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Sample records for allergic diseases including

  1. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  2. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  4. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  5. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  6. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  7. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  8. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  9. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  10. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  11. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  12. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M; Truckner, Robert T; Weber, Richard W; Peden, David B

    2008-09-01

    Climate change is potentially the largest global threat to human health ever encountered. The earth is warming, the warming is accelerating, and human actions are largely responsible. If current emissions and land use trends continue unchecked, the next generations will face more injury, disease, and death related to natural disasters and heat waves, higher rates of climate-related infections, and wide-spread malnutrition, as well as more allergic and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality. This review highlights links between global climate change and anticipated increases in prevalence and severity of asthma and related allergic disease mediated through worsening ambient air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production. The pattern of change will vary regionally depending on latitude, altitude, rainfall and storms, land-use patterns, urbanization, transportation, and energy production. The magnitude of climate change and related increases in allergic disease will be affected by how aggressively greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are pursued, but at best an average warming of 1 to 2 degrees C is certain this century. Thus, anticipation of a higher allergic disease burden will affect clinical practice as well as public health planning. A number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies are suggested at the end of the review to assist in meeting this unprecedented public health challenge.

  13. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  14. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  15. Environmental Changes, Microbiota, and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, Eun

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically. The development of allergic diseases has been attributed to complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. Of the many possible environmental factors, most research has focused on the most commonly encountered environmental factors, such as air pollution and environmental microbiota in combination with climate change. There is increasing evidence that such environmental factors play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response that is associated with allergic diseases, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This review deals with not only these environmental factors and genetic factors but also their interactions in the development of allergic diseases. It will also emphasize the need for early interventions that can prevent the development of allergic diseases in susceptible populations and how these interventions can be identified. PMID:25228995

  16. ALLERGIC DISEASES AND ASTHMA IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Khachapuridze, D; Katamadze, N; Chkuaseli, N

    2015-06-01

    The goal of our research was to find out, whether asthma phenotyping, based on presence of accompanying allergic diseases is significant for asthma classification or not. Research was conducted on the basis of questioning of random and representative cohorts of Tbilisi children's population, by cross-section method of epidemiological research. Special extended screening questionnaire was developed for epidemiological study of allergic diseases. Diagnostic criterion for allergy was analyzed and representative cohort was selected. Research was conducted in 2010-2014 period. Studied population included 1450 children from 2 to 17 years age representing Tbilisi general population (of them, 850 girls and 600 boys). As a result of research the following findings were made: asthma was confirmed where at least two of the listed was present: diagnosis of asthma made by doctor, asthma symptoms and consumption of drugs against asthma. Allergic rhinitis was confirmed, where more than one of the listed symptoms was present and children should not have caught cold, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction or snore, combined or IgE with some inhalation allergen. Atopic dermatitis was confirmed if the subject had atopic dermatitis at a time of interview or clinical study. Markers of asthma severity were based on number of asthma episodes and number of symptoms, or regular consumption of corticosteroids, number of missed days at school and answer of subjects to the question: for the past year what was the degree of discomfort attributable to asthma ("very high" - "absolutely not"). Allergic sensitization was assessed based on the skin prick-test and test of specific immunoglobulin E in serum and was deemed positive where the average diameter of blebs in skin prick tests was 3 mm larger than negative control and IgE-0,35kU/l. Lung function was assessed by means of respirometers, by evaluating maximal forced expiration data and flow-volume curves. Allergic rhinitis was regarded as the most

  17. Allergic disease as an association of steroid sulphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sakura, N; Nishimura, S; Matsumoto, T; Ohsaki, M; Ogata, T

    1997-11-01

    Ten of 31 patients with steroid sulphatase (STS) deficiency were found to have an allergic disease (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis). STS deficiency may predispose patients to allergic disease.

  18. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  19. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. PMID:27055949

  20. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human.

  1. Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response to allergens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which Treg cells fail to maintain tolerance in patients with allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how Treg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the "dual" functionality of Treg cells in patients with allergic diseases: how Treg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a proallergic inflammatory environment can skew Treg cells toward a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in patients with chronic allergic diseases by promoting Treg cell stability and function. PMID:27596705

  2. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Blaiss, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Even though there is no mortality associated with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR), there is significant morbidity in sufferers of this condition. The exact number of patients with AR is difficult to ascertain, with studies showing ranges from 9 to 42% of the population. Recently, the Allergies in America survey found that 14.2% of the adult U.S. population has been diagnosed with AR. It is well established that AR has a profound influence on the patient's quality of life. Not only do people with AR complain of rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, sneezing, itching, and associated eye problems disturbing, but they also have impaired emotional wellbeing and social functioning. Costs are a major burden in AR studies showing at least $6 billion/year. Although most attention related to costs in AR have been evaluating direct costs due to physician consultation and medical treatment, it is now clear that indirect costs are a major aspect of total costs in AR, especially for American businesses. Indirect costs include absenteeism from work or school because of illness and decreased productivity when at work or presenteeism. AR should be treated seriously by the medical community. Proper treatment of AR patients should not only greatly improve their quality of life, but also bring down health care costs, especially indirect ones, associated with this condition. PMID:17883905

  3. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  4. Allergic rhinitis: meaningful and less meaningful combination treatments including reminiscences.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, I

    2014-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) results from a complex allergen-driven mucosal inflammation in the nasal cavity. Current guideline-based therapy for allergic rhinitis include oral and nasal antihistamines, topical and systemic glucocorticoids, decongestants, antimuscarinic agents, mast cell stabilizing drugs, leukotriene-receptor antagonists, and others. In spite of guideline recommendations, most patients are using multiple therapies in an attempt to achieve symptom control. Therefore, more effective therapies for the management of AR are clearly required. Recently, a novel fixed dose combination containing azelastine and fluticasone propionate has successfully been introduced. At present, it represents the only meaningful topical drug combination. Perhaps, it will be followed by others. PMID:24974572

  5. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future.

  6. The inflammatory nature of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Durham, S R

    1998-12-01

    The allergic inflammatory response in allergic rhinitis has been studied extensively owing to the high frequency of the condition, the significant morbidity it causes and the accessibility of the nasal tissue. The allergic inflammatory response is characterized by IgE synthesis, IgE-dependent mast cell activation and infiltration of the nasal mucosa by T lymphocytes and eosinophils. The immediate-phase response is mediated by a range of inflammatory mediators (such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins), resulting in vasodilatation, oedema, mucus secretion, itching and sneezing. Individuals who experience a late-phase response have further nasal symptoms 4-24 h after the initial challenge with allergen. Results of nasal biopsy studies indicate that the late-phase allergic response involves T-lymphocyte activation, production of TH2-type cytokines and tissue eosinophilia. Corticosteroids potently inhibit T-lymphocyte responses, and clinical studies in subjects with allergic rhinitis have demonstrated that they are extremely effective in blocking both early- and late-phase allergic reactions. Topical aqueous triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray represents a novel formulation of a topical corticosteroid for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Data from controlled clinical studies indicate that it is effective in treating seasonal and perennial disease, is well tolerated, does not suppress adrenocortical function, is odourless, and can be administered as a once-daily dose. PMID:9988430

  7. Allergic Disease and Autoimmune Effectors Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, Menachem; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    Allergy and autoimmunity result from dysregulation of the immune system. Until recently, it was generally accepted that the mechanisms that govern these disease processes are quite disparate; however, new discoveries suggest possible common pathogenetic effector pathways. This review illustrates the concomitant presentation of these conditions and the potential relationship or common mechanism in some cases, by looking at the key elements that regulate the immune response in both allergic and autoimmunite conditions: mast cells, antibodies, T cells, cytokines, and genetic determinants. The parallel appearance of allergic and autoimmune conditions in the some patients may reveal that such aberrations of the immune system have a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Mast cells, which play a key role in allergic reactions, and the wealth of inflammatory mediators they express, make it likely that they have profound effects on many autoimmune processes. Activation of protein kinases by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses may contribute to both allergic and autoimmune diseases. The presence of autoantibodies in some allergic conditions suggests an autoimmune basis for these conditions. Because of the central role T cells play in immune reactivity, the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci have long been considered important candidates for common disease susceptibility within the immune system such as asthma, atopy, and autoimmunity. Immunomodulation is the key to a successful treatment of allergic and autoimmune conditions. PMID:12885156

  8. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  9. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study. PMID:24504215

  10. Epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics of asthma and allergic disease is a field that has expanded greatly in the last decade. Previously thought only in terms of cell differentiation, it is now evident the epigenetics regulate many processes. With T cell activation, commitment toward an allergic phenotype is tightly regulated by DNA methylation and histone modifications at the Th2 locus control region. When normal epigenetic control is disturbed, either experimentally or by environmental exposures, Th1/Th2 balance can be affected. Epigenetic marks are not only transferred to daughter cells with cell replication but they can also be inherited through generations. In animal models, with constant environmental pressure, epigenetically determined phenotypes are amplified through generations and can last up to 2 generations after the environment is back to normal. In this review on the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases we review basic epigenetic mechanisms and discuss the epigenetic control of Th2 cells. We then cover the transgenerational inheritance model of epigenetic traits and discuss how this could relate the amplification of asthma and allergic disease prevalence and severity through the last decades. Finally, we discuss recent epigenetic association studies for allergic phenotypes and related environmental risk factors as well as potential underlying mechanisms for these associations. PMID:24932182

  11. The ocular surface: from physiology to the ocular allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Galicia-Carreón, Jorge; Santacruz, Concepción; Hong, Enrique; Jiménez-Martínez, María C

    2013-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva secondary to an immune response to exogenous antigens, usually called allergens. In fact, AC is a syndrome that involves the entire ocular surface, including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, and tear film. The signs and symptoms of AC have a meaningful effect on comfort and patient health, and could be influenced by environment, genetics and immune regulation mechanisms, all of which work together in a complex immunological homeostasis. Dysregulation in such immune responses could turn into a variety of ocular allergic diseases (OAD). This review describes some of the current understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in different OAD.

  12. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed) proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source of support for gut microbe colonization, due to its bifidobacteria and galactooligosaccharide content. The literature lacks consensus in recommending the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, while prebiotics may prove to be effective in reducing atopy in healthy children. There is insufficient evidence to support soy formulas or amino acid formulas for

  13. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed) proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source of support for gut microbe colonization, due to its bifidobacteria and galactooligosaccharide content. The literature lacks consensus in recommending the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, while prebiotics may prove to be effective in reducing atopy in healthy children. There is insufficient evidence to support soy formulas or amino acid formulas for

  14. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed) proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source of support for gut microbe colonization, due to its bifidobacteria and galactooligosaccharide content. The literature lacks consensus in recommending the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, while prebiotics may prove to be effective in reducing atopy in healthy children. There is insufficient evidence to support soy formulas or amino acid formulas for

  15. [Probiotics in allergic diseases of childhood].

    PubMed

    Hauer, A

    2006-08-31

    The increase in allergic diseases in children in the industrialized countries is attributed, among things, to the "exaggerated hygiene" in early childhood typical of western lifestyle, since insufficient microbial exposure in this phase would appear to promote the development of allergies ("hygiene hypothesis"). Experimental data and initial results of clinical studies show that the immune system of infants can be stimulated by the endogenous intestinal flora. Probiotics, (apathogenic organisms present in human intestinal flora) have a very similar effect: Infants at risk of developing atopy, who, in the first 6 months of life received a special probiotic, contracted atopic dermatitis after two years only half as frequently as a control group of infants. Therapeutic effects were also observed in this clinical condition. For no other allergic manifestations have reports so far been published on the successful use of probiotics for prevention or treatment.

  16. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  17. [The role of immunotherapy in the prevention of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Duvancić, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy through repeated administration of allergens and augmentation of doses (hyposensibilization) with the purpose of decreasing the severity of type I allergic reactions or even its complete elimination is known already for a longer period of time. This type of therapy is especially beneficial in allergies to Hymenoptera venom, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic asthma and is implemented in patients with previously proven allergy to appropriate allergens (insects, pollen, house dust mite, pet dander and other). The most common form of therapy is subcutaneous immunotherapy which includes a series of injections containing specific allergens (allergy vaccines) with increasingly larger doses administered subcutaneously during a period of 3-5 years. There are also other forms of immunotherapy (for instance sublingual immunotherapy) although these are less effective. Repetition of the hyposensibilization procedure leads to further reduction in severity of allergy disease in the majority of patients. The efficacy of immunotherapy is also proven by a lower risk of allergic rhinitis patients developing asthma as well as by prevention of new sensibilizations.

  18. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported.

  19. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported. PMID:27090934

  20. The impact of diet on asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Julia, Valerie; Macia, Laurence; Dombrowicz, David

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of allergic diseases is increasing, both in developed and developing countries, concomitantly with the rise in living standards and the adoption of a 'western lifestyle'. For two decades, the hygiene hypothesis - which proposes that the lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents increases susceptibility to allergic diseases in later life - provided the conceptual framework for unravelling the mechanisms that could account for the increased incidence of allergic diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that highlights the role of diet as a key factor influencing immune homeostasis and the development of allergic diseases through a complex interplay between nutrients, their metabolites and immune cell populations. Although further investigations are still required to understand these complex relationships, recent data have established a possible connection between metabolic homeostasis and allergic diseases.

  1. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  2. [Prevention of allergic diseases in childhood: from theory to reality].

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Allergic diseases have an increasing worldwide prevalence and a great impact on the health related costs. The research is focused on the study of etiological and risk factors of allergic diseases that can potentially be modified with primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies. Many of these measures do not have a definitively proven effect taking place in a controlled context different to what happens in real life. This paper aims to review the latest evidence on prevention of allergic diseases considering certainties and unresolved issues and focuses mainly on environmental, dietary, pharmacological and immunological preventive strategies for different levels of prevention. It is imperative to have a better understanding of genetic and environmental factors that cause allergic diseases to optimize preventive measures that are effective in reversing the increasing trend in the prevalence of allergic illnesses in childhood.

  3. Respiratory effects of air pollution on allergic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q. )

    1992-10-01

    Allergic patients have an increased susceptibility to the adverse effects of both natural and man-made air pollutants. This goes for both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and manifests itself with biochemical, cellular, and pathophysiologic expressions of adverse health effects in allergic individuals. Also occupationally induced allergic diseases will remain very important. This area has been reviewed recently by Cullen et al. Since allergic patients comprise somewhere between 15% and 20% of the population, this increased susceptibility is of crucial importance not only for medical care and research but for legislative and regulatory consideration to protect these vulnerable individuals.108 references.

  4. The relationship between autoimmunity and specific immunotherapy for allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bozek, Andrzej; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Bednarski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a 20-year post-specific immunotherapy (SIT) observational evaluation for an assessment of any manifestations of autoimmune disease or the appearance of autoantibodies in serum. In total, 1,888 patients (902 women and 986 men) were observed. The mean age of the patients was 34.1±12.4 y at the start of the prospective observation after finishing SIT. New incidences of autoimmune disease and/or the presence of autoantibodies in serum were monitored. The SIT group was compared with control groups consisting of allergic patients who had very received SIT and with non-allergic subjects. There were no significant differences in the autoimmune disease prevalence between the allergic patients with or without SIT. However, significantly higher prevalence of 4 different autoimmune diseases (AID) were observed in the non-allergic patients during the same period. Additionally, the incidence of 8 different autoantibodies was significantly higher in non-allergic patients than in control subjects. Hashimoto disease was the most common autoimmune disease observed. The results of this long-term observational study indicated a lack of a significant prevalence of new instances of autoimmune disease during 20 y of observation post-SIT and at a rate lower than that of non-allergic control subjects, suggesting that SIT is safe in this regard in the long term. PMID:26431066

  5. Gut Microbiota and Allergic Disease. New Insights.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-03-01

    The rapid rise in childhood allergies (atopy) in Westernized nations has implicated associated environmental exposures and lifestyles as primary drivers of disease development. Culture-based microbiological studies indicate that atopy has demonstrable ties to altered gut microbial colonization in very early life. Infants who exhibit more severe multisensitization to food- or aero-allergens have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing asthma in childhood. Hence an emerging hypothesis posits that environment- or lifestyle-driven aberrancies in the early-life gut microbiome composition and by extension, microbial function, represent a key mediator of childhood allergic asthma. Animal studies support this hypothesis. Environmental microbial exposures epidemiologically associated with allergy protection in humans confer protection against airway allergy in mice. In addition, gut microbiome-derived short-chain fatty acids produced from a high-fiber diet have been shown to protect against allergy via modulation of both local and remote mucosal immunity as well as hematopoietic antigen-presenting cell populations. Here we review key data supporting the concept of a gut-airway axis and its critical role in childhood atopy. PMID:27027953

  6. Novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents: allergic disease and innovative treatments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Coelho, Pedro B; Oliveira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Anti-allergic agents are used to treat a great variety of diseases which usually involve an inflammation reaction. These compounds act by inhibiting the release and the effects of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine) in the target tissue. The purpose of anti-allergy therapy is to deliver the drug to its local of action in a therapeutic concentration, minimizing the undesired side effects. In order to solve some of the anti-allergic agents' physicochemical drawbacks and the limitations associated to conventional pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. poor solubility and absorption, skin permeation, stability), novel drug delivery systems, such as cyclodextrins, liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, nano and microparticles, have been developed. Depending on the allergic condition, several administration routes are used to deliver anti-allergic agents, each with its own disadvantages to overcome. In the literature, there are a vast number of papers concerning novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents, making it difficult to evaluate the information and the promising outcomes. The aim of the present review article is to compile the recent (i.e. in the new millennium) improvements of novel drug delivery technology focusing on the achievement of anti-allergic therapeutic delivery. The potential intrinsic benefits of these systems will reflect an increased therapeutic adherence and better patients' life quality. A critical prospect of future clinical trial directions will also be discussed. PMID:25895551

  7. Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Pregnancy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and allergic disorders can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy itself may also affect the course of asthma and related diseases. Optimal management of these disorders during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of the mother and the baby. Specific pharmacological agents for treatment of asthma or allergic diseases must be cautiously selected and are discussed here with respect to safety considerations in pregnancy. Although most drugs do not harm the fetus, this knowledge is incomplete. Any drug may carry a small risk that must be balanced against the benefits of keeping the mother and baby healthy. The goals and principles of management for acute and chronic asthma, rhinitis, and dermatologic disorders are the same during pregnancy as those for asthma in the general population. Diagnosis of allergy during pregnancy should mainly consist of the patient's history and in vitro testing. The assured and well-evaluated risk factors revealed for sensitization in mother and child are very limited, to date, and include alcohol consumption, exposure to tobacco smoke, maternal diet and diet of the newborn, drug usage, and insufficient exposure to environmental bacteria. Consequently, the recommendations for primary and secondary preventive measures are also very limited in number and verification. PMID:21151812

  8. Immunoregulatory Role of HLA-G in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Contini, Paola; Negrini, Simone; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Puppo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are sustained by a T-helper 2 polarization leading to interleukin-4 secretion, IgE-dependent inflammation, and mast cell and eosinophil activation. HLA-G molecules, both in membrane-bound and in soluble forms, play a central role in modulation of immune responses. Elevated levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) molecules are detected in serum of patients with allergic rhinitis to seasonal and perennial allergens and correlate with allergen-specific IgE levels, clinical severity, drug consumption, and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy. sHLA-G molecules are also found in airway epithelium of patients with allergic asthma and high levels of sHLA-G molecules are detectable in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic patients correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels. Finally, HLA-G molecules are expressed by T cells, monocytes-macrophages, and Langerhans cells infiltrating the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients. Collectively, although at present it is difficult to completely define the role of HLA-G molecules in allergic diseases, it may be suggested that they are expressed and secreted by immune cells during the allergic reaction in an attempt to suppress allergic inflammation. PMID:27413762

  9. Immunoregulatory Role of HLA-G in Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Murdaca, Giuseppe; Contini, Paola; Negrini, Simone; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Puppo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases are sustained by a T-helper 2 polarization leading to interleukin-4 secretion, IgE-dependent inflammation, and mast cell and eosinophil activation. HLA-G molecules, both in membrane-bound and in soluble forms, play a central role in modulation of immune responses. Elevated levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) molecules are detected in serum of patients with allergic rhinitis to seasonal and perennial allergens and correlate with allergen-specific IgE levels, clinical severity, drug consumption, and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy. sHLA-G molecules are also found in airway epithelium of patients with allergic asthma and high levels of sHLA-G molecules are detectable in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic patients correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels. Finally, HLA-G molecules are expressed by T cells, monocytes-macrophages, and Langerhans cells infiltrating the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients. Collectively, although at present it is difficult to completely define the role of HLA-G molecules in allergic diseases, it may be suggested that they are expressed and secreted by immune cells during the allergic reaction in an attempt to suppress allergic inflammation. PMID:27413762

  10. [Recent advances in DNA vaccines against allergic airway disease: a review].

    PubMed

    Ou, Jin; Xu, Yu; Shi, Wendan

    2013-12-01

    DNA vaccine is used in infectious diseases initially, and later is applied in neoplastic diseases, allergic diseases and other fields with the further understanding of DNA vaccine and the development of genetic engineering. DNA vaccine transfers the genes encoding exogenous antigens to plasmid vector and then is introduced into organism. It controls the antigen proteins synthesis, thus induces specific humoral and cellular immune responses. So it has a broad application prospect in allergic diseases. Compared with the traditional protein vaccines used in specific immunotherapy, DNA vaccine has many advantages, including high purity and specificity, and improvement of patients' compliance etc. However, there are still two unsolved problems. First, the transfection rate of unmodified naked DNA plasmid is not high, Second, it's difficult to induce ideal immune response. In this study, we will review the progress of DNA vaccine applications in respiratory allergic diseases and its various optimization strategies.

  11. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre

  12. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  13. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. PMID:24509255

  14. Allergic diseases: the price of civilisational progress

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:25097472

  15. Epidemiology and current status of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and associated allergic diseases in Korea: ARIA Asia-Pacific workshop report.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Sim; Choi, Gil Soon; Cho, Joong Sang; Kim, You-Young

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma has recently increased in Korea, and both conditions are recognized as major chronic respiratory diseases requiring active intervention. The prevalence of rhinitis among asthmatic patients is high, ranging from 60 to 80%, and could seriously affect asthma severity and outcome. We suggest that allergic rhinitis should be properly evaluated in asthmatic patients to achieve better asthma control.

  16. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children.

    PubMed

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella; Dreborg, Sten; Niggemann, Bodo; Aalberse, Rob; Arshad, Syed H; von Berg, Andrea; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Duschén, Karel; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Hill, David; Jones, Catherine; Mellon, Michael; Oldeus, Göran; Oranje, Arnold; Pascual, Cristina; Prescott, Susan; Sampson, Hugh; Svartengren, Magnus; Wahn, Ulrich; Warner, Jill A; Warner, John O; Vandenplas, Yvan; Wickman, Magnus; Zeiger, Robert S

    2008-02-01

    Because of scientific fraud four trials have been excluded from the original Cochrane meta-analysis on formulas containing hydrolyzed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infants. Unlike the conclusions of the revised Cochrane review the export group set up by the Section on Paediatrics, European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SP-EAACI) do not find that the exclusion of the four trials demands a change of the previous recommendations regarding primary dietary prevention of allergic diseases. Ideally, recommendations on primary dietary prevention should be based only on the results of randomized and quasi-randomized trials (selection criteria in the Cochrane review). However, regarding breastfeeding randomization is unethical, Therefore, in the development of recommendations on dietary primary prevention, high-quality systematic reviews of high-quality cohort studies should be included in the evidence base. The study type combined with assessment of the methodological quality determines the level of evidence. In view of some methodological concerns in the Cochrane meta-analysis, particularly regarding definitions and diagnostic criteria for outcome measures and inclusion of non peer-reviewed studies/reports, a revision of the Cochrane analysis may seem warranted. Based on analysis of published peer-reviewed observational and interventional studies the results still indicate that breastfeeding is highly recommended for all infants irrespective of atopic heredity. A dietary regimen is effective in the prevention of allergic diseases in high-risk infants, particularly in early infancy regarding food allergy and eczema. The most effective dietary regimen is exclusively breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months or, in absence of breast milk, formulas with documented reduced allergenicity for at least the first 4 months, combined with avoidance of solid food and cow's milk for the first 4 months.

  17. [Preliminary results of prophylactic program of allergic diseases in children in Lodz district].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Korzeniewska, Aleksandra; Piechota, Mariusz; Podsiadłowicz-Borzecka, Małgorzata; Majak, Paweł; Stelmach, Iwona

    2002-01-01

    Allergic diseases are one of the most important problems in medicine. As a consequence of increased frequency of allergic diseases, negative health, economical and social problems appear. To eliminate these consequences prophylactic programmes are created. In this paper preliminary results of Prophylactic Program of Allergic Diseases in Children in Łodz district in 2000-2001 years is presented. PMID:12884565

  18. Role of sensitization to mammalian serum albumin in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Asero, Riccardo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-10-01

    Serum albumin (SA) constitutes an intriguing puzzle that is involved in allergic sensitizations from different sources and induces different clinical manifestations. In this article, we describe the role of sensitization to SAs in inducing allergic diseases and the complex interactions and cross-reactivity between SA resulting from its presence in various mammalian tissues and fluids. SAs alone are an uncommon cause of allergic sensitization in airways, but these allergenic proteins likely play a significant role as cross-reacting allergens in individuals sensitized to several types of animal dander. SAs are a minor allergen in milk but a major allergen in meats. Recently, bovine SA has been added to the culture medium of spermatozoids used for artificial insemination. As a consequence, some case reports have shown that bovine SA may be a causative agent in severe anaphylaxis after standard intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:21809117

  19. Role of sensitization to mammalian serum albumin in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Asero, Riccardo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-10-01

    Serum albumin (SA) constitutes an intriguing puzzle that is involved in allergic sensitizations from different sources and induces different clinical manifestations. In this article, we describe the role of sensitization to SAs in inducing allergic diseases and the complex interactions and cross-reactivity between SA resulting from its presence in various mammalian tissues and fluids. SAs alone are an uncommon cause of allergic sensitization in airways, but these allergenic proteins likely play a significant role as cross-reacting allergens in individuals sensitized to several types of animal dander. SAs are a minor allergen in milk but a major allergen in meats. Recently, bovine SA has been added to the culture medium of spermatozoids used for artificial insemination. As a consequence, some case reports have shown that bovine SA may be a causative agent in severe anaphylaxis after standard intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization.

  20. Therapeutic targets in allergic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, L

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the present state of treatment of ocular allergy. Immuno-ophthalmology arose in the portion of this past century when investigators uncovered the uniqueness of the lens proteins and that it could induce an immunological response otherwise know as phacoanaphylaxis. Further studies have shown many similarities between the eye and other organ systems, but one of the most profound problems was the spring "catarrh" that involved the eyes and nose, i.e., rhinoconjunctivitis. Treatment over the past 10 years has expanded with the better understanding of the allergic response at the conjunctival surface. Allergen immunotherapy remains a cornerstone of treatment. In fact, the very first report of the use of immunotherapy in 1911 "measured the patient's resistance during experiments ... of pollen extracts to excite a conjunctival reaction" (Noon L, and Cantar BO, Lancet 1572-1573, 1911).

  1. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P < 0.001). Our results in general indicate a low frequency of FLG null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  2. The evaluation of allergens and allergic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, C S; Tang, R B; Chung, R L

    2000-12-01

    Knowing the incidence of allergic diseases and their relationship with allergens is a crucial requirement for therapeutic judgment. We present our experience on the incidence, clinical features and allergens of the allergic diseases detected by multiple allergosorbent chemiluminescent assay (MAST-CLA) in children from 1997 to 1999 at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. The incidence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are significantly different when stratified by age groups. Among the enrolled 2008 patients, 980 (48.8%) patients have positive MAST-CLA results. Of these, 562 (57.3%) are male and 418 (42.7%) are female. A significant increase among patients with positive allergens is also found when stratified by age group. Inhalant allergen is the major allergen detected in our patients. House dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), cockroaches, feathers, and dog dander show the highest incidence in the 7- to 12-year-old group. In the fungal group, Aspergillus and Penicillium also show a significant difference in the incidence among different age groups. Pollen allergens, on a whole, show significant difference in incidence among different age groups. The food allergen group shows variable significant difference in incidence. Crab, milk, and egg white show the highest significant incidence in the 2- to 6-year-old group. These results suggest that the incidence of allergens detected in allergic diseases varies among different age groups. PMID:11269366

  3. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients. PMID:27275199

  4. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  5. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  6. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AS ADJUVANTS IN ALLERGIC AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: Studies have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) worsen respiratory diseases including allergic asthma. The adjuvant effects of DEP in the airways have been widely reported; however, the precise determinants and mechanisms of these effects are ill-defined. S...

  7. Non-pulmonary allergic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease: A qualitative review

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, David S; Shum, Mili; Hsieh, Jennifer; Blonski, Wojciech; Greenwald, David A

    2014-01-01

    While the etiological underpinnings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly complex, it has been noted that both clinical and pathophysiological similarities exist between IBD and both asthma and non-pulmonary allergic phenomena. In this review, several key points on common biomarkers, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and nutritional and probiotic interventions for both IBD and non-pulmonary allergic diseases are discussed. Histamine and mast cell activity show common behaviors in both IBD and in certain allergic disorders. IgE also represents a key immunoglobulin involved in both IBD and in certain allergic pathologies, though these links require further study. Probiotics remain a critically important intervention for both IBD subtypes as well as multiple allergic phenomena. Linked clinical phenomena, especially sinonasal disease and IBD, are discussed. In addition, nutritional interventions remain an underutilized and promising therapy for modification of both allergic disorders and IBD. Recommending new mothers breastfeed their infants, and increasing the duration of breastfeeding may also help prevent both IBD and allergic diseases, but requires more investigation. While much remains to be discovered, it is clear that non-pulmonary allergic phenomena are connected to IBD in a myriad number of ways and that the discovery of common immunological pathways may usher in an era of vastly improved treatments for patients. PMID:25170192

  8. Modulation of immune responses by immunotherapy in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2014-08-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years and until now different immunoregulatory pathways have been shown to take place in its mechanisms of action. It is characterized by administration of the causative allergen and is shown to be clinically efficient even after discontinuation of therapy particularly in allergic respiratory diseases, bee venom allergy, and food allergy. Generation of antigen/allergen-specific peripheral tolerance is the key mechanism during immunotherapy. It is mediated by development of T and B regulatory cells, IgG4 isotype allergen-specific antibodies and the involvement of multiple suppressor factors, which lead to decreased tissue inflammation, early and late phase responses. Describing novel regulatory mechanisms in the process of immune tolerance induction will help to identify treatment modalities not only for allergic disorders, but also for autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation, chronic infections, and cancer.

  9. Mechanisms of allergic disease - environmental and genetic determinants for the development of allergy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D E; Boyle, R J; Thornton, C A; Prescott, S L

    2015-05-01

    Allergic disease can be viewed as an early manifestation of immune dysregulation. Environmental exposures including maternal inflammation, diet, nutrient balance, microbial colonization and toxin exposures can directly and indirectly influence immune programming in both pregnancy and the postnatal period. The intrauterine microclimate is critical for maternal and fetal immunological tolerance to sustain viable pregnancy, but appears susceptible to environmental conditions. Targeting aspects of the modern environment that promote aberrant patterns of immune response is logical for interventions aimed at primary prevention of allergic disease. Defining the mechanisms that underpin both natural and therapeutic acquisition of immunological tolerance in childhood will provide insights into the drivers of persistent immune dysregulation. In this review, we summarize evidence that allergy is a consequence of intrauterine and early life immune dysregulation, with specific focus on contributing environmental risk factors occurring preconception, in utero and in the early postnatal period. We explore the immunological mechanisms which underpin tolerance and persistence of allergic disease during childhood. It is likely that future investigations within these two domains will ultimately provide a road map for the primary prevention of allergic disease.

  10. The impact of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of allergic disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bridgette L

    2011-01-01

    Personalized medicine includes the application of genomic information in predicting disease and therapeutic response to ultimately individualize patient care. Pharmacogenetics is key in achieving true personalized care. However, the clinical applicability of genetic testing to "everyday medicine" is yet to be realized. This paper will discuss areas in allergic/inflammatory disease that have been impacted by pharmacogenetic research and how this application may be brought from the "bench to the bedside." PMID:22073496

  11. [Histamine H₁ receptor gene as an allergic diseases-sensitive gene and its impact on therapeutics for allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Yuto; Kuroda, Wakana; Yoshida, Haruka; Miyamoto, Yuko; Hattori, Masashi; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutics targeting disease-sensitive genes are required for the therapy of multifactorial diseases. There is no clinical report on therapeutics for allergic disease-sensitive genes. We are focusing on the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) as a sensitive gene. H1R mediates allergy histamine signals. H1R is a rate-limiting molecule of the H1R signal because the signal is increased with elevated receptor expression level. We discovered that the stimulation of H1R induced H1R gene expression through PKCδ activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The mechanism of H1R gene expression was revealed to play a key role in the receptor expression level in studies using cultured HeLa cells and allergic rhinitis model rats. Preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines is recommended for the therapy of pollinosis. However, the mechanism of the therapy remains to be elucidated. We demonstrated that repeated pretreatment treatment with antihistamines in the allergic rhinitis model rats resulted not only in improvement of symptoms but also in suppressed elevation of H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa. A clinical trial was then initiated. When symptoms and H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa of pollinosis patients with or without preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines were examined, both symptoms and high levels of H1R mRNA were significantly improved in treated compared with untreated patients. These results strongly suggest that H1R is an allergic disease-sensitive gene.

  12. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  13. [The role of immunoglobulin preparations in treatment of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Boznański, Andrzej; Widerska, Alicja

    2002-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used for many years to treat patients with primary immunodeficiencies. More recently, IVIG has been shown to have antiinflammatory activity when used at substantially higher concentrations. A number of studies have examined the efficacy of IVIG in allergic diseases. For patients with severe refractory asthma, sinusitis, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria, IVIG offers an alternative therapy with relatively few side effects. Although the mechanism by which IVIG may attenuate the allergic response is still undetermined, clinical studies have shown that immunoglobulin therapy can decrease serum IgE levels and increase glucocorticoid binding affinity, while in vitro studies have shown that IVIG can decrease T-cell secretion of TH2 cytokines.

  14. Epidermal RAF prevents allergic skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Josipa; Jeric, Ines; Niault, Theodora; Nowacka, Joanna Daniela; Kuzet, Sanya Eduarda; Rupp, Christian; Fischer, Irmgard; Biggi, Silvia; Borsello, Tiziana; Baccarini, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The RAS pathway is central to epidermal homeostasis, and its activation in tumors or in Rasopathies correlates with hyperproliferation. Downstream of RAS, RAF kinases are actionable targets regulating keratinocyte turnover; however, chemical RAF inhibitors paradoxically activate the pathway, promoting epidermal proliferation. We generated mice with compound epidermis-restricted BRAF/RAF1 ablation. In these animals, transient barrier defects and production of chemokines and Th2-type cytokines by keratinocytes cause a disease akin to human atopic dermatitis, characterized by IgE responses and local and systemic inflammation. Mechanistically, BRAF and RAF1 operate independently to balance MAPK signaling: BRAF promotes ERK activation, while RAF1 dims stress kinase activation. In vivo, JNK inhibition prevents disease onset, while MEK/ERK inhibition in mice lacking epidermal RAF1 phenocopies it. These results support a primary role of keratinocytes in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, and the animals lacking BRAF and RAF1 in the epidermis represent a useful model for this disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14012.001 PMID:27431613

  15. Outdoor air pollution in urban areas and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G

    1999-12-01

    Respiratory allergic diseases (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma and its equivalents) appear to be increasing in most countries, and subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to experience respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked, among various factors, to air pollution, which is now an important public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm the epidemiological evidence that inhalation of some pollutants, either individually or in combination, adversely affect lung function in asthmatics. The most abundant air pollutants in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are respirable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. While nitrogen dioxide does not exert consistent effects on lung function, ozone, respirable particulate matter and allergens impair lung function and lead to increased airway responsiveness and bronchial obstruction in predisposed subjects. However, besides acting as irritants, airborne pollutants can modulate the allergenicity of antigens carried by airborne particles. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived paucimicronic particles, pollutants can modify the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents and after their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway epithelial permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and so facilitate the allergen-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, air pollutants such as diesel exhaust emissions are thought to modulate the immune response by increasing immunoglobulin E synthesis, thus facilitating allergic sensitization in atopic subjects and the subsequent development of clinical respiratory symptoms. PMID:10695313

  16. Epidemiology and disease burden from allergic disease in Scotland: analyses of national databases

    PubMed Central

    Anandan, C; Gupta, R; Simpson, CR; Fischbacher, C; Sheikh, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background There are ongoing concerns about the quality of care provided to patients with allergic disorders in Scotland, but there are relatively few reliable data on the overall disease burden. We sought to: (1) describe the incidence, prevalence and outcome of allergic disorders; (2) estimate healthcare burden and costs; and (3) investigate ethnic variations in the epidemiology and outcomes from allergic disorders in Scotland. Methods Data sources: national surveys; primary care data; prescribing and medication data; hospital admissions data and mortality data. Results Allergic disorders are extremely common in Scotland, affecting about one in three of the population at some time in their lives. Incidence was highest for eczema (10.2 per 1000 registered patients). Over 4% of all GP consultations and 1.5% of hospital admissions were for allergic disorders. There were 100 asthma deaths in 2005 (20 per million people). Direct healthcare costs for allergic disorders were an estimated £130 million per year, the majority of these being incurred in primary care and related to asthma. Conclusions Allergic disorders are common in Scotland and given the very high proportion of children now affected, the high disease burden associated with these conditions is likely to persist for many decades. PMID:19797601

  17. Is allergic rhinitis a trivial disease?

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Dirceu; Camelo-Nunes, Inês Cristina; Wandalsen, Gustavo F.; Rosário, Nelson A.; Sarinho, Emanuel C.; ISAAC Group, Brazilian

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and rhinitis often coexist, which potentially increases the disease severity and can negatively impact a patients' quality of life. However, there are few reports based on data obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood examining asthma severity in combination with rhinitis-related symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate whether current rhinitis and current rhinoconjunctivitis are associated with the development of asthma or its increasing severity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: The prevalence of current asthma was correlated with the prevalence of current rhinitis and current rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescents (13 to 14 year olds) from 16 Brazilian centers (based on Spearman's rank correlation index). The influence of current rhinitis and current rhinoconjunctivitis on asthma presentation was also evaluated using the chi-squared test and was expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: A significant positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of current asthma and current rhinitis (rs = 0.82; 95%CI: 0.60–0.93, p<0.0001) and between the prevalence of current asthma and current rhinoconjunctivitis (rs = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.47–0.89, p<0.0001). Current rhinitis was associated with a significantly increased risk of current asthma and of more severe asthma. Similar results were observed for current rhinoconjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: In this epidemiologic study of Brazilian adolescents, the presence of current rhinitis and current rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with a high risk of developing asthma and increased asthma severity. The mutual evaluation of rhinitis and asthma is necessary to establish an adequate treatment plan. PMID:22179162

  18. General anesthesia exposure in early life reduces the risk of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chen; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Jiang, Jyun-Hong; Huang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract General anesthesia (GA) has been used for second line treatment strategy for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients. The association between GA in children and risk of followed-up allergic diseases is unclear. This study aims to assess the risk of allergic diseases after GA in children. We did a nationwide retrospective cohort study by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, including asthma (ICD-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between exposure to GA and none before 1 year of age throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model. Insurance claims data for 32,742 children younger than 1 year old from all insured children in the NHIRD. Of those, 2358 subjects were exposed to GA; 414 and 1944 children exposed to mask and intubation ventilation, respectively, served as the study cohort, whereas the remaining 30,384 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the GA group were at a lower risk of developing asthma, AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.67 (0.62–0.72, 95%CI), 0.72 (0.68–0.77, 95%CI), 0.60 (0.56–0.64, 95%CI), respectively. Children who were exposed to GA in early life before 1 year of age had reduced risk of subsequently developing allergic diseases such as asthma, AD, and AR, when compared with general population. PMID:27428241

  19. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

  20. Primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M; Assa'ad, Amal H; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of atopic disease, primary prevention may play a role in reducing its burden, especially in high-risk infants. With this in mind, the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology was charged with the task of developing recommendations for primary care physicians and specialists about the primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions according to current available literature and expert opinion. Recommendations that are supported by data are as follows. Avoidance diets during pregnancy and lactation are not recommended at this time, but more research is necessary for peanut. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 and up to 6 months is endorsed. For high-risk infants who cannot be exclusively breast-fed, hydrolyzed formula appears to offer advantages to prevent allergic disease and cow's milk allergy. Complementary foods can be introduced between 4 and 6 months of age. Because no formal recommendations have been previously provided about how and when to introduce the main allergenic foods (cow's milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish), these are now provided, and reasons to consider allergy consultation for development of a personalized plan for food introduction are also presented.

  1. Mechanistic impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, asthma and allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and eczema, have become increasingly common, but the reason for this increased prevalence is still unclear. It has become apparent that genetic variation alone is not sufficient to account for the observed changes; rather, the changing environment, together with alterations in lifestyle and eating habits, are likely to have driven the increase in prevalence, and in some cases, severity of disease. This is particularly highlighted by recent awareness of, and concern about, the exposure to ubiquitous environmental pollutants, including chemicals with oxidant-generating capacities, and their impact on the human respiratory and immune systems. Indeed, several epidemiological studies have identified a variety of risk factors, including ambient pollutant gases and airborne particles, for the prevalence and the exacerbation of allergic diseases. However, the responsible pollutants remain unclear and the causal relationship has not been established. Recent studies of cellular and animal models have suggested several plausible mechanisms, with the most consistent observation being the direct effects of particle components on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resultant oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. This review attempts to highlight the experimental findings, with particular emphasis on several major mechanistic events initiated by exposure to particulate matters (PMs) in the exposure-disease relationship. PMID:25694815

  2. Role in Allergic Diseases of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Allergens and Homologues of Parasite Proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Implied under the rubric of the hygiene hypothesis is that helminth infection can protect against allergic disease. It is well known that helminths induce processes associated with type 2 immune responses, but they also induce important regulatory responses that can modulate these type 2-associated responses-modulation that influences responses to bystander antigens including allergens. Indeed, most epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of helminth infection on atopy, but there are also convincing data to demonstrate that helminth infection can precipitate or worsen allergic inflammation/disease. Reasons for these disparate findings are much debated, but there is a school of thought that suggests that helminth-triggered type 2-associated responses, including IgE to cross-reactive aeroallergens, can offset the regulatory effects imposed by the same organisms. The cross-reactivity among helminths and allergenic tropomyosins dominated the antigen/allergen cross-reactivity field, but recent data suggest that cross-reactivity is much more common than previously appreciated. It has been demonstrated that a high degree of molecular similarity exists between allergens and helminth proteins. Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response induced by helminth infection and their impact on the induction of allergic disease in the host are critical for designing therapies using iatrogenic infections or parasite products to treat inflammatory diseases and for developing vaccines against helminth parasites. PMID:27480900

  3. Hyaluronan fragments as mediators of inflammation in allergic pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen, leading to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to allergens may experience a greater degree of tissue injury followed by airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. In addition, turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a hallmark of tissue injury and repair. This review focuses on the role of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the ECM, in pulmonary injury and repair with an emphasis on allergic asthma. Both the synthesis and degradation of the ECM are critical contributors to tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmented HA accumulates during tissue injury and functions in ways distinct from the larger native polymer. There is gathering evidence that HA degradation products are active participants in stimulating the expression of inflammatory genes in a variety of immune cells at the injury site. In this review, we will consider recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that are associated with HA accumulation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the asthmatic lung. PMID:25582403

  4. Prevention of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Airways Disease in Mice through Immune Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Agua-Doce, Ana; Graca, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic airways disease is a consequence of a Th2 response to an allergen leading to a series of manifestations such as production of allergen-specific IgE, inflammatory infiltrates in the airways, and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR). Several strategies have been reported for tolerance induction to allergens leading to protection from allergic airways disease. We now show that CD4 blockade at the time of house dust mite sensitization induces antigen-specific tolerance in mice. Tolerance induction is robust enough to be effective in pre-sensitized animals, even in those where AHR was pre-established. Tolerant mice are protected from airways eosinophilia, Th2 lung infiltration, and AHR. Furthermore, anti-CD4 treated mice remain immune competent to mount immune responses, including Th2, to unrelated antigens. Our findings, therefore, describe a strategy for tolerance induction potentially applicable to other immunogenic proteins besides allergens. PMID:21818308

  5. Italian Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study (AISAG) on light smoking and allergic diseases in adults.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C; Passalacqua, G

    2016-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. On the basis of these contradictory data in the literature we have carried out a multicenter cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between some allergic conditions and exposure or not to active light smoking. The study was carried out between May 2013 and November 2013 in 22 different Italian hospitals. Patients with respiratory and/or food allergy, and aged 18 years and over, visited at Allergy Outpatient Clinics, were invited to participate. A total of 1586 allergic patients (21.6% smokers) with a mean age of 39.2 years (standard deviation, SD = 15.1) were included. We demonstrated that the prevalence of tobacco smoking was higher in patients with food allergy and in asthmatic patients in stage III-IV. But no other statistical differences were found at univariate analysis. The sensitization patterns of non-smokers and smokers were similar. Furthermore, tobacco smoking was associated with higher risk of food allergy and lower risk of asthma. Moreover, tobacco smoking was an independent risk factor for persistent respect to intermittent rhinitis, and for asthma GINA stage III-IV with respect to stage I-II.

  6. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome.

    PubMed

    Eyring, Kenneth R; Pedersen, Brent S; Yang, Ivana V; Schwartz, David A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS) or filtered air (FA). DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3) are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease. PMID:26642056

  7. Hydrolysed formula and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Khan, Tasnia; Chivinge, Jennifer; Robinson, Zoe; Geoghegan, Natalie; Jarrold, Katharine; Afxentiou, Thalia; Reeves, Tim; Cunha, Sergio; Trivella, Marialena; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether feeding infants with hydrolysed formula reduces their risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis, as part of a series of systematic reviews commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to inform guidelines on infant feeding. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data sources Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and LILACS searched between January 1946 and April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Prospective intervention trials of hydrolysed cows’ milk formula compared with another hydrolysed formula, human breast milk, or a standard cows’ milk formula, which reported on allergic or autoimmune disease or allergic sensitisation. Results 37 eligible intervention trials of hydrolysed formula were identified, including over 19 000 participants. There was evidence of conflict of interest and high or unclear risk of bias in most studies of allergic outcomes and evidence of publication bias for studies of eczema and wheeze. Overall there was no consistent evidence that partially or extensively hydrolysed formulas reduce risk of allergic or autoimmune outcomes in infants at high pre-existing risk of these outcomes. Odds ratios for eczema at age 0-4, compared with standard cows’ milk formula, were 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.07; I2=30%) for partially hydrolysed formula; 0.55 (0.28 to 1.09; I2=74%) for extensively hydrolysed casein based formula; and 1.12 (0.88 to 1.42; I2=0%) for extensively hydrolysed whey based formula. There was no evidence to support the health claim approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that a partially hydrolysed formula could reduce the risk of eczema nor the conclusion of the Cochrane review that hydrolysed formula could prevent allergy to cows’ milk. Conclusion These findings do not support current guidelines

  8. Probiotics as Additives on Therapy in Allergic Airway Diseases: A Systematic Review of Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Sushree Samiksha; Singh, Meenu

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a systematic review to find out the role of probiotics in treatment of allergic airway diseases.  Methods. A comprehensive search of the major electronic databases was done till March 2013. Trials comparing the effect of probiotics versus placebo were included. A predefined set of outcome measures were assessed. Continuous data were expressed as standardized mean difference with 95% CI. Dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio with 95% CI. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. A total of 12 studies were included. Probiotic intake was associated with a significantly improved quality of life score in patients with allergic rhinitis (SMD −1.9 (95% CI −3.62, −0.19); P = 0.03), though there was a high degree of heterogeneity. No improvement in quality of life score was noted in asthmatics. Probiotic intake also improved the following parameters: longer time free from episodes of asthma and rhinitis and decrease in the number of episodes of rhinitis per year. Adverse events were not significant. Conclusion. As the current evidence was generated from few trials with high degree of heterogeneity, routine use of probiotics as an additive on therapy in subjects with allergic airway diseases cannot be recommended. PMID:23956972

  9. [Sensitization to granary mites in patients with allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Golysheva, M A

    1991-01-01

    As many as 71 patients selected from a group of 550 patients suffering from allergic diseases, sensitized to the house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined. A study was made of the presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies against house dust mites, storage mites (7 species altogether) using allergenic discs and commercial kits RAST (Pharmacia, Sweden). The group under examination mostly manifested sensitization to the house dust mites: Dermatophagoides ferinae (80%), Euroglyphus maynei (55%); storage mites: Acarus siro (45%), Lepidoglyphus destructor (35%). The latter one possesses the most powerful allergenic properties as compared to the acaroid mites of other types. The elevated sensitivity to storage mites is encountered among adults and children living both in Moscow and other regions (urban and rural). The problem of sensitization to storage mites in the USSR mandates thorough studies, which will enable the treatment and diagnostic agents to be designed and introduced into practice.

  10. Scientists find link between allergic and autoimmune diseases in mouse study

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health, and their colleagues, have discovered that a gene called BACH2 may play a central role in the development of diverse allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, asthma, Crohn's disease, ce

  11. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180

  12. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180

  13. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction.

  14. Salmonella infections including typhoid disease.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 20 million cases of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and 6 million cases of paratyphoid disease occur worldwide annually, with typhoid disease alone causing more than 200,000 deaths. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination guidelines are discussed.

  15. The effect of hypoallergenic formula on the occurrence of allergic diseases in high risk infants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Y T; Chou, C C; Hsieh, K H

    1991-01-01

    To study the influence of hypoallergenic milk on the occurrence of allergic diseases, thirty-three high risk, normal full-term newborns were divided into two groups with comparable family allergy score (FAS) and cord serum IgE. Group A consisted of 18 babies fed since birth with regular formula, while group B included 15 babies fed breast milk and/or NAN H.A. (Hypoallergenic infant formula) for the first 6 months of life. Close clinical observations for the appearance of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and wheezing as well as serial examination of total serum IgE and milk-specific IgE antibodies were done during the first year of life. The results showed: 1) Infants fed regular formula had a higher incidence of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR) than those fed NAN H.A. (39% vs 13% for AD; and 33% vs 13% for AR), but the difference was not significant. There was no difference in the incidence of wheezing between these two groups; 2) There was no relationship between cord blood IgE and FAS; 3) Neither the cord blood IgE nor FAS influenced the occurrence of allergic diseases and total serum IgE at one year of age; 4) Hypoallergenic milk (NAN H.A.) could support normal growth and development. In conclusion, a higher incidence of moderate to severe AD and AR was found in high risk infants fed regular formula than in those fed hypoallergenic milk. However, a study with a larger number of babies and a longer period of follow-up is needed to obtain a solid conclusion.

  16. Toward precision medicine and health: Opportunities and challenges in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Galli, Stephen Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Precision medicine (also called personalized, stratified, or P4 medicine) can be defined as the tailoring of preventive measures and medical treatments to the characteristics of each patient to obtain the best clinical outcome for each person while ideally also enhancing the cost-effectiveness of such interventions for patients and society. Clearly, the best clinical outcome for allergic diseases is not to get them in the first place. To emphasize the importance of disease prevention, a critical component of precision medicine can be referred to as precision health, which is defined herein as the use of all available information pertaining to specific subjects (including family history, individual genetic and other biometric information, and exposures to risk factors for developing or exacerbating disease), as well as features of their environments, to sustain and enhance health and prevent the development of disease. In this article I will provide a personal perspective on how the precision health-precision medicine approach can be applied to the related goals of preventing the development of allergic disorders and providing the most effective diagnosis, disease monitoring, and care for those with these prevalent diseases. I will also mention some of the existing and potential challenges to achieving these ambitious goals. PMID:27155026

  17. Evidence for linkage of a new region (11p14) to eczema and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guilloud-Bataille, Michel; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Bousquet, Jean; Charpin, Denis; Gormand, Frédéric; Hochez, Joëlle; Just, Jocelyne; Lemainque, Arnaud; Le Moual, Nicole; Matran, Régis; Neukirch, Françoise; Oryszczyn, Marie-Pierre; Paty, Evelyne; Pin, Isabelle; Vervloet, Daniel; Kauffmann, Francine; Lathrop, Mark; Demenais, Florence; Dizier, Marie-Hélène

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis also called eczema are allergic co-morbidites which are likely to depend on pleiotropic genetic effects as well as on specific genetic factors. After a previous genome-wide linkage screen conducted for asthma and AR in a sample of 295 French EGEA families ascertained through asthmatic subjects, the aim here was to search for genetic factors involved in eczema and more particularly those ones shared by the three allergic diseases using the same EGEA data. In this sake, eczema and phenotypes of ‘allergic disease’ accounting for the joint information on the presence/absence of the three diseases were examined by linkage analyses using the Maximum Likelihood Binomial (MLB) method. A fine mapping was carried out in regions detected for potential linkage, followed by association studies using the Family Based Association Test (FBAT). Evidence for linkage to 11p14 region was shown for ‘allergic disease’ and eczema. Linkage was also indicated between eczema and 5q13 and between ‘allergic disease’ and both 5p15 and 17q21 regions. Fine mapping supported the evidence of linkage to 11p14 and FBAT analyses showed association between ‘allergic disease’ and a marker located at the linkage peak on 11p14. Further investigations in this region will allow identifying genetic factor(s) which could have pleiotropic effect in the three allergic diseases. PMID:17943316

  18. Systems Biology of Asthma and Allergic Diseases: A Multiscale Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Schadt, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to understanding living systems that focuses on modeling diverse types of high-dimensional interactions to develop a more comprehensive understanding of complex phenotypes manifested by the system. High throughput molecular, cellular, and physiologic profiling of populations is coupled with bioinformatic and computational techniques to identify new functional roles for genes, regulatory elements, and metabolites in the context of the molecular networks that define biological processes associated with system physiology. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of asthma and allergic diseases, a systems biology approach is attractive, as it has the potential to model the myriad connections and interdependencies between genetic predisposition, environmental perturbations, regulatory intermediaries, and molecular sequelae that ultimately lead to diverse disease phenotypes and treatment responses across individuals. The increasing availability of high-throughput technologies has enabled system-wide profiling of the genome, transcriptome, epigenome, microbiome, and metabolome, providing fodder for systems biology approaches to examine asthma and allergy at a more holistic level. In this article, we review the technologies and approaches for system-wide profiling as well as their more recent applications to asthma and allergy. We discuss approaches for integrating multiscale data through network analyses and provide perspective on how individually-captured health profiles will contribute to more accurate systems biology views of asthma and allergy. PMID:25468194

  19. Systems biology of asthma and allergic diseases: a multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Schadt, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to understanding living systems that focuses on modeling diverse types of high-dimensional interactions to develop a more comprehensive understanding of complex phenotypes manifested by the system. High-throughput molecular, cellular, and physiologic profiling of populations is coupled with bioinformatic and computational techniques to identify new functional roles for genes, regulatory elements, and metabolites in the context of the molecular networks that define biological processes associated with system physiology. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of asthma and allergic diseases, a systems biology approach is attractive, as it has the potential to model the myriad connections and interdependencies between genetic predisposition, environmental perturbations, regulatory intermediaries, and molecular sequelae that ultimately lead to diverse disease phenotypes and treatment responses across individuals. The increasing availability of high-throughput technologies has enabled system-wide profiling of the genome, transcriptome, epigenome, microbiome, and metabolome, providing fodder for systems biology approaches to examine asthma and allergy at a more holistic level. In this article we review the technologies and approaches for system-wide profiling, as well as their more recent applications to asthma and allergy. We discuss approaches for integrating multiscale data through network analyses and provide perspective on how individually captured health profiles will contribute to more accurate systems biology views of asthma and allergy.

  20. The Treatment of Allergic Respiratory Disease During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Namazy, Jai; Schatz, M

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new-onset or preexisting asthma and allergic rhinitis.This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of allergy and use of asthma medication during pregnancy. Both allergic rhinitis and asthma can adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, in the case of maternal asthma, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management is thus important for both mother and baby. This article reviews the safety of asthma and allergy medications commonly used during pregnancy.

  1. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.

  2. The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update

    PubMed Central

    Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Feillet, H; Bach, J-F

    2010-01-01

    According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a high-incidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders. Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:20415844

  3. [Recommendations for the management of the child with allergic diseases at school].

    PubMed

    Saranz, Ricardo J; Lozano, Alejandro; Mariño, Andrea; Boudet, Raúl V; Sarraquigne, María Paula; Cáceres, María Elena; Bandín, Gloria; Lukin, Alicia; Skrie, Víctor; Cassaniti, María Cristina; Agüero, Claudio; Chorny, Marta; Reichbach, Débora S; Arnolt, Roque Gustavo; Cavallo, Aldo

    2015-06-01

    Allergic diseases cause great impact on the health related quality of life in children and adolescents, resulting in increased school absenteeism and deficiencies in school performance. Although the bibliographic framework on allergic diseases is wide, in our country, there are no guidelines for proper management of the allergic child at school. It is necessary to establish guidelines for coordinated action among the educational community, the families, the pediatrician, the health team and governmental and non-governmental authorities. This position paper aims to provide information about the impact of allergic diseases on school activities, establish standards of competence of the various stakeholders at school and consider the legal framework for the intervention of the school staff about the child with allergies at school. PMID:25996328

  4. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation.

  5. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  6. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Jun; Arita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.

  7. Endotypes of allergic diseases and asthma: An important step in building blocks for the future of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-07-01

    Discoveries from basic science research in the last decade have brought significant progress in knowledge of pathophysiologic processes of allergic diseases, with a compelling impact on understanding of the natural history, risk prediction, treatment selection or mechanism-specific prevention strategies. The view of the pathophysiology of allergic diseases developed from a mechanistic approach, with a focus on symptoms and organ function, to the recognition of a complex network of immunological pathways. Several subtypes of inflammation and complex immune-regulatory networks and the reasons for their failure are now described, that open the way for the development of new diagnostic tools and innovative targeted-treatments. An endotype is a subtype of a disease condition, which is defined by a distinct pathophysiological mechanism, whereas a disease phenotype defines any observable characteristic of a disease without any implication of a mechanism. Another key word linked to disease endotyping is biomarker that is measured and evaluated to examine any biological or pathogenic processes, including response to a therapeutic intervention. These three keywords will be discussed more and more in the future with the upcoming efforts to revolutionize patient care in the direction of precision medicine and precision health. The understanding of disease endotypes based on pathophysiological principles and their validation across clinically meaningful outcomes in asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy will be crucial for the success of precision medicine as a new approach to patient management.

  8. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Allergy is one of the most important and very common health problems worldwide. To reduce the proportion of people suffering from allergy, alternative methods of prevention and treatment are sought. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics are live microorganisms belonging mainly to the lactic acid bacteria. They modify the microflora of the human digestive system, especially the intestinal microflora. Prophylactic administration of probiotics in the early stages of life (naturally in breast milk or milk substitute synthetic compounds) is very important because intestinal microflora plays a huge role in the development of the immune system. Prevention of allergies as early as in the prenatal and postnatal periods provides huge opportunities for inhibiting the growing problem of allergy in emerging and highly developed societies. Effects of probiotic therapy depend on many factors such as the species of the microorganism used, the dose size and characteristics of the bacteria such as viability and capacity of adhesion to the intestinal walls. Authors of several studies showed beneficial effects of probiotics in the perinatal period, infancy, and also in adults in the prevention of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. Probiotics, due to their immunomodulatory properties and safety of use are a good, natural alternative for the prevention and treatment of many diseases including allergies. It is therefore important to explore the knowledge about their use and to carry out further clinical trials. PMID:26155109

  9. Acetaminophen Attenuates House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory J; Thrall, Roger S; Cloutier, Michelle M; Manautou, Jose E; Morris, John B

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, likely through pro-oxidant mechanisms. However, no studies have investigated the direct effects of APAP on the development of allergic inflammation. To determine the likelihood of a causal relationship between APAP and asthma pathogenesis, we explored the effects of APAP on inflammatory responses in a murine house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease. We hypothesized that APAP would enhance the development of HDM-induced allergic inflammation. The HDM model consisted of once daily intranasal instillations for up to 2 weeks with APAP or vehicle administration 1 hour prior to HDM during either week 1 or 2. Primary assessment of inflammation included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cytokine expression in lung tissue, and histopathology. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of HDM treatment were substantially diminished in APAP-treated groups compared with controls. APAP-treated groups had markedly reduced airway inflammation: including decreased inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid, lower cytokine expression in lung tissue, and less perivascular and peribronchiolar immune cell infiltration. The anti-inflammatory effect of APAP was not abrogated by an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism, suggesting that the effect was due to the parent compound or a non-P450 generated metabolite. Taken together, our studies do not support the biologic plausibility of the APAP hypothesis that APAP use may contribute to the causation of asthma. Importantly, we suggest the mechanism by which APAP modulates airway inflammation may provide novel therapeutic targets for asthma. PMID:27402277

  10. General anesthesia exposure in early life reduces the risk of allergic diseases: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chen; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Jiang, Jyun-Hong; Huang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    General anesthesia (GA) has been used for second line treatment strategy for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients. The association between GA in children and risk of followed-up allergic diseases is unclear. This study aims to assess the risk of allergic diseases after GA in children.We did a nationwide retrospective cohort study by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, including asthma (ICD-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between exposure to GA and none before 1 year of age throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model.Insurance claims data for 32,742 children younger than 1 year old from all insured children in the NHIRD. Of those, 2358 subjects were exposed to GA; 414 and 1944 children exposed to mask and intubation ventilation, respectively, served as the study cohort, whereas the remaining 30,384 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the GA group were at a lower risk of developing asthma, AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.67 (0.62-0.72, 95%CI), 0.72 (0.68-0.77, 95%CI), 0.60 (0.56-0.64, 95%CI), respectively.Children who were exposed to GA in early life before 1 year of age had reduced risk of subsequently developing allergic diseases such as asthma, AD, and AR, when compared with general population. PMID:27428241

  11. TGF-β: An Important Mediator of Allergic Disease and a Molecule with Dual Activity in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Tirado-Rodriguez, Belen; Segura-Medina, Patricia; Huerta-Yepez, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily is a family of structurally related proteins that includes TGF-β, activins/inhibins, and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF-β superfamily regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration and thus play key roles in organismal development. TGF-β is involved in several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders and vascular diseases. Activation of the TGF-β receptor induces phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues and triggers phosphorylation of intracellular effectors (Smads). Once activated, Smad proteins translocate to the nucleus and induce transcription of their target genes, regulating various processes and cellular functions. Recently, there has been an attempt to correlate the effect of TGF-β with various pathological entities such as allergic diseases and cancer, yielding a new area of research known as “allergooncology," which investigates the mechanisms by which allergic diseases may influence the progression of certain cancers. This knowledge could generate new therapeutic strategies aimed at correcting the pathologies in which TGF-β is involved. Here, we review recent studies that suggest an important role for TGF-β in both allergic disease and cancer progression. PMID:25110717

  12. Time to abandon the hygiene hypothesis: new perspectives on allergic disease, the human microbiome, infectious disease prevention and the role of targeted hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Sally F; Rook, Graham AW; Scott, Elizabeth A; Shanahan, Fergus; Stanwell-Smith, Rosalind; Turner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To review the burden of allergic and infectious diseases and the evidence for a link to microbial exposure, the human microbiome and immune system, and to assess whether we could develop lifestyles which reconnect us with exposures which could reduce the risk of allergic disease while also protecting against infectious disease. Methods: Using methodology based on the Delphi technique, six experts in infectious and allergic disease were surveyed to allow for elicitation of group judgement and consensus view on issues pertinent to the aim. Results: Key themes emerged where evidence shows that interaction with microbes that inhabit the natural environment and human microbiome plays an essential role in immune regulation. Changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure, rapid urbanisation, altered diet and antibiotic use have had profound effects on the human microbiome, leading to failure of immunotolerance and increased risk of allergic disease. Although evidence supports the concept of immune regulation driven by microbe–host interactions, the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ is a misleading misnomer. There is no good evidence that hygiene, as the public understands, is responsible for the clinically relevant changes to microbial exposures. Conclusion: Evidence suggests a combination of strategies, including natural childbirth, breast feeding, increased social exposure through sport, other outdoor activities, less time spent indoors, diet and appropriate antibiotic use, may help restore the microbiome and perhaps reduce risks of allergic disease. Preventive efforts must focus on early life. The term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ must be abandoned. Promotion of a risk assessment approach (targeted hygiene) provides a framework for maximising protection against pathogen exposure while allowing spread of essential microbes between family members. To build on these findings, we must change public, public health and professional perceptions about the microbiome and about

  13. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  14. The spectrum of allergic fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jonathan; Caruthers, Carrie; Azmeh, Roua; Dykewicz, Mark S; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Fungi cause a wide spectrum of fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways. There are three main phyla involved in allergic fungal disease: (1) Ascomycota (2) Basidiomycota (3) Zygomycota. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) causes chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms and is caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus in India and Bipolaris in the United States. The recommended treatment approach for AFRS is surgical intervention and systemic steroids. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (APBA) is most commonly diagnosed in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Long term systemic steroids are the mainstay treatment option for ABPA with the addition of an antifungal medication. Fungal sensitization or exposure increases a patient's risk of developing severe asthma and has been termed severe asthma associated with fungal sensitivity (SAFS). Investigating for triggers and causes of a patient's asthma should be sought to decrease worsening progression of the disease. PMID:26776889

  15. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, David; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Fexofenadine is a selective, non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, marketed in the United States since 2000. The FDA approved an oral suspension in 2006, for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in children. The tablet, capsule, and oral suspension are bioequivalent. Although fexofenadine does not use P450 CYP 3A4 it does interact with a number of drugs at P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter polypeptides. The risk of toxicity from other drugs may increase with the administration of fexofenadine. Orange and grapefruit juices reduce the bioavailability of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine has been shown to have an impact on inflammatory mediators, other than histamine, such as decreasing the production of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGE2, and PGF2α; inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase 2, thromboxane; limiting iNOS generation of NO; decreasing cytokine levels (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, I-TAC, MDC, TARC, MMP-2, MMP-9, tryptase); and diminishing eosinophil adherence, chemotaxis, and opsonization of particles. These effects may provide benefit to some of the inflammatory responses of an acute allergic reaction and provide a basis for future development of H1 antagonists with stronger anti-inflammatory effects. These studies also support the contention that fexofenadine is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinits and chronic idiopathic urticaria. PMID:21436982

  16. Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic diseases in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    There may be a causal relationship between intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and childhood allergic diseases. This can be explained by plausible biological mechanisms involving eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Long chain n-3 PUFAs are found in fish and fish oils. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs. Thus, it is considered that n-3 PUFAs will lower the risk of developing allergic diseases. In support of this, protective associations have been reported between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants and children from those pregnancies. However, studies of fish intake during infancy and childhood and allergic outcomes in those infants or children are inconsistent, although some reported a protective association. Supplementing pregnant women with fish oil can induce immunologic changes in cord blood. This supplementation has been reported in some studies to decrease sensitisation to common food allergens and to lower the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. The protective effect of maternal n-3 PUFAs may last until adolescence of the offspring. Fish oil supplementation in infancy may decrease the risk of developing some manifestations of allergic disease, although this benefit may not persist. Whether fish oil is a useful therapy in children with asthma receiving standard therapy is not clear from studies performed to date and this requires further exploration.

  17. Gut Microbiome and the Development of Food Allergy and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Prince, Benjamin T; Mandel, Mark J; Nadeau, Kari; Singh, Anne Marie

    2015-12-01

    The impact of gut microbiome on human development, nutritional needs, and disease has become evident with advances in the ability to study these complex communities of microorganisms, and there is growing appreciation for the role of the microbiome in immune regulation. Several studies have examined associations between changes in the commensal microbiota and the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, but far less have evaluated the impact of the microbiome on the development of food allergy. This article reviews the human gastrointestinal microbiome, focusing on the theory and evidence for its role in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy and other allergic diseases.

  18. The relationships among birth season, sunlight exposure during infancy, and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Min; Oh, Se Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases is hypothetically attributed to immune dysregulation in turn caused by a reduction in exposure to sunlight. We explored relationships between birth season, sunlight exposure, exercise duration, and an allergic disease. Methods We performed a questionnaire-based survey on allergic diseases among elementary school students. Birth time was categorized according to the season (summer and winter). Results The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) "symptoms ever" was higher in the children born in winter than in those born in summer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.49; P=0.024). Birth in winter was associated with an increase in the "symptoms in the past 12 months" prevalence of food allergy (FA) (aOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24; P=0.015). The lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases except FA was higher in the children whose parents considered their sunlight exposure prior to 24 months of ageas inadequate than those who considered their exposure as adequate ("diagnosis ever" asthma: aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.17-1.67; P<0.001; allergic rhinitis [AR]: aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.17-1.67; P<0.001; AD: aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.51; P=0.01). Neither recent sunlight exposure nor exercise duration was associated with the prevalence of an allergic disease. Conclusion Birth in winter may be associated with development of AD and FA. Inadequate sunlight exposure before the age of 24 months might possibly increase the risks of development of asthma, AR, and AD. PMID:27279886

  19. Vitamin D and the development of allergic disease: how important is it?

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Al-Garawi, Amal; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D has known effects on lung development and the immune system that may be important in the development, severity and course of allergic diseases (asthma, eczema and food allergy). Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide and may partly explain the increases in asthma and allergic diseases that have occurred over the last 50–60 years. In this review we explore past and current knowledge on the effect of vitamin D on lung development and immunomodulation and present the evidence of its role in allergic conditions. While there is growing observational and experimental evidence for the role of vitamin D, well-designed and well-powered clinical trials are needed to determine whether supplementation of vitamin D should be recommended in these disorders. PMID:25307157

  20. Use of antihistamines after serious allergic reaction to methimazole in pediatric Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Toderian, Amy B; Lawson, Margaret L

    2014-05-01

    Antithyroid drugs are usually considered first-line therapy for management of pediatric Graves' disease because they avoid permanent hypothyroidism, provide a chance for remission, and are less invasive than the alternatives of thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine. Methimazole (MMI) is the only antithyroid drug recommended in pediatrics due to the risk of propylthiouracil-induced liver toxicity. Allergic reactions with MMI occur in up to 10% of patients and, when mild, can be managed with concurrent antihistamine therapy. Guidelines recommend discontinuation of MMI with serious allergic reactions. We present the case of an adolescent girl with Graves' disease and a serious allergic reaction after starting MMI whose family refused radioactive iodine and was reluctant to proceed to surgery. Antihistamine therapy was successfully used to allow continued treatment with MMI. This case demonstrates extension of management guidelines for minor cutaneous allergic reactions to MMI, through the use of antihistamines for a serious allergic reaction, allowing us to continue MMI and provide treatment consistent with the family's preferences and values.

  1. Allergic proctocolitis: the clinical evolution of a transitory disease with a familial trend. Case reports.

    PubMed

    Fagundes-Neto, Ulysses; Ganc, Arnaldo José

    2013-01-01

    Allergic colitis is a clinical manifestation of food allergy during the first months of life. It is estimated that genetic factors play a role in the expression of this allergic disease. This case report described the clinical progress of infants who were cousins from two distinct family groups with allergic colitis. Five infants under six months of age and of both sexes were studied, with a diagnosis of allergic colitis characterized clinically and histologically by (1) rectal bleeding; (2) exclusion of infectious causes of colitis; (3) disappearance of symptoms after elimination of cow's milk and dairy products from the child's and/or the mother's diet. Patients were submitted to the following diagnostic investigation: complete blood count; stool culture; parasitologic examination of stools; rectoscopy or colonoscopy; and rectal biopsy. Patient age varied from 40 days to six months; three were males. All patients presented with complaints of intense colic and rectal bleeding. The colonoscopy showed presence of hyperemia of the mucosa with microerosions and spontaneous bleeding upon the procedure. Microscopy revealed the existence of colitis with eosinophilia > 20 e/HPF. Patients were treated with a hypoallergenic formula and showed remission of symptoms. After one year of age, all were submitted to an oral challenge with a milk formula and presented food tolerance. Allergic colitis is a disease with evident genetic inheritance and a temporary character. PMID:23843067

  2. Engineered silica nanoparticles act as adjuvants to enhance allergic airway disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increase in production and use of engineered nanoparticles (NP; ≤ 100 nm), safety concerns have risen about the potential health effects of occupational or environmental NP exposure. Results of animal toxicology studies suggest that inhalation of NP may cause pulmonary injury with subsequent acute or chronic inflammation. People with chronic respiratory diseases like asthma or allergic rhinitis may be even more susceptible to toxic effects of inhaled NP. Few studies, however, have investigated adverse effects of inhaled NP that may enhance the development of allergic airway disease. Methods We investigated the potential of polyethylene glycol coated amorphous silica NP (SNP; 90 nm diameter) to promote allergic airway disease when co-exposed during sensitization with an allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intranasal instillation with 0.02% ovalbumin (OVA; allergen) or saline (control), and co-exposed to 0, 10, 100, or 400 μg of SNP. OVA-sensitized mice were then challenged intranasally with 0.5% OVA 14 and 15 days after sensitization, and all animals were sacrificed a day after the last OVA challenge. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected, and pulmonary tissue was processed for histopathology and biochemical and molecular analyses. Results Co-exposure to SNP during OVA sensitization caused a dose-dependent enhancement of allergic airway disease upon challenge with OVA alone. This adjuvant-like effect was manifested by significantly greater OVA-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophil infiltration, mucous cell metaplasia, and Th2 and Th17 cytokine gene and protein expression, as compared to mice that were sensitized to OVA without SNP. In saline controls, SNP exposure did cause a moderate increase in airway neutrophils at the highest doses. Conclusions These results suggest that airway exposure to engineered SNP could enhance allergen sensitization and foster greater manifestation of allergic airway disease upon

  3. A novel microbe-based treatment that attenuates the inflammatory profile in a mouse model of allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Biala, Agnieszka; Huff, Ryan D.; Bosiljcic, Momir; Gunn, Hal; Kalyan, Shirin; Hirota, Jeremy A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for effective new and innovative treatments for asthma. It is becoming increasingly evident that bacterial stimulation can have beneficial effects at attenuating allergic airway disease through immune modulation. Our aim was to test the ability of a novel inactivated microbe-derived therapeutic based on Klebsiella (KB) in a model of allergic airway disease in mice. BALB/c mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) for two weeks. Mice were treated prophylactically via subcutaneous route with either KB or placebo for one week prior to HDM exposure and throughout the two week exposure period. 24 hours after the last exposure, lungs were analysed for inflammatory cell infiltrate, gene expression, cytokine levels, goblet cell metaplasia, and serum was analysed for allergen-specific serum IgE levels. HDM exposed mice developed goblet cell hyperplasia, elevated allergen-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, and a concomitant increase in TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. Treatment with KB attenuated HDM-mediated airway eosinophilia, total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell numbers, BAL TH2 cytokine production, and goblet cell metaplasia. Our prophylactic intervention study illustrates the potential of subcutaneous treatment with bacterial derived biologics as a promising approach for allergic airway disease treatment. PMID:27734946

  4. Th2 responses without atopy: immunoregulation in chronic helminth infections and reduced allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, M; van den Biggelaar, A; Maizels, R M

    2001-07-01

    The immune response to helminth infections has long been known to share key features with the allergic response. In particular, both are typified by enhanced T helper 2 (Th2) responses with high levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, accompanied by eosinophilia and abundant IgE production. Paradoxically, the geographical distribution of helminth parasitism and allergic disease is complementary rather than coincident. Thus, the question arises does the Th2 response to parasites protect or pre-empt the host from developing Th2-linked allergic manifestations? It is suggested that downregulatory immune mechanisms, which dampen the anti-parasite response, might benefit the host by blocking progression to atopic reactions. This is of relevance in explaining how the "hygiene hypothesis" might operate immunologically and in the design of therapeutics. PMID:11429321

  5. Weighted Road Density and Allergic Disease in Children at High Risk of Developing Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, Anna L.; Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine T.; Belousova, Elena G.; Bakolis, Ioannis; Ng, Kitty; Toelle, Brett G.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, plus Catarina; Ampon, Rosario D; Ayer, Julian; Bird, Tessa; Brew, Bronwyn K; Britton, Warwick J; Celermajer, David; Cowell, Christopher T; Crisafulli, Daniele; Criss, Sally; Davis, Stella; Nabil Ezz, Wafaa; Forbes, Samantha; Garden, Frances L; Kemp, Andrew S; Knezevic, Natalia; Krause, William; Leeder, Stephen R; Mellis, Craig M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Neumann, Mark; Peat, Jennifer K; Quinones-Lucio, Andres; Skilton, Michael; Tattam, Anne; Tovey, Euan R; Vanlaar, Carl H.; Vukasin, Nicola; Wainwright, Craig; Webb, Karen L; Weber-Chrysochoou, Christina; Woolcock, Ann J; Zhou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS), potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma. Methods We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density), as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs), total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis. Results Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR) for house dust mite (HDM) positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06–1.48), for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01–1.41) and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03–1.63) per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children. Conclusion Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma. PMID:24949625

  6. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  7. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A.; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child’s recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33–3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children. PMID:27258306

  8. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child's recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50-74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33-3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children.

  9. [An increase in allergic diseases in childhood--current hypotheses and possible prevention].

    PubMed

    Kurz, Herbert; Riedler, Jose

    2003-01-01

    During the last few decades there has ben a significant rise in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that this increase is real and not due to changes in diagnostic labelling. It has become increasingly clear that a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors account for this phenomenon. Genetically predisposed individuals are at an increased susceptibility to develop asthma or other allergic diseases when exposed to certain environmental or lifestyle factors. Particularly passive smoking has been shown to increase the risk for asthma in many studies and for atopy at least in some studies. This association is less clear for the exposure to sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, diesel exhaust and ozone. Lifestyle factors like socioeconomic status, sib-ship size, early childhood infections, dietary habits, growing up in antroposophic families or on a farm are more and more realised to be of great relevance for the development of allergic conditions. At the moment, there is a lot of uncertainty about which recommendations should be given for primary prevention. Recent studies have challenged the old paradigma that avoidance of early allergen contact could prevent the development of allergic disease. However, there is consensus that avoidance of smoking during pregnancy and avoidance of passive smoking during childhood should be recommended for primary prevention of asthma. PMID:12658963

  10. [An increase in allergic diseases in childhood--current hypotheses and possible prevention].

    PubMed

    Kurz, Herbert; Riedler, Jose

    2003-01-01

    During the last few decades there has ben a significant rise in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that this increase is real and not due to changes in diagnostic labelling. It has become increasingly clear that a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors account for this phenomenon. Genetically predisposed individuals are at an increased susceptibility to develop asthma or other allergic diseases when exposed to certain environmental or lifestyle factors. Particularly passive smoking has been shown to increase the risk for asthma in many studies and for atopy at least in some studies. This association is less clear for the exposure to sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, diesel exhaust and ozone. Lifestyle factors like socioeconomic status, sib-ship size, early childhood infections, dietary habits, growing up in antroposophic families or on a farm are more and more realised to be of great relevance for the development of allergic conditions. At the moment, there is a lot of uncertainty about which recommendations should be given for primary prevention. Recent studies have challenged the old paradigma that avoidance of early allergen contact could prevent the development of allergic disease. However, there is consensus that avoidance of smoking during pregnancy and avoidance of passive smoking during childhood should be recommended for primary prevention of asthma.

  11. Staphylococcus δ-toxin promotes mouse allergic skin disease by inducing mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuumi; Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B.; Chan, Susana M.; Muñoz-Planillo, Raul; Hasegawa, Mizuho; Villaruz, Amer E.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; McGavin, Martin J.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Otto, Michael; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15 to 30% of children and ~5% of adults in industrialized countries1. Although the pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood, the disease is mediated by an abnormal immunoglobulin E (IgE) immune response in the setting of skin barrier dysfunction2. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to IgE-mediated allergic disorders including AD3. Upon activation, MCs release their membrane-bound cytosolic granules leading to the release of multiple molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of AD and host defense4. More than 90% of AD patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in the lesional skin whereas most healthy individuals do not harbor the pathogen5. Several Staphylococcal exotoxins (SEs) can act as superantigens and/or antigens in models of AD6. However, the role of these SEs in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report that culture supernatants of S. aureus contain potent MC degranulation activity. Biochemical analysis identified δ-toxin as the MC degranulation-inducing factor produced by S. aureus. MC degranulation induced by δ-toxin depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and calcium (Ca2+) influx, but unlike that mediated by IgE crosslinking, it did not require the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). In addition, IgE enhanced δ-toxin-induced MC degranulation in the absence of antigen. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates recovered from AD patients produced high levels of δ-toxin. Importantly, skin colonization with S. aureus, but not a mutant deficient in δ-toxin, promoted IgE and IL-4 production, as well as inflammatory skin disease. Furthermore, enhancement of IgE production and dermatitis by δ-toxin was abrogated in KitW-sh/W-sh MC-deficient mice and restored by MC reconstitution. These studies identify δ-toxin as a potent inducer of MC degranulation and suggest a mechanistic link between S. aureus colonization and allergic skin disease. PMID:24172897

  12. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination.

  13. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

  14. Home dampness, current allergic diseases, and respiratory infections among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kilpelainen, M; Terho, E; Helenius, H; Koskenvuo, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The relation between home dampness and respiratory symptoms among adults is well confirmed, but data on specific allergic diseases and respiratory infections is more limited. Individual factors that may enhance susceptibility to the effects of home dampness are mainly unknown.
METHODS—The association between home dampness and current physician diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, common colds, and bacterial respiratory infections was studied in a questionnaire survey of 10 667 Finnish first year university students aged 18-25 years. The dampness categories analysed were visible mould and visible mould or damp stains or water damage during the last year. In multivariate analyses adjustment was made for parental education, active and passive smoking, type and place of residence, pets, and wall to wall carpets. The interaction effect of atopic heredity and dampness was investigated.
RESULTS—Visible mould or damp stains or water damage was reported by 15.0% of the respondents. In multivariate models there was a positive association between home dampness and current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as common colds ⩾4 times per year and other respiratory infections, but not between home dampness and allergic conjunctivitis. The strongest association was found between exposure to visible mould and asthma (OR 2.21,95% CI 1.48 to 3.28) and common colds (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.87). The risk of current asthma in damp homes was highest among subjects with atopic heredity.
CONCLUSIONS—The risk of current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis was higher in damp homes. Of the respiratory infections, the risk of common colds was most clearly increased.

 PMID:11359962

  15. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  16. New developments providing mechanistic insight into the impact of the microbiota on allergic disease.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Kathy D; Köller, Yasmin

    2015-08-01

    The increase in allergic diseases over the past several decades is correlated with changes in the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. Microbial-derived signals are critical for instructing the developing immune system and conversely, immune regulation can impact the microbiota. Perturbations in the microbiota composition may be especially important during early-life when the immune system is still developing, resulting in a critical window of opportunity for instructing the immune system. This review highlights recent studies investigating the role of the microbiome in susceptibility or development of allergic diseases with a focus on animal models that provide insight into the mechanisms and pathways involved. Identification of a causal link between reduced microbial diversity or altered microbial composition and increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases will hopefully pave the way for better preventive therapies.

  17. [A birth cohort study on allergic diseases among toddlers in Northwest Germany].

    PubMed

    Pohlabeln, H; Jacobs, S; Böhmann, J

    2012-06-01

    In the late 1990s, a birth cohort study was conducted in the cities of Delmenhorst, Wilhelmshaven and Leer, where more than 3,000 newborn children were recruited in five hospitals. The baseline survey in the clinics was followed by three follow-up surveys 6, 12 and 24 months later. The prime concern of the study was to estimate prevalences and to conduct analyses concerning the association between breastfeeding as well as exposure to pets and the occurrence of allergy symptoms. Children living together with a dog in the same household were at higher risk of disease only if a familial predisposition of allergic diseases was present - without such a familial predisposition a dog in the same household seems to reduce the risk for atopic diseases during the first 2 years of life. A protective effect due to long breastfeeding could be observed in our study in particular in case of a paternal history of allergic diseases, whereas an exclusive maternal history of allergic diseases seems to increase the risk. The concept of the study has proved itself. Contacting mothers in obstetrical departments in hospitals as well as in medical offices of self-employed pediatricians has proven to be very practicable. With comparatively little effort a relatively large cohort was recruited, which allowed us to analyze longitudinal data, adequately taking into account several confounders as well as effect-modifying factors. PMID:22736168

  18. Protein microarrays for the diagnosis of allergic diseases: state-of-the-art and future development.

    PubMed

    Harwanegg, Christian; Hiller, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    In the emerging field of Functional Proteomics, protein microarrays are considered to be one of the most promising tools for the simultaneous analysis of the a) abundance, b) function, and c) interaction of proteins on a system-wide scale. Resting on the technological grounds of widely used DNA biochips, the great power of microarray-based miniature solid-phase immunoassays lies in their potential to investigate in parallel large numbers of analyte pairs in a variety of biological samples. Consequently, this has fueled aspirations that protein microarrays may serve as tools for the high-throughput functional investigation of complete proteomes and, moreover, that they will develop into promising candidates for innovative in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) applications. To date, published examples of protein microarrays for IVD purposes have included tests for allergy, autoimmune and infectious diseases. Here, we discuss recent advancements in the development of protein microarrays for the profiling of IgE antibodies in the diagnosis of Type 1-related allergic diseases.

  19. Time trends of the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in Austrian children.

    PubMed

    Schernhammer, E S; Vutuc, C; Waldhör, T; Haidinger, G

    2008-03-01

    After a substantial increase in the prevalence of atopic disease in Europe, recent studies indicate that a plateau has been reached. However, variation across countries and age groups exists. We studied the prevalence and time trends of asthma and allergic disease among schoolchildren in Austria, a country with traditionally low rates of asthma, hay fever, and eczema. As part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), symptoms and physician diagnoses of asthma and allergic disease of 13,399 Austrian children aged 6-7 yr and 1516 children aged 12-14 yr were surveyed between 1995 and 1997. A similar survey was conducted between 2001 and 2003. Among children aged 6-7 yr, significant increases were seen in the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma (+16%; p = 0.013), hay fever (+22%; p < 0.001), and eczema (+37%; p < 0.001) between 1995 and 2003. These changes were paralleled by an increase in the prevalence of symptoms typical for hay fever (itchy eyes and runny nose), but not by an increase in wheeze. Among children aged 12-14 yr, the lifetime prevalence of diagnosed asthma increased by 32%, of hay fever by 19%, and of eczema by 28% (all, p < 0.001). These changes were paralleled by increases in the prevalence of wheezing as documented by both questions before and after a video showing wheezing children but not by symptoms typical for hay fever such as itchy eyes and runny nose. In conclusion, in Austria, contrary to other European countries, the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease increased among schoolchildren. Additional studies are needed to continue monitoring the dynamics of the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in Austria and to explore trends in their risk factors. PMID:18086231

  20. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  1. EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS (P. Singhl, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2,
    C.A.J. Dick', K.B. Adlerl and M.I. Gilmour2, INCSU, Raleigh, N.C., 2NHEERL/ORD/ USEPA, RTP, N.C. and 3UNC, Chapel Hill, N.C.)The interaction between ...

  2. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2010.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that early food allergen exposure, rather than avoidance, might improve allergy outcomes. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include improved insights into prognosis and estimation of severity through component-resolved diagnostics and characterization of IgE binding to specific epitopes. Regarding treatment, oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy show promise. Studies of drug allergies show insights into pathophysiology, and studies on insect hypersensitivity reveal improved diagnostic methods. Genetic and functional studies have revealed the important role of epidermal differentiation products in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Cross-talk between the atopic immune response with the innate immune response have also been found to predispose to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. New therapeutic approaches to control chronic urticaria have also been identified during the past year.

  3. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    types of subtropical grass pollens to achieve optimal diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic respiratory disease in subtropical regions of the world.

  4. Role of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) in the treatment of bronchial asthma and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro

    2006-03-01

    IgE molecules play a crucial role in allergic respiratory diseases and may cause chronic airway inflammation in asthma through activation of effector cells via high-affinity (FcepsilonRI) or low-affinity (FcepsilonRII) IgE receptors. Since the discovery of IgE antibodies our understanding of the mechanisms of allergy has improved to such an extent that we can differentiate allergic/atopic from intrinsic respiratory diseases. Therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies, able to reduce free IgE levels and to block the binding of IgE to FcepsilonRI without crosslinking IgE and triggering degranulation of IgE-sensitized cells have been developed. This non-anaphylactogenic anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) binds IgE at the same site as these antibodies bind FcepsilonRI and FcepsilonRII. Consequently, omalizumab inhibits IgE effector functions by blocking IgE binding to high-affinity receptors on IgE effector cells and does not cause mast cell or basophil activation because it cannot bind to IgE on cell surfaces where the FcepsilonR1 receptor already masks the anti-IgE epitope. Studies in patients with atopic asthma showed that omalizumab decreases serum IgE levels and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction during both the early and late-phase responses to inhaled allergen. In several clinical controlled trials omalizumab resulted effective in reducing asthma-related symptoms, decreasing corticosteroid use and improving quality of life of asthmatic patients. Recent studies show the benefits of omalizumab as add-on therapy in patients with severe persistent asthma who are inadequately controlled by optimal pharmacological therapy. The anti-IgE approach to asthma treatment has several advantages, including concomitant treatment of other IgE-mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis, a favorable safety profile and a convenient dosing frequency.

  5. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  6. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  7. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified.

  8. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2014.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2015-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2014. Studies on food allergy suggest worrisomely high rates of peanut allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis-related hospitalizations. Evidence is mounting to support the theory that environmental exposure to peanut, such as in house dust, especially with an impaired skin barrier attributed to atopic dermatitis (AD) and loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene, is a risk factor for sensitization and allergy. Diagnostic tests are improving, with early studies suggesting the possibility of developing novel cellular tests with increased diagnostic utility. Treatment trials continue to show the promise and limitations of oral immunotherapy, and mechanistic studies are elucidating pathways that might define the degree of efficacy of this treatment. Studies have also provided insights into the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis and insect venom allergy, such as suggesting that baseline platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity levels are related to the severity of reactions. Advances in drug allergy include identification of HLA associations for penicillin allergy and a microRNA biomarker/mechanism for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Research identifying critical events leading to skin barrier dysfunction and the polarized immune pathways that drive AD have led to new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and management of AD.

  9. Nutrition in early life and the risk of asthma and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Laura

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of reported cases of asthma and allergic disease has seen a marked increase throughout the world since the 1960s, particularly in more developed, westernised countries. A key focus of research in this area has been the possible adverse effects of foetal and infant exposure to food allergens. There is some evidence that foetal and infant exposure to a range of allergens via the mother and her breast milk is important in the development of normal immune tolerance. Current advice is that pregnant and breastfeeding women do not need to avoid potential food allergens unless they are allergic themselves, or are advised to modify their diet by a health professional. Delaying the introduction of common food allergies beyond 6 months is unlikely to reduce the likelihood of food allergy and allergic disease. The findings of current ongoing trials investigating the potential benefits of early introduction on allergenic foods into the diet of children-as well as the comprehensive review of complementary and young-child feeding advice currently being conducted by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition-will help inform guidance in this area.

  10. Characterization of NLRP12 during the Development of Allergic Airway Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Irving C.; Lich, John D.; Arthur, Janelle C.; Jania, Corey M.; Roberts, Reid A.; Callaway, Justin B.; Tilley, Stephen L.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 22 members of the nucleotide binding-domain, leucine rich repeat-containing (NLR) family, less than half have been functionally characterized. Of those that have been well studied, most form caspase-1 activating inflammasomes. NLRP12 is a unique NLR that has been shown to attenuate inflammatory pathways in biochemical assays and mediate the lymph node homing of activated skin dendritic cells in contact hypersensitivity responses. Since the mechanism between these two important observations remains elusive, we further evaluated the contribution of NLRP12 to organ specific adaptive immune responses by focusing on the lung, which, like skin, is exposed to both exogenous and endogenous inflammatory agents. In models of allergic airway inflammation induced by either acute ovalbumin (OVA) exposure or chronic house dust mite (HDM) antigen exposure, Nlrp12−/− mice displayed subtle differences in eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the airways. However, the overall development of allergic airway disease and airway function was not significantly altered by NLRP12 deficiency. Together, the combined data suggest that NLRP12 does not play a vital role in regulating Th2 driven airway inflammation using common model systems that are physiologically relevant to human disease. Thus, the allergic airway inflammation models described here should be appropriate for subsequent studies that seek to decipher the contribution of NLRP12 in mediating the host response to agents associated with asthma exacerbation. PMID:22291998

  11. IgE in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Schuyler, Alexander J; Erwin, Elizabeth A; Commins, Scott P; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of allergy implied an abnormal response to an otherwise benign agent (eg, pollen or food), with an easily identifiable relationship between exposure and disease. However, there are syndromes in which the relationship between exposure to the relevant allergen and the "allergic" disease is not clear. In these cases the presence of specific IgE antibodies can play an important role in identifying the relevant allergen and provide a guide to therapy. Good examples include chronic asthma and exposure to perennial indoor allergens and asthma related to fungal infection. Finally, we are increasingly aware of forms of food allergy in which the relationship between exposure and the disease is delayed by 3 to 6 hours or longer. Three forms of food allergy with distinct clinical features are now well recognized. These are (1) anaphylactic sensitivity to peanut, (2) eosinophilic esophagitis related to cow's milk, and (3) delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. In these syndromes the immunology of the response is dramatically different. Peanut and galactose α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are characterized by high- or very high-titer IgE antibodies for Ara h 2 and alpha-gal, respectively. By contrast, eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by low levels of IgE specific for milk proteins with high- or very high-titer IgG4 to the same proteins. The recent finding is that patients with alpha-gal syndrome do not have detectable IgG4 to the oligosaccharide. Thus the serum results not only identify relevant antigens but also provide a guide to the nature of the immune response. PMID:27264001

  12. [GA(2)LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network): European network of excellence for asthma and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Gjomarkaj, M; Pace, E; Canonica, G W; Bonini, S; Ricci, G; Burney, P; Zuberbier, T; Van Cauwenberge, P; Bousquet, J

    2009-12-01

    Allergic diseases represent some of the main health problems in Europe. These are increasing in prevalence, seriousness and social cost. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a network of excellence of the 6 degrees management program, was created in the 2005 with the aim to gather the European leader institutions of the research and clinical assistance fields, in order to guarantee the excellence and avoid the fragmentation of the energy spent in fighting allergy diseases in general. The GA(2)LEN has drawn a great advantage from the personal efforts of every single researcher who have proved their strong motivation in carrying on this "pan-European" model of collaboration. The network has been organized in order to increase the team work in scientific research projects in allergic and asthma disease field, making the GA(2)LEN the worldwide leader in this area. On these basis research projects have been carried on about which first data have been already published. The activities of the GA(2)LEN include in general the establishment of a lasting organization of the planning phase, the activity linked to every single project and to the improving on the existing projects, as well as the draft of new guidelines. This review reports the main achieved goals. PMID:20010485

  13. Allergic- and immune-associated diseases of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Nichols, R

    1994-07-01

    Glomerular injury has a decided immunologic basis. Any infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, or degenerative processes capable of sustained antigenic stimulation can induce immune-mediated glomerular injury. A variety of conditions and antigens, both endogenous and exogenous, are known to initiate immunologic glomerular damage. In many clinical situations, however, the precise antigenic source is occult and unrecognizable, and the glomerular disease is referred to as idiopathic. PMID:7975046

  14. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. PMID:27389548

  15. The effect of parental allergy on childhood allergic diseases depends on the sex of the child

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, S. Hasan; Karmaus, Wilfried; Raza, Abid; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J.; Matthews, Sharon M.; Holloway, John W; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Zhang, Hongmei; Roberts, Graham; Ewart, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Parent of origin effect is important in understanding the genetic basis of childhood allergic diseases and to improve our ability to identify high risk children. Objective To investigate parent of origin effect in childhood allergic diseases. Methods The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (n=1,456) has been examined at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Information on prevalence of asthma, eczema, rhinitis and environmental factors was obtained using validated questionnaires. Skin prick tests were carried out at ages 4, 10 and 18 year, and total IgE at 10 and 18 years. Parental history of allergic disease was assessed soon after the birth of the child when maternal IgE was also measured. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated, applying log-linear models, adjusted for confounding variables. Results When stratified for sex of the child, maternal asthma was associated with asthma in girls [PR:1.91 (CI:1.34–2.72), p=0.0003], but not in boys [PR:1.29 (CI:0.85–1.96), p=0.23), while paternal asthma was associated with asthma in boys [PR:1.99 (CI:1.42–2.79), p<0.0001], but not in girls [PR: 1.03 (0.59–1.80) p=0.92). Maternal eczema increased the risk of eczema in girls [PR: 1.92 (CI: 1.37–2.68); p=0.0001] only, while paternal eczema did the same for boys (PR: 2.07 (CI:1.32–3.25); P=0.002). Similar trends were observed when the effect of maternal and paternal allergic disease was assessed for childhood atopy and when maternal total IgE was related to total IgE in children at age 10 and 18 years. Conclusions The current study indicates a sex dependent association of parental allergic conditions with childhood allergies; maternal allergy increasing the risk in girls and paternal allergy in boys. This has implications for childhood allergy prediction and prevention. PMID:22607991

  16. Effect of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Allergic Disease: Results of the Children's Health and Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the relationship of living near to main roads to allergic diseases, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), allergic sensitization, and lung function in Korean children. Methods A total of 5,443 children aged 6-14 years from 33 elementary schools in 10 cities during 2005-2006 were included in a baseline survey of the Children's Health and Environmental Research. We assessed association of traffic-related air pollution (TAP) exposure with the distance to the nearest main road, total road length of main roads and the proportion of the main road area within the 200-m home area. Results Positive exposure-response relationships were found between the length of the main road within the 200-m home area and lifetime wheeze (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] for comparison of the longest to the shortest length categories=1.24; 95% CIs, 1.04-1.47; P for trend=0.022) and diagnosed asthma (PR=1.42; 95% CIs, 1.08-1.86; P for trend=0.011). Living less than 75 m from the main road was significantly associated with lifetime allergic rhinitis (AR), past-year AR symptoms, diagnosed AR, and treated AR. The distance to the main road (P for trend=0.001), the length of the main road (P for trend=0.041), and the proportion of the main road area (P for trend=0.006) had an exposure-response relationship with allergic sensitization. A strong inverse association was observed between residential proximity to the main load and lung function, especially FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75. The length of the main road and the proportion of the main road area were associated with reduced FEV1 in schoolchildren. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that exposure to traffic-related air pollution may be associated with increased risk of asthma, AR, and allergic sensitization, and with reduced lung function in schoolchildren. PMID:25936911

  17. Anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) in the treatment of atopic asthma and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Noschese, Paolo; Salzillo, Antonello; D'Amato, Maria; Cazzola, Mario

    2004-09-01

    Since the discovery of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies thirty-six years ago, our understanding of the mechanisms of allergy has improved to such an extent that we can now better differentiate allergy from non-allergic hypersensitivity, and allergic/atopic from intrinsic/non-atopic bronchial asthma. IgE antibodies are crucial immune mediators of airway inflammation in allergic atopic asthma and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are the likely mechanisms of allergen-induced airway obstruction. In addition, IgE may cause chronic airway inflammation in asthma through effector cells activated via high-affinity (Fcepsilon RI) or low-affinity (Fcepsilon RII) IgE receptors. Therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies able to reduce free IgE levels and to block the binding of IgE to Fcepsilon RI without cross-linking IgE and triggering degranulation of IgE-sensitised cells have been developed. This non-anaphylactogenic anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (rhuMAb-E25; omalizumab) binds IgE at the same site as these antibodies bind Fcepsilon RI and Fcepsilon RII. As a consequence, omalizumab inhibits IgE effector functions by blocking IgE binding to high-affinity receptors on IgE effector cells and does not cause mast cell or basophil activation because it cannot bind to IgE on cell surfaces where the Fcepsilon R1 receptor already masks the anti-IgE epitope. Studies in patients with atopic asthma demonstrated that omalizumab decreases serum IgE levels and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction during both the early and late-phase responses to inhaled allergen. In several clinical controlled trials omalizumab resulted to be able to reduce asthma-related symptoms, to decrease corticosteroid use and to improve quality of life of asthmatic patients. The anti-IgE approach to asthma treatment has several advantages, including concomitant treatment of other IgE-mediated diseases (allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergies), a favourable side-effect profile

  18. Association of allergic sensitization with infectious diseases burden in Roma and non-Roma children.

    PubMed

    Michos, Athanasios; Terzidis, Agis; Kanariou, Maria; Kalampoki, Vasiliki; Koilia, Christina; Giannaki, Maria; Liatsis, Manolis; Pangalis, Anastasia; Petridou, Eleni

    2011-03-01

    The hypothesis whether exposure to certain infections protects from atopy remains equivocal. To further investigate this, we compared serologic markers of infection and allergic sensitization prevalence in Roma children, who live under unfavorable hygienic conditions that facilitate the spread of infections, and non-Roma children who live in the same area. Analyses included 98 Roma and 118 non-Roma children. Serum IgG antibodies for 13 foodborne- airborne- and bloodborne infectious agents were determined, and a cumulative index of exposure was calculated by adding one point for each positive infection. Specific serum IgE to certain common food- and aero-allergens was also tested. and positivity to any of them was defined as indication of atopy. Roma children were found significantly more seropositive for T. gondii, Hepatitis A, H. pylori, HSV-1, CMV, and Hepatitis B (p < 0.0001). Non-Roma children were found more seropositive for RSV and M. pneumonia (p < 0.0001). Regarding the overall prevalence of atopy or the specific IgE responses to the allergens tested, no statistically significant differences were found between Roma and non-Roma children. A positive association of the cumulative index of exposure to infections with atopy was found in the non-Roma children (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.75, p = 0.01) and in the total population (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.11-1.83, p = 0.01). Regarding the specific infectious agents tested, a statistically significant positive association of atopy with seropositivity was found for M. pneumoniae in the non-Roma children (OR: 3.93, 95% CI: 1.39) as well as in the total population studied (OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.32-6.07, p = 0.01). Despite the higher burden of exposure to the battery of the infectious agents tested among Roma children, no protective effect for allergic disease development was evident. On the contrary, a positive association of exposure to infections with evidence of atopy was found, especially evident in the non-Roma children.

  19. Constructing a classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community.

    PubMed

    Tanno, L K; Calderon, M A; Goldberg, B J; Gayraud, J; Bircher, A J; Casale, T; Li, J; Sanchez-Borges, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Pawankar, R; Papadopoulos, N G; Demoly, P

    2015-06-01

    The global allergy community strongly believes that the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) offers a unique opportunity to improve the classification and coding of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases via inclusion of a specific chapter dedicated to this disease area to facilitate epidemiological studies, as well as to evaluate the true size of the allergy epidemic. In this context, an international collaboration has decided to revise the classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases and to validate it for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community. After careful comparison between ICD-10 and 11 beta phase linearization codes, we identified gaps and trade-offs allowing us to construct a classification proposal, which was sent to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) sections, interest groups, executive committee as well as the World Allergy Organization (WAO), and American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) leaderships. The crowdsourcing process produced comments from 50 of 171 members contacted by e-mail. The classification proposal has also been discussed at face-to-face meetings with experts of EAACI sections and interest groups and presented in a number of business meetings during the 2014 EAACI annual congress in Copenhagen. As a result, a high-level complex structure of classification for hypersensitivity/allergic diseases has been constructed. The model proposed has been presented to the WHO groups in charge of the ICD revision. The international collaboration of allergy experts appreciates bilateral discussion and aims to get endorsement of their proposals for the final ICD-11.

  20. Constructing a classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community.

    PubMed

    Tanno, L K; Calderon, M A; Goldberg, B J; Gayraud, J; Bircher, A J; Casale, T; Li, J; Sanchez-Borges, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Pawankar, R; Papadopoulos, N G; Demoly, P

    2015-06-01

    The global allergy community strongly believes that the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) offers a unique opportunity to improve the classification and coding of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases via inclusion of a specific chapter dedicated to this disease area to facilitate epidemiological studies, as well as to evaluate the true size of the allergy epidemic. In this context, an international collaboration has decided to revise the classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases and to validate it for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community. After careful comparison between ICD-10 and 11 beta phase linearization codes, we identified gaps and trade-offs allowing us to construct a classification proposal, which was sent to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) sections, interest groups, executive committee as well as the World Allergy Organization (WAO), and American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) leaderships. The crowdsourcing process produced comments from 50 of 171 members contacted by e-mail. The classification proposal has also been discussed at face-to-face meetings with experts of EAACI sections and interest groups and presented in a number of business meetings during the 2014 EAACI annual congress in Copenhagen. As a result, a high-level complex structure of classification for hypersensitivity/allergic diseases has been constructed. The model proposed has been presented to the WHO groups in charge of the ICD revision. The international collaboration of allergy experts appreciates bilateral discussion and aims to get endorsement of their proposals for the final ICD-11. PMID:25736171

  1. Metal composition of ambient PM2.5 influences severity of allergic airways disease in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Copeland, Lisa B; Heinrich, Joachim; Gilmour, M Ian

    2003-01-01

    Children living in Hettstedt in eastern Germany have been reported to have a higher prevalence of sensitization to common aeroallergens than another cohort living in the neighboring city of Zerbst; these differences correlated with the presence of industrial air pollution. Samples of fine particulate matter (< 2.5 micro m aerodynamic diameter; PM(2.5)) collected in Hettstedt in 1999 had several-fold higher levels of zinc, magnesium, lead, copper, and cadmium than samples from Zerbst. To determine if the results from epidemiologic studies could be repeated in an animal model, we administered PM(2.5) from Hettstedt and Zerbst to ovalbumin-allergic mice. In Balb/c mice, PM(2.5) from Hettstedt, but not PM(2.5) from Zerbst or control filter extract, caused a significant increase in immediate responses to ovalbumin challenge when aspirated 2 hr before challenge, but not when aspirated immediately before sensitization 2 weeks earlier. Antigen-specific IgE was increased by Hettstedt PM(2.5) whether administered before sensitization or challenge. Airway responsiveness to methacholine aerosol and lung inflammatory cell numbers were significantly increased only in allergic mice exposed to Hettstedt PM(2.5) before challenge. Both Hettstedt and Zerbst PM(2.5) significantly increased lung injury parameters and proinflammatory cytokines. These results are consistent with epidemiologic findings and show that metal composition of ambient PM(2.5) influences the severity of allergic respiratory disease. PMID:12948886

  2. The biodiversity hypothesis and allergic disease: world allergy organization position statement.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, Tari; Holgate, Stephen; Pawankar, Ruby; Akdis, Cezmi A; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Caraballo, Luis; Demain, Jeffrey; Portnoy, Jay; von Hertzen, Leena

    2013-01-31

    Biodiversity loss and climate change secondary to human activities are now being associated with various adverse health effects. However, less attention is being paid to the effects of biodiversity loss on environmental and commensal (indigenous) microbiotas. Metagenomic and other studies of healthy and diseased individuals reveal that reduced biodiversity and alterations in the composition of the gut and skin microbiota are associated with various inflammatory conditions, including asthma, allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), type1 diabetes, and obesity. Altered indigenous microbiota and the general microbial deprivation characterizing the lifestyle of urban people in affluent countries appear to be risk factors for immune dysregulation and impaired tolerance. The risk is further enhanced by physical inactivity and a western diet poor in fresh fruit and vegetables, which may act in synergy with dysbiosis of the gut flora. Studies of immigrants moving from non-affluent to affluent regions indicate that tolerance mechanisms can rapidly become impaired in microbe-poor environments. The data on microbial deprivation and immune dysfunction as they relate to biodiversity loss are evaluated in this Statement of World Allergy Organization (WAO). We propose that biodiversity, the variability among living organisms from all sources are closely related, at both the macro- and micro-levels. Loss of the macrodiversity is associated with shrinking of the microdiversity, which is associated with alterations of the indigenous microbiota. Data on behavioural means to induce tolerance are outlined and a proposal made for a Global Allergy Plan to prevent and reduce the global allergy burden for affected individuals and the societies in which they live.

  3. The biodiversity hypothesis and allergic disease: world allergy organization position statement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change secondary to human activities are now being associated with various adverse health effects. However, less attention is being paid to the effects of biodiversity loss on environmental and commensal (indigenous) microbiotas. Metagenomic and other studies of healthy and diseased individuals reveal that reduced biodiversity and alterations in the composition of the gut and skin microbiota are associated with various inflammatory conditions, including asthma, allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), type1 diabetes, and obesity. Altered indigenous microbiota and the general microbial deprivation characterizing the lifestyle of urban people in affluent countries appear to be risk factors for immune dysregulation and impaired tolerance. The risk is further enhanced by physical inactivity and a western diet poor in fresh fruit and vegetables, which may act in synergy with dysbiosis of the gut flora. Studies of immigrants moving from non-affluent to affluent regions indicate that tolerance mechanisms can rapidly become impaired in microbe-poor environments. The data on microbial deprivation and immune dysfunction as they relate to biodiversity loss are evaluated in this Statement of World Allergy Organization (WAO). We propose that biodiversity, the variability among living organisms from all sources are closely related, at both the macro- and micro-levels. Loss of the macrodiversity is associated with shrinking of the microdiversity, which is associated with alterations of the indigenous microbiota. Data on behavioural means to induce tolerance are outlined and a proposal made for a Global Allergy Plan to prevent and reduce the global allergy burden for affected individuals and the societies in which they live. PMID:23663440

  4. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2008.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2009-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects and in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2008. Key epidemiologic observations include a rise in anaphylaxis in a population-based study and lower rates of peanut allergy in Israel, where infants consume peanut early compared with the United Kingdom, where dietary introduction is generally delayed. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include IgE epitope mapping that discloses the likelihood and severity of allergy; studies correlating likelihood of clinical reactivity on the basis of food-specific IgE to sesame, peanut, milk, and tree nuts; and an observation that a low baseline angiotensin-converting enzyme level may be associated with having pharyngeal edema during a reaction. Molecular, immunologic, and genetic studies are discerning pathways that are key in development of food allergy, identifying new modalities to interrupt mast cell degranulation, and elucidating risks associated with penicillin allergy. Regarding treatment, clinical studies show a majority of children with milk and egg allergy tolerate these proteins in modest amounts when they are extensively heated in baked goods, and studies show promise for oral immunotherapy to treat milk allergy and sublingual immunotherapy for honey bee venom hypersensitivity. The importance of skin barrier dysfunction has continued to be highlighted in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). Research has also continued to identify immunologic defects that contribute to the propensity of patients with AD to develop viral and bacterial infection. New therapeutic approaches to AD, urticaria, and angioedema have been reported including use of probiotics, biologics, vitamin D, and skin barrier creams.

  5. Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases from reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T

    1988-05-01

    5 cases of occupational eczema, urticaria and respiratory disease from reactive dyes, occurring during 1977-1987, are reported. The patients, 4 men and 1 woman, were 24-52 years old when examined. They had been working in dye houses or textile plants, and had been exposed to reactive dyes for 8 months to 4 years before symptoms developed. Only 1 of the patients has been able to continue in the same occupation. On patch testing, the 4 patients with eczema reacted positively to 9 commercial dye powders. 2 patients reacted to the same dye, Remazol Schwarz B. On scratch and/or prick testing, the 2 patients who also had respiratory symptoms and/or urticaria reacted positively to the same dyes as on patch testing. The 5th patient, who had urticaria and respiratory symptoms, reacted positively to a dye, Remazol Gold Gelb RNL, but the patch test with that dye was negative. None of the patients was patch-test-positive to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) or to textile dye allergens in a series of organic dyes. Thus, the series of organic dyes has little value in the screening of allergy to reactive dyes. A 1% pet. dilution of commercial dye powder for patch testing and the same concentration in distilled water for prick testing seem to be suitable for the screening of allergy to reactive dyes.

  6. Necessary and sufficient role for T helper cells to prevent fungal dissemination in allergic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Paul C; Roberts, Luz; Fields, Anna; Knight, Morgan; Qian, Yuping; Delclos, George L; Han, Shuhua; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B

    2011-11-01

    Mucosal immune responses to fungal infection range from T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-directed allergic inflammation to Th1-predominant neutrophilic inflammation, but the mechanisms directing these divergent mucosal immune outcomes and the role of T cells in host defense against mucosal fungal infections are not known. Here we examined the mouse mucosal immune responses to 12 filamentous environmental fungal species over a broad range of exposure doses and determined the requirement of T cells for host defense. For all tested fungi, low-grade conidium exposures induced Th2- and eosinophil-predominant allergic lung disease, whereas higher exposures led to rapid conversion to neutrophil- and Th1 cell-predominant inflammation, a phenomenon we term immune phenotype switching. All fungal exposure doses were further linked to the secretion of interleukin-17A (IL-17A). Fungal infections with Curvularia lunata and Aspergillus fumigatus were typically confined to the airway during allergic inflammation but became locally invasive and disseminated to the brain at higher conidium challenge doses, in association with predominant Th1 responses. Fungal dissemination occurred at relatively low challenge doses with the conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus administered to recombinase activating gene 1 (Rag-1)-deficient mice, which lack B and T cells, but B cell-deficient μMT mice and T helper cell-reconstituted Rag-1-deficient mice were comparable to wild-type mice in preventing fungal dissemination. Our findings demonstrate that Th2 cell-predominant allergic responses followed by immune phenotype switching and fungal dissemination are highly predictable outcomes with progressive fungal infectious burdens and that T helper cell responses are protective against lethal fungal dissemination.

  7. Session 1: Allergic disease: The challenges of managing food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina; Meyer, Rosan

    2010-02-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used for food allergies that involve the immune system and food intolerances that do not involve the immune system. FHS has a huge impact on quality of life and any dietary advice given should aim to minimise this effect. Despite many advances made in diagnosing and managing patients with FHS, the cornerstone of management still remains avoidance of the relevant food. However, a commonly-presenting dilemma in clinical practice is deciding to what extent the food(s) should be avoided. The level of avoidance required is currently based on the type of FHS the patient has, characteristics of the particular food protein and the natural history of the particular FHS. In addition to management of other FHS, management of cow's milk allergy requires the healthcare professional to choose the appropriate formula. Information required by the patient also includes understanding food labels and issues surrounding cross-contamination. In order to ensure that the diet is nutritionally sound, advice should be given about suitable food choices and following a healthy balanced diet, whilst taking into account the dietary restrictions. Practical issues that need to be addressed include going on holiday, travelling and eating away from home. The dietitian plays a crucial role in this process. At present, there are no standardised documents or protocols for the management of FHS and practices differ within and between countries. If adrenaline auto-injectors are prescribed, correct administration should be demonstrated and reviewed on an ongoing basis. PMID:20003636

  8. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: towards combination vaccines for allergic and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an antigen-specific and disease-modifying form of treatment. It is based on the therapeutic administration of the disease-causing allergens to allergic patients. However, the fact that only allergen extracts of insufficient quality are currently available and the possible occurrence of side effects during treatment limit the broad use of SIT and prophylactic vaccination is has not yet been performed. In the last 20 years the DNA sequences of the most common allergens have been isolated and the corresponding allergens have been produced as recombinant allergens. Based on the progress made in the field of allergen characterization it is possible to improve the quality and safety of allergy vaccines and to develop new, more effective strategies for a broad application of SIT and even for prophylactic treatment. Here we discuss the development of combination vaccines for allergy and infectious diseases. This approach is based on the selection of allergen-derived peptides with reduced IgE- and T cell reactivity in order to minimize IgE- and T cell-mediated side effects as well as the potential of the vaccine to induce allergic sensitization. These peptides are fused by recombinant technology onto a viral carrier protein to obtain a combination vaccine which induces protective immunity against allergy and viral infections. The application of such combination vaccines for therapy and prophylaxis of allergy and infectious diseases is discussed.

  9. Is Folate Status a Risk Factor for Asthma or Other Allergic Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Zong-An; Ji, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose It is controversial whether folate status is a risk factor for the development of asthma or other allergic diseases. This study was conducted to investigate whether indirect or direct exposure to folate and impaired folate metabolism, reflected as methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, would contribute to the development of asthma and other allergic diseases. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify all studies assessing the association between folate status and asthma or other allergic diseases. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of studies and extracted data. The relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated and pooled. Results Twenty-six studies (16 cohort, 7 case-control, and 3 cross-sectional studies) were identified. Maternal folic acid supplementation was not associated with the development of asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema, and sensitization in the offspring, whereas exposure during early pregnancy was related to wheeze occurrence in the offspring (RR=1.06, 95% CI=[1.02-1.09]). The TT genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was at high risk of asthma (OR=1.41, 95% CI=[1.07-1.86]). Conclusions It is indicated that maternal folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in early childhood and that the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism impairing folic acid metabolism would be at high risk of asthma development. These results might provide additional information for recommendations regarding forced folate consumption or folic acid supplements during pregnancy based on its well-established benefits for the prevention of congenital malformations. However, currently available evidence is of low quality which is needed to further elucidate. PMID:26333700

  10. Presence of other allergic disease modifies the effect of early childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma prevalence.

    PubMed

    Dell, Sharon D; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernard; Brook, Jeffrey R; Foty, Richard G; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Marshall, Laura; Miller, J David; To, Teresa; Walter, Stephen D; Stieb, David M

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a surrogate measure of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), has been associated with incident childhood asthma. Timing of exposure and atopic status may be important effect modifiers. We collected cross-sectional data on asthma outcomes from Toronto school children aged 5-9years in 2006. Lifetime home, school and daycare addresses were obtained to derive birth and cumulative NO2 exposures for a nested case-control subset of 1497 children. Presence of other allergic disease (a proxy for atopy) was defined as self-report of one or more of doctor-diagnosed rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for potential confounders, and examine hypothesized effect modifiers while accounting for clustering by school. In children with other allergic disease, birth, cumulative and 2006 NO2 were associated with lifetime asthma (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08-1.98; 1.37, 95% CI 1.00-1.86; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.09-2.36 respectively per interquartile range increase) and wheeze (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.89; 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.67; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.16-2.21). No or weaker effects were seen in those without allergic disease, and effect modification was amplified when a more restrictive algorithm was used to define other allergic disease (at least 2 of doctor diagnosed allergic rhinitis, eczema or food allergy). The effects of modest NO2 levels on childhood asthma were modified by the presence of other allergic disease, suggesting a probable role for allergic sensitization in the pathogenesis of TRAP initiated asthma.

  11. Adaptation to Impacts of Climate Change on Aeroallergens and Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that have been identified to date. These are aeroallergen monitoring; aeroallergen forecasting; allergenic plant management; planting practices and policies; urban/settlement planning; building design and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); access to health care and medications; education; and research. PMID:20948943

  12. Adaptation to impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that have been identified to date. These are aeroallergen monitoring; aeroallergen forecasting; allergenic plant management; planting practices and policies; urban/settlement planning; building design and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); access to health care and medications; education; and research. PMID:20948943

  13. Restoring airway epithelial barrier dysfunction: a new therapeutic challenge in allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Steelant, B; Seys, S F; Boeckxstaens, G; Akdis, C A; Ceuppens, J L; Hellings, P W

    2016-09-01

    An intact functional mucosal barrier is considered to be crucial for the maintenance of airway homeostasis as it protects the host immune system from exposure to allergens and noxious environmental triggers. Recent data provided evidence for the contribution of barrier dysfunction to the development of inflammatory diseases in the airways, skin and gut. A defective barrier has been documented in chronic rhinosinusitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it remains to be elucidated to what extent primary (genetic) versus secondary (inflammatory) mechanisms drive barrier dysfunction. The precise pathogenesis of barrier dysfunction in patients with chronic mucosal inflammation and its implications on tissue inflammation and systemic absorption of exogenous particles are only partly understood. Since epithelial barrier defects are linked with chronicity and severity of airway inflammation, restoring the barrier integrity may become a useful approach in the treatment of allergic diseases. We here provide a state-of-the-art review on epithelial barrier dysfunction in upper and lower airways as well as in the intestine and the skin and on how barrier dysfunction can be restored from a therapeutic perspective.

  14. Effects of climate change on environmental factors in respiratory allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L

    2008-08-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere and the human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens and air pollution. However, there is also considerable evidence that subjects affected by asthma are at an increased risk of developing obstructive airway exacerbations with exposure to gaseous and particulate components of air pollution. It is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate change and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations. However, the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity suggests that air pollution and climate changes could be contributing. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution, rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions and westernized lifestyle are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy, prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Meteorological factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc.) along with their climatological regimes (warm or cold anomalies and dry or wet periods, etc.), can affect both biological and chemical components of this interaction. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, air pollution overcomes the mucosal barrier priming allergen-induced responses. In conclusion, climate change might induce negative effects on respiratory allergic diseases. In particular, the increased length and severity of the pollen season, the higher occurrence of heavy precipitation events and the

  15. Application of statistical mining in healthcare data management for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Martínez Santolaya, Sara

    2014-11-01

    The paper aims to discuss data mining techniques based on statistical tools in medical data management in case of long-term diseases. The data collected from a population survey is the source for reasoning and identifying disease processes responsible for patient's illness and its symptoms, and prescribing a knowledge and decisions in course of action to correct patient's condition. The case considered as a sample of constructive approach to data management is a dependence of allergic diseases of chronic nature on some symptoms and environmental conditions. The knowledge summarized in a systematic way as accumulated experience constitutes to an experiential simplified model of the diseases with feature space constructed of small set of indicators. We have presented the model of disease-symptom-opinion with knowledge discovery for data management in healthcare. The feature is evident that the model is purely data-driven to evaluate the knowledge of the diseases` processes and probability dependence of future disease events on symptoms and other attributes. The example done from the outcomes of the survey of long-term (chronic) disease shows that a small set of core indicators as 4 or more symptoms and opinions could be very helpful in reflecting health status change over disease causes. Furthermore, the data driven understanding of the mechanisms of diseases gives physicians the basis for choices of treatment what outlines the need of data governance in this research domain of discovered knowledge from surveys.

  16. Dementia (Including Alzheimer Disease) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems are caused by early Alzheimer disease. Normal age-related changes usually cause minor difficulties in short term memory and a slowed ability to learn and process information. These changes are usually mild and do not ...

  17. A Prediction Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Includes Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Monica A.; Taylor, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background An estimated 75% of the seven million Americans with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease are undiagnosed. Improved prediction models to identify high-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease enhance the ability of health care providers to prevent or delay serious sequelae, including kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Methods We identified 11,955 adults ≥18 years of age in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 ml/minute/1.73 m2. High-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease were identified by estimating the individual probability using β coefficients from the model of traditional and non-traditional risk factors. To evaluate this model, we performed standard diagnostic analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% probability cutoff points. Results The estimated probability of chronic kidney disease ranged from virtually no probability (0%) for an individual with none of the 12 risk factors to very high probability (98%) for an older, non-Hispanic white edentulous former smoker, with diabetes ≥10 years, hypertension, macroalbuminuria, high cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein, high C-reactive protein, lower income, and who was hospitalized in the past year. Evaluation of this model using an estimated 5% probability cutoff point resulted in 86% sensitivity, 85% specificity, 18% positive predictive value, and 99% negative predictive value. Conclusion This United States population–based study suggested the importance of considering multiple risk factors, including periodontal status, because this improves the identification of individuals at high risk for chronic kidney disease and may ultimately reduce its burden. PMID:19228085

  18. [Real effect of specific hyposensitisation in therapy of allergic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Plavsić, Z; Petrović, M; Popovac, D

    1994-01-01

    There are different opinions on the positive effect of hyposensitisation in the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases. In this paper we wish to point out our experience, without intention to clear up these "contrary opinions". Sixty patients of both sexes, aged from 10-55 years, were on specific hyposensitisation over a period from three to five years. Two thirds (63%) were with bronchial asthma and 37% with allergic rhinitis. Most of them (80%) were on specific hyposensitisation to one allergen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass or reguid polen), and to two allergens 20% patients. During this therapy 63% of patients had no additional medicamentae therapy. Most of them stopped additional medication during the first year of immunotherapy. Ten percent of patients took medicaments when they needed them, and 28% took them continually. Clinical symptoms characteristic of these diseases were also rare. The average value of IgE was 636 UI/ml before and 341 UI/ml after the immunotherapy. The efficacy of immunotherapy depended on the correct selection of patients, good standardisation of antigen extract, and a right dose of allergen in the prolonged immunotherapy. PMID:17974388

  19. The genetics of asthma and allergic disease: a 21st century perspective.

    PubMed

    Ober, Carole; Yao, Tsung-Chieh

    2011-07-01

    Asthma and allergy are common conditions with complex etiologies involving both genetic and environmental contributions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses of GWAS have begun to shed light on both common and distinct pathways that contribute to asthma and allergic diseases. Associations with variation in genes encoding the epithelial cell-derived cytokines, interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and the IL1RL1 gene encoding the IL-33 receptor, ST2, highlight the central roles for innate immune response pathways that promote the activation and differentiation of T-helper 2 cells in the pathogenesis of both asthma and allergic diseases. In contrast, variation at the 17q21 asthma locus, encoding the ORMDL3 and GSDML genes, is specifically associated with risk for childhood onset asthma. These and other genetic findings are providing a list of well-validated asthma and allergy susceptibility genes that are expanding our understanding of the common and unique biological pathways that are dysregulated in these related conditions. Ongoing studies will continue to broaden our understanding of asthma and allergy and unravel the mechanisms for the development of these complex traits. PMID:21682736

  20. Allergic inflammation: where epithelial function interacts with immune response in atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Laura

    2009-05-01

    Current hot topics in allergy and asthma were presented this year at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) in Washington, D.C. Understanding the natural history of allergic diseases is an area of interest because it could help to identify relevant biomarkers to predict allergy early in infancy. An abnormal epithelial barrier allows easy access to allergens/ pathogens and such a dysfunction could also be involved in the initiation of the natural course of allergic diseases. In addition, newly identified cytokines produced by epithelial cells such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-33 (IL-33) and IL-25 are involved in the generation of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell response. Genetic studies are also providing relevant information on biomarkers and new targets for allergy and asthma. Different genetic studies to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms of relevant mediators of allergy in patients, application of gene array analysis to identify biomarkers during asthma exacerbation, and IL-13-induced inflammatory events, are some examples of the interesting information presented at the AAAAI this year.

  1. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Part II. Evaluation of methods in allergy prevention studies and sensitization markers. Definitions and diagnostic criteria of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Antonella; Dreborg, Sten; Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niggemann, Bodo; Aalberse, Rob; Arshad, Syed H; von Berg, Andrea; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Duschén, Karel; Eigenmann, Philippe; Hill, David; Jones, Catherine; Mellon, Michael; Oldeus, Göran; Oranje, Arnold; Pascual, Cristina; Prescott, Susan; Sampson, Hugh; Svartengren, Magnus; Vandenplas, Yvan; Wahn, Ulrich; Warner, Jill A; Warner, John O; Wickman, Magnus; Zeiger, Robert S

    2004-06-01

    The role of primary prevention of allergic disease has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light into this issue a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI critically reviewed the existing literature on the subject. The design of observational and interventional studies was evaluated with relevance to the important factors influencing outcome of studies on allergy development/prevention. in this analysis the statements of evidence as defined by WHO were applied. Best evidence of recommendations are those fulfilling the criteria for statements category 1 and 2 and grade of recommendations A and B as proposed by WHO. This survey include target group for dietary prevention and methods and diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis, asthma and food allergy for prevention studies.

  2. Comparison of breast, cow, and soy feedings in the prevention of onset of allergic disease: a 15-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gruskay, F L

    1982-08-01

    It has been reported that the feeding of cow's milk may enhance the development of atopy in predisposed infants. A prospective study following children from birth through 15 years of age in a private pediatric practice was designed to determine if the food ingested during the first months of life is related to the development of atopy in the offspring of allergic families. Each of 328 children with a positive family history of allergy was assigned to one of three groups according to the feeding preference of the parents: 48 were fed breast milk; 79 soy-based formula; and 201, cow's milk formula. All groups had egg, citrus, tomato, and wheat restrictions as well as inhalant allergen avoidance. These were compared to a control group of 580 children with no family history of allergy. Breast fed infants were found to have approximately one-half the incidence of atopy of cow's milk or soy formula fed infants from atopic families when followed for up to 15 years. Soy feeding produced no advantage over cow's milk in the prophylaxis of allergic disease. There was a three-fold increase in clinically apparent atopic disease in offspring of allergic families when compared to controls but only a two-fold increase if the infant was breast fed. These results support the hypothesis that breast feeding and delay of exposure to known allergens may reduce the frequency of clinical allergic disease in the offspring of allergic families.

  3. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children.

    PubMed

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients' IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children's Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wheal diameter or positive wheal sum values. In the Zagreb study the results were also replicated for high total serum IgE and in children with self-reported manifest allergic disease. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no association between serum IgG glycome composition and allergic diseases in children. PMID:27616597

  4. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients’ IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children’s Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wheal diameter or positive wheal sum values. In the Zagreb study the results were also replicated for high total serum IgE and in children with self-reported manifest allergic disease. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no association between serum IgG glycome composition and allergic diseases in children. PMID:27616597

  5. [Value of the study of the functional potential of neutrophils in suppurative, septic and allergic diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, I V; Svetlichnaia, M A

    1989-01-01

    A method for measuring the content of cationic proteins in neutrophil granulocytes of the peripheral blood was employed in patients with pyoseptic (n = 12) and allergic (n = 28) diseases during the exposure to composite infections in vitro. The method enables one to assess the functional potentialities of the cells in mobilizing the internal reserves and the readiness for the trigger of the cellular granular apparatus, for instance during real or predicted exposure of the child to bacterial infections. The determination of the functional potentialities of neutrophil phagocytes can be used as a test for the appraisal of the gravity of allergic and pyoseptic processes as well as for predicting outcomes of pyoseptic diseases.

  6. [Relationship of the ambient air concentrations of chemical substances to the spread of allergic diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Galeev, K A; Khakimova, R F

    2002-01-01

    The role of some ingredients that contaminate the ambient air in the occurrence and development of allergic diseases was studied. The closest relationships were found between the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and the prevalence of eczema (rxy +/- m = 0.48 +/- 0.15). There was a direct correlation between the concentrations of each ingredient and the incidence of neurodermitis among children. The correlation between the summarized concentrations of ingredients and the incidence of bronchial asthma among children was rxy +/- m = 0.71 +/- 0.19. The findings serves as the basis for elaborating measures to reduce ecological tension and the incidence of allergic diseases in children. PMID:12380496

  7. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, a novel candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace metal for eukaryotes. The roles of Zn in the numerous physiological functions have been elucidated. Bamboo salt contains Zn that was shown to have anti-inflammatory effect and other health benefits. Nanoparticles of various types have found application in the biology, medicine, and physics. Here we synthesized tetrapod-like, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NP; diameter 200 nm, source of Zn) using a radio frequency thermal plasma system and investigated its effects on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reactions. ZO-NP was found to inhibit the productions and mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. In these stimulated cells, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activations were abolished by ZO-NP, and the expressions of receptor interacting protein2 (RIP2) and IκB kinaseβ (IKKβ) induced by PAMCI were reduced. On the other hand, ZO-NP alone increased the expressions of RIP2 and IKKβ in normal condition. ZO-NP inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in the PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, ZO-NP significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. These findings indicate that ZO-NP effectively ameliorates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction, and suggest that ZO-NP be considered a potential therapeutic for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases.

  8. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  9. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health. The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual’s response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not

  10. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-02-11

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  11. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  12. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  13. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy for allergic disease: examining efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of current and novel formulations.

    PubMed

    Cox, Linda; Calderón, Moisés; Pfaar, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is a unique therapy for allergic disease because it provides symptomatic relief while modifying the allergic disease by targeting the underlying immunological mechanism. Its efficacy and safety have been established in the treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis and stinging insect hypersensitivity in numerous controlled clinical trials. This review evaluates a spectrum of clinical factors, ranging from efficacy to cost-effectiveness, which should be considered in evaluating SCIT. The evidence for SCIT safety and efficacy for these conditions is reviewed in an evaluation of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The evidence for the persistent and preventive effects of SCIT is also examined. An overview of the SCIT outcomes measures utilized in clinical trials is presented. The cost-effectiveness of SCIT compared with conventional medication treatment, novel indications and formulations for SCIT are also explored in this review. PMID:22788128

  14. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Part I: immunologic background and criteria for hypoallergenicity.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Antonella; Dreborg, Sten; Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niggemann, Bodo; Aalberse, Rob; Arshad, Syed H; Berg Av, Andrea von; Carlsen, Kai- Hå kon; Duschén, Karel; Eigenmann, Philippe; Hill, David; Jones, Catherine; Mellon, Michael; Oldeus, Göran; Oranje, Arnold; Pascual, Cristina; Prescott, Susan; Sampson, Hugh; Svartengren, Magnus; Vandenplas, Yvan; Wahn, Ulrich; Warner, Jill A; Warner, John O; Wickman, Magnus; Zeiger, Robert S

    2004-04-01

    The role of primary prevention of allergic diseases has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light into this issue, a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI critically reviewed the existing literature on the subject. In this paper, the immunology of the fetus and newborn is reviewed as well as the post-natal development of the immune system. The influence of post-natal environment and breastfeeding on tolerance induction and sensitization are examined. Allergic diseases result from a strong relationship between genetic and environmental factors. Sensitization to food allergens occurs in the first year of life and cow's milk allergy is the first food allergy to appear in the susceptible infants. Hypoallergenicity of food formulas to be used is a critical issue both for treatment of cow's milk-allergic children and for prevention. Methods to document hypoallergenicity are discussed and evaluated in the preclinical and clinical steps.

  15. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium.

  16. BLOCKADE OF TRKA OR P75 NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTORS ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway resistance. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates allergic airways responses. We tested t...

  17. Modulation of the immune response by infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in children with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Guangorena-Gómez, J O; Maravilla-Domínguez, A; García-Arenas, G; Cervantes-Flores, M; Meza-Velázquez, R; Rivera-Guillén, M; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R C

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that the allergic response can be ameliorated by the administration of pathogen derivatives that activate Toll-like receptors and induce a Th1-type immune response (IR). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that promotes an IR via Toll-like receptors and elicits the production of Th1-type cytokines, which limit cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to investigate allergy-related immune markers in children naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. In a cross-sectional study, 49 children with or without clinical diagnosis of allergies, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faeces were screened microscopically. We microscopically screened for leucocytes, examined T and B cells for allergy-related activation markers using flow cytometry and evaluated serum for total IgE using chemiluminescence. Children with allergies and Cryptosporidium in the faeces had significantly lower levels of total IgE, B cells, CD19(+) CD23(+) and CD19(+) CD124(+) cells as well as a greater percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+) ) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) cells than children with allergies without Cryptosporidium. This is the first description of the modulation of the IR in children with allergic diseases in the setting of natural Cryptosporidium infection. Our findings suggest the involvement of CD4(+) cells producing IL-4 and IFN-γ in the IR to Cryptosporidium in naturally infected children. PMID:27150641

  18. Interaction of vitamin E isoforms on asthma and allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Cook-Mills, Joan; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Green, Jeremy; Larkin, Emma K; Dupont, William D; Shu, Xiao Ou; Gross, Myron; Bai, Chunxue; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hartman, Terryl J; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Hartert, Tina

    2016-10-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies, observational cross-sectional studies and some randomised prevention trials have demonstrated inconsistent findings of the impact of vitamin E on asthma risk. The goals of this study were to explore whether this differing association of vitamin E on asthma risk is due to an interaction of vitamin E isoforms. To address this question, in a population-based asthma incidence study we assessed the interaction between the plasma concentrations of vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol on asthma risk. Second, to understand the mechanisms of any interaction of these isoforms, we conducted experimental supplementation of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol isoforms in mice on the outcome of allergic airway inflammation. We found that in the highest γ-tocopherol tertile, low levels of α-tocopherol were associated with increased asthma risk, while highest tertile α-tocopherol levels trended to be protective. Similarly, in a mouse model of asthma, diet supplementation with α-tocopherol decreased lung inflammation in response to house dust mite (HDM) challenge. In contrast, diet supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased lung inflammation in response to HDM. These human and animal studies provide evidence for the competing effects of the vitamin E isoforms, in physiological concentrations, on asthma and allergic airway disease.

  19. Interaction of vitamin E isoforms on asthma and allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Cook-Mills, Joan; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Green, Jeremy; Larkin, Emma K; Dupont, William D; Shu, Xiao Ou; Gross, Myron; Bai, Chunxue; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hartman, Terryl J; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Hartert, Tina

    2016-10-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies, observational cross-sectional studies and some randomised prevention trials have demonstrated inconsistent findings of the impact of vitamin E on asthma risk. The goals of this study were to explore whether this differing association of vitamin E on asthma risk is due to an interaction of vitamin E isoforms. To address this question, in a population-based asthma incidence study we assessed the interaction between the plasma concentrations of vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol on asthma risk. Second, to understand the mechanisms of any interaction of these isoforms, we conducted experimental supplementation of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol isoforms in mice on the outcome of allergic airway inflammation. We found that in the highest γ-tocopherol tertile, low levels of α-tocopherol were associated with increased asthma risk, while highest tertile α-tocopherol levels trended to be protective. Similarly, in a mouse model of asthma, diet supplementation with α-tocopherol decreased lung inflammation in response to house dust mite (HDM) challenge. In contrast, diet supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased lung inflammation in response to HDM. These human and animal studies provide evidence for the competing effects of the vitamin E isoforms, in physiological concentrations, on asthma and allergic airway disease. PMID:27257004

  20. Oral immunotherapy for allergic diseases using transgenic rice seeds: current state and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Mayumi; Nishimura, Tomoe; Kaminuma, Osamu; Mori, Akio; Hiroi, Takachika

    2013-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) has been shown to provide clinical benefit for patients with allergic diseases. At present, subcutaneous and sublingual ITs are mainly authorized for clinical treatment. Oral administration of allergens seems to be the easiest way to achieve IT, though it has yet to be translated to the clinical setting, mainly due to the requirement of a large amount of allergens. Plants, especially rice seeds, have recently been recognized as superior allergen carriers for oral administration, because of their high productivity, stability and safety. Therefore, in order to establish clinically applicable oral IT, we have been developing transgenic rice seeds (Tg rice), in which major epitopes of cedar pollen allergens or house-dust mites (HDM) are expressed. The efficacy of this orally administered Tg rice was confirmed in murine models of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. In the safety study of the Tg rice, no adverse effects on cynomolgus macaques were observed. In this review, we summarized the current state and future prospects of allergen-specific IT, focusing particularly on oral IT with allergen-expressing Tg rice.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... is considered invasive. Symptoms of pneumonia usually include: Fever and chills Cough Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Sweating ... the blood. It can cause symptoms such as: Fever and chills Excessive tiredness Pain in the belly Nausea with ...

  2. Fas deficiency in mice with the Balb/c background induces blepharitis with allergic inflammation and hyper-IgE production in conjunction with severe autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Suzuka; Futatsugi-Yumikura, Shizue; Fukuoka, Ayumi; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Kenji; Yonehara, Shin

    2013-05-01

    Fas (CD95) is a cell surface death receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which mediates apoptosis-inducing signaling when activated by Fas ligand or its agonistic antibody. lpr mice with a loss of apoptosis-inducing function mutation in the Fas gene develop systemic autoimmune disease and lymphadenopathy but not allergic inflammation. In the case of Fas mutations including lpr and knockout (KO), background genes determine the incidence and severity of lymphadenopathy and histopathological manifestation of systemic autoimmunity: MRL-lpr/lpr mice and C57BL/6-lpr/lpr or C57BL/6 Fas KO mice develop severe and minimum disease, respectively. We generated Fas KO mice with the Balb/c background that show severer autoimmune phenotypes than MRL-lpr/lpr mice, such as critical infiltration of mononuclear cells into lung, liver and spleen, elevated serum levels of auto-antibodies and a decreased life span. To our astonishment, Balb/c Fas KO mice spontaneously develop blepharitis with not only autoimmune inflammation with deposition of auto-antibody but also allergic inflammation with infiltration by eosinophils and mast cells and show the capacity to strongly increase serum level of IgE and IgG1 along with their aging. Thus, Fas expression regulates development of not only autoimmune disease but also allergic inflammation.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  4. Structural basis of chronic beryllium disease: linking allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2014-07-01

    T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. Here, we show that the T cell ligand is created when a Be(2+) cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be(2+) itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be(2+) and an accompanying Na(+) cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of preexisting self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  5. [Choice of an antihistamine administration route in the treatment of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Luss, L V

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases (AD) are an interdisciplinary problem in practical health care and characterized by high prevalence, severity, and huge financial costs of their treatment, prevention, and rehabilitation in patients. In this connection, control of allergy symptoms attracts the meticulous attention of physicians of all specialties. The efficiency of pharmacotherapy in clinical practice frequently depends not only on what medication, but also what mode of its delivery (administration) is used. Clinicians are well aware of the fact that oral administration of some drugs, antihistamines in particular, may be lowly effective or ineffective and their parenteral route gives rise to their sufficient clinical effect. This communication presents for general practitioners a pathogenetic rationale for prescribing histamines and indications for their parenteral administration in AD. PMID:27030338

  6. Therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus Eye Ointment in Allergic Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shitole, Satish C; Bhagat, Nupur; Patil, Deepak; Sawant, Pawan; Patil, Kalpita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs) like Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) are chronic forms of ocular allergy that can cause severe visual complications. Pathogenesis of AODs is uncertain and treatment has been a challenge for ophthalmologists. Tacrolimus, a 23-member cyclic macrolide lactone derived from [streptomyces tsukubaensis] now in ointment form has been successfully used in AODs. Aim To study the therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment in patients with Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs). Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted on 36 patients with severe AOD and moderate cases not responding to conventional treatment. They were treated with 0.1% tacrolimus eye ointment twice daily for minimum three months in addition to conventional treatment and observed for a period of 6 months. Symptoms and signs after treatment were evaluated. Grades of clinical signs were assessed based on slit lamp clinical photographs; development of possible complications was assessed and analysed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Mean age of patients was 9.3±4.3 years and mean duration of AODs was 3.1±1.8 years. The scores on both the four point scales for signs and symptoms decreased significantly (p<0.0001) after 1 month of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment treatment. Itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief and conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. 88.88% of patients were successfully weaned off topical steroids in 6 months into Tacrolimus treatment. Even in patients unresponsive to 0.1% topical Cyclosporine, symptoms and signs scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001). The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (36.11%). Conclusion Topical 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment was found to be a safe and effective treatment in cases of AODs and also worked as steroid sparing and replacing agent. It was also found effective in patient

  7. The gut microbiota and its role in the development of allergic disease: a wider perspective.

    PubMed

    West, C E; Jenmalm, M C; Prescott, S L

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota are critical in the homoeostasis of multiple interconnected host metabolic and immune networks. If early microbial colonization is delayed, the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) fail to develop, leading to persistent immune dysregulation in mice. Microbial colonization has also been proposed as a major driver for the normal age-related maturation of both Th1 and T regulatory (Treg) pathways that appear important in suppressing early propensity for Th2 allergic responses. There is emerging evidence that resident symbionts induce tolerogenic gut-associated Treg cells and dendritic cells that ensure the preferential growth of symbionts; keeping pathogenic strains in check and constraining proinflammatory Th1, Th2, and Th17 clones. Some effects of symbionts are mediated by short-chain fatty acids, which play a critical role in mucosal integrity and local and systemic metabolic function and stimulate the regulatory immune responses. The homoeostatic IL-10/TGF-β dominated tolerogenic response within the GALT also signals the production of secretory IgA, which have a regulating role in mucosal integrity. Contrary to the 'sterile womb' paradigm, recent studies suggest that maternal microbial transfer to the offspring begins during pregnancy, providing a pioneer microbiome. It is likely that appropriate microbial stimulation both pre- and postnatally is required for optimal Th1 and Treg development to avoid the pathophysiological processes leading to allergy. Disturbed gut colonization patterns have been associated with allergic disease, but whether microbial variation is the cause or effect of these diseases is still under investigation. We are far from understanding what constitutes a 'healthy gut microbiome' that promotes tolerance. This remains a major limitation and might explain some of the inconsistency in human intervention studies with prebiotics and probiotics. Multidisciplinary integrative approaches with researchers working in networks

  8. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  9. [Anti-nicotine education applied in relation of parents of the diseased children on chronic allergic diseases of respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Grzegorz; Gołda, Ryszard; Pyskir, Jerzy; Pasińska, Magdalena; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Kopiński, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    The allergies of respiratory system are at children the frequent illnesses. Among favorable them factors, risk on passive smoking tobacco can be also. Passive smoking is defined as risk non-smoking on tobacco smoke in environment. Recent reports represent that smoking in home environment tobacco increase on passive smokers' asthma morbidity, especially children in school age. It in it was report the necessity of leadership of anti-nicotine education was underlined in the face of smoking parents. It bets that she should motivate she better parents to cessation smoking, using authority of doctor and love parental. Acting we decided with these principles to analyze effectiveness two year anti-nicotine education which be applied in the face of all treated smoking parents of children with reason of chronic allergic diseases of respiratory system in out-patients. The study comprised parents of 146 children at the Allergy out-Patients clinic, who were diagnosed and cured in years 2003-2005. Generally were 292 persons. The children be treated with reason of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. It the data on subject of smoking of tobacco were collected was on basis of interview got from parents during visits at information bureau on beginning the treatment the children, in his track as well as after two years of education. The anti-nicotine education was applied by whole period of observation during routine medical visits. In moment beginning of treatment in studied group the parents' and education children (n = 292) it 79 the parents' couple did not smoke. Smoking parents among remaining 67 steams were. From among them parents 13 children smoked both, only father in 36 cases smoked and mother in remaining 18 parents' couple smoked. 80 parents smoked with generally. 63 persons after two years of anti-nicotine education the nonsmoking committed one from group smoking. 22 persons among them were from among 24 fathers and 17 mothers' peer in which smoked both parents

  10. Oral tolerance in neonates: from basics to potential prevention of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Verhasselt, V

    2010-07-01

    Oral tolerance refers to the observation that prior feeding of an antigen induces local and systemic immune tolerance to that antigen. Physiologically, this process is probably of central importance for preventing inflammatory responses to the numerous dietary and microbial antigens present in the gut. Defective oral tolerance can lead to gut inflammatory disease, food allergies, and celiac disease. In the last two cases, the diseases develop early in life, stressing the necessity of understanding how oral tolerance is set up in neonates. This article reviews the parameters that have been outlined in adult animal models as necessary for tolerance induction and assesses whether these factors operate in neonates. In addition, we highlight the factors that are specific for this period of life and discuss how they could have an impact on oral tolerance. We pay particular attention to maternal influence on early oral tolerance induction through breast-feeding and outline the major parameters that could be modified to optimize tolerance induction in early life and possibly prevent allergic diseases. PMID:20485330

  11. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people. PMID:27120868

  12. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  13. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the Australian population: Burden of disease and attitudes to intranasal corticosteroid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Raymond; Theron, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) is a global health problem causing significant morbidity and has a major impact on quality of life (QOL) and health expenditure. Despite the widespread prevalence, the overall health impact of AR/C may be underappreciated. The results of a survey designed to capture the burden of allergic rhinitis within the Asia-Pacific region have been published recently. Of particular note when evaluating treatment in this region was the fact that despite the value of intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) use, only a small percentage of patients used them. Whether this same trend is present within the population of Australian sufferers is unknown. This study examines the burden of AR/C and explores use of, and attitudes, to INCS sprays in the Australian population. Methods: Three hundred three completed interviews from adults and children who had physician-diagnosed AR/C and who were symptomatic or had received treatment in the previous 12 months were analyzed for QOL measures and attitudes to INCS use. Results: Most patients surveyed had received their diagnosis from a general practitioner (GP), and in most cases, a GP provided the majority of ongoing medical care. Only 8% of respondents had consulted a relevant specialist. Diagnostic tests had not been performed in 55% of respondents. The major symptoms causing most distress were nasal congestion and ocular symptoms. The burden of AR/C was considerable; 42% described significant work or school interference because of symptoms, one-third reporting moderate-to-extreme interference with sleep. Despite the significant impact on QOL reported by this sample, 17% had never used INCS and 27% had not used them in the previous 12 months. Respondents' knowledge about INCSs was poor. Conclusion: AR/C is a common disease associated with significant morbidity and impairment of QOL. Improvement in diagnosis, management, and patient education is needed. PMID:24274227

  14. AN EMERGING ROLE FOR THE LIPID MEDIATOR SPHINGOSINE-1-PHOSPHATE IN MAST CELL EFFECTOR FUNCTION AND ALLERGIC DISEASE*

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Ana; Rivera, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles regulating functions of diverse biological systems, including the immune system. S1P affects immune cell function mostly by acting through its receptors at the cell membrane but it can also induce S1P receptor-independent responses in the cells where it is generated. S1P produced in allergically stimulated mast cells mediates degranulation, cytokine and lipid mediator production, and migration of mast cells towards antigen by mechanisms that are both S1P receptor-dependent and independent. Even in the absence of an antigen challenge, the differentiation and responsiveness of mast cells can be affected by chronic exposure to elevated S1P from a non-mast cell source, which may occur under pathophysiological conditions, potentially leading to the hyper-responsiveness of mast cells. The role of S1P extends beyond the regulation of the function of mast cells to the regulation of the surrounding or distal environment. S1P is exported out of antigen-stimulated mast cells and into the extracellular space and the resulting S1P gradient within the tissue may influence diverse surrounding tissue cells and several aspects of the allergic disease, such as inflammation or tissue remodeling. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that vasoactive mediators released systemically by mast cells induce the production of S1P in non-hematopoietic compartments, where it plays a role in regulating the vascular tone and reducing the hypotension characteristic of the anaphylactic shock and thus helping the recovery. The dual actions of S1P, promoting the immediate response of mast cells, while controlling the systemic consequences of mast cell activity will be discussed in detail. PMID:21713655

  15. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  16. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2012. Studies support an increase in peanut allergy prevalence in children and exposure to the antibacterial agent triclosan and having filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations as risk factors for food sensitization. The role of specific foods in causing eosinophilic esophagitis is elucidated by several studies, and microRNA analysis is identified as a possible noninvasive disease biomarker. Studies on food allergy diagnosis emphasize the utility of component testing and the possibility of improved diagnosis through stepped approaches, epitope-binding analysis, and bioinformatics. Treatment studies of food allergy show promise for oral immunotherapy, but tolerance induction remains elusive, and additional therapies are under study. Studies on anaphylaxis suggest an important role for platelet-activating factor and its relationship to the need for prompt treatment with epinephrine. Insights on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated drug allergy are offered, with novel data regarding the interaction of drugs with HLA molecules. Numerous studies support influenza vaccination of persons with egg allergy using modest precautions. Evidence continues to mount that there is cross-talk between skin barrier defects and immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis. Augmentation of the skin barrier with reduction in skin inflammatory responses will likely lead to the most effective intervention in patients with this common skin disease.

  17. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the risk of childhood allergic diseases: an update from the perspective of the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chang-Hung; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Huang, Ching-Hua; Yang, San-Nan; Lee, Min-Sheng; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been growing rapidly in industrial countries during recent decades. It is postulated that growing up with less microbial exposure may render the immune system susceptible to a T helper type 2 (Th2)-predominant allergic response-also known as the hygiene hypothesis. This review delineates recent epidemiological and experimental evidence for the hygiene hypothesis, and integrates this hypothesis into the association between early life exposure to antibiotics and the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Several retrospective or prospective epidemiological studies reveal that early exposure to antibiotics may be positively associated with the development of allergic diseases and asthma. However, the conclusion is inconsistent. Experimental studies show that antibiotics may induce the Th2-skewed response by suppressing the T helper type 1 (Th1) response through inhibition of Th1 cytokines and disruption of the natural course of infection, or by disturbing the microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and therefore jeopardizing the establishment of oral tolerance and regulatory T cell immune responses. The hygiene hypothesis may not be the only explanation for the rapid increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma. Further epidemiological and experimental studies addressing the issue of the impact of environmental factors on the development of allergic diseases and the underlying mechanisms may unveil novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in the future.

  18. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    Andrographis shortens the duration of the common cold. The one study on Elderberry's use for the flu was encouraging, and the data on the homeopathic remedy Oscillococcinum interesting, but more studies should be performed. Saline washes may be helpful to patients with allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis. Patients also may try the German combination (available in the United States) of elderberry, vervain, gentian, primrose, and sorrel that has been tested in randomized clinical trials. Bromelain is safe to try; the trials of bromelain supplementation were promising but were never repeated. The preceding suggestions need to be grounded in a program based on optimal medical management. Patients need to be well educated in the proper medical management of their disease and skilled at monitoring disease stability and progress. Asthmatic patients need to monitor their bronchodilator usage and peak flow meter measurements to step up their medical treatment in a timely manner, if needed. Patients welcome physician guidance when exploring the breadth of treatments available today. A true patient-physician partnership is always empowering to patients who are serious about regaining their function and health.

  19. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  20. The characteristics of indoor and outdoor fungi and their relation with allergic respiratory diseases in the southern region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arikoglu, Tugba; Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Coşkun, Taner; Otag, Feza; Yildirim, Didem Derici; Kuyucu, Semanur

    2016-06-01

    Indoor and outdoor fungal exposure has been shown to be associated with the development of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside homes and evaluate the association between fungal levels and allergic diseases in the southern region of Turkey. A total of 61 children admitted with respiratory complaints to the pediatric allergy clinic between September 2007 and November 2008 were included in this study. The air samples were obtained using the Air IDEAL volumetric air sampler longitudinally for 1 year. A comprehensive questionnaire was used for medical history and housing conditions. Skin prick test was performed to determine fungal sensitivity and spirometric indices were employed. The predominant indoor fungal species were Cladosporium (69.3 %), Penicillium (18.9 %), Aspergillus (6.5 %), and Alternaria (3.1 %). A strong correlation between indoor and outdoor fungal levels was detected for the Cladosporium species (p < 0.001, r = 0.72) throughout the year. Living in a detached home (p = 0.036) and the presence of cockroaches (p = 0.005) were associated with total indoor fungal levels. The presence of cockroaches (aOR 3.5; 95 % CI 0.95-13.10, p = 0.059) was also associated with fungal sensitization at the edge of significance. The statistical cutoff values of indoor and outdoor Cladosporium levels to predict symptomatic asthma were found to be >176 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.003, AUC 0.696; sensitivity 65.5 %; specificity 68.7 %) and >327 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.038; AUC 0.713; sensitivity 66.6 %; specificity 76.9 %), respectively. Children with respiratory symptoms are exposed to a considerable level of fungi inside and outside their homes. The prevention of fungal exposure may provide valuable intervention for respiratory diseases.

  1. A randomised multicentre trial of acupuncture in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis – trial intervention including physician and treatment characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a large randomised trial in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), acupuncture was superior compared to sham acupuncture and rescue medication. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the trial’s participating physicians and to describe the trial intervention in accordance with the STRICTA (Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture) guidelines, to make details of the trial intervention more transparent to researchers and physicians. Methods ACUSAR (ACUpuncture in Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis) was a three-armed, randomised, controlled multicentre trial. 422 SAR patients were randomised to semi-standardised acupuncture plus rescue medication (RM, cetirizine), sham acupuncture plus RM or RM alone. We sent a questionnaire to trial physicians in order to evaluate their characteristics regarding their education about and experience in providing acupuncture. During the trial, acupuncturists were asked to diagnose all of their patients according to Chinese Medicine (CM) as a basis for the semi-standardised, individualized intervention in the acupuncture group. Every acupuncture point used in this trial had to be documented after each session Results Acupuncture was administered in outpatient clinics by 46 (mean age 47 ± 10 years; 24 female/ 22 male) conventionally-trained medical doctors (67% with postgraduate specialization such as internal or family medicine) with additional extensive acupuncture training (median 500 hours (1st quartile 350, 3rd quartile 1000 hours with 73% presenting a B-diploma in acupuncture training (350 hours)) and experience (mean 14 years in practice). The most reported traditional CM diagnosis was ‘wind-cold invading the lung’ (37%) and ‘wind-heat invading the lung’ (37%), followed by ‘lung and spleen qi deficiency’ (9%). The total number of needles used was higher in the acupuncture group compared to the sham acupuncture group (15.7 ± 2.5 vs. 10.0

  2. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases: a uniform approach--a MeDALL--GA2LEN--ARIA position paper.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P; Schünemann, H J; Togias, A; Akdis, M; Auffray, C; Bachert, C; Bieber, T; Bousquet, P J; Carlsen, K H; Casale, T B; Cruz, A A; Keil, T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Maurer, M; Ohta, K; Papadopoulos, N G; Roman Rodriguez, M; Samolinski, B; Agache, I; Andrianarisoa, A; Ang, C S; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ballester, F; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Basagaña, X; Bateman, E D; Bel, E H; Bedbrook, A; Beghé, B; Beji, M; Ben Kheder, A; Benet, M; Bennoor, K S; Bergmann, K C; Berrissoul, F; Bindslev Jensen, C; Bleecker, E R; Bonini, S; Boner, A L; Boulet, L P; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J L; Bush, A; Busse, W W; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Carr, W; Cesario, A; Chen, Y Z; Chiriac, A M; Costa, D J; Cox, L; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Darsow, U; Didi, T; Dolen, W K; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; El-Meziane, A; Fonseca, J A; Fokkens, W J; Fthenou, E; Gamkrelidze, A; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Gimeno-Santos, E; Guerra, S; Haahtela, T; Haddad, H; Hellings, P W; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hohmann, C; Howarth, P; Hourihane, J O; Humbert, M; Jacquemin, B; Just, J; Kalayci, O; Kaliner, M A; Kauffmann, F; Kerkhof, M; Khayat, G; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kogevinas, M; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Larenas, D; Lavi, I; Le, L T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Mahboub, B; Makela, M J; Martin, F; Martinez, F D; Marshall, G D; Mazon, A; Melen, E; Meltzer, E O; Mihaltan, F; Mohammad, Y; Mohammadi, A; Momas, I; Morais-Almeida, M; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Naclerio, R; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Nawijn, M C; Nyembue, T D; Oddie, S; O'Hehir, R E; Okamoto, Y; Orru, M P; Ozdemir, C; Ouedraogo, G S; Palkonen, S; Panzner, P; Passalacqua, G; Pawankar, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Pinart, M; Pison, C; Popov, T A; Porta, D; Postma, D S; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Ratomaharo, J; Reitamo, S; Rezagui, D; Ring, J; Roberts, R; Roca, J; Rogala, B; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Sheikh, A; Simons, F E R; Siroux, V; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P D; Smit, H A; Sooronbaev, T; Stein, R T; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Terreehorst, I; Toskala, E; Tremblay, Y; Valenta, R; Valeyre, D; Vandenplas, O; van Weel, C; Vassilaki, M; Varraso, R; Viegi, G; Wang, D Y; Wickman, M; Williams, D; Wöhrl, S; Wright, J; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zidarn, M; Zhong, N; Zuberbier, T

    2012-01-01

    Concepts of disease severity, activity, control and responsiveness to treatment are linked but different. Severity refers to the loss of function of the organs induced by the disease process or to the occurrence of severe acute exacerbations. Severity may vary over time and needs regular follow-up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies.

  3. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insect stings.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2004-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insect venom that were reported primarily in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology from 2002 through 2003. Among the topics highlighted are new insights into the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and potential strategies for more effective treatment of the atopic march. Patients should remain supine with raised legs during anaphylactic shock because upper body elevation could result in sudden death from loss of venous return to the heart. A major advance in food allergy was that humanized, monoclonal anti-IgE antibody showed protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis. In addition to studies elucidating mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity, a clinical study showed patients with a history of prior penicillin allergy with negative penicillin allergy test results are unlikely to experience reactions or resensitization on subsequent oral courses of penicillin. Lastly, there are new recommendations for patients with convincing insect sting reaction histories but negative skin test responses to venom.

  4. Neonatal Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection May Aggravate Adulthood Allergic Airways Disease in Association with IL-17A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Jiang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Lijia; Wang, Qinghong; Luo, Zhengxiu; Liu, Enmei; Fu, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that some bacteria colonization or infections in early-life increased the risk for subsequent asthma development. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which early-life bacterial infection increases this risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neonatal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection on the development of adulthood asthma, and to explore the possible mechanism. A non-lethal S. pneumoniae lung infection was established by intranasal inoculation of neonatal (1-week-old) female mice with D39. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin in adulthood to induce allergic airways disease (AAD). Twenty-four hours later, the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to assess AAD. Neonatal S. pneumoniae infection exacerbated adulthood hallmark features of AAD, with enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness and increased neutrophil recruitment into the airways, increased Th17 cells and interleukin (IL)-17A productions. Depletion of IL-17A by i.p. injection of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced neutrophil recruitment into the airways, alleviated airway inflammation and decreased airway hyperresponsiveness. Furthermore, IL-17A depletion partially restored levels of inteferon-γ, but had no effect on the release of IL-5 or IL-13. Our data suggest that neonatal S. pneumoniae infection may promote the development of adulthood asthma in association with increased IL-17A production. PMID:25816135

  5. The contribution of biotechnology toward progress in diagnosis, management, and treatment of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Palomares, O; Crameri, R; Rhyner, C

    2014-12-01

    'Biotechnology' has been intuitively used by humans since thousands of years for the production of foods, beverages, and drugs based on the experience without any scientific background. However, the golden era of this discipline emerged only during the second half of the last century. Incredible progresses have been achieved on all fields starting from the industrialization of the production of foods to the discovery of antibiotics, the decipherment of the genetic code, and rational approaches to understand and define the status we now call 'healthy'. The extremely complex interactions between genetic background, life style, and environmental factors influencing our continuously increasing life span have become more and more evident and steadily generate new questions which are only partly answered. Here, we try to summarize the contribution of biotechnology to our understanding, control, and cure of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. We are aware that a review of such a vast topic can never cover all aspects of the progress achieved in the different fields.

  6. The effects of pregnancy on the exacerbation and development of maternal allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ward, Marsha D W

    2009-12-01

    The T-helper 2 (T(H)2) bias associated with pregnancy may predispose the pregnant mother to the development or exacerbation of allergic disease. To determine the effects of pregnancy on pre-existing maternal sensitization, we sensitized BALB/c mice before breeding by two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to the fungal allergen, Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). Some mice also received three IA exposures to MACA on gestational days 11, 15, and 19. After weaning, all mice were challenged IA with MACA before killing. To determine the effects of pregnancy on susceptibility to future sensitization, naïve parous and nulliparous BALB/c mice were sensitized by three IA exposures to MACA or to Hank's buffered salt solution vehicle control. Pregnancy did not have a significant effect on individual inflammatory parameters (airway responsiveness to methacholine, total serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE, BALF total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and total and differential cell counts) following allergen challenge in sensitized mice, regardless of post-breeding allergen exposure. In conclusion there was a weak inhibition of the overall response in mice exposed to allergen during pregnancy compared to identically treated nulliparous mice. In contrast, parous mice that did not encounter allergen post-breeding tended to have exacerbated responses. Parity had no significant impact on future susceptibility to sensitization. PMID:19845451

  7. Dietary n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period as a strategy to minimize childhood allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Makrides, Maria; Gunaratne, Anoja W; Collins, Carmel T

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in the modulation of the immune response during early childhood and whether this may translate to a reduction in childhood allergic disease. Several randomized controlled trials of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been reported, largely involving children who are at high hereditary risk of developing allergies. These studies relatively consistently indicate that supplementation during pregnancy results in fewer children with atopic eczema in early childhood. On the other hand, supplementation studies confined exclusively to the postnatal period have demonstrated mixed results with one trial showing no effect and the other suggesting a transient effect on symptoms of respiratory disease. In summary, supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period and before allergic response is established may be a useful strategy to prevent early childhood allergic disease in children at high hereditary risk. Further work is needed to establish the optimal period of supplementation and whether longer term benefits exist. PMID:24107505

  8. Dietary n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period as a strategy to minimize childhood allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Makrides, Maria; Gunaratne, Anoja W; Collins, Carmel T

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in the modulation of the immune response during early childhood and whether this may translate to a reduction in childhood allergic disease. Several randomized controlled trials of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been reported, largely involving children who are at high hereditary risk of developing allergies. These studies relatively consistently indicate that supplementation during pregnancy results in fewer children with atopic eczema in early childhood. On the other hand, supplementation studies confined exclusively to the postnatal period have demonstrated mixed results with one trial showing no effect and the other suggesting a transient effect on symptoms of respiratory disease. In summary, supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period and before allergic response is established may be a useful strategy to prevent early childhood allergic disease in children at high hereditary risk. Further work is needed to establish the optimal period of supplementation and whether longer term benefits exist.

  9. Regulatory T cells and immune regulation of allergic diseases: roles of IL-10 and TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Palomares, O; Martín-Fontecha, M; Lauener, R; Traidl-Hoffmann, C; Cavkaytar, O; Akdis, M; Akdis, C A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has significantly increased in industrialized countries. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) remains as the only curative treatment. The knowledge about the mechanisms underlying healthy immune responses to allergens, the development of allergic reactions and restoration of appropriate immune responses to allergens has significantly improved over the last decades. It is now well-accepted that the generation and maintenance of functional allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells and regulatory B (Breg) cells are essential for healthy immune responses to environmental proteins and successful AIT. Treg cells comprise different subsets of T cells with suppressive capacity, which control the development and maintenance of allergic diseases by various ways of action. Molecular mechanisms of generation of Treg cells, the identification of novel immunological organs, where this might occur in vivo, such as tonsils, and related epigenetic mechanisms are starting to be deciphered. The key role played by the suppressor cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β produced by functional Treg cells during the generation of immune tolerance to allergens is now well established. Treg and Breg cells together have a role in suppression of IgE and induction of IgG4 isotype allergen-specific antibodies particularly mediated by IL-10. Other cell types such as subsets of dendritic cells, NK-T cells and natural killer cells producing high levels of IL-10 may also contribute to the generation of healthy immune responses to allergens. In conclusion, better understanding of the immune regulatory mechanisms operating at different stages of allergic diseases will significantly help the development of better diagnostic and predictive biomarkers and therapeutic interventions.

  10. Importance of indoor allergens in the induction of allergy and elicitation of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Woodcock, A

    1998-01-01

    During the last few decades, many countries have experienced an increase in the prevalence and severity of asthma. Over the same period, the population in the developed world has retreated indoors, and homes have become better insulated and more energy efficient, resulting in a warm and humid environment with low ventilation rates, ideally suited to house-dust-mite population growth throughout the year. Increasing exposure and increasing sensitivity to indoor allergens represent a progressively higher risk factor for the development of asthma. The development of sensitivity to indoor allergens and the symptoms and severity of asthma in later childhood are directly related to the exposure to allergens in infancy. It was relatively straightforward to demonstrate a quantitative linear dose-response relationship between exposure to house-dust-mite allergens and subsequent sensitization. However, showing the same for exposure and asthma severity has been more difficult, as the relationship between exposure and asthma symptoms in already sensitized individuals is much more complex than in the case of exposure and sensitization. Nevertheless, sensitized individuals are likely to have more severe asthma if exposed to high allergen levels than if their level of exposure is low. Sensitization to house-dust mites is a major independent risk factor for asthma in all areas where climate is conducive to mite population growth. The relevance of allergens other that mite is not consistent between different areas, and depends on the climate, habits, and socio-economic features of the local community. It would appear that presence of mite allergens in homes "overshadows" other allergens (e.g., cat, dog, or cockroach) as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent development of allergic disease. It is possible that this is the consequence of the difference in inherent potency between allergen sources, and the question of why mite allergens are so potent in inducing sensitization

  11. [Role of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 in allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Julia, Valérie; Staumont-Salle, Delphine; Dombrowicz, David

    2016-03-01

    Allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis are diseases mainly resulting from the activation of Th2 cells, that produce cytokines favouring IgE production and eosinophilia but also of Th1 cells, that contribute to inflammation chronicity. Lymphocyte recruitment and retention of Th cells in target organs are 2 key events for asthma and atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. While lymphocyte migration is regulated by chemokines and lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins, factors involved in lymphocyte retention and survival within inflammatory tissues remain poorly understood. Recent works show that, in allergic diseases, there is an increased expression of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its unique receptor CX3CR1 and that this chemokine does not act as chemoattractant. In allergic asthma, CX3CR1 expression regulates Th2 and Th1 cell survival in the inflammatory lung, while, in atopic dermatitis, it regulate Th2 and Th1 cell retention into the inflammatory site. Use of peptides blocking fractalkine binding to its receptor is currently tested in the treatment of asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  12. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  13. Analysis of the association between air pollution and allergic diseases exposure from nearby sources of ambient air pollution within elementary school zones in four Korean cities.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-H; Lee, C-S; Jeon, J-M; Yu, S-D; Lee, C-W; Park, J-H; Shin, D-C; Lim, Y-W

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey elementary school students regarding the environmental conditions of their elementary schools and to assess the relationship between air pollution and allergic disease using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Therefore, this study was designed as a cross-sectional study. In this study, seven elementary schools were selected and they were classified into three categories. The selection included one school with no traffic-related or other pollutants, three with traffic-related pollutants, and three with traffic-related and other pollutants from industrial and filling station sources. The ISAAC questionnaire survey was given to all of the students except to those in the 1st grade who were presumed to be less likely to be exposed to the school environment than the remainder of the students attending those seven schools. The assessment of allergic disease was conducted on a total of 4,545 students. Three school zones with critical exposure were selected within each school and they were evaluated based on the levels of black carbon (BC), PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3. There was a significant increase in the risks based on the odds ratios of treatment experiences (within 1 year) for allergy-related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (a) in the school group with traffic-related pollutants and the school group with complex pollutants were 2.12 (1.41-3.19) and 1.59 (1.06-2.37), respectively, in comparison to the school groups with no exposure to pollutants. This was determined based on the odds ratio of symptoms and treatment experiences for allergy-related diseases by group based on the home town zone as a reference. Also, in the case of atopic dermatitis, the odds ratio of treatment experiences (within 1 year) was 1.42 (1.02-1.97), which indicated elevated risks compared to the students in the S1 school. A regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the

  14. The Microbiome and Mental Health: Looking Back, Moving Forward with Lessons from Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Alan C.; Jacka, Felice N.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Prescott, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between gastrointestinal viscera and human emotions have been documented by virtually all medical traditions known to date. The focus on this relationship has waxed and waned through the centuries, with noted surges in interest driven by cultural forces. Here we explore some of this history and the emerging trends in experimental and clinical research. In particular, we pay specific attention to how the hygiene hypothesis and emerging research on traditional dietary patterns has helped re-ignite interest in the use of microbes to support mental health. At present, the application of microbes and their structural parts as a means to positively influence mental health is an area filled with promise. However, there are many limitations within this new paradigm shift in neuropsychiatry. Impediments that could block translation of encouraging experimental studies include environmental forces that work toward dysbiosis, perhaps none more important than westernized dietary patterns. On the other hand, it is likely that specific dietary choices may amplify the value of future microbial-based therapeutics. Pre-clinical and clinical research involving microbiota and allergic disorders has predated recent work in psychiatry, an early start that provides valuable lessons. The microbiome is intimately connected to diet, nutrition, and other lifestyle variables; microbial-based psychopharmacology will need to consider this contextual application, otherwise the ceiling of clinical expectations will likely need to be lowered. PMID:27121424

  15. The Microbiome and Mental Health: Looking Back, Moving Forward with Lessons from Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan C; Jacka, Felice N; Craig, Jeffrey M; Prescott, Susan L

    2016-05-31

    Relationships between gastrointestinal viscera and human emotions have been documented by virtually all medical traditions known to date. The focus on this relationship has waxed and waned through the centuries, with noted surges in interest driven by cultural forces. Here we explore some of this history and the emerging trends in experimental and clinical research. In particular, we pay specific attention to how the hygiene hypothesis and emerging research on traditional dietary patterns has helped re-ignite interest in the use of microbes to support mental health. At present, the application of microbes and their structural parts as a means to positively influence mental health is an area filled with promise. However, there are many limitations within this new paradigm shift in neuropsychiatry. Impediments that could block translation of encouraging experimental studies include environmental forces that work toward dysbiosis, perhaps none more important than westernized dietary patterns. On the other hand, it is likely that specific dietary choices may amplify the value of future microbial-based therapeutics. Pre-clinical and clinical research involving microbiota and allergic disorders has predated recent work in psychiatry, an early start that provides valuable lessons. The microbiome is intimately connected to diet, nutrition, and other lifestyle variables; microbial-based psychopharmacology will need to consider this contextual application, otherwise the ceiling of clinical expectations will likely need to be lowered. PMID:27121424

  16. Nutrition, growth, and allergic diseases among very preterm infants after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Zachariassen, Gitte

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this PhD thesis were: 1. Primarily to investigate the effect, of adding human milk fortifier to mother's milk while breastfeeding very preterm infants after hospital discharge, on growth until 1 year corrected age (CA) 2. Secondarily to describe breastfeeding rate and factors associated with breastfeeding among very preterm infants at hospital discharge. 3. To describe possible feeding-problems during the intervention-period, and allergic diseases during the first year of life, among very preterm infants related to their nutrition after hospital discharge. 4. To describe the content of macronutrients in human milk from mothers delivering very preterm. This PhD thesis is based on a prospective, randomized, and controlled interventional birth cohort study. A total of 633 very preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) ≤ 32 + 0 weeks were recruited consecutively from July 2004 until August 2008 of whom 157 were excluded due to diseases or circumstances influencing nutrition. Further 156 refused participation in the interventional part of the study, but data on breastfeeding, weight, and some epidemiological data until discharge were available. Results on breastfeeding rate at discharge were therefore based on data from 478 infants, and parents of 320 infants accepted participation in the intervention study. Of these 320 infants, 207 were exclusively breastfed and they were shortly before hospital discharge randomized to either breastfeeding without (group A) or with fortification (group B) until 4 months CA. Infants (n = 113) who were bottle-fed at discharge (group C) were given a preterm formula (PF) until 4 months CA. Infants were examined at the outpatient clinics at term, and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months CA, where parameters on growth, allergic diseases, possible feeding problems, blood-samples, and milk samples were obtained. Data on duration of exclusively breastfeeding and time of introduction to formula and/or complementary food were also recorded

  17. How changes in nutrition have influenced the development of allergic diseases in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi correlati. Gli alimenti che

  18. Chlorinated pool attendance, airway epithelium defects and the risks of allergic diseases in adolescents: Interrelationships revealed by circulating biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Alfred Nickmilder, Marc; Dumont, Xavier

    2015-07-15

    It has been suggested that allergic diseases might be epithelial disorders driven by various environmental stressors but the epidemiological evidence supporting this concept is limited. In a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents (365 boys; mean age, 15.5 yr), we measured the serum concentrations of Club cell protein (CC16), surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) and of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE. We used the serum CC16/SP-D concentration ratio as an index integrating changes in the permeability (SP-D) and secretory function (CC16) of the airway epithelium. In both sexes, early swimming in chlorinated pools emerged as the most consistent and strongest predictor of low CC16 and CC16/SP-D ratio in serum. Among girls, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds (lowest vs. highest tertile) for pet sensitization (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.19–8.22) and for hay fever in subjects sensitized to pollen (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.28–14.4). Among boys, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds for house-dust mite (HDM) sensitization (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11–3.73), for allergic rhinitis in subjects sensitized to HDM (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22–11.1) and for asthma in subjects sensitized to any aeroallergen (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.17–11.0), HDM (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.40–24.2) or pollen (OR 5.82, 95% CI 1.51–27.4). Odds for allergic sensitization or rhinitis also increased with increasing SP-D or decreasing CC16 in serum. Our findings support the hypothesis linking the development of allergic diseases to epithelial barrier defects due to host factors or environmental stressors such as early swimming in chlorinated pools. - Highlights: • We conducted a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents. • The airway epithelium integrity was evaluated by measuring serum pneumoproteins. • The risk of allergic diseases was associated with a defective airway epithelium. • Childhood swimming in chlorinated pools can cause persistent epithelial

  19. Genome-wide association analysis of eosinophilic esophagitis provides insight into the tissue specificity of this allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Kottyan, Leah C.; Davis, Benjamin P.; Sherrill, Joseph D.; Liu, Kan; Rochman, Mark; Kaufman, Kenneth; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Vaughn, Samuel; Lazaro, Sara; Rupert, Andrew M.; Kohram, Mojtaba; Stucke, Emily M.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Magnusen, Albert; He, Hua; Dexheimer, Phillip; Chehade, Mirna; Wood, Robert A.; Pesek, Robbie D.; Vickery, Brian P.; Fleischer, David M.; Lindbad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A.; Mukkada, Vince; Putnam, Phil E.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Martin, Lisa J.; Harley, John B.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with allergic hypersensitivity to food. We interrogated >1.5 million genetic variants in European EoE cases and subsequently in a multi-site cohort with local and out-of-study control subjects. In addition to replication of the 5q22 locus (meta-analysis p = 1.9×10−16), we identified association at 2p23 (encoding CAPN14, p = 2.5×10−10). CAPN14 was specifically expressed in the esophagus, dynamically upregulated as a function of disease activity and genetic haplotype and after exposure of epithelial cells to IL-13, and located in an epigenetic hotspot modified by IL-13. There was enriched esophageal expression for the genes neighboring the top 208 EoE sequence variants. Multiple allergic sensitization loci were associated with EoE susceptibility (4.8×10−2 < p < 5.1×10−11). We propose a model that elucidates the tissue specific nature of EoE that involves the interplay of allergic sensitization with an EoE-specific, IL-13–inducible esophageal response involving CAPN14. PMID:25017104

  20. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  1. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22053313

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and allergic diseases in primary schoolchildren living in Bushehr, Iran: phase I, III ISAAC protocol.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Gheybi, Mohammad Kazzem; Movahhed, Ali; Dehdari, Reyhaneh; Gooya, Mostafa; Keshvari, Saman; Gholampour, Hossein; Mansourian, Zohreh; Khosravi, Yasaman; Ghahramani, Forough; Zandi, Sahar; Etemadan, Razieh; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Reaisi, Alireza; Keshmiri, Saeed; Fadaizadeh, Lida; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases present a major health burden. Information on the prevalence of these diseases indicates that these diseases are increasing in various parts of the world. It was hoped that this study would be helpful to health system policy-makers in planning allergy prevention programs in the region.The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases and relation between the various risk factors involved were assessed among schoolchildren in the city of Bushehr, Iran. The ISAAC Phase I and III questionnaires were completed by parents of 1280 children aged 6-7 years and self-completed by 1115 students aged 13-14 years.The prevalence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma among 6-7 year-old students were 12.1%, 11.8% and 6.7%, respectively. While, the prevalence of these diseases among 13-14 year-old students were found to be 19%, 30% and 7.6%, respectively. There was an association between asthma and allergic rhinitis as well as eczema (p<0.05). Consumption of fast food as a risk factor was significantly associated with asthma (p=0.03).The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases was high among schoolchildren in the city of Bushehr, Iran. Also an association was observed between the fast food consumption and asthma. PMID:25150076

  3. Oleanolic acid controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivitis, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases.

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1.5 MB] More Data Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin (chronic lower respiratory disease includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and other ...

  5. Effect of thermoneutral housing on fungal-induced respiratory allergic disease in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is projected to increase the number of fungal, bacterial, and pollen agents both indoors and outdoors and may become a significant health impact. Combined with the thermal stress from a rise in global temperatures, it is important to consider how respiratory allerg...

  6. Air quality and seasonal variations in consultations for respiratory, allergic, dermatological and gastrointestinal diseases in Bahrain, 2007.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, R R; Al-Roomi, K A

    2014-06-09

    Environmental health data in Bahrain are scarce. This study in 4 governorates of Bahrain aimed to establish baseline data on the seasonal prevalence of certain disease groups that are sensitive to climate (respiratory, allergic, dermatological and non-specific gastrointestinal diseases) over a 1-year period and to record local climate and air pollutant data for the same year. A 5% sample of medical records for those who attended primary health-care centres during 2007 was taken. Visit rates for all 4 diseases had peaks, in spring and in autumn, with the lowest rates in the summer season when the average temperatures were highest and average humidity was lower. Respiratory-related visits were highest when the air concentrations of SO2 were highest. An ongoing surveillance system for climate-sensitive diseases should be initiated to monitor and relate health and environmental trends.

  7. Exploring Household-level Risk Factors for Self-reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Low-income Households in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, SungChul; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor risk factors for allergic diseases in low-income households in Korea have been characterized only partially. We evaluated the prevalences of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, to identify key housing and behavioral risk factors of low-income households. Methods Statistical analysis of the prevalence of these diseases and various risk factors was conducted using data from a 2010 Ministry of Environment household survey. Logistic regression models were generated using data from 511 low-income household apartments in districts of Seoul. Results In general, housing factors such as renovation history (P<0.1) and crowding status (P<0.01) were associated with allergic rhinitis, whereas behavioral factors such as frequency of indoor ventilation (P<0.05) and cleaning (P<0.1) were inversely correlated with atopic dermatitis. Indoor smoking was a major trigger of asthma and atopic dermatitis in low-income households (P<0.05). The presence of mold and water leakage in houses were the most important risk factors for all three diseases (P<0.05). Conclusions Various risk factors play a role in triggering allergic diseases among low-income households in Seoul, and health or environmental programs mitigating allergic diseases should be tailored to address appropriate housing or behavioral factors in target populations. PMID:25228999

  8. [The prevention of allergic diseases with a hypoallergenic formula: a follow-up at 24 months. The preliminary results].

    PubMed

    de Seta, L; Siani, P; Cirillo, G; Di Gruttola, M; Cimaduomo, L; Coletta, S

    1994-01-01

    One hundred-eight infants from atopic families were admitted to the study. Each had at least one first-degree relative affected by asthma or rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, cow's milk protein intolerance. All infants not breast fed were hypoallergenic formula. 46 infants were breast fed, 39 were bottle fed by the ordinary formula and 23 received the hypoallergenic one. No other food was introduced up to 6 months. Cow's milk proteins, egg, poultry and fish were introduced after 6 months. All infants were followed up to 24 months. Incidence of allergic diseases up to 24 months was not significantly different among the 3 groups. PMID:7971447

  9. [The prevention of allergic diseases with a hypoallergenic formula: a follow-up at 24 months. The preliminary results].

    PubMed

    de Seta, L; Siani, P; Cirillo, G; Di Gruttola, M; Cimaduomo, L; Coletta, S

    1994-01-01

    One hundred-eight infants from atopic families were admitted to the study. Each had at least one first-degree relative affected by asthma or rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, cow's milk protein intolerance. All infants not breast fed were hypoallergenic formula. 46 infants were breast fed, 39 were bottle fed by the ordinary formula and 23 received the hypoallergenic one. No other food was introduced up to 6 months. Cow's milk proteins, egg, poultry and fish were introduced after 6 months. All infants were followed up to 24 months. Incidence of allergic diseases up to 24 months was not significantly different among the 3 groups.

  10. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  11. Overweight/Obesity and Respiratory and Allergic Disease in Children: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two

    PubMed Central

    Weinmayr, Gudrun; Forastiere, Francesco; Büchele, Gisela; Jaensch, Andrea; Strachan, David P.; Nagel, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity and asthma are increasing worldwide. A possible link between the two conditions has been postulated. Methods Cross-sectional studies of stratified random samples of 8–12-year-old children (n = 10 652) (16 centres in affluent and 8 centres in non-affluent countries) used the standardized methodology of ISAAC Phase Two. Respiratory and allergic symptoms were ascertained by parental questionnaires. Tests for allergic disease were performed. Height and weight were measured, and overweight and obesity were defined according to international definitions. Prevalence rates and prevalence odds ratios were calculated. Results Overweight (odds ratio = 1.14, 95%-confidence interval: 0.98; 1.33) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.67, 95%-confidence interval: 1.25; 2.21) were related to wheeze. The relationship was stronger in affluent than in non-affluent centres. Similar results were found for cough and phlegm, rhinitis and eczema but the associations were mostly driven by children with wheeze. There was a clear association of overweight and obesity with airways obstruction (change in FEV1/FVC, −0.90, 95%-confidence interval: −1.33%; −0.47%, for overweight and −2.46%, 95%-confidence interval: −3.84%; −1.07%, for obesity) whereas the results for the other objective markers, including atopy, were null. Conclusions Our data from a large international child population confirm that there is a strong relation of body mass index with wheeze especially in affluent countries. Moreover, body mass index is associated with an objective marker of airways obstruction (FEV1/FVC) but no other objective markers of respiratory and allergic disorders. PMID:25474308

  12. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  14. Natural antibody repertoires: development and functional role in inhibiting allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Kearney, John F; Patel, Preeyam; Stefanov, Emily K; King, R Glenn

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the effects of microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire. Neonatal exposure to conserved bacterial carbohydrates and phospholipids permanently reprograms the natural antibody repertoire directed toward these antigens by clonal expansion, alterations in clonal dominance, and increased serum antibody levels. These epitopes are present not only in bacterial cell walls, but also in common environmental allergens. Neonatal immunization with bacterial polysaccharide vaccines results in attenuated allergic airway responses to fungi-, house dust mite-, and cockroach-associated allergens in mouse models. The similarities between mouse and human natural antibody repertoires suggest that reduced microbial exposure in children may have the opposite effect, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the hygiene hypothesis. We propose that understanding the effects of childhood infections on the natural antibody repertoire and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated immunoregulation observed in allergy models will lead to the development of prevention/interventional strategies for treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:25622195

  15. Role of Crosstalk between Epithelial and Immune Cells, the Epimmunome, in Allergic Rhinitis Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Yamashita, Keiji; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Nagaya, Tomonori; Ito, Fumie; Ichimiya, Shingo; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis has been dramatically increasing worldwide. As conventional therapies for allergic rhinitis, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, nasal sprays and allergen immunotherapy, have limitations, the development of new drugs is required. Recent studies have revealed that epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are able to control immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells, thereby acting as 'master switches' in allergic disease. In addition, new roles have been identified for follicular helper T cells and regulatory B cells in allergic disease, and they are considered to be promising targets for new therapies. Thus, crosstalk between epithelial and immune cells, the epimmunome, underlies the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Greater understanding of the epimmunome may lead to breakthroughs in the development of new treatments for allergic rhinitis and will help us cure many patients suffering from its severe symptoms in the future. PMID:27116609

  16. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  17. MicroRNA regulation of allergic inflammation and asthma.

    PubMed

    Pua, Heather H; Ansel, K Mark

    2015-10-01

    Allergic diseases are prevalent and clinically heterogeneous, and are the pathologic consequence of inappropriate or exaggerated type 2 immune responses. In this review, we explore the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating allergic inflammation. We discuss how miRNAs, acting through target genes to modulate gene expression networks, impact multiple facets of immune cell function critical for type 2 immune responses including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. Human and mouse studies indicate that miRNAs are significant regulators of allergic immune responses. Finally, investigations of extracellular miRNAs offer promise for noninvasive biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for allergy and asthma.

  18. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease. PMID:18160846

  19. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease.

  20. CROSS REACTIVITY IN ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES BETWEEN MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds are ubiquitous in the environment and exposures to molds contribute to various human diseases including allergic asthma. Some mold allergens have been implicated as the causal agent for allergic asthma. Western blot analysis demonstrated IgE-binding cross-reactivity among m...

  1. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  2. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and its association with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2011-01-01

    Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae. PMID:22053309

  3. Allergic fungal otomastoiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiung-Ming; Chiang, Ching-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Allergic mucin is described as thick, peanut butter-like mucus impacted in the paranasal sinuses of patients with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The presence of allergic mucin in the middle ear has never been reported. We encountered a 65-year-old female with allergic mucin found impacted in her left middle ear and mastoid cavity during revised tympanoplasty surgery at our institute. Bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery performed 3 months later showed no evidence of fungal infection or allergic mucin in her paranasal sinuses. We report the case herein and propose the term allergic fungal otomastoiditis for this disease entity. PMID:22825725

  4. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR. PMID:26012287

  5. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR.

  6. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis.

  7. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on work productivity in primary care practice and a comparison with other common diseases: The Cross-sectional study to evAluate work Productivity in allergic Rhinitis compared with other common dIseases (CAPRI) study

    PubMed Central

    de la Hoz Caballer, Belén; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Fraj, Juan; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Antolín-Amérigo, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a highly prevalent allergic disease and also counts among the 10 most frequent reasons for medical consultation. Its impact on quality of life (QoL) and work productivity has been established but comparisons with other diseases are rare in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AR in health-related QoL (HRQoL) and work productivity in primary care patients, compared with other prevalent diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) type II, and symptomatic depression. Methods: Six hundred sixteen patients were included in a multicenter cross-sectional observational study. A generic HRQoL questionnaire, 36-item Short Form, and a specific questionnaire, “Work Productivity and Activity Impairment” were handed out to measure QoL and work productivity impact of the diseases. To assess clinical severity with a comparable scale between diseases Clinical Global Impression (CGI) had been used. Results: Symptomatic depression was found to produce the greatest impairment on work productivity with a decrease of 59.5%, with significant differences compared with AR, hypertension, and DM type II (p < 0.05). Symptomatic depression was found to produce the highest negative impact on daily activities with a statistically significant reduction of 59.4% (p < 0.05) compared with AR (26.6% decrease), hypertension (8.8% decrease), and DM (16.7% decrease) patients. Differences between AR and DM or hypertension were also significant (p < 0.05). Restriction on daily activities for AR was 27.8%, which is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than hypertension (19.8% decrease) but not DM (25.7% decrease). Depression had the highest impairment on daily activities (59.4%), compared with the remaining three groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: AR impairs work productivity in a greater magnitude than hypertension and DM type II. PMID:23168153

  8. Evidence for clinical safety, efficacy, and parent and physician perceptions of levocetirizine for the treatment of children with allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Pampura, A N; Papadopoulos, N G; Spičák, V; Kurzawa, R

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) are highly burdensome diseases, which are increasing in prevalence, especially in the paediatric population. Despite the availability of a large number of medications for treatment of AR and CIU, their use in children has primarily been based on data obtained from a limited number of clinical trials in children and/or testing in adults. The H(1)-antihistamines have traditionally been used as first-line treatment for the relief of both AR and CIU symptoms in children. The first-generation H(1)-antihistamines are associated with marked adverse effects such as sedation, sleepiness/drowsiness as well as difficulties in learning and cognitive processing; thus, they are recommended for limited or discontinued use in children with AR or CIU. In contrast, second-generation H(1)-antihistamines are more adapted for the use in children with AR and CIU due to better safety profiles. However, only a limited number of trials with these agents have been conducted and generally, data from well-designed trials in children are lacking. Levocetirizine is one of the most extensively investigated H(1)-antihistamines for its pharmacologic properties, safety, efficacy as well as overall global satisfaction in children aged 2-12 years. Levocetirizine is the only H(1)-antihistamine launched in the 21st century shown to lack clinically relevant adverse effects on physical and psychomotor development or routine laboratory tests over a long-term period of 18 months in 1- to 3-year-old children predisposed to development of allergic disease. Available data suggest that levocetirizine is a suitable treatment option for AR and CIU in children aged 6 months to 12 years.

  9. Prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in primary school children in Edirne, Turkey, two surveys 10 years apart.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Ziya Toros; Demir, Ahmet Ugur; Tabakoglu, Erhan; Caglar, Tuncay

    2010-06-01

    To assess change in prevalence and risk factors of asthma and allergic diseases among primary school children in rural and urban parts of Edirne, Turkey, a series of cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1994 and 2004. A questionnaire was administered to the parents of primary school children aged 7-12, in urban and rural parts of Edirne, Turkey (5412 in 1994 and 5735 in 2004). Response rates in 1994 and 2004 were 84% and 82.5%, respectively. There were significant differences between the age distribution, urban habitation (1994: 70.1%, 2004: 75.8%, p < 0.001), passive smoking (1994: 74.7%, 2004: 60.0%, p < 0.001), and family atopy (1994: 12.7%, 2004: 18.2%, p < 0.001) between the two surveys. Current prevalence of asthma and wheeze increased in the 2004 when compared to 1994 in both rural and urban regions (current asthma for rural and urban regions, 5.2% and 5.8% in 1994; 8.6% and 12.1% in 2004, respectively). Female-to-male ratio of current asthma increased from 0.7 in 1994 to 0.9 in 2004. Comparison of the risk factors in the two surveys suggested urban habitation and factors other than family atopy, passive smoking and no breast feeding as possible contributors for the increasing asthma and wheeze. Prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases increased among school children in Edirne, Turkey from 1994 to 2004. Life style changes and urbanization could be related to this increasing trend.

  10. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  11. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  12. The clinical features of migraine as a manifestation of allergic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C. W.; Kirker, J. G.; Warnes, H.; O'Malley, M.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with a clinical history of migraine were evaluated psychiatrically, and by electroencephalography. They were challenged with food antigens by skin-prick test, and abdominal symptoms were evaluated following oral ingestion of food allergens. A significant correlation was found between challenge with specific food allergens and the development of migraine headaches, the appearance of abdominal symptoms and the occurrence of positive skin reactions. Psychiatric abnormalities and EEG alterations were associated with the occurrence of headaches and allergic clinical features. It is suggested that the clinical features of migraine can be explained as a result of release of chemical mediators following antigen-antibody reactions in the brain and other tissues where specific antibodies are localized. The continuous ingestion of the responsible food allergens would account for the raised tissue concentrations of noradrenaline, histamine and other mediators to which the clinical features of migraine are attributed. PMID:7465468

  13. Extrinsic and intrinsic asthma: influence of classification on family history of asthma and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Sibbald, B

    1980-05-01

    The distributions of asthma, hay fever and eczema were examined in the first degree relatives of 516 asthmatics grouped according to atopic status, history of hay fever/eczema and history of asthma provoked by pollens, dust or animals. The prevalences of both asthma and eczema in relatives were strongly correlated with the presence of hay fever/eczema in probands and to a lesser extent with their atopic status. The prevalence of hay fever in relatives was strongly correlated with both the presence of hay fever/eczema and the degree of atopy in probands. In contrast, allergic provocation of asthma in probands did not influence the prevalences of asthma, hay fever or eczema. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of asthma in relatives of atopic asthmatics which may arise from the enhanced susceptibility to asthma of individuals who inherit both a predisposition to asthma and a predisposition to atopy.

  14. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  15. Amelioration of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease following Der p 1 peptide immunotherapy is not associated with induction of IL-35.

    PubMed

    Moldaver, D M; Bharhani, M S; Wattie, J N; Ellis, R; Neighbour, H; Lloyd, C M; Inman, M D; Larché, M

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we show therapeutic amelioration of established ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease following house dust mite (HDM) peptide therapy. Mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA and HDM protein extract (Dermatophagoides species) to induce dual allergen sensitization and allergic airway disease. Treatment of allergic mice with peptides derived from the major allergen Der p 1 suppressed OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, tissue eosinophilia, and goblet cell hyperplasia upon rechallenge with allergen. Peptide treatment also suppressed OVA-specific T-cell proliferation. Resolution of airway pathophysiology was associated with a reduction in recruitment, proliferation, and effector function of T(H)2 cells and decreased interleukin (IL)-17⁺ T cells. Furthermore, peptide immunotherapy induced the regulatory cytokine IL-10 and increased the proportion of Fox p3⁺ cells among those expressing IL-10. Tolerance to OVA was not associated with increased IL-35. In conclusion, our results provide in vivo evidence for the creation of a tolerogenic environment following HDM peptide immunotherapy, leading to the therapeutic amelioration of established OVA-induced allergic airway disease.

  16. Treatment strategies designed to minimize medical complications of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fireman, P

    1997-01-01

    Perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis affect many million Americans and account for close to $2 billion annually in medical costs and lost productivity. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and pruritus are, at best, very annoying and may be quite debilitating in some patients, causing irritability, insomnia, and fatigue. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is often not self-limiting and can contribute to serious medical complications such as sinusitis and otitis. Aggressive medical management of allergic rhinitis is important in the therapy for chronic sinusitis and otitis media and may prevent progression to more serious disease. Accurate diagnosis and initiation of environmental control measures to reduce exposure to causative factors should accompany initiation of pharmacotherapy. Antihistamines form the cornerstone of pharmacologic therapy, and use of the newer nonsedating antihistamines such as loratadine, terfenadine, and astemizole is not associated with the sedation produced by the classic antihistamines. Both loratadine and terfenadine are available in combination with a decongestant. Topical intranasal corticosteroids are another important component of pharmacologic management of allergic rhinitis. Allergen immunotherapy (hyposensitization) is used in those patients not adequately managed with pharmacotherapy. The relative safety and convenient dosing schedule of the newer medications should be accompanied by enhanced patient compliance and, hence, better control of allergic symptoms, halting progression of allergic rhinitis to serious medical complications. PMID:9129750

  17. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    Patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis may benefit from hydration and a diet low in sodium, omega-6 fatty acids, and transfatty acids, but high in omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., fish, almonds, walnuts, pumpkin, and flax seeds), onions, and fruits and vegetables (at least five servings a day). Physicians may need to be more cautious when prescribing antibiotics to children in their first year of life when they are born to families with a history of atopy. More research is needed to establish whether supplementation with probiotics (lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) during the first year of life or after antibiotic use decreases the risk of developing asthma and allergic rhinitis. Despite a theoretic basis for the use of vitamin C supplements in asthmatic patients, the evidence is still equivocal, and long-term studies are needed. The evidence is stronger for exercise-induced asthma, in which the use of vitamin C supplementation at a dosage of 1 to 2 g per day may be helpful. It is also possible that fish oil supplements, administered in a dosage of 1 to 1.2 g of EPA and DHA per day, also may be helpful to some patients with asthma. Long-term studies of fish oil and vitamin C are needed for more definite answers. For the patient interested in incorporating nutritional approaches, vitamin C and fish oils have a safe profile. However, aspirin-sensitive individuals should avoid fish oils, and red blood cell magnesium levels may help in making the decision whether to use additional magnesium supplements. Combination herbal formulas should be used in the treatment of asthma with medical supervision and in collaboration with an experienced herbalist or practitioner of TCM. Safe herbs, such as Boswellia and gingko, may be used singly as adjuncts to a comprehensive plan of care if the patient and practitioner have an interest in trying them while staying alert for drug-herb interactions. No data on the long-term use of these single herbs in asthma exist. For the motivated

  18. Supporting the validation of the new allergic and hypersensitivity conditions section of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases-11

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Moises; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The new International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been constructed as a result of a detailed and careful action plan based on scientific evidences for the necessity of changes and collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) ICD-11 revision governance. All the efforts are being acknowledged by the Joint Allergy Academies. Objective Considering the new classification model addressed to the allergic and hypersensitivity conditions and following the ICD WHO agenda, we believe it is the appropriate time to start supporting the validation process in collaboration with the WHO ICD governance. Methods We conducted a mapping of ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions in the ICD-11 beta phase structure and categorized the conditions as fitting by "precoordination," "postcoordination," "indexed to the ICD-11 Foundation," "no code fit properly" or "no correspondence" in the ICD-11. Results From overall 125 ICD-10 entities spread in 6 chapters, 57.6% were able to be precoordinated, 4% postcoordinated, 12% indexed to the Foundation, 9.6% had no code fitting properly and 18.6% had no correspondence in the ICD-11 framework. Conclusion We have been able to demonstrate that 83.2% of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions could be captured by the current ICD-11 beta draft framework. We strongly believe that our findings constitute a key step forward for a softer transition of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions to the ICD-11, supporting the WHO in this process as well as strengthening the visibility of the Allergy specialty and ensuring quality management of allergic patients. PMID:27489786

  19. Climate Change and Our Environment: The Effect on Respiratory and Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles S.; Alexis, Neil E.; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Cohn, John R.; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Horner, Elliott; Levetin, Estelle; Nel, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. This article provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth’s environment into their patient’s treatment plan. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated. Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments. Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas. Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens, whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may result in urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to meet changing environmental conditions. PMID:23687635

  20. Advances in pleural disease management including updated procedural coding.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andrew R; Sterman, Daniel H

    2014-08-01

    Over 1.5 million pleural effusions occur in the United States every year as a consequence of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Although rarely fatal in isolation, pleural effusions are often a marker of a serious underlying medical condition and contribute to significant patient morbidity, quality-of-life reduction, and mortality. Pleural effusion management centers on pleural fluid drainage to relieve symptoms and to investigate pleural fluid accumulation etiology. Many recent studies have demonstrated important advances in pleural disease management approaches for a variety of pleural fluid etiologies, including malignant pleural effusion, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema, and chest tube size. The last decade has seen greater implementation of real-time imaging assistance for pleural effusion management and increasing use of smaller bore percutaneous chest tubes. This article will briefly review recent pleural effusion management literature and update the latest changes in common procedural terminology billing codes as reflected in the changing landscape of imaging use and percutaneous approaches to pleural disease management.

  1. [Basophil count of the newborn is not useful in prediction of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Calbi, M; Giacchetti, L; Coppola, A; Triggiani, M

    1996-01-01

    Basophil granulocytes and their mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. We evaluated basophil count, blood histamine content, eosinophil count and serum total IgE levels in one hundred-thirteen healthy newborns at birth. 108 children were prospectively studied with a follow-up to 18 months of age for development of topic disorders. No difference was found in newborns with biparental family history of atopy (FHA) in comparison with newborns with monoparental FHA and with newborns without FHA. Children who developed atopic disorders had neonatal basophil count higher than those who did not develop atopic symptoms (p = 0.03). No significant correlation was found between basophil and eosinophil counts (r = 0.013), between basophil count and serum total IgE levels (r = 0.012) and between basophil count and blood histamine content. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of basophil count for allergy up to 18 months of age was respectively only 33% and 27%. Our data indicate that an increased basophil count at birth is not associated with FHA and is not a good predictive marker of atopy.

  2. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  3. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  4. DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

  5. Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Harada, Yosuke; Yagita, Hideo; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2014-11-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis.

  6. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  7. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Morris, Abigail; Wang, Bo; Waern, Ida; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Page, Clive; Schmidt, Eric P; Wernersson, Sara; Li, Jin-Ping; Spina, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/-) mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT) control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil) recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  8. Highlights in cellular and molecular mechanisms of allergic diseases. XXVth Congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology in Vienna.

    PubMed

    Basinski, T; Ozdemir, C; Sackesen, C; Mantel, P-Y; Barlan, I; Akdis, M; Jutel, M; Akdis, C A

    2007-01-01

    This year, the annual congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology was held on 10-14 June in Vienna. More than 6,000 delegates, practicing bench or bedside work or both, gathered from over 50 countries throughout the world. Health professionals, basic scientists and fellows in training could choose between a variety of activities in plenary, main, educational and workshop sessions, highlights of the past year, pros and cons, and oral abstract and poster sessions, and met with experts. A total of 1,713 abstracts, 31 symposia, and 54 workshops were presented, ranging from basic science to clinical trials and modern treatment of allergic diseases. Here, we summarize the highlights of cellular and molecular mechanisms of allergic disease.

  9. [The clinical course of allergic diseases in children and the T-lymphocyte dynamics with adsorbed DT-m vaccination against a background of drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, O E; Kostinov, M P

    1990-05-01

    In case of immunization with adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus toxoid with reduced antigen content the treatment of children with calcium pantothenate in combination with chloropyramine proved to be most effective. This was confirmed by the absence of postvaccinal complications and by the most active restoration of the pool of active T cells as early as 2 months after immunization. After the preliminary treatment of children with allergic diseases with calcium pantothenate, glyceram, chloropyramine or their combinations the number of T lymphocytes decreased differently in children receiving different medicinal preparations. In 2 months after immunization the restoration of the pool of T cells was incomplete in children with allergic diseases and considerably more intensive in healthy children. PMID:1974731

  10. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Part III: Critical review of published peer-reviewed observational and interventional studies and final recommendations.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Antonella; Dreborg, Sten; Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niggemann, Bodo; Aalberse, Rob; Arshad, Syed H; Berg Av, Andrea von; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Duschén, Karel; Eigenmann, Philippe; Hill, David; Jones, Catherine; Mellon, Michael; Oldeus, Göran; Oranje, Arnold; Pascual, Cristina; Prescott, Susan; Sampson, Hugh; Svartengren, Magnus; Vandenplas, Yvan; Wahn, Ulrich; Warner, Jill A; Warner, John O; Wickman, Magnus; Zeiger, Robert S

    2004-08-01

    The role of primary prevention of allergic diseases has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light on this issue, a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI reviewed critically the existing literature on the subject. An analysis of published peer-reviewed observational and interventional studies was performed following the statements of evidence as defined by WHO. The results of the analysis indicate that breastfeeding is highly recommended for all infants irrespective of atopic heredity. A dietary regimen is unequivocally effective in the prevention of allergic diseases in high-risk children. In these patients breastfeeding combined with avoidance of solid food and cow's milk for at least 4-6 months is the most effective preventive regimen. In the absence of breast milk, formulas with documented reduced allergenicity for at least 4-6 months should be used.

  11. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  12. A Systematic Review on the Development of Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Relation to International Immigration: The Leading Role of the Environment Confirmed

    PubMed Central

    Cabieses, Báltica; Uphoff, Eleonora; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep Maria; Wright, John

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is rising worldwide. Evidence on potential causal pathways of asthma and allergies is growing, but findings have been contradictory, particularly on the interplay between allergic diseases and understudied social determinants of health like migration status. This review aimed at providing evidence for the association between migration status and asthma and allergies, and to explore the mechanisms between migration status and the development of asthma and allergies. Methods and Findings Systematic review on asthma and allergies and immigration status in accordance with the guidelines set by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of the prevalence of asthma in immigrants compared to the host population was 0.60 (95% CI 0.45–0.84), and the pooled OR for allergies was 1.01 (95% CI 0.62–1.69). The pooled OR for the prevalence of asthma in first generation versus second generation immigrants was 0.37 (95% CI 0.25–0.58). Comparisons between populations in their countries of origin and those that emigrated vary depending on their level of development; more developed countries show higher rates of asthma and allergies. Conclusions Our findings suggest a strong influence of the environment on the development of asthma and allergic diseases throughout the life course. The prevalence of asthma is generally higher in second generation than first generation immigrants. With length of residence in the host country the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases increases steadily. These findings are consistent across study populations, host countries, and children as well as adults. Differences have been found to be significant when tested in a linear model, as well as when comparing between early and later age of migration, and between shorter and longer time of residence. PMID:25141011

  13. Epigenetic changes associated with disease progression in a mouse model of childhood allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Collison, Adam; Siegle, Jessica S; Hansbro, Nicole G; Kwok, Chau-To; Herbert, Cristan; Mattes, Joerg; Hitchins, Megan; Foster, Paul S; Kumar, Rakesh K

    2013-07-01

    Development of asthma in childhood is linked to viral infections of the lower respiratory tract in early life, with subsequent chronic exposure to allergens. Progression to persistent asthma is associated with a Th2-biased immunological response and structural remodelling of the airways. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but could involve epigenetic changes. To investigate this, we employed a recently developed mouse model in which self-limited neonatal infection with a pneumovirus, followed by sensitisation to ovalbumin via the respiratory tract and low-level chronic challenge with aerosolised antigen, leads to development of an asthmatic phenotype. We assessed expression of microRNA by cells in the proximal airways, comparing changes over the period of disease progression, and used target prediction databases to identify genes likely to be up- or downregulated as a consequence of altered regulation of microRNA. In parallel, we assessed DNA methylation in pulmonary CD4(+) T cells. We found that a limited number of microRNAs exhibited marked up- or downregulation following early-life infection and sensitisation, for many of which the levels of expression were further changed following chronic challenge with the sensitizing antigen. Targets of these microRNAs included genes involved in immune or inflammatory responses (e.g. Gata3, Kitl) and in tissue remodelling (e.g. Igf1, Tgfbr1), as well as genes for various transcription factors and signalling proteins. In pulmonary CD4(+) T cells, there was significant demethylation at promoter sites for interleukin-4 and interferon-γ, the latter increasing following chronic challenge. We conclude that, in this model, progression to an asthmatic phenotype is linked to epigenetic regulation of genes associated with inflammation and structural remodelling, and with T-cell commitment to a Th2 immunological response. Epigenetic changes associated with this pattern of gene activation might play a role in the development of

  14. Perinatal paracetamol exposure in mice does not affect the development of allergic airways disease in early life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Debbie C P; Walker, Simone A; Byrne, Adam J; Gregory, Lisa G; Buckley, James; Bush, Andrew; Shaheen, Seif O; Saglani, Sejal; Lloyd, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy, or intake during infancy and risk of wheezing or asthma in childhood is inconclusive based on epidemiological studies. We have investigated whether there is a causal link between maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy and lactation and the development of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in offspring using a neonatal mouse model. Methods Pregnant mice were administered paracetamol or saline by oral gavage from the day of mating throughout pregnancy and/or lactation. Subsequently, their pups were exposed to intranasal HDM or saline from day 3 of life for up to 6 weeks. Assessments of airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodelling were made at weaning (3 weeks) and 6 weeks of age. Results Maternal paracetamol exposure either during pregnancy and/or lactation did not affect development of AAD in offspring at weaning or at 6 weeks. There were no effects of maternal paracetamol at any time point on airway remodelling or IgE levels. Conclusions Maternal paracetamol did not enhance HDM induced AAD in offspring. Our mechanistic data do not support the hypothesis that prenatal paracetamol exposure increases the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:25841236

  15. Regulation of T Cell Receptor Signaling by DENND1B in TH2 Cells and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiao-Wen; Hojer, Caroline D; Zhou, Meijuan; Wu, Xiumin; Wuster, Arthur; Lee, Wyne P; Yaspan, Brian L; Chan, Andrew C

    2016-01-14

    The DENN domain is an evolutionary conserved protein module found in all eukaryotes and serves as an exchange factor for Rab-GTPases to regulate diverse cellular functions. Variants in DENND1B are associated with development of childhood asthma and other immune disorders. To understand how DENND1B may contribute to human disease, Dennd1b(-/-) mice were generated and exhibit hyper-allergic responses following antigen challenge. Dennd1b(-/-) TH2, but not other TH cells, exhibit delayed receptor-induced T cell receptor (TCR) downmodulation, enhanced TCR signaling, and increased production of effector cytokines. As DENND1B interacts with AP-2 and Rab35, TH2 cells deficient in AP-2 or Rab35 also exhibit enhanced TCR-mediated effector functions. Moreover, human TH2 cells carrying asthma-associated DENND1B variants express less DENND1B and phenocopy Dennd1b(-/-) TH2 cells. These results provide a molecular basis for how DENND1B, a previously unrecognized regulator of TCR downmodulation in TH2 cells, contributes to asthma pathogenesis and how DENN-domain-containing proteins may contribute to other human disorders.

  16. Infant gut microbiota and the hygiene hypothesis of allergic disease: impact of household pets and siblings on microbiota composition and diversity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that early-life exposure to pets or siblings affords protection against allergic disease; these associations are commonly attributed to the “hygiene hypothesis”. Recently, low diversity of the infant gut microbiota has also been linked to allergic disease. In this study, we characterize the infant gut microbiota in relation to pets and siblings. Methods The study population comprised a small sub-sample of 24 healthy, full term infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Mothers reported on household pets and siblings. Fecal samples were collected at 4 months of age, and microbiota composition was characterized by high-throughput signature gene sequencing. Results Microbiota richness and diversity tended to be increased in infants living with pets, whereas these measures were decreased in infants with older siblings. Infants living with pets exhibited under-representation of Bifidobacteriaceae and over-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae; infants with older siblings exhibited under-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae. Conclusions This study provides new evidence that exposure to pets and siblings may influence the early development of the gut microbiota, with potential implications for allergic disease. These two traditionally protective “hygiene hypothesis” factors appear to differentially impact gut microbiota composition and diversity, calling into question the clinical significance of these measures. Further research is required to confirm and expand these findings. PMID:23607879

  17. An Overview of Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases Including Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, Lucy D

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of individuals are affected by autoimmune diseases, which are caused by aberrant recognition of self by the immune system. A wide variety of cells and organ systems are targets of pathologic activation of the immune mediators. Effective and safe therapies aimed at managing the chronic inflammatory aspect of many autoimmune diseases remain elusive. This review will focus on the available interventions and discuss the future of the field to prevent organ destruction by the autoimmune process. PMID:26575465

  18. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  19. Periostin in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Kenji; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Inamitsu, Masako; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  20. Animal Models of Allergic Airways Disease: Where Are We and Where to Next?

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David G.; Tully, Jane E.; Nolin, James D.; Jansen-Heininger, Yvonne M; Irvin, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    In a complex inflammatory airways disease such as asthma, abnormalities in a plethora of molecular and cellular pathways ultimately culminate in characteristic impairments in respiratory function. The ability to study disease pathophysiology in the setting of a functioning immune and respiratory system therefore makes mouse models an invaluable tool in translational research. Despite the vast understanding of inflammatory airways diseases gained from mouse models to date, concern over the validity of mouse models continues to grow. Therefore the aim of this review is two-fold; firstly, to evaluate mouse models of asthma in light of current clinical definitions, and secondly, to provide a framework by which mouse models can be continually refined so that they continue to stand at the forefront of translational science. Indeed, it is in viewing mouse models as a continual work in progress that we will be able to target our research to those patient populations in whom current therapies are insufficient. PMID:25043224

  1. Study of Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G.; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Fassolis, Alexandros; Korres, George S.; Kaberos, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is common among children and quite often represents a stage of the atopic march. Although sensitization to food and airborne allergens may appear in infancy and early childhood, symptoms of the disease are usually present after age 3. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent food and indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens involved in allergic rhinitis in children in the region of Piraeus. The study was performed in the outpatient clinic of otolaryngologic allergy of a general hospital. Fifty children (ranged 6–14 ) with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for IgE antibodies or skin prick tests were included in the study. Thirty six (72%) of the subjects of the study had intermittent allergic rhinitis. The most common aeroallergens determined were grass pollens and Parietaria, whereas egg and milk were the food allergens identified. The detection of indoor and outdoor allergens in the region of Piraeus, based on skin prick tests and RAST tests, showed high incidence of grasses and food allergens, which is similar to other Mediterranean countries. PMID:21760801

  2. The C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is crucial for Th2-driven allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Chung, So-Hyang; Chang, Sun Young; Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi, Seong Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis from an allergen-driven Th2 response is characterized by conjunctival eosinophilic infiltration. Although CCL20-CCR6 axis has been reported to play a proinflammatory role in several murine models of autoimmune diseases including allergic diseases, their underlying mechanism needs to be investigated. We here examined whether CCL20-CCR6 axis could play a role in the development of allergic conjunctival inflammation using murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) allergen. Mice were challenged with consecutive 10days of OVA via conjunctival sac after systemic challenge with OVA and cholera toxin in alum. Several indicators for allergy were comparatively evaluated in wild-type and CCR6 KO EAC mice. Wild-type mice challenged with OVA via conjunctival sac following systemic challenge with OVA in alum had severe allergic conjunctivitis. The absence of CCR6 suppressed IgE secretion and allergic conjunctival inflammation. Reduced allergic inflammation was ascribable to reduced cytokine responses from Th-2 type in draining lymph node although Th17, regulatory T cells and dendritic cell subsets are not affected by the absence of CCR6. In addition, neutralization of CCR6 ligand, CCL20 could repress allergic conjunctival inflammation. Our findings suggested that CCR6 might be crucial for optimal development of Th2 immune responses and further allergic conjunctival inflammation in EAC model.

  3. Short-term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: An Assessment of Effect Modification by Prior Allergic Disease History

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Cho, Jaelim; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Shin, Dong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases. Methods Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR) increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season. Results A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3%) in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O3 concentration. IQR changes in NO2 and PM10 concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM10 concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7%) than in patients with no such history. Conclusions Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis. PMID:27744674

  4. Home Dampness Signs in Association with Asthma and Allergic Diseases in 4618 Preschool Children in Urumqi, China-The Influence of Ventilation/Cleaning Habits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijing; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Tingting; Kan, Haidong; Norback, Dan

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases in mainland of China. Few studies investigated the indoor dampness, ventilation and cleaning habits and their interrelationship with childhood asthma and allergic diseases. A large-scale cross-sectional study was performed in preschool children in Urumqi, China. Questionnaire was used to collect information on children's health, home dampness and ventilation/cleaning (V/C) habits. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations between childhood asthma/allergic diseases and each sign of home dampness, dampness levels, each V/C habit and total V/C scores. The associations between dampness and health were further performed by strata analyses in two groups with low and high V/C scores. Totally 4618(81.7%) of 5650 children returned the questionnaire. Reports on home dampness were most common for water condensation on windows (20.8%) followed by damp beddings (18.0%). The most common ventilation measure was the use of exhaust fan in bathroom (59.3%), followed by daily home cleaning (48.3%), frequently putting beddings to sunshine (29.9%) and frequently opening windows in winter (8.4%). There were positive associations between the 6 signs of home dampness and children's health particularly the symptoms last 12 months. By comparing with the reference dampness level (dampness scored 0), both the low dampness (scored 1~2) level and the high dampness level (scored 3~6) showed significantly increasing associations with childhood symptoms. There were crude negative associations between V/C habits and childhood health but not significant adjusting for home dampness levels. The risks of home dampness on children's health were lower in the group with higher V/C score but the differences were not statistically significant. Home dampness is a potential risk factor for childhood asthma and allergic symptoms in preschool children in Urumqi, China. No significant effects were observed

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Like Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress in Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Se Hee; You, Ji Hee; Baek, Hyung Tae; Na, Chul; Kim, Bung Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported comorbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases. The current study investigated ADHD like behavioral symptoms and parenting stress in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Methods Eighty-seven children (6-13 years old) with allergic rhinitis and 73 age- and sex-matched children of control group were recruited. Diagnosis and severity assessments of allergic rhinitis were determined by a pediatric allergist. The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were completed by their mothers. Results In the allergic rhinitis group, the total PSI-SF score (p<0.01), ARS score (p<0.01), the subscale scores of the CBCL including somatization, attentional problems and emotional instability (p=0.01; p<0.01; p<0.01) and prevalence of ADHD (p=0.03) were significantly higher than those of the control group. Among mothers of children with allergic rhinitis, those of children with comorbid ADHD demonstrated significantly higher parenting stress than those without comorbid ADHD (p<0.01). Parenting stress was correlated with severity of child's allergic symptoms and the ARS total score (beta=0.50, p<0.01; beta=0.39, p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between allergic symptom severity and the ARS total score (B=8.4, SD=2.5, t=3.3, p<0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were common in children with allergic rhinitis, and this factor increased parenting stress and disrupted the parent-child relationship. Routine evaluation and early management of ADHD symptoms in pediatric allergic rhinitis may benefit families of children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:25110499

  6. Identification of genes differentially regulated by vitamin D deficiency that alter lung pathophysiology and inflammation in allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Foong, Rachel E; Bosco, Anthony; Troy, Niamh M; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H; Kicic, Anthony; Zosky, Graeme R

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with asthma risk. Vitamin D deficiency may enhance the inflammatory response, and we have previously shown that airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness is increased in vitamin D-deficient mice. In this study, we hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency would exacerbate house dust mite (HDM)-induced inflammation and alterations in lung structure and function. A BALB/c mouse model of vitamin D deficiency was established by dietary manipulation. Responsiveness to methacholine, airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, mucus cell metaplasia, lung and airway inflammation, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were assessed. Gene expression patterns in mouse lung samples were profiled by RNA-Seq. HDM exposure increased inflammation and inflammatory cytokines in BAL, baseline airway resistance, tissue elastance, and ASM mass. Vitamin D deficiency enhanced the HDM-induced influx of lymphocytes into BAL, ameliorated the HDM-induced increase in ASM mass, and protected against the HDM-induced increase in baseline airway resistance. RNA-Seq identified nine genes that were differentially regulated by vitamin D deficiency in the lungs of HDM-treated mice. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that protein expression of midline 1 (MID1) and adrenomedullin was differentially regulated such that they promoted inflammation, while hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated, which is associated with ASM remodeling, was downregulated. Protein expression studies in human bronchial epithelial cells also showed that addition of vitamin D decreased MID1 expression. Differential regulation of these genes by vitamin D deficiency could determine lung inflammation and pathophysiology and suggest that the effect of vitamin D deficiency on HDM-induced allergic airways disease is complex.

  7. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  8. Influence of hypoallergenic milk formula on the incidence of early allergic manifestations in infants predisposed to atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Willems, R; Duchateau, J; Magrez, P; Denis, R; Casimir, G

    1993-08-01

    One hundred twenty-two infants at risk of atopy on the basis of IgE screening at birth and family history of atopy were studied. The occurrence of atopic manifestations was analyzed in relation to their diets during the first 3 months of age. Only the infants receiving hypoallergenic milk were protected effectively; all other regimens (humanized cow milk, hypoallergenic milk or humanized cow milk + supplements) increased the frequency of allergic symptoms (P < .07). After a 1-year follow-up, the infants fed strictly on hypoallergenic milk during their 3 first months presented allergic symptoms less frequently than other infants (P < .007).

  9. The role of sports and exercise in allergic disease: drawbacks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diana; Moreira, André

    2015-01-01

    Although training and exercise have several benefits, overdoing it might not necessarily be a good thing. For instance, elite athletes have an increased risk for asthma and allergy. Several mechanisms can be implicated for this risk, which include the interplay between environmental training factors and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic susceptibility, neurogenic-mediated inflammation, and epithelial sensitivity. However, an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence shows the positive effects of sports as part of a healthy lifestyle. Training reduces breathlessness and asthma symptoms and attenuates Th2-mediated inflammatory responses. Taken together, the benefits far outweigh the potential hazards of training. An easily administered therapeutic healthy lifestyle intervention, which could be used alongside current treatment, must be developed.

  10. The role of sports and exercise in allergic disease: drawbacks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diana; Moreira, André

    2015-01-01

    Although training and exercise have several benefits, overdoing it might not necessarily be a good thing. For instance, elite athletes have an increased risk for asthma and allergy. Several mechanisms can be implicated for this risk, which include the interplay between environmental training factors and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic susceptibility, neurogenic-mediated inflammation, and epithelial sensitivity. However, an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence shows the positive effects of sports as part of a healthy lifestyle. Training reduces breathlessness and asthma symptoms and attenuates Th2-mediated inflammatory responses. Taken together, the benefits far outweigh the potential hazards of training. An easily administered therapeutic healthy lifestyle intervention, which could be used alongside current treatment, must be developed. PMID:26099040

  11. Neurology of allergic inflammation and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J

    2002-05-01

    Afferent nerves, derived from the trigeminal ganglion, and postganglionic autonomic nerves, derived from sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia expressing many different neurotransmitters, innervate the nose. Reflexes that serve to optimize the air-conditioning function of the nose by altering sinus blood flow, or serve to protect the nasal mucosal surface by mucus secretion, vasodilatation, and sneezing, can be initiated by a variety of stimuli, including allergen, cold air, and chemical irritation. Activation of nasal afferent nerves can also have profound effects on respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and airway caliber (the diving response). Dysregulation of the nerves in the nose plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Axon reflexes can precipitate inflammatory responses in the nose, resulting in plasma extravasation and inflammatory cell recruitment, while allergic inflammation can produce neuronal hyper-responsiveness. Targeting the neuronal dysregulation in the nose may be beneficial in treating upper airway disease. PMID:11918862

  12. Management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Solelhac, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke. PMID:25374672

  13. Biology of diesel exhaust effects on allergic pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa

    2011-03-01

    Although the adverse health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been proposed and are being clarified, their facilitating effects on preexisting pathological conditions (pathological conditions) have not been fully identified. On the other hand, there exist hypersensitive subjects against particulate matters. In this review, we provide insights into the immunotoxicity of DEP as an aggravating factor in hypersusceptible subjects, especially those with allergic pulmonary diseases using our in vivo experimental model. In brief, we examined the effects of DEP on allergic asthma in vivo, and showed that repetitive pulmonary exposure to DEP has promoting effects on allergic airway inflammation, including adjuvanticity on Th2-milieu. Further, we propose a causal machinery regarding the adverse impacts, i.e., via inappropriate activation of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells.

  14. PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADOLESCENTS WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS.

    PubMed

    Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Manjavidze, N; Ubiria, I; Saginadze, L

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a widespread allergic disease, with 35-40% prevalence in the world population. It is characterized with increasing frequency, particularly in children's population. Goal of the work - study of psycho-emotional profile in adolescents with allergic rhinitis of different severity. Single-stage research was conducted, in compliance with the ethical norms. Study included 86 children (41% girls and 45% boys) of age from 11 to 13 years with allergic rhinitis of different severity and 30 healthy children. For the purpose of study of the patients' psychological profile Esenek Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) intended for assessment of characterological and individual psychological features in children and adolescents (10-15 years) was used. Psycho-emotional sphere of the adolescents with allergic rhinitis was assessed also by Psychopathologic Symptom Checklist (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised-SCL-90-R). Clinical scale of self-assessment of psychical condition is widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice. At the final stage of research the mathematical-statistical data processing was provided by means of SPSS/v12 software package. According to the research results, susceptibility to significant and mild introversion was identified in severe and average AR cases. Such patients are often locked into their inner world. These children are reserved, communicate with the parents and close friends only. They make decisions with due care, love order, control their emotions, are pessimistic and rarely aggressive. Results of neuroticism study by G. Esenek techniques are provided in Table. Neuroticism is associated with the lability of nervous system, characterizes emotional condition or emotional lability (emotional stability or instability). According to the research results, allergic rhinitis is characterized with emotional instability, anxiety, as manifested by unsatisfactory adaptation, instable nature, depression, low resistance to the stress situations

  15. Infectious, autoimmune, and allergic diseases and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: A Children’s Oncology Group (COG) study

    PubMed Central

    Linabery, Amy M.; Erhardt, Erik B.; Fonstad, Rachel K.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Bunin, Greta R.; Ross, Julie A.; Spector, Logan G.; Grufferman, Seymour

    2014-01-01

    An infectious origin for pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has long been suspected and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in a subset of cases. Increased HL incidence in children with congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, consistent associations between autoimmune diseases and adult HL, and genome-wide association and other genetic studies together suggest immune dysregulation is involved in lymphomagenesis. Here, healthy control children identified by random digit dialing were matched on sex, race/ethnicity, and age to HL cases diagnosed in 1989-2003 at 0-14 years at Children’s Oncology Group institutions. Parents of 517 cases and 784 controls completed telephone interviews, including items regarding medical histories. Tumor EBV status was determined for 355 cases. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of HL. Cases were more likely to have had an infection >1 year prior to HL diagnosis (OR=1.69, 95% CI:0.98-2.91); case siblings were also more likely to have had a prior infection (OR=2.04, 95% CI:1.01-4.14). Parental history of autoimmunity associated with increased EBV+ HL risk (OR=2.97, 95% CI:1.34-6.58), while having a parent (OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.01-2.14) or sibling (OR=1.62, 95% CI:1.11-2.36) with an allergy was associated with EBV− HL. These results may indicate true increased risk for infections and increased risk with family history of autoimmune and allergic conditions that varies by tumor EBV status, or they may be attributable to inaccurate recall. In addition to employing biomarkers to confirm the role of immune-modulating conditions in pediatric HL, future studies should focus on family-based designs. PMID:24523151

  16. Kounis syndrome secondary to allergic reaction following shellfish ingestion.

    PubMed

    Zavras, G M; Papadaki, P J; Kokkinis, C E; Kalokairinov, K; Kouni, S N; Batsolaki, M; Gouvelou-Deligianni, G V; Koutsojannis, C

    2003-09-01

    Two cases of allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction (Kounis syndrome) secondary to shellfish ingestion are described. The patients had pre-existing quiescent coronary artery disease (type II variant of the syndrome) and the allergic reaction following eating shellfish seemed to have triggered the development of an acute myocardial infarction. The clinical implications are also discussed.

  17. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  18. Ultrafine carbon black particles cause early airway inflammation and have adjuvant activity in a mouse allergic airway disease model.

    PubMed

    de Haar, Colin; Hassing, Ine; Bol, Marianne; Bleumink, Rob; Pieters, Raymond

    2005-10-01

    To gain more insight into the mechanisms of particulate matter (PM)-induced adjuvant activity, we studied the kinetics of airway toxicity/inflammation and allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) in response to ultrafine carbon black particles (CBP). Mice were exposed intranasally to OVA alone or in combination with different concentrations of CBP. Airway toxicity and inflammation were assessed at days 4 and 8. Immune adjuvant effects were studied in the lung draining peribronchial lymph nodes (PBLN) at day 8. Antigen-specific IgE was measured at days 21 and 28, whereas allergic airway inflammation was studied after OVA challenges (day 28). Results show that a total dose of 200 microg CBP per mouse, but not 20 microg or 2 microg, induced immediate airway inflammation. This 200 microg CBP was the only dose that had immune adjuvant activity, by inducing enlargement of the PBLN and increasing OVA-specific production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). The immune adjuvant activity of 200 microg CBP dosing was further examined. Whereas increased OVA-specific IgE levels in serum on day 21 confirms systemic sensitization, this was further supported by allergic airway inflammation after challenges with OVA. Our data show a link between early airway toxicity and adjuvant effects of CBP. In addition, results indicate that local cytokine production early after exposure to CBP is predictive of allergic airway inflammation. In addition this model appears suitable for studying the role of airway toxicity, inflammation and other mechanisms of particle adjuvant activity, and predicting the adjuvant potential of different particles.

  19. n -- 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy in women with allergic disease: effects on blood pressure, and maternal and fetal lipids.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne E; Dunstan, Janet A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

    2006-10-01

    n--3 Fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and increase HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); however, the effect of n--3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, a hyperlipidaemic state, remains unknown. We took the opportunity to investigate maternal lipid levels and blood pressure during and after pregnancy, and fetal lipid levels at birth, in a study that aimed primarily to examine the effect of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy on immune function in infants born to women with allergic disease. Eighty-three pregnant women who had allergic disease, but were otherwise healthy, completed the study. They were randomly allocated to receive fish oil or olive oil capsules, taken as 4 g/day, from 20 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. Compared with olive oil, fish oil supplementation did not alter triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) or HDL-C during or after pregnancy. There was also no effect of fish oil on cord blood triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy did not alter maternal blood pressure during or after pregnancy. The effects of fish oil on lipids and blood pressure in non-pregnant individuals appear to be lost when it is administered during pregnancy. PMID:16822237

  20. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  1. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  2. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects.

  3. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects. PMID:23457980

  4. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  5. A module-based analytical strategy to identify novel disease-associated genes shows an inhibitory role for interleukin 7 Receptor in allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mobini, Reza; Andersson, Bengt A; Erjefält, Jonas; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Langston, Michael A; Perkins, Andy D; Cardell, Lars Olaf; Benson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Background The identification of novel genes by high-throughput studies of complex diseases is complicated by the large number of potential genes. However, since disease-associated genes tend to interact, one solution is to arrange them in modules based on co-expression data and known gene interactions. The hypothesis of this study was that such a module could be a) found and validated in allergic disease and b) used to find and validate one ore more novel disease-associated genes. Results To test these hypotheses integrated analysis of a large number of gene expression microarray experiments from different forms of allergy was performed. This led to the identification of an experimentally validated reference gene that was used to construct a module of co-expressed and interacting genes. This module was validated in an independent material, by replicating the expression changes in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells. Moreover, the changes were reversed following treatment with corticosteroids. The module contained several novel disease-associated genes, of which the one with the highest number of interactions with known disease genes, IL7R, was selected for further validation. The expression levels of IL7R in allergen challenged CD4+ cells decreased following challenge but increased after treatment. This suggested an inhibitory role, which was confirmed by functional studies. Conclusion We propose that a module-based analytical strategy is generally applicable to find novel genes in complex diseases. PMID:19216740

  6. Domestic allergens and endotoxin in three hospitals offering in-patient rehabilitation for allergic diseases in the alpine mountain climate of Bavaria - The AURA study.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, B; Gulyas, A F; Schultz, K; Lecheler, J; Flögel, S; Wolfmeyer, C; Thiessen, K; Jakob, T; Schuster, T; Hollweck, R; Ring, J; Behrendt, H

    2009-01-01

    Endotoxins and allergens represent the major relevant contents of the atmospheric bioaerosol with regard to the triggering and exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, mattress concentrations of endotoxin and indoor allergens were measured in three hospitals in the alpine climate of Bavaria and in adjacent homes. Dust was collected from each of 10 mattresses according to a standardized protocol, and endotoxin was analyzed with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, indoor allergens Der p 1, Der f 1 and Fel d 1 were analyzed by ELISAs. The concentration of endotoxin in the mattresses did not differ significantly between different cities. The percentiles of endotoxin were significantly higher in hospitals than in homes. The concentrations of mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) in the dust were significantly lower in all hospitals than in homes. There was no significant difference of mite allergens between different time points. The concentrations of Fel d 1 were significantly higher in the autumn than in the summer (median: 1376 vs. 478ng/g). No significant differences of Fel d 1 were found between hospitals and homes or between different hospitals. As Fel d 1 concentrations reached levels at which cat allergic patients can experience symptoms, efforts had to be made to reduce the concentrations of Fel d 1 especially in hospitals. In contrast, mite allergens were low in hospitals, which can be clinically beneficial for patients with mite allergies. PMID:18155959

  7. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens. PMID:17390749

  8. Nasal IL-12p70 DNA prevents and treats intestinal allergic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hino, Ayako; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kosuke; Kweon, Mi-Na; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    OVA-induced allergic diarrhea occurs as a consequence of over-expression of Th1 inhibitory IL-12p40 monomers and homodimers in the large intestine, establishing a dominant Th2-type environment. In this study, we demonstrate that intranasally administered murine IL-12p70 naked DNA expression plasmids resulted in the synthesis of corresponding cytokine in the large intestinal CD11c(+) dendritic cells, leading to the inhibition of Ag-specific Th2-type response for the prevention of allergic diarrhea and the suppression of clinical symptoms including OVA-specific IgE Ab synthesis. The nasal IL-12p70 DNA treatment proved effective even after the establishment of allergic diarrhea. These results suggest that the mucosal administration of naked IL-12p70 DNA plasmid should be considered as a possible preventive and therapeutic treatment for Th2 cell-mediated food allergic diseases in the intestinal tract.

  9. Mast cells and basophils are essential for allergies: mechanisms of allergic inflammation and a proposed procedure for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Heng; Zhang, Hui-Yun; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Dong; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The current definition of allergy is a group of IgE-mediated diseases. However, a large portion of patients with clinical manifestations of allergies do not exhibit elevated serum levels of IgE (sIgEs). In this article, three key factors, ie soluble allergens, sIgEs and mast cells or basophils, representing the causative factors, messengers and primary effector cells in allergic inflammation, respectively, were discussed. Based on current knowledge on allergic diseases, we propose that allergic diseases are a group of diseases mediated through activated mast cells and/or basophils in sensitive individuals, and allergic diseases include four subgroups: (1) IgE dependent; (2) other immunoglobulin dependent; (3) non-immunoglobulin mediated; (4) mixture of the first three subgroups. According to our proposed definition, pseudo-allergic-reactions, in which mast cell or basophil activation is not mediated via IgE, or to a lesser extent via IgG or IgM, should be non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Specific allergen challenge tests (SACTs) are gold standard tests for diagnosing allergies in vivo, but risky. The identification of surface membrane activation markers of mast cells and basophils (CD203c, CCR3, CD63, etc) has led to development of the basophil activation test (BAT), an in vitro specific allergen challenge test (SACT). Based on currently available laboratory allergy tests, we here propose a laboratory examination procedure for allergy. PMID:23974516

  10. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  11. [An efficacy study of lodoxamide treatment in allergic eye lesions].

    PubMed

    Giuri, S; Munteanu, G H

    2000-01-01

    Lodoxamid is an antiallergic drug, which stabilizes the mast cells' membrane blocking the release of the type I hypersensitivity reaction chemical mediators. A number of 25 patients with ocular allergic diseases (allergic conjunctivitis, vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis), were included in this study. Lodoxamid, solution 0.1% (Alomide), was given 4 times daily for 6 weeks. The study's aim was to assess the lodoxamid's efficiency, on the ocular signs and symptoms. The study's results showed a significant improvement, or the disappearance of the ocular allergic disease. It is debated upon the lodoxamid's way and place of action, in blocking the type I hypersensitivity reaction. The lodoxamid's efficiency is due to its pharmacological features, by means of which it is effective on many links of the pathogenic chain: mast cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils, antigen presenting cells. Due to its action lodoxamid stabilizes the mast cell's membrane, and inhibits the release of histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, triptase, interleukines -4, -8 and TNF-. During therapy with lodoxamid recruitment and activation of eosinophils is decreased, causing a significant reduction of the basic major protein, cationic eosinophilic protein, eosinophilic derived neurotoxin, eosinophilic peroxidase. Lodoxamid reduces the expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of the antigen presenting cells, and decreases the number of the TH2 cells, from the tears of the allergic patients.

  12. Improving the power to detect risk variants for allergic disease by defining case-control status based on both asthma and hay fever.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel A R

    2014-12-01

    Asthma and hay fever are likely to share hundreds if not thousands of genetic risk variants. Despite this, the extent to which the power to identify shared risk variants could be improved by considering information from both diseases when designing or analyzing genetic studies has not been studied in detail. Simulations were performed to quantify the power to detect an association between case-control status and a bi-allelic risk variant shared between asthma and hay fever across a range of disease and genetic models, as well as different ascertainment and analytical strategies. For a fixed sample size, when designing a new genome-wide association study (GWAS), selecting for genotyping cases with both asthma and hay fever (A+H+), and controls with neither disease (A-H-) was the study design that provided the greatest power to identify a shared risk variant. On the other hand, when analyzing an existing GWAS, power was greatest across a wide range of scenarios, when cases were defined as individuals who suffered from either disease (A+ or H+) and controls as those who suffered from neither (A-H-). Bivariate analysis of asthma and hay fever provided comparable but slightly decreased power. In conclusion, new GWAS can be designed and existing GWAS reanalyzed more efficiently to identify risk variants for allergic disease by using ascertainment or analytical strategies that consider both asthma and hay fever information. PMID:25296694

  13. Improving the power to detect risk variants for allergic disease by defining case-control status based on both asthma and hay fever.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel A R

    2014-12-01

    Asthma and hay fever are likely to share hundreds if not thousands of genetic risk variants. Despite this, the extent to which the power to identify shared risk variants could be improved by considering information from both diseases when designing or analyzing genetic studies has not been studied in detail. Simulations were performed to quantify the power to detect an association between case-control status and a bi-allelic risk variant shared between asthma and hay fever across a range of disease and genetic models, as well as different ascertainment and analytical strategies. For a fixed sample size, when designing a new genome-wide association study (GWAS), selecting for genotyping cases with both asthma and hay fever (A+H+), and controls with neither disease (A-H-) was the study design that provided the greatest power to identify a shared risk variant. On the other hand, when analyzing an existing GWAS, power was greatest across a wide range of scenarios, when cases were defined as individuals who suffered from either disease (A+ or H+) and controls as those who suffered from neither (A-H-). Bivariate analysis of asthma and hay fever provided comparable but slightly decreased power. In conclusion, new GWAS can be designed and existing GWAS reanalyzed more efficiently to identify risk variants for allergic disease by using ascertainment or analytical strategies that consider both asthma and hay fever information.

  14. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  15. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  16. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  17. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Gern, James E; Martinez, Fernando D; Anto, Josep M; Johnson, Christine C; Holt, Patrick G; Lemanske, Robert F; Le Souëf, Peter N; Tepper, Robert S; von Mutius, Erika R M; Arshad, S Hasan; Bacharier, Leonard B; Becker, Allan; Belanger, Kathleen; Bergström, Anna; Bernstein, David I; Cabana, Michael D; Carroll, Kecia N; Castro, Mario; Cooper, Philip J; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Henderson, John; Heinrich, Joachim; Hong, Soo-Jong; Jackson, Daniel J; Keil, Thomas; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Miller, Rachel L; Momas, Isabelle; Morgan, Wayne J; Noel, Patricia; Ownby, Dennis R; Pinart, Mariona; Ryan, Patrick H; Schwaninger, Julie M; Sears, Malcolm R; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriette A; Stern, Debra A; Subbarao, Padmaja; Valenta, Rudolf; Wang, Xiaobin; Weiss, Scott T; Wood, Robert; Wright, Anne L; Wright, Rosalind J; Togias, Alkis; Gergen, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. More than 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL; Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, Maryland, on September 11-12, 2012, with 3 objectives: (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies, and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development, and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This article presents the workgroup reports and provides Web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu), where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, the type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts.

  18. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  19. Allergic sensitization: host-immune factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased permeability of the epithelium, which is more susceptible to environmental triggers. Allergens and co-factors from the environment interact with innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like and protease-activated receptors on epithelial cells, stimulating them to produce cytokines that drive T-helper 2-like adaptive immunity in allergy-prone individuals. In this milieu, the next cells interacting with allergens are the dendritic cells lying just underneath the epithelium: plasmacytoid DCs, two types of conventional DCs (CD11b + and CD11b-), and monocyte-derived DCs. It is now becoming clear that CD11b+, cDCs, and moDCs are the inflammatory DCs that instruct naïve T cells to become Th2 cells. The simple paradigm of non-overlapping stable Th1 and Th2 subsets of T-helper cells is now rapidly being replaced by that of a more complex spectrum of different Th cells that together drive or control different aspects of allergic inflammation and display more plasticity in their cytokine profiles. At present, these include Th9, Th17, Th22, and Treg, in addition to Th1 and Th2. The spectrum of co-stimulatory signals coming from DCs determines which subset-characteristics will dominate. When IL-4 and/or IL-13 play a dominant role, B cells switch to IgE-production, a process that is more effective at young age. IgE-producing plasma cells have been shown to be long-lived, hiding in the bone-marrow or inflammatory tissues where they cannot easily be targeted by therapeutic intervention. Allergic sensitization is a complex interplay between the allergen in its environmental context and the tendency of the host’s innate and adaptive immune cells to be skewed towards allergic inflammation

  20. Near-Road Exposure and Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases in Elementary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Hyun; Lee, Chung Soo; Yu, Seung Do; Lee, Jung Sub; Chang, Jun Young; Jeon, Jun Min; Son, Hye Rim; Park, Chan Jung; Shin, Dong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The study aims to classify schools based on traffic pollutants and their complex sources, to assess the environment, to determine the state of allergic diseases among students using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in children (ISAAC) questionnaire, and to assess their connection to air pollutants. Materials and Methods A total of seven schools were divided into three categories according to the characteristics of their surrounding environments: three schools in traffic-related zones, two schools in complex source zones I (urban), and two schools in complex source zones II (industrial complex). ISAAC questionnaires were administered and the 4404 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Results The frequency of asthma treatment during the past 12 months showed a significant increase (p<0.05) with exposure to NO2 [1.67, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.03–2.71] in the complex source zones. The frequency of allergic rhinitis treatment during the past 12 months increased significantly with exposure to Black Carbon (1.60, 95% CIs 1.36–1.90) (p<0.001), SO2 (1.09, 95% CIs 1.01–1.17) (p<0.05), NO2 (1.18, 95% CIs 1.07–1.30) (p<0.01) for all subjects. Conclusion In terms of supporting children's health, care, and prevention related to major spaces for children, such as school zones, spaces used in coming to and leaving school, playgrounds, and classrooms are essential to ensuring not only the safety of children from traffic accidents but also their protection from local traffic pollutants and various hazardous environmental factors. PMID:26996571

  1. Allergic Dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van; Simon, Lauren; Jaqua, Ecler

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current available material pertaining to atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, urticaria, and angioedema. This article focuses on each disease process's clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. Although atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis are similar, their development is different and can affect a patient's quality of life. Urticaria and angioedema are also similar, but the differentiation of the two processes is crucial in that they have significant morbidity and mortality, each with a different prognosis. PMID:27545733

  2. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease.

  3. Alterations of TH1/TH2 reactivity by heavy metals: possible consequences include induction of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Emmrich, Frank; Faber, Sonya; Lehmann, Joerg; Sack, Ulrich

    2007-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution still represents a primary concern regarding human health. Recently, it become evident that the contribution of heavy metals extends far beyond their accepted role in allergic diseases, and that they may play a more extensive role in a variety of other diseases. Several lines of evidence indicate that heavy metals have a key role in the induction or exacerbation of several autoimmune diseases (AD). Moreover, the association between exposure to heavy metals and the signs of autoimmunity are supported by some studies. The mechanisms by which heavy metals induce the development of AD are not yet fully understood. Our objective here is to highlight the association of exposure to some heavy metals and AD. In addition, we present recent results showing the possible alterations in Th1/Th2 reactivity by some heavy metals, which may constitute the trigger for the incidence of autoimmunity in susceptible individuals.

  4. Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?

    PubMed

    Siles-Lucas, M; Morchon, R; Simon, F; Manzano-Roman, R

    2015-04-01

    Chronic diseases associated with inflammation show fast annual increase in their incidence. This has been associated with excessive hygiene habits that limit contacts between the immune system and helminth parasites. Helminthic infections induce regulation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) leading to atypical Th2 type immune responses, with downregulation of the inflammatory component usually associated with these type of responses. Many cells, including those of the immune system, produce extracellular vesicles called exosomes which mediate either immune stimulation (DCs) or immune modulation (T cells). The transfer of miRNAs contained in T-cell exosomes has been shown to contribute to downregulate the production of inflammatory mediators. It has been recently described the delivery to the host-parasite interface of exosomes containing miRNAs by helminths and its internalization by host cells. In this sense, helminth microRNAs transported in exosomes and internalized by immune host cells exert an important role in the expansion of Treg cells, resulting in the control of inflammation. We here provide relevant information obtained in the field of exosomes, cell-cell communication and miRNAs, showing the high potential of helminth miRNAs delivered in exosomes to host cells as new therapeutic tools against diseases associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses. PMID:25712154

  5. Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?

    PubMed

    Siles-Lucas, M; Morchon, R; Simon, F; Manzano-Roman, R

    2015-04-01

    Chronic diseases associated with inflammation show fast annual increase in their incidence. This has been associated with excessive hygiene habits that limit contacts between the immune system and helminth parasites. Helminthic infections induce regulation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) leading to atypical Th2 type immune responses, with downregulation of the inflammatory component usually associated with these type of responses. Many cells, including those of the immune system, produce extracellular vesicles called exosomes which mediate either immune stimulation (DCs) or immune modulation (T cells). The transfer of miRNAs contained in T-cell exosomes has been shown to contribute to downregulate the production of inflammatory mediators. It has been recently described the delivery to the host-parasite interface of exosomes containing miRNAs by helminths and its internalization by host cells. In this sense, helminth microRNAs transported in exosomes and internalized by immune host cells exert an important role in the expansion of Treg cells, resulting in the control of inflammation. We here provide relevant information obtained in the field of exosomes, cell-cell communication and miRNAs, showing the high potential of helminth miRNAs delivered in exosomes to host cells as new therapeutic tools against diseases associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses.

  6. [Helper T cell paradigm: Th17 and regulatory T cells involved in autoimmune inflammatory disorders, pathogen defense and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Noma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The helper T cell paradigm, divided into two distinct subsets, Th1 and Th2 cells, characterized by distinct cytokine and functions, has been expanded to IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Th1 cells producing IFN-γ are involved in delayed-type hypersensitivity, effective in intracellular pathogens defense, while Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-25 and has a central role in IgE production, eosinophilic inflammation, and the protection for helminthic parasite infection. Th17 cell lineages, expressing IL-17 family of cytokines and IL-23-mediated functions on T cells, plays a role in immune response to fungi and extracellular pathogens and autoimmune inflammatory disorders. Th17 cells are required the combination of IL-6 and TGF-β and the transcription factors, RORC2/RORgt (mice) and STAT3 for differentiation, and produce IL-17, IL-22, IL-17F, IL-21 and CCL20. FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells produce TGF-β and IL-10, which regulate effector T cells, and thus maintain peripheral tolerance. Four functionally unique CD4+ T cells, including the regulatory T (Treg) cells are now involved in the regulation of immune responses to pathogens, self-antigens and allergens. Any defect in the entire CD4+T cell population might results in human diseases. In this review, the biology of Th17 cells and Treg cells and their role in immune diseases are presented.

  7. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: epidemiology and common pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Khan, David A

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma are common diseases that frequently occur together. This concept has been referred to in the literature as united airway disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that the majority of patients with asthma have concomitant rhinitis and the presence of rhinitis is an increased risk factor for development of asthma. Patients with asthma and rhinitis share common physiology including heightened bronchial hyperresponsiveness and heightened reactivity to a variety of stimuli. Immunopathology of allergic rhinitis is also similar with the predominance of T-helper type 2 inflammation and tissue eosinophilia. Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the united airway theory, some of the best lines of evidence suggest that local airway inflammation can result in a systemic inflammatory response. Pharmacotherapeutic studies have shown that the treatment of rhinitis can improve asthma and vice versa. Nevertheless, systemic approaches such as immunotherapy lead to better outcomes for treating both disease states simultaneously. This article will focus on the data supporting the common epidemiology, shared pathophysiology, and therapeutic interventions aimed at allergic rhinitis and asthma as united airway diseases.

  8. Does antiperspirant use increase the risk of aluminium-related disease, including Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Exley, C

    1998-03-01

    Aluminium salts are the major constituent of many widely used antiperspirant products. The use of such antiperspirants has been linked with the systemic accumulation of aluminium and an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. But can the frequent use of aluminium-based antiperspirants lead to the accumulation of toxic levels of aluminium? And are there measures that we can take to reduce such accumulation without reducing the effectiveness of antiperspirants? PMID:9575492

  9. Allergic reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... t bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... Common allergens include: Animal dander Bee stings or stings from other insects Foods, especially nuts, fish, and shellfish Insect bites Medicines Plants Pollens

  10. Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation.

    PubMed

    James, John M; Crespo, Jesús Fernández

    2007-06-01

    Although allergic reactions to foods occur most commonly after ingestion, inhalation of foods can also be an underlying cause of these reactions. For example, published reports have highlighted the inhalation of allergens from fish, shellfish, seeds, soybeans, cereal grains, hen's egg, cow's milk, and many other foods in allergic reactions. Symptoms have typically included respiratory manifestations such as rhinoconjunctivitis, coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and asthma. In some cases, anaphylaxis has been observed. In addition, there have been many investigations of occupational asthma following the inhalation of relevant food allergens. This report reviews the current literature focusing on allergic reactions to foods by inhalation.

  11. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-08-28

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 % soyabean oil diet before and during oral sensitisation with whey or whey hyperimmune serum transfer. Another group of mice received partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) while being fed the diets before oral sensitisation. The acute allergic skin response, serum Ig level, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) concentration and/or splenic T-cell percentages were determined upon whey challenge. When the diets were provided before and during oral sensitisation, the acute allergic skin response was increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Whey IgE and IgG1 levels remained unaltered, whereas mMCP-1 levels increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet. Furthermore, allergic symptoms were increased in naive mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet and sensitised with whey hyperimmune serum. In addition to enhancing the mast cell response, the 10 % soyabean oil diet increased the percentage of activated Th1 and Th2 cells as well as increased the ratios of Th2:regulatory T cells and Th2:Th1 when compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Oral tolerance induction by pWH was abrogated in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with those fed the 7 % soyabean oil diet during pretreatment with pWH. In conclusion, increased intake of soyabean oil rich in n-6 PUFA suppresses tolerance induction by pWH and enhances the severity of the allergic effector response in whey-allergic mice. Dietary vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA may enhance the susceptibility to develop or sustain food allergy.

  12. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  13. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  14. Pathogenic memory type Th2 cells in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yusuke; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Ryoji; Tumes, Damon J; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2014-02-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity. Memory CD4 T helper (Th) cells are central to acquired immunity, and vaccines for infectious diseases are developed based on this concept. However, memory Th cells also play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma. We refer to these populations as 'pathogenic memory Th cells.' Here, we review recent developments highlighting the functions and characteristics of several pathogenic memory type Th2 cell subsets in allergic inflammation. Also discussed are the similarities and differences between pathogenic memory Th2 cells and recently identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), focusing on cytokine production and phenotypic profiles.

  15. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value. PMID:26706728

  16. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  17. Inhibition of pan neurotrophin receptor p75 attenuates diesel particulate-induced enhancement of allergic airway responses in C57/B16J mice.

    PubMed

    Farraj, Aimen K; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ledbetter, Allen D; Evansky, Paul A; Gavett, Stephen H

    2006-06-01

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle (DEP) exposure has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many cities with vehicular traffic congestion. We tested the hypothesis that DEP-induced enhancement of the hallmark features of allergic airway disease in a murine model is dependent on the function of the pan neurotrophin receptor p75. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized C57B1/6J mice were intranasally instilled with an antibody against the p75 receptor or saline alone 1 h before OVA challenge. The mice were then exposed nose-only to the PM2.5 fraction of SRM2975 DEP or air alone for 5 h beginning 1 h after OVA challenge. Two days later, air-exposed OVA-allergic mice developed a small but insignificant increase in methacholine-induced airflow obstruction relative to air-exposed, vehicle-sensitized mice. DEP-exposed OVA-allergic mice had a significantly greater degree of airway obstruction than all other groups. Instillation of anti-p75 significantly attenuated the DEP-induced increase in airway obstruction in OVA-allergic mice to levels similar to non-sensitized mice. The DEP-induced exacerbation of allergic airway responses may, in part, be mediated by neurotrophins.

  18. Application of Genetic/Genomic Approaches to Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baye, Tesfaye M.; Martin, Lisa J.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2010-01-01

    Completion of the human genome project and rapid progress in genetics and bioinformatics have enabled the development of large public databases, which include genetic and genomic data linked to clinical health data. With the massive amount of information available, clinicians and researchers have the unique opportunity to complement and integrate their daily practice with the existing resources to clarify the underlying etiology of complex phenotypes such as allergic diseases. The genome itself is now often utilized as a starting point for many studies and multiple innovative approaches have emerged applying genetic/genomic strategies to key questions in the field of allergy and immunology. There have been several successes, which have uncovered new insights into the biologic underpinnings of allergic disorders. Herein, we will provide an in depth review of genomic approaches to identifying genes and biologic networks involved in allergic diseases. We will discuss genetic and phenotypic variation, statistical approaches for gene discovery, public databases, functional genomics, clinical implications, and the challenges that remain. PMID:20638111

  19. Clara cells drive eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Ehmke, M; Marsh, L M; Dietze, J; Dudda, J C; Conrad, M L; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2012-02-01

    Development of allergic asthma is a complex process involving immune, neuronal and tissue cells. In the lung, Clara cells represent a major part of the "immunomodulatory barrier" of the airway epithelium. To understand the contribution of these cells to the inflammatory outcome of asthma, disease development was assessed using an adjuvant-free ovalbumin model. Mice were sensitised with subcutaneous injections of 10 μg endotoxin-free ovalbumin in conjunction with naphthalene-induced Clara cell depletion. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung strongly reduced eosinophil influx, which correlated with decreased eotaxin levels and, moreover, diminished the T-helper cell type 2 inflammatory response, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13. In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness was increased. Further investigation revealed Clara cells as the principal source of eotaxin in the lung. These findings are the first to show that Clara airway epithelial cells substantially contribute to the infiltration of eotaxin-responsive CCR3+ immune cells and augment the allergic immune response in the lung. The present study identifies Clara cells as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory lung diseases such as allergic asthma.

  20. High-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets Are Associated with Allergic Rhinitis But Not Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have suggested that nutritional intake is related to allergic diseases. Although conflicting results exist, fat intake is often associated with allergic diseases. We investigated the relationship between allergic diseases and nutritional intake after adjusting for various demographic and socioeconomic factors in a large, representative sample of Korean children. Methods A total of 3,040 participants, aged 4 to 13 years old, were enrolled in the present study from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010–2012. Nutritional intake data, including total calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, were retrieved from the survey using the complete 24-hour recall method. The associations between each nutritional factor and allergic rhinitis/asthma/atopic dermatitis were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), number of household members, income level, and region of residence were adjusted for as covariates. Results Of the participants, 22.1%, 6.0%, and 15.5% suffered from allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, respectively. Allergic rhinitis was significantly correlated with high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 1.25 (95% CIs = 1.06–1.46, P = 0.007) for fat intake, denoting a 10% increase. Carbohydrate intake (10% increase) was negatively related to allergic rhinitis with an AOR of 0.84 (95% CIs = 0.74–0.95, P = 0.004). No other significant relationships were found between the retrieved nutritional factors and either asthma or atopic dermatitis. Conclusion Allergic rhinitis was related to high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. Although the underlying mechanisms and causal relationships remain elusive, the present study provides reliable evidence regarding the associations between nutritional factors and allergic rhinitis by considering

  1. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  2. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  3. METALS, PARTICLES AND IMPACT UPON PULMONARY ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The increase in allergic asthma over the past few decades has prompted investigations into whether air pollution may affect either the incidence or severity of allergic lung disease. Population studies have demonstrated that as air pollution rises, symptoms, medication use a...

  4. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  5. STAT6 and PARP Family Members in the Development of T Cell-dependent Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this review, we summarize the role of STAT6 in allergic diseases, its interaction with the co-factor PARP14 and the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 and PARP14 regulate gene transcription. PMID:27574499

  6. STAT6 and PARP Family Members in the Development of T Cell-dependent Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Purna; Kaplan, Mark H

    2016-08-01

    Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this review, we summarize the role of STAT6 in allergic diseases, its interaction with the co-factor PARP14 and the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 and PARP14 regulate gene transcription. PMID:27574499

  7. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  8. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  9. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  10. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  11. Allergic rhinitis in children : diagnosis and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Berger, William E

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of allergic rhinitis has been increasing for the last few decades, in keeping with the rising incidence of atopy worldwide. Allergic rhinitis has a prevalence of up to 40% in children, although it frequently goes unrecognized and untreated. This can have enormous negative consequences, particularly in children, since it is associated with numerous complications and comorbidities that have a significant health impact on quality of life. In fact, allergic rhinitis is considered to be a risk factor for asthma. There are numerous signs of allergic rhinitis, particularly in children, that can alert an observant clinician to its presence. Children with severe allergic rhinitis often have facial manifestations of itching and obstructed breathing, including a gaping mouth, chapped lips, evidence of sleep deprivation, a long face, dental malloclusions, and the allergic shiner, allergic salute, or allergic crease. The medical history is extremely important as it can reveal information regarding a family history of atopy and the progression of atopy in the child. It is also important to identify the specific triggers of allergic rhinitis, because one of the keys to successful management is the avoidance of triggers. A tripartite treatment strategy that embraces environmental control, immunotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment is the most comprehensive approach. Immunotherapy has come to be viewed as potentially prophylactic, capable of altering the course of allergic rhinitis. The most recent guidelines for the management of allergic rhinitis issued by the WHO recommend a tiered approach that integrates diagnosis and treatment, in which allergic rhinitis is subclassified both by frequency, as either intermittent or persistent, and by severity, as either mild or moderate to severe. Oral or topical antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis, depending upon its severity, and several agents have been

  12. Association between exposure to antimicrobial household products and allergic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Choi, Won-Jun; Lim, Wan Ryung; Kim, Jeonghoon; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Antimicrobial chemicals are used in a variety of household and personal care products. Exposure to antimicrobial household products has been hypothesized to lead to allergic diseases in children. Methods We investigated antimicrobial household product exposure and allergic symptoms in Korean children. An antimicrobial exposure (AE) score was derived. To examine the symptoms of allergic diseases (current wheeze, current rhinitis, and current eczema) in the past 12 months, we used a questionnaire based on the core module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Complete data for the analysis were available for 25,805 of the 35,590 (72.5%) children. Results The prevalence of current allergic diseases was as follows: wheeze, 5.6%; allergic rhinitis, 32.6%; and eczema, 17.7%. The mean (standard deviation) AE score was 14.3 (9.3) (range: 0-40). Compared with subjects with a low AE score (reference), subjects with a high AE score (fourth quartile) were more likely to have symptoms of wheezing and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for wheezing 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.45, p for trend=0.24; aOR for allergic rhinitis 1.30, 95% CI, 1.20-1.40, p<0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that frequent use of antimicrobial household products was associated with current wheeze and current allergic rhinitis. PMID:25420879

  13. Antagonism of TIM-1 blocks the development of disease in a humanized mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Sanchaita Sriwal; Hsu, Yen-Ming; Conrad, Melanie Lynn; Majeau, Gerard R; Kilic, Ayse; Garber, Ellen; Gao, Yan; Nwankwo, Chioma; Willer, Gundi; Dudda, Jan C; Kim, Hellen; Bailly, Véronique; Pagenstecher, Axel; Rennert, Paul D; Renz, Harald

    2010-08-01

    Studies in mice and humans have revealed that the T cell, immunoglobulin, mucin (TIM) genes are associated with several atopic diseases. TIM-1 is a type I membrane protein that is expressed on T cells upon stimulation and has been shown to modulate their activation. In addition to a recently described interaction with dendritic cells, TIM-1 has also been identified as a phosphatidylserine recognition molecule, and several protein ligands have been proposed. Our understanding of its activity is complicated by the possibility that TIM-1 possesses multiple and diverse binding partners. In order to delineate the function of TIM-1, we generated monoclonal antibodies directed to a cleft formed within the IgV domain of TIM-1. We have shown here that antibodies that bind to this defined cleft antagonize TIM-1 binding to specific ligands and cells. Notably, these antibodies exhibited therapeutic activity in a humanized SCID model of experimental asthma, ameliorating inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Further experiments demonstrated that the effects of the TIM-1-specific antibodies were mediated via suppression of Th2 cell proliferation and cytokine production. These results demonstrate that modulation of the TIM-1 pathway can critically influence activated T cells in a humanized disease model, suggesting that TIM-1 antagonists may provide potent therapeutic benefit in asthma and other immune-mediated disorders.

  14. Combination therapy with relaxin and methylprednisolone augments the effects of either treatment alone in inhibiting subepithelial fibrosis in an experimental model of allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Royce, Simon G; Sedjahtera, Amelia; Samuel, Chrishan S; Tang, Mimi L K

    2013-01-01

    Although CSs (corticosteroids) demonstrate potent effects in the control of airway inflammation in asthma, many patients continue to experience symptoms and AHR (airway hyper-responsiveness) despite optimal treatment with these agents, probably due to progressive airway remodelling. Identifying novel therapies that can target airway remodelling and/or airway reactivity may improve symptom control in these patients. We have demonstrated previously that the anti-fibrotic hormone RLN (relaxin) can reverse airway remodelling (epithelial thickening and subepithelial fibrosis) and AHR in a murine model of AAD (allergic airways disease). In the present study, we compared the effects of RLN with a CS (methylprednisolone) on airway remodelling and AHR when administered independently or in combination in the mouse AAD model. Female mice at 6-8 weeks of age were sensitized and challenged to OVA (ovalbumin) over a 9-week period and treated with methylprednisolone, RLN, a combination of both treatments or vehicle controls. Methylprednisolone was administered intraperitoneally on the same day as nebulization for 6 weeks, whereas recombinant human RLN-2 was administered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pumps from weeks 9-11. RLN or methylprednisolone alone were both able to significantly decrease subepithelial thickness and total lung collagen deposition; whereas RLN but not methylprednisolone significantly decreased epithelial thickness and AHR. Additionally, combination therapy with CS and RLN more effectively reduced subepithelial collagen thickness than either therapy alone. These findings demonstrate that RLN can modulate a broader range of airway remodelling changes and AHR than methylprednisolone and the combination of both treatments offers enhanced control of subepithelial fibrosis. PMID:22817662

  15. Allergic Reactions to Dental Materials-A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Radhika; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Utility of various dental materials ranging from diagnosis to rehabilitation for the management of oral diseases are not devoid of posing a potential risk of inducing allergic reactions to the patient, technician and dentist. This review aims to develop a systematic approach for the selection and monitoring of dental materials available in the market thereby giving an insight to predict their risk of inducing allergic reactions. Materials and Methods Our data included 71 relevant articles which included 60 case reports, 8 prospective studies and 3 retrospective studies. The source of these articles was Pub Med search done with the following terms: allergies to impression materials, sodium hypochlorite, Ledermix paste, zinc oxide eugenol, formaldehyde, Latex gloves, Methyl methacrylate, fissure sealant, composites, mercury, Nickel-chromium, Titanium, polishing paste and local anaesthesia. All the relevant articles and their references were analysed. The clinical manifestations of allergy to different dental materials based on different case reports were reviewed. Results After reviewing the literature, we found that the dental material reported to cause most adverse reactions in patients is amalgam and the incidence of oral lichenoid reactions adjacent to amalgam restorations occur more often than other dental materials. Conclusion The most common allergic reactions in dental staff are allergies to latex, acrylates and formaldehyde. While polymethylmethacrylates and latex trigger delayed hypersensitivity reactions, sodium metabisulphite and nickel cause immediate reactions. Over the last few years, due to the rise in number of patients with allergies from different materials, the practicing dentists should have knowledge about documented allergies to known materials and thus avoid such allergic manifestations in the dental clinic. PMID:26557634

  16. Airway Fibrinogenolysis and the Initiation of Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Mak, Garbo; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Knight, J. Morgan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    The past 15 years of allergic disease research have produced extraordinary improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway allergic diseases such as asthma. Whereas it was previously viewed as largely an immunoglobulin E-mediated process, the gradual recognition that T cells, especially Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells and Th17 cells, play a major role in asthma and related afflictions has inspired clinical trials targeting cytokine-based inflammatory pathways that show great promise. What has yet to be clarified about the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders, however, are the fundamental initiating factors, both exogenous and endogenous, that drive and sustain B- and T-cell responses that underlie the expression of chronic disease. Here we review how proteinases derived from diverse sources drive allergic responses. A central discovery supporting the proteinase hypothesis of allergic disease pathophysiology is the role played by airway fibrinogen, which in part appears to serve as a sensor of unregulated proteinase activity and which, when cleaved, both participates in a novel allergic signaling pathway through Toll-like receptor 4 and forms fibrin clots that contribute to airway obstruction. Unresolved at present is the ultimate source of airway allergenic proteinases. From among many potential candidates, perhaps the most intriguing is the possibility such enzymes derive from airway fungi. Together, these new findings expand both our knowledge of allergic disease pathophysiology and options for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25525732

  17. The impact of Vitamin D deficiency on asthma, allergic rhinitis and wheezing in children: An emerging public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ehlayel, Mohammad S.; Bener, Hale Z.; Hamid, Qutayba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been declared a public health problem for both adults and children worldwide. Asthma and related allergic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity in children. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of Vitamin D deficiency in childhood asthma and other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and wheezing. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Care Centers (PHCs), from March 2012 to October 2013. A total of 2350 Qatari children below the age of 16 were selected from PHCs, and 1833 agreed to participate in this study giving a response rate of (78%). Face-to-face interviews with parents of all the children were based on a questionnaire that included variables such as socio-demographic information, assessment of nondietary covariates, Vitamin D intake, type of feeding, and laboratory investigations. Their health status was assessed by serum Vitamin D (25-hydoxyvitamin D), family history and body mass index. Results: Most of the children who had asthma (38.5%), allergic rhinitis (34.8%) and wheezing (35.7%) were below 5 years. Consanguinity was significantly higher in parents of children with allergic rhinitis (48.6%), followed by those with asthma (46.4%) and wheezing (40.8%) than in healthy children (35.9%) (P < 0.001). The proportion of severe Vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children with wheezing (23.4%), allergic rhinitis (18.5%), and asthma (17%) than in healthy children (10.5%). Exposure to the sun was significantly less in Vitamin D deficient children with asthma (60.3%), allergic rhinitis (62.5%) and wheezing (64.4%) than in controls (47.1%) (P = 0.008). It was found that Vitamin D deficiency was a significant correlate for asthma (odds ratio [OR] =2.31; P < 0.001), allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.59; P < 0.001) and wheezing (relative risk = 1.29; P = 0.05). Conclusion: The study findings revealed a high prevalence of Vitamin D

  18. Non-allergic rhinitis: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rhinitis is characterized by rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, nasal itch and/or postnasal drip. Often the first step in arriving at a diagnosis is to exclude or diagnose sensitivity to inhalant allergens. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) comprises multiple distinct conditions that may even co-exist with allergic rhinitis (AR). They may differ in their presentation and treatment. As well, the pathogenesis of NAR is not clearly elucidated and likely varied. There are many conditions that can have similar presentations to NAR or AR, including nasal polyps, anatomical/mechanical factors, autoimmune diseases, metabolic conditions, genetic conditions and immunodeficiency. Here we present a case of a rare condition initially diagnosed and treated as typical allergic rhinitis vs. vasomotor rhinitis, but found to be something much more serious. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining an appropriate differential diagnosis for a complaint routinely seen as mundane. The case presentation is followed by a review of the potential causes and pathogenesis of NAR. PMID:20181075

  19. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  20. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases: Airway diseases and atopic dermatitis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bieber, Thomas; Casale, Thomas B; Jutel, Marek; Ong, Peck Y; Poulsen, Lars K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Seys, Sven F; Agache, Ioana

    2016-05-01

    In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine. PMID:27155030

  1. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases: Airway diseases and atopic dermatitis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bieber, Thomas; Casale, Thomas B; Jutel, Marek; Ong, Peck Y; Poulsen, Lars K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Seys, Sven F; Agache, Ioana

    2016-05-01

    In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine.

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  3. Differential effects of rapamycin and dexamethasone in mouse models of established allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mushaben, Elizabeth M; Brandt, Eric B; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Le Cras, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in cell growth/differentiation, integrating environmental cues, and regulating immune responses. Our lab previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin prevented house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Here, we utilized two treatment protocols to investigate whether rapamycin, compared to the steroid, dexamethasone, could inhibit allergic responses during the later stages of the disease process, namely allergen re-exposure and/or during progression of chronic allergic disease. In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized to HDM (three i.p. injections) and administered two intranasal HDM exposures. After 6 weeks of rest/recovery, mice were re-exposed to HDM while being treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone. In protocol 2, mice were exposed to HDM for 3 or 6 weeks and treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone during weeks 4-6. Characteristic features of allergic asthma, including IgE, goblet cells, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), inflammatory cells, cytokines/chemokines, and T cell responses were assessed. In protocol 1, both rapamycin and dexamethasone suppressed goblet cells and total CD4(+) T cells including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells in the lung tissue, with no effect on AHR or total inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rapamycin also suppressed IgE, although IL-4 and eotaxin 1 levels were augmented. In protocol 2, both drugs suppressed total CD4(+) T cells, including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells and IgE levels. IL-4, eotaxin, and inflammatory cell numbers were increased after rapamycin and no effect on AHR was observed. Dexamethasone suppressed inflammatory cell numbers, especially eosinophils, but had limited effects on AHR. We conclude that while mTOR signaling is critical during the early phases of allergic asthma, its role is much more limited once disease is established.

  4. Should pulse oximetry be included in GPs’ assessment of patients with obstructive lung disease?

    PubMed Central

    Dalbak, Lene G.; Straand, Jørund; Melbye, Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations between decreased pulse oximetry values (SpO2) and clinical, laboratory, and demographic variables in general practice patients diagnosed with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including those with both COPD and asthma in combination. Design/setting: A cross-sectional study in seven Norwegian general practices of patients aged 40 years or over who were diagnosed by their general practitioner (GP) with asthma and/or COPD. The patients were examined during a stable phase of their disease. Patients diagnosed with COPD (including those with combined COPD/asthma) and those diagnosed with asthma only were analysed separately. Main outcome measures: Decreased SpO2 values (≤ 95% and ≤ 92%). Results: Of 372 patients included (mean age 61.5 years, 62% women), 82 (22.0%) had SpO2 ≤ 95%, of which 11 had SpO2 ≤ 92%. In both asthma and COPD patients, SpO2 ≤ 95% was significantly associated with reduced lung function (spirometry), a diagnosis of coronary heart disease and older age (≥ 65 years). In the COPD group, haemoglobin above normal was associated with SpO2 ≤ 95%. These associations were confirmed by multivariable logistic regression, where FEV1% predicted < 50 was the strongest predictor of SpO2 ≤ 95% (odds ratio 6.8, 95% confidence interval 2.8–16.4). Conclusion. Pulse oximetry represents a useful diagnostic adjunct for assessing the severity of obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreased pulse oximetry values in stable-phase patients with asthma and/or COPD should prompt the GP to consider revising the diagnosis and treatment and to look for co-morbidities.Key PointsDespite its common use in general practice, the diagnostic benefits of pulse oximetry remain to be established.Decreased pulse oximetry values are associated with both reduced lung function (spirometry) and with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease.Decreased pulse oximetry values may reflect suboptimal

  5. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study)

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Carvalho, Lain P; Cruz, Álvaro A; Stein, Renato T; Genser, Bernd; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2006-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. Methods/Design The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4–11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema) and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin), skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers), formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0–3 years old are available from a different project. Discussion It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding – or minimising – increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies. PMID:16796729

  6. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  7. Immunofluorescence Patterns in Selected Dermatoses, Including Blistering Skin Diseases Utilizing Multiple Fluorochromes

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Calle-Isaza, Juliana; Howard, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune vesiculobullous disorders represent a heterogeneous group of dermatoses whose diagnosis is made based on clinical history, histologic features, and immunopathologic features. The most commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of these diseases are direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF and IIF), including salt-split processing. NaCl split skin is used to determine the level of blister formation, and the localization of autoantibodies relative to the split. Classically, immunofluorescence has been performed with one fluorochrome in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Aims: To compare DIF and IIF of the skin, using a single fluorochrome versus multiple fluorochromes. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 autoimmune skin disease cases using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) alone, in comparison to multiple fluorochromes (with or without DNA counterstaining). Results: The use of multiple fluorochromes helped to simultaneously visualize reactivity in multiple skin areas, in contrast to using FITC alone. Conclusions: Using multiple fluorochromes allows simultaneous labeling of two or more antigens within the same cell/or tissue section, assists in colocalization of unknown antigens with known molecules, and helps in ruling out “background” staining. PMID:26605203

  8. Comprehensive functional characterization of murine infantile Batten disease including Parkinson-like behavior and dopaminergic markers.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, Joshua T; Harmon, Steven K; Fowler, Stephen C; O'Malley, Karen L; Taylor, George T; Sands, Mark S; Wozniak, David F

    2015-01-01

    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). The PPT1-deficient mouse (Cln1(-/-)) is a useful phenocopy of human INCL. Cln1(-/-) mice display retinal dysfunction, seizures, motor deficits, and die at ~8 months of age. However, little is known about the cognitive and behavioral functions of Cln1(-/-) mice during disease progression. In the present study, younger (~1-2 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice showed minor deficits in motor/sensorimotor functions while older (~5-6 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe impairments, including decreased locomotor activity, inferior cued water maze performance, decreased running wheel ability, and altered auditory cue conditioning. Unexpectedly, certain cognitive functions such as some learning and memory capabilities seemed intact in older Cln1(-/-) mice. Younger and older Cln1(-/-) mice presented with walking initiation defects, gait abnormalities, and slowed movements, which are analogous to some symptoms reported in INCL and parkinsonism. However, there was no evidence of alterations in dopaminergic markers in Cln1(-/-) mice. Results from this study demonstrate quantifiable changes in behavioral functions during progression of murine INCL and suggest that Parkinson-like motor/sensorimotor deficits in Cln1(-/-) mice are not mediated by dopamine deficiency. PMID:26238334

  9. Therapies for allergic inflammation: refining strategies to induce tolerance.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Cezmi A

    2012-05-04

    Current therapies for asthma and allergy are relatively safe and effective at controlling symptoms but do not change the chronic course of disease. There is no established method to prevent asthma and allergy, and major unmet needs in this area include the better control of the severe forms of these diseases and the developments of curative therapies. Two major therapeutic strategies for asthma and allergy are currently being developed, and I here discuss the advances and challenges for future therapeutic development in these two areas. The first approach, allergen-specific immunotherapy, aims to induce specific immune tolerance and has a long-term disease-modifying effect. The second approach is the use of biological immune response modifiers to decrease pathological immune responses. Combination strategies using both of these approaches may also provide a route for addressing the unmet clinical needs in allergic diseases.

  10. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: Involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, IL (interleukin)-1{beta}, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-{kappa}B and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. - Research Highlights: > Discovery of drugs for the allergic inflammation is important in human health. > Chrysin is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. > Chrysin

  11. TLR2, TLR4 AND MyD88 Mediate Allergic Airway Disease (AAD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae-Induced Suppression of AAD

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Alison N.; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Donovan, Chantal; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Jarnicki, Andrew G.; Foster, Paul S.; Gibson, Peter G.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to non-pathogenic Streptococcus pneumoniae and vaccination are inversely associated with asthma. Studies in animal models demonstrate that airway administration of S. pneumoniae (live or killed), or its vaccines or components, suppresses the characteristic features of asthma in mouse models of allergic airway disease (AAD). These components could be developed into immunoregulatory therapies. S. pneumoniae components are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and TLR4, and both induce inflammatory cell responses through the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). The involvement of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of AAD and asthma is incompletely understood, and has not been studied in S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD. We investigated the role of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in the development of AAD and S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD. Methods and Findings OVA-induced AAD and killed S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD were assessed in wild-type, TLR2-/-, TLR4-/-, TLR2/4-/- and MyD88-/- BALB/c mice. During OVA-induced AAD, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 were variously involved in promoting eosinophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood, and T-helper type (Th)2 cytokine release from mediastinal lymph node T cells and splenocytes. However, all were required for the induction of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 were variously involved in the suppression of eosinophilic and splenocyte Th2 responses but all were required for the reduction in AHR. Conclusions These results highlight important but complex roles for TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in promoting the development of OVA-induced AAD, but conversely in the S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD, with consistent and major contributions in both the induction and suppression of AHR. Thus, TLR signaling is likely required for both the development of asthma and the

  12. [Allergic morbidity in children of female workers at a Tyre factory].

    PubMed

    Dautov, F F; Taipova, G F; Khakimova, R F

    2008-01-01

    Working conditions and morbidity in tyre female workers and allergic morbidity in their children were studied. The incidence of allergic diseases in the children of tyre female workers constantly subject to poor working conditions was ascertained to be higher than in those of workers unengaged in noxious industry. The higher incidence of allergic diseases in the study group children may be regarded as a result of the mediated effect of deleterious maternal industrial factors on a baby's health, mainly by developing atopic diseases. This is due to the early manifestation and more severe course of allergic diseases. PMID:18590151

  13. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  14. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  15. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma update (ARIA 2008)--western and Asian-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, Ruby; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Chen, Yuzhi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kim, You-Young; Le, Lan Thi Tuyet; Huong, Le Thi Thu; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Ohta, Ken; Vichyanond, Pakit; Wang, De-Yun; Zhong, Nanshan; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma is markedly increasing worldwide as societies adopt western life styles. Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma and AR, and asthma often co-exists with AR. An estimated 300 million people worldwide have asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries and about 400 million people suffer from AR. Yet, AR is often under-diagnosed and under-treated due to a lack of appreciation of the disease burden and its impact on quality of life, as well as its social impact at school and at the workplace. However, AR with or without asthma is a huge economic burden. Thus, there was clearly a need for a global evidence-based document which would highlight the interactions between the upper and lower airways including diagnosis, epidemiology, common risk factors, management and prevention. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document was first published in 2001 as a state-of-the-art guideline for the specialist, the general practitioner and other health care professionals. Subsequent new evidence regarding the pathomechanisms, new drugs and increased knowledge have resulted in the publication of the ARIA 2008 update. The present review summarizes the ARIA update with particular emphasis on the current status of AR and asthma in the Asia-Pacific region and discusses the Western and Asian perspective.

  16. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  17. A role for the intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride/fluticasone propionate in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Melli, Valerie; Bonzano, Laura; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2015-01-01

    Rhinitis is a very common disease and represents a health problem for both children and adults globally. Rhinitis can be allergic or occur without any IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens. Common symptoms include nasal congestion, postnasal drainage, nasal itching, rhinorrhea and sneezing. The most effective drugs for the treatment of rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. MP29-02 (Dymista(®)) is a novel intranasal formulation combining the second-generation antihistamine, azelastine hydrochloride, with fluticasone propionate in a single device that has recently been developed. Here, we review the efficacy and safety profile of this intranasal formulation in the treatment of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. PMID:25913181

  18. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization. PMID:9789357

  19. Structured Regions of Alpha-synuclein Fibrils Include the Early Onset Parkinson's Disease Mutation Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Comellas Canal, Gemma; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Kloepper, Kathryn D.; Ladror, Daniel T.; Ebisu, Reika; Woods, Wendy S.; Lipton, Andrew S.; George, Julia M.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2011-08-26

    Alpha-Synuclein (AS) fibrils constitute the major proteinaceous component of Lewy bodies (LBs), the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Three single point mutations in the AS gene, as well as multiplication of the wild-type (WT) AS allele, have been previously identified in families with early-onset PD. Although AS fibrils have been the subject of intense study, critical details about their structure including the precise location of the B-strands and the extent of the core, the three-dimensional structure and the effects of the mutations—remain unknown. Here, we have used magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy to present a detailed characterization of the full-length WT AS fibrils. With improved sample preparations, isotopic labeling patterns and NMR experiments, we have confidently assigned more than 90% of the 13C and 15N backbone and sidechain chemical shifts of the detected residues from residue 39 to 97, and quantified the conformational dynamics throughout this region. Our results demonstrate that the core of AS fibrils extends with a repeated motif and that residues 30, 46 and 53-the early-onset PD mutant sites-are located in structured regions of AS fibrils.

  20. Broader prevalence of Wolbachia in insects including potential human disease vectors.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, C D; Gonçalves, D S; Baton, L A; Shimabukuro, P H F; Carvalho, F D; Moreira, L A

    2015-06-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular, maternally transmitted bacteria considered the most abundant endosymbionts found in arthropods. They reproductively manipulate their host in order to increase their chances of being transmitted to the offspring, and currently are being used as a tool to control vector-borne diseases. Studies on distribution of Wolbachia among its arthropod hosts are important both for better understanding why this bacterium is so common, as well as for its potential use as a biological control agent. Here, we studied the incidence of Wolbachia in a broad range of insect species, collected from different regions of Brazil, using three genetic markers (16S rRNA, wsp and ftsZ), which varied in terms of their sensitivity to detect this bacterium. The overall incidence of Wolbachia among species belonging to 58 families and 14 orders was 61.9%. The most common positive insect orders were Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, with Diptera and Hemiptera having the highest numbers of Wolbachia-positive families. They included potential human disease vectors whose infection status has never been reported before. Our study further shows the importance of using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for high-throughput and sensitive Wolbachia screening.

  1. Treating allergic rhinitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Piette, Vincent; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Demoly, Pascal

    2006-05-01

    Numerous pregnant women suffer from allergic rhinitis, and particular attention is required when prescribing drugs to these patients. In addition, physiologic changes associated with pregnancy could affect the upper airways. Evidence-based guidelines on the management of allergic rhinitis have been published. Medication can be prescribed during pregnancy when the apparent benefit of the drug is greater than the apparent risk. Usually, there is at least one "safe" drug from each major class used to control symptoms. All glucocorticosteroids are teratogenic in animals but, when the indication is clear (for diseases possibly associated, such as severe asthma exacerbation), the benefit of the drug is far greater than the risk. Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (eg, beclomethasone or budesonide) have not been incriminated as teratogens in humans and are used by pregnant women who have asthma. A few H1-antihistamines can safely be used as well. Most oral decongestants (except pseudoephedrine) are teratogenic in animals. There are no such data available for intranasal decongestants. Finally, pregnancy is not considered to be a contraindication for the continuation of immunotherapy.

  2. [Mitochondrial diseases in children including Leigh syndrome--biochemical and molecular background].

    PubMed

    Pronicka, Ewa; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Pronicki, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases in children are more frequently caused by mutations in nuclear DNA then in mtDNA. Special clinical phenotypes are associated with the mutations in SURF1 gene, in SCO2 gene and with mtDNA depletion syndromes. Leigh syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of various mitochondrial disorders during childhood. Elevation of lactate in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine is a simple biochemical marker of mitochondrial disorders but its specificity and sensitivity are low. Biochemical investigation of muscle biopsy and search for mitochondrial mutations remain a gold standard in the diagnosis. The standarized diagnostic criteria to establish level of diagnostic certainty (possible, probable, definite) are proposed to be used in practice; these include clinical features, neuroimaging and muscle biopsy investigations. Further research directions to improve our understanding of mitochondrial pathologies in children are suggested.

  3. Gene-environment interactions in rare diseases that include common birth defects.

    PubMed

    Graham, John M; Shaw, Gary M

    2005-11-01

    Rare syndromes often feature specific types of birth defects that frequently are major diagnostic clues to the presence of a given disorder. Despite this specificity, not everyone with the same syndrome is equally or comparably affected, and not everyone with a specific birth defect manifests the same syndrome or is affected with all the features of a particular syndrome. A symposium sponsored by the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases, and the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction attempted to explore how much of this variability is due to genetic factors and how much is due to environmental factors. The specific types of birth defects examined included cardiovascular defects, holoprosencephaly, clefts of the lip and/or palate, neural tube defects, and diaphragmatic hernias.

  4. Enhanced allergic responsiveness after early childhood infection with respiratory viruses: Are long-lived alternatively activated macrophages the missing link?

    PubMed

    Keegan, Achsah D; Shirey, Kari Ann; Bagdure, Dayanand; Blanco, Jorge; Viscardi, Rose M; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2016-07-01

    Early childhood infection with respiratory viruses, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, is associated with an increased risk of allergic asthma and severe exacerbation of ongoing disease. Despite the long recognition of this relationship, the mechanism linking viral infection and later susceptibility to allergic lung inflammation is still poorly understood. We discuss the literature and provide new evidence demonstrating that these viruses induce the alternative activation of macrophages. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) induced by RSV or influenza infection persisted in the lungs of mice up to 90 days after initial viral infection. Several studies suggest that AAM contribute to allergic inflammatory responses, although their mechanism of action is unclear. In this commentary, we propose that virus-induced AAM provide a link between viral infection and enhanced responses to inhaled allergens. PMID:27178560

  5. Treatment of Exudative and Vasogenic Chorioretinal Diseases Including Variants of AMD and Other CNV Related Maculopathy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-24

    Coats' Disease; Idiopathic Retinal Telangiectasia; Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation; Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy; Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum; Pathological Myopia; Multi-focal Choroiditis; Rubeosis Iridis; Von Hippel Lindau Disease; BEST VITELLIFORM MACULAR DYSTROPHY, MULTIFOCAL (Disorder)

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  7. Chemokines and disease.

    PubMed

    Gerard, C; Rollins, B J

    2001-02-01

    We examine here several diseases that are associated with inappropriate activation of the chemokine network. Detailed comment has been restricted to pathological states for which there are compelling data either from clinical observations or animal models. These include cardiovascular disease, allergic inflammatory disease, transplantation, neuroinflammation, cancer and HIV-associated disease. Discussion focuses on therapeutic directions in which the rapidly evolving chemokine field appears to be headed. PMID:11175802

  8. Anti-Allergic Effect of Oroxylin A from Oroxylum indicum Using in vivo and in vitro Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ae-Yeon; Kang, Saeromi; Park, Soo-Jin; Huang, Jin; Im, Dong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Oroxylum indicum has long been used in Asian traditional medicine to prevent and treat respiratory diseases, diabetes, diarrhea and other conditions. Oroxylin A is a flavone that is present in Oroxylum indicum and in Scutellaria baicalensis. Because the root extracts of both plants have been shown to have anti-allergic effects, the authors investigated whether oroxylin A is likely to have beneficial effects on allergic asthma using female Balb/c mice and rat RBL-2H3 mast cells. Antigen-induced degranulation was measured in vitro by measuring β-hexosaminidase activity. A murine ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma model was used to test the in vivo efficacy of oroxylin A. Sensitization and challenge of ovalbumin induced allergic asthma responses, the accumulations of eosinophils and Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues. Oroxylin A administration decreased numbers of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, and reduced the expression and secretion of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13, in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histologic studies showed oroxylin A reduced inflammatory signs and mucin production in lungs. These findings provide evidence that oroxylin A has potential use as an anti-allergic therapeutic. PMID:27133260

  9. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  10. Treatment of allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Demoly, Pascal; Piette, Vincent; Daures, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a frequent problem during pregnancy. In addition, physiological changes associated with pregnancy can affect the upper airways. Evidence-based guidelines on the management of allergic rhinitis have recently been published, the most recent being the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)--World Health Organization consensus. Many pregnant women experience allergic rhinitis and particular attention is required when prescribing drugs to these patients. Medication can be prescribed during pregnancy when the apparent benefit of the drug is greater than the apparent risk. Usually, there is at least one drug from each major class that can be safely utilised to control symptoms. All glucocorticosteroids are teratogenic in animals but, when the indication is clear (for diseases possibly associated, such as severe asthma exacerbation), the benefit of the drug is far greater than the risk. Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (e.g. beclomethasone or budesonide) have not been incriminated as teratogens in humans and are used by pregnant women who have asthma. A few histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists (H(1)-antihistamines) can safely be used as well. Most oral decongestants (except pseudoephedrine) are teratogenic in animals. There are no such data available for intra-nasal decongestants. Finally, pregnancy is not considered as a contraindication for the continuation of allergen specific immunotherapy.

  11. Cost of tobacco‐related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-01-01

    Background Costs of tobacco‐related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. Aim To estimate the health‐related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Methods Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking‐attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of US$1.3 million for a life lost. Results In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was US$532 million for active smoking and US$156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to US$9.4 billion. Conclusion The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke‐free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere. PMID:16565461

  12. Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo; Silva, Hilton Justino da; Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Moraes, Klyvia Juliana Rocha de; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Medeiros, Décio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012) defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment) in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time), with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate), would be necessary to examine such changes. PMID:25992077

  13. [Allergic risk in anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mertes, Paul Michel; De Blay, Frédéric; Dong, Siwei

    2013-03-01

    Anaphylactic reactions may be either of immune(allergy, usually IgE-mediated, sometimes IgG-mediated) or non-immune origin. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia varies between countries ranging from 1/1250 to 1/13,000 per procedure. In France, the estimated incidence of allergic reactions is 100.6 [76.2-125.3]/million procedures with a high female predominance (male: 55.4 [42.0-69.0], female: 154.9 [117.2-193.1]). This predominance is not observed in children. In adults, the most frequently incriminated substances are neuromuscular blocking agents, followed by latex and antibiotics. The estimated incidence of allergic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents is 184.0 [139.3-229.7]/million procedure. In most cases there is a close reaction between clinical symptoms and drug administration. When the reaction is delayed, occurring during the surgical procedure, a reaction involving latex, a vital dye, an antiseptic or a volume expanding fluid should be suspected. Reaction severity may vary. The most frequently reported initial symptoms are pulselessness, erythema, increased airway pressure, desaturation or decreased end-tidal CO2. Clinical symptoms may occur as an isolated condition, making proper diagnosis difficult. In some cases a cardiovascular arrest can be observed. Reaction mechanism identification relies on mediators (tryptase, histamine) measurement at the time of the reaction. In case of allergic reaction, the responsible drug can be identified by the detection of specific IgE using immunoassays or by skin tests performed 6 weeks after the reaction. Predictive allergy investigation to latex or anaesthetics in the absence of history of reaction should be restricted to at-risk patients. Premedication cannot prevent the onset of an allergic reaction. Providing a latex-free environment can be used for primary or secondary prevention. Treatment is based on allergen administration interruption, epinephrine administration in a titrated

  14. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer. PMID:10932345

  15. [Clinical diagnosis and treatment of allergic pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Yan, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Mingxia

    2015-08-01

    Although the concept of united airway disease has been widely accepted, most scholars emphasize only the effect of rhino-sinusitis while ignoring the pharyngeal factors to the lower airway, especially to the allergic pharyngitis (AP), which still lacks enough awareness. First of all, absence of unified diagnostic standard leads to the lack of epidemiological data, which, results in doctors' personal experience but no guideline in treatments. In addition, it is still not clear that the role of AP in the allergic airway diseases and its relationship with asthma. However, the number of patients with AP has been increasing obviously in daily clinic practice. Combined with the previous observation, this paper does a systematic review about the clinical problems of AP, expecting to give a hand to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of AP. PMID:26685417

  16. [Genetic aspects of atopic diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Balabolkin, I I; Tiumentseva, E S

    2010-01-01

    Atopic diseases is a group of pathologic conditions with polygenic inheritance the development of which is governed by familial predetermination to allergy. This review summarizes results of research on pathogenetic mechanisms of atopic diseases and their clinical features. Analysis includes the structure of hereditary predetermination to allergic reactions and diseases, risk of their development in subsequent generations, the role of age, sex, and ethnic background in pathogenesis of atopic diseases and formation of allergic constitution governed by genotype and environment. Polymorphisms of candidate genes responsible for atopic diseases are considered along with their response to basal pharmacotherapy. PMID:20540349

  17. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  18. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  19. Risk factors of allergic rhinitis: genetic or environmental?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Yun

    2005-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis represent a global health problem, affecting 10%–25% of the world population. There is clear evidence to support the concept that allergic diseases are influenced by genetic predisposition and environmental exposure. Polymorphisms of candidate genes have been associated with clinical expression of these diseases. However, characterization of these susceptibility markers in discriminating an “allergic individual” from the general population has not yet been achieved, and the value of how this genetic insight leading to recognition of specific subtypes of these disorders still needs to be confirmed. Environmental factors (eg, air pollution and bacterial/viral infection) also play an important role in the development of the diseases. A number of epidemiologic studies have supported the “hygiene hypothesis”, which is based on the observations that Th1 responses induced by microbial stimulation can counterbalance allergen-induced Th2 responses. Future studies are needed to identify the key genes or their haplotypes for atopic phenotypes and to investigate the interactions between genetic and environmental factors that influence the complex trait of allergic diseases. This will help us to further understand the etiology of the diseases and develop new avenues for genetically oriented diagnosis and more effective measures of prevention and intervention. PMID:18360551

  20. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  1. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  2. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  3. Linkage analyses of chromosome 6 loci, including HLA, in familial aggregations of Crohn disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hugot, J.P.; Laurent-Puig, P.; Gower-Rousseau, C.; Caillat-Zueman, S.; Beaugerie, L.; Dupas, J.L.; Van Gossum, A.; Bonaiti-Pellie, C.; Cortot, A.

    1994-08-15

    Segregation analyses of familial aggregations of Crohn disease have provided consistent results pointing to the involvement of a predisposing gene with a recessive mode of inheritance. Although extensively investigated, the role played by human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes in this inflammatory bowel disease remains elusive and the major histocompatibility complex is a candidate region for the mapping of the Crohn disease susceptibility gene. A total of 25 families with multiple cases of Crohn disease was genotyped for HLA DRB1 and for 16 highly polymorphic loci evenly distributed on chromosome 6. The data were subjected to linkage analysis using the lod score method. Neither individual nor combined lod scores for any family and for any locus tested reached values suggesting linkage or genetic heterogeneity. The Crohn disease predisposing locus was excluded from the whole chromosome 6 with lod scores less than -2. It was excluded from the major histocompatibility complex and from 91% of the chromosome 6 genetic map with lod scores less than -4. The major recessive gene involved in genetic predisposition to Crohn disease does not reside on the major histocompatibility complex nor on any locus mapping to chromosome 6. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Associations between Maternal Antioxidant Intakes in Pregnancy and Infant Allergic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    West, Christina E.; Dunstan, Janet; McCarthy, Suzi; Metcalfe, Jessica; D’Vaz, Nina; Meldrum, Suzanne; Oddy, Wendy H.; Tulic, Meri K.; Prescott, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant intakes in pregnancy may influence fetal immune programming and the risk of allergic disease. We investigated associations between maternal intakes of β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, copper and zinc, and infant allergic outcomes. Antioxidant intakes of pregnant women (n = 420) assessed prospectively by a food frequency questionnaire, were examined in relation to allergic outcomes at 1 year of age (n = 300). The main relationships with allergic outcomes were seen with dietary vitamin C and copper. Specifically, higher maternal dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a reduced risk of any diagnosed infant allergic disease and wheeze. After adjustment for potential confounders the relationship with wheeze remained statistically significant. There was also an inverse linear relationship between vitamin C and food allergy. Higher dietary copper intake was associated with reduced risk of eczema, wheeze and any allergic disease. The relationship with wheeze and any allergic disease remained statistically significant in multivariate analysis, and there was also an inverse linear relationship between copper and food allergy. However, these relationships were only seen for nutrients present in food. There were no relationships between β-carotene, vitamin E or zinc and any allergic outcomes. In summary, this study suggests that maternal diet of fresh foods rich in vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of infant wheeze, and that copper intake is associated with reduced risk of several allergic outcomes. PMID:23201845

  5. [Occupational diseases caused by chromium and its compounds].

    PubMed

    Hassmanová, V; Vanĕcková, J; Bousová, K

    2000-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates by documentary evidence occupational diseases caused by chromium and its compounds. Perforations of the nasal septum were diagnosed in 20 males and 9 females, the last one in 1980. Most of them worked in chromium-plating shops. Other diseases, including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and contact allergic eczemas, were examined in 1985-1999. Bronchial asthma was reported in a textile dyer who was in contact with chromium dyes for 32 years and two allergic rhinitides (a welder and an electroplater) were reported in 1987 as "other damage to health resulting from work." Out of 103 contact allergic eczemas, only 24 diseases, i.e. less than one quarter, were healed in 1999. Improvements were observed in 59 of them and 20 diseases persist. There was an exceptional finding of a chromium ulcer (pigeonneaux) on the lower extremity of a builder.

  6. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials. PMID:22686617

  7. The effects of pollutants on the allergic immune response.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, D M

    2000-11-01

    An increase in the prevalence of allergy and allergic diseases has taken place in the industrialised countries. Allergic diseases represent a major health problem, and appear linked to affluence and modern lifestyle. In the 20th century air pollution from industrial sources largely has been replaced by diesel exhaust and other traffic pollution. Further, the indoor environment in which we spend most of our time has changed dramatically. In order to understand the contribution of pollution and other environmental changes to the development of allergy, we need to understand the biologic processes that underlie allergic immune responses. In the present paper, immune regulatory pathways that control the allergic immune response are delineated. Castor bean dust causes widespread allergic sensitisation. The investigations that made clear the importance of CD8 T cells for the regulation of IgE production were triggered by studies of castor bean allergy. A special focus is in this review placed on the regulatory role of CD8 T cells in the development of the allergic immune response.

  8. The history and progression of treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to place new treatments in the context of allergic rhinitis (AR) treatment history. The medical literature was searched for significant advances and changes in AR treatment. Historical data on AR treatment options and management were selected. Reviews of AR management published throughout the 20th century were included to provide context for treatment advances. Modern AR treatment began in the early 20th century with immunotherapy and was soon followed by the emergence of antihistamine therapy in the 1930s. Numerous treatments for AR have been used over the ensuing decades, including decongestants, mast cell stabilizers, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Topical corticosteroid options were developed the 1950s, and, added to baseline antihistamine therapy, became the foundation of AR treatment. Treatment options were significantly impacted after the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of chlorofluorocarbon propellant aerosols because of environmental concerns. From the mid-1990s until recently, this left only aqueous solution options for intranasal corticosteroids (INSs). The approval of the first hydrofluoroalkane propellant aerosol INSs for AR in 2012 restored a "dry" aerosol treatment option. The first combination intranasal antihistamine/INSs was also approved in 2012, providing a novel treatment option for AR. Treatment of AR has progressed with new therapeutic options now available. This should continue to move forward with agents to alter the allergic mechanism itself and impact the disease burden that has a significant impact on patient outcomes. PMID:25582156

  9. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  10. ImmunoCAP® ISAC and Microtest for multiplex allergen testing in people with difficult to manage allergic disease: a systematic review and cost analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Marie; Ramaekers, Bram; Lang, Shona; Armstrong, Nigel; Noake, Caro; de Kock, Shelley; Joore, Manuela; Severens, Johan; Kleijnen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Allergy is a form of immune-mediated exaggerated sensitivity (hypersensitivity) to a substance that is either inhaled, swallowed, injected or comes into contact with the skin. Foreign substances that provoke allergies are called allergens. It has been claimed that multiplex allergen testing may help in diagnosing the cause of symptoms in patients with an unclear cause of allergy or who are allergic to more than one substance. OBJECTIVES To evaluate multiplex allergen testing [devices that can measure the presence of multiple immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in a patient's blood at the same time], by assessing (1) clinical effectiveness (allergy symptoms, incidence of acute exacerbations, mortality, adverse events of testing and treatment, health-care presentations or admissions, health-related quality of life); (2) effects on treatment (diet, immunotherapy medications, other potential testing); (3) any additional diagnostic information provided by multiplex allergen testing; and (4) cost-effectiveness (cost of different assessment strategies). METHODS Fifteen databases were searched from 2005 to April 2015, including MEDLINE (via OvidSp), MEDLINE In-Process Citations, MEDLINE Daily Update, PubMed (National Library of Medicine), EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database, Science Citation Index (SCI), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S), BIOSIS Previews, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) HTA programme, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); supplementary searches of conference proceedings and trials registries were performed. Review methods followed published guidance from the Cochrane Collaboration and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, UK. The methodological

  11. Nasal disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. PMID:22032779

  12. Commentary: Methods Women Can Use That May Prevent Sexually Transmitted Disease, Including HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Michael J.; Gollub, Erica L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten observational studies indicate that condoms help prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but research on barriers and spermicides is lacking. Given the effectiveness of female-controlled methods in preventing other sexually transmitted diseases, more research into protection from HIV infection by use of diaphragms and spermicides…

  13. Olfaction in allergic rhinitis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Boris A; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a key symptom in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Despite the implications for quality of life, relatively few articles have tested olfactory function in their investigations. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the following 2 questions: (1) What does AR do to human olfaction? (2) How effective is the treatment of AR in restoring the sense of smell? A comprehensive literature search was performed, and human studies of any design were included. A total of 420 articles were identified, and 36 articles were considered relevant. Data indicate that the frequency of olfactory dysfunction increases with the duration of the disorder, and most studies report a frequency in the range of 20% to 40%. Although olfactory dysfunction does not appear to be very severe in patients with AR, its presence seems to increase with the severity of the disease. There is very limited evidence that antihistamines improve olfactory function. In addition, there is limited evidence that topical steroids improve the sense of smell, especially in patients with seasonal AR. This is also the case for specific immunotherapy. However, many questions remain unanswered because randomized controlled trials are infrequent and only a few studies rely on quantitative measurement of olfactory function.

  14. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    PubMed

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products (shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  16. Heparanase: a rainbow pharmacological target associated to multiple pathologies including rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Rivara, Silvia; Milazzo, Ferdinando M; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, heparanase has attracted considerable attention as a promising target for innovative pharmacological applications. Heparanase is a multifaceted protein endowed with enzymatic activity, as an endo-β-D-glucuronidase, and nonenzymatic functions. It is responsible for the cleavage of heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans, resulting in structural alterations of the extracellular matrix. Heparanase appears to be involved in major human diseases, from the most studied tumors to chronic inflammation, diabetic nephropathy, bone osteolysis, thrombosis and atherosclerosis, in addition to more recent investigation in various rare diseases. The present review provides an overview on heparanase, its biological role, inhibitors and possible clinical applications, covering the latest findings in these areas. PMID:27057774

  17. Allergen-encoded signals that control allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Landers, Cameron; Li, Evan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose is to review the important recent advances made in how innate immune cells, microbes, and the environment contribute to the expression of allergic disease, emphasizing the allergen-related signals that drive allergic responses. Recent findings The last few years have seen crucial advances in how innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells group 2 and airway epithelial cells and related molecular pathways through organismal proteinases and innate immune cytokines, such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33 contribute to allergy and asthma. Simultaneously with these advances, important progress has been made in our understanding of how the environment, and especially pathogenic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, helminths, and especially fungi derived from the natural and built environments, either promote or inhibit allergic inflammation and disease. Of specific interest are how lipopolysaccharide mediates its antiallergic effect through the ubiquitin modifying factor A20 and the antiallergic activity of both helminths and protozoa. Summary Innate immune cells and molecular pathways, often activated by allergen-derived proteinases acting on airway epithelium and macrophages as well as additional unknown factors, are essential to the expression of allergic inflammation and disease. These findings suggest numerous future research opportunities and new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in allergic disease. PMID:26658015

  18. 167 Allergen Sensitization in Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Rigalt, Ann Michelle; Maselli, Juan Pablo; Alvarado, Ninotchka; Carpio, Paola; Chur, Víctor; Mayén, Patricia; Morán, Edgar; Pinto, Mario; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no previous studies published reporting allergen sensitizations in the population of most Central American countries, including Guatemala. There are many types of climates in different regions, with variable altitude, humidity, etc. The purpose of this study was to determine the most common allergen sensitizations in children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in 4 different regions. Methods The study was performed on 461 children aged 5 to 15 years, from 4 different regions in Guatemala. A questionnaire was given to record information regarding family history of atopic disease and symptoms of Rhinitis and Asthma. The diagnosis was made in the presence of at least 3 symptoms of each disease. Scratch testing was performed using a commercially available device and a panel of 8 allergen extracts: Cypress Arizona, Dog, Cat, Dermatophagoides farinae and pteronyssinus, Cockroach Mix, Mold Mix and Bermuda grass. Results Patient average age was 8.3 years, 55% male and 45% female. Patient distribution by region was 35% from Huehuetenango, 29% Chiquimula, 18% Mazatenango and 18% Quetzaltenango. Family history of allergic rhinitis was present in 46% of patients, asthma in 51% and atopic dermatitis in 33%. The most common diagnosis was rhinitis in 86% of patients, 52% had asthma and 43%, both rhinitis and asthma. 98% had a positive Histamine Control and all a Negative Saline Control. 36% of patients had no allergy sensitization to allergens tested and 64% showed positive skin tests. The most frequent allergic sensitization was to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (44%) and farinae (43%), followed by Cockroach (28%). We also found less frequently, positive skin tests to grass (14%), Cat (14%), Mold (10%), Dog (8%) and Cypress (6%). The regions with higher dust mite sensitization were Quetzaltenango (51–55%) and Huehuetenango (45–51%). Conclusions The most common allergen sensitizations in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma in Guatemala are dust

  19. Characteristics of food-allergic patients placing them at risk for a fatal anaphylactic episode.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Furlong, Anne; Weiss, Christopher C

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing public health and food safety concern. Twelve million Americans-4% of the population-suffer from the disease, and the prevalence is increasing. There is no cure for food allergy; strict avoidance is the only way to prevent a reaction. Food allergy is a major cause of anaphylaxis, a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that results in an estimated 30,000 emergency department visits and 100 to 150 deaths annually. Factors that place food-allergic patients at greater risk for a fatal anaphylactic episode include asthma; being a teen or young adult; peanut, tree nut, and seafood allergy; not carrying epinephrine; restaurant food; spending time in schools and child care settings; and lack of information from health care providers. Better education of patients and their families about managing their food allergy and high-risk situations can help to prevent future fatalities.

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Melia, Michael T.; Silhan, Leann L.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) results from a hypersensitivity response to airways colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus, and it occurs most often in individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an indolent, but potentially progressive, disease in patients. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ABPA is rare, and its description in the literature is limited to case reports. We describe the occurrence of ABPA in a 37-year-old woman with well controlled HIV infection. This represents the first documented case of ABPA in an HIV-infected patient whose only pulmonary comorbidity included the ramifications of prior acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We also review prior case reports of ABPA in HIV-infected patients and consider risk factors for its development. PMID:27419184

  1. [The modern strategies for the treatment of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A

    2016-01-01

    The present literature review had the objective to analyze the published data concerning the effectiveness of intranasal administration of antihistamine preparations and intranasal glucocorticoids for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Special emphasis is placed on the clinical significance and the further prospects for the application of a fixed combination of these medications including azelastineplusmometasonefuroateas the first choice therapy of moderately severe and severe manifestations of allergic rhinitis. PMID:27213663

  2. Diabetogenic effects of Parthinium hysterophorous induced allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vinita; Parmar, Hamendra Singh

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be associated with the cytokines secreted by Th1 cells, while allergic rhinitis (AR) is mainly regulated by Th2 cytokines. According to Th1/Th2 paradigm, there is an inverse relationship between Th1 and Th2 cytokines and resultantly, both the aforesaid diseases are also inversely correlated. On the other hand, numbers of clinical reports suggest every possible correlation between DM and AR including positive, negative and neutral. However, till to date, no experimental report available, suggesting the changes in glucose homeostasis of animal model(s) of allergic rhinitis, if any. Therefore, in the present study we have observed the changes in glucose homeostasis of the animals bearing AR induced by Parthinium hysterophorous (PH). The condition of AR was induced by intranasal instillations of the acetone extract of PH. At the end of experimentation, various parameters for AR and DM were evaluated. A significant increase was observed in total leukocytes in nasal fluid, serum glucose, thyroxine, dyslipidemia and activity of α-amylase, pancreatic lipid peroxidation, serum and pancreatic nitrite with a concomitant reduction in serum calcium, triiodothyronine, hepatic glycogen and activity of phosphoglucomutase. However, serum insulin, TSH, pancreatic calcium and hepatic glucokinase increased non-significantly. Immune cells infiltration and increased intra alveolar space were observed in lungs tissue, while alterations were also observed in pancreas of AR treated animals. The induction of AR led to the diabetogenic changes to rats via exerting multifaceted metabolic defects in the biochemical machinery regulating glucose homeostasis. PMID:22708969

  3. Estrogen Signaling Modulates Allergic Inflammation and Contributes to Sex Differences in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Aleksander; Heller, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease that affects ~300 million people worldwide. It is characterized by airway constriction that leads to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. The most common treatments are corticosteroids and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, which target inflammation and airway smooth muscle constriction, respectively. The incidence and severity of asthma is greater in women than in men, and women are more prone to develop corticosteroid-resistant or “hard-to-treat” asthma. Puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, and oral contraceptives are known to contribute to disease outcome in women, suggesting a role for estrogen and other hormones impacting allergic inflammation. Currently, the mechanisms underlying these sex differences are poorly understood, although the effect of sex hormones, such as estrogen, on allergic inflammation is gaining interest. Asthma presents as a heterogeneous disease. In typical Th2-type allergic asthma, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 predominate, driving IgE production and recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Chronic Th2-inflammation in the lung results in structural changes and activation of multiple immune cell types, leading to a deterioration of lung function over time. Most immune cells express estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, or the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled ER) to varying degrees and can respond to the hormone. Together these receptors have demonstrated the capacity to regulate a spectrum of immune functions, including adhesion, migration, survival, wound healing, and antibody and cytokine production. This review will cover the current understanding of estrogen signaling in allergic inflammation and discuss how this signaling may contribute to sex differences in asthma and allergy. PMID:26635789

  4. Status quo of chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Jazag, Amarsanaa; Puntsagdulam, Natsagnyam; Chinburen, Jigjidsuren

    2012-06-01

    Because Mongolia has much higher liver disease burden than any other regions of the world, it is necessary to provide information on real-time situation of chronic liver disease in Mongolia. In this article, we reviewed studies performed in Mongolia from 2000 to 2011 on seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among healthy individuals and patients with chronic liver diseases, and on the practice patterns for the management of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). According to previous reports, the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in general population in Mongolia is very high (11.8% and 15% for HBV and HCV, respectively). Liver cirrhosis is also highly prevalent, and mortality from liver cirrhosis remained high for the past decade (about 30 deaths per 100,000 populations per year). Among patients with cirrhosis, 40% and 39% are positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively, and 20% are positive for both. The seroprevalence is similar for HCC and more than 90% of HCC patients are positive for either HBV or HCV. The incidence of HCC in Mongolia is currently among the highest in the world. The mortality from HCC is also very high (52.2 deaths per 100,000 persons per year in 2010). Partly due to the lack of established surveillance systems, most cases of HCC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The mortality from liver cirrhosis and HCC in Mongolia may be reduced by implementation of antiviral therapy program and control of alcohol consumption.

  5. A monoclonal antibody to alpha 4 integrin suppresses and reverses active experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kent, S J; Karlik, S J; Cannon, C; Hines, D K; Yednock, T A; Fritz, L C; Horner, H C

    1995-04-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), circulating leukocytes enter the central nervous system (CNS) producing inflammation, myelin damage and paralysis. Prevention of leukocyte infiltration by an antibody against alpha 4 integrin suppressed clinical and pathological features of EAE in the guinea pig. Rapid clearance of leukocytes from the CNS and reversal of clinical findings were observed when anti-alpha 4 treatment was administered during active disease. Clinical improvement was accompanied by a marked decrease in abnormal pathological findings, including demyelination. Therefore anti-alpha 4 is an effective treatment of EAE and may be similarly useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  6. Sublingual immunotherapy for pediatric allergic rhinitis: The clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Licari, Amelia; Caimmi, Silvia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis is estimated to affect 10%-20% of pediatric population and it is caused by the IgE-sensitization to environmental allergens, most importantly grass pollens and house dust mites. Allergic rhinitis can influence patient's daily activity severely and may precede the development of asthma, especially if it is not diagnosed and treated correctly. In addition to subcutaneous immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents the only treatment being potentially able to cure allergic respiratory diseases, by modulating the immune system activity. This review clearly summarizes and analyzes the available randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials, which aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and the safety of grass pollen and house dust mite SLIT for the specific treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis. Our analysis demonstrates the good evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT for allergic rhinitis to grass pollens in children, whereas trials regarding pediatric allergic rhinitis to house dust mites present lower quality, although several studies supported its usefulness. PMID:26862501

  7. Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD. PMID:27041377

  8. Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD.

  9. An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Sweeney, Daniel A.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) can be highly lethal. Two recent outbreaks related to contaminated mail in the USA and heroin in the UK and Europe and its potential as a bioterrorist weapon have greatly increased concerns over anthrax in the developed world. Methods This review summarizes the microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of anthrax. Results and conclusions Anthrax, a gram-positive bacterium, has typically been associated with three forms of infection: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational. However, the anthrax outbreak among injection drug users has emphasized the importance of what is now considered a fourth disease form (i.e., injectional anthrax) that is characterized by severe soft tissue infection. While cutaneous anthrax is most common, its early stages are distinct and prompt appropriate treatment commonly produces a good outcome. However, early symptoms with the other three disease forms can be nonspecific and mistaken for less lethal conditions. As a result, patients with gastrointestinal, inhalational, or injectional anthrax may have advanced infection at presentation that can be highly lethal. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with gram stain and culture from blood or tissue followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR). While antibiotics are the mainstay of anthrax treatment, use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists are a consideration. Prompt surgical therapy appears to be important for successful management of injectional anthrax. PMID:22527064

  10. Detection of disease at the carotid bifurcation using ultrasound including an imaging system1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R R; Beasley, M G; Gosling, R G

    1980-01-01

    A two-stage approach is described for the detection of occlusive arterial disease at the carotid bifurcation using continuous wave Doppler-shift ultrasound with spectral analysis of backscattered signals from erythrocytes. The first stage involves analysis of Doppler-shift signals from the supraorbital and common carotid arteries. Abnormal signals from these arteries are frequently caused by the presence of atheroma at the carotid bifurcation and are used to indicate the necessity for imaging the bifurcation. This latter technique produces a physiological image of the arteries, as it depends on detecting erythrocyte velocities beneath a transducer which is guided over the surface of the neck. The investigation has advantages over arteriography in that it is noninvasive, has no attendant risk and may be repeated as often as required. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the results have been compared with x-ray findings in patients undergoing carotid arteriography. In 20 comparisons there were no false positives and one false negative in which the arteriogram showed a small lesion. These results indicate that the two noninvasive methods may be used in sequence to demonstrate operable disease around the carotid junction. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7230199

  11. Clinical and allergic sensitization characteristics of allergic rhinitis among the elderly population in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ayse Bilge; Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; Olmez, Merve Ozata

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in elderly population in Turkey is not known. Studies on the prevalence and features of allergy in older adults are needed to identify safe and effective diagnostic/therapeutic methods for elderly AR patients. We aimed to identify the clinical and allergic characteristics of sensitization to aeroallergens among individuals aged ≥60 years with allergic rhinitis admitted to an allergy outpatient clinic in Istanbul. Of 109 patients, 33.9 % were atopic. Sixty-five percent of subjects were sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 17 % to a grass-pollen mixture, 8 % to Aspergillus fumigatus, and 8 % to Blattella germanica. There was no difference between mono- and polysensitized patients in terms of the duration of rhinitis and symptom severity. No significant difference was observed between the two groups according to age, sex, smoking status, AR onset (<40 or ≥40 years), or duration/severity of disease. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the prevalence of asthma and conjunctivitis, (p = 0.256). Atopic dermatitis/eczema was more prevalent in those with AR (p = 0.046). Clinical characteristics of AR in the elderly could be different from those in non-allergic patients, and the prevalence of allergy may be higher than expected.

  12. Nasal filters: a novel approach to tackling allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, Torben; Tovey, Euan Roger

    2014-09-01

    More than 300 million individuals in industrialized countries suffer from allergic rhinitis. Rhinitis is a disease characterized by stuffy or runny nose, followed by red, itchy watering eyes and repeated sneezing. But more common problems for rhinitis patients are the overlooked social difficulties, with the majority reporting tiredness, feeling miserable or irritable. Often, medication is not able to adequately control symptoms and there is a need for other aids against the disease. Here, we describe the current situation after five trials using nasal filters in the remediation of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  13. Emerging Antigens Involved in Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    New allergic diseases can “emerge” because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which is associated with two novel forms of anaphylaxis. In a large area of the southeastern United States, the disease of delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat is now common. This disease challenges many previous rules about food allergy and provides a striking model of an emerging allergic disease. PMID:24095162

  14. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  15. Nanoparticle uptake by airway phagocytes after fungal spore challenge in murine allergic asthma and chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthy lungs, deposited micrometer-sized particles are efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages present on airway surfaces; however, uptake of nanoparticles (NP) by macrophages appears less effective and is largely unstudied in lung disease. Using mouse models of allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we investigated NP uptake after challenge with common biogenic ambient air microparticles. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from diseased mice (allergic asthma: ovalbumin [OVA] sensitized and COPD: Scnn1b-transgenic [Tg]) and their respective healthy controls were exposed ex vivo first to 3-μm fungal spores of Calvatia excipuliformis and then to 20-nm gold (Au) NP. Electron microscopic imaging was performed and NP uptake was assessed by quantitative morphometry. Results Macrophages from diseased mice were significantly larger compared to controls in OVA-allergic versus sham controls and in Scnn1b-Tg versus wild type (WT) mice. The percentage of macrophages containing AuNP tended to be lower in Scnn1b-Tg than in WT mice. In all animal groups, fungal spores were localized in macrophage phagosomes, the membrane tightly surrounding the spore, whilst AuNP were found in vesicles largely exceeding NP size, co-localized in spore phagosomes and occasionally, in the cytoplasm. AuNP in vesicles were located close to the membrane. In BAL from OVA-allergic mice, 13.9 ± 8.3% of all eosinophils contained AuNP in vesicles exceeding NP size and close to the membrane. Conclusions Overall, AuNP uptake by BAL macrophages occurred mainly by co-uptake together with other material, including micrometer-sized ambient air particles like fungal spores. The lower percentage of NP containing macrophages in BAL from Scnn1b-Tg mice points to a change in the macrophage population from a highly to a less phagocytic phenotype. This likely contributes to inefficient macrophage clearance of NP in lung disease. Finally, the AuNP containing

  16. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2012-12-01

    Fragrances are a large group of substances and the second most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Spain. These potential allergens are extremely common and the general population is subject to continuous exposure on a daily basis. While the fragrance markers included in the current Spanish standard patch test series are good, there is room for improvement. New markers that have emerged in recent years have proven to be of value in standard series used in other countries. Diagnosing fragrance allergy has taken on even greater importance since the European Union added 26 fragrances to its list of mandatory ingredients to be specified on product labels. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances. We examine the main sources of exposure and clinical manifestations of this condition and propose a diagnostic and treatment protocol.

  18. miR-155: A Novel Target in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Li, Junyao; Gao, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs of 18–24 nucleotides in length, function to posttranscriptionally regulate protein expression. miR-155 was one of the first identified and, to date, the most studied miRNA, and has been linked to various cellular processes such as modulation of immune responses and oncogenesis. Previous studies have identified miR-155 as a crucial positive regulator of Th1 immune response in autoimmune diseases, but as a suppressor of Th2 immunity in allergic disorders. However, recent studies have found new evidence that miR-155 plays an indispensible role in allergic asthma. This review summarizes the recent findings with respect to miR-155 in immune responses and the underlying mechanisms responsible for miR-155-related allergic diseases, as well as the similarities between miR-155 and glucocorticoids in immunity. PMID:27783037

  19. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  20. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). Objective We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Results Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Conclusion Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper

  1. Changes in human ecology and behavior in relation to the emergence of diarrheal diseases, including cholera.

    PubMed

    Levine, M M; Levine, O S

    1994-03-29

    Human populations throughout the world can be found in diverse conditions. A proportion of the population of developing countries lives in deprived conditions characterized by ramshackle housing, lack of piped water and sanitation, and widespread fecal contamination of the environment. Enteric infections, particularly due to bacterial pathogenes, are readily transmitted under these circumstances. In contrast, the majority of inhabitants of industrialized countries live in a sanitary environment that generally discourages the transmission of enteric pathogenes, particularly bacteria. In both these ecologic niches, changes in human ecology and behavior are leading to the emergence of certain enteric infections. Relevant factors in developing areas include urbanization (leading to periurban slums), diminished breastfeeding, and political upheaval that results in population migrations. In industrialized areas, large-scale food production (e.g., enormous poultry farms), distribution, and retailing (e.g., fast-food chains) create opportunities where widespread and extensive outbreaks of food-borne enteric infection can ensue if a breakdown in food hygiene occurs. PMID:8146128

  2. The role of zinc, copper, plasma glutathione peroxidase enzyme, and vitamins in the development of allergic diseases in early childhood: The Polish mother and child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Bobrowska-Korzeniowska, Monika; Kopka, Monika; Majak, Paweł; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the increase in allergic disorders may, in part, be a consequence of changing diet. The primary aim of this study was to assess the associations between occurrence of atopic dermatitis; food allergy; the incidence of wheeze inhaled glucocorticosteroid use in children during the 1st year of life; and cord blood concentrations of copper, zinc, vitamins (A and E), and glutathione peroxidase activity. We evaluated 240 1-year-old children from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Women were interviewed during pregnancy to collect demographic and socioeconomic data and medical and reproductive history. Exposure to tobacco constituents was assessed based on questionnaire data. At delivery, umbilical cord blood plasma was sampled. One year after the birth, the child's exposure and health status were examined. In the analyses a multivariable model was used. Higher zinc and copper concentrations in cord blood were associated with increased likelihood of wheezing in 1-year-old children. This effect was seen only among children exposed to tobacco smoke at home. We also showed significantly lower activity of glutathione peroxidase enzyme 3 in umbilical cord blood plasma of children with atopic dermatitis during the 1st year of life. There were no significant associations between vitamin A and E concentrations in plasma and children's health. We showed imbalance in the antioxidant defense system in cord blood, which may lead to development of atopic dermatitis or wheezing in infancy. The association between maternal nutrient status during pregnancy and child's health is complex and interacts with other environmental factors such as tobacco exposure. This study was a part of the clinical trial NCT01861548 registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:24801465

  3. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-07-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  4. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  5. Genetic Variation along the Histamine Pathway in Children with Allergic versus Nonallergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Sara; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Dai, Hongying; Jones, Bridgette L

    2015-12-01

    Histamine is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma. Variation in genes along the histamine production, response, and degradation pathway may be important in predicting response to antihistamines. We hypothesize that differences exist among single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the histamine pathway between children with allergic versus nonallergic asthma. Children (7-18 yr of age; n = 202) with asthma were classified as allergic or nonallergic based on allergy skin testing. Genotyping was performed to detect known SNPs (n = 10) among genes (HDC, HNMT, ABP1, HRH1, and HRH4) within the histamine pathway. Chi square tests and Cochran-Armitage Trend were used to identify associations between genetic variants and allergic or nonallergic asthma. Significance was determined by P < 0.05 and false-positive report probability. After correction for race differences in genotype were observed, HRH1-17 TT (6% allergic versus 0% nonallergic; P = 0.04), HNMT-464 TT (41% allergic versus 29% nonallergic; P = 0.04), and HNMT-1639 TT (30% allergic versus 20% nonallergic; P = 0.04) were overrepresented among children with allergic asthma. Genotype differences specifically among the African-American children were also observed: HRH1-17 TT (13% allergic versus 0% nonallergic; P = 0.04) and HNMT-1639 TT (23% allergic versus 3% nonallergic; P = 0.03) genotypes were overrepresented among African-American children with allergic asthma. Our study suggests that genetic variation within the histamine pathway may be associated with an allergic versus nonallergic asthma phenotype. Further studies are needed to determine the functional significance of identified SNPs and their impact on antihistamine response in patients with asthma and allergic disease.

  6. Long-lived Th2 memory in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mojtabavi, Nazanin; Dekan, Gerhard; Stingl, Georg; Epstein, Michelle M

    2002-11-01

    Although life-long immunity against pathogens is beneficial, immunological memory responses directed against allergens are potentially harmful. Because there is a paucity of information about Th2 memory cells in allergic disease, we established a model of allergic asthma in BALB/c mice to explore the generation and maintenance of Th2 memory. We induced disease without the use of adjuvants, thus avoiding Ag depots, and found that unlike allergic asthma in mice immunized with adjuvant, immunizing with soluble and aerosol OVA resulted in pathological lung lesions resembling human disease. To test memory responses we allowed mice with acute disease to recover and then re-exposed them to aerosol OVA a second time. Over 400 days later these mice developed OVA-dependent eosinophilic lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, and IgE. Over 1 year after recuperating from acute disease, mice had persistent lymphocytic lung infiltrates, Ag-specific production of IL-4 and IL-5 from spleen and lung cells in vitro, and elevated IgG1. Moreover, when recuperated mice were briefly aerosol challenged, we detected early expression of Th2 cytokine RNA in lungs. Taken together, these data demonstrate the presence of long-lived Th2 memory cells in spleen and lungs involved in the generation of allergic asthma upon Ag re-exposure.

  7. [T-cells regulate the immune-response in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Böttcher, I

    2008-10-01

    Allergic diseases show a broad variety of symptoms, depending on the type of allergen and the location where it interacts with the human body. Contact of allergens with the upper respiratory tract result in conjunctivitis or allergic rhinitis. Apart from antigenpresenting cells, T-cells do play an important role in this hypersensibility reaction. Due to the production and secretion of cytokines, T-lymphocytes induce and maintain the corresponding Th-immuneresponse. In addition to regulatory functions, T-cells have potential influence on the chronic progression of allergic inflammatory reactions of the nasal mucosa and are therefore interesting target cells for specific immunotherapy as well as corticosteroid treatment. This article shows the specific function of T-cells during allergic rhinitis and reveals the basics for understanding the mechanism of immunotherapy and chronification of inflammatory allergic diseases of the nasal mucosa. PMID:18839392

  8. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress. PMID:19104982

  9. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  10. Escaping the trap of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Oliviero; Massaro, Ilaria; Caminati, Marco; Quecchia, Cristina; Fassio, Filippo; Heffler, Enrico; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2015-01-01

    Rhinitis is often the first symptom of allergy but is frequently ignored and classified as a nuisance condition. Ironically it has the greatest socioeconomic burden worldwide caused by its impact on work and on daily life. However, patients appear reticent to seek professional advice, visiting their doctor only when symptoms become 'intolerable' and often when their usual therapy proves ineffective. Clearly, it's time for new and more effective allergic rhinitis treatments. MP29-02 (Dymista®; Meda, Solna, Sweden) is a new class of medication for moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or intranasal corticosteroids is not considered sufficient. MP29-02 is a novel formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and fluticasone propionate (FP). It benefits not only from the incorporation of two active agents, but also from a novel formulation; its lower viscosity, smaller droplet size, larger volume (137 μl) and wider spray angle ensure optimal coverage of, and retention on the nasal mucosa and contribute to its clinical efficacy. In clinical trials, patients treated with MP29-02 experienced twice the symptom relief as those treated with FP and AZE, who in turn exhibited significantly greater symptom relief than placebo-patients. Indeed, the advantage of MP29-02 over FP was approximately the same as that shown for FP over placebo. The advantage of MP29-02 was particularly evident in those patients for whom nasal congestion is predominant, with MP29-02 providing three times the nasal congestion relief of FP (p = 0.0018) and five times the relief of AZE (p = 0.0001). Moreover, patients treated with MP29-02 achieved each and every response up to a week faster than those treated with FP or AZE alone and in real life 1 in 2 patients reported the perception of well-controlled disease after only 3 days. MP29-02's superiority over FP was also apparent long-term in patients with perennial

  11. Sinobronchial allergic aspergillosis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a less common co-existence

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Kant, Surya; Prakash, Ved; Saheer, S

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological pulmonary disorder that is characterised by a hyper-responsiveness of the airways to Aspergillus fumigatus. Although several other fungi may also present with similar clinical conditions, Aspergillus remains the most common fungal pathogen causing airway infections. Co-existence of ABPA with allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is an uncommon presentation. The concept of one airway/one disease justifies the co-existence of ABPA with AAS, but it does not always hold true. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with symptoms suggestive of bronchial asthma. On further investigation, the radiological pattern showed fleeting shadows and CT scan showed central cystic bronchiectatic changes characteristic of ABPA. The nasal secretions were investigated for the presence of Aspergillus and were found to be positive. Hence a diagnosis of ABPA with AAS was established. The patient was treated with oral steroids and antifungal drugs. PMID:25371437

  12. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid; Silva Mendes, Diego da; Melo, Christianne Bandeira; Martins, Marco Aurélio; Silva Dias, Celidarque da; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina; and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  13. Inhibition of acidic mammalian chitinase by RNA interference suppresses ovalbumin-sensitized allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Jen; Liu, Yu-Kuo; Liu, Chao-Lin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Su, Chien-Chang; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Shen, Chia-Rui

    2009-12-01

    Asthma, a chronic helper T cell type 2-mediated inflammatory disease, is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Growing evidence suggests that increased expression of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In the present study, we sought to develop an RNA interference approach to suppress allergic asthma in mice through silencing of AMCase expression. Mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) were intratracheally administered a recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing short hairpin RNA (rAAV-shRNA) against AMCase. In OVA-sensitized mice, the development of allergic symptoms was significantly associated with elevated AMCase expression. After administration of rAAV-shRNA, there was a significant reduction of AMCase expression in the lung and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells of sensitized mice. Sensitized mice receiving rAAV-shRNA showed a significant improvement in allergic symptoms, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil infiltration, eotaxin, interleukin-13 secretion in BALF, and serum OVA-specific IgE level. Our data suggest the hyperexpression of AMCase in asthma can be suppressed by rAAV-mediated shRNA. Silencing AMCase expression by shRNA may be a promising therapeutic strategy in asthma.

  14. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific and the ARIA Update 2008

    PubMed Central

    Bunnag, Chaweewan; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are markedly increasing to epidemic proportions worldwide as societies adopt Western lifestyles. An estimated 300 million persons worldwide have asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries, and about 400 million people suffer from AR. AR has a marked impact on quality of life, socially, at school, and in the workplace and is a huge socioeconomic burden. Thus, there was clearly a need for a global evidence-based guideline not only for managing AR but also highlighting the interactions between the upper and lower airways including diagnosis, epidemiology, common risk factors, management, and prevention. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document was first published in 2001 as a state-of-the-art document for the specialist, the general practitioner, and other health care professionals. Subsequent research and increasing knowledge have resulted in the ARIA 2008 update. The present review summarizes the ARIA update with particular emphasis on the current status of AR and asthma in Asia Pacific. PMID:23268481

  15. [Reflections about allergic and crossed reactions to sulphonamides and drugs with radical-sulphonamide].

    PubMed

    Montes Montes, José; Alfonso Barrón, Enrique; Cruz Leyva, Jazmín del Alva; Flores Flores, José

    2004-01-01

    In the daily pharmacological therapy, some compounds may cause eventually allergic hypersensitivity reactions generating adverse effects. The objective of this study and its reflections has been to recommend caution, being prudent when expressing an opinion on risks and benefits of drugs themselves or some of their radicals that may contain because this attitude might produce a unsuitable concern. Drugs hypersensitivity (an unexpected pharmacological effect) may resemble a true allergic reaction but without the implication of IgE immunoglobulin. Such reactions are result of effector systems drug activation, leading to direct proallergic or proinflammatory chemical mediators release from mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Sulphonamides are an illustrative example because they possess a chemical core resembling that from other kind of drugs -furosemide, some COXIB and others- besides its haptenic capability (even though they have different chemical structure). Selective COX 2 inhibitors are considered an accepted symptomatic therapy in rheumatic diseases as well as some other conditions where pain and inflammation are present; based on its generalized use in such conditions, authors decided to perform this investigation in the allergy clinics of Hospital General de México and Hospital Español de México, looking for cases of true allergic, crossed or hypersensitivity reactions related to one COXIB that includes a sulphamidic radical in its chemical structure. No clinical significance was found concerning the above mentioned reactions and the antiinflammatory-analgesic compound (celecoxib).

  16. Allergic constitution theory of Chinese medicine and its assessment criterion and related studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Wang, Ting; Li, Ying-shuai; Li, Ling-ru; Zheng, Yan-fei; Wang, Qi

    2015-09-01

    Constitution factor plays an important role in the occurrence, development, and transformation of diseases. The occurrence of allergic diseases is mainly caused by the disorganized physiological function and suitability regulation of patients, except for their exposure to outside allergens. Moreover, it represents susceptibility and hypersensitivity to allergens. The current study expresses the concept of allergic constitution from the perspective of Chinese medicine (CM) and presents the criterion of allergic constitution. In addition, the distribution of allergic constitution in population, its factors, and its relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were investigated. The HRQOL scores of allergic constitution were found to be lower than those of the Pinghe constitution. After making a study on the gene expression profile of allergic constitution, the characteristics of up-regulated or down-regulated genes were found. Finally, CM drug was researched and developed to improve allergic constitution. Based on clinical trials and animal experiments, CM is found to have good regulatory effects on allergic constitution.

  17. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to

  18. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen concentrations, and tends to

  19. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Duhl, Tiffany; Salam, Muhammad T; House, James M; Flagan, Richard C; Avol, Edward L; Gilliland, Frank D; Guenther, Alex; Chung, Serena H; Lamb, Brian K; VanReken, Timothy M

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen concentrations, and tends

  20. Altered calcium-induced exocytosis in neutrophils from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongfang; Zhang, Jicheng; Wu, Jianmin; Zhang, Chunguang; Xu, Tao

    2004-08-01

    We have investigated the exocytotic characteristics of neutrophils from allergic patients and healthy volunteers employing the whole cell membrane capacitance (Cm) measurement. The mean serum IgE level from allergic patients (423.75 +/- 12.75 IU/ml) determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay was much higher than that of healthy volunteers (28.47 +/- 16.68 IU/ml). Intracellular dialysis of buffered Ca2+ and GTPgammaS triggered biphasic exocytosis. The total capacitance increment displayed a steep dependence on pipette free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]p), with maximal stimulation achieved at 10 microM. A significant decrease in the total capacitance increment was observed in the allergic group at [Ca2+]p >10 microM. Moreover, at submaximal stimulatory [Ca2+]p of 1 microM, the maximal rate of exocytosis in allergic patients (Vmax = 20.75 +/- 6.19 fF/s) was much faster than that of the healthy control group (Vmax = 7.97 +/- 2.49 fF/s). On the other hand, the Ca2+-independent exocytosis stimulated by GTPgammaS displayed no significant difference in either the total membrane capacitance increments or the maximal rate of exocytosis. The results suggest that hypersecretion of neutrophils in allergic diseases may involve the development of abnormal Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. PMID:15205559

  1. Antihistamine treatment for allergic rhinitis: different routes, different outcomes?

    PubMed

    Chipps, Bradley E; Harder, Julia M

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic disorders in the United States, causing patients significant discomfort and interfering with quality of life and functioning. Histamine is the primary mediator in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms and is a primary therapeutic target. Guidelines, both in the United States and globally, recommend antihistamines as first-line therapy of allergic rhinitis. This article discusses the outcomes associated with intranasal versus oral administration of antihistamines. Both oral and intranasal antihistamines are approved for the first-line treatment of allergic rhinitis and both formulations result in a reduction in symptoms and an improvement in quality of life. Intranasal agents may be preferred in patients in whom nasal congestion is particularly bothersome or in cases where a more rapid onset of action is desired. Oral agents would be a better choice in young children (especially children who are at risk of developing asthma), in cases of poor medication compliance, and in patients who are bothered most by histamine-associated symptoms, such as itching or red and watery eyes. Both oral and intranasal antihistamines are safe and well tolerated and meet the needs of patients with allergic rhinitis, especially those with mild to moderate disease. PMID:20031005

  2. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  3. Beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Montalbano, Laura; Cilluffo, Giovanna; Malizia, Velia; Marchese, Donatella; La Grutta, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease, and its prevalence is increasing all over the world, both in adults and in children. Patients experience symptoms that may negatively impact on physical, social and psychological well-being. Hence, if left untreated, allergic rhinitis may significantly affect quality of life. Under current guidelines, intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective drugs and they are recommended as first-line therapy. Among the several corticosteroid intranasal sprays available, beclomethasone dipropionate is one of the most prescribed. Recently, new intranasal hydrofluoroalkane-propelled formulations with little or no impact on the ozone layer have been developed for the treatment of AR. The use of these devices might improve patients' adherence to treatment, avoiding some of the most common side effects associated with aqueous formulations. This review provides the most recent evidence for the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane nasal aerosol in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. PMID:26558604

  4. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis: the preferences of specialists].

    PubMed

    Danilova, K V; Razdorskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the stereotypes of addressing such a serious medical problem as the treatment of allergic rhinitis by practicing physicians and the development of criteria for the priority choice of pharmaceutical products to be prescribed to the patients presenting with this pathology. This pharmacoepidemiological investigation was designed to elucidate the preferences shown by specialists dealing with this disease. The special questionnaire was developed to collect and analyse the opinions of otorhinolaryngologists and allergologists. The study has demonstrated that both therapy of allergic rhinitis and preferences of specialists conform with the respective international standards. However, the study revealed the lack of the adequate communicative and informational interactions between two basic components of the healthcare system, viz. doctors and pharmacists. The authors emphasize the necessity to optimize professional approaches to the management of allergic rhinitis.

  5. Beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Montalbano, Laura; Cilluffo, Giovanna; Malizia, Velia; Marchese, Donatella; La Grutta, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease, and its prevalence is increasing all over the world, both in adults and in children. Patients experience symptoms that may negatively impact on physical, social and psychological well-being. Hence, if left untreated, allergic rhinitis may significantly affect quality of life. Under current guidelines, intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective drugs and they are recommended as first-line therapy. Among the several corticosteroid intranasal sprays available, beclomethasone dipropionate is one of the most prescribed. Recently, new intranasal hydrofluoroalkane-propelled formulations with little or no impact on the ozone layer have been developed for the treatment of AR. The use of these devices might improve patients' adherence to treatment, avoiding some of the most common side effects associated with aqueous formulations. This review provides the most recent evidence for the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane nasal aerosol in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  6. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop int