells, was efficiently degraded by MCs in vitro. MCs protect from the exacerbated allergic skin inflammation induced by repeated allergen challenge, at least in part, via effects on CD8(+) TRM cells. MCs may notably influence the course of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. A better understanding of their role and the underlying mechanisms may lead to better approaches for the treatment of this common, disabling, and costly condition.

  8. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dubakiene, Ruta; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Butiene, Indre; Sezaite, Indre; Petronyte, Malvina; Vaicekauskaite, Dalia; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-01-01

    Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558) established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers. PMID:22606067

  9. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians

    PubMed Central

    Šaulienė, Ingrida; Greičiuvienė, Jūratė; Šukienė, Laura; Juškevičiūtė, Neringa; Benner, Christian; Zinkevičienė, Auksė; Ripatti, Samuli; Donner, Kati; Kainov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS) in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT), which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases) and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05). Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008). Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians. PMID:26214689

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hugh; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce

    2006-12-01

    Dexpanthenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid (the water-soluble vitamin B(5)). Although it is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, contact allergy is relatively uncommon. Cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate is a phospholipid complex derived from pure coconut oil, and contact allergy is rare. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  12. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  13. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    PubMed Central

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported. PMID:26347280

  14. Cigarette smoke exposure facilitates allergic sensitization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerloose, Katrien B; Robays, Lander J; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Tournoy, Kurt G; Joos, Guy F

    2006-01-01

    Background Active and passive smoking are considered as risk factors for asthma development. The mechanisms involved are currently unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure could facilitate primary allergic sensitization. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) combined with air or tobacco smoke (4 exposures/day) daily for three weeks. Serology, lung cytopathology, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and on mediastinal lymph node cultures as well as lung function tests were performed after the last exposure. The natural history and the immune memory of allergic sensitization were studied with in vivo recall experiments. Results Exposure to OVA induced a small increase in OVA-specific serum IgE as compared with exposure to PBS (P < 0.05), while no inflammatory reaction was observed in the airways. Exposure to cigarette smoke did not induce IgE, but was characterized by a small but significant neutrophilic inflammatory reaction. Combining OVA with cigarette smoke not only induced a significant increase in OVA-specific IgE but also a distinct eosinophil and goblet cell enriched airway inflammation albeit that airway hyperresponsiveness was not evidenced. FACS analysis showed in these mice increases in dendritic cells (DC) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes along with a marked increase in IL-5 measured in the supernatant of lymph node cell cultures. Immune memory experiments evidenced the transient nature of these phenomena. Conclusion In this study we show that mainstream cigarette smoke temporary disrupts the normal lung homeostatic tolerance to innocuous inhaled allergens, thereby inducing primary allergic sensitization. This is characterized not only by the development of persistent IgE, but also by the emergence of an eosinophil rich pulmonary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16571114

  15. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to normal skin and psoriasis, a significant enhancement of perforin and granzyme B gene expression and immunoreactivity was observed in the mononuclear cell infiltrate of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunoreactivity for perforin and granzyme B was mainly found in the cytoplasm of lymphocytic cells, which were located in the dense perivascular infiltrate as well as at sites of marked spongiosis in the epidermis. Double immunostaining revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are capable of expressing perforin and granzyme B. In conclusion, our data suggest that T-cell-mediated mechanisms involving cytotoxic granule proteins may elicit epidermal cell injury in vivo and thereby strongly contribute to the development of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. PMID:11238028

  16. Application of the risk assessment paradigm to the induction of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Felter, Susan P; Ryan, Cindy A; Basketter, David A; Gilmour, Nicola J; Gerberick, G Frank

    2003-02-01

    The National Academy of Science (NAS) risk assessment paradigm has been widely accepted as a framework for estimating risk from exposure to environmental chemicals (NAS, 1983). Within this framework, quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) serve as the cornerstone of health-based exposure limits, and have been used routinely for both cancer and noncancer endpoints. These methods have focused primarily on the extrapolation of data from laboratory animals to establish acceptable levels of exposure for humans. For health effects associated with a threshold, uncertainty and variability inherent in the extrapolation process is generally dealt with by the application of "uncertainty factors (UFs)." The adaptation of QRA methods to address skin sensitization is a natural and desirable extension of current practices. Based on our chemical, cellular and molecular understanding of the induction of allergic contact dermatitis, one can conduct a QRA using established methods of identifying a NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) or other point of departure, and applying appropriate UFs. This paper describes the application of the NAS paradigm to characterize risks from human exposure to skin sensitizers; consequently, this method can also be used to establish an exposure level for skin allergens that does not present an appreciable risk of sensitization.

  17. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia secondary to allergic contact dermatitis to Grevillea Robyn Gordon.

    PubMed

    Meani, Rowena E; Nixon, Rosemary L; O'Keefe, Rodney; Chong, Alvin H

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) in a 55-year-old woman following allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to Grevillea Robyn Gordon. We believe this to be the first reported case of PEH secondary to ACD, and postulate that this was an exaggerated response to severe ACD as a result of a lack of topical treatment.

  18. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F

    1992-05-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  19. Occupational skin allergies: testing and treatment (the case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Holness, D Linn

    2014-02-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, including occupational allergic contact dermatitis, is one of the most common occupational diseases. Making a timely and accurate diagnosis is important to improving the outcome. Taking a work history and patch testing are essential elements in the diagnostic process. Management, based on an accurate diagnosis, must include both medical treatment to address the disease and workplace modifications as appropriate to reduce exposure the causative agents.

  20. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients.

  1. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  2. Predicting allergic contact dermatitis: a hierarchical structure activity relationship (SAR) approach to chemical classification using topological and quantum chemical descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Subhash C.; Mills, Denise; Hawkins, Douglas M.

    2008-06-01

    A hierarchical classification study was carried out based on a set of 70 chemicals—35 which produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 35 which do not. This approach was implemented using a regular ridge regression computer code, followed by conversion of regression output to binary data values. The hierarchical descriptor classes used in the modeling include topostructural (TS), topochemical (TC), and quantum chemical (QC), all of which are based solely on chemical structure. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity are reported. The model based on the TC descriptors was found to be the best, while the TS model was extremely poor.

  3. Metals Are Important Contact Sensitizers: An Experience from Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Linauskienė, Kotryna; Blažienė, Audra

    2017-01-01

    Background. Metals are very frequent sensitizers causing contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis worldwide; up-to-date data based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of a problem. Objectives. In this retrospective study prevalence of contact allergy to metals (nickel, chromium, palladium, gold, cobalt, and titanium) in Lithuania is analysed. Patients/Methods. Clinical and patch test data of 546 patients patch tested in 2014–2016, in Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, was analysed and compared with previously published data. Results. Almost third of tested patients (29.56%) were sensitized to nickel. Younger women were more often sensitized to nickel than older ones (36% versus 22.8%, p = 0.0011). Women were significantly more often sensitized to nickel than men (33% versus 6.1%, p < 0.0001). Younger patients were more often sensitized to cobalt (11.6% versus 5.7%, p = 0.0183). Sensitization to cobalt was related to sensitization to nickel (p < 0.0001). Face dermatitis and oral discomfort were related to gold allergy (28% versus 6.9% dermatitis of other parts, p < 0.0001). Older patients were patch test positive to gold(I) sodium thiosulfate statistically significantly more often than younger ones (44.44% versus 21.21%, p = 0.0281). Conclusions. Nickel, gold, cobalt, and chromium are leading metal sensitizers in Lithuania. Cobalt sensitization is often accompanied by sensitization to nickel. Sensitivity rate to palladium and nickel indicates possible cross-reactivity. No sensitization to titanium was found.

  4. Metals Are Important Contact Sensitizers: An Experience from Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Linauskienė, Kotryna; Malinauskienė, Laura; Blažienė, Audra

    2017-01-01

    Background. Metals are very frequent sensitizers causing contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis worldwide; up-to-date data based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of a problem. Objectives. In this retrospective study prevalence of contact allergy to metals (nickel, chromium, palladium, gold, cobalt, and titanium) in Lithuania is analysed. Patients/Methods. Clinical and patch test data of 546 patients patch tested in 2014-2016, in Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, was analysed and compared with previously published data. Results. Almost third of tested patients (29.56%) were sensitized to nickel. Younger women were more often sensitized to nickel than older ones (36% versus 22.8%, p = 0.0011). Women were significantly more often sensitized to nickel than men (33% versus 6.1%, p < 0.0001). Younger patients were more often sensitized to cobalt (11.6% versus 5.7%, p = 0.0183). Sensitization to cobalt was related to sensitization to nickel (p < 0.0001). Face dermatitis and oral discomfort were related to gold allergy (28% versus 6.9% dermatitis of other parts, p < 0.0001). Older patients were patch test positive to gold(I) sodium thiosulfate statistically significantly more often than younger ones (44.44% versus 21.21%, p = 0.0281). Conclusions. Nickel, gold, cobalt, and chromium are leading metal sensitizers in Lithuania. Cobalt sensitization is often accompanied by sensitization to nickel. Sensitivity rate to palladium and nickel indicates possible cross-reactivity. No sensitization to titanium was found.

  5. Adiposity, serum lipid levels, and allergic sensitization in Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Kumar, Rajesh; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Story, Rachel E.; Liu, Xin; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Liu, Xue; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Wenbin; Fang, Yaping; Zhang, Shanchun; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and allergic diseases have increased dramatically in recent decades. While adiposity has been associated with asthma, associations with allergic sensitization have been inconsistent. Objective To examine the association of adiposity and lipid profiles with allergic sensitization. Methods This study included 1,187 rural Chinese twins (653 men) aged 18-39 years, with skin prick tests (SPT), anthropometric and DEXA-assessed adiposity measures, and lipid assessments. Allergic sensitization was defined as positive SPT to ≥1 allergen (9 foods and 5 aeroallergens tested). We applied gender-stratified generalized estimating equations to assess the association of adiposity and serum lipids with allergic sensitization, and structural equation models to estimate the genetic/environmental influences on any observed associations. Results Males had lower percent body fat (%BF) (13.9% vs. 28.8%) but higher rates of allergic sensitization (56.2% vs. 36.7%) than females. Males in the highest %BF quartile were 2.1 times more likely sensitized than the lowest quartile (95%CI 1.3-3.5, P-trend=0.003). In males, the risk of allergic sensitization increased with HDL<40 mg/dl (OR=4.0, 95%CI 1.8-9.2) and higher LDL quartiles (P-trend=0.007). This appeared to be partially explained by shared genetic factors between serum lipid levels and allergic sensitization. In females, lower HDL was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization. Conclusions In this relatively lean Chinese population, higher %BF, lower HDL and higher LDL were associated with greater risk of allergic sensitization, most notable in males. The observed associations between adiposity, serum lipids and allergic sensitization in males appear to be partially explained by common genetic influences on these traits. PMID:19135238

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Maria; Eyerich, Stefanie; Knapp, Bettina; Nasorri, Francesca; Scarponi, Claudia; Mattii, Martina; Garzorz, Natalie; Harlfinger, Anna T; Jaeger, Teresa; Grosber, Martine; Pennino, Davide; Mempel, Martin; Schnopp, Christina; Theis, Fabian J; Albanesi, Cristina; Cavani, Andrea; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Ring, Johannes; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14) to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  7. Phenotypic characterization in situ of inflammatory cells in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Scheynius, A; Fischer, T; Forsum, U; Klareskog, L

    1984-01-01

    The cellular response in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was analysed in situ with an immunohistochemical double staining technique. Allergic patch test reactions were elicited in 10 patients and irritant reactions in eight cases, using the Finn chamber technique. Skin biopsies were obtained 6-72 h after test applications. Frozen sections of 43 biopsies were investigated by simultaneous staining with rabbit anti-HLA-DR antibodies and various mouse monoclonal antibodies. The cell infiltrates were usually larger in the allergic than in the irritant reactions. However, the kinetics of the cell responses, the phenotypes of the inflammatory cells, their distribution and spatial relationships were similar. It thus appears that the applications of allergens or irritants to the skin generates a cell pattern that to a large extent reflects an immunological readiness for further immune reactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6362938

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to regenerated oxidized cellulose contained in a matrix employed for wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Conserva, Anna; Angelini, Gianni

    2007-07-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old non-atopic woman with recurrent leg ulcers because of the factor V Leiden mutation who developed a severe eczematous lesions of the skin surrounding an ulcer of the right leg after the use of a protease-modulating matrix (Promogran, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, Skipton, UK). The patient was patch tested with the SIDAPA (Italian Society of Allergological, Occupational and Environmental Dermatology) standard series, a piece of the device as is, of the bovine collagen (Zyderm, Collagen Corporation, Palo Alto, CA, USA) as is, a piece of the gauze containing only regenerated oxidized cellulose (Tabotamp, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, North Yorkshire, UK) and of a fold towels in pure cellulose (Foscart, Bassano del Grappa, Italy). Patch tests gave a positive reactions to nickel sulphate and Promogran as is. We showed that the sensitizing agent was regenerated oxidized cellulose, a substance the treatment of ulcers and as is in and in combination with collagen in surgery for intraoperative hemostasis. The case reported suggests that regenerated oxidized cellulose can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

  9. Case of allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-butylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Atsuko; Ito, Akiko; Masui, Yukiko; Ito, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Butylene glycol (1,3-BG) is widely used in cosmetics, including low-irritant skin care products and topical medicaments, as an excellent and low-irritation humectant. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-BG. A 28-year-old woman suffered from an itchy erythematous eruption on her face. By 2 days of closed patch testing, her own cosmetics and many of the hypo-irritant skin care products showed positive results. A second patch testing showed positive reaction to 1,3-BG (1% and 5%). 1,3-BG was a common component in most of the products that had elicited a positive reaction in the first patch testing. Although allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-BG is not so common, we have to consider 1,3-BG as a possible contact allergen in the patients presenting with allergic contact dermatitis due to various cosmetics.

  10. High-concentration topical capsaicin may abolish the clinical manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis by effects on induction and elicitation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin condition caused by a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction. Even though ACD is considered as a T-cell mediated disease, indications exists that peptidergic nerve fibers at the site of allergen exposure and associated with the draining lymph node play a prominent role in both induction and elicitation of ACD. This neuro-immune cross talk seems rely on neuropeptides such as Substance P secreted by nerve fiber terminals. It is hypothesized that local complete or partial cutaneous denervation/defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers in humans could be a feasible approach towards treating allergic contact dermatitis. Recently, human experimental protocols for prominent, temporary defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers have been published relying on prolonged application of 8% topical capsaicin patches. Combined with human experimental ACD models the importance of peptidergic nerve fibers in the induction and elicitation phases of ACD could be accurately established. Understanding the role of cutaneous peptidergic fibers in the pathogenesis and potentially of ACD and how contact sensitization can be modulated by topical defunctionalization of these fibers could lead to new approaches to treatment for ACD. In patients with localized ACD occurring to an allergen that is difficult or unfeasible to evade this would have particular relevance.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern.

    PubMed

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-01-02

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  12. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by acrylic monomer in a denture.

    PubMed

    Koutis, D; Freeman, S

    2001-08-01

    A 71-year-old edentulous man developed a severely painful red mouth at sites of contact with a new denture. Patch testing showed allergy to samples of the denture material and to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Patch testing to methyl methacrylate was negative. Prolonged boiling of the denture resulted in reversal of his symptoms and samples of this fully cured denture material produced negative patch tests. While allergy to acrylates is a rare cause of stomatitis, this possibility must be considered in patients presenting with oral symptoms. Material safety data sheets are unreliable in providing information regarding the type of acrylate present in the material. Hence, patch testing should be performed with a battery of acrylate allergens as well as with small samples of the denture material.

  13. Methods to Investigate the Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marc; Goebeler, Matthias; Martin, Stefan F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact disease is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from hyperresponsiveness to harmless nonprotein substances such as metals, fragrances, or rubber. Recent research has highlighted a prominent role of Toll-like receptors, particularly TLR4 in contact allergen-induced innate immune activation that crucially contributes to the pathogenesis of this disease. Here we describe several methods to investigate the role of Toll-like receptors in contact allergen-induced pro-inflammatory responses. These include expansion of disease-relevant human primary cells including endothelial cells and keratinocytes and their manipulation of TLR signaling by transfection, retroviral infection and RNA interference, basic methods to induce contact hypersensitivity in mice, and protocols for adoptive transfer of hapten-stimulated dendritic cells and T cells from TLR-deficient mice to wild-type mice and vice versa wild-type mice to TLR-deficient mice in order to explore cell-specific roles of TLRs in contact hypersensitivity responses.

  14. Pre-Emptive Avoidance Strategy (P.E.A.S.) - addressing allergic contact dermatitis in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Golkar, Linda; Beck, Kristyn; Williams, Judith; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been increasingly recognized in the United States. Reported rates of positive patch tests in children referred for suspected ACD range between 27 and 95.6%. Many young children are becoming sensitized to contact allergens found in personal hygiene products. We reviewed five recent pediatric patch test studies to determine the top allergens associated with this source of ACD in children. The top ten allergens were neomycin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix, lanolin, cocamidopropylbetaine, formaldehyde, corticosteroids, methylchlorisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), propylene glycol, and benzalkonium chloride. We estimate that one third of children suffering from ACD could potentially benefit from a 'pre-emptive avoidance strategy' (P.E.A.S.) of the stated top 10 allergens.

  15. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    PubMed

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.

  16. Structure-Potency Relationships for Epoxides in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur; Api, Anne Marie

    2017-02-20

    Epoxides are known or proposed to be involved in skin sensitization in various ways. Some are encountered directly, and others have been shown to be formed abiotically and metabolically from various unsaturated chemicals. They can react as SN2 electrophiles. To date no quantitative mechanistic models (QMMs) are known for skin sensitization potency of this subcategory of SN2 electrophiles. Here we have considered the reaction mechanistic chemistry of epoxides and combined published experimental kinetic data (rate constants k for reaction with a cysteine-based peptide) together with calculated hydrophobicity data (logP) to derive a QMM correlating potency in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), expressed as EC3, with a relative alkylation index (RAI, calculated as logk + 0.4 logP). The QMM equation, pEC3 = 2.42(±0.26) RAI + 4.04 (±0.25), n = 9, R(2) = 0.928, R(2)(adj) = 0.917, F = 90, s = 0.18, fits the data well, with one positive outlier. The outlier can be rationalized by its exhibiting an alert for oxidation of an amine moiety to give, in this case, the highly reactive glycidaldehyde. The epoxide QMM predicts the potency of a nonepoxide SN2 electrophile (predicted EC3, 0.48%; observed EC3, 0.5%), which suggests that it could form the basis for a more general H-polar SN2 QMM that could be a valuable tool in skin sensitization risk assessment for this quite extensive and structurally diverse reaction mechanistic domain.

  17. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper

    2011-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances. The aetiology is unknown, but chemical related respiratory symptoms have been found associated with positive patch test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened for chemical sensitivity with a standardised questionnaire dividing the participants into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity. Both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions--defined as irritative, follicular, or doubtful allergic reactions--were analysed in relationship with severity of chemical sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing and the two most severe groups of self-reported sensitivity to airborne chemicals. When adjusting for confounding, associations were weakened, and only non-allergic cutaneous reactions were significantly associated with individuals most severely affected by inhalation of airborne chemicals (odds ratio = 2.5, p = 0.006). Our results suggest that individuals with self-reported chemical sensitivity show increased non-allergic cutaneous reactions based on day 2 readings of patch tests.

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 10 loci influencing allergic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Raquel; Strachan, David P; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Linneberg, Allan; Curtin, John A; Warrington, Nicole M; Standl, Marie; Kerkhof, Marjan; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Bukvic, Blazenka K; Kaakinen, Marika; Sleimann, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schramm, Katharina; Baltic, Svetlana; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Simpson, Angela; St Pourcain, Beate; Coin, Lachlan; Hui, Jennie; Walters, Eugene H; Tiesler, Carla M T; Duffy, David L; Jones, Graham; Ring, Susan M; McArdle, Wendy L; Price, Loren; Robertson, Colin F; Pekkanen, Juha; Tang, Clara S; Thiering, Elisabeth; Montgomery, Grant W; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Husemoen, Lise L; Herder, Christian; Kemp, John P; Elliot, Paul; James, Alan; Waldenberger, Melanie; Abramson, Michael J; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Gupta, Ramneek; Thompson, Philip J; Holt, Patrick; Sly, Peter; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Blekic, Mario; Weidinger, Stephan; Hakonarsson, Hakon; Stefansson, Kari; Heinrich, Joachim; Postma, Dirkje S; Custovic, Adnan; Pennell, Craig E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koppelman, Gerard H; Timpson, Nicholas; Ferreira, Manuel A; Bisgaard, Hans; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgE (allergic sensitization) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the top SNP from 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association to allergic sensitization from three to 10, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2 and HLA-B. All the top-SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk variants at these 10 loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may provide novel insight into the etiology of allergic disease. PMID:23817571

  19. Novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue) in the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Tetsuya; KABASHIMA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases, which is classified as a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response. The development of ACD is divided into two phases: sensitization and elicitation. In the sensitization phase, antigen-specific effector T cells are induced in the draining lymph nodes by antigen-captured cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) that migrate from the skin. In the elicitation phase, the effector T cells are activated in the skin by antigen-captured cutaneous DCs and produce various chemical mediators, which create antigen-specific inflammation. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements in the immunological mechanisms of ACD, focusing on the mechanisms in the elicitation phase. The observations of elicitation of CHS lead to the emerging novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue). PMID:26755397

  20. CXCR3 chemokine receptor signaling mediates itch in experimental allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lintao; Fu, Kai; Yang, Jennifer; Shimada, Steven G; LaMotte, Robert H

    2015-09-01

    Persistent itch is a common symptom of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and represents a significant health burden. The chemokine CXCL10 is predominantly produced by epithelial cells during ACD. Although the chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 are implicated in the pathophysiology of ACD, it is largely unexplored for itch and pain accompanying this disorder. Here, we showed that CXCL10 and CXCR3 mRNA, protein, and signaling activity were upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. CXCL10 directly activated a subset of cutaneous dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the area of CHS through neuronal CXCR3. In behavioral tests, a CXCR3 antagonist attenuated spontaneous itch- but not pain-like behaviors directed to the site of CHS. Injection of CXCL10 into the site of CHS elicited site-directed itch- but not pain-like behaviors, but neither type of CXCL10-evoked behaviors was observed in control mice. These results suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling mediates allergic itch but not inflammatory pain in the context of skin inflammation. Thus, upregulation of CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in sensory neurons may contribute to itch associated with ACD. Targeting the CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling might be beneficial for the treatment of allergic itch.

  1. Allergic Sensitization to Perennial Allergens in Adults and Children Sensitized to Japanese Cedar or Japanese Cypress Pollen in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, seasonal allergic rhinitis in the spring due to exposure to Japanese cedar or Japanese cypress pollen is common. However, the allergic profile for perennial allergens in spring pollinosis remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the allergic profiles of 652 patients with rhinitis. Total serum IgE, serum-specific IgE, and blood eosinophil counts were measured. Allergic sensitization, determined by the serum allergen-specific IgE level, did not always correspond with the patient's symptoms. Only 27% of patients with allergic symptoms in response to spring pollens were sensitized to these allergens alone; 31% of patients were also sensitized to perennial allergens, even without symptoms due to perennial allergens. Total serum IgE and eosinophil cell counts were significantly elevated in patients sensitized to perennial allergens and spring pollens, as compared to patients sensitized only to spring pollens. Most children sensitized to spring pollen (84%) were sensitized to perennial allergens, at a higher rate than adults (49%). Patients sensitized to spring pollens are likely to be latently sensitized to perennial allergens. This is especially true for children and should be monitored closely. Improvement in seasonal allergic conditions, including latent perennial allergy, is important to prevent symptoms that could advance to asthma. PMID:24757445

  2. Palmitoylethanolamide reduces inflammation and itch in a mouse model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vaia, Massimo; Petrosino, Stefania; De Filippis, Daniele; Negro, Luana; Guarino, Andrea; Carnuccio, Rosa; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Iuvone, Teresa

    2016-11-15

    In mice, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induces contact allergic dermatitis (CAD), which, in a late phase, is characterized by mast cell (MC) infiltration and angiogenesis. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, acts by down-modulating MCs following activation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We have previously reported the anti-inflammatory effect of PEA in the early stage of CAD. Here, we examined whether PEA reduces the features of the late stage of CAD including MC activation, angiogenesis and itching. After sensitization to DNFB, female C57BL/6J mice underwent to three DNFB challenges at days 5, 12 and 19 and treatments were given at each challenge and for two more days. CAD was expressed as Δ increase in ear thickness between challenged and un-challenged mice. PEA (5mg/kg/i.p.) reduced: i) the DNFB-induced Δ increase; ii) the number of MCs per tissue area; iii) the expression of VEGF and its receptor Flk-1. These effects were reversed by co-administration of AM630 (1mg/kg/i.p.), a CB2 antagonist, but not GW6471 (1mg/kg/i.p.), a PPAR-α antagonist. Finally, PEA reduced the number of ear scratchings 48h after DNFB challenge and this effect was reversed by both CB2 and PPAR-α antagonists, suggesting the involvement of both receptors. PEA, by reducing the features of late stage CAD in mice, may be beneficial in this pathological condition.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to condoms: description of a clinical case and analytical review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, D; Antelmi, A; Conserva, A; Angelini, G

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 42-years-old non-atopic man who developed a severe eczematous reaction in the genital area some hours after the use of a condom (Settebello-Hatù Durex) containing a retarding cream. Patch test revealed a strong allergic reaction to the retarding cream and to benzocaine and paraben mix contained in the cream itself. Condoms with retarding cream should be avoided in man sensitized to local anestethetics.

  4. Contact sensitization to Compositae mix in children.

    PubMed

    Belloni Fortina, Anna; Romano, Ilaria; Peserico, Andrea

    2005-11-01

    The prevalence of contact sensitization to Compositae mix was investigated in 641 consecutive children. Seventeen children (12 with atopic dermatitis) tested positive for Compositae mix. We suggest adding Compositae mix to a pediatric screening series when investigating airborne dermatitis in children with atopic dermatitis.

  5. [Histamine H₁ receptor gene as an allergic diseases-sensitive gene and its impact on therapeutics for allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Yuto; Kuroda, Wakana; Yoshida, Haruka; Miyamoto, Yuko; Hattori, Masashi; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutics targeting disease-sensitive genes are required for the therapy of multifactorial diseases. There is no clinical report on therapeutics for allergic disease-sensitive genes. We are focusing on the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) as a sensitive gene. H1R mediates allergy histamine signals. H1R is a rate-limiting molecule of the H1R signal because the signal is increased with elevated receptor expression level. We discovered that the stimulation of H1R induced H1R gene expression through PKCδ activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The mechanism of H1R gene expression was revealed to play a key role in the receptor expression level in studies using cultured HeLa cells and allergic rhinitis model rats. Preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines is recommended for the therapy of pollinosis. However, the mechanism of the therapy remains to be elucidated. We demonstrated that repeated pretreatment treatment with antihistamines in the allergic rhinitis model rats resulted not only in improvement of symptoms but also in suppressed elevation of H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa. A clinical trial was then initiated. When symptoms and H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa of pollinosis patients with or without preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines were examined, both symptoms and high levels of H1R mRNA were significantly improved in treated compared with untreated patients. These results strongly suggest that H1R is an allergic disease-sensitive gene.

  6. Nickel sensitization and dietary nickel are a substantial cause of symptoms provocation in patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Soana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Data in literature seem to show that, in patients with contact allergic dermatitis, dietary nickel might be a cause of systemic dermatitis, but little information exists in literature about the role of nickel sensitization and dietary nickel in patients with allergic-like chronic dermatitis syndromes. The prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with chronic allergic-like, non-IgE-mediated skin diseases, and the possible impact of dietary nickel on symptom provocation and persistence has been assessed in the present retrospective study on a case series of 1726 patients referred to our allergy unit for chronic allergic-like skin diseases. IgE-mediated pathogenesis and other differential diagnoses excluded, patients were patch tested. Nickel-positive patients underwent an elimination diet and double-blind placebo-controlled nickel challenge (DBPCNC) test. A total of 339 (20%) tested nickel-positive. Fifty-two patients (15%) recovered by avoiding sources of nickel contact and 29 (10%) dropped out. Out of the remaining nickel-sensitized patients, 277 (80%) achieved complete or near complete recovery with low-nickel content diet, and 185 of them (89%) were positive to DBPCNC. We conclude that nickel sensitization and dietary nickel seem to be the chief trigger for provocation and persistence of symptoms in an important part (∼11%) of patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes. PMID:25747857

  7. Toll-like receptor 3 increases allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naomi; Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Katoh, Norito

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in noninfectious inflammatory diseases, but the function of TLR3 in inflammatory skin diseases is unclear. We investigated the functions of TLR3 in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). The contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was lower in Toll-like receptor 3 knockout (Tlr3 KO) mice, and was greater in TLR3 transgenic (Tg) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after challenge with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene. Adoptive transfer of immunized lymph node cells from Tlr3 KO mice induced CHS in WT recipients. In contrast, adoptive transfer of those from WT mice did not fully induce CHS in Tlr3 KO recipients. The ICD reaction following croton oil application was lower in Tlr3 KO mice, and was greater in TLR3 Tg mice than in WT mice. Maturation, migration, and antigen presentation of dendritic cells and proliferation of lymphocytes between WT mice and Tlr3 KO mice were comparable. These results show that TLR3 enhances antigen-independent skin inflammation in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis and in ICD.

  8. Roles of alternatively activated M2 macrophages in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kotaro; Meguro, Kazuyuki; Nakagomi, Daiki; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2017-03-17

    Alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) play key roles in the suppression of Th1 cell responses and the orchestration of tissue repair. However, recent studies have shown that M2 macrophages have potentials to produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, suggesting that M2 macrophages may exacerbate inflammation in some settings. In this regard, we have recently shown that large numbers of M2 macrophages accumulate in the sites of hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS), an animal model of allergic contact dermatitis, and that M2 macrophages exacerbate hapten-induced CHS by producing matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12). We have also shown that suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), a member of SOCS family proteins that are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of the JAK/STAT signaling pathways, is highly and preferentially expressed in M2 macrophages in hapten-induced CHS and that SOCS3 expressed in M2 macrophages is involved in the attenuation of CHS by suppressing MMP12 production. These findings underscore the importance of M2 macrophage-derived MMP12 in the development of CHS, and suggest that inhibition of M2 macrophages or MMP12 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis.

  9. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  10. Allergic contact gingivostomatitis from a temporary crown made of methacrylates and epoxy diacrylates.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Alanko, K; Estlander, T

    1999-12-01

    Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates is common in dental personnel, whereas dental acrylic fillings and crowns have rarely been reported to cause problems in dental patients. Here we report on a 48-year-old woman who developed gingivitis, stomatitis, and perioral dermatitis after a temporary crown made of restorative, two-component material had been inserted. The manufacturer stated that the temporary crown base paste and catalyst contained three (meth)acrylates, namely, a proacrylate, which is a modification of 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BIS-GMA); a tricyclate, which is a saturated, aliphatic, tricyclic methacrylate; and urethane methacrylate. The manufacturer refused to give more exact information on the (meth)acrylates. Patch testing revealed that the patient was highly allergic to BIS-GMA, other epoxy diacrylates, and (meth)acrylates, as well as to the base paste and catalyst of the temporary crown. Accordingly, it was concluded that the allergic reaction was caused by BIS-GMA, or a cross-reacting (meth)acrylate, or other (meth)acrylates in the temporary crown.

  11. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis to cigarettes: smoked/unsmoked components and formaldehyde factors.

    PubMed

    Carew, Benjamin; Muir, Jim

    2014-08-01

    A patient with hand dermatitis reported that switching her smoking hand resulted in reduced symptoms. When allergy to cigarettes is suspected the literature supports standard allergy testing as well as testing the individual components of cigarettes. Initial standard patch testing revealed an allergy to formaldehyde and the formaldehyde releasing agent, quaternium-15. The patient did not react to her usual roll-your-own cigarette components but reacted to the smoked filter paper of a particular brand of cigarette she frequently borrowed from a friend. Possible explanations include either a variation of ingredients between cigarettes that alters the formaldehyde concentration or another unidentified allergen in the branded cigarette causing allergic contact dermatitis.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from the synthetic fragrances Lyral and acetyl cedrene in separate underarm deodorant preparations.

    PubMed

    Handley, J; Burrows, D

    1994-11-01

    The case is reported of a 28-year-old man who developed allergic contact dermatitis from 2 synthetic fragrance ingredients, Lyral (3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene-1-aldehyde) and acetyl cedrene, in separate underarm deodorant preparations. The implications of the patient's negative patch test reactions to the European standard series (Trolab) and cosmetics and fragrance series (both Chemotechnique Diagnostics) are discussed. The importance is stressed of patch testing with the patient's own preparations when cosmetic dermatitis is suspected, and of identifying and reporting offending fragrance ingredients, with a view possibly to updating the European standard series and commercially available cosmetics and fragrance series.

  13. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients.

  14. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction.

  15. Pustular psoriasis and the Kobner phenomenon caused by allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Ho-Sun; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kwon, Kyung-Sool

    2005-03-01

    Zinc pyrithione is a shampoo ingredient that has been shown to be safe and effective for dandruff and scalp psoriasis. It is thought to decrease the cell turnover rate in hyperproliferative dermatoses such as psoriasis, and also has fungistatic and antimicrobial activity, although its exact mode of action is unknown. In psoriasis, external factors, such as trauma, infection and drugs, may provoke aggravated manifestations of psoriatic skin lesions. Rarely, irritant or allergic mechanisms are likely causes of psoriatic flare and Kobnerization. A patient had had stable psoriasis for 25 years and no any other skin disease. Within 20 days, she developed an aggravated scaly erythematous patch on the scalp, where a shampoo had been applied, and simultaneously developed pustular psoriasis on both forearms. Patch testing showed a relevant sensitization to zinc pyrithione, and we observed symptomatic aggravation by provocation testing with zinc pyrithione shampoo. We report a rare case of psoriasis aggravated by the induction of allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione after using antidandruff shampoo.

  16. Fiddler's Neck Accompanied by Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Nickel in a Viola Player.

    PubMed

    Jue, Mihn Sook; Kim, Yong Seok; Ro, Young Suck

    2010-02-01

    "Fiddler's neck" is an irritant contact dermatitis that frequently affects violin and viola players. The etiology of the skin changes associated with this condition are probably attributable to a combination of factors--including increased pressure, friction, poor hygiene, and excessive perspiration. Clinically, the lesions generally consist of a localized area of lichenification on the left side of the neck just below the angle of the jaw. Herein, we report a case of fiddler's neck in a viola player, attended by allergic contact dermatitis to the nickel in the metal fixtures of a viola. We hope that our case report draws the attention of dermatologists toward this, and many other skin problems that affect musicians.

  17. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from antioxidant amines in a dental technician.

    PubMed

    Conde-Salazar, Luis; Valks, Ruud; Acebes, Carmen García; Bertó, Josep

    2004-12-01

    We describe an 18-year-old dental technician who presented with dry hyperkeratotic lesions on his left palm that were limited to an area that was in contact with a container in which he had prepared the molds for a dental prosthesis. On patch testing, he had a positive reaction to black rubber mix and its components N-cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, N,N'-diphenyl-4-phenylenediamine, and N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, as well as to a piece of the rubber container. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of a piece of the rubber container confirmed the presence of the para-phenylenediamine mix. Results of patch-testing with TLC were positive after 48 and 96 hours. The lesions resolved when the patient stopped using the container. The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis. We also review the dermatoses caused by antioxidant amines.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from a nonbisphenol A epoxy in a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G

    1987-09-01

    An employee of the Composites Division of an aircraft engine manufacturing firm developed dermatitis associated with the handling of a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate (epoxy prepreg). Patch test investigation demonstrated that the responsible causal agent was the nonbisphenol A epoxy binder, 4-glycidyloxy-N, N-diglycidylaniline. A patch test with bisphenol A epoxy from a standard patch test screening series was negative. Subsequent interviews with employees of the Composites Division suggested that a relative lack of awareness of the cutaneous hazards of fiber reinforced epoxy laminates, compared with liquid epoxy resin systems, may be an important risk factor for allergic sensitization to these composite materials.

  19. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers.

  20. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers.

  1. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  2. IL-31 and IL-33 circulating levels in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, F; Minciullo, P L; Mannucci, C; Calapai, F; Saitta, S; Cannavò, S P; Gangemi, S

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced IL-31 expression in skin biopsies is present in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). IL-33 expression is induced in keratinocytes and in skin of ACD patients. This overexpression is present in both allergic and irritant conditions. The aim of this work was to test the systemic involvement of IL-31 and IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls. IL-33 serum levels, on the contrary, were similar in patients and controls. This work shows a possible systemic involvement of IL-31 and the absence of a systemic involvement of IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels do not seem related to the allergen involved, and did not change on the strength of the allergen involved. More likely, IL-31 levels are related to the itch. IL-33, instead, is secreted from damaged or inflamed tissue and might function as an early warning system at the site of skin damage. In the future, IL-31 could be a possible therapeutic target of all pruritic skin diseases resistant to conventional therapies.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period.

  4. Acrylate-induced allergic contact dermatitis in a car windscreen repairer.

    PubMed

    Fremlin, G; Sansom, J

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an allergic skin reaction to ultraviolet-cured acrylates in a windscreen repair worker. The patient presented with a 6 month history of fingertip dryness, vesicles and desquamation. He had worked as a self-employed car windscreen repairer for 19 years. Previous management with vinyl glove protection and treatment with clobetasol propionate ointment had produced little improvement. He was patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard and preservatives series and to the two acrylates used in his work environment, identified using safety data sheets, methyl methacrylate 2% pet and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) 2% pet. A positive reaction was seen at Day 4 to 2-HEMA, but all other patch tests were negative. An occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2-HEMA was diagnosed. The patient was given avoidance advice and advised to use nitrile gloves. Although he was unable to give up his current work, he has continued his job using nitrile gloves with marked improvement.

  5. Evaluating the nickel content in metal alloys and the threshold for nickel-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok; Koh, Cjae Sook; Lee, Hae Kwang

    2008-04-01

    Many patients are currently suffering from nickel (Ni)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). There have been few Korean studies dealing with the threshold of Ni-induced ACD and quantifying the total amount of Ni in the metal alloys. The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of Ni leached from metal alloys and Ni contents in metal alloys, and to estimate the threshold of Ni-induced ACD. All the earrings we examined leached below 0.5 microg/cm(2)/week, the upper limit of European Union (EU) regulation, but the other metal alloys leached a much higher amount of Ni than the limit. Likewise, all the earrings we examined contained less than 0.05% Ni (500 microg/g), the upper limit of EU regulation, but the other metal alloys exceeded this limit. Twenty Ni-sensitive subjects, who were patch-tested with various concentrations of Ni sulphate, showed positive reactions to 5% and 1% Ni sulphate, 10 subjects showed positive reactions to 0.01%, and the most sensitive subject showed reaction even to 0.0001%. The subjects in this study were more sensitive to Ni than those in the previous studies done in Europe. Taken together, strictly regulating the Ni-containing alloys that are made in Korea is needed to lower the occurrence of Ni-induced ACD.

  6. Has the epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis due to Methylisothiazolinone reached its peak?

    PubMed

    Venables, Z C; Bourke, J F; Buckley, D A; Campbell, F; Chowdhury, M M U; Abdul-Ghaffar, S; Green, C; Holden, C R; McFadden, J; Orton, D; Sabroe, R A; Sansom, J; Stone, N M; Wakelin, S H; Wilkinson, S M; Johnston, G A

    2016-08-31

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative used in many household and industrial products. There has been an unprecedented global rise in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from its presence in personal care products (PCPs). In 2005 changes to EU legislation allowed MI, used in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), to be used at concentrations of up to 100ppm, 25 times higher than previously permitted. MI was also permitted to be used alone, whereas previously it was only used in combination with MCI in a 3:1 mix.(1) This resulted in the chain of events that led to the current MI allergy epidemic.By 2010, the first case series of ACD to MI as a cosmetic allergen was published. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Contact dermatitis: in pursuit of sensitizer's molecular targets through proteomics.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Sofia; Neves, Bruno; Vitorino, Rui; Domingues, Rosário; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Domingues, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    Protein haptenation, i.e., the modification of proteins by small reactive chemicals, is the key step in the sensitization phase of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Despite the research effort in past decades, the identification of immunogenic hapten-protein complexes that trigger a relevant pathogenic immune response in ACD, as well as the haptenation reaction molecular site, and the elements of a potentially conditioning environment during each of these stages, remain poorly understood. These questions led us to employ a proteomics-based approach to identify modified proteins in the dendritic-like cell line THP-1 sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), through a combination of 2D-gel electrophoresis, nano-LC and mass spectrometry. A specific set of 39 targeted proteins was identified and comprised proteins from various cellular locations and biological functions. One of FITC targets was identified as MLK, a member of the mixed-lineage kinase family known to act as a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase and to control the activity of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, namely p38 and JNK pathways. Haptenated in the vicinity of its active site, our results point to MLK being a relevant target due to a consistent non-activation at early time points of these pathways upon FITC sensitization in THP-1 cells. Moreover, FITC pre-treatment significantly decrease phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK levels induced upon exposure to a classical activator such as lipopolysaccharide or to the sensitizer 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Overall, our data point to specific amino acid residues haptenation within critical proteins as the key step in the subsequent signaling pathways modulation responsible for DC activation and maturation events.

  8. Allergic contact stomatitis from bisphenol-a-glycidyl dimethacrylate during application of composite restorations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Johns, Dexton A; Hemaraj, Sajna; Varoli, Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins have revolutionized the field of esthetic dentistry. They are safe to use and usually do not cause any untoward reactions. Allergies to composites are rare, but they do occasionally occur as patients are briefly exposed to the resin before it is polymerized and becomes non-allergenic. Here, we present a case of allergic contact stomatitis due to bis-GMA.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    PubMed

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens.

  10. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC− memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- γ, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  11. Routes of allergic sensitization and myeloid cell IKKβ differentially regulate antibody responses and allergic airway inflammation in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Bonnegarde-Bernard, Astrid; Jee, Junbae; Fial, Michael J; Steiner, Haley; DiBartola, Stephanie; Davis, Ian C; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Tomé, Daniel; Boyaka, Prosper N

    2014-01-01

    Gender influences the incidence and/or the severity of several diseases and evidence suggests a higher rate of allergy and asthma among women. Most experimental models of allergy use mice sensitized via the parenteral route despite the fact that the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major sites of allergic sensitization and/or allergic responses. We analyzed allergen-specific Ab responses in mice sensitized either by gavage or intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin together with cholera toxin as adjuvant, as well as allergic inflammation and lung functions following subsequent nasal challenge with the allergen. Female mice sensitized intraperitoneally exhibited higher levels of serum IgE than their male counterparts. After nasal allergen challenge, these female mice expressed higher Th2 responses and associated inflammation in the lung than males. On the other hand, male and female mice sensitized orally developed the same levels of allergen-specific Ab responses and similar levels of lung inflammation after allergen challenge. Interestingly, the difference in allergen-specific Ab responses between male and female mice sensitized by the intraperitoneal route was abolished in IKKβΔMye mice, which lack IKKβ in myeloid cells. In summary, the oral or systemic route of allergic sensitization and IKKβ signaling in myeloid cells regulate how the gender influences allergen-specific responses and lung allergic inflammation.

  12. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  13. Histamine suppresses regulatory T cells mediated by TGF-β in murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tamaka, Kyoko; Seike, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Tamio; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress effector T cells and ameliorate contact hypersensitivity (CH); however, the role of Tregs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) has not been assessed. Repeated elicitation of CH has been used to produce CACD models in mice. We previously showed that the presence of histamine facilitates the creation of eczematous lesions in this model using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) (-/-) mice. Therefore, the effects of histamine on Tregs in the CACD model were investigated in this study. CACD was developed by repeated epicutaneous application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) murine skin to assess the effects of histamine in CACD. Histamine aggravated CACD in the murine model and suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin. Histamine also suppressed the level of TGF-β1 in this model. Recombinant TGF-β1 or anti-TGF-β1 antibody was injected into the dorsal dermis of HDC (+/+) mice daily just before TNCB challenge to determine the effects of histamine-regulated TGF-β on the Treg population in CACD. Recombinant TGF-β1 injection promoted the infiltration of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10; however, anti-TGF-β1 antibody injection suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10. Histamine suppresses the number of Tregs in CACD, and this effect is mediated by TGF-β.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  15. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days. PMID:25276110

  16. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Mundhenk, Lars; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Lademann, Jürgen; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.

  17. Is allergic sensitization relevant in severe asthma? Which allergens may be culprit?

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Carlo; Savi, Eleonora; Ridolo, Erminia; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2017-01-01

    Severe asthma is a major health concern. The allergic (IgE-mediated) form of asthma is well known from a pathogenic viewpoint. We searched the available literature to identify which allergens are most frequently associated with severe, refractory or life threatening asthma. According to the results, molds, pet dander, cockroach and ragweed were more frequently responsible for severe asthma. Thunderstorm asthma, in addition, represents a special association between allergic sensitization and an external climatic factor. A detailed knowledge of the most harmful allergens is mandatory for an appropriate diagnostic and preventive approach.

  18. Molecular aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to plants. Recent progress in phytodermatochemistry.

    PubMed

    Benezra, C; Ducombs, G

    1987-01-01

    A classification of plants based on the chemical structures of their skin sensitizers is presented. A whole range of chemical structures of contact sensitizers exists in plants containing sesquiterpene lactones (Compositae, Frullania, Lauraceae etc.), tulipalin (Tulipa, Alstroemeria etc.), quinones (Primula and tropical woods), long chain phenols (Anacardiaceae, Ginkgoaceae) and miscellaneous structures such as aldehydes, ketones, terpene hydrocarbons etc. Knowledge of allergens in various plants allows prediction of cross-reactivity.

  19. Exposure to cats: update on risks for sensitization and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Lodge, Caroline L; Matheson, Melanie C; Campbell, Brittany; Lowe, Adrian J

    2012-10-01

    Cats are the pets most commonly implicated in the etiology of asthma and allergic disease. However, systematic reviews have concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the idea that cat exposure in early life increases the risk of allergic disease. Indeed, it appears most likely that cat exposure is protective against allergic diseases. Recent large prospective studies have shown that living with a cat during childhood, especially during the first year of a child's life, could be protective. However, any advice given to the parents should also incorporate how new acquisition of cats can affect other family members, especially those who are already sensitized. Research is urgently needed to determine whether the suggested impact of acquisition of cats in adult life is modified by the person's childhood pet ownership, to help parents who seek advice on whether or not to get a cat.

  20. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Philipp R.; Wölfle, Ute; Dürr, Christoph; von Loewenich, Friederike D.; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed in vitro and in vivo ROS production using fluorescent ROS detection reagents. HA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis. The influence of blocking ROS production and HA degradation by antioxidants, hyaluronidase-inhibitor or p38 MAPK inhibitor was analyzed in the murine CHS model. Here, we demonstrate that organic contact sensitizers induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a concomitant breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM) component hyaluronic acid (HA) to pro-inflammatory low molecular weight fragments in the skin. Importantly, inhibition of either ROS-mediated or enzymatic HA breakdown prevents sensitization as well as elicitation of CHS. Conclusions/Significance These data identify an indirect mechanism of contact sensitizer induced innate inflammatory signaling involving the breakdown of the ECM and generation of endogenous danger signals. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for anti-oxidants and hyaluronidase inhibitors in prevention and treatment of ACD. PMID:22848468

  1. Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Päivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

  2. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Priscila Ferreira de Sousa; Gangl, Katharina; Vieira, Francisco de Assis Machado; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Linhart, Birgit; Flicker, Sabine; Fiebig, Helmut; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet. Objective To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules. Methods We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities. Results Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%), Phl p 5 (82%), Phl p 2 (76%) followed by Phl p 4 (64%), Phl p 6 (45%), Phl p 11 (18%) and Phl p 12 (18%). Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found. Conclusions Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population. PMID:26067084

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  4. [Allergic contact dermatitis from colophony and turpentine in resins of untreated pine wood].

    PubMed

    Booken, D; Velten, F W; Utikal, J; Goerdt, S; Bayerl, C

    2006-11-01

    Pine wood is one of the most used raw products in furniture manufacturing in Europe. High concentrations of colophony and turpentine can be extracted from pine resins. A 45-year-old woman developed a contact dermatitis of the face and hands due to a sensitization to colophony and turpentine after she had bought untreated pine chairs. The increased use of untreated pine in the furniture industry might result in an increase of colophony and turpentine-induced contact allergies. Therefore, the slogan "untreated=harmless" should be considered critically in such cases.

  5. Cross-allergic reactions to legumes in lupin and fenugreek-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Vinje, N E; Namork, E; Løvik, M

    2012-10-01

    Several legumes may induce allergy, and there is extensive serological cross-reactivity among legumes. This cross-reactivity has traditionally been regarded to have limited clinical relevance. However, the introduction of novel legumes to Western countries may have changed this pattern, and in some studies cross-allergy to lupin has been reported in more than 60% of peanut-allergic patients. We wanted to explore cross-reactions among legumes using two newly established mouse models of food allergy. Mice were immunized perorally with fenugreek or lupin with cholera toxin as adjuvant. The mice were challenged with high doses of fenugreek, lupin, peanut or soy, and signs of anaphylactic reactions were observed. Cross-allergic mechanisms were investigated using serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), antibody responses, immunoblotting and ex vivo production of cytokines by spleen cells. Signs of cross-allergy were observed for all the tested legumes in both models. The cross-allergic symptoms were milder and affected fewer mice than the primary allergic responses. The cross-allergy was reflected to a certain extent in the antibody and T-cell responses, but not in serum MMCP-1 levels. Cross-allergy to peanut, soy, fenugreek and lupin was observed in lupin-sensitized and fenugreek-sensitized mice. Differences in serological responses between primary allergy and cross-allergy might be due to mediation through different immune mechanisms or reflect different epitope affinity to IgE. These differences need to be further investigated.

  6. B-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal sensitization and promotes steroid-resistant TH2/TH17 responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundAllergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the mechanism by which fun...

  7. Specific Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in Early Childhood and Asthma & Rhinitis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, Daniel J.; Jackson, Daniel J.; Evans, Michael D.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Tisler, Christopher J.; Gern, James E.; Lemanske, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Specific patterns of allergic sensitization as well as quantification of the in vitro IgE response in early life may provide relevant clinical insight into future rhinitis and asthma risk. OBJECTIVE To define relationships among established sensitization to particular aeroallergens, quantitative analyses of allergen-specific IgE levels, pet exposure and sensitization, and asthma and rhinitis risk. METHODS Children at high-risk for the development of asthma and allergic diseases were enrolled at birth into the Childhood Origins of ASThma (COAST) study. Allergen-specific IgE was assessed at ages 1, 3, 6, and 9 years by fluoroenzyme immunoassay (Unicap® 100, Pharmacia Diagnostics). Current asthma and rhinitis were diagnosed at age 6 and 8 years. RESULTS Sensitization to dog was strongly associated with increased asthma risk (p < 0.0001). Sensitization to perennial compared to seasonal allergens was more strongly associated with asthma risk, while sensitization to seasonal allergens was more closely associated with rhinitis risk. Increased levels of specific IgE to perennial allergens were associated with an increased asthma risk (p = 0.05), while any detectable level of IgE to seasonal allergens was associated with increased rhinitis risk (p = 0.0009). While dog and cat sensitization were both independently associated with increased asthma and rhinitis risk, dog exposure at birth was associated with a reduced risk of asthma, regardless of dog sensitization status during the first 6 years of life (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analyzing specific patterns of an individual’s allergic sensitization profile reveals additional relevant associations with asthma and rhinitis risk as opposed to the information gained from characterizing an individual as “atopic” by the presence of any demonstrable sensitization alone. Further, protective mechanisms of dog exposure with regards to asthma risk appear to be unrelated to the prevention of

  8. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  9. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takuma; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Wang, Linan; Murata, Mariko; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  10. Ultrastructural studies of allergic contact dermatitis in man. Infiltrating cells at the earliest phase of spongiotic bulla formation.

    PubMed

    Komura, J; Oguchi, M; Aoshima, T; Ofuji, S

    1980-01-01

    The kind and fine structure of mononuclear cells appearing in the epidermis at about 6 h of allergic contact dermatitis were examined by electron microscopy. They were monocytes and lymphocytes, the number being about equal. The ultrastructure of monocytes was that described for normal ones in blood, and apparently actively moving, streching the intercellular connections of the keratinocytes. Lymphocytes displayed a round or oval nucleus with some electron-dense cytoplasm which contained ribosomes and polysomes but only occasional mitochondria and Golgi complexes.

  11. Allergic sensitization modifies the pulmonary expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Vargas, Mario H; Ruiz, Víctor; Carbajal, Verónica; Campos-Bedolla, Patricia; Mercadillo-Herrera, Paulina; Arreola-Ramírez, José Luis; Segura-Medina, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    There is mounting evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays a role in asthma. However, scarce information exists about the pulmonary expression of 5-HT receptors and its modification after allergic sensitization. In the present work, we explored the expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-ht5a, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors in lungs from control and sensitized guinea pigs through qPCR and Western blot. In control animals, mRNA from all receptors was detectable in lung homogenates, especially from 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors. Sensitized animals had decreased mRNA expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors and increased that of 5-HT7 receptor. In contrast, they had increased protein expression of 5-HT2A receptor in bronchial epithelium and of 5-HT4 receptor in lung parenchyma. The degree of airway response to the allergic challenge was inversely correlated with mRNA expression of the 5-HT1A receptor. In summary, our results showed that major 5-HT receptor subtypes are constitutively expressed in the guinea pig lung, and that allergic sensitization modifies the expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors.

  12. Epicutaneous immunity and onset of allergic diseases - per-"eczema"tous sensitization drives the allergy march.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa

    2013-09-01

    Results from recent epidemiological studies strongly suggest that ingestion of food promotes immune tolerance to food antigens, whereas exposure to food antigens through skin leads to allergic sensitization. A "dual-allergen-exposure hypothesis" has been proposed to explain those findings. However, several other recent studies have demonstrated that some allergic diseases can be successfully treated by recurrent epicutaneous exposure to allergens. At a glance, these two sets of findings seem to be contradictory, but we think they provide important clues for understanding the mechanisms behind the allergy march. Here, we propose that per-"eczema"tous sensitization drives the allergy march, and we introduce results from several published studies in support of this hypothesis. We hope that this review may help in establishment of new strategies for preventing the allergy march in the near future.

  13. TRPA1 mediated aggravation of allergic contact dermatitis induced by DINP and regulated by NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun; Ding, Yong; Li, Baizhan; Liu, Hong; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2017-01-01

    The possible pathogenic role and mechanism of Di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP) in allergic dermatitis is still controversial. This work has shown that oral exposure to DINP exacerbated allergic dermatitis tissue lesions in FITC-sensitized mice. The lesions was accompanied by an enhancement of TRPA1 expression and an increase in IgG1, IL-6 and IL-13 levels. This work also found that blocking TRPA1 by HC030031 effectively prevented the development of allergic dermatitis resulting from oral exposure to DINP and/or FITC-sensitized mice. This result is marked by the down regulation of IgG1 levels, a reduction in mast cell degranulation and a decrease in IL-6 and IL-13 levels. We also showed that blocking NF-κB inhibited TRPA1 expression, and that blocking TRPA1 had no significant effect on the activation of NF-κB or TSLP expression. This study helps in understanding the role DINP exposure plays in the development of allergic dermatitis and provides new insight into the mechanisms behind the DINP-induced adjuvant effect. PMID:28240277

  14. Specific fungal exposures, allergic sensitization, and rhinitis in infants.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Melissa; Reponen, Tiina; Adhikari, Atin; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David I; LeMasters, Grace

    2006-09-01

    Indoor air quality has become increasingly important as we live in a society where the majority of our time is spent indoors. Specific attention has been drawn to airborne fungal spores as a factor affecting indoor air quality. This study targeted shortcomings of other studies by utilizing long-term air sampling and total fungal spore enumeration to determine associations between health outcomes and fungal spore concentrations. Infants (n = 144) were clinically evaluated and had skin prick tests (SPT) for 17 allergens. Airborne fungal spores were collected using a Button Personal Inhalable Sampler (SKC Inc.) for 48 h at a flow rate of 4 l/min. Sampling was conducted in the spring (March-May) or fall (August-October) in 2003-2004. Fungal spores were analyzed using microscopy-based total counting and identified to the genus/group level. Total spore and individual genus concentrations were analyzed for associations with rhinitis and positive SPT results. Overall, concentrations varied widely, between <2 and 2294 spores/m(3). While no relationship was observed between SPT(+) and total fungal counts, several significant associations were found when analysis was conducted on the various fungal genera and health outcomes. Positive associations were obtained between: Basidiospores and rhinitis (p < 0.01), Penicillium/Aspergillus and SPT(+) to any allergen (p < 0.01), and Alternaria and SPT(+) to any allergen (p < 0.01). Inverse associations were found between: Cladosporium and SPT(+) to any allergen (p < 0.05), and Cladosporium and SPT(+) to aeroallergens (p < 0.05). This study indicates that health outcome may vary by fungal genera; some fungal types may have sensitizing effects while others may have a beneficial role.

  15. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-03-12

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty.

  16. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  17. Attenuated allergic airway hyperresponsiveness in C57BL/6 mice is associated with enhanced surfactant protein (SP)-D production following allergic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Atochina, Elena N; Beers, Michael F; Tomer, Yaniv; Scanlon, Seth T; Russo, Scott J; Panettieri, Reynold A; Haczku, Angela

    2003-01-01

    Background C57BL/6 mice have attenuated allergic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) when compared with Balb/c mice but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. SP-D, an innate immune molecule with potent immunosuppressive activities may have an important modulatory role in the allergic airway response and the consequent physiological changes. We hypothesized that an elevated SP-D production is associated with the impaired ability of C57BL/6 mice to develop allergic AHR. Methods SP-D mRNA and protein expression was investigated during development of allergic airway changes in a model of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af)-induced allergic inflammation. To study whether strain dependency of allergic AHR is associated with different levels of SP-D in the lung, Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice were compared. Results Sensitization and exposure to Af induced significant airway inflammation in both mouse strains in comparison with naïve controls. AHR to acetylcholine however was significantly attenuated in C57BL/6 mice in spite of increased eosinophilia and serum IgE when compared with Balb/c mice (p < 0.05). Af challenge of sensitized C57BL/6 mice induced a markedly increased SP-D protein expression in the SA surfactant fraction (1,894 ± 170% of naïve controls) that was 1.5 fold greater than the increase in Balb/c mice (1,234 ± 121% p < 0.01). These changes were selective since levels of the hydrophobic SP-B and SP-C and the hydrophilic SP-A were significantly decreased following sensitization and challenge with Af in both strains. Further, sensitized and exposed C57BL/6 mice had significantly lower IL-4 and IL-5 in the BAL fluid than that of Balb/c mice (p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that enhanced SP-D production in the lung of C57BL/6 mice may contribute to an attenuated AHR in response to allergic airway sensitization. SP-D may act by inhibiting synthesis of Th2 cytokines. PMID:14748931

  18. Transfer of allergic airway responses with serum and lymphocytes from rats sensitized to dust mite.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A L; Winsett, D W; Costa, D L; Selgrade, M K; Gilmour, M I

    1998-06-01

    House dust mite (HDM) antigen is one of the most common allergens associated with extrinsic asthma. In a model of allergic lung disease, Brown Norway (BN) rats sensitized to HDM with alum and Bordetella pertussis adjuvants produce high levels of IgE antibody and experience bronchoconstriction, increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to acetylcholine (ACh), and pulmonary inflammation after antigen challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these asthmatic symptoms could be transferred from sensitized animals to naive recipients via humoral or cellular factors. Syngeneic recipient rats were injected (intraperitoneally with 4 x 10(7) cells (precultured overnight with either HDM or bovine serum albumin [BSA]) from lymph nodes of sensitized or control rats, respectively. Other groups received a tail-vein injection of serum from either HDM-sensitized or control rats. Antigen challenge in rats injected with sensitized cells caused increases in pulmonary inflammation and in AHR, but no changes in immediate bronchoconstriction as compared with control recipients. Antigen challenge in serum recipients resulted in immediate bronchoconstriction but had no effect on AHR or on pulmonary inflammation. These data show that immune-mediated lung inflammation and AHR are promoted by antigen-specific lymphocytes, whereas immediate allergic responses are caused by serum factors.

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  20. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  1. Contact sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene is a highly potent human TRPA1 agonist.

    PubMed

    Saarnilehto, M; Chapman, H; Savinko, T; Lindstedt, K; Lauerma, A I; Koivisto, A

    2014-10-01

    2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) is widely used in human clinical studies and in experimental animal studies to evoke allergic contact dermatitis. 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene is a potent immunogen capable of inducing contact sensitization in all humans exposed. However, the mechanism by which DNCB evokes such symptoms is presently unknown. TRPA1 is a nonselective cation channel that is expressed in peptidergic sensory neurons and fibroblasts. TRPA1 activation was recently implicated in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis especially in transducing cutaneous itch signals. Here, we test the hypothesis that DNCB acts as a TRPA1 agonist and thereby evokes allergic symptoms. We found that DNCB activates human TRPA1 dose dependently in FLIPR experiments with an EC50 of 167 nM, an effect that was fully blocked by selective TRPA1 antagonists Chembridge-5861528 and A-967079. Similarly, DNCB activated nonselective TRPA1 current in patch clamp studies. Neutralization of 3 critical cysteines in TRPA1 resulted in a loss of DNCB agonism.

  2. Dissolution of cemented carbide powders in artificial sweat: implications for cobalt sensitization and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2010-10-06

    Skin exposure to cobalt-containing materials can cause systemic immune sensitization and upon repeat contact, elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Data on cobalt dissolution rates are needed to calculate uptake through skin and for development of models to understand risk of sensitization or dermatitis. The purpose of this research was to measure the dissolution kinetics of feedstock and process-sampled powders encountered in the production of hard metal alloys using artificial sweat. The physicochemical properties of each material were characterized prior to evaluation of dissolution behavior. Variations in artificial sweat solvent pH and chemistry were used to understand critical factors in dissolution. Dissolution of cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide was often biphasic with the initial rapid phase being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the latter long-term phase. Artificial sweat pH did not influence dissolution of cobalt or tungsten carbide. Solvent composition had little influence on observed dissolution rates; however, vitamin E suppressed the dissolution of cobalt and tungsten carbide from sintered particles obtained from a chamfer grinder. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution of feedstock cobalt, tungsten, tungsten carbide, and admixture powders. Particle physicochemical properties influenced observed dissolution rates with more cobalt and tungsten carbide dissolving from chamfer grinder particles compared to the feedstock powders or admixture powder. Calculations using the observed dissolution rates revealed that skin exposure concentrations were similar to concentrations known to induce cobalt sensitization and elicit ACD. Observed dissolution rates for cobalt in artificial sweat indicate that dermal uptake may be sufficient to induce cobalt sensitization and allergic dermatitis.

  3. [Clinical characterization of allergic patients sensitized to Chamaecyparis obtusa--using AlaSTAT system].

    PubMed

    Okano, M; Nishioka, K; Nagano, T; Ohta, N; Masuda, Y

    1994-09-01

    Clinical characterization of patients with allergy to Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cypress) pollen and their specific IgE antibody was investigated by using AlaSTAT assay, a new method for measurement of antigen-specific IgE antibody. Positive rate of antigen-specific antibody in patients with allergic pollinosis was 83.5% for Japanese cedar pollen and 80.0% for Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. 76.4% of patients were sensitized both to Japanese cedar and Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen, however, 7.9% were sensitized only to the latter. As for clinical symptoms, duration of attack was short and severity was mild or moderate in the patients sensitized only to Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. Patients who visited hospital in April, in that Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen disseminated in the air predominantly, showed significant elevation in AlaSTAT scores compared with patients who visited in February and March (p < 0.05).

  4. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  5. Sensitization and elicitation of an allergic reaction to wheat gliadins in mice.

    PubMed

    Bodinier, M; Leroy, M; Ah-Leung, S; Blanc, F; Tranquet, O; Denery-Papini, S; Wal, J-M; Adel-Patient, K

    2009-02-25

    We developed a mouse model of allergy to wheat flour gliadins, a protein fraction containing major wheat allergens. We compared the antibody responses (i.e., specific IgE and IgG1) and the profiles of cytokines secreted by reactivated splenocytes induced after intraperitoneal injections of gliadins in three strains of mice, namely, Balb/cJ, B10.A, and C3H/HeJ. The intensities of the allergic reactions elicited by intranasal challenge were also compared. Both the sensitization and elicitation were the highest in Balb/cJ mice, whereas weak or no reaction was observed in the others strains. Interestingly, the specificity of the mouse IgE against the different gliadins (i.e., alpha-, beta-, gamma-, omega 1,2-, and omega 5-gliadin) was similar to that observed in children allergic to wheat flour. Balb/cJ mice may thus provide a relevant model for the study of sensitization and elicitation by wheat gliadins and for improving our understanding of the specific role and mechanisms of action of the different classes of gliadins.

  6. Effects of ozone on the respiratory health, allergic sensitization, and cellular immune system in children

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, H.; Popp, W.; Wagner, C.; Reiser, K.; Schmoeger, J.B.; Boeck, A.H.; Herkner, K.; Radunsky, K. )

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the lasting effects of high ozone concentrations under environmental conditions, we examined the respiratory health, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, allergic sensitization, and lymphocyte subpopulations of 10- to 14-yr-old children. A total of 218 children recruited from an area with high ozone concentrations (Group A) were tested against 281 children coming from an area with low ozone concentrations (Group B). As to subjective complaints, categorized as 'usually cough with or without phlegm,' 'breathlessness,' and 'susceptibility to chest colds,' there was no difference between the two groups. The lung function parameters were similar, but in Group A subjects' bronchial hyperresponsiveness occurred more frequently and was found to be more severe than in Group B (29.4 versus 19.9%, p less than 0.02; PD20 2,100 {plus minus} 87 versus 2,350 {plus minus} 58 micrograms, p less than 0.05). In both groups the number of children who had been suffering from allergic diseases and sensitization to aeroallergens, found by means of the skin test, was the same. Comparison of the total IgE levels showed no difference at all between the two groups. As far as the white blood cells are concerned, the total and differential cell count was the same, whereas lymphocyte subpopulations showed readily recognizable changes.

  7. Contact sensitivity to metals (chromium, cobalt and nickel) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Marilda Helena Toledo; Gontijo, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Metals, especially nickel, are the most common contact allergens in children. Recent data has shown increased incidence of allergy in industrialized countries. Sensitization can occur at any age, even in neonates. Costume jewelry, particularly earrings, is linked to increased sensitization to nickel. Sensitization to cobalt often occurs by the use of costume jewelry. The most common source of sensitization to chromium is leather. Due to the absence of a specific therapy, the main treatment is to identify and avoid the responsible allergens. This article presents an updated view on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of contact allergy to metals, focusing on prevention strategies and risk factors, and warns about possible and new sources of contact.

  8. Review of Allergic and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis from an Ingredient in a Medicament Vehicle Consisting of a Compress, Poultice, Plaster, and Tape

    PubMed Central

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  9. The basophil activation test: a sensitive test in the diagnosis of allergic immediate hypersensitivity to pristinamycin.

    PubMed

    Viel, Sébastien; Garnier, Lorna; Joly, Elodie; Rouzaire, Paul; Nosbaum, Audrey; Pralong, Pauline; Faudel, Amélie; Rioufol, Catherine; Bienvenu, Françoise; Bienvenu, Jacques; Berard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity (IHS) reactions to macrolides and to macrolide-derived antibiotics like pristinamycin are uncommon. In this context, there is little data available to appreciate the true value of biological tools regarding the diagnosis of immediate allergy to pristinamycin. Here we assess the clinical usefulness of the basophil activation test (BAT) to differentiate allergic from nonallergic IHS to pristinamycin. Thirty-six patients were tested with skin tests as the gold standard and BAT. The BAT achieved a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 100%, implying an absence of false positive results. Multicenter studies remain to be performed to better define the sensitivity, specificity and interlaboratory variation of BAT in the diagnosis of allergy to pristinamycin and macrolides.

  10. Aerobiological importance and allergic sensitization to Amaranthaceae under arid climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Zapata, Juan J; Miralles, Juan C; Moreno, José M; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Negral, Luis; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2017-04-01

    Species of the Amaranthaceae family are abundant in the Southeast of Spain, one of the driest areas in Europe. The Amaranthaceae include species of interest from the point of view of allergic diseases. With the expansion of aridity, many species belonging to this family will be favoured. The objectives of this study were: first, to define the prevalence of sensitization to Amaranthaceae pollen in allergic patients in the Southeast of Spain; second, to present the aerobiological features of this taxon; and, finally, to demarcate those periods of increased risk of suffering allergic symptoms with the aim of improving the diagnosis and prevention of hay fever. Skin prick tests with extracts of pollen were performed on patients with symptoms of respiratory allergy referred for consultation for the first time in Almería and Murcia. Samples of the atmospheric bioaerosol were taken using a Lanzoni VPPS 2000 volumetric sampler, samples treatment and subsequent counts being carried out according to the methodology approved by the Spanish Aerobiological Network. The statistical significance of the correlation between aerobiological and meteorological data from this arid region in 2010-2014 was determined. The aerobiological study revealed the presence of two distinct peaks responsible for pollen symptoms. The flowering of this taxon is especially noteworthy in the city of Cartagena, where it supposes 94% of the total pollen collected in these periods. This situation converts Amaranthaceae pollen in the second leading cause of hay fever in the Southeast of Spain. With the expansion of aridity, an increase in the presence of these species is expected. Bearing in mind their prevalence in the spring and summer/autumn periods and their extensive presence in the bioaerosol, this makes data from Southeastern Spanish a benchmark with respect to the aerobiology of this type of pollen.

  11. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in a general population in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) due to common cosmetic allergens in standard series has been extensively studied; however, the prevalence of contact allergy to other cosmetic allergens other than those in standard series is largely unknown. In this study, the frequency of contact sensitization to a European cosmetic series of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Vellinge, Sweden) in healthy university student volunteers were detected in Beijing. Of 201 students studied, fifty-eight exhibited positive results, and 9 of them reported had cosmetics related dermatitis previously. The total positivity rate was not correlated to gender. The leading allergens were thimerosal (19.4%), shellac (3.0%), cocamidopropyl betaine (2.0%), hexamethylenetetramine (1.5%), dodecyl gallate (1.5%), hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (1.0%) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.0%). The positivity rate of thimerosal patch test in men (9.8%) was lower than that of women (23.6%, P < 0.05, Chi square test), but no difference could be found between the prevalence of other cosmetic allergens in men and women (P > 0.05, Chi square test). These results suggested that some cosmetic-related contact allergies may be missed by just testing patients with the European standard series or T.R.U.E. test system only, we recommend shellac, cocamidopropyl betaine, hexamethylenetetramine and dodecyl gallate as the additionally candidates for patch testing in patients with suspected CACD.

  12. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-09-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p < 0.05). Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  13. [Tc1-mediated contact sensitivity reaction, its mechanism and regulation].

    PubMed

    Zemelka-Wiącek, Magdalena; Szczepanik, Marian

    2014-07-04

    The contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHS) to haptens is a classic example of cell-mediated immune response. In the effector phase, two stages can be distinguished: an early component, that appears only 2 hours after subsequent contact with the hapten, and the late component that develops approximately 24 hours later which is mediated by TCRαβ+ cells. The effector lymphocytes may be CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells or CD8+ T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells, which depends on the employed hapten and/or mice strain. NKT lymphocytes play the crucial role in the CHS initiation, by supporting B1 cells in the antigen-specific IgM antibodies production. The development of an early component is essential for the recruitment of T effector (Teff) cells to the side of hapten deposition and for the complete expansion of inflammatory reaction. The CHS reaction is under T regulatory (Treg) cells control, both in the induction phase as well as in the effector phase. A new view of a negative regulation of the Tc1 mediated CHS response is based on the suppression induced by epicutaneous (EC) application of protein antigen. The DNP-BSA skin application, on a gauze patch, leads to a state of immunosuppression. This maneuver results in rising the population of Treg cells with TCRαβ+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ phenotype. The mechanism of suppression requires direct contact between Treg cells and Teff cells and the participation of CTLA-4 molecule is also necessary. The described method of evoking immune tolerance via EC immunization may contribute to elaborate a new method of allergic contact dermatitis therapy. This is because of its effectiveness, ease of induction and non-invasive protein antigen application.

  14. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induced Allergic Airway Sensitization Is Controlled by Regulatory T-Cells and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crother, Timothy R.; Schröder, Nicolas W. J.; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2−/−, and TLR4−/− mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2−/− mice, but not in TLR4−/− mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2−/− mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4−/− mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  15. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON PULMONARY RESPONSES DURING ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION TO AEROSOLIZED OVALBUMIN IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Pulmonary Responses During Allergic Sensitization to Aerosolized Ovalbumin in BALB/c Mice. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels1, D. Andrews1, E. Boykin1, W. P. Linak2 and M.I. Gilmour1. 1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC. 2 USEPA, ORD, NRMRL, RTP, NC.

    Inhala...

  16. Contact dermatitis in printing tradesmen.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; Nosal, R

    1986-05-01

    During a 2-year period in Toronto, Canada, 21 printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis were evaluated. 67% had allergic contact dermatitis; 29% due to ultraviolet-cured ink components. Irritant contact dermatitis accounted for 37% of the cases. The prognosis in printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis is guarded, except for those with allergic contact dermatitis due to UV-cured components, as the tradesmen who were sensitized to other contactants eventually left the trade. Offset lithography was associated with the problem in 18 of the 21 cases. A brief outline is given of the printing processes in common use.

  17. Topical application of a phospholipid mixture purified from pig lungs ameliorates 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Yoon, Byung-Il; Choi, Seong-Hyun; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2012-04-01

    This work was designed to assess the pharmacological effectiveness as a novel anti-atopic dermatitis remedy of a phopholipid mixture purified from pig lung tissues, named KT&G101, using the BALB/c mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis was induced by applying 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) epicutaneously onto the dorsal skins of mice, and KT&G101 was topically applied onto the skin areas with the lesions. The topical application of KT&G101 (0.05 ml of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml KT&G101, twice a day for 15 days) decreased the total IgE level elevated in the sera of mice undergoing allergic contact dermatitis. KT&G101 was also able to decrease the 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-specific IgE level elevated in the sera of the model mice. It reduced the incidences of scratching behaviors in the mice undergoing DNFB-induced allergic contact dermatitis. It attenuated some histopathological changes, such as pustule, epidermal hyperplasia, dermatitis and fibroplasia, while it could enhance the recovery of epidermis, in the damaged skin tissues within a relatively short period after the topical application of KT&G101. KT&G101 lessened the expression of cytokines mRNAs, such as Th1-specific IL-2, TNF-β and IFN-γ, and Th2-specific IL-4, in the mouse skin tissues showing the lesions. In brief, it is concluded that KT&G101 alleviates the symptoms involved in induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

  18. TNF-alpha enhanced allergic sensitization to house dust mite in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A L; Selgrade, M K; Winsett, D W; Gilmour, M I

    2001-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) resulted in enhanced sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and augmented the development of allergic lung disease after allergen challenge. This effect was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a macrophage- and epithelial cell-derived cytokine that promotes granulocyte migration to the lung. The present study examined whether exogenous administration of TNF-alpha enhances sensitization to HDM. One day prior to pulmonary sensitization with 10 microg HDM (5 microg each on days 1 and 3), female Brown Norway rats were instilled via the trachea with either 2.0 microg recombinant rat TNF-alpha, 2.0 microg bovine serum albumin (BSA), or 1,000 microg ROFA, and were challenged with 10 microg HDM 14 days later. Antigen-induced immediate bronchoconstriction responses, antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers, lymphocyte proliferation, (cytokines (TNF-alpha and interleukin [IL]-13), and eosinophils were elevated in rats treated with ROFA or TNF-alpha compared with BSA-treated controls after HDM challenge. Intratracheal administration of anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody during ROFA exposure did not reduce ROFA-enhanced lymphocyte proliferation or IgE titers, but had a trend for reduced pulmonary inflammation. This study demonstrates that TNF-alpha has similar adjuvant activity as ROFA, but other factors may fulfill this function when TNF-alpha activity is blocked.

  19. Screening active components from Yu-ping-feng-san for regulating initiative key factors in allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dandan; Xie, Xuejian; Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation.

  20. Lower Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Sensitization among Children and Adolescents with a Two-Sided Migrant Background

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Schmitz, Roma; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2016-01-01

    In industrialized countries atopic diseases have been reported to be less likely in children and adolescents with a migrant background compared to non-migrants. This paper aimed at both examining and comparing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to specific IgE antibodies in children and adolescents with and without a migrant background. Using data of the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS; n = 17,450; 0–17 years), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of atopic diseases and point prevalence of 20 common allergic sensitizations were investigated among migrants compared to non-migrants. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of atopic disease and allergic sensitization with migrant background. In multivariate analyses with substantial adjustment we found atopic dermatitis about one-third less often (OR 0.73, 0.57–0.93) in participants with a two-sided migrant background. Statistically significant associations between allergic sensitizations and a two-sided migrant background remained for birch (OR 0.73, 0.58–0.90), soybean (OR 0.72, 0.54–0.96), peanut (OR 0.69, 0.53–0.90), rice (OR 0.64, 0.48–0.87), potato (OR 0.64, 0.48–0.85), and horse dander (OR 0.58, 0.40–0.85). Environmental factors and living conditions might be responsible for the observed differences. PMID:26927147

  1. Update on allergic contact dermatitis due to methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Salinas, M; Francés, L; Silvestre, J F

    2014-11-01

    The combination of methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, household, and industrial products. Furthermore, MI at a concentration of 100 ppm has been permitted in cosmetic products since 2005. Recently, a considerable increase in cases of contact dermatitis to both MCI and MI have been noted, and this warrants closer monitoring by relevant authorities and, probably, stricter legislation. In fact, MI at a test concentration of 2000 ppm was recently included in the European baseline patch test series. The clinical manifestations of allergy to MCI/MI and MI are highly variable and diagnosis is often missed. In the standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), MCI/MI is tested at 100 ppm, but at this concentration, up to 50% of cases might go undetected. Furthermore, our data indicate that MCI/MI at 200 ppm would make it possible to diagnose more cases of contact allergy to MI. To improve the diagnosis of contact allergy to MCI/MI and MI, we believe that the test concentration of MCI/MI should be increased to 200 ppm in the GEIDAC standard series and that MI should be added in the GEIDAC standard series.

  2. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by a titanium nitride-coated implant abutment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Lee, Kwang-Min; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Sang-Won

    2012-10-01

    A patient developed contact mucositis after being treated with a titanium nitride implant abutment. Patch testing disclosed a positive reaction to titanium nitride. After removal of the titanium nitride-coated abutment and placement of an uncoated abutment, all signs and symptoms disappeared. This clinical report suggests that titanium nitride-coated abutments may be a potential allergen in some patients.

  3. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a company manufacturing boards coated with isocyanate lacquer.

    PubMed

    Frick, Malin; Isaksson, Marléne; Björkner, Bert; Hindsén, Monica; Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    Over a short period of time, there was an outbreak of work-related skin lesions among workers at a company producing flooring laminate boards, after the introduction of a water-repellent lacquer based on diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI). In 5 workers, patch testing was performed with a standard series, an isocyanate series and work-environmental products when indicated. 3 of the workers were tested with the lacquer, and contact allergy was found with concurrent reactions to 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA). 1 of the 3 workers also showed a simultaneous reaction to MDI, whereas 1 showed a positive reaction to dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (HMDI). Of the 2 individuals not tested with the lacquer, 1 reacted to both MDI and MDA, whereas the other reacted to a soap used at work. In 3 of 4 cases, the isocyanate reactions appeared after D3. Occupational contact with isocyanates should not exclusively be focused upon respiratory hazards, as this report shows that skin contamination probably increases the risk of developing contact allergy to isocyanates and isocyanate-related substances. When aiming at diagnosing contact allergy to isocyanates, it is desirable to perform a late reading, as positive reactions appear late. MDA appears to be a good marker for isocyanate hypersensitivity.

  4. Mouse models to unravel the role of inhaled pollutants on allergic sensitization and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as well as exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) could promote allergic sensitization or aggravate symptoms of asthma, suggesting a role for these inhaled pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mouse models are a valuable tool to study the potential effects of these pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma, with the opportunity to investigate their impact during processes leading to sensitization, acute inflammation and chronic disease. Mice allow us to perform mechanistic studies and to evaluate the importance of specific cell types in asthma pathogenesis. In this review, the major clinical effects of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust exposure regarding to asthma development and progression are described. Clinical data are compared with findings from murine models of asthma and inhalable pollutant exposure. Moreover, the potential mechanisms by which both pollutants could aggravate asthma are discussed. PMID:20092634

  5. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs.

    PubMed

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V; Armisén, M; Linneberg, A; González-Quintela, A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. IgE-reactive shrimp proteins were identified by proteomic analyses. Patients with mollusc allergy presented more frequently SPTs positive to molluscs and higher sIgE titres in response to both molluscs and crustaceans. Shrimp-sIgE and rPen a1-sIgE values of 1.57 kUA /l and 4.38 kUA /l, respectively, showed positive likelihood ratios of 4.3 and 10.9 for the identification of mollusc allergy. Patients with mollusc allergy reacted more frequently to tropomyosin in immunoblots than did patients without it (93% vs 35%, respectively, P = 0.004). Reactivity to proteins other than tropomyosin (n = 14) was not different between the two groups. Among patients with crustacean anaphylaxis, patients with mollusc allergy and mollusc tolerance show a different pattern of sensitization, something that may help identify them.

  6. Anti-allergic activity of R-phycocyanin from Porphyra haitanensis in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingmei; Wang, Youzhao; Cao, Minjie; Pan, Tzuming; Yang, Yang; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Lechang; Liu, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased in Asian countries. Marine algae have been proposed as the potential resource for anti-allergic therapeutics. The present study was aimed at isolating R-phycocyanin (RPC) from Porphyra haitanensis and determining the anti-allergy potential of RPC in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells. In animal experiments, RPC could effectively reduce tropomyosin (TM)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine levels, alleviate allergy symptoms and jejunum tissue inflammation in mice, and inhibit the expression and release of cytokines (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13) in peritoneal lavage fluid. In spleen lymphocyte experiments, high purity of RPC skewed the immunological function of CD4(+) T cells towards Th1 activity. A higher expression of interferon (IFN)-γ was induced by a synergistic effect of TM and RPC. Through the Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase 2 signaling pathways, IFN-γ synthesis was induced by RPC in combination with TM. Anti-allergic effect of RPC was evaluated in IgE-mediated rat mast RBL-2H3 cells. The results demonstrated that RPC inhibited allergy markers, including the release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine and ROS in antigen-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. RPC also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α). In conclusion, RPC decreased allergic sensitization against TM by blocking Th2 cell polarization as well as suppressed the release of allergic-mediators in antigen-stimulated mast cells. It may be used as a functional food component or active pharmaceutical ingredient for allergic patients.

  7. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol in common ivy (Hedera helix L.).

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Bröhan, J; König, W A; Faasch, H; Hahn, H; Bruhn, G

    1987-07-01

    Experimental and chemical investigations revealed that common ivy (Hedera helix susp. helix) contains 3 compounds which are powerful irritants and moderate sensitizers. Only 2 of these constituents, falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol, are present in the plant during the whole year. Besides Panax ginseng and Schefflera arboricola, this is the third species of the Araliaceae in which these polyacetylenic sensitizers have been found. Falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol also occur in Hedera helix subsp. canariensis. 4 patients have been patch tested. Even in low concentrations (0.03%), the main allergen falcarinol elicited strong reactions in all of them. One of the authors became sensitized during the investigations.

  8. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  9. Histomorphology and Immunophenotype of Eczematous Skin Lesions Revisited-Skin Biopsies Are Not Reliable in Differentiating Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Irritant Contact Dermatitis, and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Frings, Verena G; Böer-Auer, Almut; Breuer, Kristine

    2017-03-10

    Lesions of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and atopic dermatitis (AD) share similar clinical features and thus, their diagnosis can be challenging. The aim of this study was to reassess histopathology and immunophenotyping properties to distinguish between ACD, ICD, and AD. Charts of patients with eczema, who had undergone complete routine diagnostic workup (skin biopsies, patch tests, skin prick tests, and respectively or serum IgE levels), were reviewed. Thirty-five skin biopsy specimens of 28 patients (mean age 64 ± 15 years; ♀ = 13 ♂ = 15) with clear diagnosis of ACD (n = 15), ICD (n = 6), or AD (n = 14) were analyzed. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD34, CD123, S100, and IL-17) parameters were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Fisher exact test, and decision tree analysis. Eosinophils were statistically significant (P = 0.0184), more often observed in AD than in ACD or ICD. No other statistically significant differences were found with regard to epidermal patterns, patterns of dermal infiltrates, or immunophenotyping. Using predictive modeling approaches, dermal eosinophils were found to be associated with AD, necrotic epidermal keratinocytes with ICD, and a focal type of parakeratosis with ACD. As an additional finding, pseudo-Pautrier microabscesses, which were present in the skin of 2 AD and 2 ACD patients, contained myeloid dendritic cells (CD11c-+). Differentiation of ACD, ICD, and AD should be based on clinical features and results of allergy tests. Histopathology does not reliably differentiate between ACD, ICD, and AD, but helps to exclude psoriasis, tinea, or T-cell lymphoma.

  10. Peripheral blood lymphocyte typing as a useful tool to objectify the oral mucosa patch test in the diagnosis of allergic contact mucositis to nickel.

    PubMed

    Di Tola, Marco; Amodeo, Rachele; Marino, Mariacatia; Tabacco, Fabio; Casale, Rossella; Bove, Maurizio; Rossi, Alfredo; Cardelli, Patrizia; Picarelli, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) exposure through the intestinal mucosa may cause a hypersensitivity reaction recently defined as allergic contact mucositis (ACM). This condition is identifiable by the oral mucosa patch test (omPT), a qualitative and subjective examination that requires clinical expertise. Our aim was to evaluate if a peripheral blood lymphocyte typing performed before and after the omPT for Ni may be able to objectify this examination for diagnostic purposes. Thirty patients with symptoms referable to the ingestion of Ni-rich foods were subjected to omPT for Ni. Before and after the omPT, each patient underwent blood sampling for the typing of total lymphocytes and their subsets (T, T helper or Th, T cytotoxic or Tc, B, natural killer or NK). Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. According to the omPT outcomes, 18 patients were defined as Ni-sensitive and the remaining 12 as controls. In Ni-sensitive patients, the number of total, T, Th, Tc, and B lymphocytes/μL whole blood increased after the omPT (p<0.0001 for the first three, p=0.0004 and p=0.0001 for the last two lymphocyte types). No omPT-dependent lymphocyte increase was observed in controls. The post/pre omPT cell ratio, especially if calculated for Th lymphocytes, appears to be an effective index for diagnostic purposes (sensitivity=100%, specificity=83.3%, Youden index=0.833, area under curve (AUC)=0.926, p<0.0001). In conclusion, the peripheral blood lymphocyte typing with calculation of post/pre omPT cell ratio has the potential to support the omPT in diagnosing ACM, with the advantage of providing quantitative and objective data.

  11. Epithelial, Dendritic, and CD4+ T Cell Regulation of and by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Allergic Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Ckless, Karina; Hodgkins, Samantha R.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Martin, Rebecca; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    Background While many of the contributing cell types and mediators of allergic asthma are known, less well understood are the factors that induce allergy in the first place. Amongst the mediators speculated to affect initial allergen sensitization and the development of pathogenic allergic responses to innocuous inhaled antigens and allergens are exogenously- or endogenously-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Scope of Review The interactions between ROS/RNS, dendritic cells (DCs), and CD4+ T cells, as well as their modulation by lung epithelium, are of critical importance for the genesis of allergies that later manifest in allergic asthma. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on the initiation of pulmonary allergies and the role that ROS/RNS may play in the steps therein, using examples from our own work on the roles of NO2 exposure and airway epithelial NF-κB activation. Major Conclusions Endogenously-generated ROS/RNS and those encountered from environmental sources interact with epithelium, DCs, and CD4+ T cells to orchestrate allergic sensitization through modulation of the activities of each of these cell types, which quatitiatively and qualitatively dictate the degree and type of the allergic asthma phenotype. General Significance Knowledge of the effects of ROS/RNS at the molecular and cellular levels has the potential to provide powerful insight into the balance between inhalational tolerance (the typical immunologic response to an innocuous inhaled antigen) and allergy, as well as to potentially provide mechanistic targets for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21397661

  12. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.

  13. Enhanced external and culturally sensitive attributions after extended intercultural contact.

    PubMed

    Vollhardt, Johanna Ray

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of close and extended intercultural contact on attributions for behaviour of out-group members. Specifically, it was hypothesized that extended intercultural contact would enhance the ability to make external and culturally sensitive attributions for ambiguous behaviour of out-group members, while decreasing the common tendency to overestimate internal factors. A content analysis of open-ended attributions supported these hypotheses, revealing that majority group members in Germany who had hosted an exchange student from another continent used significantly less internal and more external as well as culturally sensitive attributions to explain the behaviour described in critical intercultural incidents, compared to future hosts. The effect remained significant when controlling for perspective taking and prior intercultural experience. Moreover, the hypothesis was supported for scenarios describing different cultural groups (regardless of the exchange students' country of origin), suggesting a generalized effect. Problems of selection bias are discussed, and the importance of studying a range of positive outcomes of intercultural contact is emphasized.

  14. IL-10 is necessary for the expression of airway hyperresponsiveness but not pulmonary inflammation after allergic sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, M. J.; Kanehiro, A.; Borish, L.; Dakhama, A.; Loader, J.; Joetham, A.; Xing, Z.; Jordana, M.; Larsen, G. L.; Gelfand, E. W.

    2000-05-01

    Cytokines play an important role in modulating inflammatory responses and, as a result, airway tone. IL-10 is a regulatory cytokine that has been suggested for treatment of asthma because of its immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. In contrast to these suggestions, we demonstrate in a model of allergic sensitization that mice deficient in IL-10 (IL-10/) develop a pulmonary inflammatory response but fail to exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness in both in vitro and in vivo assessments of lung function. Reconstitution of these deficient mice with the IL-10 gene fully restores development of airway hyperresponsiveness comparable to control mice. These results identify an important role of IL-10, downstream of the inflammatory cascade, in regulating the tone of the airways after allergic sensitization and challenge.

  15. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, E S; Lee, H; Suh, Y K; Tang, W; Qi, M; Yin, S; Remick, D G; Ulich, T R

    1996-10-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations.

  16. Cross-sensitization between poppy seed and buckwheat in a food-allergic patient with poppy seed anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Tilmann; Thomas, Peter; Wollenberg, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., is the source of both poppy seeds and opium. The commercially available seeds are widely used as ingredients for various kinds of food. IgE-mediated sensitization to poppy seeds is rare, but, if present, clinical symptoms are usually severe. Cross-sensitizations between poppy seeds and other food allergens have been described with sesame, hazelnut, rye grain and kiwi fruit. We report the case of a 17-year-old female with an apparently food-allergic reaction after ingestion of a poppy seed cake. Allergological workup revealed a poppy seed anaphylaxis and led to the identification of a novel cross-sensitization with buckwheat.

  17. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers using flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michele . E-mail: michele.goutet@inrs.fr; Pepin, Elsa; Langonne, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2005-06-15

    Identification of the chemicals responsible for respiratory and contact allergies in the industrial area is an important occupational safety issue. This study was conducted in mice to determine whether flow cytometry is an appropriate method to analyze and differentiate the specific immune responses to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and to the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) used at concentrations with comparable immunogenic potential. Mice were exposed twice on the flanks (days 0, 5) to 10% TMA or 1% DNCB and challenged three times on the ears (days 10, 11, 12) with 2.5% TMA or 0.25% DNCB. Flow cytometry analyses were conducted on draining lymph node cells harvested on days 13 and 18. Comparing TMA and DNCB immune responses on day 13, we found obvious differences that persisted for most of them on day 18. An increased proportion of IgE+ cells correlated to total serum IgE level and an enhancement of MHC II molecule expression were observed in the lymph node B lymphocytes from TMA-treated mice. The percentage of IL-4-producing CD4+ lymphocytes and the IL-4 receptor expression were clearly higher following TMA exposure. In contrast, higher proportions of IL-2-producing cells were detected in CD4+ and CD8+ cells from DNCB-treated mice. Both chemicals induced a significant increase in the percentage of IFN-{gamma}-producing cells among CD8+ lymphocytes but to a greater proportion following TMA treatment. In conclusion, this study encourages the use of flow cytometry to discriminate between contact and respiratory sensitizers by identifying divergent expression of immune response parameters.

  18. Contact sensitizing potential of pyrogallol and 5-amino-o-cresol in female BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, T.L.; Germolec, D.R.; Zhang, Ling X.; Auttachoat, W.; Smith, M.J.; White, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Hair dye components such as pyrogallol and cresol have been shown previously to promote allergic reactions such as rashes, dermal inflammation, irritation and dermatitis. The objective of this study was to determine the contact sensitization potential of pyrogallol (PYR) and 5-amino-o-cresol (AOC) when applied dermally to female BALB/c mice. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response was initially accomplished using the local lymph node assay. For PYR, significant increases in the proliferation of lymph node cells were observed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/v) and higher. For AOC, borderline increases, albeit significant, in auricular lymph node cell proliferation were observed at 5% and 10%. Results from the irritancy assay suggested that PYR, but not AOC, was an irritant. To further delineate whether PYR was primarily an irritant or a contact sensitizer, the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was conducted. A significant increase in mouse ear thickness was observed at 72 hr following challenge with 0.5% PYR in mice that had been sensitized with 5% PYR. In contrast, no effects were observed in the MEST in mice sensitized and challenged with the highest achievable concentration of AOC (10%). Additional studies examining lymph node subpopulations and CD86 (B7.2) expression by B cells further support the indication that PYR was a sensitizer in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrate that PYR is both a sensitizer and an irritant in female BALB/c mice. However, the contact sensitization potential of AOC is minimal in this strain of mouse. PMID:24172597

  19. The "Jewelry Addict": Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Repetitive Multiple Children's Jewelry Exposures.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis developed persistent plaques on the lips, hands, and fingers that were unresponsive to topical steroids. Her mother reported that she was "addicted" to costume jewelry and developed rashes in reaction to a number of adornments, ranging from rubber bracelets to costume metal jewelry and belt buckles. A careful history of jewelry exposures was taken and patch testing was performed to identify allergenic sources. Patch testing revealed allergy to nickel, gold, and thiuram mix. The case illustrates the importance of investigating a range of different types of allergens when evaluating for jewelry sensitivity in children with frequent use of accessories, including rubber jewelry, plastics, dyed yarns, beads, metals, and ceramics. This article provides an overview of jewelry allergies and the potential allergens requiring screening.

  20. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Tyrophagus putrescentiae allergy in allergic rhinitis caused by cross-reactivity not dual-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Liao, En-Chih; Ho, Chau-Mei; Lin, Meei-Yn; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2010-11-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are causative factors for the development of airway hypersensitivity. The main objective in this study was to identify the cross-reactive allergens between T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus and investigate their sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis. The prevalence of sensitization to mites was determined by skin prick tests and histamine release assays. Both immunoblot and ELISA inhibition assays were performed by using the recombinant allergens of T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus. The cross-reactive allergens were identified by using IgE-binding inhibition analysis. The correlations of specific IgE between T. putrescentiae and D. pteronyssinus to group 2 and group 3 mite allergens were compared. A total of 117 allergic rhinitis patients, aged between 16 and 40 years old were recruited to be included in this study. The results showed that 70% (82/117) of allergic rhinitis subjects had skin test positive reactions to D. pteronyssinus or T. putrescentiae. Among these mite-sensitive subjects, there were 81 subjects (81/82) sensitive to D. pteronyssinus and 34 subjects (34/82) sensitive to T. putrescentiae. Among the T. putrescentiae hypersensitive subjects, 97% (33/34) were also sensitized to D. pteronyssinus. In the IgE-binding inhibition analysis, 59% (13/22) subjects had IgE-binding activity of T. putrescentiae that was completely absorbed by D. pteronyssinus, especially components with MW at 16 kDa. In ELISA inhibition testing, 69% of IgE-binding was inhibited by rTyr p 2, and 45% inhibited by rTyr p 3. The titers of IgE antibodies to rTyr p 2 and rDer p 2 were well correlated, but not rTyr p 3 and rDer p 3. In conclusion, most T. putrescentiae sensitized subjects were also sensitized to D. pteronyssinus in young adult allergic rhinitis patients. The complete absorption of IgE binding activity by D. pteronyssinus indicates that T. putrescentiae hypersensitivity might be due to the

  1. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be “mild” and “natural” are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to “stronger” allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  2. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Zuercher, Adrian W.; Weiss, Marietta; Holvoet, Sébastien; Moser, Mireille; Moussu, Hélène; van Overtvelt, Laurence; Horiot, Stéphane; Moingeon, Philippe; Nutten, Sophie; Prioult, Guénolée; Singh, Anurag; Mercenier, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase) or after sensitization (management phase). Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and CCL17 (TARC) in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms. PMID:21961022

  3. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses allergic sensitization and lung inflammation by targeting the E prostanoid 2 receptor on T cells

    PubMed Central

    Zaslona, Zbigniew; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Bourdonnay, Emilie; Domingo-Gonzalez, Racquel; Moore, Bethany B.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Aronoff, David M.; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Endogenous prostanoids have been suggested to modulate sensitization during experimental allergic asthma, but the specific role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or of specific E prostanoid (EP) receptors is not known. Objective Here we tested the role of EP2 signaling in allergic asthma. Methods Wild type (WT) and EP2−/− mice were subjected to ovalbumin sensitization and acute airway challenge. The PGE2 analog misoprostol was administered during sensitization in both genotypes. In vitro culture of splenocytes and of flow-sorted dendritic cells and T cells defined the mechanism by which EP2 exerted its protective effect. Adoptive transfer of WT and EP2−/− CD4 T cells was used to validate the importance of EP2 expression on T cells. Results As compared to WT mice, EP2−/− mice had exaggerated airway inflammation in this model. Splenocytes and lung lymph node cells from sensitized EP2−/− mice produced more IL-13 than did WT cells, suggesting increased sensitization. In WT but not EP2−/− mice, subcutaneous administration of a stable PGE2 analog during sensitization inhibited allergic inflammation. PGE2 decreased cytokine production and inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation by CD3/CD28-stimulated CD4pos T cells. Co-culture of flow cytometry-sorted splenic CD4pos T cells and CD11cpos dendritic cells from WT or EP2−/− mice suggested that the increased IL-13 production in EP2−/− mice was due to the lack of EP2 specifically on T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD4pos EP2−/− T cells caused greater cytokine production in the lungs of WT mice than did transfer of WT CD4pos T cells. Conclusion We conclude that the PGE2-EP2 axis is an important endogenous brake on allergic airway inflammation, primarily targets T cells, and its agonism represents a potential novel therapeutic approach to asthma. PMID:24075232

  4. Experimental Sensitization of Guinea Pigs with Neoarsphenamine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    neoarsphenamine (NOVAR) in a solution of TWEEN - 80 three weeks before sensitization delayed the development of contact allergic skin reactions for a period of up to 140 days from the beginning of sensitization.

  5. Influence of air pollutants on allergic sensitization: the paradox of increased allergies and decreased resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, M Ian

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution has long been associated with health risks such as increased susceptibility to respiratory infections and potentiation of asthmatic-type responses. Experimental evidence in rodents indicates that air pollutants including diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), gases, and metals cause lung injury, inflammation, reduce aspects of host defense, and may potentiate allergic airway responses. Here we present evidence that diesel exhaust particles delivered by inhalation or aspiration can exacerbate allergic lung disease depending on the material's chemical properties. Genomic analysis of mouse lungs following instillation or inhalation of DEPs shows an alteration spectrum of pathways associated with immune signaling, cell metabolism, and oxidative stress. Diesel exposure also may worsen respiratory infections through depression of protective immune responses. Here we show that mice exposed to diesel and co-infected with influenza had increased influenza virus titers as well as higher levels of lung injury and inflammation in association with increased Th2 cytokines, and a concomitant decrease in Th1 polarization. A simplified model explains how the potentiation of the Th2 arm of immunity by diesel exhaust results in increased allergic sensitization, whereas cell-mediated (protective) immunity against viral infections is simultaneously reduced.

  6. Allergic contact reaction to dexpanthenol: lymphocyte transformation test and evidence for microsomal-dependent metabolism of the allergen.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Röseler, S; Fritzsche, R; Schneider, R; Merk, H F

    1993-02-01

    In a patient with contact dermatitis, dexpanthenol was found to be the causative allergen. There was a positive reaction to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Controls did not show any positive reactions to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Additionally, an LTT was performed. After preincubation with dexpanthenol-modified microsomes, we observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation to dexpanthenol, in comparison to dexpanthenol without microsomes, suggesting that microsomal metabolism plays a rôle in the pathogenesis of dexpanthenol sensitization, because microsomes are known to possess drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450.

  7. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677

  8. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor α expression and IL-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michèle Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4Rα can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4Rα and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4Rα levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4Rα and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ► Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ► There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ► We analyze immune responses induced

  9. Protein kinase CK2 controls T-cell polarization through dendritic cell activation in response to contact sensitizers.

    PubMed

    de Bourayne, Marie; Gallais, Yann; El Ali, Zeina; Rousseau, Philippe; Damiens, Marie-Hélène; Cochet, Claude; Filhol, Odile; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2017-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease caused by chemicals present in the daily or professional environment. NiSO4 and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) are 2 chemicals involved in ACD. These contact sensitizers are known to induce an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and cytokine secretion in dendritic cells (DCs; professional APCs), leading to the generation of CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17 and CD4(+) Th1/Th17 effector T cells. In the present study, using a peptide array approach, we identified protein kinase CK2 as a novel kinase involved in the activation of human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in response to NiSO4 and DNCB. Inhibition of CK2 activity in MoDCs led to an altered mature phenotype with lower expression of CD54, PDL-1, CD86, and CD40 in response to NiSO4 or DNCB. CK2 activity also regulated proinflammatory cytokine production, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-23 in MoDCs. Moreover, in a DC/T cell coculture model in an allogeneic setup, CK2 activity in MoDCs played a major role in Th1 polarization in response to NiSO4 and DNCB. CK2 inhibition in MoDCs led to an enhanced Th2 polarization in the absence of contact sensitizer stimulation.

  10. Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r = 0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r = 0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r = 0.701), Blattella germanica (r = 0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r = 0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

  11. Diet Matters: Endotoxin in the Diet Impacts the Level of Allergic Sensitization in Germ-Free Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Martin; Srutkova, Dagmar; Hermanova, Petra; Leulier, Francois; Kozakova, Hana; Schabussova, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Germ-free animals have been used to define the vital role of commensal bacteria on the maturation of the host immune system. However, the role of bacterial residues in diet in this setting is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of bacterial contamination in sterile diet on the level of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Sterile grain-based diets ST1 and R03 were tested for the level of bacterial contamination. ST1 contained higher amount of bacterial DNA, approximately ten times more endotoxin, and induced higher, TLR4-dependent, cytokine production in dendritic cells compared to R03. In a germ-free mouse model of sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, feeding on ST1 for at least two generations was associated with decreased production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies in sera in comparison to R03. Furthermore, reduced levels of allergen-specific and ConA-induced cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 accompanied by increased levels of IFN-γ were detected in splenocytes cultures of these mice. Our results show that contamination of experimental diet with bacterial residues, such as endotoxin, significantly affects the development of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Therefore, careful selection of sterile food is critical for the outcomes of germ-free or gnotobiotic experimental models of immune-deviated diseases. PMID:28052076

  12. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  13. Beneficial effects of a skin tolerance-tested moisturizing cream on the barrier function in experimentally-elicited irritant and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    De Paépe, K; Hachem, J P; Vanpee, E; Goossens, A; Germaux, M A; Lachapelle, J M; Lambert, J; Matthieu, L; Roseeuw, D; Suys, E; Van Hecke, E; Rogiers, V

    2001-06-01

    In experimentally-induced irritant (ICD) and allergic (ACD) contact dermatitis, an oil-in-water (o/w) cream was applied to investigate its effects on a disturbed barrier function compared to untreated physiological barrier repair. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were performed. Before the start of the experiments, the skin tolerance of the cream was examined, revealing the non-irritating characteristics of the ingredients and the absence of any contact allergic patch test reaction. In the ICD study, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patches were applied to the forearms of young female volunteers. Consequently, it was observed that repeated cream application (14 days, 2x/day) significantly improved the TEWL of SLS-damaged skin, leading to a complete recovery on day 15. In the ACD study, disruption of skin barrier function was obtained by a nickel-mediated contact allergy patch (CAP) test. The cream was then applied 2x/day for 4 consecutive days. Assessment of TEWL clearly showed that recovery of the disrupted skin significantly improved after cream application in comparison to untreated barrier repair.

  14. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever; Nasal allergies; Seasonal allergy; Seasonal allergic rhinitis; Allergies - allergic rhinitis; Allergy - allergic rhinitis ... an allergen that also trigger symptoms. ALLERGY SHOTS Allergy shots ... are sometimes recommended if you cannot avoid the ...

  15. Sensitization to Airborne Ascospores, Basidiospores, and Fungal Fragments in Allergic Rhinitis and Asthmatic Subjects in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Background Fungal spores are the predominant biological particulate in the atmosphere of Puerto Rico, yet their potential as allergens has not been studied in subjects with respiratory allergies. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sensitization of subjects with respiratory allergies to these particles. Methods Serum samples were drawn from 33 subjects with asthma, allergic rhinitis, or nonallergic rhinitis and 2 controls with different skin prick test reactivity. An MK-3 sampler was used to collect air samples and the reactivity of the sera to fungal particles was detected with a halogen immunoassay. Results All subjects reacted to at least 1 fungal particle. Thirty-one subjects reacted to ascospores, 29 to basidiospores, 19 to hyphae/fungal fragments, and 12 to mitospores. The median percentage of haloes in allergic rhinitis subjects was 4.82% while asthma or nonallergic rhinitis subjects had values of 1.09 and 0.39%, respectively. Subjects with skin prick tests positive to 3, 2, 1, or no extract had 5.24, 1.09, 1.61, and, 0.57% of haloed particles, respectively. If skin prick tests were positive to basidiomycetes, pollen, animals, or deuteromycetes, the percentages of haloes were 4.72, 4.15, 3.63, and 3.31%, respectively. Of all haloed particles, 46% were unidentified, 25% ascospores, 20% basidiospores, 7% hyphae/fungal fragments, and 2% mitospores. IgE levels and the number of positive skin prick test extracts correlated with the percentage of haloes. Conclusion In tropical environments, sensitization to airborne basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, and fungal fragments seems to be more prevalent than sensitization to mitospores in subjects with active allergies, suggesting a possible role in exacerbations of respiratory allergies. PMID:21346362

  16. Allergic conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    Conjunctivitis - allergic seasonal/perennial; Atopic keratoconjunctivitis; Pink eye - allergic ... bumps on the inside of the eyelids (papillary conjunctivitis) Positive skin test for suspected allergens on allergy ...

  17. Contact sensitivity to nonoxynols as a cause of intolerance to antiseptic preparations.

    PubMed

    Dooms-Goossens, A; Deveylder, H; de Alam, A G; Lachapelle, J M; Tennstedt, D; Degreef, H

    1989-10-01

    Twelve cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by antiseptic preparations are presented. The reactions resulted not from the active principles but rather from nonoxynols used in the offending substances as nonionic surface-active agents. Nonoxynols are ethoxylated alkyl phenols or nonylphenylethers that conform in general to the formula C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. They have emulsifying, wetting, foaming, and solubilizing properties and are used in a large number of industrial, household, agricultural, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. They also are used as spermicides. There are very few reports in the literature of skin problems caused by nonoxynols.

  18. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  19. Schisandra chinensis and Its Main Constituent Schizandrin Attenuate Allergic Reactions by Down-Regulating Caspase-1 in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Hee-Yun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (SC) and its main constituent, schizandrin (SCH) exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. Allergic and inflammatory reactions are aggravated via caspase-1 signaling pathway. However, the regulatory effects of SC and SCH on caspase-1 activation have not been clarified yet. In this study, we aimed to clarify the anti-allergic effects of SC and SCH using an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice and anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies-stimulated splenocytes. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1, or interleukin (IL)-4 in serum of OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], and IL-1[Formula: see text] in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly suppressed the expression of caspase-1 and receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-2 in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. In activated splenocytes, SC or SCH significantly decreased the expression of caspase-1 and RIP-2 as well as the production of IL-6 and TNF-[Formula: see text]. We suggest that SC and SCH exert an anti-allergic effect by down-regulating caspase-1 signaling.

  20. Identification of causative chemicals of allergic contact dermatitis using a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis. Application to cases from rubber footwear.

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, M A; Isama, K; Nakamura, A; Kantoh, H; Itoh, M; Miyoshi, K; Saito, S; Shono, M

    1994-01-01

    5 cases of allergic contact dermatitis from rubber footwear were investigated by a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis of causative rubber products. Our studies revealed 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and benzothiazyl disulfide (MBTS) (typical allergenic accelerators) as causative chemicals in 3 cases from children's rubber shoes, ladies' rubber boots and ladies' canvas shoes. These 3 patients reacted to mercaptobenzothiazole-type accelerators including MBT and MBTS. MBT and MBTS were determined in each item of causative footwear by chemical analysis, including extraction by shaking with acetone-chloroform (1:1) mixture at room temperature and determination using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Subsequently, we identified styrenated phenol (SP), a newly found allergenic antioxidant, as a causative chemical in a case from ladies' canvas shoes. The patient reacted to SP but not to MBT and MBTS, though SP, MBT and MBTS were determined in the causative shoes by gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and HPLC. We also identified p-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP-F-R), (a known allergenic adhesive ingredient) as a causative chemical in a case from ladies' sneakers. The patient reacted to PTBP-F-R but not to p-tert-butylphenol (PTBP), MBT and MBTS. These 4 compounds were determined in the causative sneakers by GC, GC-MS and HPLC. Thus, our studies revealed that not only known allergens, such as MBT, MBTS and PTBP-F-R, but also a newly found one, such as SP, were important causes of allergic contact dermatitis from rubber footwear.

  1. Identification of Microcystis aeruginosa Peptides Responsible for Allergic Sensitization and Characterization of Functional Interactions between Cyanobacterial Toxins and Immunogenic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Geh, Esmond N.; Ghosh, Debajyoti; McKell, Melanie; de la Cruz, Armah A.; Stelma, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background The cyanobacterium species Microcystis aeruginosa produces microcystin and an array of diverse metabolites believed responsible for their toxicity and/or immunogenicity. Previously, chronic rhinitis patients were demonstrated to elicit a specific IgE response to nontoxic strains of M. aeruginosa by skin-prick testing, indicating that cyanobacteria allergenicity resides in a non-toxin–producing component of the organism. Objectives We sought to identify and characterize M. aeruginosa peptide(s) responsible for allergic sensitization in susceptible individuals, and we investigated the functional interactions between cyanobacterial toxins and their coexpressed immunogenic peptides. Methods Sera from patients and extracts from M. aeruginosa toxic [MC(+)] and nontoxic [MC(–)] strains were used to test IgE-specific reactivity by direct and indirect ELISAs; 2D gel electrophoresis, followed by immunoblots and mass spectrometry (MS), was performed to identify the relevant sensitizing peptides. Cytotoxicity and mediator release assays were performed using the MC(+) and MC(–) lysates. Results We found specific IgE to be increased more in response to the MC(–) strain than the MC(+) strain. This response was inhibited by preincubation of MC(–) lysate with increasing concentrations of microcystin. MS revealed that phycocyanin and the core-membrane linker peptide are the responsible allergens, and MC(–) extracts containing these proteins induced β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophil leukemia cells. Conclusions Phycobiliprotein complexes in M. aeruginosa have been identified as the relevant sensitizing proteins. Our finding that allergenicity is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by microcystin toxin suggests that further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay between immunogenicity and toxicity of cyanobacteria under diverse environmental conditions. Citation Geh EN, Ghosh D, McKell M, de la Cruz AA, Stelma G, Bernstein JA. 2015

  2. Heat shock proteins HSP27 and HSP70 are present in the skin and are important mediators of allergic contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Nasti, Tahseen H; Huang, Chun-Ming; Huber, Brad S; Jaleel, Tarannum; Lin, Hui-Yi; Xu, Hui; Elmets, Craig A

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of murine skin has shown that a variety of heat shock proteins (HSPs) are constitutively expressed in the skin. Using murine allergic contact hypersensitivity as a model, we investigated the role of two heat shock proteins, HSP27 and HSP70, in the induction of cutaneous cell-mediated immune responses. Immunohistochemical examination of skin specimens showed that HSP27 was present in the epidermis and HSP70 was present in both the epidermis and dermis. Inhibition of HSP27 and HSP70 produced a reduction in the 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene contact hypersensitivity response and resulted in the induction of Ag-specific unresponsiveness. Treatment of dendritic cell cultures with recombinant HSP27 caused in the up-regulation of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19, which was inhibited when Abs to HSP27 were added. The 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-conjugated dendritic cells that had been treated with HSP27 had an increased capacity to initiate contact hypersensitivity responses compared with control dendritic cells. This augmented capacity required TLR4 signaling because neither cytokine production by dendritic cells nor the increased induction of contact hypersensitivity responses occurred in TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice. Our findings indicate that a cascade of events occurs following initial interaction of hapten with the skin that includes increased activity of HSPs, their interaction with TLR4, and, in turn, increased production of cytokines that are known to enhance Ag presentation by T cells. The results suggest that HSPs form a link between adaptive and innate immunity during the early stages of contact hypersensitivity.

  3. Dendritic cells' death induced by contact sensitizers is controlled by Nrf2 and depends on glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    El Ali, Zeina; Deloménie, Claudine; Botton, Jérémie; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2017-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are known to play a major role during contact allergy induced by contact sensitizers (CS). Our previous studies showed that Nrf2 was induced in DC and controlled allergic skin inflammation in mice in response to chemicals. In this work, we raised the question of the role of Nrf2 in response to a stress provoked by chemical sensitizers in DC. We used two well-described chemical sensitizers, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and cinnamaldehyde (CinA), known to have different chemical reactivity and mechanism of action. First, we performed a RT-qPCR array showing that CinA was a higher inducer of immune and detoxification genes compared to DNCB. Interestingly, in the absence of Nrf2, gene expression was dramatically affected in response to DNCB but was slightly affected in response to CinA. These observations prompted us to study DC's cell death in response to both chemicals. DNCB and CinA increased apoptotic cells and decreased living cells in the absence of Nrf2. The characterization of DC apoptosis induced by both CS involved the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway and was regulated via Nrf2 in response to both chemicals. Oxidative stress induced by DNCB, and leading to cell death, was regulated by Nrf2. Unlike CinA, DNCB treatment provoked a significant reduction of intracellular GSH levels and up-regulated bcl-2 gene expression, under the control of Nrf2. This work underlies that chemical reactivity may control Nrf2-dependent gene expression leading to different cytoprotective mechanisms in DC.

  4. Sensitivity of Household Transmission to Household Contact Structure and Size

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Achla; Lewis, Bryan; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objective Study the influence of household contact structure on the spread of an influenza-like illness. Examine whether changes to in-home care giving arrangements can significantly affect the household transmission counts. Method We simulate two different behaviors for the symptomatic person; either s/he remains at home in contact with everyone else in the household or s/he remains at home in contact with only the primary caregiver in the household. The two different cases are referred to as full mixing and single caregiver, respectively. Results The results show that the household’s cumulative transmission count is lower in case of a single caregiver configuration than in the full mixing case. The household transmissions vary almost linearly with the household size in both single caregiver and full mixing cases. However the difference in household transmissions due to the difference in household structure grows with the household size especially in case of moderate flu. Conclusions These results suggest that details about human behavior and household structure do matter in epidemiological models. The policy of home isolation of the sick has significant effect on the household transmission count depending upon the household size. PMID:21829625

  5. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  6. Induction of Regulatory Dendritic Cells by Lactobacillus paracasei L9 Prevents Allergic Sensitization to Bovine β-Lactoglobulin in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Ren, Fazheng; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Lu; Hao, Yanling; Luo, Xugang

    2015-10-01

    Supplementation with probiotics can protect against the development of food allergies by modulating the host immune response; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the allergy-reducing effects of regulatory dendritic cells (regDCs) induced by Lactobacillus paracasei L9 (L9) in β-lactoglobulin (BLG)- sensitized mice. The L9 supplement suppressed the aberrant balance of Th1/Th2 responses to BLG in mice, via upregulation of the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cell responses. The amount of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells in mesenteric lymph nodes increased by 51.85%. Furthermore, administration of L9 significantly induced the expression of CD103 and reduced the maturation status of DCs in mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) were activated by L9 in vitro, with an approximate 1.31-fold and 19.57-fold increase in expression of CD103 in CD11c+DCs and the level of IL-10 production, respectively, while the expression of CD86 did not change significantly. These data demonstrate that L9 reduced the BLG allergic sensitization, likely through regDCs mediated active suppression.

  7. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.

  9. Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Temporary "Black Henna" Coloring of the Hair During Religious Cultural Celebrations: Three Different Cases, Same History.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Rimon, Ayelet; Danino, Dana; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis after the application of temporary, paint-on, henna tattoos represents a well-known, potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 3 cases involving 3 children of the same age who developed a severe contact dermatitis with massive face and neck swelling after application of black henna to their hair during "Purim" celebrations. All 3 cases had a history of having applied henna tattoos in the previous year with mild local reactions. Their reactions are presumed to be due to sensitization to para-phenylenediamine. Although reactions to henna are being increasingly reported, reactions of this severity seem to be rare and could lead to permanent skin changes.

  10. Associations between cat keeping, allergen exposure, allergic sensitization and atopic diseases: results from the Children of Lübeck Allergy and Environment Study (KLAUS).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Torsten; Stieger, Björn; Polzius, Rainer; Krauspe, Anja

    2009-06-01

    The role of cat keeping on the promotion of allergies is discussed controversially. We investigated the associations between cat keeping, allergen exposure, allergic sensitization and atopic diseases in pre-school children. A total of 606 children (5- to 6-yr old) were studied in the course of the mandatory school entrance examination. Information on doctor diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis, pet keeping and confounders was obtained by questionnaire. The prevalence of atopic eczema was determined by dermatological examination, allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick test, and the allergen exposure to cat allergen Fel d 1 was measured by a commercial wipe test. Cats were present in 16% of the households and results of the exposure categories (0-III) on cat allergen were 47.2%, 25.5%, 24.3% and 3.0% respectively. The prevalence of cat keeping increased significantly with exposure categories from 0.5% to 61.5% (p(trend) < 0.001). Children (6.3%) were sensitized to cat allergen and sensitization rates increased also significantly with exposure categories from 3.0% to 15.4% (p(trend) < 0.001). Children (9.3%) were diagnosed with atopic eczema and a positive history of asthma/rhinitis was given in 3.6% and 3.9% respectively. Sensitization to cat was associated with atopic eczema (23.3% vs. 7.4%; OR(adj.)= 3.8, CI: 1.4-10.8), asthma (12.5% vs. 3.7%; OR(adj.)= 4.9, CI: 1.1-21.2), allergic rhinitis (6.9% vs. 2.7%; OR(adj.)= 3.1, CI: 0.7-15.2) and any atopic disease (43.5% vs. 16.3%; OR(adj.)= 3.8, CI: 1.5-9.5). The data suggest a promoting effect of cat keeping for atopic diseases.

  11. Allergic Rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... out what I'm allergic to?Is my allergy seasonal?I am allergic to _____. Am I at risk for any other allergies?What changes can I make at home to ... org editorial staff Tags: allergen, allergic rhinitis, allergies, allergy, ... ragweed, seasonal rhinitis Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, ...

  12. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-03

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  13. Prevalence of allergic sensitization to conifer pollen in a high cypress exposure area

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; López-Matas, María Ángeles; Alonso, María Dolores; Feliú, Angélica; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; González, Emma; Moya, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sensitization to Pinales (Cupressaceae and Pinaceae) has increased dramatically in recent years. The prevalence of sensitization in different geographic areas is related to exposure to specific pollens. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of allergy to different conifer pollens, describe the characteristics of patients with such allergy, and identify the involved allergens. Methods: Patients were recruited at five hospitals near Madrid. Extracts from conifer pollen were prepared and used in skin-prick testing. Wheal sizes were recorded, and serum samples obtained from patients with positive reactions to Cupressus arizonica and/or Pinus pinea. The specific immunoglobulin E value to C. arizonica and Cup a 1 was determined. Individual immunoblots for each patient and with a pool of sera were performed. Allergenic proteins were sequenced by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Of 499 individuals included in the study, 17 (14%) had positive skin-prick test results to some conifer pollen extracts. Sixty-four patients had positive results to C. arizonica (prevalence 12.8%) and 11 had positive results to P. pinea (2.2%). All the patients had respiratory symptoms (61.4% during the C. arizonica pollination period), and 62.9% had asthma. Approximately 86% of the patients had positive specific immunoglobulin E results to C. arizonica and 92.3% had positive results to Cup a 1. Fourteen different bands were recognized by immunoblot; the most frequent bands were those detected at 43, 18, 16, and 14 kDa. All sequenced proteins corresponded to Cup a 1. Conclusion: Allergy to conifer pollen could be considered a relevant cause of respiratory allergy in central Spain. Asthma was more frequent than in other studies. We only identified Cup a 1 as involved in sensitization.

  14. Establishment of a new animal model of allergic rhinitis with biphasic sneezing by intranasal sensitization with Staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rong; Tang, Xinye; Yao, Hongbing; Hong, Suling; Yang, Yang; Kou, Wei; Wei, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem. The effectiveness of currently available medications is limited and therefore investigation for more effective drugs is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish a model of AR in guinea pigs that can be utilized for the further investigation of new drugs. Guinea pigs were intranasally sensitized with 1 µg Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) dissolved in 40 µl saline once daily for 14 days. One week after the last sensitization, the same treatment was applied intranasally once every four days for a total of 30 times. In the treatment group, terfenadine was administered orally 70 min before the 4th, 14th and 24th challenge. Sneezing and nasal scratching were evaluated following each of the 30 challenges. The quantity of antigen-specific antibodies in the serum was measured. Between the 19th and 30th challenges, the guinea pigs in the model group produced significant biphasic elevations in sneezing number, with peaks 10 min-2 h and 4-8 h after the SEB challenges. In addition, the guinea pigs produced significantly more sneezing in the first peak during the 19th to 30th challenges than during the first to 18th challenges (P<0.01). Terfenadine significantly inhibited the early- and late-phase sneezing at all challenge times. The serum levels of SEB-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG1 were higher in the model group in comparison with those in the control group (P<0.01). This experiment demonstrated that SEB can induce typical AR with biphasic sneezing in guinea pigs. Histamine may play an important role in the early- and the late-phase sneezing in the model of AR. This model can be potentially used for the investigation of new drugs.

  15. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen.

  16. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect.

  17. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    PubMed Central

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Lymn, Kerry; Kanter, Irene; Penttila, Irmeli A.

    2012-01-01

    There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA) exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN) rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR), DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13) with oral OVA (DR + OVAc), DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13) with oral OVA (DR + OVAi), formula-fed pups (FF), and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA). Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1), mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization. PMID:22203855

  18. Allergic contact cheilitis due to effervescent dental cleanser: combined responsibilities of the allergen persulfate and prosthesis porosity.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, C J; Bezard, M

    1999-11-01

    A 55-year-old man with a dental prosthesis for 3 years had had a chronic relapsing cheilitis for more than 1 year. He was patch tested with the European standard series, his own topicals, and the dental cleanser at 10% pet. A relevant positive reaction ++ was found to the cleansing agent, which contained 20% potassium persulfate. The breakdown of the test confirmed sensitivity to this agent and to ammonium persulfate, both positive (++) at 2.5% pet. The patient was free of symptoms after he had avoided the cleanser. Subsequent chemical investigations performed with a fragment of a used dental prosthesis revealed strong adsorption of persulfate, both on the resin and on the dental tartar. Cleansing agents, adsorbed on tartar and porous resins of worn dental prostheses, should be considered as potential sensitizers and consequently patch tested on such patients with chronic cheilitis.

  19. Combination treatment of low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and oral tranexamic acid for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation due to allergic contact dermatitis to henna hair dye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bok; Park, Sae Mi; Kim, Jin-Wou; Yu, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old female presented with facial hyperpigmentation. She had dyed her hair monthly with pure henna powder for the past seven months. After patch tests, the patient was diagnosed as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentastion due to allergic contact dermatitis to pure henna that has rarely been reported. The patient underwent Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment and was treated with oral tranexamic acid for 10 weeks. The hyperpigmentation on her forehead demonstrated substantial improvement.

  20. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  1. Prevalence of allergic sensitization in the U.S.: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Jaramillo, Renee; Calatroni, Agustin; Weir, Charles H.; Sever, Michelle L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Liu, Andrew H.; Gergen, Peter J.; Mitchell, Herman E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of atopic disease. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 provides the most comprehensive information on IgE-mediated sensitization in the general US population. Objective We investigated clustering, sociodemographic and regional patterns of allergic sensitization and examined risk factors associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005–2006. Participants aged ≥1 year (N=9440) were tested for sIgEs to inhalant and food allergens; participants ≥6 years were tested for 19 sIgEs, and children aged 1–5 years for 9 sIgEs. Serum samples were analyzed using the ImmunoCAP System. Information on demographics and participant characteristics was collected by questionnaire. Results Of the study population aged 6 and older, 44.6% had detectable sIgEs, while 36.2% of children aged 1–5 years were sensitized to ≥1 allergen. Allergen-specific IgEs clustered into 7 groups that might have largely reflected biological cross-reactivity. Although sensitization to individual allergens and allergen types showed regional variation, the overall prevalence of sensitization did not differ across census regions, except in early childhood. In multivariate modeling, young age, male gender, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, geographic location (census region), and reported pet avoidance measures were most consistently associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Conclusions The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization does not vary across US census regions, except in early life, although allergen-specific sensitization differs by sociodemographic and regional factors. Biological cross-reactivity may be an important, but not a sole, contributor to the clustering of allergen-specific IgEs. Clinical implications IgE-mediated sensitization shows clustering patterns and differs by sociodemographic

  2. The T Cell Response to the Contact Sensitizer Paraphenylenediamine Is Characterized by a Polyclonal Diverse Repertoire of Antigen-Specific Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Theres; Popple, Amy Lee; Williams, Jason; Best, Katharine; Heather, James M.; Ismail, Mazlina; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Kimber, Ian; Chain, Benny

    2017-01-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a common component of hair dyes and black henna tattoos and can cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The cutaneous inflammatory reaction associated with ACD is driven by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, the characteristics of such responses with respect to clonal breadth and magnitude are poorly defined. In this study, we have characterized the in vitro recall response of peripheral blood T cells prepared from PPD-allergic individuals to a PPD–human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate (PPD–HSA). Quantitative high throughput sequencing was used to characterize the changes in the repertoire of T cell receptor (TCR) α and β genes after exposure to antigen in vitro. The PPD conjugate induced expansion of T cells carrying selected TCRs, with around 800 sequences (around 1%) being 8 or more times as abundant after culture than before. The expanded sequences showed strong skewing of V and J usage, consistent with an antigen-driven clonal expansion. The complementarity-determining region 3 sequences of the expanded TCRs could be grouped into several families of related amino acid sequence, but the overall diversity of the expanded sample was not much less than that of a random sample of the same size. The results suggest a model in which PPD–HSA conjugate stimulates a broad diversity of TCRs, with a wide range of stimulation strengths, which manifest as different degrees of in vitro expansion. PMID:28261218

  3. The T Cell Response to the Contact Sensitizer Paraphenylenediamine Is Characterized by a Polyclonal Diverse Repertoire of Antigen-Specific Receptors.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Theres; Popple, Amy Lee; Williams, Jason; Best, Katharine; Heather, James M; Ismail, Mazlina; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Chain, Benny

    2017-01-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a common component of hair dyes and black henna tattoos and can cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The cutaneous inflammatory reaction associated with ACD is driven by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, the characteristics of such responses with respect to clonal breadth and magnitude are poorly defined. In this study, we have characterized the in vitro recall response of peripheral blood T cells prepared from PPD-allergic individuals to a PPD-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate (PPD-HSA). Quantitative high throughput sequencing was used to characterize the changes in the repertoire of T cell receptor (TCR) α and β genes after exposure to antigen in vitro. The PPD conjugate induced expansion of T cells carrying selected TCRs, with around 800 sequences (around 1%) being 8 or more times as abundant after culture than before. The expanded sequences showed strong skewing of V and J usage, consistent with an antigen-driven clonal expansion. The complementarity-determining region 3 sequences of the expanded TCRs could be grouped into several families of related amino acid sequence, but the overall diversity of the expanded sample was not much less than that of a random sample of the same size. The results suggest a model in which PPD-HSA conjugate stimulates a broad diversity of TCRs, with a wide range of stimulation strengths, which manifest as different degrees of in vitro expansion.

  4. [Blatella germanica as a sensiting factor, and cause of allergic rhinitis in a group of our patients].

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Most up-to-data data from the literature, as well as our experience gained during the routine clinical practice, led us to investigate the incidence of sensibilization on the cockroaches, as well as its role in development of allergic rhinitis. The study included 46 patients with chronic rhinitis. Out of that number, 11 were sensibilized to cockroach extract, while in another 8 senzibilized patients, allergic rhinitis, induced by the same allergen, was evidenced as well. According to this study, we have concluded that in our conditions, cockroach is to be considered significant factor of sensibilization which is to be included into the standard set of inhalation allergens for skin tests.

  5. Latex-allergic patients sensitized to the major allergen hevein and hevein-like domains of class I chitinases show no increased frequency of latex-associated plant food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Radauer, Christian; Adhami, Farzaneh; Fürtler, Irene; Wagner, Stefan; Allwardt, Dorothee; Scala, Enrico; Ebner, Christof; Hafner, Christine; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mari, Adriano; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Allergies to certain fruits such as banana, avocado, chestnut and kiwi are described in 30–70% of latex-allergic patients. This association is attributed to the cross-reactivity between the major latex allergen hevein and hevein-like domains (HLDs) from fruit class I chitinases. We aimed to assess the extent of cross-reactivity between hevein and HLDs using sera from latex-allergic patients with and without plant food allergy. Hevein and HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with the maltose-binding protein and purified by affinity chromatography. IgE binding to these proteins was studied in sera from 59 latex-allergic patients and 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy by ELISA and ELISA inhibition. Additionally, 16,408 allergic patients’ sera were tested for IgE binding to hevein, latex chitinase, and wheat germ agglutinin using an allergen microarray. Hevein-specific IgE was detected in 34/59 (58%) latex-allergic patients’ sera. HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were recognized by 21 (36%), 20 (34%), and 9 (15%) sera, respectively. In contrast, only one of 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy was sensitized to chitinase HLDs. In most tested latex-allergic patients’ sera, IgE binding to hevein was only partially reduced by preincubation with HLDs. Among hevein-sensitized, latex-allergic patients, the percentage of plant food allergy (15/34 = 44%) was equal to latex-allergic patients without hevein sensitization (11/25 = 44%). In the general allergic population, 230 of 16,408 sera (1.4%) reacted to hevein and/or a hevein-like allergen. Of these, 128 sera showed an isolated sensitization to hevein, whereas only 17 bound to latex chitinase or wheat germ agglutinin without hevein sensitization. In conclusion, the IgE response to HLDs is elicited by hevein as sensitizing allergen in most cases. Despite considerable cross-reactivity between these allergens, no

  6. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders.

  7. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded.

  8. Predicting a contact's sensitivity to initial conditions using metrics of frictional coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Flicek, Robert C.; Hills, David A.; Brake, Matthew Robert W.

    2016-09-29

    This paper presents a method for predicting how sensitive a frictional contact’s steady-state behavior is to its initial conditions. Previous research has proven that if a contact is uncoupled, i.e. if slip displacements do not influence the contact pressure distribution, then its steady-state response is independent of initial conditions, but if the contact is coupled, the steady-state response depends on initial conditions. In this paper, two metrics for quantifying coupling in discrete frictional systems are examined. These metrics suggest that coupling is dominated by material dissimilarity due to Dundurs’ composite material parameter β when β ≥ 0.2, but geometric mismatch becomes the dominant source of coupling for smaller values of β. Based on a large set of numerical simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients, a contact’s sensitivity to initial conditions is found to be correlated with the product of the coupling metric and the friction coefficient. For cyclic shear loading, this correlation is maintained for simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients. Furthermore, for cyclic bulk loading, the correlation is only maintained when the contact edge angle is held constant.

  9. Predicting a contact's sensitivity to initial conditions using metrics of frictional coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Flicek, Robert C.; Hills, David A.; Brake, Matthew Robert W.

    2016-09-29

    This paper presents a method for predicting how sensitive a frictional contact’s steady-state behavior is to its initial conditions. Previous research has proven that if a contact is uncoupled, i.e. if slip displacements do not influence the contact pressure distribution, then its steady-state response is independent of initial conditions, but if the contact is coupled, the steady-state response depends on initial conditions. In this paper, two metrics for quantifying coupling in discrete frictional systems are examined. These metrics suggest that coupling is dominated by material dissimilarity due to Dundurs’ composite material parameter β when β ≥ 0.2, but geometric mismatchmore » becomes the dominant source of coupling for smaller values of β. Based on a large set of numerical simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients, a contact’s sensitivity to initial conditions is found to be correlated with the product of the coupling metric and the friction coefficient. For cyclic shear loading, this correlation is maintained for simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients. Furthermore, for cyclic bulk loading, the correlation is only maintained when the contact edge angle is held constant.« less

  10. Oral administration of paeoniflorin attenuates allergic contact dermatitis by inhibiting dendritic cell migration and Th1 and Th17 differentiation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongmei; Li, Xuefeng; Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Quanjing; Shen, Yongnian; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Zheng, Hailin; Lu, Guixia; Qiu, Ying; Liu, Weida

    2015-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a hapten-specific CD4(+) T-cells mediated inflammatory response of the skin. Its pathomechanism involves 2 phases, an induction phase and an elicitation phase. Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin play key roles in presenting low molecular weight chemicals (haptens) to the lymph nodes. Therefore, inhibition of the migration of LCs or DCs and T-cell proliferation is each expected to control ACD disease. To explore the effectiveness of paeoniflorin (PF) on the migration of LCs and T-cell proliferation in vivo, we establish a murine model of ACD, promoted by repeated exposure to an allergen (specifically 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)). Administration of PF inhibits DC migration in this DNCB-induced model in the induction phase. As a result, epidermal LC density in the elicitation phase increased in PF-treated mice when compared to PF-untreated mice. At the same time, PF reduced IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) and IL-17(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation (but not IL-4(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation), leading to an attenuated cutaneous inflammatory response. Consistent with this T-cell proliferation profile, secretions of IFN-γ and IL-17 were reduced and IL-10 secretion increased in PF-treated mice, but production of IL-4 and IL-5 remained unchanged in the skin and blood samples. These results suggest that oral administration of PF can treat and prevent ACD effectively through inhibition of DC migration, and thus decrease the capacity of DCs to stimulate Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  11. Total glucosides of paeony inhibit the inflammatory responses of mice with allergic contact dermatitis by restoring the balanced secretion of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Yuan, Jun; Wu, Hua-Xun; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Tong; Wu, Yu-Jing; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Jun; Wei, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the regulation exerted by the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocytes of mice with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD in mice was induced by the repeated application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to their skins. The mice were orally administered TGP (35, 70, and 140mg/kg/d) and prednisone (Pre, 5mg/kg/d) from day 1 to day 7 after immunization. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by ear swelling and histological examination. Thymocyte proliferation was assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide assay. The cytokine production in the serum and lymphocytes supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the topical application of DNCB to the skin provoked obvious inflammatory responses. The oral administration of TGP (70 and 140mg/kg/d) and Pre (5mg/kg/d) significantly inhibited skin inflammation, decreased the thymus and spleen indices, and inhibited thymocyte proliferation in mice treated with DNCB. Further study indicated that TGP increased IL-4 and IL-10 production but decreased the production of IL-2 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocyte supernatant. The correlation analysis suggested significantly positive correlations between IL-2 and IL-17 production and the severity of skin inflammation, whereas negative correlations were obtained for IL-4 and IL-10 production and skin inflammation. In summary, these results suggest that the therapeutic effects of TGP on ACD may result from its regulation of the imbalanced secretion of IL-2/IL-4 and IL-10/IL-17.

  12. Adelmidrol increases the endogenous concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide in canine keratinocytes and down-regulates an inflammatory reaction in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, S; Puigdemont, A; Della Valle, M F; Fusco, M; Verde, R; Allarà, M; Aveta, T; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential new target(s)/mechanism(s) for the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, adelmidrol, and its role in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis. Freshly isolated canine keratinocytes, human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, wild-type or transfected with cDNA encoding for N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA), were treated with adelmidrol or azelaic acid, and the concentrations of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and related mediators (PEA and oleoylethanolamide) were measured. The mRNA expression of PEA catabolic enzymes (NAAA and fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH), and biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1, was also measured. Brain or HEK-293 cell membrane fractions were used to assess the ability of adelmidrol to inhibit FAAH and NAAA activity, respectively. HaCaT cells were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2), was measured in the presence of adelmidrol. Adelmidrol increased PEA concentrations in canine keratinocytes and in the other cellular systems studied. It did not inhibit the activity of PEA catabolic enzymes, although it reduced their mRNA expression in some cell types. Adelmidrol modulated the expression of PEA biosynthetic enzyme, NAPE-PLD, in HaCaT cells, and inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-2 from stimulated HaCaT cells. This study demonstrates for the first time an 'entourage effect' of adelmidrol on PEA concentrations in keratinocytes and suggests that this effect might mediate, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound in veterinary practice.

  13. Investigation of the sensitivity to EAC of steel T91 in contact with liquid LBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gabriele, F.; Doubková, A.; Hojná, A.

    2008-06-01

    The ferritic-martensitic steel T91 is one of the most promising material for application in the generation IV type reactors. However, there are critical issues, such as the susceptibility to damage of the steel in contact with the heavy liquid metals and their effect on the mechanical properties of structural materials. In this context, it was initiated a study of the boundary conditions, necessary to ascertain the sensitivity of the T91 to environmentally assisted cracking when loaded in contact with the liquid lead-bismuth eutectic. A series of tensile tests were carried out in a cell where the specimens were immersed in static LBE. Results showed that at high temperature the steel in contact with the liquid metal had a slight decrease of yield and UTS value and a marked increase in the elongation to rupture. However, at low temperature the elongation to rupture and the reduction of area decreased, indicating the sensitivity to EAC.

  14. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846

  15. [The allergic risk in agriculture: current situation and specific high-risk areas].

    PubMed

    Previdi, M; Brambilla, G

    2012-01-01

    Contradictory aspects apparently coexist in relation to the causes of bronchial allergic inflammation in agriculture. It's worth notion that either exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxins or exposure to molecular patterns play a role in such a pathology; in particular endotoxins should protect against the onset of allergic diseases. Likewise, the exposure to pesticides would not lead to allergic asthma, but could facilitate the onset of pollinosis and contact dermatitis in gardeners. Moreover, the risk of anaphylaxis from bee sting would be lower in repeatedly bitten beekeepers if compared to sensitized and less exposed population, while atopy by itself is not evaluable as a risk factor for sensitization to hymenoptera. In conclusion either frequency and strength of exposure or distinctive feature of the subject are able to determine the occurrence of allergic disease in an almost different manner.

  16. Tregs and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Douglas S.; Larché, Mark; Durham, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing in prevalence and affect up to 15% of populations in Westernized countries. The description of Tregs as T cells that prevent development of autoimmune disease led to considerable interest in whether these Tregs were also normally involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens and whether it might be possible to manipulate Tregs for the therapy of allergic disease. Current data suggest that Th2 responses to allergens are normally suppressed by both CD4+CD25+ Tregs and IL-10 Tregs. Furthermore, suppression by these subsets is decreased in allergic individuals. In animal models, Tregs could be induced by high- or low-dose inhaled antigen, and prior induction of such Tregs prevented subsequent development of allergen sensitization and airway inflammation in inhaled challenge models. For many years, allergen-injection immunotherapy has been used for the therapy of allergic disease, and this treatment may induce IL-10 Tregs, leading to both suppression of Th2 responses and a switch from IgE to IgG4 antibody production. Improvements in allergen immunotherapy, such as peptide therapy, and greater understanding of the biology of Tregs hold great promise for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease. PMID:15545986

  17. Development of an in vitro method to estimate the sensitization induction level of contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Valentina; Papale, Angela; Marinovich, Marina; Gibbs, Sue; Roggen, Erwin; Corsini, Emanuela

    2017-04-05

    No standardized in vitro methods to assess potency of skin sensitizers are available. Recently, we standardized a procedure which combines the epidermal equivalent potency assay with assessment of IL-18 to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizers. This current study aimed to extend tested chemicals, and to provide a simple in vitro method for estimation of the expected sensitization induction level interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 values to predict LLNA EC3 and/or human NOEL from standards curves generated using reference contact allergens. Reconstituted human epidermis was challenged with 14 chemicals not previously tested benzoquinone, chlorpromazine, chloramine T, benzyl salicylate, diethyl maleate, dihydroeugenol, 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene, benzyl cinnamate, imidazolidinyl urea, and limonene as contact sensitizers while benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, dimethyl isophthalate and 4-aminobenzoic acid as non-sensitizers in the LLNA. Where for benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate no sensitization was observed in human predictive studies, positive responses to benzyl alcohol and dimethyl isophthalate were reported. The proposed method correlates better with human data, correctly predicting substances incorrectly classified by LLNA. With the exception of benzoquinone (interference with both MTT and IL-18 ELISA), and chloramine T (underestimated in the interpolation), a good estimation of LLNA EC3 and in vivo available human NOEL values was obtained.

  18. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement–a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Dullin, C.; Markus, M. A.; Larsson, E.; Tromba, G.; Hülsmann, S.; Alves, F.

    2016-01-01

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy. PMID:27805632

  19. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement-a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models.

    PubMed

    Dullin, C; Markus, M A; Larsson, E; Tromba, G; Hülsmann, S; Alves, F

    2016-11-02

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy.

  20. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement–a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullin, C.; Markus, M. A.; Larsson, E.; Tromba, G.; Hülsmann, S.; Alves, F.

    2016-11-01

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy.

  1. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... conjunctivitis is not contagious.Some common allergens include:Pollen fromtrees, grass and ragweedAnimal skin andsecretions such as ... symptoms. For example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold ...

  2. Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Margaret M.; Day, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the result of an immediate hypersensitivity immune response of the nasal mucosa to one or more allergens. Clinical features may be indistinguishable from non-allergic rhinitis. Accurate diagnosis demands specialized laboratory investigations, meticulous history and careful physical examination. Management includes control of allergen and irritant exposures, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Recent development of intranasal corticosteroid aerosols has significantly reduced morbidity. Modified allergens for immunotherapy show promise but require further study. PMID:21286562

  3. rApi m 3 and rApi m 10 improve detection of honey bee sensitization in Hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with double sensitization to honey bee and yellow jacket venom.

    PubMed

    Frick, M; Müller, S; Bantleon, F; Huss-Marp, J; Lidholm, J; Spillner, E; Jakob, T

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant allergens improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA), in particular in patients with double sensitization to both honey bee (HBV) and yellow jacket venom (YJV). While currently available vespid allergens allow the detection of >95% of YJV-allergic patients, the sensitization frequency to the only available HBV marker allergen rApi m 1 in HBV-allergic patients is lower. Here, we demonstrate that sIgE to additional HBV marker allergens rApi m 3 and rApi m 10 allows the detection of genuine HBV sensitization in 46-65% of Api m 1 negative sera. This is of particular relevance in patients with double sensitization to HBV and YJV that did not identify the culprit insect. Addition of sIgE to rApi m 3 and rApi m 10 provides evidence of HBV sensitization in a large proportion of rApi m 1-negative patients and thus provides a diagnostic marker and rationale for VIT treatment with HBV, which otherwise would have been missing.

  4. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR.

  5. Osteopontin and allergic disease: pathophysiology and implications for diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Denis F; Weiss, Johannes M

    2011-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoglycoprotein that is expressed by various immune cells in a secreted and intracellular form. It has cytokine, chemotactic and cell signaling functions enhancing Th1 and Th17 immunity and protects against apoptosis. Recent studies found OPN to be modulatory in cell-mediated and immediate-type allergic diseases. In allergic asthma, OPN enhances sensitization but downmodulates Th2-driven IL-4-dominated inflammation. The finding that OPN expression is augmented during specific immunotherapy supports a Th2 suppressive effect of OPN. In Th1-driven delayed-type allergy, such as allergic contact dermatitis, OPN supports dendritic cell migration and IL-12 expression and is secreted by T effector cells and keratinocytes, augmenting Th1-mediated allergy and supporting disease chronification. There are numerous missing links as to how OPN variants modulate allergic inflammation through different OPN receptors. OPN research in allergy is an interesting, rapidly expanding field that has high potential for translational research.

  6. Blockade of ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression and inhibits allergic inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiuqin; Li, Xing; Tao, Shuhua; Xu, Minghui; Ma, Hongmei; Wang, Xiuli

    2013-07-01

    Ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein (ARMS), also known as kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), is a transmembrane protein that has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma through the nerve growth factor (NGF)/tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor signaling pathway. To investigate whether NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is activated in airway inflammation of asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The effects of Kidins220/ARMS on ERK, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lung tissues following the allergic airway challenge in mice were assessed by administering anti-ARMS antibody to the mice. Pathological changes in the bronchi and lung tissues were examined via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-α levels were determined using western blot analysis and ELISA and were found to be overexpressed in lung tissues following the allergen challenge. Moreover, after the mice were treated with anti-NGF, anti-TrkA or anti-ARMS, the levels of Kidins220/ARMS, phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α and allergen-induced airway inflammation were downregulated. These results suggested that NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-ERK signaling was activated in airway inflammation induced by the allergic airway challenge, possibly representing a new mechanism in asthma.

  7. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  8. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  9. Participation of iNKT cells in the early and late components of Tc1-mediated DNFB contact sensitivity: cooperative role of γδ-T cells.

    PubMed

    Askenase, P W; Majewska-Szczepanik, M; Kerfoot, S; Szczepanik, M

    2011-05-01

    Prior studies of classical 24 h responses in TNP-Cl (picryl chloride) allergic contact sensitivity (CS), showed mediation by Th1 cells in CBA mice, and established that 24 h elicitation of responses requires an early 2 h CS-initiating component dependent on iNKT cells, IL-4 and B-1 B cells. Here, we studied the other form of cytotoxic T cell (Tc1) CS in DNFB sensitized BALB/c mice and determined that similar CS-initiation also is required. We systematically tested each step of the initiation pathway in this model. Thus, DNFB Tc1 CS was significantly impaired in iNKT cell deficient CD1d(-/-) and Jα18(-/-) mice, IL4Rα(-/-) and STAT-6(-/-) mice, and also in pan B-cell deficient JH(-/-) mice. Further, the Tc1 DNFB CS-initiating component, like Th1 response to TNP-Cl, was elicited by only 1-day after immunization, due to B-1 cells. In summary, we show that CS-Initiation also is required in Tc1 CS. Further, we have newly determined regulatory support of both the early and late components of DNFB induced Tc1 CS by iNKT cells and γδ-T cells. In summary, both iNKT cells and assisting γδ-T cells are involved in initiating and effector phases of DNFB induced CS.

  10. Classical nucleation theory of immersion freezing: sensitivity of contact angle schemes to thermodynamic and kinetic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickes, Luisa; Welti, André; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    Heterogeneous ice formation by immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds can be parameterized in general circulation models (GCMs) by classical nucleation theory (CNT). CNT parameterization schemes describe immersion freezing as a stochastic process, including the properties of insoluble aerosol particles in the droplets. There are different ways to parameterize the properties of aerosol particles (i.e., contact angle schemes), which are compiled and tested in this paper. The goal of this study is to find a parameterization scheme for GCMs to describe immersion freezing with the ability to shift and adjust the slope of the freezing curve compared to homogeneous freezing to match experimental data. We showed in a previous publication that the resulting freezing curves from CNT are very sensitive to unconstrained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters in the case of homogeneous freezing. Here we investigate how sensitive the outcome of a parameter estimation for contact angle schemes from experimental data is to unconstrained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. We demonstrate that the parameters describing the contact angle schemes can mask the uncertainty in thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. Different CNT formulations are fitted to an extensive immersion freezing dataset consisting of size-selected measurements as a function of temperature and time for different mineral dust types, namely kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, microcline (K-feldspar), and Arizona test dust. We investigated how accurate different CNT formulations (with estimated fit parameters for different contact angle schemes) reproduce the measured freezing data, especially the time and particle size dependence of the freezing process. The results are compared to a simplified deterministic freezing scheme. In this context, we evaluated which CNT-based parameterization scheme able to represent particle properties is the best choice to describe immersion freezing in a GCM.

  11. Contact Dermatitis Due to Nickel Allergy in Patients Suffering from Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    D’Alcamo, Alberto; Mansueto, Pasquale; Soresi, Maurizio; Iacobucci, Rosario; La Blasca, Francesco; Geraci, Girolamo; Cavataio, Francesca; Fayer, Francesca; Arini, Andrea; Di Stefano, Laura; Iacono, Giuseppe; Bosco, Liana; Carroccio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is a new clinical entity in the world of gluten-related diseases. Nickel, the most frequent cause of contact allergy, can be found in wheat and results in systemic nickel allergy syndrome and mimics irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Objective: To evaluate the frequency of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy in NCWS patients diagnosed by a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenge, and to identify the characteristics of NCWS patients with nickel allergy. Methods: We performed a prospective study of 60 patients (54 females, 6 males; mean age 34.1 ± 8.1 years) diagnosed with NCWS from December 2014 to November 2016; 80 age- and sex-matched subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms served as controls. Patients reporting contact dermatitis related to nickel-containing objects underwent nickel patch test (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02750735). Results: Six out of sixty patients (10%) with NCWS suffered from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy and this frequency was statistically higher (p = 0.04) than observed in the control group (5%). The main clinical characteristic of NCWS patients with nickel allergy was a higher frequency of cutaneous symptoms after wheat ingestion compared to NCWS patients who did not suffer from nickel allergy (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Contact dermatitis and nickel allergy are more frequent in NCWS patients than in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders; furthermore, these patients had a very high frequency of cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. Nickel allergy should be evaluated in NCWS patients who have cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. PMID:28157173

  12. The Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Samuel O.

    1964-01-01

    Allergic inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, like other atopic disorders, occurs primarily as the result of an antigenantibody reaction between external allergens and circulating skin-sensitizing antibodies. In addition, the disease process is frequently complicated by bacterial or viral infection. Effective treatment of allergic rhinitis, therefore, consists of: (1) changing the patient's environment in order to remove the offending allergens, (2) removing the patient from his environment, (3) altering the patient's response to environmental allergens by means of hyposensitization injections, (4) suppressing the allergic reaction with drugs, and (5) eliminating bacterial infection. Usually more than one of these therapeutic measures is required for the individual patient. PMID:14175878

  13. A high-throughput contact-hole resolution metric for photoresists:Full-process sensitivity study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2008-01-22

    The ability to accurately quantify the intrinsic resolution of chemically amplified photoresists is critical for the optimization of resists for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Iithography. We have recently reported on two resolution metrics that have been shown to extract resolution numbers consistent with direct observation. In this paper we examine the previously reported contact-hole resolution metric and explore the sensitivity of the metric to potential error sources associated with the experimental side of the resolution extraction process. For EUV exposures at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool, we report a full-process error-bar in extracted resolution of 1.75 nm RMS and verify this result experimentally.

  14. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  15. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products.

  16. High proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells in neonates are positively associated with allergic sensitization later in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Strömbeck, A; Rabe, H; Lundell, A-C; Andersson, K; Johansen, S; Adlerberth, I; Wold, A E; Hesselmar, B; Rudin, A

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the prevention against sensitization and allergy development is controversial. Objective We followed 65 newborn Swedish children from farming and non-farming families from birth to 3 years of age and investigated the relation between CD4+ T cell subsets in blood samples and development of sensitization and allergic disease. Methods The proportions of FOXP3+CD25high, CTLA-4+CD25+, CD45RO+, HLA-DR+, CCR4+ or α4β7+ within the CD4+ T cell population were examined by flow cytometry of blood samples at several time-points. Mononuclear cells were isolated from blood and stimulated with birch allergen, ovalbumin or the mitogen PHA, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-13 were measured. A clinical evaluation regarding the presence of allergen-specific IgE and allergy was performed at 18 and 36 months of age. Results Multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that children who were sensitized at 18 or 36 months of age had higher proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells at birth and at 3 days of life than children who remained non-sensitized, whereas allergy was unrelated to the neonatal proportions of these cells. The proportions of CTLA-4+CD25+ T cells were unrelated to both sensitization and allergy. The association between higher proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells and sensitization persisted after exclusion of farmer's children. Finally, a farming environment was associated with lower proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells in early infancy and to a more prominent T cell memory conversion and cytokine production. Conclusion & Clinical Relevance Our results indicate that high proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells in neonates are not protective against later sensitization or development of allergy. PMID:24528482

  17. Allergic vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to blood vessels, primarily in the skin. Causes Hypersensitivity vasculitis is caused by an allergic reaction to ... affects people older than age 15. Often, the cause of the problem cannot be found even with ... vasculitis may look like necrotizing vasculitis , which can ...

  18. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in the UK, 2004-2005: results of multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Jong, Cherng T; Statham, Barry N; Green, Cathy M; King, Codagh M; Gawkrodger, David J; Sansom, Jane E; English, John S C; Wilkinson, S Mark; Ormerod, Anthony D; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U

    2007-09-01

    Preservative sensitivity in the UK was last assessed in 2000. Given the changes in preservative usage, we have re-evaluated our patch test data in order to detect any changes in the trend of sensitization. The results of patch testing using the extended British Contact Dermatitis Society Standard series were collected from 9 dermatology centres in the UK. Positive reactions to each of 10 preservative allergens were captured together with the MOAHFLA indices for each centre. In total, 6958 patients were tested during the period 2004-2005. The current data were compared with previously published data. Formaldehyde and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methyl-isothiazolinone have the highest positivity rates at 2.0% and chloroxylenol the lowest at 0.2%. Parabens mix has the highest irritancy rate. Compared with the UK data in 2000, the positivity rate of imidazolidinyl urea (0.02 < P < 0.05) has significantly increased and that of methyldibromo glutaronitrile has significantly reduced (P < 0.001).

  19. Voltage sensitivity of a point-contact GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction microwave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sužiedėlis, A.; Ašmontas, S.; Kundrotas, J.; Nargelienė, V.; Gradauskas, J.

    2012-03-01

    The detection properties of a microwave detector containing a point-contact GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction were investigated in the X to Ka frequency range. The detector had a small-area GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction connected in series with small- and large-area n-n+ homojunctions. Both theoretically and experimentally, the frequency dependence of the voltage sensitivity of the microwave detector was established, which we relate with the intervalley electromotive force arising in Al0.3Ga0.7As. The intervalley electromotive force is expressed using phenomenological electron transport theory in a many-valley semiconductor, and an intervalley relaxation time of 20 ps is estimated using the frequency dependence of the detector voltage sensitivity.

  20. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  1. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Susan; Corsini, Emanuela; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Galbiati, Valentina; Fuchs, Horst W.; DeGeorge, George; Troese, Matthew; Hayden, Patrick; Deng, Wei; Roggen, Erwin

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low water solubility or stability. A protocol was developed using different 3D-epidermal models including in house VUMC model, epiCS® (previously EST1000™), MatTek EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic™ RHE and also the impact of different vehicles (acetone:olive oil 4:1, 1% DMSO, ethanol, water) was investigated. Following topical exposure for 24 h to 17 contact allergens and 13 non-sensitizers a robust increase in IL-18 release was observed only after exposure to contact allergens. A putative prediction model is proposed from data obtained from two laboratories yielding 95% accuracy. Correlating the in vitro EE sensitizer potency data, which assesses the chemical concentration which results in 50% cytotoxicity (EE-EC{sub 50}) with human and animal data showed a superior correlation with human DSA{sub 05} (μg/cm{sup 2}) data (Spearman r = 0.8500; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0061) compared to LLNA data (Spearman r = 0.5968; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0542). DSA{sub 05} = induction dose per skin area that produces a positive response in 5% of the tested population Also a good correlation was observed for release of IL-18 (SI-2) into culture supernatants with human DSA{sub 05} data (Spearman r = 0.8333; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0154). This easily transferable human in vitro assay appears to be very promising, but additional testing of a larger chemical set with the different EE models is required to fully evaluate the utility of this assay and to establish a definitive prediction model. - Highlights: • A potential epidermal equivalent assay to label and classify sensitizers • Il-18 release distinguishes sensitizers from non sensitizers • IL-18 release can rank sensitizer potency

  2. Evaluation of touch-sensitive screen tablet terminal button size and spacing accounting for effect of fingertip contact angle.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, T; Doi, K; Fujimoto, H

    2015-08-01

    Touch-sensitive screen terminals enabling intuitive operation are used as input interfaces in a wide range of fields. Tablet terminals are one of the most common devices with a touch-sensitive screen. They have a feature of good portability, enabling use under various conditions. On the other hand, they require a GUI designed to prevent decrease of usability under various conditions. For example, the angle of fingertip contact with the display changes according to finger posture during operation and how the case is held. When a human fingertip makes contact with an object, the contact area between the fingertip and contact object increases or decreases as the contact angle changes. A touch-sensitive screen detects positions using the change in capacitance of the area touched by the fingertip; hence, differences in contact area between the touch-sensitive screen and fingertip resulting from different forefinger angles during operation could possibly affect operability. However, this effect has never been studied. We therefore conducted an experiment to investigate the relationship between size/spacing and operability, while taking the effect of fingertip contact angle into account. As a result, we have been able to specify the button size and spacing conditions that enable accurate and fast operation regardless of the forefinger contact angle.

  3. Contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets to the cytokine secretion patterns induced in mice during sensitization to contact and respiratory chemical allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Dearman, R J; Moussavi, A; Kemeny, D M; Kimber, I

    1996-01-01

    Chemical allergens of different types, those that cause in humans allergic contact dermatitis or occupational asthma induce in mice divergent immune responses characteristic, respectively, of T-helper 1 (Th1)- and Th2-type cell activation. Such responses are associated with the development of different cytokine secretion patterns by draining lymph node cells (LNC), such that contact allergens stimulate vigorous interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, but little secretion of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 (IL-4 and IL-10), whereas the converse pattern is provoked by respiratory allergens. Using selective depletion with antibody and complement we have here examined the relative contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes to the cytokine secretion patterns of draining LNC isolated from mice sensitized to chemical allergens. Mice received repeated topical applications of respiratory allergens, trimellitic anhydride (TMA) or diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), or of contact allergens 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or formaldehyde. Thirteen days following the initiation of exposure the production by draining LNC of IL-10, IFN-gamma and mitogen (concanavalin A)-inducible IL-4 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after various periods of culture. It was found that the high levels of IL-4 and IL-10 secretion stimulated by TMA or MDI, and the lower levels of these cytokines induced by DNCB or formaldehyde, were in all cases dependent upon the presence of CD4- cells. In contrast, the comparatively high concentrations of IFN-gamma observed following exposure to contact allergens were found to be derived from CD4+ cells, and in the case of DNCB from CD8+ cells also. The low levels of IFN-gamma induced by treatment with TMA or MDI were associated largely or wholly with CD8+ cells. These data indicate that the type 2 cytokine responses induced to different extents by both contact and respiratory chemical allergens are almost exclusively

  4. Characteristics of Allergic Pulmonary Inflammation in CXCR3Knockout Mice Sensitized and Challenged with House Dust Mite Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaolan; Gao, Jinming; Guo, Zijian

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3) is a chemokine receptor that is mainly expressed by activated T lymphocytes. T cells play important roles in allergic pulmonary inflammation, which is a hallmark of asthma and elicits the localized accumulation of activated T cells in the lung. In China, a marked increase in the incidence rate of chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation has made it a major public health threat. In the present study, we investigated the role of CXCR3 and its ligands in airway inflammation induced by house dust mite protein (HDMP) in a CXCR3 knockout (CXCR3KO) asthma mouse model. Pathological manifestations in the lung, cell counts and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) classifications were studied using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the BALF and splenocyte supernatants were measured using ELISA. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lung and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. RT-PCR was applied to measure the mRNA transcript levels of monokines induced by IFN-γ(CXCL9) and IFN-γ inducible protein 10(CXCL10). The total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and IL-4 levels in the BALF and cultured splenocyte supernatants were significantly increased, while the levels of IFN-γ were reduced in the HDMP groups(P<0.01). Changes in the total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and lymphocyte counts, as well as the total protein levels in the BALF, the levels of IL-4 in splenocyte supernatants, and the pathological manifestations in the lung, were all greater in CXCR3KO mice than in C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Furthermore, the expression levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNA transcripts in the lungs of CXCR3KO mice were lower than those in C57BL/6 wild-type mice (P<0.05). CXCR3 and its ligands (i.e., CXCL9 and CXCL10) may play anti-inflammatory roles in this animal model. Promoting the expression of CXCR3 and its ligands may represent a novel therapeutic approach for preventing and curing asthma. PMID:27727269

  5. Prevention of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1994-08-01

    Allergic disease produces substantial pediatric morbidity and individual dysfunction, making its mechanisms an appropriate target for clarification and preventive strategies. Disease expression seems to reflect a constellation of determinants that controls IgE production variably, affects specific function of target organs, and determines exposure to putative allergens. Bases for the two former factors are being defined rapidly and appear to be controlled genetically. Therefore, although stronger eugenic motivation will be required to exploit even present information for effective prevention, parental phenotypes can provide a rough indication of postconceptive risk. Despite many divergent data, current evidence fails to support the value of gestational strategies undertaken to prevent allergic disease in the newborn; however, this risk apparently may be reduced by avoiding postnatal allergens. The protection afforded seems to be allergen-specific rather than somehow serving to abate "the allergic tendency." Evidence increasingly is persuasive that sensitization to pollens, foods, and possibly other agents is prone to occur in the first 6 to 12 months of life. Strategies that exclude potent food allergens from the diets of high-risk infants appear to reduce the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, but seem far less able to influence respiratory symptoms. Efforts to limit exposure to potent inhalant allergens (eg, dust mites, animal "danders") are now also feasible and offer quite effective secondary and, perhaps, primary prevention. Trials of these strategies and clarification of other domestic contaminant effects on child health offer "homely" but valid and potentially useful approaches to reducing the impact of allergic disease.

  6. A Wirelessly Powered Smart Contact Lens with Reconfigurable Wide Range and Tunable Sensitivity Sensor Readout Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Liou, Wei-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai

    2017-01-01

    This study presented a wireless smart contact lens system that was composed of a reconfigurable capacitive sensor interface circuitry and wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID) addressable system for sensor control and data communication. In order to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort, a capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available bio-compatible lens material and a standard manufacturing process. The results indicated that the reconfigurable sensor interface achieved sensitivity and baseline tuning up to 120 pF while consuming only 110 μW power. The range and sensitivity tuning of the readout circuitry ensured a reliable operation with respect to sensor fabrication variations and independent calibration of the sensor baseline for individuals. The on-chip voltage scaling allowed the further extension of the detection range and prevented the implementation of large on-chip elements. The on-lens system enabled the detection of capacitive variation caused by pressure changes in the range of 2.25 to 30 mmHg and hydration level variation from a distance of 1 cm using incident power from an RFID reader at 26.5 dBm. PMID:28067859

  7. A Wirelessly Powered Smart Contact Lens with Reconfigurable Wide Range and Tunable Sensitivity Sensor Readout Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Liou, Wei-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai

    2017-01-07

    This study presented a wireless smart contact lens system that was composed of a reconfigurable capacitive sensor interface circuitry and wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID) addressable system for sensor control and data communication. In order to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort, a capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available bio-compatible lens material and a standard manufacturing process. The results indicated that the reconfigurable sensor interface achieved sensitivity and baseline tuning up to 120 pF while consuming only 110 μW power. The range and sensitivity tuning of the readout circuitry ensured a reliable operation with respect to sensor fabrication variations and independent calibration of the sensor baseline for individuals. The on-chip voltage scaling allowed the further extension of the detection range and prevented the implementation of large on-chip elements. The on-lens system enabled the detection of capacitive variation caused by pressure changes in the range of 2.25 to 30 mmHg and hydration level variation from a distance of 1 cm using incident power from an RFID reader at 26.5 dBm.

  8. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  9. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  10. Blockade of ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression and inhibits allergic inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    NI, XIUQIN; LI, XING; TAO, SHUHUA; XU, MINGHUI; MA, HONGMEI; WANG, XIULI

    2013-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein (ARMS), also known as kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), is a transmembrane protein that has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma through the nerve growth factor (NGF)/tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor signaling pathway. To investigate whether NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is activated in airway inflammation of asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The effects of Kidins220/ARMS on ERK, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lung tissues following the allergic airway challenge in mice were assessed by administering anti-ARMS antibody to the mice. Pathological changes in the bronchi and lung tissues were examined via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-α levels were determined using western blot analysis and ELISA and were found to be overexpressed in lung tissues following the allergen challenge. Moreover, after the mice were treated with anti-NGF, anti-TrkA or anti-ARMS, the levels of Kidins220/ARMS, phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α and allergen-induced airway inflammation were downregulated. These results suggested that NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-ERK signaling was activated in airway inflammation induced by the allergic airway challenge, possibly representing a new mechanism in asthma. PMID:24649008

  11. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species.

  12. Nasal sodium cromoglycate (Lomusol) modulates the early phase reaction of mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mite: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Margaux; Lefebvre, Philipe P; Delvenne, Philippe; El-Shazly, Amr E

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical improvement of patients with mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) due to mono-sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen, by sodium cromoglycate nasal spray (Lomusol 4%). Lomusol was used as a single agent treatment, and its anti-inflammatory effects, in the early phase reaction were evaluated. Herein we showed that Lomusol significantly improved the subjective nasal symptom scores especially nasal obstruction. This was associated with significant and specific reduction in neutrophils influx in nasal cytology but had no effect on other cell types. This selective anti-inflammatory effect on nasal cytology was associated with significant reduction in the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and histamine in nasal secretions but had no effect on PGD2, LTC4 or CysLt levels. Lomusol was also able to induce significant reduction in eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in nasal secretions without altering the percentage of eosinophil influx in nasal cytology. Taken collectively, we showed the first evidence that nasal sodium cromoglycate possesses a selective inhibition on neutrophil recruitment into nasal cytology in the early phase reaction of AR patients mono-sensitized to HDM. This may be attributed to the ability of Lomusol to significantly reduce the amount of PAF recovered in nasal secretion. These results were associated with significant improvement in subjective symptom scores especially nasal obstruction that may in addition, be due to the ability of Lomusol to down-regulate eosinophil degranulation activity as well.

  13. The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-06-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the left/right or upward/downward and judged whether the model's gaze was direct or averted to the left/right or upward/downward. The horizontal range of fixation positions leading to the perception of direct gaze (the cone of gaze) was more than 50% larger in 6-year-olds than in adults, but it was adult-like and smaller than the vertical cone of gaze by 8 years of age. The vertical cone of gaze was large and statistically adult-like by age 6, with only a small linear reduction thereafter. In all age groups, the horizontal cone of gaze was centered on the bridge of the participant's nose and the vertical cone was centered slightly below the participant's eye height. These findings indicate that until after age 6, relatively poor sensitivity to direct versus averted gaze limits children's ability to use gaze cues to make social judgments.

  14. Preventative and therapeutic probiotic use in allergic skin conditions: experimental and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Öner; Erol, Azize Yasemin Göksu

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist.

  15. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects. Current knowledge assembled at an international workshop at BfR, Germany.

    PubMed

    Peiser, M; Tralau, T; Heidler, J; Api, A M; Arts, J H E; Basketter, D A; English, J; Diepgen, T L; Fuhlbrigge, R C; Gaspari, A A; Johansen, J D; Karlberg, A T; Kimber, I; Lepoittevin, J P; Liebsch, M; Maibach, H I; Martin, S F; Merk, H F; Platzek, T; Rustemeyer, T; Schnuch, A; Vandebriel, R J; White, I R; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German 'Federal Institute for Risk Assessment' hosted an 'International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis'. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments in the field of contact dermatitis. This included the epidemiology and molecular biology of contact allergy, as well as the development of new in vitro methods. Furthermore, it considered regulatory aspects aiming to reduce exposure to contact sensitisers. An estimated 15-20% of the general population suffers from contact allergy. Workplace exposure, age, sex, use of consumer products and genetic predispositions were identified as the most important risk factors. Research highlights included: advances in understanding of immune responses to contact sensitisers, the importance of autoxidation or enzyme-mediated oxidation for the activation of chemicals, the mechanisms through which hapten-protein conjugates are formed and the development of novel in vitro strategies for the identification of skin-sensitising chemicals. Dendritic cell cultures and structure-activity relationships are being developed to identify potential contact allergens. However, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) presently remains the validated method of choice for hazard identification and characterisation. At the workshop the use of the LLNA for regulatory purposes and for quantitative risk assessment was also discussed.

  17. /sup 125/I-Fibrin deposition in contact sensitivity reactions in the mouse. Sensitivity of the assay for quantitating reactions after active or passive sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Mekori, Y.A.; Dvorak, H.F.; Galli, S.J.

    1986-03-15

    The clotting associated with delayed hypersensitivity (DH) responses in the mouse by sensitizing the animals to the contactant oxazolone (Ox), and then administering /sup 125/I-guinea pig fibrinogen i.v. 10 to 30 min before antigen challenge 5 days later. Early (4 to 8 hr) contact sensitivity (CS) responses in immunized mice were barely detectable by three conventional measures of CS, but the total /sup 125/I-cpm in ears challenged with hapten was 3.6 to 4.5 x that in control ears challenged with vehicle alone; moreover, the amount of urea-insoluble cpm (cross-linked /sup 125/I-fibrin-associated cpm) in the reactions to Ox was 6.5-fold to 8.2-fold that present in the control reactions. In 24 hr reactions that were near peak intensity by measurements of ear swelling, ear weight ratios, and ratios of /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled leukocyte infiltration, the cpm in antigen-challenged ears exceeded that in control ears by 13-fold to 53-fold. In addition, antigen-challenged ears contained 27 to 300 x the urea-insoluble cpm present in control ears. /sup 125/I-Fibrin deposition was not a specific characteristic of CS reactions, because a small amount of urea-insoluble reactivity was also detected in some reactions to Ox in native mice. Nevertheless, the assay was exquisitely sensitive and readily detected quantitative differences between the immunologically specific and nonspecific reactions at very early intervals after challenge or with suboptimal doses of antigen.

  18. In vitro and in vivo analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of weak and strong contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Lass, Christian; Merfort, Irmgard; Martin, Stefan F

    2010-11-01

    Inflammation is a crucial step in the development of allergic contact dermatitis. The primary contact with chemical allergens, called sensitization, and the secondary contact, called elicitation, result in an inflammatory response in the skin. The ability of contact allergens to induce allergic contact dermatitis correlates to a great extent with their inflammatory potential. Therefore, the analysis of the sensitizing potential of a putative contact allergen should include the examination of its ability and potency to cause an inflammation. In this study, we examined the inflammatory potential of different weak contact allergens and of the strong sensitizer 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) in vitro and in vivo using the contact hypersensitivity model, the mouse model for allergic contact dermatitis. Cytokine induction was analysed by PCR and ELISA to determine mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Inflammation-dependent recruitment of skin-homing effector T cells was measured in correlation with the other methods. We show that the sensitizing potential of a contact allergen correlates with the strength of the inflammatory response. The different methods used gave similar results. Quantitative cytokine profiling may be used to determine the sensitizing potential of chemicals for hazard identification and risk assessment.

  19. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  20. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  1. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-02-15

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  2. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  3. Cross-linking of β-lactoglobulin enhances allergic sensitization through changes in cellular uptake and processing.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Marija; Pieters, Raymond; Smit, Joost; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic

    2014-07-01

    Cross-linking of proteins has been exploited by the food industry to change food texture and functionality but the effects of these manipulations on food allergenicity still remain unclear. To model the safety assessment of these food biopolymers, we created cross-linked bovine β-lactoglobulin (CL-BLG) by laccase treatment. The purpose of the present study was to compare the immunogenicity and allergenicity of CL-BLG with native BLG in a mouse model of food allergy. First, BALB/c mice were intragastrically sensitized and orally challenged with BLG or CL-BLG and BLG-specific serum antibodies and splenic leukocyte cytokine production and cell proliferation were measured. Hereafter, epithelial protein uptake was monitored in vitro and in vivo and the effects of BLG cross-linking on interactions with dendritic cells were analyzed in vitro. Sensitization of mice with CL-BLG resulted in higher levels of IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a. In contrast, a subsequent oral challenge with CL-BLG resulted in lower mast cell degranulation. Cross-linking of BLG reduced its epithelial uptake but promoted sampling through Peyer's patches. Differences in endocytosis by dendritic cells (DCs) and in vitro endolysosomal processing were observed between BLG and CL-BLG. CL-BLG primed DCs induced higher Th2 response in vitro. Cross-linking of BLG increased its sensitizing capacity, implying that the assessment of highly polymerized food proteins is of clinical importance in food allergy. Moreover, manufacturers of foods or therapeutic proteins should pay considerate attention to the health risk of protein aggregation.

  4. [Periorbital contact eczema].

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Sterry, W

    2005-11-01

    Periorbital contact eczema is most commonly the result of an allergic contact dermatitis whereas other eczematous skin diseases like atopic eczema or seborrheic eczema occur less frequently. Also, other diseases like autoimmune disorders or rosacea need to be considered. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated immunological response towards ubiquitous contact allergens. Activated T-cells migrate through the vessels into the skin and produce several inflammatory mediators. Epicutaneous patch testing is an important tool for the diagnosis of contact allergy whereby the allergens are analysed in terms of their ability to induce eczematous skin reaction. Until now the short-term use of corticosteroids are is employed for the treatment of allergic contact eczema. Modern substances with an optimal therapeutic index should rather be used.

  5. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant.

  6. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bufalo, Aurelia; Bernad, Jose; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Francoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE{sub 2,} TxB{sub 2} and PGD{sub 2}), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE{sub 2} inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: > We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. > We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. > Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). > Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. > New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

  7. Any benefits of probiotics in allergic disorders?

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Oner

    2010-01-01

    Development of the child's immune system tends to be directed toward a T-helper 2 (Th2) phenotype in infants. To prevent development of childhood allergic/atopic diseases, immature Th2-dominant neonatal responses must undergo environment-driven maturation via microbial contact in the early postnatal period. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria are found more commonly in the composition of the intestinal flora of nonallergic children. Epidemiological data also showed that atopic children have a different intestinal flora from healthy children. Probiotics are ingested live health-promoting microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host; and enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against atopy. There is insufficient but very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis. Clinical improvement especially in allergic rhinitis and IgE-sensitized (atopic) eczema has been reported too. Literature data for food allergy/hypersensitivity and asthma are not adequate for this guaranteed conclusion; however, clinical benefit of probiotic therapy depends on numerous factors, such as type of bacterium, dosing regimen, delivery method, and other underlying host factors, e.g., the age and diet of the host. The selection of the most beneficial probiotic strain, the dose, and the timing of supplementation still need to be determined. Accordingly, probiotics can not be recommended generally for primary prevention of atopic disease; and if probiotics are used in atopic infants/children for any reason, such as therapy or prevention, cautionary approach ought to be taken.

  8. Exploring pH-Sensitive Hydrogels Using an Ionic Soft Contact Lens: An Activity Using Common Household Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; He, Yu-Chi; Yaung, Jing-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels of the so-called smart polymers or environment-sensitive polymers are important modern biomaterials. Herein, we describe a hands-on activity to explore the pH-responsive characteristics of hydrogels using a commercially available ionic soft contact lens that is a hydrogel of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-"co"-methacrylic…

  9. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P < 0.001). Our results in general indicate a low frequency of FLG null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  10. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  11. ER-mitochondria contacts control surface glycan expression and sensitivity to killer lymphocytes in glioma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Kasahara, Atsuko; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Boydell, Emma; Zamorano, Sebastian; Riccadonna, Cristina; Pellegatta, Serena; Hulo, Nicolas; Dutoit, Valérie; Derouazi, Madiha; Dietrich, Pierre Yves; Walker, Paul R; Martinvalet, Denis

    2017-03-10

    Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous aggressive primary brain tumor, with the glioma stem-like cells (GSC) being more sensitive to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing than glioma differentiated cells (GDC). However, the mechanism behind this higher sensitivity is unclear. Here, we found that the mitochondrial morphology of GSCs modulates the ER-mitochondria contacts that regulate the surface expression of sialylated glycans and their recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. GSCs displayed diminished ER-mitochondria contacts compared to GDCs. Forced ER-mitochondria contacts in GSCs increased their cell surface expression of sialylated glycans and reduced their susceptibility to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Therefore, mitochondrial morphology and dynamism dictate the ER-mitochondria contacts in order to regulate the surface expression of certain glycans and thus play a role in GSC recognition and elimination by immune effector cells. Targeting the mitochondrial morphology, dynamism, and contacts with the ER could be an innovative strategy to deplete the cancer stem cell compartment to successfully treat glioblastoma.

  12. [Allergic reactions caused by latex: warning to health workers].

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Lopes, M H

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a bibliographic survey is made of all articles, published during the last few years, dealing with allergic reactions to latex. The first article on allergic reactions associated with latex was published in Britain, in 1979. Since then, the number of cases reported have increased (Barton, 1993). Type I allergic reaction (immediate reaction) and Type IV (delayed reaction) are part of the latex allergic process (Steelman, 1995). Contact allergy is due to inadequate washing during manufacture, which results in the retention of water-soluble proteins that cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. A wide variety of allergic reactions that vary from contact dermatitis to anaphylatic shock are described in literature. These finding show that a health team must know the probable implications of latex allergy.

  13. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologic agents, or, finally, immunotherapy. Successful treatment requires accurate assessment of the offending agent and proper use of the above-mentioned modalities. PMID:21263880

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from cocamidopropyl betaine, cocamidoamine, 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine, and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine: co-reactions or cross-reactions?

    PubMed

    Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2004-09-01

    We present the case of a patient with facial dermatitis caused by sensitization to cocamidopropyl betaine. The patient also had positive patch-test reactions to cocamidoamine, 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine, and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine. The presence of 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine as an impurity in all of these substances can be hypothesized to explain these simultaneous reactions.

  15. Polyamine sensitization in offshore workers handling drilling muds.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, A D; Wakeel, R A; Mann, T A; Main, R A; Aldridge, R D

    1989-11-01

    Oil-based mud, a complex mixture containing amines in emulsifiers, is used in offshore drilling operations. It is a skin irritant that occasionally gives rise to allergic contact sensitivity. In patch testing patients with allergy to drilling mud, we have identified polyamine (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine) sensitivity in 5 patients. All 5 patients were also allergic to emulsifiers. These emulsifiers are cross-linked fatty acid amido-amines, in which unreacted amine groups are thought to cross-sensitize with these constituent polyamines. Cross-reactivity between ethylenediamine, diethylenetetramine and triethylenetetramine was found in 9 subjects.

  16. A microstructure sensitive study of rolling contact fatigue in bearing steels: A numerical and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandkar, Anup Surendra

    Bearings are an integral part of machine components that transmit rotary power such as cars, motors, engines etc. Safe bearing operation is essential to avoid serious failures and accidents, which necessitates their timely replacement. This calls for an accurate bearing life prediction methods. Based on the Lundberg-Palmgen (LP) model, current life models consistently under predict bearings lives. Improvement in life prediction requires understanding of the bearing failure mechanism i.e. Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF). The goal of this research is to develop a mechanistic framework required for an improved bearing life prediction model. Such model should account for metal plasticity, influence of microstructural features and cyclically evolving stressstrain fields induced during RCF. To achieve this, elastic-plastic finite element (FE) study is undertaken to investigate the response of M50-NiL bearing steel during RCF. Specifically, a microstructure sensitive study of the influence of non-metallic inclusions on RCF response of bearings is presented. M50-NiL microstructure consists of carbides which are orders of magnitude smaller than bearing dimensions. To account for this size difference, a multi-scale FE modeling approach is employed. The FE results reveal that hard carbide particles act as local stress risers, alter surrounding stressstrain fields and cause micro-scale yielding of steel matrix. Moreover, they introduce a shear stress cycle with non-zero mean stress, which promotes micro-plastic strain accumulation via ratcheting mechanism. Localized ratcheting is primarily responsible for cyclic hardening within the RCF affected region. Such evolution of subsurface hardness can be used to quantify RCF induced damage. To investigate this further, cyclic hardening response of the RCF affected region is simulated. The results show good agreement with the experimental observations. The cyclic stress-strain fields obtained from these simulations and the knowledge of

  17. Contact allergy to colophony. Chemical identifications of allergens, sensitization experiments and clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, A T

    1988-01-01

    Colophony (rosin) is a widespread material which is obtained from species of the family Pinaceae. It has a complex chemical composition, which differs depending mainly on the recovery process. The global production is about one million tons a year and the largest single consumption is in the sizing of paper and paper board. Rosin is a common cause of contact allergy and is included in the standard tray for patch testing at dermatological clinics. Unmodified gum rosin is the material mainly used in the routine series. It is desirable to test with identified allergens in order to make the testing and diagnosis more reliable and establish a strategy for prevention. The principal aims of the present study were to compare the allergenicity of rosin of different origins, to isolate and identify some of the allergens in unmodified gum rosin, and to attempt to diminish the allergenic potential of rosin preparations. Tall oil rosin and different types of gum rosin were tested in guinea pigs and in man. The test reactivity corresponded well when comparing gum rosin from different sources, while tall oil rosin showed a lower reactivity. However, testing with more than one rosin preparation in the routine series detected additional cases. A clear dose-response relationship was obtained by patch testing with gum rosin, implying that a concentration of 10% in petrolatum is well worth considering for routine testing. Unmodified Portuguese gum rosin was fractionated by chromatographic methods. Isolated fractions and components were tested for eliciting activity in guinea pigs sensitive to gum rosin. Pure compounds were also tested in patients with known allergy to gum rosin. The structures of the isolated allergens were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Abietic acid, the classical colophony allergen, was found not to be allergenic, while oxidation products of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid were identified as allergens. The isolated allergens showed a pattern of cross

  18. Humans' folk physics is sensitive to physical connection and contact between a tool and reward.

    PubMed

    Silva, F J; Silva, K M; Cover, K R; Leslie, A L; Rubalcaba, M A

    2008-03-01

    Three experiments examined adult humans' folk physics (i.e., their naturally occurring understanding of the physical world) using variations of rope-and-banana problems that are used to study chimpanzees' folk physics. When presented with symbolic versions of these problems, the participants' choices were controlled by both the presence of a physical connection between a tool and reward (unlike chimpanzees' choices) and the degree of contact between these objects (more like what controls chimpanzees' choices). Similar results were obtained when actual ropes and bananas were used. We speculate that the degree of contact between a tool and a reward influenced people's behavior because contact and physical connection are often correlated in people's natural environments and because contact is a reliable predictor of physical connection.

  19. Detection of endogenous and food-derived collagen dipeptide prolylhydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) in allergic contact dermatitis-affected mouse ear.

    PubMed

    Kusubata, Masashi; Koyama, Yoh-Ichi; Tometsuka, Chisa; Shigemura, Yasutaka; Sato, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Generation of collagen dipeptides and deposition of orally administered prolylhydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) in local inflammatory sites were examined in mice with hapten (2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene)-induced dermatitis in the ear. Pro-Hyp content in the hapten-treated ear was significantly higher in the chronic phase of contact dermatitis than the vehicle control. In contrast, hydroxyprolylglycine contents remained at lower levels in all cases compared to Pro-Hyp. Four hours after the ingestion of [(13)C5,(15)N]Pro and [(13)C5,(15)N]Pro-Hyp, labeled-Pro-Hyp and Pro, respectively, appeared only in the ear with dermatitis. Thus, Pro-Hyp is generated and degraded as part of the rapid synthesis and degradation of collagen in the ear with dermatitis. In addition to the endogenously generated Pro-Hyp, the orally administered Pro-Hyp was deposited in the ears.

  20. Allergic axillary dermatitis due to hydrogenated castor oil in a deodorant.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Kathy; Tatnall, Frances; Orton, David

    2008-03-01

    We present a case of axillary dermatitis caused by hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) in a commercially available deodorant. Patch testing with constituents obtained from the manufacturer showed allergic reaction to HCO 'as is', whereas there was no reaction to HCO 30% in pet. Testing 10 controls with HCO 'as is' did not cause irritant contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis to non-HCO in cosmetics has been described previously but sensitization to HCO seems to be rare. Most common allergens identified in deodorants are fragrances, and this case illustrates that HCO is another possible allergen found in this group of personal care products. It is important that it is tested 'as is' to avoid false-negative results.

  1. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  2. Critical dimension uniformity and contact edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography: effect of photoacid generator, sensitizer and quencher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppuswamy, Vijaya-Kumar Murugesan; Constantoudis, Vassilios; Gogolides, Evangelos; Pret, Alessandro Vaglio; Gronheid, Roel

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges for developing extreme ultraviolet resists is to satisfy critical dimension uniformity (CDU) and sidewall roughness of contacts to the allowable limit. To this end, further understanding of the effects of resist ingredients on CDU and contact edge roughness (CER) is required. We investigate the effects of a photoacid generator (PAG), sensitizer and quencher concentrations on the CDU and CER. We find that the dependencies of CDU on sensitizer and quencher are dominated by photon shot noise (PSN) effects whereas a more complicated interplay between PSN and PAG distribution statistics should be considered in the dependence of CDU on PAG concentration. The estimated CER parameters [root mean square (RMS) value and correlation length ξ] exhibit a merging trend when plotted against the final critical dimension (CD). In addition, RMS value increases with exposure dose and PAG loading contrary to shot noise expectations. Power spectrum analysis reveals the dominant contribution of low-frequency undulations to CER, which is attributed to the enhanced interaction along specific directions between the aerial image and/or acid kinetics of nearby contacts. This inter-contact effect is further intensified with CD for fixed pitch and may explain the observed CER behavior.

  3. Ab Initio Based 2D Continuum Mechanics - Sensitivity Prediction for Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy Based Structure Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qing; Lange, Björn; Lopes, J. Marcelo J.; Zauscher, Stefan; Blum, Volker

    Contact resonance AFM is demonstrated as a powerful tool for mapping differences in the mechanical properties of 2D materials and heterostructures, permitting to resolve surface and subsurface structural differences of different domains. Measured contact resonance frequencies are related to the contact stiffness of the combined tip-sample system. Based on first principles predicted elastic properties and a continuum approach to model the mechanical impedance, we find contact stiffness ratios between different domains of few-layer graphene on 3C-SiC(111) in excellent agreement with experiment. We next demonstrate that the approach is able to quantitatively resolve differences between other 2D materials domains, e.g., for h-BN, MoS2 and MoO3 on graphene on SiC. We show that the combined effect of several materials parameters, especially the in-plane elastic properties and the layer thickness, determines the contact stiffness, therefore boosting the sensitivity even if the out-of-plane elastic properties are similar.

  4. A MURINE MODEL FOR LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHEMICALS: DIFFERENTIATION OF RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS (TMA) FROM CONTACT SENSITIZERS (DNFB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals contributes to both dermal and respiratory sensitization and is an important occupational health problem. Our goal was to establish an in vivo murine model for hazard identification of LMW chemicals that have the potential to indu...

  5. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors.

  6. Impact sensitivity of materials in contact with liquid and gaseous oxygen at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    As a result of the Apollo 13 incident, increased emphasis is being placed on materials compatibility in a high pressure GOX environment. It is known that in addition to impact sensitivity of materials, approximately adiabatic compression conditions can contrive to induce materials reactivity. Test runs at high pressure using the ABMA tester indicate the following: (1) The materials used in the tests showed an inverse relationship between thickness and impact sensitivity. (2) Several materials tested exhibited greater impact sensitivity in GOX than in LOX. (3) The impact sensitivity of the materials tested in GOX, at the pressures tested, showed enhanced impact sensitivity with higher pressure. (4) The rank ordering of the materials tested in LOX up to 1000 psia is the same as the rank ordering resulting from tests in LOX at 14.7 psia.

  7. Curcumin attenuates allergic airway inflammation by regulation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs)/Th17 balance in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Ma, Zhanqiang; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of curcumin on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Asthma mice model was established by ovalbumin. A total of 60 mice were randomly assigned to six experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and curcumin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) was measured by the forced oscillation technique, differential cell count in BAL fluid (BALF) was measured by Wright-Giemsa staining, histological assessment was measured by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, BALF levels of Treg/Th17 cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Treg cells and Th17 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). Our study demonstrated that curcumin inhibited OVA-induced increases in eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-17A level were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased IL-10 level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that curcumin substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Flow cytometry (FCM) studies demonstrated that curcumin remarkably inhibited Th17 cells and significantly increased Treg cells. The results in vivo show ovalbumin-induced significantly broke Treg/Th17 balance; curcumin treatments markedly attenuated the inflammatory in asthma model by regulating Treg/Th17 balance. Our findings support the possible use of curcumin as a therapeutic drug for patients with allergic asthma.

  8. Protein contact dermatitis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Ana Rita Rodrigues; Conde-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Protein contact dermatitis is a skin condition not well known and underdiagnosed by dermatologists, resulting from an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. Clinically it presents as a chronic hand and/or forearms eczema of occupational origin, especially in professionals who work as food handlers. Epicutaneous tests are negative, and to diagnose this condition it is necessary to perform immediate-type allergy tests. The most sensitive and practical is the prick-by-prick test with food that the patient refers to cause intense itching after immediate skin contact. Treatment is symptomatic, and it is mandatory to avoid the responsible allergen, wearing plastic gloves and even sometimes leaving the workplace for symptom resolution. PMID:24068135

  9. Contact to cat or dog, allergies and parental education.

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian Joachim; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Whether or not associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy are homogeneous across social strata has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between animal contact (cat, dog) and allergy/atopy in 6-yr-old school beginners, stratified by parental educational level. A total of 30794, 6-yr old children participated in cross-sectional studies between 1991 and 2000 in Germany. Allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and symptoms and diagnoses of atopic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever) were the dependent variables. Contact with dog/cat were the independent variables. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. Analyses were stratified for parental education. Prevalences of hay fever, eczema, specific sensitization to pollen and house dust mite increased, while the prevalence of contact to cat and dog decreased with parental educational level. Globally significant positive associations between cat contact and sensitization to cat (interaction significant) and between dog contact and wheezing remained significant in the highest and medium/highest educational strata respectively. A globally significant inverse association between cat contact and hay fever remained significant in the highest educational stratum only. The inverse association of contact to dog with eczema was globally significant, but not in the strata. When estimating the associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy in children, effect modification by social status should be considered. Cat contact seems to increase the odds of sensitization to cat only in children whose parents have a high level of education.

  10. Central neural activation following contact sensitivity peripheral immune challenge: evidence of brain–immune regulation through C fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; King, Michael A; Korah, Maria; Perez, Pablo D; Febo, Marcelo; Miyan, Jaleel; Grant, Maria B

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that peripheral immune challenges will produce predictable activation patterns in the rat brain consistent with sympathetic excitation. As part of examining this hypothesis, this study asked whether central activation is dependent on capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres. We induced skin contact sensitivity immune responses with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), in the presence or absence of the acute C-fibre toxin capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) to trigger immune responses with and without diminished activity of C-fibres. Innovative blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed that the skin contact sensitivity immune responses induced with DNCB were associated with localized increases in brain neuronal activity in treated rats. This response was diminished by pre-treatment with capsaicin 1 week before scans. In the same animals, we found expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in sub-regions of the amygdala and hypothalamic sympathetic brain nuclei. Significant increases in c-Fos expression were found in the supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala and medial habenula following immune challenges. Our results support the idea that selective brain regions, some of which are associated with sympathetic function, process or modulate immune function through pathways that are partially dependent on C-fibres. Together with previous studies demonstrating the motor control pathways from brain to immune targets, these findings indicate a central neuroimmune system to monitor host status and coordinate appropriate host responses. PMID:25967648

  11. Central neural activation following contact sensitivity peripheral immune challenge: evidence of brain-immune regulation through C fibres.

    PubMed

    Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; King, Michael A; Korah, Maria; Perez, Pablo D; Febo, Marcelo; Miyan, Jaleel; Grant, Maria B

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that peripheral immune challenges will produce predictable activation patterns in the rat brain consistent with sympathetic excitation. As part of examining this hypothesis, this study asked whether central activation is dependent on capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres. We induced skin contact sensitivity immune responses with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), in the presence or absence of the acute C-fibre toxin capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) to trigger immune responses with and without diminished activity of C-fibres. Innovative blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed that the skin contact sensitivity immune responses induced with DNCB were associated with localized increases in brain neuronal activity in treated rats. This response was diminished by pre-treatment with capsaicin 1 week before scans. In the same animals, we found expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in sub-regions of the amygdala and hypothalamic sympathetic brain nuclei. Significant increases in c-Fos expression were found in the supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala and medial habenula following immune challenges. Our results support the idea that selective brain regions, some of which are associated with sympathetic function, process or modulate immune function through pathways that are partially dependent on C-fibres. Together with previous studies demonstrating the motor control pathways from brain to immune targets, these findings indicate a central neuroimmune system to monitor host status and coordinate appropriate host responses.

  12. Provocative use tests in CAPB-allergic subjects with CAPB-containing product.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Diepgen, T L; Kuhn, M; Basketter, D A

    1999-07-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) has been identified as a cause of contact allergy in personal care products. Furthermore, it has been suggested that chemicals responsible are impurities, especially dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA). However, skin contact concentrations with these impurities, especially DMAPA, are very low. The aim of the study was to analyse whether subjects with previous positive patch tests to CAPB would react in provocative use tests of a product containing CAPB. 10 individuals with a clinical history of contact allergy to CAPB (by positive patch test and history) took part in a ROAT which used a CAPB-based shower gel at 25% (DMAPA concentration < 1 ppm). None of the subjects showed positive allergic reactions. 1 of the test subjects did experience a flare of atopic dermatitis at the treatment site. Later, all 10 subjects were patch tested to 3 different concentrations of CAPB and DMAPA (0.1%, 0.3%, 1%) to verify the threshold that was capable of inducing a positive test reaction. 5/10 showed clear + reactions to 1% CAPB (typically at D3), whilst a further 3 gave marginal and/or irritant reactions. Only 1 of the subjects showed an allergic reaction to DMAPA. Finally, in uncontrolled use testing with the shower gel, none of the test subjects reported any adverse skin reactions. Thus, the study confirmed that CAPB-sensitive individuals can use a CAPB-based rinse-off product without the risk of experiencing an allergic reaction to CAPB.

  13. The use of laboratory methods in contact dermatitis induced by composite materials.

    PubMed

    Ayala, F; Lembo, G; Balato, N; Patruno, C; Scognamiglio, G; Strazzullo, G; de Stefano, S

    1990-05-01

    Thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to investigate the chemical constituents and haptens responsible in 2 different circumstances where allergic contact dermatitis from composite materials was suspected. In an aircraft factory where epoxy resins were used, tetraglycidyl-4,4'-dimethyl dianiline and phenylglycidyl ether were identified as the haptens responsible for an outbreak of contact dermatitis. The role of abietic acid as the main sensitizer in colophony was confirmed in a case of contact dermatitis occurring in a sportsman with an acute eczematous reaction due to a leg bandage. Identification of the chemical sensitizers was possible only by using the aforementioned laboratory methods.

  14. A STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF 2,4-DINITROBENZENE SENSITIZERS BETWEEN ISOLATED LYMPH NODE CELLS AND EXTRACELLULAR MEDIUM IN RELATION TO INDUCTION OF CONTACT SKIN SENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Herman N.; Kern, Milton; Newton, William T.; Helmreich, Ernst

    1959-01-01

    Although induction of contact skin sensitivity by low molecular weight 2,4-dinitrobenzenes requires the formation in vivo of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-proteins, analogous protein conjugates prepared in vitro are unable to induce this hypersensitive state. Low molecular weight 2,4-dinitrobenzenes are concentrated by isolated lymph node cells, but a representative 2,4-dinitrophenyl-protein conjugate (2,4-dinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin) was not taken up to a detectable extent by these cells. It is inferred that there exist large quantitative differences in the extent to which dinitrophenyl-proteins are localized within cells following the administration to an intact animal of (a) those simple dinitrobenzenes which are both concentrated by lymph node cells and have the capacity to form protein conjugates in vivo, and (b) 2,4-dinitrophenyl-protein conjugates prepared in vitro. It is suggested that this difference could account for the fact that a varietyof 2,4-dinitrophenyl-proteins prepared in vitro are unable to induce contact skin sensitivity. PMID:13673134

  15. A study of the enhanced sensitizing capacity of a contact allergen in lipid vesicle formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsson, Carl; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Graneli, Annette; Andersen, Klaus E.; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Jonsson, Charlotte A.; Ericson, Marica B.

    2011-05-01

    The growing focus on nanotechnology and the increased use of nano-sized structures, e.g. vesicles, in topical formulations has led to safety concerns. We have investigated the sensitizing capacity and penetration properties of a fluorescent model compound, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), when administered in micro- and nano-scale vesicle formulations. The sensitizing capacity of RBITC was studied using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the skin penetration properties were compared using diffusion cells in combination with two-photon microscopy (TPM). The lymph node cell proliferation, an indicator of a compounds sensitizing capacity, increased when RBITC was applied in lipid vesicles as compared to an ethanol:water (Et:W) solution. Micro-scale vesicles showed a slightly higher cell proliferative response compared to nano-scale vesicles. TPM imaging revealed that the vesicle formulations improved the skin penetration of RBITC compared to the Et:W solution. A strong fluorescent region in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis implies elevated association of RBITC to these skin layers when formulated in lipid vesicles. In conclusion, the results indicate that there could be an elevated risk of sensitization when haptens are delivered in vehicles containing lipid vesicles. Although the size of the vesicles seems to be of minor importance, further studies are needed before a more generalized conclusion can be drawn. It is likely that the enhanced sensitizing capacity is a consequence of the improved penetration and increased formation of hapten-protein complexes in epidermis when RBITC is delivered in ethosomal formulations. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis from hearing aid materials.

    PubMed

    Sood, Apra; Taylor, James S

    2004-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with dermatitis of the ear canal. The dermatitis had developed after she started wearing hearing aids that fit into the ear canals. Patch-test results were positive for (1) several acrylics, including polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, which were present in the hearing aid shell; (2) the hearing aid shell materials; and (3) the finish coat. The dermatitis resolved after she discontinued wearing the hearing aid, and a device with a silicone earpiece to be worn behind the ear was recommended as an alternative.

  17. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  18. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic asthma have another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes ... eczema ( atopic dermatitis ), followed by food allergies, then hay fever, and finally asthma. However, not all individuals with ...

  20. Sensitive detection of major food allergens in breast milk: first gateway for allergenic contact during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Vargas, C; Maroto, A S; Díaz-Perales, A; Villaba, M; Casillas Diaz, N; Vivanco, F; Cuesta-Herranz, J

    2015-08-01

    Food allergy is recognized as a major public health issue, especially in early childhood. It has been hypothesized that early sensitization to food allergens maybe due to their ingestion as components dissolved in the milk during the breastfeeding, explaining reaction to a food, which has never been taken before. Thus, the aim of this work has been to detect the presence of the food allergens in breast milk by microarray technology. We produced a homemade microarray with antibodies produced against major food allergens. The antibody microarray was incubated with breast milk from 14 women collected from Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital. In this way, we demonstrated the presence of major foods allergens in breast milk. The analysis of allergens presented in breast milk could be a useful tool in allergy prevention and could provide us a key data on the role of this feeding in tolerance induction or sensitization in children.

  1. A Rare Case of Recurrent Pacemaker Allergic Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Muhammed; Shah, Pooja; Elkhalili, Walid; Suleiman, Addi; Shaaban, Hamid; Shah, Pradip A.; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to pacemaker device components are uncommon. However, when they occur, they usually mimic pacemaker infection, which results in multiple device replacements and increased morbidity burden. Here we present a 40-year-old female with pacemaker insertion due to complete heart block and who had multiple device replacements because of allergic sensitivity to various pacemaker component-encasing materials, confirmed by allergic testing to these materials. She had complete resolution of her symptoms after replacement with gold-plated device, to which she was not allergic. PMID:26240735

  2. Sensitive, Selective Analysis of Selenium Oxoanions Using Microchip Electrophoresis with Contact Conductivity Detection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The common selenium oxoanions selenite (SeO32–) and selenate (SeO42–) are toxic at intake levels slightly below 1 mg day–1. These anions are currently monitored by a variety of traditional analytical techniques that are time-consuming, expensive, require large sample volumes, and/or lack portability. To address the need for a fast and inexpensive analysis of selenium oxoanions, we present the first microchip capillary zone electrophoresis (MCE) separation targeting these species in the presence of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, chlorate, sulfamate, methanesulfonate, and fluoride, which can be simultaneously monitored. The chemistry was designed to give high selectivity in nonideal matrices. Interference from common weak acids is avoided by operating near pH 4. Separation resolution from chloride was enhanced to improve tolerance of high-salinity matrices. As a result, selenate can be quantified in the presence of up to 1.5 mM NaCl, and selenite analysis is even more robust against chloride. Using contact conductivity detection, detection limits for samples with conductivity equal to the background electrolyte are 53 nM (4.2 ppb Se) and 380 nM (30 ppb) for selenate and selenite, respectively. Analysis time, including injection, is ∼2 min. The MCE method was validated against ion chromatography (IC) using spiked samples of dilute BBL broth and slightly outperformed the IC in accuracy while requiring <10% of the analysis time. The applicability of the technique to real samples was shown by monitoring the consumption of selenite by bacteria incubated in LB broth. PMID:25033231

  3. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Chiurazzi, Romina; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Argenziano, Mariana A; Soto, Ariadna; Picchio, Mariano S; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Infection Induces Suppression in a Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fenoy, Ignacio M.; Chiurazzi, Romina; Sánchez, Vanesa R.; Argenziano, Mariana A.; Soto, Ariadna; Picchio, Mariano S.; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact- independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4+FoxP3+ cells. PMID:22952678

  6. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Neodymium doped fluoroindogallate glasses as highly-sensitive luminescent non-contact thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Luiz A. O.; Souza, Adelmo S.; Carlos, Luís D.; Malta, Oscar L.

    2017-01-01

    Trivalent neodymium (Nd3+) can be used as high performance temperature luminescent ion sensor, namely in the near infrared spectral region. The disadvantage presented in the use of this ion is that transitions from thermally coupled levels show very different emission intensities. In order to solve this critical problem we propose to use Nd3+-doped fluoroindogallate glasses with low phonon cutoff energy (500 cm-1) as the active medium. By using a dopant concentration that minimizes losses due to cross relaxation processes and detecting the emissions of the thermally coupled levels with a R928 photomultiplier, without correction response for the wavelength dependence of the intensity, we have succeeded in getting the highest relative thermal sensitivities so far observed, 2.5%ṡK-1 and 7.4%ṡK-1, for the 4F5/2 → 4I9/2/4F3/2 → 4I9/2 and 4F7/2 → 4I9/2/4F3/2 → 4I9/2 intensity ratios, respectively at 288 K.

  8. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  9. Sensitization to Common and Uncommon Pets or Other Furry Animals: Which May Be Common Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Liccardi, G; Triggiani, M; Piccolo, A; Salzillo, A; Parente, R; Manzi, F; Vatrella, A

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens constitutes a relevant risk factor for the development of allergic sensitization. Moreover, an increasing number of people become owners of less common animals. In this article we summarize aspects related to sensitization to cat/dog which may be applied also to uncommon pets or other furry animals. The data discussed here suggest that several different factors may induce allergic sensitization to furry animals with or without previous contact. Allergic sensitization without animal exposure is a relevant risk for patients because they are not aware about the possibility that even severe respiratory symptoms may develop after an occasional animal contact. This aspect should be taken into account by susceptible individuals before acquiring pets or beginning a contact for working/leisure activity with a common as well as uncommon animal. As a consequence, skin prick test and/or evaluation of specific IgE antibodies (by classic ImmunoCAP or micro-array technique ImmunoCAP ISAC) also to less common (“new”) mammalian allergens could be recommended in individuals already sensitized to common pets to identify the occurrence of allergic sensitization and consequently to avoid future exposures to uncommon animal allergens. PMID:27326390

  10. Contact allergy to acid and neutral fractions of rosins. Sensitization experiments in guinea pigs and patch testing in patients.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, A T; Boman, A; Holmbom, B; Lidén, C

    1986-01-01

    The allergenicity of two different types of rosins (gum rosin and tall oil rosin) was compared. The rosins were divided into their neutral and acid fractions. The neutral fraction of tall oil rosin failed to induce contact sensitivity in animals tested according to the Guinea pig maximization test method (GPMT). The neutral fraction of gum rosin as well as the two acid fractions gave significant responses. Relatively fewer dermatitis patients reacted to the neutral fraction compared with reactions to the unfractionated gum rosin when patch tested. Fewer reactions to tall oil rosin than to gum rosin (p less than 0.05) were observed. It is concluded that tall oil rosin is less allergenic than gum rosin, which may be due to the absence of allergens in its neutral fraction.

  11. The effects of daily-wear contact lenses on contrast sensitivity in selected professional and collegiate female tennis players.

    PubMed

    Kluka, D A; Love, P A

    1993-03-01

    Contrast sensitivity (CS) has recently emerged as an important predictor of visual performance. Few studies, however, have been published involving CS and its role in vision for sport. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if significant differences occurred in CS between female professional and collegiate tennis players who wore daily-wear soft contact lenses (N = 10) and those players who wore no corrective lenses (N = 10) in competition as measured by the Stereo Optical Optec 2000 Vision Tester. Subjects were between the ages of 18 and 37 years. Mean ages were 21.76 (+/- 4.018) and 25.40 (+/- 5.379) years for those wearing lenses and those not, respectively. Each subject was preliminarily screened for SVA-distance, lateral/vertical phorias, stereopsis, and color perception. All subjects were within accepted limits. CS was assessed at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd). Each subject was assessed monocularly; eye initially assessed was determined randomly. A 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance (alpha = .05) was used to analyze data. No significant differences were found between eyes. Significant differences were found at 3, 6, 12, and 18 cpd. It may be concluded that those female professional and collegiate tennis players wearing no corrective lenses were significantly higher in CS at intermittent and high spatial frequencies than those who wore daily-wear soft contact lenses in competition.

  12. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  13. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  14. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  15. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    PubMed

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  16. Proposal for a risk assessment methodology for skin sensitization based on sensitization potency data.

    PubMed

    Griem, Peter; Goebel, Carsten; Scheffler, Heike

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantitative risk assessment methodology for skin sensitization aiming at the derivation of 'safe' exposure levels for sensitizing chemicals, used e.g., as ingredients in consumer products. Given the limited number of sensitizers tested in human sensitization tests, such as the human repeat-insult patch test (HRIPT) or the human maximization test (HMT), we used EC3 values from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) in mice because they provide the best quantitative measure of the skin sensitizing potency of a chemical. A comparison of LLNA EC3 values with HRIPT and HMT LOEL, and NOEL values was carried out and revealed that the EC3, expressed as area dose, can be used as a surrogate value for the human NOEL in risk assessment. The uncertainty/extrapolation factor approach was used to derive (a) an 'acceptable non-sensitizing area dose' (ANSAD) to protect non-allergic individuals against skin sensitization and (b) an 'acceptable non-eliciting area dose' (ANEAD) to protect allergic individuals against elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis. For ANSAD derivation, interspecies, intraspecies and time extrapolation factors are applied to the LLNA EC3. For ANEAD derivation, additional application of a variable sensitization-elicitation extrapolation factor is proposed. Values for extrapolation factors are derived and discussed, the proposed methodology is applied to the sensitizers methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, cinnamic aldehyde and nickel and results are compared to published risk assessments.

  17. Contribution of Contact Sampling in Increasing Sensitivity of Poliovirus Detection During A Polio Outbreak-Somalia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moturi, Edna; Mahmud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Farag, Noha; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gary, Howard; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Background.  In May 2013, a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak reported in Somalia provided an opportunity to examine the contribution of testing contacts to WPV detection. Methods.  We reviewed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case-patients and linked contacts reported in the Somalia Surveillance Database from May 9 to December 31, 2013. We restricted our analysis to AFP case-patients that had ≥3 contacts and calculated the contribution of each contact to case detection. Results.  Among 546 AFP cases identified, 328 AFP cases had ≥3 contacts. Among the 328 AFP cases with ≥3 contacts, 93 WPV1 cases were detected: 58 cases (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-72%) were detected through testing stool specimens from AFP case-patients; and 35 cases (38%; 95% CI, 28%-48%) were detected through testing stool specimens from contacts, including 19 cases (20%; 95% CI, 14%-30%) from the first contact, 11 cases (12%; 95% CI, 7%-20%) from the second contact, and 5 cases (5%; 95% CI, 2%-12%) from the third contact. Among the 103 AFP cases with ≥4 contacts, 3 (6%; 95% CI, 2%-16%) of 52 WPV1 cases were detected by testing the fourth contact. No additional WPV1 cases were detected by testing >4 contacts. Conclusions.  Stool specimens from 3 to 4 contacts of persons with AFP during polio outbreaks are needed to maximize detection of WPV cases.

  18. Allergic enteritis in children

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Gawryjołek, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal form of food allergy is very common in children. The most frequently observed types are allergic proctitis and proctocolitis. In most cases the symptoms subside within the first 2 months of life. The babies seem healthy, and the only abnormality is a small amount of blood in stool. Symptoms can also include small intestine inflammation and colitis. Patients may present with irritability, abdominal pain, flatulence, colic, postprandial vomiting, chronic diarrhoea, and hindered physical development. The diagnosis of allergic enteritis is based on the clinical examination and the results of additional tests including an endoscopy of the lower digestive tract with histopathological assessment. Cow’s milk proteins are the most common nutrition proteins responsible for the development of the symptoms of allergic enteritis. The most essential method of treating allergic enteritis is the elimination diet. The symptoms should subside within 1–2 weeks from the beginning of the diet. PMID:28337229

  19. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  20. [Contact allergy to 3-dimethylaminopropylamine and cocamidopropyl betaine].

    PubMed

    Hervella, Marcos; Yanguas, Juan I; Iglesias, María E Z; Larrea, Mónica; Ros, Concepción; Gallego, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    It has been discovered that all individuals who are allergic to cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) are sensitized to 3-dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) and to amidoamine, molecules which are intermediaries in CAPB synthesis, and which persist as impurities in the material that is sold; the amounts vary, depending on the quality of the CAPB in the end product. We present three cases of allergic contact dermatitis to DMAPA. In all three cases, the skin tests for DMAPA were positive, while there was no reaction to CAPB. The current relevance of these tests was confirmed by the patients' re-exposure to the suspect products themselves, which contained CAPB. Contact allergy to CAPB is now infrequent, partly because of the increasing use of new non-irritating surfactants that have been introduced on the market in the last decade. However, cases of patients allergic to commercial CAPB who only react to DMAPA -and not to CAPB- when they are patch tested are still being reported. DMAPA itself, and other molecules like amidoamine, would be the true allergens, and some cases of CAPB allergy are therefore being overlooked because DMAPA is not always included in the cosmetics series. CAPB may no longer be necessary in patch tests, as DMAPA seems to be the principal allergenic fraction in this surfactant, and also because manufacturers of skin allergens currently prepare CAPB extracts that are so pure that they are no longer a good screening tool for contact allergy to commercial CAPB.

  1. [Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, Juan Carlos; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aída; Cariño-Cartagena, Diego Antonio; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  2. Epigenetics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases of childhood, affecting more than 7 million children in the United States. Epidemiological evidence supports the idea that the inception of allergic diseases is typically before the pre-school years, even when chronic symptoms do not emerge until adulthood. The role of epigenetic mechanisms (particularly DNA methylation) in allergic disease is under active investigation because these mechanisms are known to be at the interface among gene regulation, environmental stimuli and developmental processes, all of which are essential for the pathogenesis for asthma and allergy. This article specifically reviews genome-wide DNA methylation studies in allergic disease. Recent findings Differential DNA methylation at specific regions appears to be associated with concurrent allergic disease. A few studies have identified methylation signatures predictive of disease. Summary DNA methylation signatures have been shown be associated with several allergic disease phenotypes, typically concurrently with disease. The few that have been found to precede diagnosis are especially interesting because they highlight an early trajectory to disease. PMID:26418323

  3. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-09-01

    In this article, contact allergy to, and the chemical composition of, tea tree oil (TTO) are reviewed. This essential oil is a popular remedy for many skin diseases, and may be used as neat oil or be present in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and household products. Of all essential oils, TTO has caused most (published) allergic reactions since the first cases were reported in 1991. In routine testing, prevalences of positive patch test reactions have ranged from 0.1% to 3.5%. Nearly 100 allergic patients have been described in case reports and case series. The major constituents of commercial TTO are terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, p-cymene, and α-pinene. Fresh TTO is a weak to moderate sensitizer, but oxidation increases its allergenic potency. The major sensitizers appear to be ascaridole, terpinolene, α-terpinene, 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, α-phellandrene, and limonene. The clinical picture of allergic contact dermatitis caused by TTO depends on the products used. Most reactions are caused by the application of pure oil; cosmetics are the culprits in a minority of cases. Patch testing may be performed with 5% oxidized TTO. Co-reactivity to turpentine oil is frequent, and there is an overrepresentation of reactions to fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, and other essential oils.

  4. Dietary polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Holvoet, S; Mercenier, A

    2011-10-01

    Allergic disorders encompass skin, food and respiratory allergies. Sensitization to a normally harmless allergen results in the immune system being biased to a predominant T-helper type 2 response. Re-exposure to the same allergen leads to a robust secretion of allergy-related mediators that eventually triggers symptoms. Our understanding of these disorders has enabled the search of therapeutic approaches that can either modulate the sensitization process or impact on allergic mediators, thus helping manage allergic symptoms. Polyphenols are one such class of compounds that are found in foods and plant sources and have been investigated for their anti-allergic effect in different disease models and in human clinical trials. Their anti-inflammatory profile is known to impact on the recruitment of immune cells to the skin and in preventing the development of secondary infections following disruption of the skin barrier. The interaction of polyphenols with proteins can modulate the process of allergic sensitization and their direct effect on allergic effector cells such as mast cells inhibit mediator release, resulting in the alleviation of symptoms. In addition, their endogenous anti-oxidant ability limits the extent of cellular injury from free radicals during the allergic insult. Overall, polyphenols hold promise as anti-allergy agents capable of influencing multiple biological pathways and immune cell functions in the allergic immune response and deserve further investigation. The objective of the current review is to summarize the key findings and progress made in studying polyphenols as anti-allergic ingredients. Special emphasis is placed in this review to highlight key physiological, cellular and signalling pathways implicated in the mechanism of action of different polyphenols in the context of allergic disorders and their manifestations.

  5. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Grace K.; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Assa'ad, Amal H.; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E.; Ryan, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. METHODS: Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8–5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7–7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0–9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. PMID:26715608

  6. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  7. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  8. Direct evidence of phospholipids in gecko footprints and spatula-substrate contact interface detected using surface-sensitive spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ping Yuan; Ge, Liehui; Li, Xiaopeng; Stark, Alyssa Y; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2012-04-07

    Observers ranging from Aristotle to young children have long marvelled at the ability of geckos to cling to walls and ceilings. Detailed studies have revealed that geckos are 'sticky' without the use of glue or suction devices. Instead, a gecko's stickiness derives from van der Waals interactions between proteinaceous hairs called setae and substrate. Here, we present surprising evidence that although geckos do not use glue, a residue is transferred on surfaces as they walk-geckos leave footprints. Using matrix-free nano-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry, we identified the residue as phospholipids with phosphocholine head groups. Moreover, interface-sensitive sum-frequency generation spectroscopy revealed predominantly hydrophobic methyl and methylene groups and the complete absence of water at the contact interface between a gecko toe pad and the substrate. The presence of lipids has never been considered in current models of gecko adhesion. Our analysis of gecko footprints and the toe pad-substrate interface has significant consequences for models of gecko adhesion and by extension, the design of synthetic mimics.

  9. Development and Utilization of an Ex Vivo Bromodeoxyuridine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) Protocol for Assessing Potential Chemical Sensitizers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...

  10. Allergic diseases in farmers' children.

    PubMed

    Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have reported lower rates of allergic sensitization and allergies in children living in rural as compared to urban communities. This has been attributed to the lower levels of air pollution in rural areas. The question arises whether other factors in the rural environment could explain the lower prevalence rates of allergic sensitization and hay fever. A first report from rural South Bavaria in Germany demonstrated that children living in a home where coal and wood were used for heating had a significantly lower risk of suffering from hay fever (odds ratio 0.57 (0.34-0.98)), of being sensitized to common allergens (OR 0.67 (0.49-0.93)) and of having bronchial hyperresponsiveness (OR 0.55 (0.34-0.90)) than their peers living in homes with other heating systems. Subsequently, the Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution (SCARPOL) tested the hypothesis that farming as parental occupation was associated with a lower risk of hay fever and atopy. A total of 1620 (86.0%) 6-15-year-old schoolchildren living in three rural communities of Switzerland were examined using a standardized questionnaire completed by the parents and IgE antibodies against six common aeroallergens in serum samples of 404 (69.3.0%) of the 13-15-year-olds. Farming as parental occupation was significantly associated with lower rates of reported hay fever symptoms and allergic sensitization. Comparing children from farming with those from non-farming environments, the adjusted OR was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.12-0.89) for sneezing attacks during the pollen season, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13-0.73) for a sensitization to allergens. These results have recently been confirmed in a new and much larger survey in rural South Bavaria. Several alternative explanations have to be considered when interpreting these findings, namely, selection bias, the development of tolerance, increased microbial stimulation and a more traditional lifestyle (diet and housing

  11. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer.

  12. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L; Johansen, J D

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and, in 2005, it was permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up until then MI had been used only in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI, e.g. in painters, are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products, and analysed the concentration of MI by high-performance-liquid-chromatography the ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection. The use concentration ranged between 2 and 100 ppm. Repeated exposure to MI showed that many patients allergic to MI reacted to 50 ppm which is half the maximum permitted concentration of MI in cosmetics. The recent cases and prevalence studies on MI contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000 ppm.

  13. Atypical diaper dermatitis: contact allergy to mercapto compounds.

    PubMed

    Onken, Anna Theresa; Baumstark, Julia; Belloni, Benedetta; Ring, Johannes; Schnopp, Christina

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis in an 18-month-old boy caused by type-IV allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole as components of the elastic border of diapers. Allergic contact dermatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of diaper dermatitis, especially in difficult-to-treat cases or atypical clinical presentation.

  14. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  15. Network single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) with increased Schottky contact area for highly sensitive biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Byon, Hye Ryung; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2006-02-22

    Highly sensitive single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistor (SWNT-FET) devices, which detect protein adsorptions and specific protein-protein interactions at 1 pM concentrations, have been achieved. The detection limit has been improved 104-fold compared to the devices fabricated by photolithography. The substantially increased sensitivity is mainly due to the increased Schottky contact area which accommodates relatively more numbers of proteins even at very low concentration. The augmented number of proteins adsorbed on a device induces instant modulation of the work function of metal contact electrodes, which eventually changes the conductance of the device. Such devices have been attained by addressing metal electrodes on network-type SWNTs using a shadow mask on a tilted angle sample stage. The shadow mask allows metals to penetrate underneath the mask efficiently, therefore forming a thin and wide Schottky contact area on SWNT channels.

  16. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  17. Induction of suppressor T cells for lymph node cell proliferation after contact sensitization of mice with a poison oak urushiol component.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, I S; Liberato, D J; Castagnoli, N; Byers, V S

    1984-01-01

    Contact sensitivity with properties of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) can be induced in mice by 3-heptadecylcatechol (HDC, a component of poison oak urushiol oil). Sensitization is effected by painting on abdominal skin and is assessed by measuring ear swelling produced after ear challenge. Further studies on the nature of this sensitization were made by monitoring the induction of lymph node cell (LNC) proliferation (as indicated by increased in vitro uptake of [14C]-thymidine into DNA) after cutaneous treatment with HDC. Draining inguinal LNC proliferation peaked 5-6 days after abdominal application of HDC. LNC taken from sensitized mice at times later than this peak suppressed HDC-induced proliferation when transferred into recipient mice. Such suppressor cells were T lymphocytes as implied by their sensitivity to anti-Thy-1.2 antibody and complement. The suppressive effect appeared to have both specific and non-specific components. LNC containing these T suppressor cells could not suppress the optimal proliferation in vitro of previously sensitized cells, nor was suppressive activity observed against the induction of contact sensitization itself. Thus, although the suppressor cells appeared to act on the afferent phase of sensitization, they may not be directed against the effector cells of DTH. PMID:6231243

  18. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Medications and drug allergic reactions TTR Share | Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions This article has been ... by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Everyone reacts to medications differently. One person may develop a rash while ...

  19. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  20. Multichannel fluorescence spinning disk microscopy reveals early endogenous CD4 T cell recruitment in contact sensitivity via complement.

    PubMed

    Norman, M Ursula; Hulliger, Sara; Colarusso, Pina; Kubes, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Contact sensitivity (CS) is one of the primary in vivo models of T cell-mediated inflammation. The presence of CS-initiating CD4 T lymphocytes at the time of challenge is essential for transfer and full development of the late phase CS inflammatory response. From this observation investigators have speculated that early recruitment of CD4 T cells to the site of challenge must occur. Moreover, there must be rapid synthesis/release and disappearance of an important mediator during the first hours after hapten challenge. Using spinning disk confocal microscopy, we observed the very early effector events of the immune response. Simultaneous, real-time visualization of predominant neutrophil and extremely rare CD4 T cell trafficking in the challenged skin vasculature was noted (one rolling CD4 T cell for every 10-18 rolling and adherent neutrophils). We demonstrate that neutrophil adhesion during the early CS response was reduced in C5a receptor-deficient (C5aR-/-) mice or leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist-treated mice, whereas CD4 T cell recruitment was only inhibited in C5aR-/- mice. In line with these observations, leukocyte infiltration and the associated tissue damage were significantly reduced in C5aR-/- mice but not in leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist-treated wild-type mice 24 h after challenge. C5a receptor expression on T cells and not on tissue resident cells was important for the development of a CS response. Thus, by using spinning disk confocal microscopy we visualized the early events of an adaptive immune response and identified the rare but essential recruitment of CD4 T cells via the complement pathway.

  1. [Apoptosis in allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Rojas Ramos, E; Martínez Jiménez, N E; Martínez Aguilar, N E; Garfias Becerra, J

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis (cell programmed death) it is a mechanism that implicate a physiological suicide, to keep the cellular homeostasis in big amount of tissues. Fas (APO-1; CD95) system is one of the most important cellular responsible via to induce apoptosis on different tissues. Eosinophillia on peripheral blood and tissues are the main characteristics on allergic like asthma. Eosinophil apoptosis is upper regulated in those diseases by IL-5 y GM-CSF. Corticoids, teophyllin and some macrolids have been used like apoptosis inductors on eosinophills, these could be a novel mechanism to promote a better solution on inflammatory allergic diseases.

  2. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.

  3. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common causes of allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor ... may seem drastic, but it often helps ease seasonal symptoms. True False False. It's hard to escape allergy triggers. Many forms of pollen (especially grasses) and ...

  4. Non-allergic rhinitis in children: Epidemiological aspects, pathological features, diagnostic methodology and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Gelardi, Matteo; Licari, Amelia; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinitis is a very common disease, as the prevalence in the general population resulted to be 40%. Allergic rhinitis has been considered to be the most frequent form of chronic rhinitis, as non-allergic rhinitis has been estimated to account for 25%. However, several evidences suggested that non-allergic rhinitis have been underrated, especially in children. In pediatrics, the diagnostic definition of non-allergic rhinitis has been often limited to the exclusion of an allergic sensitization. Actually, local allergic rhinitis has been often misdiagnosed as well as mixed rhinitis has not been recognized in most cases. Nasal cytology is a diagnostic procedure being suitable for routine clinical practice with children and could be a very useful tool to characterize and diagnose non-allergic rhinitis, providing important clues for epidemiological analysis and clinical management. PMID:28074172

  5. Non-allergic rhinitis in children: Epidemiological aspects, pathological features, diagnostic methodology and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Gelardi, Matteo; Licari, Amelia; Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-12-26

    Chronic rhinitis is a very common disease, as the prevalence in the general population resulted to be 40%. Allergic rhinitis has been considered to be the most frequent form of chronic rhinitis, as non-allergic rhinitis has been estimated to account for 25%. However, several evidences suggested that non-allergic rhinitis have been underrated, especially in children. In pediatrics, the diagnostic definition of non-allergic rhinitis has been often limited to the exclusion of an allergic sensitization. Actually, local allergic rhinitis has been often misdiagnosed as well as mixed rhinitis has not been recognized in most cases. Nasal cytology is a diagnostic procedure being suitable for routine clinical practice with children and could be a very useful tool to characterize and diagnose non-allergic rhinitis, providing important clues for epidemiological analysis and clinical management.

  6. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  7. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  8. The influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A; Pachai, Matthew V; Rutherford, M D

    2013-11-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye contact (the cone of gaze) was narrower for upright than inverted faces. In both groups, the cone of gaze was wider for angry faces than for fearful or neutral faces. These results suggest that in high-functioning adults with ASD, the perception of eye contact is not tuned to be finer for upright than inverted faces, but that information is nevertheless integrated across expression and gaze direction.

  9. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  10. Collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity testing in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines derived from human oral cancers: Optimal contact concentrations of cisplatin and fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Kaname; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    The collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) is an anticancer drug sensitivity test that uses a method of three-dimensional culture of extremely small samples, and it is suited to primary cultures of human cancer cells. It is a useful method for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), in which the cancer tissues available for testing are limited. However, since the optimal contact concentrations of anticancer drugs have yet to be established in OSCC, CD-DST for detecting drug sensitivities of OSCC is currently performed by applying the optimal contact concentrations for stomach cancer. In the present study, squamous carcinoma cell lines from human oral cancer were used to investigate the optimal contact concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP) and fluorouracil (5-FU) during CD-DST for OSCC. CD-DST was performed in 7 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines derived from human oral cancers (Ca9-22, HSC-3, HSC-4, HO-1-N-1, KON, OSC-19 and SAS) using CDDP (0.15, 0.3, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 µg/ml) and 5-FU (0.4, 0.9, 1.8, 3.8, 7.5, 15.0 and 30.0 µg/ml), and the optimal contact concentrations were calculated from the clinical response rate of OSCC to single-drug treatment and the in vitro efficacy rate curve. The optimal concentrations were 0.5 µg/ml for CDDP and 0.7 µg/ml for 5-FU. The antitumor efficacy of CDDP at this optimal contact concentration in CD-DST was compared to the antitumor efficacy in the nude mouse method. The T/C values, which were calculated as the ratio of the colony volume of the treatment group and the colony volume of the control group, at the optimal contact concentration of CDDP and of the nude mouse method were almost in agreement (P<0.05) and predicted clinical efficacy, indicating that the calculated optimal contact concentration is valid. Therefore, chemotherapy for OSCC based on anticancer drug sensitivity tests offers patients a greater freedom of choice and is likely to assume a greater importance in the selection of

  11. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menné, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-08-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allergy are reviewed: applications, exposure scenarios, legislation, patch testing problems, frequency of sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers. The frequency of contact allergy to formaldehyde is consistently higher in the USA (8-9%) than in Europe (2-3%). Patch testing with formaldehyde is problematic; the currently used 1% solution may result in both false-positive and false-negative (up to 40%) reactions. Determining the relevance of patch test reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin.

  12. Use of intranasal cromolyn sodium for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Paul H; Ehrlich, Paul M; Fineman, Stanley M; Meltzer, Eli O; Skoner, David P

    2002-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects 10% to 20% of Americans. It frequently coexists with other conditions, such as allergic conjunctivitis, sinusitis, and asthma, and is associated with impaired occupational function and performance in school, decreased quality of life, and increased health care costs. An efficacious agent with minimal adverse effects and a lack of drug interactions is needed to help simplify treatment of allergic rhinitis, especially in patients with comorbidities. Controlled studies of intranasal cromolyn sodium therapy for patients with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis are reviewed, and appropriate candidates for treatment with this agent are discussed. Cromolyn inhibits the degranulation of sensitized mast cells, thereby blocking the release of inflammatory and allergic mediators. It reduces symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and, when used prophylactically, cromolyn can prevent symptoms from occurring. Controlled studies comparing cromolyn with placebo, intranasal corticosteroids, and antihistamines have shown the efficacy of cromolyn in relieving rhinitis symptoms. In addition, because cromolyn is poorly absorbed systemically, it is well tolerated and not associated with drug interactions. Intranasal cromolyn has an excellent safety record, is available as an over-the-counter medication, and has been proved to be efficacious in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  13. Allergie acute contact dermatitis due to Arnica tincture self-medication.

    PubMed

    Hörmann, H P; Korting, H C

    1995-04-01

    After repeated intermittent use of Arnica tincture for rosacea a 66-year-old patient developed acute allergic contact dermatitis with blistering upon the single application of Arnica tincture to the dorsum of the right hand for minor swelling. Contact allergy of the delayed type to Arnica tincture could be proven by patch testing. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented exacerbation and spreading of the disease. In view of the wide use of Arnica preparations, particularly for self-medication, and the notable sensitizing potential, Arnica tincture should be a regular component of patch test series, at least when drug allergy is suspected.

  14. Wrist dermatitis: contact allergy to neoprene in a keyboard wrist rest.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Elston, D M

    1997-09-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis to a keyboard wrist rest containing neoprene is reported. The patient, who had a history of sensitivity to rubber products, developed an acute vesicular reaction of the palmar aspects of her distal wrists, followed by eczematous patches of her extremities and face. Treatment with prednisone, a 3-week tapering dose (60, 40, 20 mg), cleared the dermatitis. The widespread uses of neoprene are discussed and suggest that neoprene will become a common source of contact dermatitis as the potential sources of exposure increase.

  15. Role of Allergen Sensitization in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.; Mathur, Sameer K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a common perception among physicians and patients that allergic diseases are not relevant in older adults. There is recognition that both innate and adaptive immune functions decline with aging. It is the function of a variety of immune cells in the form of allergic inflammation that is a hallmark of allergic diseases. In fact, there is a fairly consistent observation that measures of allergic sensitization, such as skin prick testing, specific IgE or total IgE decline with age. Nonetheless, the association between allergic sensitization and allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis, remains robust in the elderly population. Consequently, an appropriate evaluation of allergic sensitivities is warranted and indicated in older asthma and rhinitis patients in order to provide optimal care for the individual and minimize any resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21667198

  16. [Allergic vasculitis in brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Mérad-Boudia, A; Ghernaout-Benchouk, S

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram negative bacillus of the Brucella gender. Skin manifestations have been reported in 1.5 to 11 p. 100 of the cases. Allergic vasculitis is rare. Recently a 24-year-old man was hospitalized for signs of infection. He had been treated with tetracycline. The clinical picture was suggestive of brucellosis and the Wright test was positive at 1/1,280. There were violet and purpuric papulae on the limbs, arthritis of the knee and ankle joints and renal involvement (haematuria, proteinuria). Histology revealed fibrinoid and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the small veinules of the subpapillary plexus. Outcome was favourable with rifampicin, doxycycline and adjuvant dapsone, together with bed rest. Several types of skin manifestations have been reported in brucellosis although cases of allergic vasculitis are rare.

  17. An ITAM-Syk-CARD9 signalling axis triggers contact hypersensitivity by stimulating IL-1 production in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yoshii, Chika; Nakaya, Mako; Ozaki, Naoko; Toda, Shuji; Kuroda, Etsushi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Yasuda, Tomoharu; Natsuaki, Yohei; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Iizasa, Ei'ichi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Kabashima, Kenji; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Takai, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takashi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Malissen, Bernard; Ohno, Naohito; Furue, Masutaka; Yoshida, Hiroki; Hara, Hiromitsu

    2014-05-07

    A variety of reactive organic compounds, called haptens, can cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, the innate immune mechanisms by which haptens stimulate dendritic cells (DCs) to sensitize T cells remain unclear. Here we show that the coupling of ITAM-Syk-CARD9 signalling to interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion in DCs is crucial for allergic sensitization to haptens. Both MyD88 and Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) signalling are required for contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Naïve T cells require signals received through IL-1R1-MyD88 for effector differentiation, whereas DCs require CARD9 and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signalling for hapten-induced IL-1α/β secretion and their ability to prime T cells. DC-specific deletion of CARD9, DAP12, Syk or NLRP3, but not MyD88, is sufficient to abolish CHS. All tested haptens, but not irritants, can induce Syk activation, leading to both the CARD9/BCL10-dependent pro-IL-1 synthesis (signal1) and reactive oxygen species-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation (signal2), required for IL-1 secretion. These data unveil an innate immune mechanism crucial for allergic contact sensitization to chemical compounds.

  18. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  19. Management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Solelhac, Geoffroy; Charpin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke.

  20. Allergic Inflammation—Innately Homeostatic

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Laurence E.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  1. Contact dermatitis from methylisothiazolinone in a paint factory.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, J P; Sederberg-Olsen, N; Thomsen, J F; Menné, T

    2006-06-01

    Introduction of new potential contact-sensitizing chemicals have in the past led to epidemics of contact dermatitis. A new preservative containing only methylisothiazolinone (MI) and not methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) has recently been introduced in the European Union for use in products, such as paint, glue and cosmetics. The objective of this article is to describe a factory outbreak of contact allergy to MI and MCI preservatives. This factory outbreak describes allergic contact dermatitis towards MI in 4 patients of 14 persons working at a paint manufacturer. Patch test results from all patients showed positive reactions for MI and MCI/MI. The reactions were stronger for MI than MCI/MI indicating a primary sensitization to MI. The combination of MCI/MI remains widely used, and therefore various patterns of exposure and sensitization could be seen in the future. Our data show that MI holds a potential for eliciting and propably inducing contact allergy in humans. Whether this preservative is safe to use in cosmetics where billions of consumers are exposed needs a care full monitoring.

  2. Exploring the sensitivity of the zone of inhibition test for leachable biocides from paper and board food contact materials, and improvements thereof.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Kelly, J; Jickells, S M; Johns, S M; Mountfort, K A

    2012-01-01

    The zone of inhibition method to test the release of biocides from paper and board food contact materials was evaluated. The method tests the paper by placing a small specimen directly onto culture plates of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The principle is that any extractable biocide will diffuse from the paper into the surrounding nutrient medium and so inhibit growth of the microorganism in the vicinity. The test was found to have insufficient sensitivity for assuring food safety, where detection limits for migration at or below the mg l(-1) (parts per million) level are needed. Also, the test does not mimic the actual or foreseeable conditions of use since most paper/board materials are not intended for direct contact with an aqueous medium for up to 3 days at 30°C (B. subtilis) or 25°C (A. niger), which are the incubation conditions used. The sensitivity of the test was increased approximately 100-fold by preparing a concentrated extract of the paper to be tested and applying this extract to the assay via a blank paper carrier. This was done using methanol as a good solvent for most biocides, as a proof of principle. Other solvents or food simulants could be used to mimic the conditions of use intended for the particular paper/board samples under examination, e.g. contact with dry, fatty, aqueous or acidic foods, hot or cold. Twenty-four plain (unconverted) paper and board samples and 100 food packaging samples were evaluated using the modified procedure. The results revealed that the method has been developed to the stage where background cytotoxic action of normal paper constituents gives a weak response. Unlike the original method, therefore, the modified method with its improved sensitivity and the facility to link with the intended food contact conditions may be considered a suitable bioassay screening test to complement chemical analysis of paper/board for composition and migration.

  3. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  4. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy.

  5. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  6. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  7. Effects of wear on structure-sensitive magnetic properties of ceramic ferrite in contact with magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    Wear experiments and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted to examine the wear and deformed layers in single-crystal Mn-Zn (ceramic) ferrite magnetic head material in contact with magnetic tape and the effects of that contact on magnetic properties. The crystalline state of the single-crystal magnetic head was changed drastically during the sliding process. A nearly amorphous structure was produced on its wear surface. Deformation in the surficial layer of the magnetic head was a critical factor in readback signal loss above 2.5 dB. The signal output level was reduced as applied normal load was increased. Considerable plastic flow occurred on the magnetic tape surface with sliding, and the signal loss due to the tape wear was approximately 1 dB.

  8. The Role of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) in Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The importance of the epithelium in initiating and controlling immune responses is becoming more appreciated. For example, allergens contact first occurs at mucosal sites in exposed to the external environment such as the skin, airways and gastrointestinal tract. This exposure leads to the production of a variety of cytokines and chemokines that are involved in driving allergic inflammatory responses. One such product is thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Recent studies, in both humans and mouse models, have implicated TSLP in the development and progression of atopy and atopic diseases. This review will discuss this work and place TSLP in the inflammatory cascade that leads to allergic disease. PMID:21109412

  9. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA).

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics.

  10. Contact allergy to cinnamon: case report.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Steve; Avon, Sylvie Louise

    2008-06-01

    Allergic contact stomatitis is a rare disorder that is unfamiliar to most clinicians. The vast majority of cases are associated with consumption of products containing cinnamaldehyde or cinnamon essential oil, which are used as flavourings because of their pleasant taste and sensation of freshness. We report here the case of a patient who was diagnosed with alllergic contact stomatitis due to cinnamon-flavoured chewing gum. The clinical features of allergic contact stomatitis, which may occur indiscriminately on any of the oral mucosa, include edema and erythroplakic, ulcerous or hyperkeratotic changes, generally accompanied by a burning sensation. The histopathologic aspect of allergic contact stomatitis is nonspecific but tends to support the clinical diagnosis. Treatment generally consists of eliminating the causal agent. To avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and treatments, it is important for clinicians to recognize this disorder to be able to diagnose it quickly and accurately.

  11. Allergic reaction induced by dermal and/or respiratory exposure to low-dose phenoxyacetic acid, organophosphorus, and carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Harada, Takanori; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2009-07-10

    Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates, phenoxyacetic acid, and carbamate have a high risk of affecting human health, causing allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma-like diseases. We used our long-term sensitization method and a local lymph node assay to examine the allergic reactions caused by several types of pesticides. BALB/c mice were topically sensitized (9 times in 3 weeks), then challenged dermally or intratracheally with 2,4-D, BRP, or furathiocarb. One day post-challenge, the mice were processed to obtain biologic materials for use in assays of total IgE levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); differential cell counts and chemokine levels in BALF; lymphocyte counts and surface antigen expression on B-cells within regional lymph nodes (LNs); and, ex situ cytokine production by cells from these LNs. 2,4-D-induced immune responses characteristic of immediate-type respiratory reactions, as evidenced by increased total IgE levels in both serum and BALF; an influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, and chemokines (MCP-1, eotaxin, and MIP-1beta) in BALF; increased surface antigen expression on B-cells IgE and MHC class II production) in both auricular and the lung-associated LNs; and increased Th2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) in both auricular and the lung-associated LN cells. In contrast, BRP and furathiocarb treatment yielded, at most, non-significant increases in all respiratory allergic parameters. BRP and furathiocarb induced marked proliferation of MHC Class II-positive B-cells and Th1 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) in only auricular LN cells. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a respiratory allergen and BRP and furathiocarb are contact allergens. As our protocol detected classified allergic responses to low-molecular-weight chemicals, it thus may be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related allergy.

  12. Contact allergy to colophony. (IV). The sensitizing potency of commercial products. An investigation of French and American modified colophony derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Jensen, S; Mohnert, J

    1989-02-01

    The sensitizing capacity of 15 commercial colophony products was studied experimentally in guinea pigs. The study included 8 French and 6 American colophony derivatives as well as French tall oil colophony. The results indicate that tall oil colophony is the strongest sensitizing material within the tested group and that the maleic-modified products and the zinc-calcium-resinate are moderate sensitizers. Most of the modified products show a higher sensitizing capacity than the genuine resin acids themselves. Cross-reactions between the resin acids and the derivatives are uncommon. Therefore, patch testing with high concentrations of colophony (e.g., 60%) will not help to detect patients with colophony-derivative allergy.

  13. Aeroallergen Patch Testing in Patients of Suspected Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bisen, Nelee; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS) between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8%) showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary. PMID:24891655

  14. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nikki B; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M; Kashon, Michael L; Sharpnack, Douglas D; Nayak, Ajay P; Anderson, Katie L; Jean Meade, B; Anderson, Stacey E

    2015-09-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%-3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%-0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86(+)GL-7(+) B cells, CD80(+)CD86(+) dendritic cells, GATA-3(+)OX-40(+)IL-4(+)IL-13(+) Th2 cells and IL-17 A(+) CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses.

  15. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  16. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  17. Increased Transcription of Immune and Metabolic Pathways in Naive and Allergic Mice Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization in animals following high dose instillation or chronic inhalation exposure scenarios. The purpose of this study was to determine if short term exposures to diluted DE enhance allergic immune responses to antigen...

  18. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kabali, Conrad; Chan, Brian; Higgins, Caroline; Holubowich, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. Methods We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. Results We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with

  19. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bains, Sonia N; Judson, Marc A

    2012-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by an exaggerated T(H)2 response to the ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA develops in a small fraction of patients with cystic fibrosis and asthma, suggesting that intrinsic host defects play a major role in disease susceptibility. This article reviews current understanding of the immunopathology, clinical and laboratory findings, and diagnosis and management of ABPA. It highlights clinical and laboratory clues to differentiate ABPA from cystic fibrosis and asthma, which are challenging given clinical and serologic similarities. A practical diagnostic algorithm and management scheme to aid in the treatment of these patients is outlined.

  20. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  1. Integrated Innate Mechanisms Involved in Airway Allergic Inflammation to the Serine Protease Subtilisin

    PubMed Central

    Florsheim, Esther; Yu, Shuang; Bragatto, Ivan; Faustino, Lucas; Gomes, Eliane; Ramos, Rodrigo N.; Barbuto, José Alexandre M.; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are recognized environmental allergens, but little is known about the mechanisms responsible for sensing enzyme activity and initiating the development of allergic inflammation. Because usage of the serine protease subtilisin in the detergent industry resulted in an outbreak of occupational asthma in workers, we sought to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation to subtilisin and to determine the immunological mechanisms involved in type 2 responses. By using a mouse model of allergic airway disease, we have defined here that subcutaneous or intranasal sensitization followed by airway challenge to subtilisin induces prototypic allergic lung inflammation, characterized by airway eosinophilia, type 2 cytokines release, mucus production, high levels of serum IgE, and airway reactivity. These allergic responses were dependent on subtilisin protease activity, protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, IL-33 receptor ST2, and MyD88 signaling. Also, subtilisin stimulated the expression of the pro-allergic cytokines IL-1α, IL-33, TSLP, and the growth factor amphiregulin in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Notably, acute administration of subtilisin into the airways increased lung IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells, which required PAR-2 expression. Finally, subtilisin activity acted as a Th2 adjuvant to an unrelated airborne antigen promoting allergic inflammation to inhaled OVA. Therefore, we established a murine model of occupational asthma to a serine protease and characterized the main molecular pathways involved in allergic sensitization to subtilisin that potentially contribute to initiate allergic airway disease. PMID:25876764

  2. Allergic conjunctivitis: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. PMID:23497516

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Co-polymers Based on Methyl Methacrylate and 2-Hexyl Acrylate Containing Naphthopyrans for a Light-Sensitive Contact Lens.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Cláudia R J O D; Heron, B Mark; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Gil, Maria H; Sobral, Abílio J F N

    2011-01-01

    Three different naphthopyrans were incorporated in co-polymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA), with and without cross-linking with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), by a free radical polymerization method. The obtained materials were characterised in terms of some of their chemical and physical properties that could be important for the final functional properties of the envisaged application. Despite other important functional properties that should be evaluated in the near future, the system based in the physical entrapment of 3,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-3H-naphtho [2,1-b]pyran presented a good potential for its application as novel light-sensitive contact lenses.

  4. Propolis: a review of properties, applications, chemical composition, contact allergy, and other adverse effects.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is the resinous substance that bees collect from living plants for the construction and adaptation of their nests. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and may have a wide range of other beneficial biological activities. Propolis is available as a dietary supplement, in products for the protection of health and prevention of diseases, in biopharmaceuticals, and as a constituent of (bio)cosmetics. In this article, the following aspects of propolis are reviewed: the nature and chemical composition, its biological properties and applications, contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (sensitizing potential, products causing contact allergy, clinical picture, frequency of sensitization, coreactivity and cross-reactivity, the allergens in propolis), and other adverse effects.

  5. [Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K; Finis, D; Meller, S; Buhren, B A; Wagenmann, M; Geerling, G

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) as well as intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis are widespread diseases. Because a combined occurrence of ocular and nasal symptoms is very common the summarising term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is frequently used. SAC and PAC representing the two acute forms of allergic conjunctivitis account for more than 90 % of all cases of allergic conjunctivitis. Compared to the chronic forms of allergic conjunctivitis their course of disease is milder. Nevertheless because of their high prevalence and the proven influence on patients' quality of life they possess clinical and socioeconomic relevance. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is caused by a type 1 IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is provoked by aeroallergens in the majority of cases. The pathognomonic sign is itching. Besides, typical ocular findings are chemosis, conjunctival injection, watery secretion and lid swelling. Otorhinolaryngologists' findings include rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and sneezing. Problems in breathing through the nose resulting from nasal obstruction can cause impaired nighttime sleep and daytime somnolence. In addition to a reduction of allergen exposure by modification of environment and life style factors, in mild forms of SAC and PAC artificial tears are recommended. Topical antihistamines can generate rapid relief from acute symptoms and itching. Topical mast cell stabilisers however provide long-term effects. Dual action drugs that combine antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers show increased patient compliance due to reduced application frequency. Use of topical steroids should be cautious and only temporary. For prolonged treatment periods unpreserved anti-allergic eye-drops should be preferred. Combined topical antihistamines and new-generation topical nasal steroids often used by otorhinolaryngologists demonstrate a good safety profile without systemic side effects. In summary

  6. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious.

  7. [Non-allergic type of atopic dermatitis among patients of Allergic Diseases Diagnostic Center, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań].

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Silny, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of unclear etiopathogenesis. It belongs to the group of atopic diseases and an IgE-mediated uptake and antigen focusing of environmental allergens by IgE-bearing dendritic cells is assumed to be a central immunopathogenetic event resulting in clinical appearance of AD. In case of non-allergic (intrinsic) type of AD, non IgE-related factors are involved in the process. Potential immunological and clinical differences between allergic and non-allergic type of the disease are still being investigated. The aim of our study was to evaluate prevalence of non-allergic and allergic type of AD among patients of Allergic Diseases Diagnostic Center, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań between 2001 and 2002. We investigated 161 patients with AD and selected factors influencing course of the disease such as age, gender, month of birth, population of the region and characteristics of sensitizing allergens were analyzed. Allergological diagnostics consisted of skin prick tests and measurements of total and antigen specific IgE concentrations in sera of investigated patients (FEIA CAP). Non-allergic type of AD was registered in 38.5% of the investigated population. There was no significant difference between allergic and non-allergic type of AD in terms of month of birth and living conditions (urban areas or countryside). Especially in the case of children evaluations of total and antigen specific IgE serum concentrations were helpful in verification of skin prick test results. In the group of patients with allergic type of AD grass pollen allergens were sensitizing most frequently and finally type of sensitizing airborne allergens may be at least partially related to the environmental characteristics of the region.

  8. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.

  9. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  10. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist.

  11. [Prevention of asthma and allergic diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; de Blic, J; Scheinmann, P

    2003-03-01

    Allergic diseases have become a major public health problem in industrialized countries, justifying the development of prevention programs. A review of the literature on allergens and atopic symptoms, age of primary sensitization and other factors associated with allergic diseases development is presented and is followed by a discussion on prevention measures. The most recent physiopathological and immunological data indicate that persistent asthma and allergic diseases in adults may be associated with events in early childhood. The parallel increase in autoimmune and allergic diseases has been correlated with regulatory mechanism defects, contradicting the previous theory that involved a predominantly Th1 or Th2 pathway. The primary prevention of asthma and allergic diseases thus appear to be somewhat utopian. Indeed based on recent results, the risk of developing allergies appears to be related to modern "clean" lyfestyles. Secondary prevention is probably necessary, possibly through specific immunotherapy. Tertiary prevention must also be considered. Passive smoking must be prevented as it can alter the development of the respiratory system and promote allergen sensitization. Randomized, controlled, prospective studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures.

  12. Sphingolipids: A Potential Molecular Approach to Treat Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wai Y.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is an immune response to foreign antigens, which begins within minutes of exposure to the allergen followed by a late phase leading to chronic inflammation. Prolonged allergic inflammation manifests in diseases such as urticaria and rhino-conjunctivitis, as well as chronic asthma and life-threatening anaphylaxis. The prevalence of allergic diseases is profound with 25% of the worldwide population affected and a rising trend across all ages, gender, and racial groups. The identification and avoidance of allergens can manage this disease, but this is not always possible with triggers being common foods, prevalent air-borne particles and only extremely low levels of allergen exposure required for sensitization. Patients who are sensitive to multiple allergens require prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Current treatments are often suboptimal and associated with adverse effects, such as the interruption of cognition, sleep cycles, and endocrine homeostasis, all of which affect quality of life and are a financial burden to society. Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. Herein, we review the current knowledge of allergic inflammation and discuss the role of sphingolipids as potential targets to regulate inflammatory development in vivo and in humans. We also discuss the benefits and risks of using sphingolipid inhibitors. PMID:23316248

  13. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  14. Resin Monomers Act as Adjuvants in Ni-induced Allergic Dermatitis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bando, K.; Takahashi, H.; Kinbara, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Kuroishi, T.; Sasaki, K.; Takano-Yamamoto, T.; Sugawara, S.; Endo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Resin monomers (RMs) are inflammatory agents and are thought to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, mouse models are lacking, possibly because of the weak antigenicities of RMs. We previously reported that inflammatory substances can promote the allergic dermatitis (AD) induced by intradermally injected nickel (Ni-AD) in mice. Here, we examined the effects of RMs on Ni-AD. To sensitize mice to Ni, a mixture containing non-toxic concentrations of NiCl2 and an RM [either methyl methacrylate (MMA) or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)] was injected intraperitoneally or into ear-pinnae intradermally. Ten days later, a mixture containing various concentrations of NiCl2 and/or an RM was intradermally injected into ear-pinnae, and ear-swelling was measured. In adoptive transfer experiments, spleen cells from sensitized mice were transferred intravenously into non-sensitized recipients, and 24 h later NiCl2 was challenged to ear-pinnae. Whether injected intraperitoneally or intradermally, RM plus NiCl2 mixtures were effective in sensitizing mice to Ni. AD-inducing Ni concentrations were greatly reduced in the presence of MMA or HEMA (at the sensitization step from 10 mM to 5 or 50 µM, respectively, and at the elicitation step from 10 µM to 10 or 100 nM, respectively). These effects of RMs were weaker in IL-1-knockout mice and in macrophage-depleted mice. Cell-transfer experiments in IL-1-knockout mice indicated that both the sensitization and elicitation steps depended on IL-1. Challenge with an RM alone did not induce allergic ear-swelling in mice given the same RM + NiCl2 10 days before the challenge. These results suggest that RMs act as adjuvants, not as antigens, to promote Ni-AD by reducing the AD-inducing concentration of Ni, and that IL-1 and macrophages are critically important for the adjuvant effects. We speculate that what were previously thought of as “RM-ACD” might include ACD caused by antigens other than RMs that have undergone promotion

  15. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  16. Goldschlager allergy in a gold allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T; Stork, C M; Cantor, R M

    1999-08-01

    We describe the case of gold allergy after ingestion of GOLDSCHLAGER, a gold-containing liquor, in a patient with a previous allergy to gold jewelry. The patient was not aware that genuine gold particles were contained in the schnapps liquor and that ingestion could result in a reaction similar to that experienced by individuals sensitive to gold jewelry. Clinicians should be familiar with the presence of gold particles in GOLDSCHLAGER liquor and the potential for allergic reactions to occur in those so predisposed.

  17. The effect of allergic rhinitis with positive skin prick test on choroidal thickness.

    PubMed

    Yenigun, Alper; Elbay, Ahmet; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-03-06

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease that develops through immunoglobulin E in the rhino-ocular mucosa due to allergy. The main symptoms are runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and itchy nose. This study was designed to investigate the effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness. This study was planned as a case-control study. This study performed in a tertiary referral center. The study included 61 patients with allergic rhinitis and 35 healthy subjects. Patients in both groups underwent skin prick test. In allergic rhinitis patients and healthy persons; subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness measurement was performed. The choroidal thicknesses were measured without pupil dilation using the Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography. In the subfoveal and temporal region, choroidal tissue was followed up significantly thicker in allergic rhinitis patients statistically compared to healthy persons (p = 0.031, p = 0.049). However, no significant difference was followed up between the nasal choroidal thickness measurements statistically (p = 0.54). Runny nose (67.2%), sneeze (65.5%), stuffiness (62.2%), itching of the nose (40.9%), and nasal discharge (21.3%) complaints were observed significantly higher in the group having allergic rhinitis. The effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness were assessed and compared with the control group. Our study revealed that there was significant association between increased choroidal thickness and allergic rhinitis. Allergic sensitivity may play an important role in increased choroidal thickness.

  18. A non-contact, thermal noise based method for the calibration of lateral deflection sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, Nic Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2014-11-15

    Calibration of lateral forces and displacements has been a long standing problem in lateral force microscopies. Recently, it was shown by Wagner et al. that the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode may be used to calibrate the deflection sensitivity of the detector. This method is quick, non-destructive and may be performed in situ in air or liquid. Here we make a full quantitative comparison of the lateral inverse optical lever sensitivity obtained by the lateral thermal noise method and the shape independent method developed by Anderson et al. We find that the thermal method provides accurate results for a wide variety of rectangular cantilevers, provided that the geometry of the cantilever is suitable for torsional stiffness calibration by the torsional Sader method, in-plane bending of the cantilever may be eliminated or accounted for and that any scaling of the lateral deflection signal between the measurement of the lateral thermal noise and the measurement of the lateral deflection is eliminated or corrected for. We also demonstrate that the thermal method may be used to characterize the linearity of the detector signal as a function of position, and find a deviation of less than 8% for the instrument used.

  19. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  20. Recent advances in understanding the roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Kyoko; Orihara, Kanami; Emi-Sugie, Maiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsuda, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disorders commonly involve both chronic tissue inflammation and remodeling caused by immunological reactions to various antigens on tissue surfaces. Due to their anatomical location, vascular endothelial cells are the final responders to interact with various exogenous factors that come into contact with the epithelial surface, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and antigens. Recent studies have shed light on the important roles of endothelial cells in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. For instance, endothelial cells have the greatest potential to produce several key molecules that are deeply involved in allergic inflammation, such as periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17). Additionally, endothelial cells were recently shown to be important functional targets for IL-33--an essential regulator of allergic inflammation. Notably, almost all endothelial cell responses and functions involved in allergic inflammation are not suppressed by corticosteroids. These corticosteroid-refractory endothelial cell responses and functions include TNF-α-associated angiogenesis, leukocyte adhesion, IL-33-mediated responses and periostin and TARC production. Therefore, these unique responses and functions of endothelial cells may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of various allergic disorders, especially their refractory processes. Here, we review recent studies, including ours, which have elucidated previously unknown pathophysiological roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation and discuss the possibility of endothelium-targeted therapy for allergic disorders.

  1. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  2. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  3. Allergic to Pool Water

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To identify the allergy problem of a 36-year old swimming instructor, who experiences heavy itching and rashes whenever she comes in contact with pool water. Patch tests were performed with European standard series and materials from the work floor. A positive patch test to aluminum chloride and flocculant was observed. Occupational dermatitis is, based on a contact allergy to aluminum chloride in the flocculant. PMID:22993713

  4. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  5. [Effect of loratadine in children with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Kósa, L; Kovács, N; Halász, A; Zsigmond, G

    2001-08-26

    The authors examined 25 children with allergic rhinitis, who were sensitive to grass, weed and tree pollens. During the allergic season nasal lavage was performed then repeated after 4 weeks of loratadine treatment. Tryptase, IL-5, ECP, TNF-alpha and RANTES levels were measured from the nasal lavage fluid. Tryptase, IL-5, and ECP levels were decreased significantly while the decrease of RANTES and TNF-alpha levels was not significant. The authors emphasize that loratadine is an effective anti-inflammatory drug which affects the early and late phase of immediate hypersensitivity. In the moderate cases loratadine is enough to relieve the symptoms, while in the severe forms anti-allergic eye drops and nasal antihistamine or steroid spray has to be added.

  6. Mastocytosis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, P; Lombardo, C; Zanotti, R

    2014-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, mainly skin and bone marrow. It can cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations-other than urticaria pigmentosa-that can lead to inappropriate release of mediators by mast cells. The most severe manifestation is anaphylaxis. The triggers of anaphylaxis in adults with mastocytosis are numerous, but Hymenoptera stings seem to be the most frequent, followed by foods and drugs. Therefore, to prevent severe reactions, it is very important to recognize and avoid potential triggers; in addition, venom-allergic patients must receive lifelong immunotherapy, which has proven very effective. Given that published data on drug anaphylaxis in patients with mast cell disorders are scarce, it is not currently possible to provide clear recommendations. The risk of systemic reactions during general anesthesia can be reduced by assessing risk on an individual basis (previous reaction to a drug or reaction during surgery) and by avoiding specific trigger factors (patient temperature changes, infusion of cold solution, tissue trauma, friction, and other mechanical factors).

  7. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A; Bush, Robert K; Demain, Jeffrey G; Luong, Amber; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    There remains a lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports, and an electronic survey was conducted of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 US physicians in the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology database of members and fellows, 245 health professionals (48%) had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE because 44.9% used ≥417 kU/L, whereas 42.0% used ≥1000 kU/L. Analysis of these findings suggests that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. With regard to pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids plus inhaled corticosteroids plus antifungal agent were used with 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited.

  8. The impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants on the prevalence of allergic diseases in people from Qassim, KSA

    PubMed Central

    Elshabrawy, Walaa Othman; Ismail, Hisham Abdel-Sadek; Hassanein, Khaled Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background There are multiple environmental factors that influence a sensitized (IgE antibody positive) patient’s predisposition to manifest allergic symptoms following allergen exposure. The majority of allergens are known to induce morbidity with chronic symptoms such as rhinitis, pruritis, dermatitis and urticaria. Aim To study the impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants with different pollens on the immunological, hematological and biochemical markers and to determine the prevalence of sensitization to allergens among exposed individuals as well as to identify the eliciting allergens. Subjects and Methods Ninety six highly exposed individuals to environmental and agricultural pollution in addition to 20 as controls were selected. A solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the EUROLINE test kit were used for the quantitative determination of total IgE concentration and semi-quantitative in vitro assay of human IgE antibodies to some of the inhalant, ingestant and contactant allergens in serum samples, respectively. Percentage and absolute eosinophil counts and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results Thirteen (13.5%) out of the 96 studied highly exposed subjects were manifesting allergic symptoms. Higher significant total serum IgE levels and absolute eosinophil counts in groups 1 and 3 of the highly exposed individuals compared to the control group were found (p1=0.00, p3=0.001 and p1=0.016, p3=0.028, respectively). Higher sensitization with inhalant Timothy grass, Aspergillus fumigatus, Der. Farinae and Olive; ingestant Egg yolk, Mango, Strawberry and Codfish and with contactant Latex/plastic and Crude oil was found in the studied groups compared with the controls. Conclusion The present data suggest that the highly exposed subjects to pollution are at high risk of developing an allergy. For the screening of those with suspected allergen sensitization, the determination of specific IgE antibodies is a suitable marker of type I

  9. Contact allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; van der Walle, H B; Weyland, J W

    1995-12-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine is an amphoteric surfactant used increasingly in cosmetic products. We describe 20 cases of cosmetic allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine; all were caused by shampoo or shower gel. 8 patients were hairdressers, who had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from shampoos. We recommend patch testing cocamidopropyl betaine 1% aq. routinely in hairdressers with dermatitis of the hands, and in all patients suspected of suffering from cosmetic allergy.

  10. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis--rarely diagnosed disease].

    PubMed

    Lauková, D; Marget, I; Plutinský, J

    2009-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), known as hypersensitive pneumonitis, causes interstitial lung involvement by inhaled antigen. The clinical presentation of the disease has been defined as acute, subacute and chronic. The most often symptoms of the acute form of the disease are flu-like symptoms, dyspnoe and cough. The progressive dyspnoe in particullary is characterized for the chronic form of EAA. Dyspnoe is worsed, if the disease is combinied with usual respiratory infection or reexposition of inhaled antigen. It seems the diagnostic definition of EAA should be easy and prevalence of EAA relative high. The disease belongs to the group of interstitial lung diseases and it is underestimated as a matter of fact. The clinic, radiographic, laboratory and histologic abnormalities are results of inhaled antigen contact and support the diagnosis of EAA. Specific IgG antibodies against the offending antigen along with them are consedered to be detected (established) of EAA.

  11. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  12. Nickel contact hypersensitivity in children.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B; Licht, Jonah; Friedler, Suzanne; Sethi, Shika; Laude, Teresita A

    2002-01-01

    Nickel allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent allergy in North America, with an incidence of 14.3%. It is on the rise from 10 years ago, when the incidence was 10%. This has been presumed to represent an increased exposure to nickel in the environment-especially in costume jewelry and belt buckles. We examined a group of 30 pediatric patients who had either a personal history of umbilical or wrist dermatitis, or a family history of nickel allergic contact dermatitis. All of these patients had a positive patch test to nickel sulfate 5%. Moreover, 50% of patients had an id reaction; all of these patients had positive patch tests that were papular in nature, similar to their papular id reaction. We posit that the presence of a positive family history may be a positive predictor of nickel allergic contact dermatitis, requiring nickel avoidance, especially in atopic children. Based on the high level of positive reactions in patients with umbilical dermatitis and an id reaction, patch testing to nickel in these patients is most likely to yield a useful result. Knowledge of reactivity to nickel would then allow parents and patients to initiate nickel avoidance earlier in life.

  13. Immune response phenotype of allergic versus clinically tolerant pigs in a neonatal swine model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah; Wilkie, Bruce

    2013-07-15

    The prevalence of childhood food allergy and the duration of these allergies, particularly those considered to be transient, like egg and milk allergy, are increasing. The identification of allergic individuals using minimally invasive, non-anaphylaxis-threatening methods is therefore of increasing importance. In this experiment, correlates were sought of an allergic immune response (IR) phenotype in pigs. Using pigs pre-treated with heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components before allergic sensitization with the egg white protein ovomucoid (Ovm), differences were determined in IR phenotype of pigs in the categories treated-allergic, treated-tolerant, control-allergic (CA) and control-tolerant. Phenotype was established by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)-associated antibody activity (AbA), cytokine profiles and the proportion of blood T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and observing late-phase allergen-specific skin tests (ST). Although 100% of pigs became sensitized to Ovm, only 33% of pigs had clinical signs of allergy after oral challenge with egg white. Pigs without clinical signs were classified as clinically tolerant. Sixty-seven percent of allergic pigs had a positive, late-phase ST classified as very strong or strong, while 84% of clinically tolerant pigs did not have late-phase ST. Treated-allergic pigs and CA pigs had greater total antibody IgG (H+L), IgE and IgG1 AbA than clinically tolerant pigs. Cytokine profiles of allergic pigs and the proportion of circulating T-regs, did not differ significantly between allergic and clinically tolerant pigs. Therefore, measurement of allergen-specific IgG, IgG1 and/or IgE activity and evaluation of late-phase ID ST may be useful in identifying allergic IR phenotypes in swine models of food allergy, which may be extended toward human use.

  14. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Boverhof, Darrell R. Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders.

  15. Gallate Contact Dermatitis: Systematic Review and Product Update.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Zachary E; Van Noord, Megan G; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2017-02-06

    Allergic contact dermatitis related to cosmetic use can result from allergens not routinely evaluated by standard patch test protocols. Propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates are commonly used as antioxidant preservatives with reports of associated allergic contact dermatitis in the literature. The objectives of this review were to investigate the role of gallates in allergic contact dermatitis and to explore products containing these preservatives. A systematic review of the literature through April 2016 was performed to explore cases of reported gallate allergy. Food and cosmetic product databases were searched for products containing gallates. Seventy-four cases of gallate contact allergy have been reported. In addition, a variety of commercially available cosmetic products and foods contain gallate chemicals. Propyl gallate is the most commonly reported gallate contact allergen and often causes facial and/or hand dermatitis.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory mechanisms prevent contact hypersensitivity to Arnica montana L.

    PubMed

    Lass, Christian; Vocanson, Marc; Wagner, Steffen; Schempp, Christoph M; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Merfort, Irmgard; Martin, Stefan F

    2008-10-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), secondary plant metabolites from flowerheads of Arnica, exert anti-inflammatory effects mainly by preventing nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation because of alkylation of the p65 subunit. Despite its known immunosuppressive action, Arnica has been classified as a plant with strong potency to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Here we examined the dual role of SL as anti-inflammatory compounds and contact allergens in vitro and in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory and allergenic potential of SL in the mouse contact hypersensitivity model. We also used dendritic cells to study the activation of NF-kappaB and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-12 in the presence of different doses of SL in vitro. Arnica tinctures and SL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation and IL-12 production in dendritic cells at high concentrations, but had immunostimulatory effects at low concentrations. Contact hypersensitivity could not be induced in the mouse model, even when Arnica tinctures or SL were applied undiluted to inflamed skin. In contrast, Arnica tinctures suppressed contact hypersensitivity to the strong contact sensitizer trinitrochlorobenzene and activation of dendritic cells. However, contact hypersensitivity to Arnica tincture could be induced in acutely CD4-depleted MHC II knockout mice. These results suggest that induction of contact hypersensitivity by Arnica is prevented by its anti-inflammatory effect and immunosuppression as a result of immune regulation in immunocompetent mice.

  17. Expression of Ia determinants on mouse L3T4 (CD4 sup + ) immune cells that mediate contact sensitivity to the hapten trinitrochlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, S.C.; Matriano, J.A.; Chikkala, N.F.; Edinger, M.G.; Tubbs, R.R. )

    1991-03-11

    Experiments were performed to further characterize the T cell-mediated inflammatory response of contact sensitivity (CS) to the hapten trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) in mice. A discernible CS response was found to be induced as early as two days after epicutaneous application of TNCB. The response peaked on days four to five and then declined to a nearly undetectable level by days 10 to 11. Examination of the draining lymph nodes demonstrated that development of CS coincided with an increase in cellular proliferation and in the total number of lymphoid cells present. Despite a several-fold increase in the cellular contents of the draining lymph nodes of sensitized mice, the relative percentages of most subsets of T cells examined remained unchanged. Flow cytometric studies revealed that the subpopulation of T cells characterized as Thy 1.2{sup +} L3T4{sup +} Ia{sup +} increased substantially in comparison to its presence in unsensitized mice. The Thy 1.2{sup +} L3T4{sup +} Ia{sup +} cells that increased following sensitization were examined for effector cells that mediate CS. Four day immune lymph node T cells or L3T4 cells positively selected from them were capable of adoptively transferring CS to normal mice. However, treatment of these cells with allo- or monoclonal anti-Ia antibodies and complement, rendered them unable to transfer CS. These f