Science.gov

Sample records for allergic eye disease

  1. Therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus Eye Ointment in Allergic Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shitole, Satish C; Bhagat, Nupur; Patil, Deepak; Sawant, Pawan; Patil, Kalpita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs) like Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) are chronic forms of ocular allergy that can cause severe visual complications. Pathogenesis of AODs is uncertain and treatment has been a challenge for ophthalmologists. Tacrolimus, a 23-member cyclic macrolide lactone derived from [streptomyces tsukubaensis] now in ointment form has been successfully used in AODs. Aim To study the therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment in patients with Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs). Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted on 36 patients with severe AOD and moderate cases not responding to conventional treatment. They were treated with 0.1% tacrolimus eye ointment twice daily for minimum three months in addition to conventional treatment and observed for a period of 6 months. Symptoms and signs after treatment were evaluated. Grades of clinical signs were assessed based on slit lamp clinical photographs; development of possible complications was assessed and analysed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Mean age of patients was 9.3±4.3 years and mean duration of AODs was 3.1±1.8 years. The scores on both the four point scales for signs and symptoms decreased significantly (p<0.0001) after 1 month of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment treatment. Itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief and conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. 88.88% of patients were successfully weaned off topical steroids in 6 months into Tacrolimus treatment. Even in patients unresponsive to 0.1% topical Cyclosporine, symptoms and signs scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001). The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (36.11%). Conclusion Topical 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment was found to be a safe and effective treatment in cases of AODs and also worked as steroid sparing and replacing agent. It was also found effective in patient

  2. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  3. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Etsuko; Uchio, Eiichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shoji, Jun; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as "a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms." Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  4. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Epigenetics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases of childhood, affecting more than 7 million children in the United States. Epidemiological evidence supports the idea that the inception of allergic diseases is typically before the pre-school years, even when chronic symptoms do not emerge until adulthood. The role of epigenetic mechanisms (particularly DNA methylation) in allergic disease is under active investigation because these mechanisms are known to be at the interface among gene regulation, environmental stimuli and developmental processes, all of which are essential for the pathogenesis for asthma and allergy. This article specifically reviews genome-wide DNA methylation studies in allergic disease. Recent findings Differential DNA methylation at specific regions appears to be associated with concurrent allergic disease. A few studies have identified methylation signatures predictive of disease. Summary DNA methylation signatures have been shown be associated with several allergic disease phenotypes, typically concurrently with disease. The few that have been found to precede diagnosis are especially interesting because they highlight an early trajectory to disease. PMID:26418323

  6. Therapeutic effects of 0.1% tacrolimus eye drops for refractory allergic ocular diseases with proliferative lesion or corneal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of topical 0.1% tacrolimus in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement. Methods This prospective observational study included 1436 patients with refractory allergic conjunctivitis whose condition had responded poorly to conventional antiallergic drugs and/or topical steroids and/or topical cyclosporine. All patients received tacrolimus eye drops twice daily during the study period. Ten clinical signs and six clinical symptoms were rated on a four-grade scale. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total clinical signs and symptoms score at the last observation or following 6 months of treatment. Results Total signs and symptoms score significantly decreased after 1 month of treatment (p<0.001). Giant papillae and corneal lesions were also reduced by tacrolimus eye drop use (p<0.001). The drug proved effective in patients whose condition did not respond well to topical cyclosporine therapy. About 50% of all patients using topical steroids were weaned. The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (3.20%). Conclusions Tacrolimus eye drops are highly effective in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement, and may reduce or replace topical steroid use. Trial registration number UMIN 000008640. PMID:24695688

  7. Tregs and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Douglas S.; Larché, Mark; Durham, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing in prevalence and affect up to 15% of populations in Westernized countries. The description of Tregs as T cells that prevent development of autoimmune disease led to considerable interest in whether these Tregs were also normally involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens and whether it might be possible to manipulate Tregs for the therapy of allergic disease. Current data suggest that Th2 responses to allergens are normally suppressed by both CD4+CD25+ Tregs and IL-10 Tregs. Furthermore, suppression by these subsets is decreased in allergic individuals. In animal models, Tregs could be induced by high- or low-dose inhaled antigen, and prior induction of such Tregs prevented subsequent development of allergen sensitization and airway inflammation in inhaled challenge models. For many years, allergen-injection immunotherapy has been used for the therapy of allergic disease, and this treatment may induce IL-10 Tregs, leading to both suppression of Th2 responses and a switch from IgE to IgG4 antibody production. Improvements in allergen immunotherapy, such as peptide therapy, and greater understanding of the biology of Tregs hold great promise for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease. PMID:15545986

  8. [Apoptosis in allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Rojas Ramos, E; Martínez Jiménez, N E; Martínez Aguilar, N E; Garfias Becerra, J

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis (cell programmed death) it is a mechanism that implicate a physiological suicide, to keep the cellular homeostasis in big amount of tissues. Fas (APO-1; CD95) system is one of the most important cellular responsible via to induce apoptosis on different tissues. Eosinophillia on peripheral blood and tissues are the main characteristics on allergic like asthma. Eosinophil apoptosis is upper regulated in those diseases by IL-5 y GM-CSF. Corticoids, teophyllin and some macrolids have been used like apoptosis inductors on eosinophills, these could be a novel mechanism to promote a better solution on inflammatory allergic diseases.

  9. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Eyelid dermatitis and/or periocular dermatitis (ED/PD) is commonly seen in a variety of skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, but is most often associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Here, a case of ACD in an 82-year-old man is described; he used 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops and exhibited pruritic erythema on the eyelids. Patch test for diclofenac sodium eye drops was positive. Further patch tests revealed a positive reaction to diclofenac sodium (monosodium 2-[2, 6-dichlorophenylamino] phenylacetate), which was the main component in the eye drop medicine. Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and is frequently used in everyday oral medications, topical ointments, gel agents and eye drops. Case reports on ACD caused by diclofenac sodium eye drops are extremely rare. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider ACD due to diclofenac sodium when a patient with ED/PD has a history of use of diclofenac sodium eye drops.

  11. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  12. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Uchio, Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution significantly suppressed ocular itching and hyperemia compared with levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic solution, and the number of patients who complained of ocular discomfort was lower in the olopatadine group than in the levocabastine group. Conjunctival cell membrane disruption was observed in vitro in the ketotifen fumarate group, epinastine hydrochloride group, and azelastine hydrochloride group, but not in the olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution group, which may potentially explain the lower discomfort felt by patients on instillation. Many other studies in humans have revealed the superiority of olopatadine 0.1% hydrochloride eye drops to several other anti-allergic eye drops. Overseas, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% ophthalmic solution for a once-daily regimen has been marketed under the brand name of Pataday®. It is expected that olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with a more severe spectrum of allergic conjunctival diseases, such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis or atopic keratoconjunctivitis, in the near future. PMID:19668750

  13. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  14. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  15. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon; Surh, Charles D

    2017-02-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota.

  16. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon

    2017-01-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota. PMID:28261020

  17. Mastocytosis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, P; Lombardo, C; Zanotti, R

    2014-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, mainly skin and bone marrow. It can cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations-other than urticaria pigmentosa-that can lead to inappropriate release of mediators by mast cells. The most severe manifestation is anaphylaxis. The triggers of anaphylaxis in adults with mastocytosis are numerous, but Hymenoptera stings seem to be the most frequent, followed by foods and drugs. Therefore, to prevent severe reactions, it is very important to recognize and avoid potential triggers; in addition, venom-allergic patients must receive lifelong immunotherapy, which has proven very effective. Given that published data on drug anaphylaxis in patients with mast cell disorders are scarce, it is not currently possible to provide clear recommendations. The risk of systemic reactions during general anesthesia can be reduced by assessing risk on an individual basis (previous reaction to a drug or reaction during surgery) and by avoiding specific trigger factors (patient temperature changes, infusion of cold solution, tissue trauma, friction, and other mechanical factors).

  18. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit HHS USAJobs Home > Diabetic Eye Disease Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  19. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  20. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  1. Innate immunity in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Minnicozzi, Michael; Sawyer, Richard T; Fenton, Matthew J

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system consists of multiple cell types that express germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Allergens are frequently found in forms and mixtures that contain PAMPs and DAMPs. The innate immune system is interposed between the external environment and the internal acquired immune system. It is also an integral part of the airways, gut, and skin. These tissues face continuous exposure to allergens, PAMPs, and DAMPs. Interaction of allergens with the innate immune system normally results in immune tolerance but, in the case of allergic disease, this interaction induces recurring and/or chronic inflammation as well as the loss of immunologic tolerance. Upon activation by allergens, the innate immune response commits the acquired immune response to a variety of outcomes mediated by distinct T-cell subsets, such as T-helper 2, regulatory T, or T-helper 17 cells. New studies highlighted in this review underscore the close relationship between allergens, the innate immune system, and the acquired immune system that promotes homeostasis versus allergic disease.

  2. Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the "Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases" describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient's character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the "Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression", is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.

  3. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Ozod; Petzold, Ursula; Haase, Hans; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Ellers-Lenz, Barbara; Hermann, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) is a selective H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits histamine release and interferes with activation of other mediators of allergic inflammation. The present double-blind study aimed to evaluate azelastine eye drops (Allergodil) in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis compared to placebo. A total of 116 patients with an ocular symptoms score for itching and conjunctival redness > or = 3 (0-6 scale) were randomized to twice-daily 0.05% azelastine eye drops treatment (n = 58) or placebo. Patients maintained daily logs and were clinically evaluated after 7, 21 and 42 days of treatment. Azelastine significantly improved itching and conjunctival redness versus placebo (p < 0.001). Tolerability was rated good or better by 97% of patients with only bitter taste and application site reaction notable adverse experiences. On Day 7, ocular symptoms score improved by 1.5 +/- 0.9 (versus 0.5 +/- 0.8 placebo) with score improvement > or = 2 in 55% with azelastine (versus 14% placebo). Itching and redness further improved at Day 42 (score improvement > or = 2 in 95% with azelastine versus 33% placebo) and completely resolved for 47% azelastine patients (versus 10% placebo). Daily patient logs confirmed the clinically assessed scores. Topical azelastine progressively improved itching and conjunctival redness in patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Continued improvement with prolonged use is consistent with mechanisms other than H1-receptor blockade, such as possible down regulation of adhesion molecule receptors.

  4. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  5. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  6. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  7. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  8. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  9. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  10. Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro; Takayama, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  11. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human.

  12. Eye Disease Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  13. Efficacy of topical application of 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Ajit Kumar; Singh, Prodip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis is commonly observed eye diseases in Sikkim, India due to the abundance of seasonal pollens, environmental pollutants, and house dust. We evaluated the efficacy of topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of simple allergic conjunctivitis. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was designed consisting of 41 patients with refractory simple allergic conjunctivitis, whose condition responded very poorly to conventional anti-allergic eye drops (azelastine, olopatadine, chlorpheniramine maleate, sodium chromoglycate). Simple allergic conjunctivitis cases were diagnosed and followed up evaluating both subjective and objective findings (itching, photophobia, tearing, chemosis, conjunctival congestion, tarsal papilla, and eyelid edema). Existing ocular treatment was discontinued at enrolment and 0.03% tacrolimus ointment was applied into the conjunctival sac of the affected eyes twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 2 weeks washout period. Patients were followed up at the end of 1st week, 4th week, and at 7th week (2 weeks washout period). Results: Symptoms of simple allergic conjunctivitis (itching, tearing and photophobia) were significantly reduced at the end of 1st week. Signs such as conjunctival chemosis, congestion, tarsal papillae, and eyelid edema were effectively treated in all cases at the end of 1st week. At the end of 4th week, all cases were fully cured and none of the patient had any recurrences up to 7th week. Mean score at 1st day (9.6 ± 3.27) was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by 7th day (1.35 ± 1.19) of treatment. Conclusion: Topical application of tacrolimus ointment is an excellent alternative to anti-allergic and steroids eye drops for the treatment of simple allergic conjunctivitis as it significantly reduces recurrences. PMID:26604594

  14. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  15. [Allergodil eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2002-07-01

    The authors describe a group of 20 patients with symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis where for a period of 2-6 weeks twice a day into the conjunctival sac of both eyes Allergidol gtt, ophth., ASTA Medica AG FRG was administered. As to subjective sensations the authors evaluated itching, burning, the sensation of a foreign body and lacrimation, as to objective signs oedema of the eyelids, hyperaemia of the conjunctiva and papillary hypertrophy. The authors evaluated also the rate of onset of the effect, its duration and tolerance of the preparation. Subjective symptoms disappeared in 90% patients, hyperaemia of the conjunctivae and papillary hypertrophy receded in 12 patients (60%), in 8 (40%) they disappeared. Regression of subjective complaints occurred in all patients within 20 minutes, the duration of the effect was within the range of 11-13 hours in 18 patients (90%), 6-8 hours in two patients (10%). As to undesirable effects one female patient reported after administration of the eye drops a bitter sensation in the mouth, another one a burning sensation. Evidence was provided that the local H1 antihistaminic Allergodil gtt is effective in monotherapy in mild forms of allergic conjunctivitis.

  16. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  17. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future.

  18. [Asthma and allergic diseases in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, B; Lindström, M; Forsberg, B

    1992-01-01

    Until recently the prevalence of asthma in Sweden was assessed to be 2-3 per cent. An increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was noted among new conscripts undergoing health work-ups prior to military service with the most marked increase in northern Sweden, were 5 per cent of conscripts were reported to have asthma. In southern Sweden the prevalence remained about 2 per cent. More recent questionnaire studies in mid- and southern Sweden have reported similar rates of respiratory symptoms and use of anti-asthmatic drugs as in northern Sweden, suggesting that there may be no difference in asthma prevalence between the north and the south of the country. The exact prevalence of allergic diseases among Swedish adults is still not clear, but 40 per cent of adults in northern Sweden report that they often have wheezing in the chest, attacks of breathlessness, longstanding cough or sputum production. In questionnaire studies among children about 40 per cent of respondents have reported that they had asthma, allergic rhinitis or other type of hypersensitivity. The absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma and allergic disorders in epidemiological studies makes comparison of prevalence difficult. It is thus not possible to be sure that the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders in Sweden has recently increased. Risk factors for the development of asthma and allergic disorders are under study in Sweden. Several studies report an association in children between urban living and allergic disorders.

  19. [Allergic dermatitis: new concepts for old diseases].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, Martín; Ayala Balboa, Julio César; Mendoza Vázquez, Victor Cristóbal

    2003-01-01

    The skin is the largest body's organ, with a well defined functional lymphoid tissue. This organ can be the target of several hypersensitivity-mediated diseases, that are both, genetically determined and influenced by environmental factors. In this paper the main clinical features and the current treatment modalities for the most frequent allergic cutaneous diseases are reviewed.

  20. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  1. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  2. Comparison of azelastine eye drops with levocabastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Giede, C; Metzenauer, P; Petzold, U; Ellers-Lenz, B

    2000-01-01

    A randomised, multicentre parallel group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.05% azelastine eye drops (101 patients) in an open manner with 0.05% levocabastine eye drops (103 patients) and in a double-blind manner with placebo (103 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. The three main eye symptoms, scored on a four-point scale, were itching, lacrimation and conjunctival redness; the primary efficacy variable was the responder rate on day 3. Responders were patients whose sum score of the three main eye symptoms decreased by at least three points from a baseline score of at least six points. In addition to these main symptoms, five other symptoms were recorded on days 0, 3, 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main eye symptoms and swollen eyelids. The responder rate after 3 days of treatment was 69% in patients treated with azelastine, 59% in patients treated with levocabastine and 51% in the placebo group. Only the difference in responder rates between azelastine and placebo eye drops was statistically significant (p = 0.02). The improvements in other ocular symptoms and entries in the patients' diaries closely reflected the changes reported by the investigators. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. Nine patients (three in the azelastine, five in the levocabastine and one in the placebo group) terminated the study prematurely due to poor tolerability. Adverse drug reactions, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported in 37% of patients receiving azelastine eye drops, 31% of patients receiving levocabastine and 9% of placebo patients. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 86% of azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, and in 95% of the patients receiving placebo. The results of this study indicate that azelastine possesses a tolerability profile at least comparable to that

  3. Allergic diseases in farmers' children.

    PubMed

    Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have reported lower rates of allergic sensitization and allergies in children living in rural as compared to urban communities. This has been attributed to the lower levels of air pollution in rural areas. The question arises whether other factors in the rural environment could explain the lower prevalence rates of allergic sensitization and hay fever. A first report from rural South Bavaria in Germany demonstrated that children living in a home where coal and wood were used for heating had a significantly lower risk of suffering from hay fever (odds ratio 0.57 (0.34-0.98)), of being sensitized to common allergens (OR 0.67 (0.49-0.93)) and of having bronchial hyperresponsiveness (OR 0.55 (0.34-0.90)) than their peers living in homes with other heating systems. Subsequently, the Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution (SCARPOL) tested the hypothesis that farming as parental occupation was associated with a lower risk of hay fever and atopy. A total of 1620 (86.0%) 6-15-year-old schoolchildren living in three rural communities of Switzerland were examined using a standardized questionnaire completed by the parents and IgE antibodies against six common aeroallergens in serum samples of 404 (69.3.0%) of the 13-15-year-olds. Farming as parental occupation was significantly associated with lower rates of reported hay fever symptoms and allergic sensitization. Comparing children from farming with those from non-farming environments, the adjusted OR was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.12-0.89) for sneezing attacks during the pollen season, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13-0.73) for a sensitization to allergens. These results have recently been confirmed in a new and much larger survey in rural South Bavaria. Several alternative explanations have to be considered when interpreting these findings, namely, selection bias, the development of tolerance, increased microbial stimulation and a more traditional lifestyle (diet and housing

  4. Future treatments of allergic diseases and asthma.

    PubMed

    Stirling, R G; Chung, K F

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the inflammatory and immunological mechanisms of allergic diseases have illuminated many potential therapeutic strategies that may prevent or even reverse the abnormalities of allergic inflammation. As the roles of effector cells, and of signalling and adhesion molecules are better understood, the opportunities to inhibit or prevent the inflammatory cascade have increased. In addition, there have been advances in the synthesis of proteins, monoclonal antibodies and new small molecule chemical entities, which provide further valuable flexibility in the therapeutic approach to asthma. Such new approaches are aimed at prevention of T-cell activation; redressing the imbalance of T helper cell populations thus inhibiting or preventing Th-2-derived cytokine expression; and the inhibition or blockade of the downstream actions of these cytokines such as effects on IgE and eosinophils. Approaches such as these allow both broad and highly specific targeting, and may pave the way towards the prevention and reversal of the immunological and inflammatory processes driving asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The development of effective agents with effects beyond those provided by current therapies coupled with lesser side-effects will further address the unmet needs of allergic disease.

  5. Allergic respiratory diseases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bom, A Todo; Pinto, A Mota

    2009-11-01

    In industrialized countries there has been a significant increase in life expectancy, but chronic diseases are still important causes of death and disability in the elderly. Individuals over 65 years of age have a decrease in organic functions and lungs can lose more than 40% of their capacity. Although asthma and allergic rhinitis are more common in young people their prevalence in the elderly is increasing and the mortality reported in these patients is high. Asthmatic airways show an accumulation of activated eosinophils and lymphocytes determining structural changes of the bronchi. Local allergic inflammation, changes in T cell phenotypes and in apoptosis contribute to systemic inflammation. An increased risk of respiratory infections and neoplasic diseases has been recognized. These patients have increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic diseases are associated with an impairment of lung function and with systemic inflammation. Summing up older asthmatic patients have an increased risk to premature disability and death. A proper therapeutic approach to asthma can minimize this evolution. To identify the triggers is an important goal that allows reducing medication needs. Corticosteroids dampen allergic inflammation; therefore, they are the first choice in the treatment of patients with persistent asthma and rhinitis. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have reduced side effects and can be used if necessary. The elderly may have difficult access to health care. They should be educated about their disease and receive a written treatment plan. This information improves the quality of life, socialization and disease outcome in older people.

  6. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes.

  7. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy.

  9. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  11. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness. Macular edema. Blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  12. Nonspecific provocation of target organs in allergic diseases: EAACI-GA(2)LEN consensus report.

    PubMed

    Bonini, S; Rasi, G; Brusasco, V; Carlsen, K-H; Crimi, E; Popov, T; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Gramiccioni, C; Bonini, M; Passali, D; Bachert, C; van Cauwenberge, P B; Bresciani, M; Bonini, S; Calonge, M; Montan, P G; Serapiao Dos Santos, M; Belfort, R; Lambiase, A; Sacchetti, M

    2007-06-01

    It is widely accepted that nonspecific tissue reactivity is a distinct pathophysiological hallmark of allergic diseases, influenced by genetic and environmental factors different from those involved in causing sensitization and allergen response of target organs. This consensus document aims at reviewing procedures currently used for nonspecific provocation of the bronchi, nose and eye and for measuring their responsiveness to nonspecific stimuli.

  13. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis--rarely diagnosed disease].

    PubMed

    Lauková, D; Marget, I; Plutinský, J

    2009-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), known as hypersensitive pneumonitis, causes interstitial lung involvement by inhaled antigen. The clinical presentation of the disease has been defined as acute, subacute and chronic. The most often symptoms of the acute form of the disease are flu-like symptoms, dyspnoe and cough. The progressive dyspnoe in particullary is characterized for the chronic form of EAA. Dyspnoe is worsed, if the disease is combinied with usual respiratory infection or reexposition of inhaled antigen. It seems the diagnostic definition of EAA should be easy and prevalence of EAA relative high. The disease belongs to the group of interstitial lung diseases and it is underestimated as a matter of fact. The clinic, radiographic, laboratory and histologic abnormalities are results of inhaled antigen contact and support the diagnosis of EAA. Specific IgG antibodies against the offending antigen along with them are consedered to be detected (established) of EAA.

  14. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  15. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  16. Allergic conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    Conjunctivitis - allergic seasonal/perennial; Atopic keratoconjunctivitis; Pink eye - allergic ... bumps on the inside of the eyelids (papillary conjunctivitis) Positive skin test for suspected allergens on allergy ...

  17. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Grace K.; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Assa'ad, Amal H.; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E.; Ryan, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. METHODS: Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8–5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7–7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0–9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. PMID:26715608

  18. [Evaluation of occupational allergic diseases of the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the basic etiological and pathogenetic aspects of occupational allergic diseases of the respiratory tract, discusses the clinical course, diagnosis, and priorities of the prevention of allergic diseases of the upper airways and bronchopulmonary apparatus from the action of industrial allergens.

  19. Assessment of disease control in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative has had a significant impact, by raising awareness of allergic rhinitis (AR) and improving the diagnosis and treatment of AR sufferers. ARIA classifies the severity of AR as "mild" or "moderate/severe" on the basis of "yes"/"no" answers to four questions. This two-point classification has been criticized as providing little guidance on patient management; patients with "mild" AR are unlikely to consult a physician, whereas the group of patients with "moderate/severe" seen by specialists is heterogeneous. These perceived shortcomings have prompted attempts to improve the ARIA classification or, by analogy with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), adopt approaches based on "disease control" in AR. Even though "disease severity", "disease control" and "responsiveness to treatment" are different (albeit related) metrics, they are not mutually exclusive. Currently, there is no single, accepted definition, but we propose that "disease control" in AR can combine (i) measurements of the severity and/or frequency of daily or nocturnal symptoms, (ii) impairments in social, physical, professional and educational activities, (iii) respiratory function monitoring and (iv) exacerbations (e.g. unscheduled medical consultations and rescue medication use). Although control-based classifications have a number of limitations (e.g. their dependence on treatment compliance and the patient's psychological status), these instruments could be used as an adjunct to the ARIA severity classification and regional practice parameters. Here, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of the current two-level ARIA classification, analyze published proposals for its modification and review the literature on instruments that measure AR control. We conclude that there is a need for research in which severity is compared with control in terms of their effects on patient management. PMID:23419058

  20. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Mar. 23, 2012 Thanks to news coverage, ... of breast or ovarian cancer. Physicians now use genetic tests to decide on treatment for some types ...

  1. The Microbiome and Development of Allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Susan V.; Boushey, Homer A.

    2017-01-01

    Purposes of review First, to review how the global rise in prevalence of asthma prompted studies of the relationships between microbial exposure in early infancy, the rate and pattern of development of immune function, and the development of allergic sensitization and of wheezing in childhood. And, second, to review how those studies laid the groundwork for a possible strategy for primary prevention of asthma through manipulation of the microbiome of the gastrointestinal and/or respiratory tracts. Recent findings Atopy and asthma are complex diseases thought to result from a “gene-by-environment” interaction; the rapidity of their rise in prevalence points to a change in environment as most likely causal. Epidemiologic studies noting associations between events in infancy and later development of atopic diseases have suggested that their rise in prevalence is related to a deficiency in microbial exposure in early life. The findings from birth cohort studies of humans and from interventional studies of mice converge in suggesting that a deficiency in microbial colonization of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract by certain commensal microbes results in skewed development of systemic and/or local immune function that increases susceptibility to allergic sensitization and to viral lower respiratory infection. Recent studies are now honing in on identifying the microbes, or collection of microbes, whose collective functions are necessary for induction of immune tolerance, and thus of reduced susceptibility. Summary Atopy and asthma appear to have their roots in an insufficiency of early life exposure to the diverse environmental microbiota necessary to ensure colonization of the gastrointestinal and/or respiratory tracts with the commensal microbes necessary for induction of balanced, toleragenic immune function. Identification of the commensal bacteria necessary, now ever closer at hand, will lay the groundwork for the development of strategies for primary

  2. [Prevention of allergic diseases in childhood: from theory to reality].

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Allergic diseases have an increasing worldwide prevalence and a great impact on the health related costs. The research is focused on the study of etiological and risk factors of allergic diseases that can potentially be modified with primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies. Many of these measures do not have a definitively proven effect taking place in a controlled context different to what happens in real life. This paper aims to review the latest evidence on prevention of allergic diseases considering certainties and unresolved issues and focuses mainly on environmental, dietary, pharmacological and immunological preventive strategies for different levels of prevention. It is imperative to have a better understanding of genetic and environmental factors that cause allergic diseases to optimize preventive measures that are effective in reversing the increasing trend in the prevalence of allergic illnesses in childhood.

  3. [Cytokines and anti-cytokines in allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Fal, Andrzej M

    2003-06-01

    Allergic inflamation is complexed phenomenon related to the activity of many mediators released from "effector cells". The role of IL-12, IL-5, IL-4 and some adhesive molecules is presented with special attention focused on therapeutical aspects in allergic diseases.

  4. [Serum and secretory immunoglobulins in allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Atovmian, O I; German, G P; Chernokhvostova, E V

    1985-07-01

    A total of 158 patients with pollinosis, bronchial asthma, urticaria and Quincke's edema were examined. The immunoglobulin and C3 levels in sera and the immunoglobulin and albumin levels in saliva were determined by the method of single radial immunodiffusion with the corresponding monospecific antisera. In all the groups of patients subjected to examination the presence of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia was detected, which was manifested by a rise in the levels of IgG, IgA and especially IgM; the level of IgD was low. A decrease in the level of C3 was detected in pollinosis patients in the absence of the exacerbation of the disease. No circulating immune complexes were detected. An essential increase in the level of IgG in saliva was revealed, which was due to the local synthesis of this immunoglobulin. In winter the level of salivary IgA in pollinosis patients was found to be essentially below normal, but at the period of exacerbation it increased twofold, probably in response to local stimulation with antigen-allergen. Patients with bronchial asthma and pollinosis were found to have a high level of free secretory component (SC); in pollinosis the level of free SC sharply increased during the stage of exacerbation, which was due to the increase of its synthesis and secretion by the epithelial cells of the mucous membranes. The importance of these data for the pathogenesis of allergic diseases are discussed.

  5. [Allergic rhinitis and ashtma: 2 illnesses. The same disease?].

    PubMed

    González Díaz, Sandra N; Arias Cruz, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Disturbances of the upper and lower airways frequently coexist, and the association between allergic rhinitis and asthma is an example of that. The relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma probably occurs because both, nasal and bronchial mucosas are elements of a "united airway", and on the other hand, allergic rhinitis and asthma are manifestations of a common allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis and asthma are not only statistically associated, but have pathophysiological and clinical similarities. Allergic rhinitis is itself a risk factor for the development of asthma, but additionally may confound the diagnosis of asthma and may exacerbate coexisting asthma. The management of allergic rhinitis, mainly with the use of intranasal corticosteroids, improve asthma symptoms and lung function in asthmatic patients. Several mechanisms have been proposed to link the nose and bronchi, which include: postnasal drip of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory molecules; a possible nasobronchial neural reflex; an increased exposure of the lower airways to dry and cold air as well as aeroallergens because the mouth breathing secondary to nasal obstruction; and an increased susceptibility to rhinovirus infection secondary to an increased ICAM-1 expression in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis. A better understanding of the rhinitis-asthma relationship nature might allow the creation of better strategies for the integral treatment of patients with these diseases.

  6. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops in comparison with azelastine containing nasal spray and eye drops or with cromoglycic Acid containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Bilstein, Andreas; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects.

  7. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops in Comparison with Azelastine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops or with Cromoglycic Acid Containing Nasal Spray

    PubMed Central

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects. PMID:24982680

  8. Gut Microbiota and Allergic Disease. New Insights

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The rapid rise in childhood allergies (atopy) in Westernized nations has implicated associated environmental exposures and lifestyles as primary drivers of disease development. Culture-based microbiological studies indicate that atopy has demonstrable ties to altered gut microbial colonization in very early life. Infants who exhibit more severe multisensitization to food- or aero-allergens have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing asthma in childhood. Hence an emerging hypothesis posits that environment- or lifestyle-driven aberrancies in the early-life gut microbiome composition and by extension, microbial function, represent a key mediator of childhood allergic asthma. Animal studies support this hypothesis. Environmental microbial exposures epidemiologically associated with allergy protection in humans confer protection against airway allergy in mice. In addition, gut microbiome–derived short-chain fatty acids produced from a high-fiber diet have been shown to protect against allergy via modulation of both local and remote mucosal immunity as well as hematopoietic antigen-presenting cell populations. Here we review key data supporting the concept of a gut–airway axis and its critical role in childhood atopy. PMID:27027953

  9. Gut Microbiota and Allergic Disease. New Insights.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-03-01

    The rapid rise in childhood allergies (atopy) in Westernized nations has implicated associated environmental exposures and lifestyles as primary drivers of disease development. Culture-based microbiological studies indicate that atopy has demonstrable ties to altered gut microbial colonization in very early life. Infants who exhibit more severe multisensitization to food- or aero-allergens have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing asthma in childhood. Hence an emerging hypothesis posits that environment- or lifestyle-driven aberrancies in the early-life gut microbiome composition and by extension, microbial function, represent a key mediator of childhood allergic asthma. Animal studies support this hypothesis. Environmental microbial exposures epidemiologically associated with allergy protection in humans confer protection against airway allergy in mice. In addition, gut microbiome-derived short-chain fatty acids produced from a high-fiber diet have been shown to protect against allergy via modulation of both local and remote mucosal immunity as well as hematopoietic antigen-presenting cell populations. Here we review key data supporting the concept of a gut-airway axis and its critical role in childhood atopy.

  10. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  11. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  13. Dengue eye disease.

    PubMed

    Ng, Aaron W; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever, a viral disease epidemic in some parts of the world, is of considerable international concern, with a growing incidence owing to developing urbanization, tourism, and trade. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever are uncommon, but of great significance. Proposed mechanisms include direct viral infection as well as immunologic phenomena. Common manifestations include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal hemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies such as foveolitis, hemorrhage, and edema. Main symptoms include blurring of vision, scotomata, metamorphopsia, and floaters. Diagnostic and monitoring investigations described included optical coherence tomography, fundus fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, visual field analysis, and electrophysiologic tests. Management is based on clinical presentation and includes active surveillance as well as various anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies. There have been no prospective, randomized therapeutic trials, and it is unclear if the disease is self-limiting or if treatment is actually beneficial. Prognosis varies, ranging from full resolution to permanent vision loss despite intervention.

  14. Dietary polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Holvoet, S; Mercenier, A

    2011-10-01

    Allergic disorders encompass skin, food and respiratory allergies. Sensitization to a normally harmless allergen results in the immune system being biased to a predominant T-helper type 2 response. Re-exposure to the same allergen leads to a robust secretion of allergy-related mediators that eventually triggers symptoms. Our understanding of these disorders has enabled the search of therapeutic approaches that can either modulate the sensitization process or impact on allergic mediators, thus helping manage allergic symptoms. Polyphenols are one such class of compounds that are found in foods and plant sources and have been investigated for their anti-allergic effect in different disease models and in human clinical trials. Their anti-inflammatory profile is known to impact on the recruitment of immune cells to the skin and in preventing the development of secondary infections following disruption of the skin barrier. The interaction of polyphenols with proteins can modulate the process of allergic sensitization and their direct effect on allergic effector cells such as mast cells inhibit mediator release, resulting in the alleviation of symptoms. In addition, their endogenous anti-oxidant ability limits the extent of cellular injury from free radicals during the allergic insult. Overall, polyphenols hold promise as anti-allergy agents capable of influencing multiple biological pathways and immune cell functions in the allergic immune response and deserve further investigation. The objective of the current review is to summarize the key findings and progress made in studying polyphenols as anti-allergic ingredients. Special emphasis is placed in this review to highlight key physiological, cellular and signalling pathways implicated in the mechanism of action of different polyphenols in the context of allergic disorders and their manifestations.

  15. Role of cockroach proteases in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen

    2012-10-01

    Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.

  16. [Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditen) eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2004-09-01

    A group of 25 patients with signs of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis treated during the period of 2 to 6 month with ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops 2-3 times daily (Zaditen eye drops, Novartis Ophthalmic, AG, Switzerland) is described here. As subjective symptoms of itching, stinging, tearing, and mucous discharge were observed and evaluated, as well as objective signs of hyperemia of the conjunctiva and hypertrophy of the tarsal papillae. Similarly the onset of action, duration time, and toleration of the drug were assessed. Subjective symptoms disappeared after 10 days of treatment duration in 60% to 80% patients, after two months of treatment were present in the range 0% to 20%. Objective signs diminished after 10 days of treatment in 60%-72% patients, and after 2 months in 72% to 96% of patients. Hypertrophy of papillae of the tarsal conjunctiva did not totally disappear even after 6 month of treatment with ketotifen fumarate eye drops. Onset of action in all patients was 20 minutes or less, the duration of action was in the range of 8-13 hours. The drug was found as a good tolerable by all patients. Sixteen per cent of patients felt some burning following the instillation. The study states that ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops are effective in a monotherapy of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Due to its multiple action, the drug prevents the allergic reaction as well. Subjective symptoms are influenced faster and more effective than the objective signs. The treatment of objective signs needs prolonged use of these drops.

  17. Age-related eye disease.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Vinod B; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    As with many organs, compromised function of the eye is accompanied with age and has become increasingly prevalent with the aging population. When decreased visual loss becomes significant, patients' ability to perform activities of daily living becomes compromised. This decrease in function is met with morbidity and mortality, as well as a large socioeconomic burden throughout the world. This review summarizes the most common age-related eye diseases, including cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and age-related macular degeneration. Although our understanding of the genetic and biochemical pathways of these diseases is sill at its primitive stages, we have become able to help our patients improve the quality of life as they age.

  18. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis in young children.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, A; Marzetto, M

    1998-01-01

    In a randomised, multicentre study, the effect of azelastine eye drops (n = 51 patients) was compared in a double-blind manner with placebo eye drops (n = 30 patients) and in an open manner with levocabastine eye drops (n = 32 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving 113 children (aged 4 to 12 years) suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis. The primary variable was the response rate defined as the number of patients showing an improvement after three days of treatment of at least three score points, from a minimum baseline score of six, in the main ocular symptoms of itching, conjunctival redness and lacrimation (each assessed on a four-point scale). Patients discontinuing due to inefficacy were regarded as non-responders. The mean response rate in the azelastine eye drops group (74%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that in the placebo group (39%) and comparable with that in the levocabastine group. The response rates assessed by the patients in their diaries were very similar. Significant differences (p < 0.01) for azelastine compared with placebo were observed on days 3 and 14 in the mean sum scores for the three main symptoms and for a total of eight eye symptoms. The overall assessment of efficacy confirmed the superiority of both active treatments compared with placebo. Adverse drug reactions were reported in 23% of placebo-, 35% of azelastine- and 38% of levocabastine-treated patients. These were mainly local irritant effects. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 80%, 84% and 91% of placebo-, azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, respectively. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well-tolerated in children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  19. [Prevention of asthma and allergic diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; de Blic, J; Scheinmann, P

    2003-03-01

    Allergic diseases have become a major public health problem in industrialized countries, justifying the development of prevention programs. A review of the literature on allergens and atopic symptoms, age of primary sensitization and other factors associated with allergic diseases development is presented and is followed by a discussion on prevention measures. The most recent physiopathological and immunological data indicate that persistent asthma and allergic diseases in adults may be associated with events in early childhood. The parallel increase in autoimmune and allergic diseases has been correlated with regulatory mechanism defects, contradicting the previous theory that involved a predominantly Th1 or Th2 pathway. The primary prevention of asthma and allergic diseases thus appear to be somewhat utopian. Indeed based on recent results, the risk of developing allergies appears to be related to modern "clean" lyfestyles. Secondary prevention is probably necessary, possibly through specific immunotherapy. Tertiary prevention must also be considered. Passive smoking must be prevented as it can alter the development of the respiratory system and promote allergen sensitization. Randomized, controlled, prospective studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures.

  20. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald YM

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, with a particular focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Both elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system, as well as clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the “sunshine hypothesis,” laboratory evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and allergic diseases, the clinical evidence for/and against vitamin D playing a role in allergic diseases, and the emerging evidence regarding the potential use of vitamin D in augmentation of the innate immune response in atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:20670821

  1. Treating the Ocular Component of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Related Eye Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bielory, Leonard; Katelaris, C. H.; Lightman, Susan; Naclerio, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Context Allergy symptoms that affect the eyes are common in adults and children worldwide, and are often associated with nasal allergy symptoms, prompting the term ‘rhinoconjunctivitis’ to describe the condition. However, this condition has not always been recognized, and earlier literature reported allergic conjunctivitis only within a subset of nasal allergy patients. Evidence Acquisition To assess the current state of ocular allergy epidemiology, pathophysiology, and currently available treatment options, we performed a MEDLINE search for articles regarding ocular allergy, rhinoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). Evidence Synthesis The more severe forms of ocular allergy are not only distressing, but can also threaten a patient's vision. Each type of ocular allergy is associated with ocular redness, itching, and tearing; however, AKC and VKC can threaten the cornea, and research has revealed that involvement of different immune cell populations (mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes) may cause these more severe symptoms. A variety of treatment options exist to control ocular allergy symptoms. Nonpharmacologic options include allergen avoidance and lubrication with saline, and if these fail to be sufficiently effective, symptom relief may be provided by medicinal agents that are either applied topically to the eye or taken orally. Recent evidence suggests that nasal allergy treatments applied topically to the nose may also positively affect ocular allergy symptoms, which raises the interesting possibility that a parasympathetic nasal-ocular neural reflex pathway may be involved in the stimulation of allergic responses in the eye. Conclusions Ocular allergy is underdiagnosed and has a significant impact on the life of the patient. It is vital to reach a better understanding of ocular allergic mechanisms and inflammation, which may lead to improved treatment. PMID

  2. Iron homeostasis and eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

  3. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  4. Increase risk of allergic diseases in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Pin; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Kuo, Li-Na; Wang, Yao-Tung; Perng, Wuu-Tsun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Th2 and Th17 cells are both associated with developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and asthma. Th2 cells are also associated with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis (AD). The prevalence of such allergic diseases in AS patients is unknown. In this study, we intended to study the risk of allergic diseases in a 10-year follow-up population of newly diagnosed patients with AS. We used a nationwide 10-year population-based database retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) in Taiwan. The study cohort comprised 857 patients with AS who had at least 1 claim of inpatient admission or at least 2 claims of ambulatory visit. The comparison cohort consisted of 4285 randomly selected subjects matched with AS group at a ratio of 5:1. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to determine the 10-year disease-free survival rates after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. The AS patients had a 1.31 times greater risk of developing asthma within 10 years of diagnosis when compared with non-AS age- and sex-matched subjects, after adjusting for other risk factors (95% confidence interval = 1.00–1.75). But the difference was not significantly different. The AS patients also had a 1.46 times and a 1.22 times greater risk of developing allergic rhinitis and AD significantly. AS patients also had a lower allergic disease-free survival rate compared to non-AS group. Our results showed that patients with AS had a higher risk of developing allergic diseases later in life. PMID:27828843

  5. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  6. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  7. [Allergic rhinitis. Coexistent diseases and complications. A review and analysis].

    PubMed

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is rarely found in isolation and needs to be considered in the context of systemic allergic disease associated with numerous comorbid disorders, including asthma, chronic middle ear effusions, sinusitis, and lymphoid hypertrophy with obstructive sleep apnea, disordered sleep, and consequent behavioral and educational effects. The coexistence of allergic rhinitis and asthma is complex. First, the diagnosis of asthma may be confused by symptoms of cough caused by rhinitis and postnasal drip. This may lead to either inaccurate diagnosis of asthma or inappropriate assessment of asthma severity with over treatment of the patient. The term "cough variant rhinitis" is therefore proposed to describe rhinitis that manifest itself primarily as cough that results from postnasal drip. Allergic rhinitis, however, has also a causal role in asthma; it appears both to be responsible for exacerbating asthma and to have a role in its pathogenesis. Postnasal drip with nasopharyngeal inflammation leads to a number of other conditions. Thus sinusitis is a frequent extension of rhinitis and is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses. Allergen exposure in the nasopharynx with release of histamine and other mediators can cause Eustachian tube obstruction possibly leading to middle ear effusions. Chronic allergic inflammation of the upper airway causes lymphoid hypertrophy with prominence of adenoidal and tonsillar tissue. This may be associated with poor appetite, poor growth, obstructive sleep apnea, mouth breathing, pharyngeal irritation and dental abnormalities. Allergic rhinitis is therefore part of a spectrum of allergic disorders that can profoundly affect the well being and quality of life of a child. Prospective cohort studies are required to assess the disease burden caused by allergic rhinitis in childhood, its consequences due to delay in diagnosis and treatment, and to further assess the potential educational impairment that may result. Because

  8. Allergic diseases: the price of civilisational progress

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:25097472

  9. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed) proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source of support for gut microbe colonization, due to its bifidobacteria and galactooligosaccharide content. The literature lacks consensus in recommending the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, while prebiotics may prove to be effective in reducing atopy in healthy children. There is insufficient evidence to support soy formulas or amino acid formulas for

  10. The ocular surface: from physiology to the ocular allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Galicia-Carreón, Jorge; Santacruz, Concepción; Hong, Enrique; Jiménez-Martínez, María C

    2013-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva secondary to an immune response to exogenous antigens, usually called allergens. In fact, AC is a syndrome that involves the entire ocular surface, including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, and tear film. The signs and symptoms of AC have a meaningful effect on comfort and patient health, and could be influenced by environment, genetics and immune regulation mechanisms, all of which work together in a complex immunological homeostasis. Dysregulation in such immune responses could turn into a variety of ocular allergic diseases (OAD). This review describes some of the current understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in different OAD.

  11. Microarray Technology Applied to Human Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    IgE antibodies serve as the gatekeeper for the release of mediators from sensitized (IgE positive) mast cells and basophils following a relevant allergen exposure which can lead to an immediate-type hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction. Purified recombinant and native allergens were combined in the 1990s with state of the art chip technology to establish the first microarray-based IgE antibody assay. Triplicate spots to over 100 allergenic molecules are immobilized on an amine-activated glass slide to form a single panel multi-allergosorbent assay. Human antibodies, typically of the IgE and IgG isotypes, specific for one or many allergens bind to their respective allergen(s) on the chip. Following removal of unbound serum proteins, bound IgE antibody is detected with a fluorophore-labeled anti-human IgE reagent. The fluorescent profile from the completed slide provides a sensitization profile of an allergic patient which can identify IgE antibodies that bind to structurally similar (cross-reactive) allergen families versus molecules that are unique to a single allergen specificity. Despite its ability to rapidly analyze many IgE antibody specificities in a single simple assay format, the chip-based microarray remains less analytically sensitive and quantitative than its singleplex assay counterpart (ImmunoCAP, Immulite). Microgram per mL quantities of allergen-specific IgG antibody can also complete with nanogram per mL quantities of specific IgE for limited allergen binding sites on the chip. Microarray assays, while not used in clinical immunology laboratories for routine patient IgE antibody testing, will remain an excellent research tool for defining sensitization profiles of populations in epidemiological studies. PMID:28134842

  12. Visual Function in Geriatric Eye Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faye, Eleanor E.

    1971-01-01

    Visual functioning, treatment, and helpful low vision aids are discussed in relation to four major eye diseases of the elderly: cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. (KW)

  13. Asthma: the interplay between viral infections and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Regina K; Gill, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viruses and allergens synergistically contribute to disease pathogenesis in asthma. Potential mechanisms underlying this clinically relevant association are the subject of intense investigation. This review summarizes current knowledge and recent advances in this area, with an emphasis on potential mechanisms involving immunoglobulin E, type I interferon antiviral responses, epithelial factors, and the role of dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells in linking viral and allergic inflammatory responses relevant to asthmatic disease.

  14. Allergic Diseases and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Inchul; Kim, Inah; Park, Hye Jung; Roh, Jaehoon; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a clinical syndrome representing multi-organ and psychological symptoms caused by chronic exposure to various chemicals in low concentrations. We evaluated the prevalence and related factors of MCS targeting Korean adults using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI©). Methods A total of 446 participants were recruited from Severance Hospital. Participants underwent a questionnaire interview including questions on sociodemographic factors, occupational and environmental factors, allergic diseases, and the QEESI©. Among them, 379 participants completed the questionnaire and the QEESI©. According to the QEESI© interpretation results, participants were divided into very suggestive (VS) group and less suggestive (LS) group. Results The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher in allergic patients than non-allergic participants (19.7% and 11.3%, respectively, P=0.04). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, ages of 30-39 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.25-6.95) and those of 40-49 (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.02-6.21) were significantly related to MCS compared to those aged less than 30 years. Female sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.18), experience of dwelling in a new house (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03), and atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04-3.69) were also significantly related to MCS. However, only age of 30-39 in the allergic group was significant in the stratified analysis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher among allergic patients than non-allergic participants. People with experience of dwelling in a new house and atopic dermatitis were more at risk of being intolerant to chemicals. Further studies to provide the nationally representative prevalence data and clarify risk factors and mechanisms of MCS are required. PMID:25228997

  15. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  16. The eye and thyroid disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyan, Ajay E; Phipps, Richard P; Feldon, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The pathophysiology and optimal management of Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) have not yet been elucidated. Recent studies have increased our knowledge of the disease process and different diagnostic and therapeutic options. This review highlights the recent progress in TED research and identifies areas requiring further advancements. Recent findings The pathophysiology of TED likely involves genetic and environmental factors, which may potentiate cellular and humoral-mediated inflammation within the orbit. Despite progress in TED research, a target antigen has not been established with certainty. New diagnostic methods and questionnaires are being developed that potentially provide information regarding inflammatory activity of TED. Corticosteroids alone or in combination with orbital radiation may be effective in improving TED symptoms. New immunomodulating therapies may also have a role TED management. Surgery is highly effective for treatment of TED-induced optic nerve compression and for managing the chronic soft tissue changes of TED. Summary A unifying hypothesis of TED pathophysiology is elusive. Further bench research into the autoimmune process is needed. In addition, large, prospective, randomized clinical trials, based on the inflammatory activity of disease, while difficult to design, are essential to develop a consensus regarding the proper timing and use of anti-inflammatory medications. PMID:18854695

  17. Non-pulmonary allergic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease: a qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, David S; Shum, Mili; Hsieh, Jennifer; Blonski, Wojciech; Greenwald, David A

    2014-08-28

    While the etiological underpinnings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly complex, it has been noted that both clinical and pathophysiological similarities exist between IBD and both asthma and non-pulmonary allergic phenomena. In this review, several key points on common biomarkers, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and nutritional and probiotic interventions for both IBD and non-pulmonary allergic diseases are discussed. Histamine and mast cell activity show common behaviors in both IBD and in certain allergic disorders. IgE also represents a key immunoglobulin involved in both IBD and in certain allergic pathologies, though these links require further study. Probiotics remain a critically important intervention for both IBD subtypes as well as multiple allergic phenomena. Linked clinical phenomena, especially sinonasal disease and IBD, are discussed. In addition, nutritional interventions remain an underutilized and promising therapy for modification of both allergic disorders and IBD. Recommending new mothers breastfeed their infants, and increasing the duration of breastfeeding may also help prevent both IBD and allergic diseases, but requires more investigation. While much remains to be discovered, it is clear that non-pulmonary allergic phenomena are connected to IBD in a myriad number of ways and that the discovery of common immunological pathways may usher in an era of vastly improved treatments for patients.

  18. Developing Primary Intervention Strategies to Prevent Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Rueter, Kristina; Haynes, Aveni; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Allergic diseases are a major cause of morbidity in the developed world, now affecting up to 40 % of the population with no evidence that this is abating. If anything, the prevalence of early onset allergic diseases such as eczema and food allergy appears to be still increasing. This is almost certainly due to the changing modern environment and lifestyle factors, acting to promote immune dysfunction through early perturbations in immune maturation, immune tolerance and regulation. This early propensity to inflammation may also have implications for the rising risk of other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. Identifying risk factors and pathways for preventing early onset immune disease like allergy is likely to have benefits for many aspects of human health, particularly as many NCDs share similar risk factors. This review focuses on recent advances in primary intervention strategies for promoting early immune health and preventing allergic disease, highlighting the current evidence-based guidelines where applicable and areas requiring further investigation.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  20. The possible mechanisms of the human microbiome in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ipci, Kagan; Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Senturk, Mehmet; Cingi, Cemal

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, we discuss the importance of the microbiome in allergic disease. In this review paper, the data from the Medline (PubMed) and search engine of Kirikkale University were systematically searched for all relevant articles in June 15th, 2015 for the past 30 years. The keywords of "microbiome", "dysbiosis", "allergy", "allergic rhinitis", "allergic disease", "mechanisms" and "treatment" were used alone or together. In this paper, microbiomes were presented in terms of "Definition", "Influence of \\the human microbiome on health", "The microbiome and allergic diseases", and "Modulation of the gut microbiota in terms of treatment and prevention". Microbiological dysbiosis is also reviewed. The microbiome is the genetic material of all microbes (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) that live on or in the human body. Microbes outnumber human cells in a 10:1 ratio. Most microbes live in the gut, particularly the large intestine. Changes in the immune function of the respiratory tract are (at least in theory) linked to the immunomodulatory activity of the gut microbiota via the concept of a "common mucosal response". The gut microbiota shapes systemic immunity, thus affecting the lung mucosa. Alternatively, changes in the gut microbiota may reflect alterations in the oropharyngeal microbiota, which may in turn directly affect the lung microbiota and host immune responses via microaspiration. Dysbiosis is defined as qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal flora; and modern diet and lifestyle, antibiotics, psychological and physical stress result in alterations in bacterial metabolism, as well as the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. All immune system components are directly or indirectly regulated by the microbiota. The nature of microbial exposure early in life appears to be important for the development of robust immune regulation; disruption of either the microbiota or the host response can trigger chronic

  1. [Histamine H₁ receptor gene as an allergic diseases-sensitive gene and its impact on therapeutics for allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Yuto; Kuroda, Wakana; Yoshida, Haruka; Miyamoto, Yuko; Hattori, Masashi; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutics targeting disease-sensitive genes are required for the therapy of multifactorial diseases. There is no clinical report on therapeutics for allergic disease-sensitive genes. We are focusing on the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) as a sensitive gene. H1R mediates allergy histamine signals. H1R is a rate-limiting molecule of the H1R signal because the signal is increased with elevated receptor expression level. We discovered that the stimulation of H1R induced H1R gene expression through PKCδ activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The mechanism of H1R gene expression was revealed to play a key role in the receptor expression level in studies using cultured HeLa cells and allergic rhinitis model rats. Preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines is recommended for the therapy of pollinosis. However, the mechanism of the therapy remains to be elucidated. We demonstrated that repeated pretreatment treatment with antihistamines in the allergic rhinitis model rats resulted not only in improvement of symptoms but also in suppressed elevation of H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa. A clinical trial was then initiated. When symptoms and H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa of pollinosis patients with or without preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines were examined, both symptoms and high levels of H1R mRNA were significantly improved in treated compared with untreated patients. These results strongly suggest that H1R is an allergic disease-sensitive gene.

  2. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  3. Efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, M; McKenzie, S H; Steven, I; Cooper, C; Lanz, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ketotifen blocks histamine H1 receptors, stabilises mast cells, and prevents eosinophil accumulation. These multiple, pharmacological mechanisms provided the rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of ketotifen 0.025% eye drops in subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) in an environmental setting. Methods: This was a double masked, randomised, multicentre trial conducted in Australia. Subjects were randomly assigned to ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution, placebo (as vehicle), or levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic suspension, twice daily in each eye for a 4 week period. Subjects were assessed at follow up (days 5–8) and termination (days 25–31) visits. The primary efficacy variable was the responder rate, based on the subjects’ assessment of global efficacy at the follow up visit. Results: 519 subjects were randomised to treatment. At the follow up visit, the responder rate, based on subjects’ assessment of global efficacy, was significantly greater in the ketotifen group (49.5%) than in the placebo group (33.0%) for subjects with a positive diagnostic test for pollen allergy (p = 0.02). The investigators’ assessment of responder rates also showed that ketotifen was superior to placebo (p = 0.001). Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than levocabastine (p<0.05) for relief of signs and symptoms of SAC, at both the follow up and the termination visit. The type and frequency of adverse events were similar across treatment groups. Conclusions: In an environmental setting, ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of SAC, and in preventing their recurrence. Ketotifen consistently showed the best efficacy in comparison with both placebo and levocabastine. These results indicate that ketotifen eye drops are a valuable treatment option for this condition. PMID:14507747

  4. [Personalised medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Vieths, S; Bieber, T

    2013-11-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated allergic diseases are characterised by heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and a large variety of different sensitisation patterns. Apart from genetic predisposition several environmental factors play a role in sensitisation and elicitation of symptoms. Since the majority of clinically relevant allergens are now available as purified recombinant allergens component-resolved in vitro diagnosis allows the sensitization profile of allergic patients to be determined at the molecular level. Such data may allow physicians to draw conclusions on the severity and persistence of a given allergic disease and to predict the outcome of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) However, the potential of this approach needs to be demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. Moreover, in the context of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic bronchial asthma as well as the atopic march several screening-biomarkers, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, biomarkers of severity and predictive biomarkers are presented and discussed in this article. Traditionally a relevant proportion of allergen-specific immunotherapies is performed in a personalised manner using named patient products manufactured on the basis of an individual prescription. Such named patient products are often mixtures containing several allergen extracts from different sources. However, there is no proven evidence for the safety and efficacy of this approach. In Germany the Therapy Allergen Ordinance ("Therapieallergene-Verordnung", TAV) regulates that in the future allergen products for SIT of insect venom allergies, allergies to pollen of early flowering trees and grass pollen and house dust mite allergies cannot be marketed as named patient products, but always require a marketing authorisation. Thus personalised SIT with named patient products is restricted to the treatment of less prevalent allergies, for which the generation of state-of-the-art clinical data is more difficult

  5. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  6. Update on epigenetics in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Harb, Hani; Renz, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases, including allergies and asthma, are the result of complex gene-environment interactions. One of the most challenging questions in this regard relates to the biochemical mechanism of how exogenous environmental trigger factors modulate and modify gene expression, subsequently leading to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions. Epigenetics comprises the umbrella of biochemical reactions and mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modifications on histones and other structures. Recently, several lifestyle and environmental factors have been investigated in terms of such biochemical interactions with the gene expression-regulating machinery: allergens; microbes and microbial compounds; dietary factors, including vitamin B12, folic acid, and fish oil; obesity; and stress. This article aims to update recent developments in this context with an emphasis on allergy and asthma research.

  7. In vitro assessment of the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic eye drops using 5 cultured corneal and conjunctival cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Yaguchi, Shigeo; Koide, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic eye drops for human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) and commercially available ocular surface cells. A primary HCEC culture was derived from human eye bank specimens. SIRC (rabbit corneal epithelium), BCE C/D-1b (bovine corneal epithelial cells), RC-1 (rabbit corneal epithelium), and Chang (human conjunctival cells) were obtained commercially. The WST-1 assay was used to measure HCEC viability, and the viability of other cells was measured using the MTT assay. Cells were treated with 7 commercially available anti-allergic eye drops for 48 h and cell viability was measured and calculated as a percentage of control. The degree of toxicity for each eye-drop solution was based on the cell viability score (CVS). HCECs treated with a 1000-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution had a viability score of 67% for Rizaben and ≥80% for the other solutions with Zepelin being the least toxic. Cell viability in response to eye-drop solutions preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was dependent on the concentration of the drug solution and exposure time. Treatment of ocular surface cells with a 20-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution resulted in the following order of cell viability as determined by their CVS: Zepelin > Ketas = Zaditen ≥ Tramelas PF = Patanol ≥ Rizaben ≥ Livostin. This order was similar to that observed for HCECs, and cell viability was found to be concentration-dependent. Based on the penetration of the drug into eye tissues, HCECs are only likely to be pharmaceutically damaging in rare cases. Epithelial cell viability depends primarily on the concentration of BAK rather than on the action of the active component in the eye-drop solution. CVS values were useful for comparison of toxicity.

  8. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

  9. Eye Movements in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Robert J.; Ko, Philip C.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research. PMID:25182738

  10. Primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M; Assa'ad, Amal H; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of atopic disease, primary prevention may play a role in reducing its burden, especially in high-risk infants. With this in mind, the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology was charged with the task of developing recommendations for primary care physicians and specialists about the primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions according to current available literature and expert opinion. Recommendations that are supported by data are as follows. Avoidance diets during pregnancy and lactation are not recommended at this time, but more research is necessary for peanut. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 and up to 6 months is endorsed. For high-risk infants who cannot be exclusively breast-fed, hydrolyzed formula appears to offer advantages to prevent allergic disease and cow's milk allergy. Complementary foods can be introduced between 4 and 6 months of age. Because no formal recommendations have been previously provided about how and when to introduce the main allergenic foods (cow's milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish), these are now provided, and reasons to consider allergy consultation for development of a personalized plan for food introduction are also presented.

  11. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Rachel Bishop, NEI’s Chief of Consult Services, discusses eye health and the importance of comprehensive dilated exams ...

  12. Role of interleukin-18 in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nathan L; Mishra, Anil

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is an IL-1 family cytokine expressed by macrophages, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes and is implicated in various aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. IL-18 signals similar to IL-1β intracellularly to activate gene transcription. Since its discovery, IL-18 has been demonstrated to play a key role in pathogen defense from helminths and some bacteria. Recently however, evidence has accumulated that IL-18 expression is increased in many presentations of allergic disease. A pathologic role for IL-18 includes stimulating mast cell and basophil degranulation, recruiting granulocytes to sites of inflammation, increasing cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) and NK-T cells, inducing Immunoglobulin (Ig)E production and isotype switching, and affecting a broad range of T cells to promote a type II helper T cell (Th2) response. Evidence and importance of these effects are presented, including novel results from our lab implicating IL-18 in the direct expansion of mast cells, basophils, and other myeloid-lineage cells from bone-marrow precursors. The development of urticaria, asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, and eosinophilic disorders all have demonstrated correlations to increased IL-18 levels either in the tissue or systemically. IL-18 represents a novel site of immune regulation in not only allergic conditions, but also autoimmune diseases and other instances of aberrant immune functioning. Diagrammatic summarized abstract for readers convinance is presented in Fig. 1.

  13. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  14. Azelastine eye-drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Giede-Tuch, C; Westhoff, M; Zarth, A

    1998-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis of > or = 1 year's duration. A total of 151 patients received 0.025% or 0.05% azelastine eye-drops or placebo b.i.d. for 14 days according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dosing design; 129 patients completed the study as planned. The three target symptoms, scored on 4-point scales, were itching, lacrimation, and redness of the eyes; responders were patients whose symptom sum score decreased by > or = 3 from a baseline score of > or = 6 by day 3. Mean scores of these and five other symptoms were recorded also on days 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main symptoms and swollen eyelids. Responder rates were 73% for 0.025% (P=0.115 vs placebo) and 82% for 0.05% azelastine eye-drops (P=0.011 vs placebo) and 56% for placebo. The time courses of the mean (investigators' and patients') scores for the three main symptoms reflected the dose-dependent effect of azelastine eye-drops. One patient each from the two azelastine groups and three from the placebo group withdrew because of inefficacy. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 14 and 24 patients receiving 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops, respectively, and by eight placebo patients. These reactions were mainly slight application site reactions and taste perversion (bitter or unpleasant taste). Azelastine eye-drops are effective and well tolerated at a dose of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  15. Parental allergic disease before and after child birth poses similar risk for childhood allergies.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, E; Standl, M; von Berg, A; Lehmann, I; Hoffmann, B; Bauer, C-P; Koletzko, S; Berdel, D; Heinrich, J

    2015-07-01

    Whether the strength of associations between parental and child allergic diseases differs by whether the first onset of the parental disease is before or after a child's birth has never been examined and is the aim of this study. Yearly childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema diagnoses were longitudinally regressed against the effect of a parental disease (pre- vs post-child birth) of the same type separately for each parent using generalized estimation equations. Both a maternal and paternal history of asthma were associated with childhood asthma prevalence up to 15 years of age. Effect estimates were similar for parental asthma with first onset before and after the birth of the child. The results for allergic rhinitis and eczema were less consistent. Parental allergic diseases with first onsets before and after the birth of a child both pose risks to childhood allergic disease in the offspring, especially for asthma.

  16. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  17. Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and other allergies in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: unnoticed issue

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Piotr; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic diseases are becoming more prevalent in elderly patients. Allergic diseases have been observed in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The prevalence of atopic bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was analyzed in such elderly Polish population. Aim Analysis of the presence of allergic diseases in the patients with AD in Poland, including asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Material and methods The recruitment of subjects with AD was conducted at 6 sites representative of Polish rural and urban areas, and 1060 subjects with a mean age of 69.2 ±5.1 years were screened. Medical examinations, an original questionnaire, skin prick testing for common aeroallergens and appropriate serum-specific IgE assays were performed. Results Probable atopy was diagnosed in 234 (22.1%) analyzed patients, including 127 women (21.5% of women) and 234 men (22.8% of men). The average prevalence associated with age and sex in this population for bronchial asthma was 2.9%, atopic dermatitis/eczema was 0.6%, seasonal allergic rhinitis was 6.6%, perennial allergic rhinitis was 11.1% and polymorphous atopic disease was 4.4%. The most frequent positive results were recorded for the following allergens: mixed grass, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Alternaria. Conclusions One-fifth of diagnosed patients with AD have allergic disease requiring treatment. PMID:27881942

  18. [An association of the occupational risk factors from greenhouses with allergic diseases in their female workers' children: results of analysis].

    PubMed

    Imamov, A A; Troshina, I V; Fomicheva, G B; Zamalieva, M A

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes an association between occupational risk factors in the female workers of greenhouses and allergic diseases in their children. The major factors contributing to the occurrence of allergic disease in children are their maternal employment in greenhouses with harmful working conditions, much dust in an apartment, a family history of allergic diseases, and unfavorable family lifestyle.

  19. Scientists find link between allergic and autoimmune diseases in mouse study

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health, and their colleagues, have discovered that a gene called BACH2 may play a central role in the development of diverse allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, asthma, Crohn's disease, ce

  20. Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça; de Sousa, Jacqueline Martins; Vilela, Verônica Silva; Belfort, Rubens

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement. Although there is no gold standard, it is advisable to combine at least two tests. Strategies for treating DED have recently been modified and include patient education, tear substitute, corticosteroids, secretagogues, fatty acids, immunomodulators, occlusion of lacrimal puncta surgery and, tarsorrhaphy. Biological therapy and new topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus, tofacitinib and IL-1 receptor inhibitor are being tested. In this review, the evaluation tests for dry eye are compared and the main studies on treatment are presented, with emphasis on studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The authors propose an approach for the management of dry eye.

  1. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leino, M; Ennevaara, K; Latvala, A L; Nordgren, P; Posti, A M; Suves, R; Takalo, E

    1992-10-01

    A 4 week, multicentre, double-blind, double dummy, placebo controlled group comparative study was carried out during the birch pollen season to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops (twice daily) and 2% sodium cromoglycate eye drops (four times daily). Participants with a history of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) were randomized to receive nedocromil sodium (60), sodium cromoglycate (61) or placebo (64). Clinical assessment of SAC showed improvement with both active treatments compared to placebo but symptomatology was low and only changes in photophobia and grittiness reached significance (P < 0.05). Patient diaries showed significant control of itching by both active treatments, compared to placebo, with no differences between the active preparations. Patients' opinions indicated a marked placebo effect: 73% of this group reported full or moderate control of symptoms, compared with 75% in sodium cromoglycate and 80% in the nedocromil sodium group. Unusual symptoms were most common (27 patients) with nedocromil sodium eye drops: P < 0.05 vs. placebo (15 patients). There were no serious adverse events. Nedocromil sodium eye drops (b.d.) and sodium cromoglycate eye drops (q.i.d.) were both considered clinically more effective than placebo in controlling symptoms of SAC due to birch pollen.

  2. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Mann, Shivani N.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases. PMID:23843879

  3. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180

  4. Aqueous misdirection in thyroid eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Devjyoti; Rao, Aparna; Banerjee, Aniruddha; Padhy, Debananda

    2014-01-01

    Secondary glaucoma in thyroid eye disease (TED) is attributed either to raised episcleral venous pressure or to mechanical compression induced trabecular meshwork damage by mucopolysaccharide deposition. While the mechanism for raised intraocular pressure (IOP) in TED is largely mechanical and is often evident during its active stage, our case presented with aqueous misdirection in the left eye during the inactive stage. Appropriate diagnostic tests should be ordered to diagnose cause of raised IOP, which would help determine appropriate treatment for the cause for secondary glaucoma in TED. PMID:25414214

  5. Minimally invasive surgery for thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12-18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics.

  6. Minimally invasive surgery for thyroid eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12–18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics. PMID:26669337

  7. [N-acetyl-aspartylglutamic acid eye drops in allergic-type conjuctivitis. Double-blind comparative clinical study].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Ducournau, D; Lumbroso, P; Serpin, G

    1985-01-01

    Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were included in a double-blind randomized clinical trial designed to compare the efficiency and tolerance of two antiallergic eye-drops: one containing NAAGA (22 patients), the other one containing disodium Cromoglycate (28 patients). Both treatments were used at a dosage of 1 drop 4 times per day. Ocular symptoms, conjunctivo-corneal signs and the subjective ocular condition assessed by the patients themselves with visual analogue scales, were all significantly improved by both eye-drops during the first month of treatment. Statistical analysis showed that patient ocular condition improved more rapidly with NAAGA eye-drops. In 25 patients (12 in the NAAGA group and 13 in the Cromoglycate group), the study was continued for an additional month according to a cross-over protocol. During the 2nd month of treatment, additional improvement of ocular symptoms and signs were observed with both eye-drops but more markedly in those patients who received NAAGA after Cromoglycate. Ocular tolerance was good for both eye-drops.

  8. Dry Eye as a Mucosal Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Michael E.; Schaumburg, Chris S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface inflammatory disease that significantly affects quality of life. Dysfunction of the lacrimal function unit (LFU) alters tear composition and breaks ocular surface homeostasis, facilitating chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Accordingly, the most effective treatments to date are geared towards reducing inflammation and restoring normal tear film. The pathogenic role of CD4+ T cells is well known, and the field is rapidly realizing the complexity of other innate and adaptive immune factors involved in the development and progression of disease. The data support the hypothesis that dry eye is a localized autoimmune disease originating from an imbalance in the protective immunoregulatory and proinflammatory pathways of the ocular surface. PMID:23360156

  9. For Seniors, Treatment for One Eye Disease May Cause Another

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164127.html For Seniors, Treatment for One Eye Disease May Cause Another Risk of glaucoma tied ... Drugs that preserve vision in people with the eye disease called age-related macular degeneration might increase ...

  10. [Research progress on role of chemokine receptor CCR3 signaling in allergic airway diseases].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Liu, Yuehui

    2012-12-01

    Allergic airway diseases have been identified as chronic inflammatory diseases of respiratory membranes, characterized by infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils. The expression of CCR3 is abundant on the cell surface of eosinophils. Increased accumulation of CCR3-driven inflammatory cells is thought to favor the development of allergy. In this review, we survey the properties of CCR3 and its ligands and highlight the roles of CCR3 signaling in allergic airway diseases.

  11. Hyperleukotrieneuria in patients with allergic and inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masami; Higashi, Noritaka; Ono, Emiko; Mita, Haruhisa; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2008-12-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs: leukotrienes C(4), D(4), and E(4)) have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and several allergic diseases. LTE(4) has been identified as a major metabolite of LTC(4), and urinary LTE(4) (U-LTE(4)) is considered as the most reliable analytic parameter for monitoring the endogenous synthesis of CysLTs. From recent studies on the U-LTE(4) associated with adult stable asthma we identified four factors for hyperleukotrieneuria, namely, aspirin intolerance, eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP), vasculitis, and severe asthma. In ENP, there is prominent infiltration of eosinophils in the sinus and polyp tissues, which is linked to adult asthma and aspirin sensitivity, and ENP is the most important factor for the overproduction of CysLTs in asthmatics. We also demonstrated that anaphylaxis and eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) are associated with a marked increase in the U-LTE(4) concentration. Under these disease conditions, U-LTE(4) may be one of the candidate biomarkers. Moreover, the changes in U-LTE(4) concentrations may provide valuable information concerning therapeutic targets.

  12. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Koschel, D; Pietrzyk, C; Sennekamp, J; Müller-Wening, D

    2006-05-01

    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). In this report we describe the case of a patient who developed episodes of fever, dyspnea and cough 4-6 hours after cleaning his indoor swimming pool. A diagnosis of EAA was made on finding a restrictive lung function pattern with gas exchange abnormalities, a predominant lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar lavage, diffuse ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes on high-resolution computer tomography, and specific IgG antibody activity to the swimming pool water. There was no precipitin reaction or specific IgG antibody activity to microbes extracted from the water. Interestingly, the water contained Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in huge amounts and in this case the histopathological features of the lung biopsy specimens differed from those seen in typical EAA, but were similar to those described in "hot tub lung" caused by mycobacteria. Solely by avoidance of cleaning the swimming pool, without any pharmacological treatment, the patient recovered completely within three months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EAA possibly associated with MAC exposure in a swimming pool environment.

  13. Systems biology of asthma and allergic diseases: a multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Schadt, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to understanding living systems that focuses on modeling diverse types of high-dimensional interactions to develop a more comprehensive understanding of complex phenotypes manifested by the system. High-throughput molecular, cellular, and physiologic profiling of populations is coupled with bioinformatic and computational techniques to identify new functional roles for genes, regulatory elements, and metabolites in the context of the molecular networks that define biological processes associated with system physiology. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of asthma and allergic diseases, a systems biology approach is attractive, as it has the potential to model the myriad connections and interdependencies between genetic predisposition, environmental perturbations, regulatory intermediaries, and molecular sequelae that ultimately lead to diverse disease phenotypes and treatment responses across individuals. The increasing availability of high-throughput technologies has enabled system-wide profiling of the genome, transcriptome, epigenome, microbiome, and metabolome, providing fodder for systems biology approaches to examine asthma and allergy at a more holistic level. In this article we review the technologies and approaches for system-wide profiling, as well as their more recent applications to asthma and allergy. We discuss approaches for integrating multiscale data through network analyses and provide perspective on how individually captured health profiles will contribute to more accurate systems biology views of asthma and allergy.

  14. Gut Microbiome and the Development of Food Allergy and Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Benjamin T.; Mandel, Mark J.; Nadeau, Kari; Singh, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases continues to rise within the industrialized world, yet the cause of this epidemic remains elusive. Environmental factors such as microbial exposures have more recently been implicated as one possible driving factor behind the increasing burden of allergic disease. The impact of gut microbiome on human development, nutritional needs, and disease has become evident with advances in our ability to study these complex communities of microorganisms, and there is a growing appreciation for the role of the microbiome in immune regulation. Several studies have examined associations between changes in the commensal microbiota and the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, but far less have evaluated the impact of the microbiome on the development of food allergy. In this article we review the human gastrointestinal microbiome, focusing on the theory and evidence for its role in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy and other allergic diseases. PMID:26456445

  15. The Treatment of Allergic Respiratory Disease During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Namazy, Jai; Schatz, M

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new-onset or preexisting asthma and allergic rhinitis.This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of allergy and use of asthma medication during pregnancy. Both allergic rhinitis and asthma can adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, in the case of maternal asthma, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management is thus important for both mother and baby. This article reviews the safety of asthma and allergy medications commonly used during pregnancy.

  16. Genetic risk factors for the development of allergic disease identified by genome-wide association

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, M A; Hodge, E; Sayers, I

    2015-01-01

    An increasing proportion of the worldwide population is affected by allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic asthma and improved treatment options are needed particularly for severe, refractory disease. Allergic diseases are complex and development involves both environmental and genetic factors. Although the existence of a genetic component for allergy was first described almost 100 years ago, progress in gene identification has been hindered by lack of high throughput technologies to investigate genetic variation in large numbers of subjects. The development of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), a hypothesis-free method of interrogating large numbers of common variants spanning the entire genome in disease and non-disease subjects has revolutionised our understanding of the genetics of allergic disease. Susceptibility genes for asthma, AR and AD have now been identified with confidence, suggesting there are common and distinct genetic loci associated with these diseases, providing novel insights into potential disease pathways and mechanisms. Genes involved in both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms have been identified, notably including multiple genes involved in epithelial function/secretion, suggesting that the airway epithelium may be particularly important in asthma. Interestingly, concordance/discordance between the genetic factors driving allergic traits such as IgE levels and disease states such as asthma have further supported the accumulating evidence for heterogeneity in these diseases. While GWAS have been useful and continue to identify novel genes for allergic diseases through increased sample sizes and phenotype refinement, future approaches will integrate analyses of rare variants, epigenetic mechanisms and eQTL approaches, leading to greater insight into the genetic basis of these diseases. Gene identification will improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and generate potential

  17. Hyperresponsiveness in the human nasal airway: new targets for the treatment of allergic airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, P J; Foreman, J C

    1999-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a condition which affects over 15% of the population in the United Kingdom. The pathological process involves two stages: nasal inflammation, and the development of nasal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen and a number of other stimuli. This results in the amplification of any subsequent allergic reaction, contributing to the chronic allergic state. A number of different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of AHR, including a role for eosinophil-derived proteins, free radicals and neuropeptides. While there may be a number of independent pathways which can result in AHR, evidence obtained from both animal models and in vivo experiments in humans indicate that some mediators may interact with one another, resulting in AHR. Further research into these interactions may open new avenues for the pharmacological treatment of chronic allergic rhinitis, and possibly other allergic airway diseases. PMID:10704051

  18. [Non-allergic type of atopic dermatitis among patients of Allergic Diseases Diagnostic Center, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań].

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Silny, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of unclear etiopathogenesis. It belongs to the group of atopic diseases and an IgE-mediated uptake and antigen focusing of environmental allergens by IgE-bearing dendritic cells is assumed to be a central immunopathogenetic event resulting in clinical appearance of AD. In case of non-allergic (intrinsic) type of AD, non IgE-related factors are involved in the process. Potential immunological and clinical differences between allergic and non-allergic type of the disease are still being investigated. The aim of our study was to evaluate prevalence of non-allergic and allergic type of AD among patients of Allergic Diseases Diagnostic Center, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań between 2001 and 2002. We investigated 161 patients with AD and selected factors influencing course of the disease such as age, gender, month of birth, population of the region and characteristics of sensitizing allergens were analyzed. Allergological diagnostics consisted of skin prick tests and measurements of total and antigen specific IgE concentrations in sera of investigated patients (FEIA CAP). Non-allergic type of AD was registered in 38.5% of the investigated population. There was no significant difference between allergic and non-allergic type of AD in terms of month of birth and living conditions (urban areas or countryside). Especially in the case of children evaluations of total and antigen specific IgE serum concentrations were helpful in verification of skin prick test results. In the group of patients with allergic type of AD grass pollen allergens were sensitizing most frequently and finally type of sensitizing airborne allergens may be at least partially related to the environmental characteristics of the region.

  19. Prevalence of allergic diseases and risk factors of wheezing in Korean military personnel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Jong Seong; Noh, Chang Suk; Lee, Sei Won

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the risk factors of wheezing among young adults in the Korean military. Young military conscripts in five areas completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. For subjects with current wheeze in one sample area, baseline spirometry and bronchodilator response were measured. For subjects without a significant response to bronchodilator (improvement in FEV1 of more than 200 mL and 12%), methacholine challenge tests (MCT) were also performed. Of 3,359 subjects that completed the questionnaire, 354 (10.5%) had current wheeze, 471 (14.0%) had current allergic rhinitis, and 326 (9.7%) had current eczema. Current wheeze was associated with family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Of 36 subjects with current wheeze who underwent PFT with or without MCT in the Anyang area, 24 (66.7%) were confirmed to have current asthma. In conclusion, the prevalence of allergic disease in young adults of Korean military is not low, and the risk factors of wheezing include family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  20. [Recommendations for the management of the child with allergic diseases at school].

    PubMed

    Saranz, Ricardo J; Lozano, Alejandro; Mariño, Andrea; Boudet, Raúl V; Sarraquigne, María Paula; Cáceres, María Elena; Bandín, Gloria; Lukin, Alicia; Skrie, Víctor; Cassaniti, María Cristina; Agüero, Claudio; Chorny, Marta; Reichbach, Débora S; Arnolt, Roque Gustavo; Cavallo, Aldo

    2015-06-01

    Allergic diseases cause great impact on the health related quality of life in children and adolescents, resulting in increased school absenteeism and deficiencies in school performance. Although the bibliographic framework on allergic diseases is wide, in our country, there are no guidelines for proper management of the allergic child at school. It is necessary to establish guidelines for coordinated action among the educational community, the families, the pediatrician, the health team and governmental and non-governmental authorities. This position paper aims to provide information about the impact of allergic diseases on school activities, establish standards of competence of the various stakeholders at school and consider the legal framework for the intervention of the school staff about the child with allergies at school.

  1. Osteopontin and allergic disease: pathophysiology and implications for diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Denis F; Weiss, Johannes M

    2011-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoglycoprotein that is expressed by various immune cells in a secreted and intracellular form. It has cytokine, chemotactic and cell signaling functions enhancing Th1 and Th17 immunity and protects against apoptosis. Recent studies found OPN to be modulatory in cell-mediated and immediate-type allergic diseases. In allergic asthma, OPN enhances sensitization but downmodulates Th2-driven IL-4-dominated inflammation. The finding that OPN expression is augmented during specific immunotherapy supports a Th2 suppressive effect of OPN. In Th1-driven delayed-type allergy, such as allergic contact dermatitis, OPN supports dendritic cell migration and IL-12 expression and is secreted by T effector cells and keratinocytes, augmenting Th1-mediated allergy and supporting disease chronification. There are numerous missing links as to how OPN variants modulate allergic inflammation through different OPN receptors. OPN research in allergy is an interesting, rapidly expanding field that has high potential for translational research.

  2. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre

  3. Off-label prescribing for allergic diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The majority of drugs prescribed have not been tested in children and safety and efficacy of children’s medicines are frequently supported by low quality of evidence. Therefore, a large percentage of prescriptions for children in the clinical daily practice are used off label. Despite the several recent legislation and regulatory efforts performed worldwide, they have not been successful in increasing availability of medicines adapted to children. Moreover, if we consider that 30% of the prescribed drugs for children are for the respiratory field and only 4% of new investigation projects for children research were proposed to access drugs for respiratory and allergy treatment, there is a clear imbalance of the children needs in this therapeutic area. This narrative review aimed to describe and discuss the off-label use of medicines in the treatment and control of respiratory and allergic diseases in children. It was recognized that a large percentage of prescriptions performed for allergy treatment in daily clinical practice are off label. The clinicians struggle on a daily basis with the responsibility to balance risk-benefits of an off-label prescription while involving the patients and their families in this decision. It is crucial to increase awareness of this reality not only for the clinician, but also to the global organizations and competent authorities. New measures for surveillance of off-label use should be established, namely through population databases implementation. There is a need for new proposal to correct the inconsistency between the priorities for pediatric drug research, frequently dependent on commercial motivations, in order to comply to the true needs of the children, especially on the respiratory and allergy fields. PMID:24528848

  4. [Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K; Finis, D; Meller, S; Buhren, B A; Wagenmann, M; Geerling, G

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) as well as intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis are widespread diseases. Because a combined occurrence of ocular and nasal symptoms is very common the summarising term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is frequently used. SAC and PAC representing the two acute forms of allergic conjunctivitis account for more than 90 % of all cases of allergic conjunctivitis. Compared to the chronic forms of allergic conjunctivitis their course of disease is milder. Nevertheless because of their high prevalence and the proven influence on patients' quality of life they possess clinical and socioeconomic relevance. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is caused by a type 1 IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is provoked by aeroallergens in the majority of cases. The pathognomonic sign is itching. Besides, typical ocular findings are chemosis, conjunctival injection, watery secretion and lid swelling. Otorhinolaryngologists' findings include rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and sneezing. Problems in breathing through the nose resulting from nasal obstruction can cause impaired nighttime sleep and daytime somnolence. In addition to a reduction of allergen exposure by modification of environment and life style factors, in mild forms of SAC and PAC artificial tears are recommended. Topical antihistamines can generate rapid relief from acute symptoms and itching. Topical mast cell stabilisers however provide long-term effects. Dual action drugs that combine antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers show increased patient compliance due to reduced application frequency. Use of topical steroids should be cautious and only temporary. For prolonged treatment periods unpreserved anti-allergic eye-drops should be preferred. Combined topical antihistamines and new-generation topical nasal steroids often used by otorhinolaryngologists demonstrate a good safety profile without systemic side effects. In summary

  5. Ivermectin for onchocercal eye disease (river blindness)

    PubMed Central

    Ejere, Henry OD; Schwartz, Ellen; Wormald, Richard; Evans, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    Background It is believed that ivermectin (a microfilaricide) could prevent blindness due to onchocerciasis. However, when given to everyone in communities where onchocerciasis is common, the effects of ivermectin on lesions affecting the eye are uncertain and data on whether the drug prevents visual loss are unclear. Objectives The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ivermectin in preventing visual impairment and visual field loss in onchocercal eye disease. The secondary aim was to assess the effects of ivermectin on lesions affecting the eye in onchocerciasis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1950 to April 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 April 2012. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials with at least one year of follow-up comparing ivermectin with placebo or no treatment. Participants in the trials were people normally resident in endemic onchocercal communities with or without one or more characteristic signs of ocular onchocerciasis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. As trials varied in design and setting, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Main results The review included four trials: two small studies (n = 398) in which people with onchocercal infection were given one dose of ivermectin or placebo and followed up for one year; and two larger community-based studies (n = 4941) whereby all individuals in

  6. Corneal biomechanical properties in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Gamze Ozturk; Kaynak, Pelin; Altan, Cıgdem; Ozturker, Can; Aksoy, Ebru Funda; Demirok, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of thyroid eye disease (TED) on the measurement of corneal biomechanical properties and the relationship between these parameters and disease manifestations. A total of 54 eyes of 27 individuals with TED and 52 eyes of 30 healthy control participants were enrolled. Thyroid ophthalmopathy activity was defined using the VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance/exposure) classification for TED. The intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), axial length (AL), keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were taken from each patient. Corneal biomechanical properties, including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) and noncontact IOP measurements, Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg) and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) using the standard technique. Parameters such as best corrected visual acuity, axial length, central corneal thickness, and corneal curvature were not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05). IOP measured with GAT was higher in participants with TED (p < 0.001). The CH of TED patients was significantly lower than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in the corneal resistance factor between groups. However, IOPg and IOPcc were significantly higher in TED patients. CH and VISA grading of TED patients showed a negative correlation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, TED affects the corneal biomechanical properties by decreasing CH. IOP with GAT and IOPg is found to be increased in these patients. As the severity of TED increases, CH decreases in these patients.

  7. [ENT diseases associated with allergic rhinitis: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Coste, A

    2000-06-01

    Various diseases of the upper airway, such as acute or chronic sinusitis, otitis media, pharyngitis or laryngitis, snoring and sleep apnea syndrom, may be associated with allergic rhinitis. The relationship between these pathologies and the allergic rhinitis has been well established from a clinical and epidemiological point of view, but the pathophysiological mechanisms remain uncertain. A good knowledge of symptoms and the performance of explorations, such as nasal endoscopy for sinusitis, are important in order to take care of these associated diseases. When upper airway diseases are associated with allergic rhinitis, treatment of rhinitis must generally be reinforced. Treament of associated disease will be specific to each disease, and sometimes surgery is required, specially in case of chronic sinusitis. In all cases, the pneumologist, allergologist and ENT physician should work in close collaboration.

  8. Netra darpanamu - A Unique book on eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Goli Penchala

    2007-10-01

    Netra Darpanamu is the only book written exclusively on Eye diseases in Telugu. This Ayurvedic book, which is famous in Andhra Pradesh, was first published in 1908 in Eluru. The book is written in chaste Telugu poetry, comprising the types of treatment followed by 36 recipes. This book contains names of various eye diseases, treatment procedures like bandages, plasters, collyriums and regimen of food and behaviour. This article aims to highlight the importance of this book in treating various eye diseases.

  9. Netra darpanamu - A Unique book on eye diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Goli Penchala

    2007-01-01

    Netra Darpanamu is the only book written exclusively on Eye diseases in Telugu. This Ayurvedic book, which is famous in Andhra Pradesh, was first published in 1908 in Eluru. The book is written in chaste Telugu poetry, comprising the types of treatment followed by 36 recipes. This book contains names of various eye diseases, treatment procedures like bandages, plasters, collyriums and regimen of food and behaviour. This article aims to highlight the importance of this book in treating various eye diseases. PMID:22557269

  10. Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. PMID:23995043

  11. β-Glucans in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Rennerova, Zuzana; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    β-glucans are a group of biologically active polysaccharides of natural origin with a proven pleiotropic immunomodulation effect. Their efficacy has been confirmed in the therapeutic treatment and prevention of various infectious diseases, secondary immune defects and also of oncologic disorders. Allergic diseases are one of the most frequent diseases and their prevalence continues to increase. They develop as a consequence of dysregulation of the immune system, especially when there is failure in the equilibrium of the response of TH1/TH2 lymphocytes towards TH2. New therapeutic approaches in the treatment of immunopathological conditions (e.g. allergic or oncologic) are directed to restoring the equilibrium among different T lymphocyte subpopulations. Based on in vitro experiments, and also on animal and human clinical studies, there is much evidence for the importance of β-glucans in the treatment and also prevention of allergic diseases; this opens new perspectives on the use of this widespread and popular group of natural substances.

  12. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  13. Expression of TSLP and Downstream Molecules IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 on the Eye Surface of Patients with Various Types of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis has not been clearly established. Moreover, previous studies fail to consider human models of allergic conjunctivitis. This study investigated the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoiet in TSLP and its downstream molecules in conjunctival scrappings and tear. Methods. This cross-sectional study compares patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) with normal controls. There are 80 people recorded in Shanxi Eye Hospital. Increasingly, 20 are with VKC, 20 are with SAC, 20 are with PAC, and the remaining 20 are normal controls. Conjunctiva were harvested for total RNA extraction and gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells were collected to make pathological sections for immunohistochemical staining. Human tears were evaluated by Luminex microbead assay. A P value less than 0.05 from Dunnett's post hoc test in SPSS means a statistical significant distinction. Results. Positive expression in conjunctival cells of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. The expression of TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA shows a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 concentrations show a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study suggests that TSLP and downstream molecules are expressed in patients with various types of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27504196

  14. Socio-epidemiological Aspects of Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Taborda-Barata, Luís

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of respiratory allergic diseases has been increasing in Southern Africa both in urban and in rural environments. Various factors may contribute toward this situation, namely, exposure to aeroallergens, such as grass pollens and house dust mites. However, other irritant environmental triggers, such as exposure to tobacco smoke and certain indoor and outdoor fumes, may also play a relevant part. Furthermore, certain parasitic and mycobacterial infections may act as allergic disease risk modifiers, although such an influence should be confirmed. Finally, certain cultural and socioeconomic factors may also influence accessibility to healthcare and adherence to treatment of these diseases. PMID:23268464

  15. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P < 0.001). Our results in general indicate a low frequency of FLG null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  16. Proallergic cytokines and group 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic nasal diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kazufumi; Kato, Yukinori; Akasaki, Shoko; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of proallergic cytokines and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) indicate their critical roles in type 2 immunity-mediated disorders. Proallergic cytokines, interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, are released from epithelial cells in inflamed tissues and drive type 2 inflammation by acting on innate and acquired immune systems. ILC2s are an innate immune population that responds to proallergic cytokines by producing type 2 cytokines. In line with allergic disorders in the lung, skin, and intestine, emerging evidence suggests the involvement of proallergic cytokines and ILC2s in allergic nasal diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps (CRSwNP), allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, and allergic rhinitis (AR). In CRSwNP patients, both proallergic cytokine levels and ILC2s frequency are increased in the nasal mucosa. Increased proallergic cytokine levels correlate with poorer disease outcomes in CRSwNP. Levels of nasal proallergic cytokines are also elevated in AR patients. In addition, animal studies demonstrate that cytokines are essential for the development of AR. It is becoming clear that the proallergic cytokine/ILC2s axis participates in allergic diseases by multiple mechanisms dependent upon the inflammatory context. Thus, a thorough understanding of these cytokines and ILC2s including their tissue- and disease-specific roles is essential for targeting the pathways to achieve therapeutic applications.

  17. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease.

  18. [Aeroallergens, skin tests and allergic diseases in 1091 patients].

    PubMed

    Enríquez Palomec, O; Hernández Chávez, L; Sarrazola Sanjuan, D M; Segura Méndez, N H; Hernández Colín, D D; Martínez-Cairo, S

    1997-01-01

    To know the frequency of positively of several skin tests, data cards from patients, of the Allergy and Clinic Immunology Service of the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI (Mexico City), between January, 1989 and March, 1995, were reviewed. Aqueous extracts manufactures by our laboratory were applied, in a dilution of 1:1000 weight-volume. 1091 from 5,651 skin tests patients were positive. Asthma and rhinitis were diagnosed in 492, allergic rhinitis in 289, allergic asthma in 111, and other diagnosis in 199 cases. The most frequent inhalable aeroallergens were house dust and perennial Dermatophagoides p and f1 with predominance in the rainy season, followed by pollens from Fraxinus a. Quercus a and Capriola, with predominance in the rainy season. The most frequent fungi were Candida and Fusarium, with predominance in the dry season.

  19. Exposure to cats: update on risks for sensitization and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Lodge, Caroline L; Matheson, Melanie C; Campbell, Brittany; Lowe, Adrian J

    2012-10-01

    Cats are the pets most commonly implicated in the etiology of asthma and allergic disease. However, systematic reviews have concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the idea that cat exposure in early life increases the risk of allergic disease. Indeed, it appears most likely that cat exposure is protective against allergic diseases. Recent large prospective studies have shown that living with a cat during childhood, especially during the first year of a child's life, could be protective. However, any advice given to the parents should also incorporate how new acquisition of cats can affect other family members, especially those who are already sensitized. Research is urgently needed to determine whether the suggested impact of acquisition of cats in adult life is modified by the person's childhood pet ownership, to help parents who seek advice on whether or not to get a cat.

  20. Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic diseases in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    There may be a causal relationship between intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and childhood allergic diseases. This can be explained by plausible biological mechanisms involving eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Long chain n-3 PUFAs are found in fish and fish oils. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs. Thus, it is considered that n-3 PUFAs will lower the risk of developing allergic diseases. In support of this, protective associations have been reported between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants and children from those pregnancies. However, studies of fish intake during infancy and childhood and allergic outcomes in those infants or children are inconsistent, although some reported a protective association. Supplementing pregnant women with fish oil can induce immunologic changes in cord blood. This supplementation has been reported in some studies to decrease sensitisation to common food allergens and to lower the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. The protective effect of maternal n-3 PUFAs may last until adolescence of the offspring. Fish oil supplementation in infancy may decrease the risk of developing some manifestations of allergic disease, although this benefit may not persist. Whether fish oil is a useful therapy in children with asthma receiving standard therapy is not clear from studies performed to date and this requires further exploration.

  1. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P < 0.05). Regression analysis of patients with DED revealed the PSQI and HADS scores were significantly correlated with the severity of DED (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED.

  2. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P < 0.05). Regression analysis of patients with DED revealed the PSQI and HADS scores were significantly correlated with the severity of DED (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED. PMID:26927330

  3. Dry Eye Disease and Microbial Keratitis: Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Srihari; Redfern, Rachel L.; Miller, William L.; Nichols, Kelly K.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms operate to protect the dry eye from invading pathogens. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology of ocular surface infection in dry eye patients and laboratory-based studies on innate immune mechanisms operating at the ocular surface and their alterations in human dry eye and animal models. The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae. PMID:23583043

  4. Gut Microbiome and the Development of Food Allergy and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Prince, Benjamin T; Mandel, Mark J; Nadeau, Kari; Singh, Anne Marie

    2015-12-01

    The impact of gut microbiome on human development, nutritional needs, and disease has become evident with advances in the ability to study these complex communities of microorganisms, and there is growing appreciation for the role of the microbiome in immune regulation. Several studies have examined associations between changes in the commensal microbiota and the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, but far less have evaluated the impact of the microbiome on the development of food allergy. This article reviews the human gastrointestinal microbiome, focusing on the theory and evidence for its role in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy and other allergic diseases.

  5. [. Oсumethyl in the treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, N R

    Treatment of allergic diseases of eyelids and conjunctiva (conjunctivites and blepharoconjunctivites) often presents difficulties due to peculiarities of their pathogenesis - allergic and vascular reactions, disorder of lacrimal production, meibomian gland dysfunction, and possible bacterial contamination. It has been suggested to use Ocumethyl, which contains zinc sulfate (binding, drying, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic effect), diphenhydamine hydrochloride (an Н1-antihistamine that decreases capillary permeability and helps resolve conjunctival and eyelid edema), naphazoline hydrochloride (a sympathomimetic notable for its strong, rapid, and long-lasting vasoconstrictive effect), and methylene blue (antiseptic effect, disintoxication, and antioxidant activity). A total of 80 patients with chronic allergic conjunctivitis, blepharoconjuntivitis, or giant papillary conjunctivitis associated with contact lens wearing were treated with Ocumethyl instillations (3 times daily for 15-30 days). A clinically significant effect was obtained in 77-91% of patients depending on the disease entity.

  6. [The pilot study of type Ⅰ allergic reaction in Meniere's disease patients].

    PubMed

    Pan, T; Zhao, Y; Ding, Y J; Lu, Z Y; Ma, F R

    2017-02-07

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between type Ⅰ allergic reaction and pathogenesis of Meniere's disease. Methods: A total of 35 (10 male vs. 25 female) patients aged between 21-66 years diagnosed with Meniere's disease were recruited to this study, mean age of them was (47.3±13.6) years. The control group consisted of 15 inpatients (5 male vs. 10 female) with pharyngolaryngeal diseases but without otologic and rhinologic abnormity, mean age was 45.4±12.8 years. Allergic prevalence, serous total immunoglobulin E( tIgE ) levels, serous specific immunoglobulin E( sIgE ) levels and subtypes of T lymphocytes were measured and compared in patients with Meniere's disease and the control group. Severity of vertigo, tinnitus and sensation of fullness were compared between Meniere's disease patients with or without allergy. Results: Allergic prevalence were significantly different (Pearson chi-square 5.832, P<0.05) between patients with Meniere's disease and the control group(57.1% vs. 20.0%). Patients with Meniere's disease report higher level of serous tIgE compared with controls, the difference is statistically significant (Z=168.000, P<0.05). However, positive rates of sIgE of food allergens and inhalant allergens were not significantly different between patients with Meniere's disease and the control group. Scores of vertiginous severity, dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) were significantly different between Meniere's disease patients with or without allergy (P<0.05). Treg and Treg/Th17 levels (Z=26.000) were much higher in Meniere's disease patients with allergy than in the controls(P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with Meniere's disease report higher rate of allergy than the control group. Type Ⅰ allergic reaction is thought to be one of the possible reasons that may induce endolymphatic hydrops and lead to Meniere's disease.

  7. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AS ADJUVANTS IN ALLERGIC AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: Studies have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) worsen respiratory diseases including allergic asthma. The adjuvant effects of DEP in the airways have been widely reported; however, the precise determinants and mechanisms of these effects are ill-defined. S...

  8. [The antiallergic eye drops "polynadyme": development, experimental and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Maĭchuk, Iu F; Pozdniakov, V I; Pozdniakova, V V; Iakushina, L N

    2006-01-01

    The antiallergic eye drops "Polynadyme", proposed by the Helmgolz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, have been prepared by the "Sintez" PJSC (Kurgan). The drops exert a combination of antihistaminic and vasoconstrictive effects and, for better tolerability, contain a low-toxic preserving complex. The drops are polymer-based, which ensures a long action and an artificial tear effect. Preclinical rabbit trials have shown the safety of the "Polynadyme" eye drops, their specific activity in preventing an allergic reaction, and their antiallergic effect on a model of allergic conjunctivitis. Comparative clinical trials covering 150 patients have yielded excellent and good results in 93% of cases. In acute allergic reactions, hyperemia, itch, and burning diminished just 5 minutes after administration. The "Polynadyme" eye drops are effective in treating pollinous conjunctivitis, spring (vernal) keratoconjunctivitis, allergic reactions when wearing contact lenses, the dry eye syndrome, drug-induced and toxicoallergic conjunctivitis, and other ocular allergic reactions.

  9. Exhaled NO: Determinants and Clinical Application in Children With Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Bin; Eckel, Sandrah P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously released in the airways, and the fractional concentration of NO in exhaled breath (FeNO) is now recognized as a surrogate marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation that can be measured using a noninvasive technique suitable for young children. Although FeNO levels are affected by several factors, the most important clinical determinants of increased FeNO levels are atopy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. In addition, air pollution is an environmental determinant of FeNO that may contribute to the high prevalence of allergic disease. In this review, we discuss the mechanism for airway NO production, methods for measuring FeNO, and determinants of FeNO in children, including host and environmental factors such as air pollution. We also discuss the clinical utility of FeNO in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and further useful directions using FeNO measurement. PMID:26540497

  10. Long chain N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette

    2012-01-01

    The diet is considered to have a major impact on human health. Dietary lipids including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) possess potent immunomodulatory activities. Over the last decades the incidence of inflammatory disorders including allergic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been rising. This phenomenon is associated with deficiencies in N-3 LCPUFA, found in fatty fish, and increased content of N-6 LCPUFA in the Western diet. LCPUFA act via different mechanisms including membrane fluidity, raft composition, lipid mediator formation, signaling pathways and transmembrane receptors. N-3 LCPUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the development of allergic disease by affecting both the innate and adaptive immune system involved in the initiation and persistence of allergic disease. Fish oil has been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of allergic disease in infants at risk when supplemented during pregnancy and lactation. Subtle effects of N-3 LCPUFA on the outcome of the immune response may underlie these protective effects. This review describes the currently reported effects of LCPUFA on dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and mast cells. Also CVD are positively affected by N-3 LCPUFA. Populations consuming high amounts of oily fish are protected against CVD. Moreover N-3 LCPUFA are effective in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Amongst other effects, EPA and DHA have been shown to suppress endothelial cell activation hereby reducing adhesion molecule expression and endothelial cell - leukocyte interactions. This review describes the mechanistic basis of the preventive role for N-3 LCPUFA in allergic disease and CVD.

  11. High proportion of CD5+ B cells in infants predicts development of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Johansen, Susanne; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Hesselmar, Bill; Rudin, Anna

    2014-07-15

    Delayed maturation of the immune system has been proposed to be a risk factor for development of allergy, but B cell maturation in relation to allergic disease has not been examined. B cells lose CD5 and acquire CD27 during maturation from immature via mature/naive to Ig-secreting cells and memory cells. We sought to investigate B cell maturation in relation to development of allergic disease and sensitization in the FARMFLORA birth cohort including 65 Swedish children. Total B cell numbers, proportions of CD5(+) and CD27(+) B cells, and levels of IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE were measured in blood on repeated occasions from birth to 36 mo of age, and related to allergic disease and sensitization at 18 and 36 mo of age with multivariate discriminant analysis. We also compared the expression of CD24 and CD38 within CD5(+) and CD5(neg) B cells in children and in adults. We found that infants with a high proportion of CD5(+) B cells at birth and at 1 mo of age had an increased risk for having allergic disease at 18 and 36 mo of life. Further, the proportions of CD5(+) B cells at 1 mo of age were inversely correlated with total IgG levels at 18 and 36 mo of age. The majority of the CD5(+) B cells were of a CD24(hi/+)CD38(hi/+) immature/naive phenotype at birth (97%), 7 y of age (95%), and in adults (86%). These results suggest that development of allergic disease is preceded by an immaturity in neonatal B cell phenotype.

  12. TGFβ Receptor Mutations Impose a Strong Predisposition for Human Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela A.; Guerrerio, Anthony L.; Oswald, Gretchen; Chichester, Kristin; Myers, Loretha; Halushka, Marc K.; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Wood, Robert A.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor–β (TGFβ) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays diverse roles in physiologic processes as well as human disease, including cancer, heart disease, and fibrotic disorders. In the immune system, TGFβ regulates regulatory T cell (Treg) maturation and immune homeostasis. Although genetic manipulation of the TGFβ pathway modulates immune tolerance in mouse models, the contribution of this pathway to human allergic phenotypes is not well understood. We demonstrate that patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding receptor subunits for TGFβ, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2, are strongly predisposed to develop allergic disease, including asthma, food allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease. LDS patients exhibited elevated immunoglobulin E levels, eosinophil counts, and T helper 2 (TH2) cytokines in their plasma. They had an increased frequency of CD4+ T cells that expressed both Foxp3 and interleukin-13, but retained the ability to suppress effector T cell proliferation. TH2 cytokine–producing cells accumulated in cultures of naïve CD4+ T cells from LDS subjects, but not controls, after stimulation with TGFβ, suggesting that LDS mutations support TH2 skewing in naïve lymphocytes in a cell-autonomous manner. The monogenic nature of LDS demonstrates that altered TGFβ signaling can predispose to allergic phenotypes in humans and underscores a prominent role for TGFβ in directing immune responses to antigens present in the environment and foods. This paradigm may be relevant to nonsyndromic presentations of allergic disease and highlights the potential therapeutic benefit of strategies that inhibit TGFβ signaling. PMID:23884466

  13. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Allergic Conjunctivitis (Video) Overview of the Eyes (News) Stem Cells ... and covers the white of the eye. Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an ...

  14. [An increase in allergic diseases in childhood--current hypotheses and possible prevention].

    PubMed

    Kurz, Herbert; Riedler, Jose

    2003-01-01

    During the last few decades there has ben a significant rise in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that this increase is real and not due to changes in diagnostic labelling. It has become increasingly clear that a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors account for this phenomenon. Genetically predisposed individuals are at an increased susceptibility to develop asthma or other allergic diseases when exposed to certain environmental or lifestyle factors. Particularly passive smoking has been shown to increase the risk for asthma in many studies and for atopy at least in some studies. This association is less clear for the exposure to sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, diesel exhaust and ozone. Lifestyle factors like socioeconomic status, sib-ship size, early childhood infections, dietary habits, growing up in antroposophic families or on a farm are more and more realised to be of great relevance for the development of allergic conditions. At the moment, there is a lot of uncertainty about which recommendations should be given for primary prevention. Recent studies have challenged the old paradigma that avoidance of early allergen contact could prevent the development of allergic disease. However, there is consensus that avoidance of smoking during pregnancy and avoidance of passive smoking during childhood should be recommended for primary prevention of asthma.

  15. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Self-Reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Female University Students.

    PubMed

    Kliś, K; Żurawiecka, M; Suder, A; Teul, I; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Suliga, E; Wronka, I

    2017-02-25

    Until recently, most studies report an increasing prevalence of allergy and asthma. The research suggests that the increase may have to do with changes in lifestyle and living conditions. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and changes in allergic diseases in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) 6 years apart. The research material consisted of data collected in two cross-sectional surveys conducted among university female students in 2009 and 2015 (respectively, 702 and 1305 subjects). The surveys evaluated the incidence of allergic conditions and socio-economic status. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were defined on the basis of medical work-up. The prevalence of allergic diseases increased from 14.0% to 22.3% over a 6-year period. In both cohorts, allergic diseases were more prevalent among females with high SES than with low SES. In 2009, significant differences were noted in relation to urbanization of the place of living and the number of siblings. In 2015, all socioeconomics factors significantly bore on the prevalence of allergy.

  16. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A.; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child’s recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33–3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children. PMID:27258306

  17. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child's recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50-74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33-3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children.

  18. Dry eye disease: A review of diagnostic approaches and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Yiu, Samuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye (DE) is a common ocular disease that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance and substantially affects the quality of life. It has a multifactorial etiology involving tear film instability, increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface with potential damage to the ocular surface. This review discusses the classification, diagnostic approaches and treatments of DE. PMID:25278793

  19. Dose-dependent protection by azelastine eye drops against pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Horak, F; Berger, U E; Menapace, R; Toth, J; Stübner, P U; Marks, B

    1998-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) eye drops at three different doses (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%) were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 24 subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, who were challenged, out of season, by airbone allergen in the "Vienna Challenge Chamber" (VCC). Subjects received a single dose of azelastine eye drops 60 min before the start of a 4 h challenge in the VCC. Additional local challenge, mimicking a gust of wind, was administered 15 min before the end of the session. Each of the 4 study days was separated by a 2 week washout period. Azelastine eye drops showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the development of itching of the eyes. The effect was most pronounced 15 min after the additional local challenge. A maximal effect was achieved at a dose of 0.05%. Similar effects were observed on lacrimation. Azelastine eye drops also dose-dependently inhibited the degree of conjunctival redness, measured by digital imaging, and tended to reduce the low incidence of chemosis observed. Ranking of the results of all symptoms for each treatment group confirmed the optimal effect at a dose of 0.05%. Azelastine eye drops had no effect on nasal and bronchial symptoms or on measurements of airways function (FEV1). No adverse effects of the treatments were reported. The data support the use of 0.05% azelastine eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis.

  20. General anesthesia exposure in early life reduces the risk of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chen; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Jiang, Jyun-Hong; Huang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract General anesthesia (GA) has been used for second line treatment strategy for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients. The association between GA in children and risk of followed-up allergic diseases is unclear. This study aims to assess the risk of allergic diseases after GA in children. We did a nationwide retrospective cohort study by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, including asthma (ICD-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between exposure to GA and none before 1 year of age throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model. Insurance claims data for 32,742 children younger than 1 year old from all insured children in the NHIRD. Of those, 2358 subjects were exposed to GA; 414 and 1944 children exposed to mask and intubation ventilation, respectively, served as the study cohort, whereas the remaining 30,384 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the GA group were at a lower risk of developing asthma, AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.67 (0.62–0.72, 95%CI), 0.72 (0.68–0.77, 95%CI), 0.60 (0.56–0.64, 95%CI), respectively. Children who were exposed to GA in early life before 1 year of age had reduced risk of subsequently developing allergic diseases such as asthma, AD, and AR, when compared with general population. PMID:27428241

  1. Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary fiber influences allergic airway disease and hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Trompette, Aurélien; Gollwitzer, Eva S; Yadava, Koshika; Sichelstiel, Anke K; Sprenger, Norbert; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Blanchard, Carine; Junt, Tobias; Nicod, Laurent P; Harris, Nicola L; Marsland, Benjamin J

    2014-02-01

    Metabolites from intestinal microbiota are key determinants of host-microbe mutualism and, consequently, the health or disease of the intestinal tract. However, whether such host-microbe crosstalk influences inflammation in peripheral tissues, such as the lung, is poorly understood. We found that dietary fermentable fiber content changed the composition of the gut and lung microbiota, in particular by altering the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. The gut microbiota metabolized the fiber, consequently increasing the concentration of circulating short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Mice fed a high-fiber diet had increased circulating levels of SCFAs and were protected against allergic inflammation in the lung, whereas a low-fiber diet decreased levels of SCFAs and increased allergic airway disease. Treatment of mice with the SCFA propionate led to alterations in bone marrow hematopoiesis that were characterized by enhanced generation of macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) precursors and subsequent seeding of the lungs by DCs with high phagocytic capacity but an impaired ability to promote T helper type 2 (TH2) cell effector function. The effects of propionate on allergic inflammation were dependent on G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41, also called free fatty acid receptor 3 or FFAR3), but not GPR43 (also called free fatty acid receptor 2 or FFAR2). Our results show that dietary fermentable fiber and SCFAs can shape the immunological environment in the lung and influence the severity of allergic inflammation.

  2. Duration of breast-feeding and the risk of childhood allergic diseases in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Ehlayel, Mohammad S; Bener, Abdulbari

    2008-01-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) seems to reduce risk of allergies in the western countries, but there are few reports from developing countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of EBF on the development of allergic diseases and eczema in a developing country. This is a cross-sectional survey done at the well-baby clinics of 11 primary health centers, Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1500 children (0-5 years old) and mothers (18-47 years old) were surveyed between October 2006 and September 2007. Of them, 1278 mothers (85.2%) participated in the study. A confidential, anonymous questionnaire assessing breast-feeding and allergic diseases was completed by mothers bringing children for immunization. Questionnaire included allergic rhinitis, wheezing, eczema, type and duration of breast-feeding, parental smoking habits, number of siblings, family income, maternal education, and parental allergies. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were performed for statistical analysis. More than one-half of the infants (59.3%) were on EBF. Length of breast-feeding was associated with maternal age. Prevalence of eczema (19.4%), allergic rhinitis (22.6%), and wheezing (12.7%) were significantly less frequent in those with prolonged (>6 months) compared with short-term fed infants. The association between EBF and eczema tended to be similar in children with a positive family history of atopy (p < 0.001) and eczema (p < 0.001) compared with those without. In children of developing countries, prolonged breast-feeding reduces the risk of developing allergic diseases and eczema even in the presence of maternal allergy, where it might be a practical, effective preventive measure.

  3. Psoriasis and the eye: prevalence of eye disease in Singaporean Asian patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Nisha S; Greaves, Malcolm; Gao, Fei; Lim, Laurence; Cheng, Bob C L

    2007-12-01

    There is little published data on the incidence of eye disease in Asian patients with psoriasis. We determined the frequency of ocular complications in Singaporean Asian patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and related these to extent and severity of psoriasis, family history, treatment and presence of arthritis. A cross-sectional prevalence investigation was carried out in 100 patients who received a comprehensive eye examination. Psoriasis extent and severity was graded by the Lattice System Physician's Global Assessment (LS-PGA). Two patients (four eyes) had uveitis, one of whom had psoriatic arthritis (2% incidence). Presence or absence of uveitis correlated with mean LS-PGA scores. Sixty-three patients had cataract unrelated to previous steroid or phototherapy treatment; in younger (<50 years) patients they were commoner than in those with higher (>5) LS-PGA scores. Three eyes in two patients (2% prevalence) had glaucomatous optic neuropathy unrelated to previous treatment, and comparable with expected population frequency. These findings, although limited by lack of data from a comparable control population, suggest that eye complications are common in Asian patients with psoriasis and eye symptoms should be elicited during history taking. Besides signs and symptoms of eye disease, an LS-PGA score of more than 5 should prompt referral for ophthalmological examination.

  4. The Microbiome, Timing, and Barrier Function in the Context of Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Wesemann, Duane R; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-04-19

    Allergic disease affects millions. Despite many advances in our understanding of the immune system in the past century, the physiologic underpinning for the existence of allergy remains largely mysterious. Food allergies, in particular, have increased dramatically in recent years, adding a new sense of urgency to unraveling this mystery. The concurrence of significant lifestyle changes in Western societies with increasing disease prevalence implies a causal link. Demographic variables that influence the composition and function of the commensal microbiota early in life seem to be most important. Identifying the evolutionary and physiologic foundations of allergic disease and defining what about our modern environment is responsible for its increased incidence will provide insights critical to the development of new approaches to prevention and treatment.

  5. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'.

  6. The prevalence and risk factors of asthma and allergic diseases among working adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Erkan; Ersu, Refika; Uyan, Zeynep Seda; Oktem, Sedat; Varol, Nezih; Karakoc, Fazilet; Karadag, Bulent; Akyol, Mesut; Dagli, Elif

    2010-01-01

    Certain occupational groups are known to be at particularly high risk of developing allergic diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases among working adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used. Four hundred and thirty six adolescents working in motor, lathe-finish, coiffure and textile and 366 high school students as control group were enrolled to the study. Mean age was 16.8 +/- 1.2 years and 82.9% of them were male. There was no significant difference among groups for ever and current wheezing while doctor diagnosed asthma was higher in lathe- finish group (p = 0.036). Family history of allergy, history of allergic rhinitis, and active smoking were found to be risk factors for asthma and related symptoms. Working in coiffure (p = 0.054), and textile (p = 0.003) were significant risk factors for ever allergic rhinitis. Working in lathe finish (p = 0.023), coiffure (p = .002), and textile (p < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk for current allergic rhinitis. Working in coiffure was a risk factor for ever eczema (p = 0.008) and doctor diagnosed eczema (p = 0.014). It was concluded that working in lathe-finish was associated with doctor diagnosed asthma and active smoking was a risk factor for asthma and related symptoms. Working in coiffure, textile and lathe- finish were risk factors for rhinitis, and working in coiffure was a risk factor for eczema. Preventive measures should be taken at the onset of employment in order to prevent or reduce the detrimental effects of exposures in these occupational groups.

  7. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Shtein, Roni M.; Harper, Daniel E.; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E.; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Results Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; P<.001) and increases in self-reported dry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; P<.001) in the dry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Conclusions Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye. PMID:28050051

  8. Recent developments on dry eye disease treatment compounds

    PubMed Central

    Colligris, Basilio; Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Pintor, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common tears and ocular surface multifactorial disease, described by changes in the ocular surface epithelia related to reduced tears quantity and ocular surface sensitivity, leading to inflammatory reaction. Managing the eye inflammation proved helpful to patients with dry eye disease and current treatment is based on the use of topically applied artificial tear products/lubricants, tear retention management, stimulation of tear secretion and using anti-inflammatory drugs. In this article we revise the corresponding literature and patents assembling the new treatment approaches of novel and future pharmaceutical compounds destined for the dry eye disease treatment. The most frequent categories of compounds presented are secretagogues and anti-inflammatory drugs. These compounds are the research outcome of novel therapeutic strategies designed to reduce key inflammatory pathways and restore healthy tear film. PMID:24526854

  9. Beta-adrenergic receptors of lymphocytes in children with allergic respiratory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Bittera, I.; Gyurkovits, K.; Falkay, G.; Eck, E.; Koltai, M.

    1988-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites on peripheral lymphocytes in children with bronchial asthma (n = 16) and seasonal allergic rhinitis (n = 8) were examined in comparison with normal controls (n = 18) by means of /sup 124/I-cyanopindolol. The number of beta-adrenergic receptors was significantly lower in the asthmatic group (858 +/- 460/lymphocyte) than in the controls (1564 +/- 983/lymphocyte). The value (1891 +/- 1502/lymphocyte in children with allergic rhinitis was slightly higher than that in healthy controls. Of the 24 patients suffering from allergic diseases of the lower or upper airways, the bronchial histamine provocation test was performed in 21; 16 gave positive results, while 5 were negative. No difference in beta-adrenergic receptor count was found between the histamine-positive and negative patients. Neither was there any correlation between the number of beta-adrenergic receptors and the high (16/24) and low (8/24) serum IgE concentrations found in allergic patients. The significant decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor count in asthmatic children lends support to Szentivanyi's concept. Further qualitative and quantitative analysis of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors may provide an individual approach to the treatment of bronchial asthma with beta-sympathomimetic drugs.

  10. Alterations of the Murine Gut Microbiome with Age and Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Harkema, Jack R; Rizzo, Mike; Tiedje, James; Brandenberger, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of asthma. With advanced age the microbiome and the immune system are changing and, currently, little is known about how these two factors contribute to the development of allergic asthma in the elderly. In this study we investigated the associations between the intestinal microbiome and allergic airway disease in young and old mice that were sensitized and challenged with house dust mite (HDM). After challenge, the animals were sacrificed, blood serum was collected for cytokine analysis, and the lungs were processed for histopathology. Fecal pellets were excised from the colon and subjected to 16S rRNA analysis. The microbial community structure changed with age and allergy development, where alterations in fecal communities from young to old mice resembled those after HDM challenge. Allergic mice had induced serum levels of IL-17A and old mice developed a greater allergic airway response compared to young mice. This study demonstrates that the intestinal bacterial community structure differs with age, possibly contributing to the exaggerated pulmonary inflammatory response in old mice. Furthermore, our results show that the composition of the gut microbiota changes with pulmonary allergy, indicating bidirectional gut-lung communications.

  11. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and management of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Compare, D; Nardone, G

    2013-01-01

    Allergy is defined as a hypersensitivity reaction due to specific antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms. Epidemiological studies are showing a dramatic increase of allergies in industrialized countries in the last few decades, while remaining stable in developing countries. In 1989 Strachan, hypothesized that the increase in allergic disorders was the result of a lack of infections in early infancy, and in 1998 Wold suggested that, rather than a decrease in viral or bacterial infections, an altered normal intestinal colonization pattern in infancy, could be responsible for the increase in allergies. Germ-free mice were shown to mount an exaggerated allergic airway reaction compared with that seen in colonized mice, indicating the important role of microbe-host interactions in the development of allergic diseases. Infants with food allergies are found to exhibit an imbalance between "beneficial"and potentially harmful bacteria, i.e., decreased Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Enterococcus species and increased coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium species, suggesting that microbial inhabitants of the human body, may play either a pathogenic or protective role in allergies. Based on this data, many clinical trial addressing the use of probiotics in the context of allergic disorders, have been conducted in children. However, currently, no conclusive item may be drawn.

  12. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome

    PubMed Central

    Eyring, Kenneth R.; Pedersen, Brent S.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS) or filtered air (FA). DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3) are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease. PMID:26642056

  13. Mechanistic impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, asthma and allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and eczema, have become increasingly common, but the reason for this increased prevalence is still unclear. It has become apparent that genetic variation alone is not sufficient to account for the observed changes; rather, the changing environment, together with alterations in lifestyle and eating habits, are likely to have driven the increase in prevalence, and in some cases, severity of disease. This is particularly highlighted by recent awareness of, and concern about, the exposure to ubiquitous environmental pollutants, including chemicals with oxidant-generating capacities, and their impact on the human respiratory and immune systems. Indeed, several epidemiological studies have identified a variety of risk factors, including ambient pollutant gases and airborne particles, for the prevalence and the exacerbation of allergic diseases. However, the responsible pollutants remain unclear and the causal relationship has not been established. Recent studies of cellular and animal models have suggested several plausible mechanisms, with the most consistent observation being the direct effects of particle components on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resultant oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. This review attempts to highlight the experimental findings, with particular emphasis on several major mechanistic events initiated by exposure to particulate matters (PMs) in the exposure-disease relationship. PMID:25694815

  14. Roles of histamine and its receptors in allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hua; He, Shao-Heng

    2005-01-01

    Mast cell has a long history of being recognized as an important mediator-secreting cell in allergic diseases, and has been discovered to be involved in IBD in last two decades. Histamine is a major mediator in allergic diseases, and has multiple effects that are mediated by specific surface receptors on target cells. Four types of histamine receptors have now been recognized pharmacologically and the first three are located in the gut. The ability of histamine receptor antagonists to inhibit mast cell degranulation suggests that they might be developed as a group of mast cell stabilizers. Recently, a series of experiments with dispersed colon mast cells suggested that there should be at least two pathways in man for mast cells to amplify their own activation-degranulation signals in an autocrine or paracrine manner. In a word, histamine is an important mediator in allergic diseases and IBD, its antagonists may be developed as a group of mast cell stabilizers to treat these diseases. PMID:15902718

  15. The nitrated fatty acid 10-nitro-oleate attenuates allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aravind T; Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Dornadula, Sireesh; Pinni, Sudheer; Rampa, Dileep R; Reddy, Raju C

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is a serious, growing problem worldwide. Inhaled steroids, the current standard therapy, are not always effective in this chronic inflammatory disease and can cause adverse effects. We tested the hypothesis that nitrated fatty acids (NFAs) may provide an effective alternative treatment. NFAs are endogenously produced by nonenzymatic reaction of NO with unsaturated fatty acids and exert anti-inflammatory actions both by activating the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and via PPAR-independent mechanisms, but whether they might ameliorate allergic airway disease was previously untested. We found that pulmonary delivery of the NFA 10-nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) reduced the severity of murine allergic airway disease, as assessed by various pathological and molecular markers. Fluticasone, an inhaled steroid commonly used to treat asthma, produced similar effects on most end points, but only OA-NO2 induced robust apoptosis of neutrophils and their phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. This suggests that OA-NO2 may be particularly effective in neutrophil-rich, steroid-resistant severe asthma. In primary human bronchial epithelial cells, OA-NO2 blocked phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and enhanced inhibitory binding of PPARγ to NF-κB. Our results indicate that the NFA OA-NO2 is efficacious in preclinical models of allergic airway disease and may have potential for treating asthma patients.

  16. Barrier dysfunction caused by environmental proteases in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Takai, Toshiro; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2011-03-01

    Skin barrier dysfunction has emerged as a critical driving force in the initiation and exacerbation of atopic dermatitis and the "atopic march" in allergic diseases. The genetically determined barrier deficiency and barrier disruption by environmental and endogenous proteases in skin and epithelium are considered to increase the risk of sensitization to allergens and contribute to the exacerbation of allergic diseases. Sources of allergens such as mites, cockroaches, fungi, and pollen, produce or contain proteases, which are frequently themselves allergens. Staphylococcus aureus, which heavily colonizes the lesions of atopic dermatitis patients and is known to trigger a worsening of the disease, also produces extracellular proteases. Environmental proteases can cause barrier breakdown in the skin, not only in the epithelium, and stimulate various types of cells through IgE-independent mechanisms. Endogenous protease inhibitors control the functions of environmental and endogenous proteases. In this review, we focus on the barrier dysfunction caused by environmental proteases and roles of endogenous protease inhibitors in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Additionally, we examine the subsequent innate response to Th2-skewed adaptive immune reactions.

  17. Prevention of house dust mite induced allergic airways disease in mice through immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Agua-Doce, Ana; Graca, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic airways disease is a consequence of a Th2 response to an allergen leading to a series of manifestations such as production of allergen-specific IgE, inflammatory infiltrates in the airways, and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR). Several strategies have been reported for tolerance induction to allergens leading to protection from allergic airways disease. We now show that CD4 blockade at the time of house dust mite sensitization induces antigen-specific tolerance in mice. Tolerance induction is robust enough to be effective in pre-sensitized animals, even in those where AHR was pre-established. Tolerant mice are protected from airways eosinophilia, Th2 lung infiltration, and AHR. Furthermore, anti-CD4 treated mice remain immune competent to mount immune responses, including Th2, to unrelated antigens. Our findings, therefore, describe a strategy for tolerance induction potentially applicable to other immunogenic proteins besides allergens.

  18. Environmental protection from allergic diseases: From humans to mice and back.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Bianca; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-10-01

    Allergic diseases have a strong environmental component, illustrated by the rapid rise of their prevalence in the Western world. Environmental exposures have been consistently shown to either promote or protect against allergic disease. Here we focus on protective exposures and the pathways they regulate. Traditional farming, natural environments with high biodiversity, and pets in the home (particularly dogs) have the most potent and consistent allergy-protective effects and are actively investigated to identify the environmental and host-based factors that confer allergy protection. Recent work emphasizes the critical protective role of microbial diversity and its interactions with the gut/lung and skin/lung axes-a cross-talk through which microbial exposure in the gut or skin powerfully influences immune responses in the lung.

  19. Dissimilar allergic disease in identical twins; a study of psychosomatic aspects.

    PubMed

    CREDE, R H; CARMAN, C T; WHALEY, R D; SCHUMACHER, I C

    1953-01-01

    Identical twins with bronchial asthma were studied. One had the first attack of the disease in late adolescence, the other not until he was adult. Both were demonstrated by immunologic means to be sensitive to house dust and certain foods. Yet, of itself, the factor of exposure to a known allergen seemed not enough to precipitate clinical allergic reaction in either of them. It is believed that emotional stress is accompanied by physiologic changes which facilitate increased reactions to antigenic agents that in normal circumstances would not cause clinical disease.The twins were widely different with regard to emotional development and in their reaction to situations of stress. In both of them allergic manifestations were associated with periods of emotional conflict.The dissimilar clinical manifestations of allergy in these identical twins may be explained by differences in personality and therefore in reactions to stress situations.

  20. Rethinking dry eye disease: a perspective on clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bron, Anthony J; Tomlinson, Alan; Foulks, Gary N; Pepose, Jay S; Baudouin, Christophe; Geerling, Gerd; Nichols, Kelly K; Lemp, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Publication of the DEWS report in 2007 established the state of the science of dry eye disease (DED). Since that time, new evidence suggests that a rethinking of traditional concepts of dry eye disease is in order. Specifically, new evidence on the epidemiology of the disease, as well as strategies for diagnosis, have changed the understanding of DED, which is a heterogeneous disease associated with considerable variability in presentation. These advances, along with implications for clinical care, are summarized herein. The most widely used signs of DED are poorly correlated with each other and with symptoms. While symptoms are thought to be characteristic of DED, recent studies have shown that less than 60% of subjects with other objective evidence of DED are symptomatic. Thus the use of symptoms alone in diagnosis will likely result in missing a significant percentage of DED patients, particularly with early/mild disease. This could have considerable impact in patients undergoing cataract or refractive surgery as patients with DED have less than optimal visual results. The most widely used objective signs for diagnosing DED all show greater variability between eyes and in the same eye over time compared with normal subjects. This variability is thought to be a manifestation of tear film instability which results in rapid breakup of the tearfilm between blinks and is an identifier of patients with DED. This feature emphasizes the bilateral nature of the disease in most subjects not suffering from unilateral lid or other unilateral destabilizing surface disorders. Instability of the composition of the tears also occurs in dry eye disease and shows the same variance between eyes. Finally, elevated tear osmolarity has been reported to be a global marker (present in both subtypes of the disease- aqueous-deficient dry eye and evaporative dry eye). Clinically, osmolarity has been shown to be the best single metric for diagnosis of DED and is directly related to

  1. Air Pollution and Prevalence of Allergic Diseases in Georgian Adolescent Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    adolescent and young population in Tbilisi a prospective epidemiological investigation has been carried out. During the last decades special attention...unified methods including a screening-questionnaire, a detailed map of epidemiological analysis. 11073 adolescent and young population of 12 to 20...in Georgian Adolescent Population 4 - 6 RTO-MP-HFM-108 Table 1: Relationship Between the Prevalence Rate of Allergic Diseases in Young Population and

  2. Breastfeeding and the prevalence of allergic diseases in schoolchildren: Does reverse causation matter?

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Yasumi, Takahiro; Heike, Toshio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Fujii, Tatsuya; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2010-02-01

    Infants at higher risk of allergic diseases might be breastfed for longer periods compared with infants at lower risk in the hope that breastfeeding might reduce the risk of atopic disorders. Therefore, this intention could manifest as an apparent allergy-promoting effect of breastfeeding or reverse causation. To analyze the effect of breast feeding on the prevalence of allergic diseases at school age, a large questionnaire survey was administered to the parents of schoolchildren aged 7-15 yrs. 13,215 parents responded (response rate, 90.1%). Prevalence rates of allergic diseases were compared according to the type of feeding in infancy (either complete breastfeeding, mixed feeding or complete artificial feeding). In both univariate and multivariate analysis, compared with those with complete artificial feeding, those with mixed and complete breastfeeding showed a significantly lower prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). On the other hand, in univariate analysis, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA) were significantly higher in those with complete breastfeeding (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). There was a significantly higher proportion of complete breastfeeding among those with greater risk of allergic diseases (presence of family history, either eczema or wheeze within 6 months after birth, or FA in infancy). Therefore, our multivariate analysis included these risks as confounding factors, and we found that the promoting effects of breastfeeding on AD and FA disappeared. In conclusion, our data clearly showed the inhibitory effect of breastfeeding on the prevalence of BA at school age. The apparent promoting effect of breastfeeding on the prevalence of AD and FA is most likely because of reverse causation.

  3. EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS (P. Singhl, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2,
    C.A.J. Dick', K.B. Adlerl and M.I. Gilmour2, INCSU, Raleigh, N.C., 2NHEERL/ORD/ USEPA, RTP, N.C. and 3UNC, Chapel Hill, N.C.)The interaction between ...

  4. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    types of subtropical grass pollens to achieve optimal diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic respiratory disease in subtropical regions of the world.

  5. The role of partially hydrolyzed whey formula for the prevention of allergic disease: evidence and gaps.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Adrian J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Allen, Katrina J; Tang, Mimi L K; Hill, David J

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolyzed formulae are created by using enzymatic processes to break native proteins into smaller fragments. They may prevent development of allergic diseases by reducing exposure to intact allergens. Partially hydrolyzed whey formula (pHWF) is particularly promising for allergy prevention, as it is cheap to manufacture and palatable. Scientific organizations have recommended the use of hydrolyzed formula in the first 4-6 months of life for the prevention of allergic disease based on a limited number of trials. Three recent developments challenge these recommendations: our growing understanding of the importance of allergen exposure for induction of immune tolerance, recently published evidence that failed to identify a protective effect of pHWF, which the authors and other experts believe will necessitate updating of systematic reviews, and methodological limitations of available trials and systematic reviews on which these recommendations are based. Until more definitive evidence is obtained, the authors recommend continuing to advocate that 'breast is best', and caution against overstating the potential for pHWF to prevent allergic disease.

  6. Dexamethasone nanowafer as an effective therapy for dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Coursey, Terry G; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Marcano, Daniela C; Shin, Crystal S; Isenhart, Lucas C; Ahmed, Faheem; De Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Acharya, Ghanashyam

    2015-09-10

    Dry eye disease is a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It is presently treated with artificial tear and anti-inflammatory eye drops that are generally administered several times a day and may have limited therapeutic efficacy. To improve convenience and efficacy, a dexamethasone (Dex) loaded nanowafer (Dex-NW) has been developed that can release the drug on the ocular surface for a longer duration of time than drops, during which it slowly dissolves. The Dex-NW was fabricated using carboxymethyl cellulose polymer and contains arrays of 500 nm square drug reservoirs filled with Dex. The in vivo efficacy of the Dex-NW was evaluated using an experimental mouse dry eye model. These studies demonstrated that once a day Dex-NW treatment on alternate days during a five-day treatment period was able to restore a healthy ocular surface and corneal barrier function with comparable efficacy to twice a day topically applied dexamethasone eye drop treatment. The Dex-NW was also very effective in down regulating expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IFN-γ), chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-5), and MMP-3, that are stimulated by dry eye. Despite less frequent dosing, the Dex-NW has comparable therapeutic efficacy to topically applied Dex eye drops in experimental mouse dry eye model, and these results provide a strong rationale for translation to human clinical trials for dry eye.

  7. Hydrolysed formula and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Khan, Tasnia; Chivinge, Jennifer; Robinson, Zoe; Geoghegan, Natalie; Jarrold, Katharine; Afxentiou, Thalia; Reeves, Tim; Cunha, Sergio; Trivella, Marialena; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether feeding infants with hydrolysed formula reduces their risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis, as part of a series of systematic reviews commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to inform guidelines on infant feeding. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data sources Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and LILACS searched between January 1946 and April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Prospective intervention trials of hydrolysed cows’ milk formula compared with another hydrolysed formula, human breast milk, or a standard cows’ milk formula, which reported on allergic or autoimmune disease or allergic sensitisation. Results 37 eligible intervention trials of hydrolysed formula were identified, including over 19 000 participants. There was evidence of conflict of interest and high or unclear risk of bias in most studies of allergic outcomes and evidence of publication bias for studies of eczema and wheeze. Overall there was no consistent evidence that partially or extensively hydrolysed formulas reduce risk of allergic or autoimmune outcomes in infants at high pre-existing risk of these outcomes. Odds ratios for eczema at age 0-4, compared with standard cows’ milk formula, were 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.07; I2=30%) for partially hydrolysed formula; 0.55 (0.28 to 1.09; I2=74%) for extensively hydrolysed casein based formula; and 1.12 (0.88 to 1.42; I2=0%) for extensively hydrolysed whey based formula. There was no evidence to support the health claim approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that a partially hydrolysed formula could reduce the risk of eczema nor the conclusion of the Cochrane review that hydrolysed formula could prevent allergy to cows’ milk. Conclusion These findings do not support current guidelines

  8. Epigenetics in immune development and in allergic and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Martino, David; Kesper, Dörthe A; Amarasekera, Manori; Harb, Hani; Renz, Harald; Prescott, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and micro RNA signaling regulate the activity of the genome. Virtually all aspects of immunity involve some level of epigenetic regulation, whether it be host defense or in mediating tolerance. These processes are critically important in mediating dynamic responses to the environment over the life course of the individual, yet we are only just beginning to understand how dysregulation in these pathways may play a role in immune disease. Here, we give a brief chronological overview of epigenetic processes during immune development in health and disease.

  9. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females only.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Isabel R V; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ramisch, Katherina; Keil, Thomas; Inman, Mark; Arck, Petra C; Pincus, Maike

    2014-10-01

    Observational as well as experimental studies support that prenatal challenges seemed to be associated with an increased risk for allergic airway diseases in the offspring. However, insights into biomarkers involved in mediating this risk are largely elusive. We here aimed to test the association between endogenous and exogenous factors documented in pregnant women, including psychosocial, endocrine, and life style parameters, and the risk for allergic airway diseases in the children later in life. We further pursued to functionally test identified factors in a mouse model of an allergic airway response. In a prospectively designed pregnancy cohort (n = 409 families), women were recruited between the 4th and 12th week of pregnancy. To investigate an association between exposures during pregnancy and the incidence of allergic airway disease in children between 3 and 5 years of age, multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Further, in prenatally stressed adult offspring of BALB/c-mated BALB/c female mice, asthma was experimentally induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In addition to the prenatal stress challenge, some pregnant females were treated with the progesterone derivative dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD). In humans, we observed that high levels of maternal progesterone in early human pregnancies were associated with a decreased risk for an allergic airway disease (asthma or allergic rhinitis) in daughters (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.00) but not sons (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In mice, prenatal DHD supplementation of stress-challenged dams attenuated prenatal stress-induced airway hyperresponsiveness exclusively in female offspring. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy-which can result from high stress perception-increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females but not in males. Key messages: Lower maternal progesterone during pregnancy increases the risk for allergic airway disease

  10. New Allergic and Hypersensitivity Conditions Section in the International Classification of Diseases-11.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana K; Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Allergy and hypersensitivity, originally perceived as rare and secondary disorders, are one of the fastest growing conditions worldwide, but not adequately tracked in international information systems, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Having allergic and hypersensitivity conditions classification able to capture conditions in health international information systems in a realistic manner is crucial to the identification of potential problems, and in a wider system, can identify contextually specific service deficiencies and provide the impetus for changes. Since 2013, an international collaboration of Allergy Academies has spent tremendous efforts to have a better and updated classification of allergies in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 version, by providing scientific and technical evidences for the need for changes. The following bilateral discussions with the representatives of the ICD-11 revision, a simplification process was carried out. The new parented "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been built under the "Disorders of the Immune System" chapter through the international collaboration of Allergy Academies and upon ICD WHO representatives support. The classification of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions has been updated through the ICD-11 revision and will allow the aggregation of reliable data to perform positive quality-improvements in health care systems worldwide.

  11. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    PubMed Central

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  12. Nutrition in early life and the risk of asthma and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Laura

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of reported cases of asthma and allergic disease has seen a marked increase throughout the world since the 1960s, particularly in more developed, westernised countries. A key focus of research in this area has been the possible adverse effects of foetal and infant exposure to food allergens. There is some evidence that foetal and infant exposure to a range of allergens via the mother and her breast milk is important in the development of normal immune tolerance. Current advice is that pregnant and breastfeeding women do not need to avoid potential food allergens unless they are allergic themselves, or are advised to modify their diet by a health professional. Delaying the introduction of common food allergies beyond 6 months is unlikely to reduce the likelihood of food allergy and allergic disease. The findings of current ongoing trials investigating the potential benefits of early introduction on allergenic foods into the diet of children-as well as the comprehensive review of complementary and young-child feeding advice currently being conducted by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition-will help inform guidance in this area.

  13. Epicutaneous immunity and onset of allergic diseases - per-"eczema"tous sensitization drives the allergy march.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa

    2013-09-01

    Results from recent epidemiological studies strongly suggest that ingestion of food promotes immune tolerance to food antigens, whereas exposure to food antigens through skin leads to allergic sensitization. A "dual-allergen-exposure hypothesis" has been proposed to explain those findings. However, several other recent studies have demonstrated that some allergic diseases can be successfully treated by recurrent epicutaneous exposure to allergens. At a glance, these two sets of findings seem to be contradictory, but we think they provide important clues for understanding the mechanisms behind the allergy march. Here, we propose that per-"eczema"tous sensitization drives the allergy march, and we introduce results from several published studies in support of this hypothesis. We hope that this review may help in establishment of new strategies for preventing the allergy march in the near future.

  14. Binocular eye movements in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2013-03-01

    Binocular eye movements form a finely-tuned system that requires accurate coordination of the oculomotor dynamics and supports the vergence movements for tracking the fine binocular disparities required for 3D vision, and are particularly susceptible to disruption by brain injury and other neural dysfunctions. Saccadic dynamics for a population of 84 diverse participants show tight coefficients of variation of 2-10% of the mean value of each parameter. Significantly slower dynamics were seen for vertical upward saccades. Binocular coordination of saccades was accurate to within 1-4%, implying the operation of brainstem coordination mechanisms rather than independent cortical control of the two eyes. A new principle of oculomotor control - reciprocal binocular inhibition - is introduced to complement Sherrington's and Hering's Laws. This new law accounts for the fact that symmetrical vergence responses are about five times slower than saccades of the same amplitude, although a comprehensive analysis of asymmetrical vergence responses revealed unexpected variety in vergence dynamics. This analysis of the variety of human vergence responses thus contributes substantially to the understanding of the oculomotor control mechanisms underlying the generation of vergence movements and of the deficits in the oculomotor control resulting from mild traumatic brain injury.

  15. Medical devices for the treatment of eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Ogura, Yuichiro

    2010-01-01

    Development of intraocular drug delivery systems (DDSs) is urgently required for the treatment of eye diseases, especially in the posterior segment of the eye (the vitreous cavity, retina, and choroid), most of which are refractory to conventional pharmacologic approaches; eye drops and systemically administered drugs cannot achieve therapeutic drug concentrations in the posterior segment of the eye. Repeated intravitreal injections of anti-angiogenic agents are effective in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, but there remain risks of serious side effects such as endophthalmitis associated with repeated injections. Intraocular DDSs may address these problems. Intraocular sustained drug release from implantable or injectable devices has been investigated to treat vitreoretinal diseases. A reservoir-type nonbiodegradable implant was first launched in the market in 1996 for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis secondary to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, followed by clinical trials for a variety of potent devices to treat other challenging eye diseases. An injectable rod-shaped insert releasing a steroid is presently being assessed in a phase III trial to treat macular edema secondary to diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion. Thus various types of intraocular DDSs will be commercially available to treat vision-threatening intraocular diseases in the near future.

  16. Toward precision medicine and health: Opportunities and challenges in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Galli, Stephen Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Precision medicine (also called personalized, stratified, or P4 medicine) can be defined as the tailoring of preventive measures and medical treatments to the characteristics of each patient to obtain the best clinical outcome for each person while ideally also enhancing the cost-effectiveness of such interventions for patients and society. Clearly, the best clinical outcome for allergic diseases is not to get them in the first place. To emphasize the importance of disease prevention, a critical component of precision medicine can be referred to as precision health, which is defined herein as the use of all available information pertaining to specific subjects (including family history, individual genetic and other biometric information, and exposures to risk factors for developing or exacerbating disease), as well as features of their environments, to sustain and enhance health and prevent the development of disease. In this article I will provide a personal perspective on how the precision health-precision medicine approach can be applied to the related goals of preventing the development of allergic disorders and providing the most effective diagnosis, disease monitoring, and care for those with these prevalent diseases. I will also mention some of the existing and potential challenges to achieving these ambitious goals.

  17. Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Protein Inhibition Attenuates Neutrophil-dominant Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Manni, Michelle L; Mandalapu, Sivanarayana; Salmeron, Andres; Lora, Jose M; Kolls, Jay K; Alcorn, John F

    2017-02-24

    Atopic asthma is a prevalent respiratory disease that is characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The complexity of this heterogeneous disorder has commanded the need to better define asthma phenotypes based on underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. Although classically viewed as a type 2-regulated disease, type 17 helper T (Th17) cells are known to be influential in asthma pathogenesis, predominantly in asthmatics with neutrophilia and severe refractory disease. Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) chromatin adaptors serve as immunomodulators by directly regulating Th17 responses and Th17-mediated pathology in murine models of autoimmunity and infection. Based on this, we hypothesized that BET proteins may also play an essential role in neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease. Using a murine model of neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease, we demonstrate that BET inhibition limits pulmonary inflammation and alters the Th17-related inflammatory milieu in the lungs. In addition, inhibition of BET proteins improved lung function (specifically quasi-static lung compliance and tissue elastance) and reduced mucus production in airways. Overall, these studies show that BET proteins may have a critical role in asthma pathogenesis by altering type 17 inflammation, and thus interfering with BET-dependent chromatin signaling may provide clinical benefits to patients suffering from asthma.

  18. Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Protein Inhibition Attenuates Neutrophil-dominant Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Michelle L.; Mandalapu, Sivanarayana; Salmeron, Andres; Lora, Jose M.; Kolls, Jay K.; Alcorn, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a prevalent respiratory disease that is characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The complexity of this heterogeneous disorder has commanded the need to better define asthma phenotypes based on underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. Although classically viewed as a type 2-regulated disease, type 17 helper T (Th17) cells are known to be influential in asthma pathogenesis, predominantly in asthmatics with neutrophilia and severe refractory disease. Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) chromatin adaptors serve as immunomodulators by directly regulating Th17 responses and Th17-mediated pathology in murine models of autoimmunity and infection. Based on this, we hypothesized that BET proteins may also play an essential role in neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease. Using a murine model of neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease, we demonstrate that BET inhibition limits pulmonary inflammation and alters the Th17-related inflammatory milieu in the lungs. In addition, inhibition of BET proteins improved lung function (specifically quasi-static lung compliance and tissue elastance) and reduced mucus production in airways. Overall, these studies show that BET proteins may have a critical role in asthma pathogenesis by altering type 17 inflammation, and thus interfering with BET-dependent chromatin signaling may provide clinical benefits to patients suffering from asthma. PMID:28233801

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Eye Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Vagge, Aldo; Pulliero, Alessandra; Izzotti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The connection between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and eye diseases has been increasingly reported in the literature and in active research. The implication of this bacterium in chronic eye diseases, such as blepharitis, glaucoma, central serous chorioretinopathy and others, has been hypothesized. Although the mechanisms by which this association occurs are currently unknown, this review describes shared pathogenetic mechanisms in an attempt to identify a lowest common denominator between eye diseases and Hp infection. The aim of this review is to assess whether different studies could be compared and to establish whether or not Hp infection and Eye diseases share common pathogenetic aspects. In particular, it has been focused on oxidative damage as a possible link between these pathologies. Text word search in Medline from 1998 to July 2014. 152 studies were included in our review. Were taken into considerations only studies that related eye diseases more frequent and/or known. Likely oxidative stress plays a key role. All of the diseases studied seem to follow a common pattern that implicates a cellular response correlated with a sublethal dose of oxidative stress. These alterations seem to be shared by both Hp infections and ocular diseases and include the following: decline in mitochondrial function, increases in the rate of reactive oxygen species production, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, increases in the levels of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, and decreases in the capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins and other macromolecules. This cascade of events appears to repeat itself in different diseases, regardless of the identity of the affected tissue. The trabecular meshwork, conjunctiva, and retina can each show how oxidative stress may acts as a common disease effector as the Helicobacter infection spreads, supported by the increased oxidative damage and other inflammation. PMID:25526440

  20. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of two concentrations of azelastine eye drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, G; Mivsek-Music, E; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Obtulowicz, K; Secchi, A

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye drops twice daily administered for 14 days to patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A total of 278 patients were recruited and 226 patients were evaluable for per protocol analysis. The target parameter was the response rate. Four eye symptoms, including the main symptom (itching) were recorded by patients in diaries and eight symptoms were assessed by physicians before and after seven and 14 days of treatment. Severity of symptoms was measured on a four-point scale. The response rates for itching (improvement of at least one score point within the first three days) according to patient assessment were 43% for placebo, 52% for 0.025% and 56% for 0.05% azelastine (NS). However, a more objective assessment of the three main eye symptoms by physicians showed a concentration-dependent improvement in response rate compared with placebo (a decrease of > or = 3 points from a baseline total score of > or = 6), which reached statistical significance for 0.05% azelastine on Day 7 (p < 0.002). In the evaluable patient population, the scores of the three main eye symptoms as well as of all eight recorded eye symptoms, as assessed by the physician, were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the 0.05% azelastine eye drops group in comparison with the placebo group at Day 7. Inefficacy was the cause of withdrawal in five and three patients on 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine, respectively, and in six patients on placebo. Adverse drug effects, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported by 14% (0.025%), 20% (0.05%) and 15% (placebo) of the patients. No serious side-effects occurred. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated at a concentration of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  1. [Allergic disease--pollen allergy and climate change].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Janne; Plaschke, Peter; Poulsen, Lars K

    2009-10-26

    Pollen allergy currently affects a fifth of the population. A warmer climate will lead to a longer pollen season and more days with high pollen counts. In addition, a warmer climate increases the risk of proliferation of new plants with well-known allergenic pollens like ragweed, plane tree and wall pellitory, which have not previously caused allergy in Denmark. The consequences will be more people with hay fever and pollen asthma, longer allergy seasons and an increase in the severity of symptoms, disease-related costs and demands on health care for diagnosis and treatment of more complex allergies.

  2. IgG4 Staining in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Irwin; Rajak, Saul N; Kearney, Daniel J; Andrew, Nicholas H; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-09-10

    IgG4-related ophthalmic disease is increasingly widely recognized. Moreover, IgG4 staining can occur in other inflammatory diseases. The authors report a case of IgG4 staining of an enlarged, inflamed levator palpebrae superioris in a patient with a past history of thyroid eye disease. A 78-year-old woman with quiescent hyperthyroidism had clinical and radiological evidence of levator palpebrae superioris inflammation without superior rectus involvement. A biopsy was consistent with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease. There was a marked but incomplete response to an orbital injection of triamcinolone. The authors discuss the association between thyroid eye disease and IgG4 staining and the diagnostic issues that arise when IgG4-related ophthalmic disease criteria are fulfilled in patients with other orbital inflammatory conditions.

  3. What's on TV? Detecting age-related neurodegenerative eye disease using eye movement scanpaths

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, David P.; Smith, Nicholas D.; Zhu, Haogang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We test the hypothesis that age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be detected by examining patterns of eye movement recorded whilst a person naturally watches a movie. Methods: Thirty-two elderly people with healthy vision (median age: 70, interquartile range [IQR] 64–75 years) and 44 patients with a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma (median age: 69, IQR 63–77 years) had standard vision examinations including automated perimetry. Disease severity was measured using a standard clinical measure (visual field mean deviation; MD). All study participants viewed three unmodified TV and film clips on a computer set up incorporating the Eyelink 1000 eyetracker (SR Research, Ontario, Canada). Eye movement scanpaths were plotted using novel methods that first filtered the data and then generated saccade density maps. Maps were then subjected to a feature extraction analysis using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Features from the KPCA were then classified using a standard machine based classifier trained and tested by a 10-fold cross validation which was repeated 100 times to estimate the confidence interval (CI) of classification sensitivity and specificity. Results: Patients had a range of disease severity from early to advanced (median [IQR] right eye and left eye MD was −7 [−13 to −5] dB and −9 [−15 to −4] dB, respectively). Average sensitivity for correctly identifying a glaucoma patient at a fixed specificity of 90% was 79% (95% CI: 58–86%). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82–0.87). Conclusions: Huge data from scanpaths of eye movements recorded whilst people freely watch TV type films can be processed into maps that contain a signature of vision loss. In this proof of principle study we have demonstrated that a group of patients with age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be reasonably well separated from a group of healthy peers by considering these eye movement

  4. Constructing a classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community.

    PubMed

    Tanno, L K; Calderon, M A; Goldberg, B J; Gayraud, J; Bircher, A J; Casale, T; Li, J; Sanchez-Borges, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Pawankar, R; Papadopoulos, N G; Demoly, P

    2015-06-01

    The global allergy community strongly believes that the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) offers a unique opportunity to improve the classification and coding of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases via inclusion of a specific chapter dedicated to this disease area to facilitate epidemiological studies, as well as to evaluate the true size of the allergy epidemic. In this context, an international collaboration has decided to revise the classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases and to validate it for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community. After careful comparison between ICD-10 and 11 beta phase linearization codes, we identified gaps and trade-offs allowing us to construct a classification proposal, which was sent to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) sections, interest groups, executive committee as well as the World Allergy Organization (WAO), and American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) leaderships. The crowdsourcing process produced comments from 50 of 171 members contacted by e-mail. The classification proposal has also been discussed at face-to-face meetings with experts of EAACI sections and interest groups and presented in a number of business meetings during the 2014 EAACI annual congress in Copenhagen. As a result, a high-level complex structure of classification for hypersensitivity/allergic diseases has been constructed. The model proposed has been presented to the WHO groups in charge of the ICD revision. The international collaboration of allergy experts appreciates bilateral discussion and aims to get endorsement of their proposals for the final ICD-11.

  5. Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease?

    PubMed Central

    West, Sheila K.; Bates, Michael N.; Lee, Jennifer S.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Lee, David J.; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Chen, Dong Feng; Araj, Houmam

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted. PMID:24284355

  6. Cataracts and Other Common Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Treating Cataracts Cataracts and Other Common Eye Diseases Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents ... the lens. This is a cataract. Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  7. The clinical utility of basophil activation testing in diagnosis and monitoring of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H J; Santos, A F; Mayorga, C; Nopp, A; Eberlein, B; Ferrer, M; Rouzaire, P; Ebo, D G; Sabato, V; Sanz, M L; Pecaric-Petkovic, T; Patil, S U; Hausmann, O V; Shreffler, W G; Korosec, P; Knol, E F

    2015-11-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) has become a pervasive test for allergic response through the development of flow cytometry, discovery of activation markers such as CD63 and unique markers identifying basophil granulocytes. Basophil activation test measures basophil response to allergen cross-linking IgE on between 150 and 2000 basophil granulocytes in <0.1 ml fresh blood. Dichotomous activation is assessed as the fraction of reacting basophils. In addition to clinical history, skin prick test, and specific IgE determination, BAT can be a part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with food-, insect venom-, and drug allergy and chronic urticaria. It may be helpful in determining the clinically relevant allergen. Basophil sensitivity may be used to monitor patients on allergen immunotherapy, anti-IgE treatment or in the natural resolution of allergy. Basophil activation test may use fewer resources and be more reproducible than challenge testing. As it is less stressful for the patient and avoids severe allergic reactions, BAT ought to precede challenge testing. An important next step is to standardize BAT and make it available in diagnostic laboratories. The nature of basophil activation as an ex vivo challenge makes it a multifaceted and promising tool for the allergist. In this EAACI task force position paper, we provide an overview of the practical and technical details as well as the clinical utility of BAT in diagnosis and management of allergic diseases.

  8. Evaluation of IgE serum level by radial immunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Palma-Carlos, M L; Escaja, D; Palma-Carlos, A G

    1975-01-01

    Sensitive radioactive methods are usually required for assay of low or normal serum levels of IgE up to 1.000 I.U./ml. However radioimmunoassay or other radioactive techniques are not always available or practical in routine diagnosis of allergic patients. Therefore, some modifications of the conventional radial immunodiffusion techniques have been tried for IgE. We have studied the comparative results of radioimmunoassay (RIST) and a modified radial immunodiffusion for IgE evaluation in allergic diseases. In 18 subjects a solid phase radio-immunoassay for IgE has been done. In 14 no allergic subjects total IgE serum level determined by the RIST method was 248 +/- 210 (I.U./ml--m +/- 2SD). A double precipitation or a intensification method of immunodiffusion employing Partigen plates (Behring-Werke) has been applied for global IgE assay in routine laboratory work in the last months. Serum IgE levels were studied by this method in 20 normal subjects and 206 patients referred for diagnosis of allergic disease. A modification of the double precipitation technique allowed us to measure IgE levels above 260 I.U. In normal subjects IgE serum level was 355 +/- 182 I.U. (M +/- 2SD). In 120 extrinsic asthmas the range was 9.580--260 I.U. and mean value 2.120 +/- 627 I.I. and the range 1.760--300 I.U. 14 cases of pollinosis were studied during the grass pollen season. Mean values were 1.840 +/- 1.270 I.U. and range 2.760--600 I.U. 18 cases of perennial allergic rhinitis the mean value was 1.868 +/- 1.301 I.U. and the range 2.600--260 I.U. In 12 urticarias the mean value was 1.730 +/- 1.252 I.U. and the range 2.300--260 I.U. Highest IgE serum levels occurred in atopic asthmatics with mite sensitivity. A general positive relationship was observed between the intensity of skin reactivity and elevated serum IgE level. However some exceptions to this rule have been observed. A simultaneous assay of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM by radial immunodiffusion has been done in

  9. The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update

    PubMed Central

    Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Feillet, H; Bach, J-F

    2010-01-01

    According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a high-incidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders. Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:20415844

  10. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread of ... return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria ...

  11. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, M F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology. PMID:26563659

  12. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology.

  13. The Nakuru eye disease cohort study: methodology & rationale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No longitudinal data from population-based studies of eye disease in sub-Saharan-Africa are available. A population-based survey was undertaken in 2007/08 to estimate the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision in Nakuru district, Kenya. This survey formed the baseline to a six-year prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence and progression of eye disease in this population. Methods/Design A nationally representative sample of persons aged 50 years and above were selected between January 2007 and November 2008 through probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters, with sampling of individuals within clusters through compact segment sampling. Selected participants underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations which included: visual acuity, autorefraction, visual fields, slit lamp assessment of the anterior and posterior segments, lens grading and fundus photography. In addition, anthropometric measures were taken and risk factors were assessed through structured interviews. Six years later (2013/2014) all subjects were invited for follow-up assessment, repeating the baseline examination methodology. Discussion The methodology will provide estimates of the progression of eye diseases and incidence of blindness, visual impairment, and eye diseases in an adult Kenyan population. PMID:24886366

  14. Presence of other allergic disease modifies the effect of early childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma prevalence.

    PubMed

    Dell, Sharon D; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernard; Brook, Jeffrey R; Foty, Richard G; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Marshall, Laura; Miller, J David; To, Teresa; Walter, Stephen D; Stieb, David M

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a surrogate measure of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), has been associated with incident childhood asthma. Timing of exposure and atopic status may be important effect modifiers. We collected cross-sectional data on asthma outcomes from Toronto school children aged 5-9years in 2006. Lifetime home, school and daycare addresses were obtained to derive birth and cumulative NO2 exposures for a nested case-control subset of 1497 children. Presence of other allergic disease (a proxy for atopy) was defined as self-report of one or more of doctor-diagnosed rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for potential confounders, and examine hypothesized effect modifiers while accounting for clustering by school. In children with other allergic disease, birth, cumulative and 2006 NO2 were associated with lifetime asthma (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08-1.98; 1.37, 95% CI 1.00-1.86; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.09-2.36 respectively per interquartile range increase) and wheeze (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.89; 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.67; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.16-2.21). No or weaker effects were seen in those without allergic disease, and effect modification was amplified when a more restrictive algorithm was used to define other allergic disease (at least 2 of doctor diagnosed allergic rhinitis, eczema or food allergy). The effects of modest NO2 levels on childhood asthma were modified by the presence of other allergic disease, suggesting a probable role for allergic sensitization in the pathogenesis of TRAP initiated asthma.

  15. Evolution in immunological methods used in research and in the clinical diagnosis and management of human allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert G

    2012-09-28

    Since the discovery of IgE in 1967, there has been an evolution in design and quality of immunological methods used to research allergic disease mechanisms, to diagnose allergic disease in the clinic, and to monitor allergic patients on various therapeutic regimens. This issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods highlights recent methodological developments in three areas: (1) understanding of the interactions between T-cells, dendritic cella and B-cells and various signaling mediators in the induction phase of sensitization, (2) developments in the definitive diagnosis of allergic disease with a focus on food allergy and eosinophil related diseases, and (3) enhancements in allergy patient management through improved methods for monitoring allergen levels in the environment and documenting changes in IgE in patients on therapeutic anti-IgE (Omalizumab). This special issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods examines each of these three areas and provides a compendium on state-of-the-art immunological methods used to assess human allergic disease.

  16. Induction of Oral Tolerance with Transgenic Plants Expressing Antigens for Prevention/Treatment of Autoimmune, Allergic and Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengwu; Liao, Yu-Cai; Jevnikar, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of autoimmune and allergic diseases have increased dramatically over the last several decades, especially in the developed world. The treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases is typically with the use of non-specific immunosuppressive agents that compromise the integrity of the host immune system and therefore, increase the risk of infections. Antigenspecific immunotherapy by reinstating immunological tolerance towards self antigens without compromising immune functions is a much desired goal for the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Mucosal administration of antigen is a long-recognized method of inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance known as oral tolerance, which is viewed as having promising potential in the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Plant-based expression and delivery of recombinant antigens provide a promising new platform to induce oral tolerance, having considerable advantages including reduced cost and increased safety. Indeed, in recent years the use of tolerogenic plants for oral tolerance induction has attracted increasing attention, and considerable progress has been made. This review summarizes recent advances in using plants to deliver tolerogens for induction of oral tolerance in the treatment of autoimmune, allergic and inflammatory diseases.

  17. Adaptation to impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that have been identified to date. These are aeroallergen monitoring; aeroallergen forecasting; allergenic plant management; planting practices and policies; urban/settlement planning; building design and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); access to health care and medications; education; and research.

  18. Restoring airway epithelial barrier dysfunction: a new therapeutic challenge in allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Steelant, B; Seys, S F; Boeckxstaens, G; Akdis, C A; Ceuppens, J L; Hellings, P W

    2016-09-01

    An intact functional mucosal barrier is considered to be crucial for the maintenance of airway homeostasis as it protects the host immune system from exposure to allergens and noxious environmental triggers. Recent data provided evidence for the contribution of barrier dysfunction to the development of inflammatory diseases in the airways, skin and gut. A defective barrier has been documented in chronic rhinosinusitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it remains to be elucidated to what extent primary (genetic) versus secondary (inflammatory) mechanisms drive barrier dysfunction. The precise pathogenesis of barrier dysfunction in patients with chronic mucosal inflammation and its implications on tissue inflammation and systemic absorption of exogenous particles are only partly understood. Since epithelial barrier defects are linked with chronicity and severity of airway inflammation, restoring the barrier integrity may become a useful approach in the treatment of allergic diseases. We here provide a state-of-the-art review on epithelial barrier dysfunction in upper and lower airways as well as in the intestine and the skin and on how barrier dysfunction can be restored from a therapeutic perspective.

  19. Advances in Gene Therapy for Diseases of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Lolita; Khanna, Hemant; Punzo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, huge progress has been made with regard to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases of the eye. Such knowledge has led to the development of gene therapy approaches to treat these devastating disorders. Challenges regarding the efficacy and efficiency of therapeutic gene delivery have driven the development of novel therapeutic approaches, which continue to evolve the field of ocular gene therapy. In this review article, we will discuss the evolution of preclinical and clinical strategies that have improved gene therapy in the eye, showing that treatment of vision loss has a bright future. PMID:27178388

  20. A pathogenic role for the integrin CD103 in experimental allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Fear, Vanessa S; Lai, Siew Ping; Zosky, Graeme R; Perks, Kara L; Gorman, Shelley; Blank, Fabian; von Garnier, Christophe; Stumbles, Philip A; Strickland, Deborah H

    2016-11-01

    The integrin CD103 is the αE chain of integrin αEβ7 that is important in the maintenance of intraepithelial lymphocytes and recruitment of T cells and dendritic cells (DC) to mucosal surfaces. The role of CD103 in intestinal immune homeostasis has been well described, however, its role in allergic airway inflammation is less well understood. In this study, we used an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced, CD103-knockout (KO) BALB/c mouse model of experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD) to investigate the role of CD103 in disease expression, CD4(+) T-cell activation and DC activation and function in airways and lymph nodes. We found reduced airways hyper-responsiveness and eosinophil recruitment to airways after aerosol challenge of CD103 KO compared to wild-type (WT) mice, although CD103 KO mice showed enhanced serum OVA-specific IgE levels. Following aerosol challenge, total numbers of effector and regulatory CD4(+) T-cell subsets were significantly increased in the airways of WT but not CD103 KO mice, as well as a lack of DC recruitment into the airways in the absence of CD103. While total airway DC numbers, and their in vivo allergen capture activity, were essentially normal in steady-state CD103 KO mice, migration of allergen-laden airway DC to draining lymph nodes was disrupted in the absence of CD103 at 24 h after aerosol challenge. These data support a role for CD103 in the pathogenesis of EAAD in BALB/c mice through local control of CD4(+) T cell and DC subset recruitment to, and migration from, the airway mucosa during induction of allergic inflammation.

  1. Application of statistical mining in healthcare data management for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Martínez Santolaya, Sara

    2014-11-01

    The paper aims to discuss data mining techniques based on statistical tools in medical data management in case of long-term diseases. The data collected from a population survey is the source for reasoning and identifying disease processes responsible for patient's illness and its symptoms, and prescribing a knowledge and decisions in course of action to correct patient's condition. The case considered as a sample of constructive approach to data management is a dependence of allergic diseases of chronic nature on some symptoms and environmental conditions. The knowledge summarized in a systematic way as accumulated experience constitutes to an experiential simplified model of the diseases with feature space constructed of small set of indicators. We have presented the model of disease-symptom-opinion with knowledge discovery for data management in healthcare. The feature is evident that the model is purely data-driven to evaluate the knowledge of the diseases` processes and probability dependence of future disease events on symptoms and other attributes. The example done from the outcomes of the survey of long-term (chronic) disease shows that a small set of core indicators as 4 or more symptoms and opinions could be very helpful in reflecting health status change over disease causes. Furthermore, the data driven understanding of the mechanisms of diseases gives physicians the basis for choices of treatment what outlines the need of data governance in this research domain of discovered knowledge from surveys.

  2. Biologic Agents in Inflammatory Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Posarelli, Chiara; Arapi, Ilir; Figus, Michele; Neri, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    Non-infectious uveitis is a potentially sight threatening disease. Along the years, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed as a means to its treatment, including local and systemic steroids, immunosuppressives and more recently, biologic agents. The introduction of biologics can be defined as a new era: biologic therapies provide new options for patients with refractory and sight threatening inflammatory disorders. The availability of such novel treatment modalities has markedly improved the therapy of uveitis and considerably increased the possibility of long-term remissions. This article provides a review of current literature on biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor blockers, anti-interleukins and other related biologics, such as interferon alpha, for the treatment of uveitis. Several reports describe the efficacy of biologics in controlling a large number of refractory uveitides, suggesting a central role in managing ocular inflammatory diseases. However, there is still lack of randomized controlled trials to validate most of their applications. Biologics are promising drugs for the treatment of uveitis, showing a favorable safety and efficacy profile. On the other hand, lack of evidence from randomized controlled studies limits our understanding as to when commence treatment, which agent to choose, and how long to continue therapy. In addition, high cost and the potential for serious and unpredictable complications have very often limited their use in uveitis refractory to traditional immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:22454752

  3. Biologic agents in inflammatory eye disease.

    PubMed

    Posarelli, Chiara; Arapi, Ilir; Figus, Michele; Neri, Piergiorgio

    2011-10-01

    Non-infectious uveitis is a potentially sight threatening disease. Along the years, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed as a means to its treatment, including local and systemic steroids, immunosuppressives and more recently, biologic agents. The introduction of biologics can be defined as a new era: biologic therapies provide new options for patients with refractory and sight threatening inflammatory disorders. The availability of such novel treatment modalities has markedly improved the therapy of uveitis and considerably increased the possibility of long-term remissions. This article provides a review of current literature on biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor blockers, anti-interleukins and other related biologics, such as interferon alpha, for the treatment of uveitis. Several reports describe the efficacy of biologics in controlling a large number of refractory uveitides, suggesting a central role in managing ocular inflammatory diseases. However, there is still lack of randomized controlled trials to validate most of their applications. Biologics are promising drugs for the treatment of uveitis, showing a favorable safety and efficacy profile. On the other hand, lack of evidence from randomized controlled studies limits our understanding as to when commence treatment, which agent to choose, and how long to continue therapy. In addition, high cost and the potential for serious and unpredictable complications have very often limited their use in uveitis refractory to traditional immunosuppressive therapy.

  4. Immune Mechanisms in Inflammatory and Degenerative Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Victor L.; Caspi, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that pathology of age-associated degenerative eye diseases such as adult macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, have strong immunological underpinnings. Attempts have been made to extrapolate to age-related degenerative disease insights from inflammatory processes associated with non-infectious uveitis, but these have not yet been sufficiently informative. Here we review recent findings on the immune processes underlying uveitis and those that have been shown to contribute to AMD, discussing in this context parallels and differences between overt inflammation and para-inflammation in the eye. We propose that mechanisms associated with ocular immune privilege, in combination with paucity of age-related antigen(s) within the target tissue, dampen what could otherwise be overt inflammation and result in the para-inflammation that characterizes age-associated neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25981967

  5. Angiotensin II-related hypertension and eye diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marin Garcia, Pablo Jesus; Marin-Castaño, Maria Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Systemic vascular disease, especially hypertension, has been suspected as a risk factor for some eye diseases including, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Hypertension can contribute to chronic diseases by hemodynamic injury and/or cellular actions induced by hypertension-related hormones or growth factors. Among the most important is Angiotensin II (Ang II), which controls blood pressure and induces different cellular functions that may be dependent or independent of its effect on blood pressure. Importantly, as is true for heart, kidney and other organs, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is present in the eye. So, even in the absence of hypertension, local production of Ang II could be involved in eye diseases. The goal of this manuscript is to review the most relevant scientific evidence supporting the role of the RAS activation, in the development of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, and highlight the importance of Ang II in the etiology of these diseases. PMID:25276298

  6. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Jun; Arita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.

  7. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation.

  8. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Allergy is one of the most important and very common health problems worldwide. To reduce the proportion of people suffering from allergy, alternative methods of prevention and treatment are sought. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics are live microorganisms belonging mainly to the lactic acid bacteria. They modify the microflora of the human digestive system, especially the intestinal microflora. Prophylactic administration of probiotics in the early stages of life (naturally in breast milk or milk substitute synthetic compounds) is very important because intestinal microflora plays a huge role in the development of the immune system. Prevention of allergies as early as in the prenatal and postnatal periods provides huge opportunities for inhibiting the growing problem of allergy in emerging and highly developed societies. Effects of probiotic therapy depend on many factors such as the species of the microorganism used, the dose size and characteristics of the bacteria such as viability and capacity of adhesion to the intestinal walls. Authors of several studies showed beneficial effects of probiotics in the perinatal period, infancy, and also in adults in the prevention of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. Probiotics, due to their immunomodulatory properties and safety of use are a good, natural alternative for the prevention and treatment of many diseases including allergies. It is therefore important to explore the knowledge about their use and to carry out further clinical trials. PMID:26155109

  9. Allergic airway disease in mice alters T and B cell responses during an acute respiratory poxvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Walline, Crystal C; Sehra, Sarita; Fisher, Amanda J; Guindon, Lynette M; Kratzke, Ian M; Montgomery, Jessica B; Lipking, Kelsey P; Glosson, Nicole L; Benson, Heather L; Sandusky, George E; Wilkes, David S; Brutkiewicz, Randy R; Kaplan, Mark H; Blum, Janice S

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary viral infections can exacerbate or trigger the development of allergic airway diseases via multiple mechanisms depending upon the infectious agent. Respiratory vaccinia virus transmission is well established, yet the effects of allergic airway disease on the host response to intra-pulmonary vaccinia virus infection remain poorly defined. As shown here BALB/c mice with preexisting airway disease infected with vaccinia virus developed more severe pulmonary inflammation, higher lung virus titers and greater weight loss compared with mice inoculated with virus alone. This enhanced viremia was observed despite increased pulmonary recruitment of CD8(+) T effectors, greater IFNγ production in the lung, and high serum levels of anti-viral antibodies. Notably, flow cytometric analyses of lung CD8(+) T cells revealed a shift in the hierarchy of immunodominant viral epitopes in virus inoculated mice with allergic airway disease compared to mice treated with virus only. Pulmonary IL-10 production by T cells and antigen presenting cells was detected following virus inoculation of animals and increased dramatically in allergic mice exposed to virus. IL-10 modulation of host responses to this respiratory virus infection was greatly influenced by the localized pulmonary microenvironment. Thus, blocking IL-10 signaling in virus-infected mice with allergic airway disease enhanced pulmonary CD4(+) T cell production of IFNγ and increased serum anti-viral IgG1 levels. In contrast, pulmonary IFNγ and virus-specific IgG1 levels were reduced in vaccinia virus-treated mice with IL-10 receptor blockade. These observations demonstrate that pre-existing allergic lung disease alters the quality and magnitude of immune responses to respiratory poxviruses through an IL-10-dependent mechanism.

  10. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients’ IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children’s Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wheal diameter or positive wheal sum values. In the Zagreb study the results were also replicated for high total serum IgE and in children with self-reported manifest allergic disease. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no association between serum IgG glycome composition and allergic diseases in children. PMID:27616597

  11. The Role of Lutein in Eye-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koushan, Keyvan; Rusovici, Raluca; Li, Wenhua; Ferguson, Lee R.; Chalam, Kakarla V.

    2013-01-01

    The lens and retina of the human eye are exposed constantly to light and oxygen. In situ phototransduction and oxidative phosphorylation within photoreceptors produces a high level of phototoxic and oxidative related stress. Within the eye, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are present in high concentrations in contrast to other human tissues. We discuss the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in ameliorating light and oxygen damage, and preventing age-related cellular and tissue deterioration in the eye. Epidemiologic research shows an inverse association between levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in eye tissues and age related degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. We examine the role of these carotenoids as blockers of blue-light damage and quenchers of oxygen free radicals. This article provides a review of possible mechanisms of lutein action at a cellular and molecular level. Our review offers insight into current clinical trials and experimental animal studies involving lutein, and possible role of nutritional intervention in common ocular diseases that cause blindness. PMID:23698168

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Penn, J.S.; Madan, A.; Caldwell, R.B.; Bartoli, M.; Caldwell, R.W.; Hartnett, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Collectively, angiogenic ocular conditions represent the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. In the U.S., for example, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the principal causes of blindness in the infant, working age and elderly populations, respectively. Evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a 40 kDa dimeric glycoprotein, promotes angiogenesis in each of these conditions, making it a highly significant therapeutic target. However, VEGF is pleiotropic, affecting a broad spectrum of endothelial, neuronal and glial behaviors, and confounding the validity of anti-VEGF strategies, particularly under chronic disease conditions. In fact, among other functions VEGF can influence cell proliferation, cell migration, proteolysis, cell survival and vessel permeability in a wide variety of biological contexts. This article will describe the roles played by VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The potential disadvantages of inhibiting VEGF will be discussed, as will the rationales for targeting other VEGF-related modulators of angiogenesis. PMID:18653375

  13. Climate change and air pollution: Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D'Amato, Maria

    The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollen grains especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, their rising trend can be explained only by changes occurring in the environment and urban air pollution by motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world with a significant effect on respiratory health. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend only on the increased production of air pollution, but rather on atmospheric factors that favor the accumulation of air pollutants at ground level. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity of pollinosis-affected people have also been identified in multiple locations around the world (Fig.1). Cite this as D'Amato G, Bergmann KC, Cecchi L, Annesi-Maesano I, Sanduzzi A, Liccardi G, Vitale C, Stanziola A, D'Amato M. Climate change

  14. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Atiim, George A; Elliott, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few studies exploring its relevance especially in the context of emerging allergic disorders in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this article, we address the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa through the lens of epidemiologic transition theory. After a brief review of the literature on the evolution of the epidemiologic transition with a particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa, we discuss existing frameworks designed to help inform our understanding of changing health trends in the developing world. We subsequently propose a framework that privileges "place" as a key construct informing our understanding. In so doing, we use the example of allergic disease, one of the fastest growing chronic conditions in most parts of the world.

  15. Prevalence of visual impairment and eye diseases in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Irak-Dersu, Inci; Balamurugan, Appathurai

    2010-09-01

    Visual impairment and eye diseases are major public health concerns of the 21st century, particularly as our population ages. The prevalence of these conditions has not been described in Arkansas. We analyzed the vision module of the Arkansas behavioral risk factor surveillance system to estimate the burden due to these disabling conditions. The prevalence of glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract among Arkansans > 40 years was found to be 5.5% (95% CI, 4.7 - 6.3), 5.3% (95% CI, 4.5 - 6.0), and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.6 - 14.8), respectively. Vision related quality of life was also studied. Public health strategies to reduce the burden due to visual impairment and eye diseases are the need of the hour.

  16. Antenatal Dexamethasone Exposure in Preterm Infants Is Associated with Allergic Diseases and the Mental Development Index in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Wan-Ning; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Li-Tung; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g. The status of antenatal exposure to steroids and allergic diseases were surveyed using a modified ISAAC questionnaire for subjects aged 2–5 years old. We analyzed Th1/Th2/Th17 expression of mRNA, cytokines (using the Magpix® my-system), and mental development index (MDI). Results: Among the 40 patients that were followed, the data showed that the antenatal dexamethasone exposure group (N = 24) had a significantly higher incidence of allergic diseases (75.0% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001) when compared to the non-dexamethasone exposure group (N = 16), especially with regard to asthma (41.7% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.003) and allergic rhinitis (58.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.013), but not atopic dermatitis. No statistical difference was observed in the mRNA expression levels of total white blood cell count between the dexamethasone exposure and non-exposure groups (p > 0.05). However, the asthma group had higher IL-5 levels (p = 0.009), and the MDI was shown to be significantly higher in the dexamethasone exposure group (90.38 ± 3.31 vs. 79.94 ± 3.58, p = 0.043) while no significant difference was found between the PDI of the two groups. Conclusions: Exposure to antenatal dexamethasone in preterm infants will increase their susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis. Preterm infants’ exposure to antenatal dexamethasone also

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment and diagnosis of asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, G; Compalati, E; Schiappoli, M; Senna, G

    2005-03-01

    The use of Complementary/Alternative Medicines (CAM) is largely diffused and constantly increasing, especially in the field of allergic diseases and asthma. Homeopathy, acupuncture and phytotherapy are the most frequently utilised treatments, whereas complementary diagnostic techniques are mainly used in the field of food allergy-intolerance. Looking at the literature, the majority of clinical trials with CAMS are of low methodological quality, thus difficult to interpret. There are very few studies performed in a rigorously controlled fashion, and those studies provided inconclusive results. In asthma, none of the CAM have thus far been proved more effective than placebo or equally effective as standard treatments. Some herbal products, containing active principles, have displayed some clinical effect, but the herbal remedies are usually not standardised and not quantified, thus carry the risk of toxic effects or interactions. None of the alternative diagnostic techniques (electrodermal testing, kinesiology, leukocytotoxic test, iridology, hair analysis) have been proved able to distinguish between healthy and allergic subjects or to diagnose sensitizations. Therefore these tests must not be used, since they can lead to delayed or incorrect diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Modulation of the immune response by infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in children with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Guangorena-Gómez, J O; Maravilla-Domínguez, A; García-Arenas, G; Cervantes-Flores, M; Meza-Velázquez, R; Rivera-Guillén, M; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R C

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that the allergic response can be ameliorated by the administration of pathogen derivatives that activate Toll-like receptors and induce a Th1-type immune response (IR). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that promotes an IR via Toll-like receptors and elicits the production of Th1-type cytokines, which limit cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to investigate allergy-related immune markers in children naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. In a cross-sectional study, 49 children with or without clinical diagnosis of allergies, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faeces were screened microscopically. We microscopically screened for leucocytes, examined T and B cells for allergy-related activation markers using flow cytometry and evaluated serum for total IgE using chemiluminescence. Children with allergies and Cryptosporidium in the faeces had significantly lower levels of total IgE, B cells, CD19(+) CD23(+) and CD19(+) CD124(+) cells as well as a greater percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+) ) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) cells than children with allergies without Cryptosporidium. This is the first description of the modulation of the IR in children with allergic diseases in the setting of natural Cryptosporidium infection. Our findings suggest the involvement of CD4(+) cells producing IL-4 and IFN-γ in the IR to Cryptosporidium in naturally infected children.

  19. [Therapy of chronic allergic conjunctivitis with sodium cromoglycate (lecrolin)].

    PubMed

    Polunin, G S; Makarov, I A

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of lecrolin (2% sodium cromoglycate) eye drops was assessed in 22 patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Positive effect was attained in all the patients on day 4.0 +/- 1.2. Signs of the disease exacerbation completely disappeared in 68% of patients in 8.3 +/- 2.4 days. No side effects of any type were observed for a month of using lecrolin eye drops.

  20. [Eye diseases in dwarf rabbits. 2. Diseases of the cornea, intraocular and retrobulbar disorders, and neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Heider, H J; Görig, C; Fehr, M

    1998-09-01

    In the second part of this review article the diseases affecting the cornea, intraocular and retrobulbar disorders, and eye-neoplasia of dwarf rabbits are described. These are illustrated by means of selected photographs.

  1. Coincidental Optic Nerve Meningioma and Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aakriti; Patel, Payal; Lignelli, Angela; Baron, Edward; Kazim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and Graves disease presented with clinical evidence of thyroid eye disease (TED) and optic neuropathy. She was referred when a tapered dose of steroids prompted worsening of her TED. CT and MRI were consistent with TED and bilateral optic nerve meningioma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent TED and unsuspected bilateral optic nerve meningioma. When investigating the etiology of TED-associated optic neuropathy, careful attention to orbital imaging is required because coexisting pathology may exist.

  2. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy for Surface Eye Disease (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. Methods In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Results Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Conclusions Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC. PMID:19277243

  3. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  4. Structural basis of chronic beryllium disease: linking allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2014-07-03

    T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. Here, we show that the T cell ligand is created when a Be(2+) cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be(2+) itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be(2+) and an accompanying Na(+) cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of preexisting self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  5. [Etiology, determinants, diagnostics and prophylaxis of occupational allergic respiratory diseases in hairdressers].

    PubMed

    Golińska-Zach, Aleksandra; Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to many substances both, allergizing and irritating. The continuous development of hairdressing services brings about new risks. The most important allergens are: persulfates (ammonium and potassium), paraphenylenediamine, and latex. A growing number of occupational allergens in the work environment of hairdresses, providing that most of them are low weight allergens, may cause some diagnostic problems. Health risks related with haidressing occupation, have prompted the researchers to pay more attention to risk factors of occupational allergy. Owing to the fact, that first morbid symptoms may occur very early, even during the apprenticeship in a hairdressing school, it is very important to indentify health risks, which can be useful in predicting the onset of occupational allergy and in developing effective prevention methods. The most common allergens at the hairdressers' workplace, risk factors, diagnostics of occupational asthma and rhinitis, as well as the prevention of these diseases are reviewed in this publication.

  6. Lifitegrast: A novel drug for treatment of dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Abidi, Afroz; Shukla, Pooja; Ahmad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is an inflammatory disorder of ocular surfaces leading to severe disability, especially in the elderly age group. The mainstay of therapy includes artificial tears, punctual plugs, topical anti-inflammatory agents, and corticosteroids. In the past few years, only cyclosporine-A emulsions have been added to the existing therapy, but it is discontinued by most patients as it causes burning sensation in the eye. Hence, progress in new research for a better therapeutic option led to the discovery of lymphocyte function-associated antigen intercellular adhesion molecule 1 antagonist, lifitegrast. It hinders the T-cell activation, release of inflammatory mediators, and consequently inhibits the inflammatory pathways in DED. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in July 2016 for the treatment of DED. This review highlights the development process and approval of lifitegrast. PMID:28163544

  7. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever; Nasal allergies; Seasonal allergy; Seasonal allergic rhinitis; Allergies - allergic rhinitis; Allergy - allergic rhinitis ... an allergen that also trigger symptoms. ALLERGY SHOTS Allergy shots ... are sometimes recommended if you cannot avoid the ...

  8. Abnormal Eye Movements in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael P.; Cohen, Mark; Petersen, Robert B.; Halmagyi, G. Michael; McDougall, Alan; Tusa, Ronald J.; Leigh, R. John

    1993-01-01

    We report 3 patients with autopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who, early in their course, developed abnormal eye movements that included periodic alternating nystagmus and slow vertical saccades. These findings suggested involvement of the cerebellar nodulus and uvula, and the brainstem reticular formation, respectively. Cerebellar ataxia was also an early manifestation and, in one patient, a frontal lobe brain biopsy was normal at a time when ocular motor and cerebellar signs were conspicuous. As the disease progressed, all saccades and quick phases of nystagmus were lost, but periodic alternating gaze deviation persisted. At autopsy, 2 of the 3 patients had pronounced involvement of the cerebellum, especially of the midline structures. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease should be considered in patients with subacute progressive neurological disease when cognitive changes are overshadowed by ocular motor findings or ataxia.

  9. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future.

  10. House cleaning with chlorine bleach and the risks of allergic and respiratory diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Nickmilder, Marc; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Bernard, Alfred

    2007-02-01

    Chlorine bleach or sodium hypochlorite can inactivate common indoor allergens. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated to what extent regular house cleaning with bleach can influence the risks of respiratory and allergic diseases in children. We studied a group of 234 schoolchildren aged 10-13 yr among whom 78 children were living in a house cleaned with bleach at least once per week. Children examination included a questionnaire, an exercise-induced bronchoconstriction test and the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and of serum total and aeroallergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D). Children living in a house regularly cleaned with bleach were less likely to have asthma (OR, 0.10; CI, 0.02-0.51), eczema (OR, 0.22; CI, 0.06-0.79) and of being sensitized to indoor aeroallergens (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.27-1.02), especially house dust mite (OR, 0.43; CI, 0.19-0.99). These protective effects were independent of gender, ethnicity, previous respiratory infections, total serum IgE level and of family history of allergic diseases. They were however abolished by parental smoking, which also interacted with the use of bleach to increase the risk of recurrent bronchitis (OR, 2.03; CI, 1.12-3.66). House cleaning with bleach had effect neither on the sensitization to pollen allergens, nor on the levels of exhaled NO and of serum CC16 and SP-D. House cleaning with chlorine bleach appears to protect children from the risks of asthma and of sensitization to indoor allergens while increasing the risk of recurrent bronchitis through apparently an interaction with parental smoking. As chlorine bleach is one of the most effective cleaning agent to be found, these observations argue against the idea conveyed by the hygiene hypothesis that cleanliness per se increases the risk of asthma and allergy.

  11. [Anti-nicotine education applied in relation of parents of the diseased children on chronic allergic diseases of respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Grzegorz; Gołda, Ryszard; Pyskir, Jerzy; Pasińska, Magdalena; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Kopiński, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    The allergies of respiratory system are at children the frequent illnesses. Among favorable them factors, risk on passive smoking tobacco can be also. Passive smoking is defined as risk non-smoking on tobacco smoke in environment. Recent reports represent that smoking in home environment tobacco increase on passive smokers' asthma morbidity, especially children in school age. It in it was report the necessity of leadership of anti-nicotine education was underlined in the face of smoking parents. It bets that she should motivate she better parents to cessation smoking, using authority of doctor and love parental. Acting we decided with these principles to analyze effectiveness two year anti-nicotine education which be applied in the face of all treated smoking parents of children with reason of chronic allergic diseases of respiratory system in out-patients. The study comprised parents of 146 children at the Allergy out-Patients clinic, who were diagnosed and cured in years 2003-2005. Generally were 292 persons. The children be treated with reason of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. It the data on subject of smoking of tobacco were collected was on basis of interview got from parents during visits at information bureau on beginning the treatment the children, in his track as well as after two years of education. The anti-nicotine education was applied by whole period of observation during routine medical visits. In moment beginning of treatment in studied group the parents' and education children (n = 292) it 79 the parents' couple did not smoke. Smoking parents among remaining 67 steams were. From among them parents 13 children smoked both, only father in 36 cases smoked and mother in remaining 18 parents' couple smoked. 80 parents smoked with generally. 63 persons after two years of anti-nicotine education the nonsmoking committed one from group smoking. 22 persons among them were from among 24 fathers and 17 mothers' peer in which smoked both parents

  12. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), which was led by NIH’s National Eye Institute and concluded in ... common condition caused by clouding of the eye’s lens. Globally, cataract is the most common cause of ...

  13. Endotypes of allergic diseases and asthma: An important step in building blocks for the future of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-07-01

    Discoveries from basic science research in the last decade have brought significant progress in knowledge of pathophysiologic processes of allergic diseases, with a compelling impact on understanding of the natural history, risk prediction, treatment selection or mechanism-specific prevention strategies. The view of the pathophysiology of allergic diseases developed from a mechanistic approach, with a focus on symptoms and organ function, to the recognition of a complex network of immunological pathways. Several subtypes of inflammation and complex immune-regulatory networks and the reasons for their failure are now described, that open the way for the development of new diagnostic tools and innovative targeted-treatments. An endotype is a subtype of a disease condition, which is defined by a distinct pathophysiological mechanism, whereas a disease phenotype defines any observable characteristic of a disease without any implication of a mechanism. Another key word linked to disease endotyping is biomarker that is measured and evaluated to examine any biological or pathogenic processes, including response to a therapeutic intervention. These three keywords will be discussed more and more in the future with the upcoming efforts to revolutionize patient care in the direction of precision medicine and precision health. The understanding of disease endotypes based on pathophysiological principles and their validation across clinically meaningful outcomes in asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy will be crucial for the success of precision medicine as a new approach to patient management.

  14. Comprehensive Review of the Literature on Existing Punctal Plugs for the Management of Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Naz; Bever, Greg; Mahmood, S. M. Jafar; Moshirfar, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Numerous designs of punctal and canalicular plugs are available on the market. This variety presents challenges to ophthalmologists when choosing punctal plugs for the management of various ocular conditions. The aim of this literature review is to provide a classification system for lacrimal occlusive devices based on their location and duration of action as well as to identify different characteristics of each one of them. We want to give a comprehensive overview on punctal and canalicular plugs including their manufacturing companies, indications, and complications that have been reported in various articles. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to identify articles written in English as well as few articles written in Japanese, Chinese, Slovak, and Spanish that had abstracts in English. Nine different companies that manufacture punctal and canalicular plugs were identified and their plugs were included in this review. Punctal and canalicular plugs are used in the management of various ocular conditions including dry eye disease and punctal stenosis as well as in ocular drug delivery. Although they are a relatively safe option, associated complications have been reported in the literature such as infection, allergic reaction, extrusion, and migration. PMID:27088009

  15. Hope and major strides for genetic diseases of the eye.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Elias I

    2009-12-01

    There have been dramatic advances in the elucidation of the genetic etiology of inherited eye diseases and their underlying pathophysiology in the last two to three decades. This was made possible by the exponential development of powerful molecular biology instrumentation and techniques, the completion of the human genome project, an increasing interest in the study of these diseases worldwide, and a push by the lay public to find cures for these rare but devastating conditions. The genes for a wide range of eye diseases have been identified and have led to a rethinking and a reclassification of disorders that is based not only on classical clinical signs, but also on underlying genetic etiology. Examples of these include the corneal dystrophies, rare forms of strabismus now designated as the cranial dysinnervation disorders, ocular malformations that result from mutations in transcription factors, cataracts that result from mutations in crystallins and other structural lens components, and finally retinal dystrophies that result from defects in phototransduction or visual cycle defects. This article is a perspective on recent advances in the field of ophthalmic genetics.

  16. Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye.

  17. Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye. PMID:24672224

  18. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2012. Studies support an increase in peanut allergy prevalence in children and exposure to the antibacterial agent triclosan and having filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations as risk factors for food sensitization. The role of specific foods in causing eosinophilic esophagitis is elucidated by several studies, and microRNA analysis is identified as a possible noninvasive disease biomarker. Studies on food allergy diagnosis emphasize the utility of component testing and the possibility of improved diagnosis through stepped approaches, epitope-binding analysis, and bioinformatics. Treatment studies of food allergy show promise for oral immunotherapy, but tolerance induction remains elusive, and additional therapies are under study. Studies on anaphylaxis suggest an important role for platelet-activating factor and its relationship to the need for prompt treatment with epinephrine. Insights on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated drug allergy are offered, with novel data regarding the interaction of drugs with HLA molecules. Numerous studies support influenza vaccination of persons with egg allergy using modest precautions. Evidence continues to mount that there is cross-talk between skin barrier defects and immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis. Augmentation of the skin barrier with reduction in skin inflammatory responses will likely lead to the most effective intervention in patients with this common skin disease.

  19. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination.

  20. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the risk of childhood allergic diseases: an update from the perspective of the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chang-Hung; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Huang, Ching-Hua; Yang, San-Nan; Lee, Min-Sheng; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been growing rapidly in industrial countries during recent decades. It is postulated that growing up with less microbial exposure may render the immune system susceptible to a T helper type 2 (Th2)-predominant allergic response-also known as the hygiene hypothesis. This review delineates recent epidemiological and experimental evidence for the hygiene hypothesis, and integrates this hypothesis into the association between early life exposure to antibiotics and the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Several retrospective or prospective epidemiological studies reveal that early exposure to antibiotics may be positively associated with the development of allergic diseases and asthma. However, the conclusion is inconsistent. Experimental studies show that antibiotics may induce the Th2-skewed response by suppressing the T helper type 1 (Th1) response through inhibition of Th1 cytokines and disruption of the natural course of infection, or by disturbing the microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and therefore jeopardizing the establishment of oral tolerance and regulatory T cell immune responses. The hygiene hypothesis may not be the only explanation for the rapid increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma. Further epidemiological and experimental studies addressing the issue of the impact of environmental factors on the development of allergic diseases and the underlying mechanisms may unveil novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in the future.

  1. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    Andrographis shortens the duration of the common cold. The one study on Elderberry's use for the flu was encouraging, and the data on the homeopathic remedy Oscillococcinum interesting, but more studies should be performed. Saline washes may be helpful to patients with allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis. Patients also may try the German combination (available in the United States) of elderberry, vervain, gentian, primrose, and sorrel that has been tested in randomized clinical trials. Bromelain is safe to try; the trials of bromelain supplementation were promising but were never repeated. The preceding suggestions need to be grounded in a program based on optimal medical management. Patients need to be well educated in the proper medical management of their disease and skilled at monitoring disease stability and progress. Asthmatic patients need to monitor their bronchodilator usage and peak flow meter measurements to step up their medical treatment in a timely manner, if needed. Patients welcome physician guidance when exploring the breadth of treatments available today. A true patient-physician partnership is always empowering to patients who are serious about regaining their function and health.

  2. Classroom Demonstration of the Visual Effects of Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raphail, Ann-Marie; Bach, Emily C.; Hallock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the visual system is a fundamental aspect of many neuroscience and psychology courses. These classes often cover a variety of visual diseases that are correlated with the anatomy of the visual system, e.g., cataracts are caused by a clouding of the lens. Here, we describe an easy way to modify standard laboratory glasses/goggles to simulate the various perceptual deficits that accompany vision disorders such as astigmatism, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, optic neuritis, posterior vitreous detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. For example, when teaching about cataracts, students can put on glasses that mimic how severe cataracts affect one’s vision. Using the glasses will allow students to draw connections between the disorder, its perceptual deficits, and the underlying anatomy. We also discuss floaters in the eye and provide an easy method to allow students to detect their own floaters. Together, these demonstrations make for a more dynamic and interactive class on the visual system that will better link diseases of the eye to anatomy and perception, and allow undergraduate students to develop a better understanding of the visual system as a whole. PMID:24693262

  3. TGF- β: an important mediator of allergic disease and a molecule with dual activity in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Rodriguez, Belen; Ortega, Enrique; Segura-Medina, Patricia; Huerta-Yepez, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β ) superfamily is a family of structurally related proteins that includes TGF- β , activins/inhibins, and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF- β superfamily regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration and thus play key roles in organismal development. TGF- β is involved in several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders and vascular diseases. Activation of the TGF- β receptor induces phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues and triggers phosphorylation of intracellular effectors (Smads). Once activated, Smad proteins translocate to the nucleus and induce transcription of their target genes, regulating various processes and cellular functions. Recently, there has been an attempt to correlate the effect of TGF- β with various pathological entities such as allergic diseases and cancer, yielding a new area of research known as "allergooncology," which investigates the mechanisms by which allergic diseases may influence the progression of certain cancers. This knowledge could generate new therapeutic strategies aimed at correcting the pathologies in which TGF- β is involved. Here, we review recent studies that suggest an important role for TGF- β in both allergic disease and cancer progression.

  4. TGF-β: An Important Mediator of Allergic Disease and a Molecule with Dual Activity in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Tirado-Rodriguez, Belen; Segura-Medina, Patricia; Huerta-Yepez, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily is a family of structurally related proteins that includes TGF-β, activins/inhibins, and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF-β superfamily regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration and thus play key roles in organismal development. TGF-β is involved in several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders and vascular diseases. Activation of the TGF-β receptor induces phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues and triggers phosphorylation of intracellular effectors (Smads). Once activated, Smad proteins translocate to the nucleus and induce transcription of their target genes, regulating various processes and cellular functions. Recently, there has been an attempt to correlate the effect of TGF-β with various pathological entities such as allergic diseases and cancer, yielding a new area of research known as “allergooncology," which investigates the mechanisms by which allergic diseases may influence the progression of certain cancers. This knowledge could generate new therapeutic strategies aimed at correcting the pathologies in which TGF-β is involved. Here, we review recent studies that suggest an important role for TGF-β in both allergic disease and cancer progression. PMID:25110717

  5. Phlyctenular eye disease in association with Hymenolepis nana in Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, M K; Khalifa, R; Al-Ansary, A T; Hussain, G H; Moustafa, K M

    1979-01-01

    It had been previously noticed that infection with parasites was common in children suffering from phlyctenulosis. In the present study the stools of 471 patients suffering from phlyctenular disease were examined and it was found that 62.6% of them had Hymenolepis nana ova in their stools as compared with 10.8% of the controls. All patients had Hymenolipis nana immune sera. Many of these patients had abdominal symptoms. Hymenolepis nana is a cestode parasite discovered by Bilharz in Cairo in 1851. Infections with it have the same age incidence and geographical distribution as phlyctenular eye disease. It has a tissue stage responsible for a state of hypersensitivity which is thought to be responsible for the phlyctenules. PMID:486380

  6. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy.

  7. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2007.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2008-06-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2007. Advances in diagnosis include possible biomarkers for anaphylaxis, improved understanding of the relevance of food-specific serum IgE tests, identification of possibly discriminatory T-cell responses for drug allergy, and an elucidation of irritant responses for vaccine allergy diagnostic skin tests. Mechanistic studies are discerning T-cell and cytokine responses central to eosinophilic gastroenteropathies and food allergy, including the identification of multiple potential therapeutic targets. Regarding treatment, clinical studies of oral immunotherapy and allergen vaccination strategies show promise, whereas several clinical studies raise questions about whether oral allergen avoidance reduces atopic risks and whether probiotics can prevent or treat atopic disease. The importance of skin barrier dysfunction has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), particularly as it relates to allergen sensitization and eczema severity. Research has also continued to identify immunologic defects that contribute to the propensity of patients with AD to have viral and bacterial infections. New therapeutic approaches to AD, urticaria, and angioedema have been reported, including use of sublingual immunotherapy, anti-IgE, and a kallikrein inhibitor.

  8. Wakayama symposium: interface between innate and adaptive immunity in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Na, Kyung-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Chung, So-Hyang; Mok, Jee Won; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2015-12-17

    Although the mechanism of dry eye disease is not clearly understood, it is certain that inflammation and the immune response play a major role in determining the health of the ocular surface in dry eye patients. Accurate ocular surface characterization during the early stages of dry eye disease is critical for successful treatment, because there exists no single standard, objective test to diagnose the early phase of dry eye disease. The treatment target should be direct to prevent the perpetuation of chronic inflammation and immune responses. Numerous studies have categorized dry eye disease as an autoimmune-related inflammatory disease. However, relatively little is known about how innate immune mechanisms act following a local insult, why some patients are particularly vulnerable, and why local inflammation fails to resolve in these patients. Within this review, particular attention will be given to the very early events and corresponding defense mechanism in dry eye disease. The transition from innate to adaptive immunity will also be discussed.

  9. Effects of concentrated ambient particles and diesel engine exhaust on allergic airway disease in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Kaminski, Norbert E; Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J; McDonald, Jacob D; Barrett, Edward G

    2009-11-01

    Increased concentrations of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) are associated with increases in emergency room visits and hospitalizations of asthmatic patients. Emissions from local stationary combustion sources (e.g., coal-burning power plants) or mobile motor vehicles (e.g., diesel-powered trucks) have been identified as potential contributors to the development or exacerbation of allergic airway disease. In the present study, a rodent model of allergic airway disease was used to study the effects of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) or diesel engine exhaust (DEE) on the development of allergic airway disease in rats sensitized to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). The overall objective of our project was to understand the effects of PM2.5 on the development of OVA-induced allergic airway disease. Our specific aims were to test the following hypotheses: (1) exposure to CAPs during OVA challenge enhances epithelial remodeling of the airway and inflammation in rats previously sensitized to the allergen; and (2) exposure to DEE during OVA sensitization, or during OVA challenge, exacerbates epithelial remodeling of the airway and inflammation in rats. In the DEE studies, Brown Norway (BN) rats were sensitized with three daily intranasal (IN) instillations of 0.5% OVA, and then two weeks later were challenged with IN OVA or saline for 3 consecutive days. Rats were exposed to DEE diluted to mass concentrations of 30 or 300 microg/m3 diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) or to filtered air during either the sensitization or challenge periods. For the CAPs studies, the same OVA sensitization and challenge rat model was used but exposures to Detroit, Michigan, CAPs were limited to the OVA challenge period. Two separate 3-day CAPs exposures were conducted (week 1, high mean mass concentration = 595 microg/m3; week 2, low mean mass concentration = 356 microg/m3) during OVA challenge. In both the DEE and CAPs

  10. Time to abandon the hygiene hypothesis: new perspectives on allergic disease, the human microbiome, infectious disease prevention and the role of targeted hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Sally F; Rook, Graham AW; Scott, Elizabeth A; Shanahan, Fergus; Stanwell-Smith, Rosalind; Turner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To review the burden of allergic and infectious diseases and the evidence for a link to microbial exposure, the human microbiome and immune system, and to assess whether we could develop lifestyles which reconnect us with exposures which could reduce the risk of allergic disease while also protecting against infectious disease. Methods: Using methodology based on the Delphi technique, six experts in infectious and allergic disease were surveyed to allow for elicitation of group judgement and consensus view on issues pertinent to the aim. Results: Key themes emerged where evidence shows that interaction with microbes that inhabit the natural environment and human microbiome plays an essential role in immune regulation. Changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure, rapid urbanisation, altered diet and antibiotic use have had profound effects on the human microbiome, leading to failure of immunotolerance and increased risk of allergic disease. Although evidence supports the concept of immune regulation driven by microbe–host interactions, the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ is a misleading misnomer. There is no good evidence that hygiene, as the public understands, is responsible for the clinically relevant changes to microbial exposures. Conclusion: Evidence suggests a combination of strategies, including natural childbirth, breast feeding, increased social exposure through sport, other outdoor activities, less time spent indoors, diet and appropriate antibiotic use, may help restore the microbiome and perhaps reduce risks of allergic disease. Preventive efforts must focus on early life. The term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ must be abandoned. Promotion of a risk assessment approach (targeted hygiene) provides a framework for maximising protection against pathogen exposure while allowing spread of essential microbes between family members. To build on these findings, we must change public, public health and professional perceptions about the microbiome and about

  11. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common causes of allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor ... may seem drastic, but it often helps ease seasonal symptoms. True False False. It's hard to escape allergy triggers. Many forms of pollen (especially grasses) and ...

  12. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  13. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    PubMed Central

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS We reviewed the files of 385 children, with a male/female ratio of 1.1:1.0. The group aged 0–6 years made up the largest group (P = 0.01), and the ratio is an expression to define the credibility of the study using a chi-squared test. Strabismus (36.9%), RE (26.5%), ocular trauma (7.5%), infection of cornea and conjunctiva (7.3%), and keratoconus (6.2%) were the most common conditions. There was no significant difference in presentation by age group and sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high

  14. A novel microbe-based treatment that attenuates the inflammatory profile in a mouse model of allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Biala, Agnieszka; Huff, Ryan D.; Bosiljcic, Momir; Gunn, Hal; Kalyan, Shirin; Hirota, Jeremy A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for effective new and innovative treatments for asthma. It is becoming increasingly evident that bacterial stimulation can have beneficial effects at attenuating allergic airway disease through immune modulation. Our aim was to test the ability of a novel inactivated microbe-derived therapeutic based on Klebsiella (KB) in a model of allergic airway disease in mice. BALB/c mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) for two weeks. Mice were treated prophylactically via subcutaneous route with either KB or placebo for one week prior to HDM exposure and throughout the two week exposure period. 24 hours after the last exposure, lungs were analysed for inflammatory cell infiltrate, gene expression, cytokine levels, goblet cell metaplasia, and serum was analysed for allergen-specific serum IgE levels. HDM exposed mice developed goblet cell hyperplasia, elevated allergen-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, and a concomitant increase in TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. Treatment with KB attenuated HDM-mediated airway eosinophilia, total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell numbers, BAL TH2 cytokine production, and goblet cell metaplasia. Our prophylactic intervention study illustrates the potential of subcutaneous treatment with bacterial derived biologics as a promising approach for allergic airway disease treatment. PMID:27734946

  15. The contribution of biotechnology toward progress in diagnosis, management, and treatment of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Palomares, O; Crameri, R; Rhyner, C

    2014-12-01

    'Biotechnology' has been intuitively used by humans since thousands of years for the production of foods, beverages, and drugs based on the experience without any scientific background. However, the golden era of this discipline emerged only during the second half of the last century. Incredible progresses have been achieved on all fields starting from the industrialization of the production of foods to the discovery of antibiotics, the decipherment of the genetic code, and rational approaches to understand and define the status we now call 'healthy'. The extremely complex interactions between genetic background, life style, and environmental factors influencing our continuously increasing life span have become more and more evident and steadily generate new questions which are only partly answered. Here, we try to summarize the contribution of biotechnology to our understanding, control, and cure of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. We are aware that a review of such a vast topic can never cover all aspects of the progress achieved in the different fields.

  16. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2010.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that early food allergen exposure, rather than avoidance, might improve allergy outcomes. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include improved insights into prognosis and estimation of severity through component-resolved diagnostics and characterization of IgE binding to specific epitopes. Regarding treatment, oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy show promise. Studies of drug allergies show insights into pathophysiology, and studies on insect hypersensitivity reveal improved diagnostic methods. Genetic and functional studies have revealed the important role of epidermal differentiation products in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Cross-talk between the atopic immune response with the innate immune response have also been found to predispose to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. New therapeutic approaches to control chronic urticaria have also been identified during the past year.

  17. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified.

  18. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2014.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2015-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2014. Studies on food allergy suggest worrisomely high rates of peanut allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis-related hospitalizations. Evidence is mounting to support the theory that environmental exposure to peanut, such as in house dust, especially with an impaired skin barrier attributed to atopic dermatitis (AD) and loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene, is a risk factor for sensitization and allergy. Diagnostic tests are improving, with early studies suggesting the possibility of developing novel cellular tests with increased diagnostic utility. Treatment trials continue to show the promise and limitations of oral immunotherapy, and mechanistic studies are elucidating pathways that might define the degree of efficacy of this treatment. Studies have also provided insights into the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis and insect venom allergy, such as suggesting that baseline platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity levels are related to the severity of reactions. Advances in drug allergy include identification of HLA associations for penicillin allergy and a microRNA biomarker/mechanism for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Research identifying critical events leading to skin barrier dysfunction and the polarized immune pathways that drive AD have led to new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and management of AD.

  19. IL-17-induced pulmonary pathogenesis during respiratory viral infection and exacerbation of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sumanta; Lindell, Dennis M; Berlin, Aaron A; Morris, Susan B; Shanley, Thomas P; Hershenson, Marc B; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2011-07-01

    Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are characterized by airway epithelial cell damage, mucus hypersecretion, and Th2 cytokine production. Less is known about the role of IL-17. We observed increased IL-6 and IL-17 levels in tracheal aspirate samples from severely ill infants with RSV infection. In a mouse model of RSV infection, time-dependent increases in pulmonary IL-6, IL-23, and IL-17 expression were observed. Neutralization of IL-17 during infection and observations from IL-17(-/-) knockout mice resulted in significant inhibition of mucus production during RSV infection. RSV-infected animals treated with anti-IL-17 had reduced inflammation and decreased viral load, compared with control antibody-treated mice. Blocking IL-17 during infection resulted in significantly increased RSV-specific CD8 T cells. Factors associated with CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, T-bet, IFN-γ, eomesodermin, and granzyme B were significantly up-regulated after IL-17 blockade. Additionally, in vitro analyses suggest that IL-17 directly inhibits T-bet, eomesodermin, and IFN-γ in CD8 T cells. The role of IL-17 was also investigated in RSV-induced exacerbation of allergic airway responses, in which neutralization of IL-17 led to a significant decrease in the exacerbated disease, including reduced mucus production and Th2 cytokines, with decreased viral proteins. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IL-17 plays a pathogenic role during RSV infections.

  20. Symptoms of Dry Eye Disease and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ichinohe, Sho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Daisuke; Ono, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The essential targets of dry eye disease (DED) treatments include both objective signs and subjective symptoms. However, due to the numerous subjective symptoms, it is understandable why little association has been found between the signs and symptoms. Although psychological influences on the subjective symptoms have been reported, little is known about the influence of personality traits. The present study analyzed the relationship between the signs/symptoms of DED and the personality traits of patients using a cross-sectional design. We examined 56 DED patients (mean age; 62.4 ± 12.9, range 34–85 years) visiting the outpatient clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Nippon Medical School Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Objective signs evaluated included the Schirmer I test, tear breakup time (BUT), fluorescein and lissamine green staining, and tear osmolality. Subjective symptoms were assessed by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS) questionnaires. For personality traits, the Big Five personality traits model analysis was used. Correlations between the objective signs, subjective symptoms, and personality traits were analyzed. A significant correlation was found between the neuroticism in the Big Five Personality Inventory and the symptoms assessed by the DEQS (r = -0.35, p < 0.01), and the OSDI (r = -0.28, p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation observed between the signs and the symptoms, or between the signs and any personality traits. The results of our current study suggest that the personality of the patient, which appears to be the basis of various psychological factors, can have some impact on the subjective symptoms. This may be one of the reasons why there has been little association noted between the signs and symptoms of DED. PMID:27861642

  1. Dry eye disease in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Cakir, Ilkay; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Atalay, Kursat; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate dry eye disease (DED) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compare with healthy individuals. Methods The study was conducted in the Ophthalmology and Endocrinology Department of Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, a tertiary care center in Istanbul, Turkey, between January and December 2015. In this prospective case-controlled study, dry eye disease tests were performed on 44 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls. TearLab Osmolarity System, which is a lab-on-a-chip technology, was used to measure tear osmolarity. McMonnies & Ho symptoms questionnaire along with Schirmer I test and tear film break-up time (TFBUT) test were also performed. Statistical evaluation was performed by students’ independent test. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tear osmolarity, TFBUT, and McMonnies & Ho questionnaire scores between MetS and normal group. However, Schirmer I test was significantly higher in MetS group (14.8±9.4mm versus 20.4±9.4, p=0.007). In women subgroup, tear osmolarity was significantly higher in MetS group compared to the normal group and over the cut-off score 308 mOsm/L (309.4±13.1 mOsm/L versus 301.2±8.7mOsm/L, p=0.012). Conclusion Patients with MetS present with lower tear volumes and a higher incidence of lacrimal gland hypofunction than age-matched controls. Especially women with MetS have higher tear osmolarities, which disrupt the normal functioning of the ocular surface and cause inflammation. Clinicians should be aware of higher DED incidence in patients with MetS for early treatment to prevent serious ocular complications. PMID:27874148

  2. Survey of Common Eye Diseases in Laboratory Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo; Hurd, Ron; Wang, Jieping; Nishina, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. As in human populations, in which founder mutations have been identified in groups of families, a number of founder mutations have been observed across strains in mice. In this report, we provide a phenotype and genotype survey of three common eye diseases in the collection of JAX mice strains at The Jackson Laboratory (JAX). These eye diseases are retinal degeneration 1 (Pde6brd1), retinal degeneration 8 (Crb1rd8), and cone photoreceptor function loss 3 (Gnat2cpfl3). Methods. Ocular lesions for rd1 and rd8 were evaluated by fundus examination and fundus photography, and the abnormal retinal function observed in mice homozygous for cpfl3 was assessed by ERG. Genotyping protocols for rd1, rd8, and cpfl3 mutations were performed by PCR with appropriate primers. Results. We have actively screened retired breeders for surface dysmorphologies, and for intraocular defects by indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ERG to discover new spontaneous mutations in strains from the Genetic Resource Science (GRS) production colony. Through this process, we have found that of the strains screened, 99 strains carried the rd1 mutation, 85 strains carried the rd8 mutation, and 20 strains carried the cpfl3 mutation. Conclusions. Of the 1000 of strains screened during this study, 204 carried one of three founder mutations in Pde6b, Crb1, or Gnat2. Since these three retinal mutations occur commonly in various mouse strains, genotyping for these mutations, and/or avoiding mouse strains or stocks carrying these mutant alleles when studying new retinal disorders is recommended. The robust PCR genotyping protocols to test for these common alleles are described herein. PMID:23800770

  3. The Exploration of Disease Pattern, Zheng, for Differentiation of Allergic Rhinitis in Traditional Chinese Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sienhung; Chen, Hsingyu; Lin, Yihsuan; Chen, Yuchun

    2012-01-01

    Pattern, or “zheng,” differentiation is the essential guide to treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the considerable variability between TCM patterns complicates evaluations of TCM treatment effectiveness. The aim of this study was to explore and characterize the relationship between patterns and the core patterns of allergic rhinitis. We summarized 23 clinical trials of allergic rhinitis with mention of pattern differentiation; association rule mining was used to analyze TCM patterns of allergic rhinitis. A total of 205 allergic rhinitis patients seen at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from March to June 2005 were included for comparison. Among the 23 clinical trials evaluated, lung qi deficiency and spleen qi deficiencies were the core patterns of allergic rhinitis, accounting for 29.50% and 28.98% of all patterns, respectively. A higher prevalence of lung or spleen qi deficiency (93.7%) was found in Taiwan. Additionally, patients with lung or spleen qi deficiency were younger (27.99 ± 12.94 versus 58.54 ± 12.96 years) and the severity of nasal stuffiness was higher than among patients with kidney qi deficiency (1.35 ± 0.89 versus 0.62 ± 0.65; P < 0.05). Lung and spleen qi deficiencies are the core patterns of allergic rhinitis and determining the severity of nasal stuffiness is helpful in differentiating the TCM patterns. PMID:22899954

  4. The biodiversity hypothesis and allergic disease: world allergy organization position statement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change secondary to human activities are now being associated with various adverse health effects. However, less attention is being paid to the effects of biodiversity loss on environmental and commensal (indigenous) microbiotas. Metagenomic and other studies of healthy and diseased individuals reveal that reduced biodiversity and alterations in the composition of the gut and skin microbiota are associated with various inflammatory conditions, including asthma, allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), type1 diabetes, and obesity. Altered indigenous microbiota and the general microbial deprivation characterizing the lifestyle of urban people in affluent countries appear to be risk factors for immune dysregulation and impaired tolerance. The risk is further enhanced by physical inactivity and a western diet poor in fresh fruit and vegetables, which may act in synergy with dysbiosis of the gut flora. Studies of immigrants moving from non-affluent to affluent regions indicate that tolerance mechanisms can rapidly become impaired in microbe-poor environments. The data on microbial deprivation and immune dysfunction as they relate to biodiversity loss are evaluated in this Statement of World Allergy Organization (WAO). We propose that biodiversity, the variability among living organisms from all sources are closely related, at both the macro- and micro-levels. Loss of the macrodiversity is associated with shrinking of the microdiversity, which is associated with alterations of the indigenous microbiota. Data on behavioural means to induce tolerance are outlined and a proposal made for a Global Allergy Plan to prevent and reduce the global allergy burden for affected individuals and the societies in which they live. PMID:23663440

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Presentation and Treatment of Graves' Disease and Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Vargason, Caroline W; Chelnis, James G; Barahimi, Behin I; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an inflammatory, autoimmune orbitopathy with multifactorial etiology. Clinical presentation of TED spans a range from mild surface irritation to vision threatening compressive optic neuropathy. Potential vision loss underscores the importance of understanding genetic and environmental factors influencing the severity of TED presentation. This review will describe the classic risk factors for TED, outline treatments for Graves' disease (GD) and TED, and describe newer evidence of socioeconomic disparities in TED presentation.

  6. [Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, Juan Carlos; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aída; Cariño-Cartagena, Diego Antonio; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  7. Asthma and lung cancer, after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases and allergic conditions: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, Rachel; Crellin, Elizabeth; Arvind, Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is one of the most frequently diagnosed respiratory diseases in the UK, and commonly co-occurs with other respiratory and allergic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of lung cancer related to asthma, but the evidence is mixed when accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases and allergic conditions. A systematic review of published data that investigate the relationship between asthma and lung cancer, accounting for co-occurring respiratory and allergic diseases, will be conducted to investigate the independent association of asthma with lung cancer. Methods and analysis A systematic review will be conducted, and include original reports of cohort, cross-sectional and case–control studies of the association of asthma with lung cancer after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases. Articles published up to June 2016 will be included, and their selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A standardised data extraction form will be developed and pretested, and descriptive analyses will be used to summarise the available literature. If appropriate, pooled effect estimates of the association between asthma and lung cancer, given adjustment for a specific co-occurring condition will be estimated using random effects models. Potential sources of heterogeneity and between study heterogeneity will also be investigated. Ethics and dissemination The study will be a review of published data and does not require ethical approval. Results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42016043341 PMID:28093435

  8. Does improvement management of atopic dermatitis influence the appearance of respiratory allergic diseases? A follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is often the prelude to allergic diseases. The aim of this study was 1) to evaluate if an integrated management regime could bring about a change in the evolution of the disease in comparison to the results of a previous study; 2) to determine whether the refinement of allergic investigations allowed to identify more promptly the risk factors of evolution into respiratory allergic diseases. Methods The study included 176 children affected by AD and previously evaluated between 1993 and 2002 at the age of 9-16 months, who underwent a telephonic interview by means of a semi-structured, pre-formed questionnaire after a mean follow-up time of 8 years. According to the SCORAD, at first evaluation children had mild AD in 23% of cases, moderate in 62%, severe in 15%. Results AD disappeared in 92 cases (52%), asthma appeared in 30 (17%) and rhinoconjunctivitis in 48 (27%). The factors significantly related to the appearance of asthma were: sensitization to food allergens with sIgE > 2 KU/L (cow's milk and hen's egg; P < 0.05); to inhalant allergens with sIgE > 0.35 KU/L (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that inhalant sensitization was positively related to the occurrence of asthma (OR = 4.219). While AD showed similar rates of disappearance to those of our previous study, the incidence of asthma was reduced, at the same follow-up time, from 29% to 15% (P = 0.002), and the incidence of rhinoconjunctivitis from 35% to 24% (P = 0.02). Conclusion Comparing the results with those of the previous study, integrated management of AD does not seem to influence its natural course. Nevertheless, the decrease in the percentage of children evolving towards respiratory allergic disease stresses the importance of early diagnosis and improvement management carried out by specialist centers. The presence of allergic sensitization at one year of age might predict the development of respiratory allergy. PMID:20591145

  9. The coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Longo-Dos Santos, Clarisse; Ewenczyk, Claire; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Gallea, Cecile; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Pita Lobo, Patricia; Poupon, Cyril; Benali, Habib; Arnulf, Isabelle; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    In Parkinson's disease, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is an early non-dopaminergic syndrome with nocturnal violence and increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep that can precede Parkinsonism by several years. The neuronal origin of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease is not precisely known; however, the locus subcoeruleus in the brainstem has been implicated as this structure blocks muscle tone during normal rapid eye movement sleep in animal models and can be damaged in Parkinson's disease. Here, we studied the integrity of the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex in patients with Parkinson's disease using combined neuromelanin-sensitive, structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging approaches. We compared 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 12 patients without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent clinical examination and characterization of rapid eye movement sleep using video-polysomnography and multimodal imaging at 3 T. Using neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, reduced signal intensity was evident in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus area in patients with Parkinson's disease that was more marked in patients with than those without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Reduced signal intensity correlated with the percentage of abnormally increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep. The results confirmed that this complex is affected in Parkinson's disease and showed a gradual relationship between damage to this structure, presumably the locus subcoeruleus, and abnormal muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, which is the cardinal marker of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In longitudinal studies, the technique may also provide early markers of non-dopaminergic Parkinson's disease pathology to predict the occurrence of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of photography and direct ophthalmoscopy in screening for sight threatening eye disease: the Liverpool Diabetic Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, S. P.; Broadbent, D. M.; Neoh, C.; White, M. C.; Vora, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate different methods for community based screening for sight threatening diabetic eye disease. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Mobile screening unit visiting inner city community clinics; hospital assessment clinic (tertiary centre). SUBJECTS--395 diabetic patients registered with four general practices in an inner city location. INTERVENTIONS--Community based photography with mydriasis and direct ophthalmoscopy through dilated pupils by an experienced ophthalmologist, both compared with reference standard of slit lamp biomicroscopy by a consultant specialist in medical retinal disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Sensitivity and specificity of screening method and prevalence of sight threatening diabetic eye disease (moderate preproliferative retinopathy, circinate maculopathy, exudate within 1 disc diameter of fixation, other diabetes related eye disease). RESULTS--358 subjects underwent photography, 326 attended hospital clinic for ophthalmoscopy, and six were ungradable on photographs and biomicroscopy, leaving 320 for analysis. Of these 295 (91%) attended clinic within four months of photography. Sensitivity of detection of eye disease by photography was 89% (95% confidence interval 80% to 98%), significantly better than for direct ophthalmoscopy (65% (51% to 79%)). Analysis of patients with false negative results indicated possible improvement of photographic sensitivity to 93% by addition of stereoscopic macular pair photographs. Specificity of detection of sight threatening eye disease was 86% (82% to 90%) for photography and 97% (95% to 99%) for direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSIONS--Since high sensitivity is essential for an effective screening programme, a photographic method should be considered as preferred option in national, community based screening programmes. Even in the hands of an experienced ophthalmologist, direct ophthalmoscopy is limited by weaknesses inherent to the instrument. PMID:7580708

  11. Allergic Rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... out what I'm allergic to?Is my allergy seasonal?I am allergic to _____. Am I at risk for any other allergies?What changes can I make at home to ... org editorial staff Tags: allergen, allergic rhinitis, allergies, allergy, ... ragweed, seasonal rhinitis Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, ...

  12. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  13. How changes in nutrition have influenced the development of allergic diseases in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi correlati. Gli alimenti che

  14. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  15. Chlorinated pool attendance, airway epithelium defects and the risks of allergic diseases in adolescents: Interrelationships revealed by circulating biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Alfred Nickmilder, Marc; Dumont, Xavier

    2015-07-15

    It has been suggested that allergic diseases might be epithelial disorders driven by various environmental stressors but the epidemiological evidence supporting this concept is limited. In a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents (365 boys; mean age, 15.5 yr), we measured the serum concentrations of Club cell protein (CC16), surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) and of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE. We used the serum CC16/SP-D concentration ratio as an index integrating changes in the permeability (SP-D) and secretory function (CC16) of the airway epithelium. In both sexes, early swimming in chlorinated pools emerged as the most consistent and strongest predictor of low CC16 and CC16/SP-D ratio in serum. Among girls, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds (lowest vs. highest tertile) for pet sensitization (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.19–8.22) and for hay fever in subjects sensitized to pollen (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.28–14.4). Among boys, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds for house-dust mite (HDM) sensitization (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11–3.73), for allergic rhinitis in subjects sensitized to HDM (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22–11.1) and for asthma in subjects sensitized to any aeroallergen (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.17–11.0), HDM (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.40–24.2) or pollen (OR 5.82, 95% CI 1.51–27.4). Odds for allergic sensitization or rhinitis also increased with increasing SP-D or decreasing CC16 in serum. Our findings support the hypothesis linking the development of allergic diseases to epithelial barrier defects due to host factors or environmental stressors such as early swimming in chlorinated pools. - Highlights: • We conducted a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents. • The airway epithelium integrity was evaluated by measuring serum pneumoproteins. • The risk of allergic diseases was associated with a defective airway epithelium. • Childhood swimming in chlorinated pools can cause persistent epithelial

  16. Acupuncture for allergic disease therapy--the current state of evidence.

    PubMed

    Pfab, Florian; Schalock, Peter C; Napadow, Vitaly; Athanasiadis, Georgios I; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Ring, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    This review summarizes current evidence for acupuncture treatment of allergies. Several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated a specific effect of acupuncture for allergic rhinitis; while a few studies have shown positive effects for atopic dermatitis, asthma and itch. Specifically for allergic rhinitis and asthma, acupuncture may be cost-effective in terms of money spent per quality-of-life gained. Acupuncture plays an increasingly important role as an evidence-based therapy for allergy relief and can be recommended as adjunct therapy for allergic rhinitis. Future randomized controlled trials need to further explore acupuncture efficacy for the treatment of itch, atopic dermatitis and asthma. More experimental research is also needed to investigate mechanisms of action underlying acupuncture for allergy relief.

  17. Dyslipidemia and Eye Diseases in the Adult Chinese Population: The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B.; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    To determine associations between dyslipidemia and ocular diseases, the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2006 examined 3251 subjects (age≥45 years) who underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination and biochemical blood analysis. Dyslipidemia was defined as any of the following: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol concentration≥5.72 mmol/L (220 mg/dL)) or hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride concentration≥1.70 mmol/L (150 mg/dL)) or low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentration≤0.91 mmol/L (35 mg/dL)). Biochemical blood examinations were available for 2945 (90.6%) subjects. After adjustment for age, gender, habitation region, body mass index, self reported income, blood glucose concentration, diastolic blood pressure and smoking, dyslipidemia was significantly associated with higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001) and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy (P = 0.03). Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with the prevalence of glaucoma (P = 0.99), retinal vein occlusions (P = 0.92), diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.49), presence of retinal vascular abnormalities such as focal or general arteriolar narrowing, age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.27), nuclear cataract (P = 0.14), cortical cataract (P = 0.93), and subcapsular cataract (P = 0.67). The results make one conclude that, controlled for systemic and socioeconomic parameters, dyslipidemia was not associated with common ophthalmic disorders including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22128290

  18. Markers of neurodegeneration in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Postuma, R B; Gagnon, J F; Vendette, M; Montplaisir, J Y

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is an important risk factor in the development of Parkinson's disease. Numerous potential predictive markers of Parkinson's disease may present before motor symptoms emerge, but testing of these markers in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been performed only in small studies. There has been no comparison of markers between patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease, and between men and women. We evaluated an array of potential Parkinson's disease predictive markers in 159 patients; including 68 with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 36 controls, 34 Parkinson's patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 Parkinson's patients without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Compared with controls, patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder demonstrated substantial olfactory loss (P < 0.001). Olfaction was more impaired in Parkinson's disease than idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and did not differ between Parkinson's patients with, or without, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Numerous measures of motor function including the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale alternate tap, Purdue Peg Board and Timed 'Up and Go' were impaired in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder compared with controls (P < 0.01). All of these motor measures were worse with Parkinson's disease than with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, regardless of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder status. Autonomic symptoms and systolic blood pressure drop were impaired in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder compared with controls (P = 0.003). Orthostatic abnormalities in Parkinson's disease were found in the group with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (P < 0.001). However, Parkinson

  19. Genome-wide association analysis of eosinophilic esophagitis provides insight into the tissue specificity of this allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kottyan, Leah C; Davis, Benjamin P; Sherrill, Joseph D; Liu, Kan; Rochman, Mark; Kaufman, Kenneth; Weirauch, Matthew T; Vaughn, Samuel; Lazaro, Sara; Rupert, Andrew M; Kohram, Mojtaba; Stucke, Emily M; Kemme, Katherine A; Magnusen, Albert; He, Hua; Dexheimer, Phillip; Chehade, Mirna; Wood, Robert A; Pesek, Robbie D; Vickery, Brian P; Fleischer, David M; Lindbad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A; Mukkada, Vincent A; Putnam, Phil E; Abonia, J Pablo; Martin, Lisa J; Harley, John B; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2014-08-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with allergic hypersensitivity to food. We interrogated >1.5 million genetic variants in EoE cases of European ancestry and subsequently in a multi-site cohort with local and out-of-study control subjects. In addition to replicating association of the 5q22 locus (meta-analysis P=1.9×10(-16)), we identified an association at 2p23 spanning CAPN14 (P=2.5×10(-10)). CAPN14 was specifically expressed in the esophagus, was dynamically upregulated as a function of disease activity and genetic haplotype and after exposure of epithelial cells to interleukin (IL)-13, and was located in an epigenetic hotspot modified by IL-13. Genes neighboring the top 208 EoE-associated sequence variants were enriched for esophageal expression, and multiple loci for allergic sensitization were associated with EoE susceptibility (4.8×10(-2)allergic sensitization with an EoE-specific, IL-13-inducible esophageal response involving CAPN14.

  20. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species.

  1. Fluorophotometry as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Magid M; Haji, Shamim; Koonapareddy, Chakravarthy V; Fan, Vincent C; Asbell, Penny A

    2006-01-01

    Background Dry eye disease is a common debilitating ocular disease. Current diagnostic tests used in dry eye disease are often neither sensitive nor reproducible, making it difficult to accurately diagnose and determine end points for clinical trials, or evaluate the usefulness of different medications in the treatment of dry eye disease. The recently developed fluorophotometer can objectively detect changes in the corneal epithelium by quantitatively measuring its barrier function or permeability. The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of corneal fluorescein penetration measured by the fluorophotometer as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of dry eye patients. Methods Dry eye patients (16 eyes), who presented with a chief complaint of ocular irritation corresponding with dry eye, low Schirmer's one test (<10 mm after 5 minutes) and corneal fluorescein staining score of more than two, were included in the study. Normal subjects (16 eyes), who came for refraction error evaluation, served as controls. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved consent was obtained before enrolling the subjects in the study and all questions were answered while explaining the risks, benefits and alternatives. All Fluorophotometry of the central corneal epithelium was done utilizing the Fluorotron Master (TradeMark). Each eye had a baseline fluorescein scan performed, after which 50 l of 1% sodium fluorescein dye was instilled. Three minutes later, the fluorescein was washed with 50 ml of normal saline. Fluorescein scans were then started immediately after washing and were recorded at 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes thereafter. The corneal peak values of fluorescein concentration were recorded within the central cornea in both dry eyes and in controls. Results Ten minutes after fluorescein installition, patients with dry eye disease averaged a five-fold increase in corneal tissue fluorescein concentration (mean = 375.26 ± 202.67 ng/ml) compared with that of normal subjects

  2. Correlation of symptomatic enterovirus infection and later risk of allergic diseases via a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Zon-Min; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Ho, Shu-Chen; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Infants who are exposed to the rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus are at a higher risk of subsequently developing wheezing or asthma. This study aims to determine whether preschoolers with a history of symptomatic enterovirus infection are at an increased risk of developing allergic diseases or not. We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1999 to 2006 for this nationwide population-based cohort study. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, which included asthma (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between herpangina (ICD-9: 074.0) and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD; ICD-9: 074.3) throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model. In this database, 12,016 neonates were born between January 1999 and December 1999. Among them, we further evaluated 8337 subjects; 3267 children infected with either herpangina or HFMD served as the study cohort, and the other 5070 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the herpangina group had a higher risk of developing AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.15 (1.02–1.30, 95% CI) and 1.38 (1.17–1.63. 95% CI), respectively, while children suffered from HFMD had decreased risks of asthma, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (0.63–0.93, 95% CI). Children who previously suffered from herpangina experienced an increased risk of subsequently developing AD and AR. Meanwhile, children who had suffered from HFMD experienced a decrease in the subsequent occurrence of asthma compared to the general population. PMID:28121929

  3. The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeremiah K. H.; Li, Qiao-Xin; He, Zheng; Vingrys, Algis J.; Wong, Vickie H. Y.; Currier, Nicolas; Mullen, Jamie; Bui, Bang V.; Nguyen, Christine T. O.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dementia and eventual death. It is the leading cause of dementia and the number of cases are projected to rise in the next few decades. Pathological hallmarks of AD include the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid protein deposition. Currently, these pathological biomarkers are detected either through cerebrospinal fluid analysis, brain imaging or post-mortem. Though effective, these methods are not widely available due to issues such as the difficulty in acquiring samples, lack of infrastructure or high cost. Given that the eye possesses clear optics and shares many neural and vascular similarities to the brain, it offers a direct window to cerebral pathology. These unique characteristics lend itself to being a relatively inexpensive biomarker for AD which carries the potential for wide implementation. The development of ocular biomarkers can have far implications in the discovery of treatments which can improve the quality of lives of patients. In this review, we consider the current evidence for ocular biomarkers in AD and explore potential future avenues of research in this area. PMID:27909396

  4. Sleep and mood disorders in women with dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in women aged 30–69 with dry eye disease (DED). All subjects underwent corneal examinations, with 890 completing a questionnaire regarding symptoms of DED and 213 completing both the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on age (younger [30–45 years], perimenopausal [46–55 years], and older [56–69 years]), and comparisons were made among groups in subjects with and without DED. PSQI scores were significantly worse in subjects with (6.1 ± 2.9) than without (4.9 ± 2.7) DED (P = 0.003) and, in the younger group, HADS scores were worse in those with (13.2 ± 6.0) than without DED (9.7 ± 6.0) (P = 0.020). In contrast, there were no differences in mood indices between those with and without DED in the other groups. PSQI score was significantly correlated with HADS rather than ocular findings. In conclusion, sleep quality had deteriorated in women with DED. However, mood problems contributed more to sleep quality than ocular status, especially in those with DED in the younger group. PMID:27731398

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome might be associated with dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Asproudis, Ioannis; Tsoumani, Anthoula T.; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Theopistos, Vasileios; Paschidis, Konstantinos A.; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.; Christodoulou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background A possible association between dry eye disease (DED) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been hypothesized based on the fact that they both share an inflammatory pathogenesis. Methods Ninety-five patients with IBS and 276 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All patients answered a questionnaire regarding DED symptoms and had a complete ophthalmic examination. DED signs were evaluated using Schirmer’s 1 and tear break-up time (tBUT) tests in both groups. Results Female IBS participants presented significantly lower Schirmer’s test and tBUT (P=0.002 and P<0.001 respectively) than controls. Both diagnostic tests in male IBS patients were also significantly lower than in controls (P<0.001). 72% of IBS patients gave at least 3 positive answers to the questionnaire compared with 42% of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion Our results suggest a correlation between IBS and DED. DED symptoms can cause further complications in patients with IBS, and should be considered in their management. However, further research is needed to establish a possible pathophysiologic association. PMID:27708515

  6. Reconstitution of the human biome as the most reasonable solution for epidemics of allergic and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D; Wray, Gregory A; Perkins, Sarah E; Parker, William

    2011-10-01

    A wide range of hyperimmune-associated diseases plague post-industrial society, with a prevalence and impact that is staggering. Strong evidence points towards a loss of helminths from the ecosystem of the human body (the human biome) as the most important factor in this epidemic. Helminths, intestinal worms which are largely eradicated by elements of post-industrial culture including toilets and water treatment facilities, have an otherwise ubiquitous presence in vertebrates, and have co-evolved with the immune system. Not only do helminths discourage allergic and autoimmune reactions by diverting the immune system away from these pathologic processes and stimulating host regulatory networks, helminths release a variety of factors which down-modulate the immune system. A comprehensive view of hyperimmune-related disease based on studies in immunology, parasitology, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, and neurobiology indicates that the effects of biome depletion may not yet be fully realized, and may have an unexpectedly broad impact on many areas of human biology, including cognition. Fortunately, colonization with helminths results in a cure of numerous autoimmune and allergic diseases in laboratory rodents, and clinical studies in humans have indicated their utility for treatment of both multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Based on these considerations, commitment of considerable resources toward understanding the effects of "biome depletion" and systematically evaluating the most effective approach toward biome reconstitution is strongly encouraged.

  7. Effect of thermoneutral housing on fungal-induced respiratory allergic disease in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is projected to increase the number of fungal, bacterial, and pollen agents both indoors and outdoors and may become a significant health impact. Combined with the thermal stress from a rise in global temperatures, it is important to consider how respiratory allerg...

  8. Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Moss, Scot E; Meuer, Stacy M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the 10-year incidence of retinal emboli, the associated risk factors, and the relationship of retinal emboli to stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality. METHODS: The Beaver Dam Eye Study (n = 4,926) is a population-based study of persons 43 to 86 years of age. Retinal emboli were detected at baseline (1988-1990) and at a 5-year (1993-1995) and a 10-year (1998-2000) follow-up by grading of stereoscopic 30 degrees color fundus photographs using standardized protocols. Cause-specific mortality was determined from death certificates. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of retinal emboli was 1.5%. While adjusting for age and sex, the incidence of retinal emboli was associated with increased pulse pressure (odds ratio [OR] 4th versus 1st quartile range, 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-5.97; P test of trend = .03), higher serum total cholesterol (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.23; P = .03), higher leukocyte count (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.04-4.96; P = .05), smoking status (OR current versus never smoker, 4.60: 95% CI, 2.08-10.16; P < .001), and a history of coronary artery bypass surgery (OR, 7.17; 95% CI, 3.18-16.18; P < .001) at baseline. While controlling for age, sex, and systemic factors, a significantly higher hazard of dying with a mention of stroke on the death certificate was found in people with retinal emboli (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.16-4.99) compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: The data show an association of smoking and cardiovascular disease with the incidence of retinal emboli. Also, persons with retinal emboli are at increased risk of stroke-related death. PMID:14971575

  9. Allergic Inflammation—Innately Homeostatic

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Laurence E.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  10. TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES BY THE HEALERS OF MARAKANAM BIO-REGION

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, JN.; Balu, S.

    1997-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to list some of the medicinal plants used by the traditional practitioners of the Marakanam bio-region in the treatment of various eye diseases. The survey of folk medicine men from this bio-region has revelaed that there are 24 medicinal plants locally available for treating both simple and complex eye diseases. Most of these diseases have been identified in Sanskrit and Tamil and are correlated with their English terms. PMID:22556795

  11. Exploring Household-level Risk Factors for Self-reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Low-income Households in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, SungChul; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor risk factors for allergic diseases in low-income households in Korea have been characterized only partially. We evaluated the prevalences of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, to identify key housing and behavioral risk factors of low-income households. Methods Statistical analysis of the prevalence of these diseases and various risk factors was conducted using data from a 2010 Ministry of Environment household survey. Logistic regression models were generated using data from 511 low-income household apartments in districts of Seoul. Results In general, housing factors such as renovation history (P<0.1) and crowding status (P<0.01) were associated with allergic rhinitis, whereas behavioral factors such as frequency of indoor ventilation (P<0.05) and cleaning (P<0.1) were inversely correlated with atopic dermatitis. Indoor smoking was a major trigger of asthma and atopic dermatitis in low-income households (P<0.05). The presence of mold and water leakage in houses were the most important risk factors for all three diseases (P<0.05). Conclusions Various risk factors play a role in triggering allergic diseases among low-income households in Seoul, and health or environmental programs mitigating allergic diseases should be tailored to address appropriate housing or behavioral factors in target populations. PMID:25228999

  12. Air quality and seasonal variations in consultations for respiratory, allergic, dermatological and gastrointestinal diseases in Bahrain, 2007.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, R R; Al-Roomi, K A

    2014-06-09

    Environmental health data in Bahrain are scarce. This study in 4 governorates of Bahrain aimed to establish baseline data on the seasonal prevalence of certain disease groups that are sensitive to climate (respiratory, allergic, dermatological and non-specific gastrointestinal diseases) over a 1-year period and to record local climate and air pollutant data for the same year. A 5% sample of medical records for those who attended primary health-care centres during 2007 was taken. Visit rates for all 4 diseases had peaks, in spring and in autumn, with the lowest rates in the summer season when the average temperatures were highest and average humidity was lower. Respiratory-related visits were highest when the air concentrations of SO2 were highest. An ongoing surveillance system for climate-sensitive diseases should be initiated to monitor and relate health and environmental trends.

  13. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  14. [GA(2)LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network): European network of excellence for asthma and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Gjomarkaj, M; Pace, E; Canonica, G W; Bonini, S; Ricci, G; Burney, P; Zuberbier, T; Van Cauwenberge, P; Bousquet, J

    2009-12-01

    Allergic diseases represent some of the main health problems in Europe. These are increasing in prevalence, seriousness and social cost. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a network of excellence of the 6 degrees management program, was created in the 2005 with the aim to gather the European leader institutions of the research and clinical assistance fields, in order to guarantee the excellence and avoid the fragmentation of the energy spent in fighting allergy diseases in general. The GA(2)LEN has drawn a great advantage from the personal efforts of every single researcher who have proved their strong motivation in carrying on this "pan-European" model of collaboration. The network has been organized in order to increase the team work in scientific research projects in allergic and asthma disease field, making the GA(2)LEN the worldwide leader in this area. On these basis research projects have been carried on about which first data have been already published. The activities of the GA(2)LEN include in general the establishment of a lasting organization of the planning phase, the activity linked to every single project and to the improving on the existing projects, as well as the draft of new guidelines. This review reports the main achieved goals.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Qin; Bai, Zong-Xi; Shi, Jing; Luo, Sang; Chang, Hong-Fa; Sai, Xiao-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Tibet, and to assist the development of eye disease prevention and treatment schemes. METHODS We carried out a survey of eye diseases among a population living at high altitude. A total of 1 115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County, Lhasa Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, participated in this study. All participants completed a detailed questionnaire, and underwent presenting and pinhole visual acuity tests, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. RESULTS There were 187 blind eyes (8.43%), 231 eyes with low vision (10.41%). The leading cause of visual impairment was cataract of 55.0% (101/187) blindness and of 50.2% (116/231) low vision, followed by fundus lesions of 22.9% blindness and 23.8% low vision, while only a low prevalence of glaucoma of 9.6% blindness and 1.7% low vision was observed. The analysis of 2 219 eyes showed that the most common external eye disease was pterygium (27.2%) in Tibet. CONCLUSION The high prevalence of blindness and low vision in the Tibetan population at high altitude is a serious public health issue. There is a need to establish and maintain an appropriate effective eye care program in Tibet. PMID:23638429

  16. You Have Diabetes. How Can You Avoid Serious Eye Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Change Colors White text, black background Yellow text, black background Black text, white ... Aging and vision Blindness Blurred vision Braille Cataracts Child eye health Diabetes Dilated ...

  17. Awareness of eye diseases in an urban population in southern India.

    PubMed Central

    Dandona, R.; Dandona, L.; John, R. K.; McCarty, C. A.; Rao, G. N.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of awareness of eye diseases in the urban population of Hyderabad in southern India. METHODS: A total of 2522 subjects of all ages, who were representative of the Hyderabad population, participated in the population-based Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Of these subjects, 1859 aged > 15 years responded to a structured questionnaire on cataract, glaucoma, night blindness and diabetic retinopathy to trained field investigators. Having heard of the eye disease in question was defined as "awareness" and having some understanding of the eye disease was defined as "knowledge". FINDINGS: Awareness of cataract (69.8%) and night blindness (60.0%) was moderate but that of diabetic retinopathy (27.0%) was low, while that of glaucoma (2.3%) was very poor. Knowledge of all the eye diseases assessed was poor. Subjects aged > or = 30 years were significantly more aware of all eye diseases assessed except night blindness. Multivariate analysis revealed that women were significantly less aware of night blindness (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.97). Education played a significant role in awareness of these eye diseases. Study subjects of upper socioeconomic status were significantly more aware of night blindness (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.29-3.74) and those belonging to upper and middle socioeconomic strata were significantly more aware of diabetic retinopathy (OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 2.19-3.56). Muslims were significantly more aware of cataract (OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.84-3.02) and less aware of night blindness (OR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.42-0.64). The major source of awareness of the eye diseases was a family member/friend/relative suffering from that eye disease. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that there is a need for health education in this Indian population to increase their level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases. Such awareness and knowledge could lead to better understanding and acceptance of the importance of

  18. Portable, low-priced retinal imager for eye disease screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, Peter; Nemeth, Sheila; VanNess, Richard; Barriga, E. S.; Zamora, Gilberto

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a portable, low-priced, easy to use non-mydriatic retinal camera for eye disease screening in underserved urban and rural locations. Existing portable retinal imagers do not meet the requirements of a low-cost camera with sufficient technical capabilities (field of view, image quality, portability, battery power, and ease-of-use) to be distributed widely to low volume clinics, such as the offices of single primary care physicians serving rural communities or other economically stressed healthcare facilities. Our approach for Smart i-Rx is based primarily on a significant departure from current generations of desktop and hand-held commercial retinal cameras as well as those under development. Our techniques include: 1) Exclusive use of off-the-shelf components; 2) Integration of retinal imaging device into low-cost, high utility camera mount and chin rest; 3) Unique optical and illumination designed for small form factor; and 4) Exploitation of autofocus technology built into present digital SLR recreational cameras; and 5) Integration of a polarization technique to avoid the corneal reflex. In a prospective study, 41 out of 44 diabetics were imaged successfully. No imaging was attempted on three of the subjects due to noticeably small pupils (less than 2mm). The images were of sufficient quality to detect abnormalities related to diabetic retinopathy, such as microaneurysms and exudates. These images were compared with ones taken non-mydriatically with a Canon CR-1 Mark II camera. No cases identified as having DR by expert retinal graders were missed in the Smart i-Rx images.

  19. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dysregulation refers to the regulation of blood flow that is not adapted to the needs of the respective tissue. We distinguish primary vascular dysregulation (PVD, formerly called vasospastic syndrome) and secondary vascular dysregulation (SVD). Subjects with PVD tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, increased pain sensitivity, prolonged sleep onset time, altered gene expression in the lymphocytes, signs of oxidative stress, slightly increased endothelin-1 plasma level, low body mass index and often diffuse and fluctuating visual field defects. Coldness, emotional or mechanical stress and starving can provoke symptoms. Virtually all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. In subjects with PVD, retinal vessels are stiffer and more irregular, and both neurovascular coupling and autoregulation capacity are reduced while retinal venous pressure is often increased. Subjects with PVD have increased risk for normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve compartment syndrome, central serous choroidopathy, Susac syndrome, retinal artery and vein occlusions and anterior ischaemic neuropathy without atherosclerosis. Further characteristics are their weaker blood–brain and blood-retinal barriers and the higher prevalence of optic disc haemorrhages and activated astrocytes. Subjects with PVD tend to suffer more often from tinnitus, muscle cramps, migraine with aura and silent myocardial ischaemic and are at greater risk for altitude sickness. While the main cause of vascular dysregulation is vascular endotheliopathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is also involved. In contrast, SVD occurs in the context of other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, retrobulbar neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and giant cell arteritis. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of PVD in the population and potentially linked pathologies, in the current article, the authors provide

  20. Evaluation of an Ecologically Valid Group Intervention to Address Sleep Health in Families of Children With Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Booster, Genery D.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep issues in children with allergic diseases may be a result of illness related factors (e.g., itching, wheezing) and/or poor sleep habits due to disrupted routines and parental permissiveness. However, the ability of parents to attend a multi-session sleep intervention may be limited. Thus we examined the validity of a one-time sleep health group intervention for parents of children with allergic diseases. Ninety-three parents of children who were admitted to a two-week intensive day hospital treatment program completed measures of child sleep habits (Children’s Report of Sleep Patterns), parent sleep habits (Sleep Hygiene Inventory), parent sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and parental insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index) before the group intervention and one-month after program discharge; 54 parents attended the sleep health group. Sleep habits and sleep quality improved for both parents and children at the one-month follow-up. However, improvements were seen regardless of group attendance. Potential reasons for the lack of difference between those who did and did not participate in group are presented, and implications of this study for pediatric psychologist in practice are discussed. PMID:28083466

  1. Gene Profiling Technique to Accelerate Stem Cell Therapies for Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  2. Emerging Technologies Look Deeper into the Eyes to Catch Signs of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  3. A novel nanoscale-dispersed eye ointment for the treatment of dry eye disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjian; Wang, Yan; Lee, Benjamin Tak Kwong; Liu, Chang; Wei, Gang; Lu, Weiyue

    2014-03-01

    A novel nanoscale-dispersed eye ointment (NDEO) for the treatment of severe evaporative dry eye has been successfully developed. The excipients used as semisolid lipids were petrolatum and lanolin, as used in conventional eye ointment, which were coupled with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) as a liquid lipid; both phases were then dispersed in polyvinyl pyrrolidone solution to form a nanodispersion. Single-factor experiments were conducted to optimize the formulations. A transmission electron micrograph showed that the ointment matrix was entrapped in the nanoemulsion of MCT, with a mean particle size of about 100 nm. The optimized formulation of NDEO was stable when stored for six months at 4 °C, and demonstrated no cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells when compared with commercial polymer-based artificial tears (Tears Natural® Forte). The therapeutic effects of NDEO were evaluated on a mouse model with ‘dry eye’. Both the tear break-up time and fluorescein staining demonstrated therapeutic improvement, displaying a trend of positive correlation with higher concentrations of ointment matrix in the NDEO formulations compared to a marketed product. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the NDEO restored the normal corneal and conjunctival morphology and is safe for ophthalmic application.

  4. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  5. Dry eye disease and uveitis: A closer look at immune mechanisms in animal models of two ocular autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tanima; Diedrichs-Möhring, Maria; Wildner, Gerhild

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is a prerequisite for specific and effective therapeutical intervention. This review focuses on animal models of two common ocular inflammatory diseases, dry eye disease (DED), affecting the ocular surface, and uveitis with inflammation of the inner eye. In both diseases autoimmunity plays an important role, in idiopathic uveitis immune reactivity to intraocular autoantigens is pivotal, while in dry eye disease autoimmunity seems to play a role in one subtype of disease, Sjögren' syndrome (SjS). Comparing the immune mechanisms underlying both eye diseases reveals similarities, and significant differences. Studies have shown genetic predispositions, T and B cell involvement, cytokine and chemokine signatures and signaling pathways as well as environmental influences in both DED and uveitis. Uveitis and DED are heterogeneous diseases and there is no single animal model, which adequately represents both diseases. However, there is evidence to suggest that certain T cell-targeting therapies can be used to treat both, dry eye disease and uveitis. Animal models are essential to autoimmunity research, from the basic understanding of immune mechanisms to the pre-clinical testing of potential new therapies.

  6. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease.

  7. Treatment of venereal disease in the penicillin-allergic patient: administration of penicillin following testing with major and minor determinants.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, P A; Phair, J P

    1985-01-01

    We describe the administration of penicillin for venereal disease in three penicillin-allergic patients for whom alternative antibiotics were not considered suitable. Each patient was skin test negative to the major penicillin determinant benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine and a minor determinant mixture of potassium penicillin, benzylpenicilloate and benzylpenicilloyl-n-propylamine provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Therapeutic doses of penicillin were administered without anaphylaxis, but one patient developed serum sickness on day five following benzylpenicillin. The skin testing results were determined within 30 minutes such that penicillin or its derivatives could be administered safely and rapidly to seriously ill patients, i.e. disseminated gonococcemia. When treating neurosyphilis or disseminated gonococcal infection for which non-penicillin therapy is unacceptable, use of the current skin test reagents provides a level of safety in avoiding anaphylaxis not previously attainable.

  8. Involvement of chymase in allergic conjunctivitis of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nabe, Takeshi; Kijitani, Yurie; Kitagawa, Yuriko; Sakano, Emi; Ueno, Tomoko; Fujii, Masanori; Nakao, Shintaro; Sakai, Masaru; Takai, Shinji

    2013-08-01

    It has been reported that chymase activity was increased in allergic conjunctivitis patients and this activity was correlated with the severity of the disease. However, the precise roles of chymase in allergic conjunctivitis are unclear, and whether chymase inhibitors are effective for allergic conjunctivitis has not been reported even in experimental animal models. In this study, the roles of chymase in the pathogenesis were evaluated using a selective chymase inhibitor, ONO-WH-236, in a guinea pig model of allergic conjunctivitis induced by cedar pollen. Sensitized guinea pigs were challenged by the pollen, followed by assessing redness and edema in the conjuntiva, and counting the frequency of eye scratching as an itch-associated response. Treatment with the ONO-WH-236 (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the induction of redness, edema and scratching behavior. An anti-histaminic drug, ketotifen (3 mg/kg, p.o.), also significantly inhibited conjunctivitis symptoms. Chymase activity was increased in ophthalmic lavage fluid immediately after the pollen challenge. The increase in chymase activity was inhibited by in vivo treatment with ONO-WH-236. Interestingly, increased histamine in the ophthalmic lavage fluid immediately after the challenge was also inhibited by the chymase inhibitor. Administration of human recombinant chymase by eye dropping (0.09 and 0.9 μg/eye) dose-dependently induced scratching behavior, which was inhibited by not only ONO-WH-236 but also ketotifen; however, chymase administration induced only weak redness in the conjunctiva, which was resistant to treatment with anti-histaminic drugs. In conclusion, it was suggested that chymase was released from mast cells after antigen challenge, followed by the induction of conjunctivitis symptoms through histamine release from mast cells. Thus, chymase could be a potential target for pharmacotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

  9. Update on vaccination guidelines for allergic children.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2009-11-01

    Children with allergic or atopic diseases require immunization just like non-atopic children. However, vaccination of such children requires some special considerations and precautions. Children may be allergic to specific vaccine constituents such as gelatin or egg. Children who have suffered an apparent allergic reaction to a vaccine should be evaluated by an allergist to determine the culprit allergen and to make recommendations regarding future vaccination. In rare circumstances, certain vaccines may cause acute exacerbations of allergic diseases, but the contention that vaccination causes allergic disease is not substantiated by any available evidence.

  10. [Incidence of allergic diseases and atopic markers in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Medina, R; Rojo Gutiérrez, M I; Becerril Angeles, M; Gasca Bauza, M R

    1997-01-01

    With the aim to know both the distribution and features of allergic disorders in a third level hospital at Mexico city we performed a descriptive study throughout one year, patients data were obtained from their clinical records at initial evaluation. We attended 1486 patients, 744 females (50.1%) and 742 males (49.9%). Children under 10 years-old were the main ages group (46.8%). Forty-four percent of the patients had at least one atopic relative, one brother or sister in 19.5%. White blood cells results showed peripheral cosinophilia in 57.6% patients and nasal cosinophilia in 58.1%. We found S. aureus, coagulase positive in 55% of 192 positive throat cultures. The more frequent diagnoses were rhinitis and asthma (46.3%), rhinitis (20.7%) and asthma (14.1%). We consider that the more prominent findings were the high index of S. aureus, higher atopic family history in brothers and the association between cosinophilia and allergic disorders.

  11. Allergies in urban versus countryside settings in Poland as part of the Epidemiology of the Allergic Diseases in Poland (ECAP) study – challenge the early differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Furmańczyk, Konrad; Piekarska, Barbara; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Sybilski, Adam; Samoliński, Bolesław K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of allergies depends on a number of factors, including adopting an urban “western” lifestyle, genetic predispositions, and different regions of residence. Aim To compare the prevalence of allergic conditions (seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), bronchial asthma (BA), atopic dermatitis (AD)) in a group of countryside versus urban residents in Poland. Material and methods The prevalence of allergic conditions in urban versus countryside settings was assessed using the translated and approved questionnaire developed for international ECRHS II and ISAAC studies. Respondents were selected via random multistage sampling, with proportionate stratified sampling, and the Polish Resident Identification Number (PESEL) as the basis. A total of 18,617 respondents took part in the study. Subsequently, approximately 25% of the subjects underwent outpatient assessments: skin-prick, lung function, peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) tests, as well as history-taking. Results Allergic rhinitis (AR) proved to be the most common condition in the entire study population. Children residing in the countryside were twice more likely to be diagnosed with BA (8.33% vs. 4%; p < 0.05). Conversely, in the adult subgroup, BA was more commonly observed in urban areas. Whereas reported symptom rates were much higher in AR and AD patients, symptomatic BA was proportionately lower with respect to the official diagnoses (underdiagnosed BA phenomenon). Atopic dermatitis was considerably more common in the metropolitan population. One factor that significantly correlated with allergic diseases was a positive family history. Conclusions Inhabitants of metropolitan areas are to a greater extent predisposed to allergic conditions. One factor significantly contributing to allergies is genetic predisposition. Given the scale of the problem, there is an urgent need to implement measures for early prevention and diagnosis of allergies to

  12. Eye disease in the West Bank and Gaza strip.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, I M; Chumbley, L C

    1984-01-01

    A random sample of 9548 Palestinian Arabs living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip was identified, and 9054 (95.7%) were examined. Particular attention was directed to reduced visual acuity (VA) and its cause and to trachoma. Low visual acuity was defined as less than 6/18 in both eyes and binocular blindness as a VA less than 3/60 in both eyes. The overall incidence of low VA was 6.8% and of binocular blindness 1.7%. The three principal causes of blindness in order of frequency were cataract, trachoma, and corneal leucoma. These three conditions accounted for 66.7% of binocular blindness. Trachoma was present in 2568 (28.4%) of the 9054 people examined. PMID:6743630

  13. Prenatal and early-life predictors of atopy and allergic disease in Canadian children: results of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY) Study.

    PubMed

    Batool, T; Reece, P L; Schulze, K M; Morrison, K M; Atkinson, S A; Anand, S S; Teo, K K; Denburg, J A; Cyr, M M

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal and early-life environmental exposures play a key role in the development of atopy and allergic disease. The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life Study is a general, population-based Canadian birth cohort that prospectively evaluated prenatal and early-life traits and their association with atopy and/or allergic disease. The study population included 901 babies, 857 mothers and 530 fathers. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors were evaluated through questionnaires collected during the antenatal period and at 1 year. The end points of atopy and allergic diseases in infants were evaluated through questionnaires and skin prick testing. Key outcomes included atopy (24.5%), food allergy (17.5%), cow's milk allergy (4.8%), wheezing (18.6%) and eczema (16%). The association between infant antibiotic exposure [odds ratio (OR): 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.88] and increased atopy was noted in the multivariate analysis, whereas prenatal maternal exposure to dogs (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) and acetaminophen (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92) was associated with decreased atopy. This population-based birth cohort in Canada demonstrated high rates of atopy, food allergy, wheezing and eczema. Several previously reported and some novel prenatal and postnatal exposures were associated with atopy and allergic diseases at 1 year of age.

  14. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... conjunctivitis is not contagious.Some common allergens include:Pollen fromtrees, grass and ragweedAnimal skin andsecretions such as ... symptoms. For example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold ...

  15. Short-segment Hirschsprung's disease, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation: a unique association.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandrasen K; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry Charles

    2007-08-01

    The association of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and anorectal malformations has been reported in 2.3% to 3.4% cases. Only 2 cases have previously been published where cat eye syndrome was associated with long (but not short) segment HD. Here, we report a case where there appears to be an association among short segment HD, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation, which has not previously been identified. An abnormality in chromosome 22 may be involved in the development of this association.

  16. Does cyclophosphamide still have a role in the treatment of severe inflammatory eye disease?

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Denis

    2014-08-01

    Cyclophosphamide is a highly effective immunosuppressive drug that has proven efficacy in the treatment of patients with severe inflammatory eye disease. It has the advantage of being able to be used either orally or intravenously, has a potent steroid-sparing effect, and is effective in inducing disease remission. The major limitations to the use of this alkylating agent are its frequent side effects. With the increasing availability of alternate forms of therapy it is time to review the therapeutic regimen for cyclophosphamide use in patients with inflammatory eye disease.

  17. Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jensen, Tina Kold; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Nielsen, Flemming; Poulsen, Lars K; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined. A total of 559 children were included in the analyses. Interactions with MMR vaccination were evaluated. Among 22 MMR-unvaccinated children, higher levels of the five PFASs at age 5 years were associated with increased odds of asthma at ages 5 and 13. The associations were reversed among MMR-vaccinated children. Prenatal PFAS exposure was not associated with childhood asthma or allergic diseases regardless of MMR vaccination status. In conclusion, PFAS exposure at age 5 was associated with increased risk of asthma among a small subgroup of MMR-unvaccinated children but not among MMR-vaccinated children. While PFAS exposure may impact immune system functions, this study suggests that MMR vaccination might be a potential effect-modifier.

  18. Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Margaret M.; Day, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the result of an immediate hypersensitivity immune response of the nasal mucosa to one or more allergens. Clinical features may be indistinguishable from non-allergic rhinitis. Accurate diagnosis demands specialized laboratory investigations, meticulous history and careful physical examination. Management includes control of allergen and irritant exposures, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Recent development of intranasal corticosteroid aerosols has significantly reduced morbidity. Modified allergens for immunotherapy show promise but require further study. PMID:21286562

  19. Beyond immediate hypersensitivity: evolving roles for IgE antibodies in immune homeostasis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C

    2011-07-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies have long been recognized as the antigen-specific triggers of allergic reactions. This review briefly introduces the established functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity and then focuses on emerging evidence from our own investigations as well as those of others that IgE plays important roles in protective immunity against parasites and exerts regulatory influences in the expression of its own receptors, FcεRI and CD23, as well as controlling mast cell homeostasis. We provide an overview of the multifaceted ways in which IgE antibodies contribute to the pathology of food allergy and speculate regarding potential mechanisms of action of IgE blockade.

  20. Maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in pregnancy and child allergic disease: a longitudinal study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-03-28

    Fat-soluble vitamins A, E and K have been shown to play roles in immunity and inflammation, but studies on child allergic disease have been few and inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis. We used data on 44 594 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal intake of fat-soluble vitamins was calculated based on the information from a validated FFQ completed in mid-pregnancy. At 18 months, interviews with the mothers were conducted to evaluate doctor-diagnosed child asthma. At age 7 years, we assessed child asthma and allergic rhinitis using questions from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and by national registries on hospital contacts and medication use. Current asthma was defined as asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months by maternal report. We calculated multivariable risk ratios and 95 % CI by comparing the highest v. lowest quintile (Q) of maternal vitamin A, E and K intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. Maternal total vitamin K intake was directly associated with ever admitted asthma (Q5 v. Q1: 1·23, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·50) and current asthma at 7 years (Q5 v. Q1: 1·30, 95 % CI 0·99, 1·70). Weak inverse associations were present for maternal vitamin A and E intake during pregnancy with child allergic rhinitis. Maternal vitamin K intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of child asthma, and should be explored further on a mechanistic level. Conversely, maternal vitamin A and E intake may protect against child allergic rhinitis.

  1. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  2. Prevention of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1994-08-01

    Allergic disease produces substantial pediatric morbidity and individual dysfunction, making its mechanisms an appropriate target for clarification and preventive strategies. Disease expression seems to reflect a constellation of determinants that controls IgE production variably, affects specific function of target organs, and determines exposure to putative allergens. Bases for the two former factors are being defined rapidly and appear to be controlled genetically. Therefore, although stronger eugenic motivation will be required to exploit even present information for effective prevention, parental phenotypes can provide a rough indication of postconceptive risk. Despite many divergent data, current evidence fails to support the value of gestational strategies undertaken to prevent allergic disease in the newborn; however, this risk apparently may be reduced by avoiding postnatal allergens. The protection afforded seems to be allergen-specific rather than somehow serving to abate "the allergic tendency." Evidence increasingly is persuasive that sensitization to pollens, foods, and possibly other agents is prone to occur in the first 6 to 12 months of life. Strategies that exclude potent food allergens from the diets of high-risk infants appear to reduce the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, but seem far less able to influence respiratory symptoms. Efforts to limit exposure to potent inhalant allergens (eg, dust mites, animal "danders") are now also feasible and offer quite effective secondary and, perhaps, primary prevention. Trials of these strategies and clarification of other domestic contaminant effects on child health offer "homely" but valid and potentially useful approaches to reducing the impact of allergic disease.

  3. [Several common biases and control measures during sampling survey of eye diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Guan, Huai-jin

    2008-06-01

    Bias is a common artificial error during sampling survey in eye diseases, and is a major impact factor for validity and reliability of the survey. The causes and the control measures of several biases regarding current sampling survey of eye diseases in China were analyzed and discussed, including the sampling bias, non-respondent bias, and diagnostic bias. This review emphasizes that controlling bias is the key to ensure quality of sampling survey. Random sampling, sufficient sample quantity, careful examination and taking history, improving examination rate, accurate diagnosis, strict training and preliminary study, as well as quality control can eliminate or minimize biases and improve the sampling survey quality of eye diseases in China

  4. Supporting the validation of the new allergic and hypersensitivity conditions section of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases-11

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Moises; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The new International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been constructed as a result of a detailed and careful action plan based on scientific evidences for the necessity of changes and collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) ICD-11 revision governance. All the efforts are being acknowledged by the Joint Allergy Academies. Objective Considering the new classification model addressed to the allergic and hypersensitivity conditions and following the ICD WHO agenda, we believe it is the appropriate time to start supporting the validation process in collaboration with the WHO ICD governance. Methods We conducted a mapping of ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions in the ICD-11 beta phase structure and categorized the conditions as fitting by "precoordination," "postcoordination," "indexed to the ICD-11 Foundation," "no code fit properly" or "no correspondence" in the ICD-11. Results From overall 125 ICD-10 entities spread in 6 chapters, 57.6% were able to be precoordinated, 4% postcoordinated, 12% indexed to the Foundation, 9.6% had no code fitting properly and 18.6% had no correspondence in the ICD-11 framework. Conclusion We have been able to demonstrate that 83.2% of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions could be captured by the current ICD-11 beta draft framework. We strongly believe that our findings constitute a key step forward for a softer transition of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions to the ICD-11, supporting the WHO in this process as well as strengthening the visibility of the Allergy specialty and ensuring quality management of allergic patients. PMID:27489786

  5. Development of allergic airway disease in mice following antibiotic therapy and fungal microbiota increase: role of host genetics, antigen, and interleukin-13.

    PubMed

    Noverr, Mairi C; Falkowski, Nicole R; McDonald, Rod A; McKenzie, Andrew N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2005-01-01

    Lending support to the hygiene hypothesis, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that allergic disease correlates with widespread use of antibiotics and alterations in fecal microbiota ("microflora"). Antibiotics also lead to overgrowth of the yeast Candida albicans, which can secrete potent prostaglandin-like immune response modulators, from the microbiota. We have recently developed a mouse model of antibiotic-induced gastrointestinal microbiota disruption that is characterized by stable increases in levels of gastrointestinal enteric bacteria and Candida. Using this model, we have previously demonstrated that microbiota disruption can drive the development of a CD4 T-cell-mediated airway allergic response to mold spore challenge in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice without previous systemic antigen priming. The studies presented here address important questions concerning the universality of the model. To investigate the role of host genetics, we tested BALB/c mice. As with C57BL/6 mice, microbiota disruption promoted the development of an allergic response in the lungs of BALB/c mice upon subsequent challenge with mold spores. In addition, this allergic response required interleukin-13 (IL-13) (the response was absent in IL-13(-/-) mice). To investigate the role of antigen, we subjected mice with disrupted microbiota to intranasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). In the absence of systemic priming, only mice with altered microbiota developed airway allergic responses to OVA. The studies presented here demonstrate that the effects of microbiota disruption are largely independent of host genetics and the nature of the antigen and that IL-13 is required for the airway allergic response that follows microbiota disruption.

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of diabetic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Matz, H; Falk, M; Göttinger, W; Kieselbach, G

    1996-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the main cause of blindness in adults 25-74 years of age in Western countries. At 100% diagnosability and 100% treatability, with laser photocoagulation vision can be retained in at least one eye in 73% of patients with proliferative retinopathy and in 67% of patients with diabetic maculopathy. The cost-benefit analysis draws a comparison of the costs incurred through benefits granted to a blind diabetic and those incurred through proper screening, examination and treatment to avoid blindness as much as possible. These calculations are valid for the State of Tyrol in Austria. The anticipated annual costs for blindness are thus ATS 19,000,000, of which ATS 14,600,000 could be avoided through an optimal screening, examination and therapy program. The maximum costs for examination and therapy amount to ATS 10,700,000, thus giving a minimum saving of ATS 3,900,000 in favor of preventive medicine.

  7. [New class of drugs for treatment of eye vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Travkin, A G; Romashchenko, A D

    1997-01-01

    Hemolytic ocular film (HOF) represents a polymer-based "puff pastry" whose external layers contain antioxidant emoxipine and the internal layer contains an immobilized thrombolytic enzyme; such a structure ensures a successive multifunctional effect on the main components of pathogenesis: lipid peroxidation, local hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and immune system of patients with vascular abnormalities of the eyes. The drug was used in the treatment of 248 patients with intraocular hemorrhages of traumatic origin. Control group (150 patients with the same condition) was treated traditionally. Application of HOF resulted in complete or almost complete lysis of the blood in 95% of patients; in 5% the effect was null. Traditional therapy helped attain complete lysis of the blood in 9% and partial in 43% of patient; in 48% of patients the effect was null.

  8. Curcumin, A Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Anterior Segment Eye Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases. PMID:28261099

  9. Curcumin, A Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Anterior Segment Eye Diseases: A Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases.

  10. Constraining eye movement in individuals with Parkinson's disease during walking turns.

    PubMed

    Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p < 0.001) and OAC (p < 0.05), but not for the PD group (p > 0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p < 0.05), they were not significantly different in PD. These results suggest individuals with PD do not make anticipatory eye and head movements ahead of turning and that this may result in altered segment coordination during turning. As such, eye movements may be an important addition to training programs for those with PD, possibly promoting better coordination during turning and

  11. RNA-binding proteins in eye development and disease: implication of conserved RNA granule components.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D; Barnum, Carrie E; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lachke, Salil A

    2016-07-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. The Microbiome and Mental Health: Looking Back, Moving Forward with Lessons from Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Alan C.; Jacka, Felice N.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Prescott, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between gastrointestinal viscera and human emotions have been documented by virtually all medical traditions known to date. The focus on this relationship has waxed and waned through the centuries, with noted surges in interest driven by cultural forces. Here we explore some of this history and the emerging trends in experimental and clinical research. In particular, we pay specific attention to how the hygiene hypothesis and emerging research on traditional dietary patterns has helped re-ignite interest in the use of microbes to support mental health. At present, the application of microbes and their structural parts as a means to positively influence mental health is an area filled with promise. However, there are many limitations within this new paradigm shift in neuropsychiatry. Impediments that could block translation of encouraging experimental studies include environmental forces that work toward dysbiosis, perhaps none more important than westernized dietary patterns. On the other hand, it is likely that specific dietary choices may amplify the value of future microbial-based therapeutics. Pre-clinical and clinical research involving microbiota and allergic disorders has predated recent work in psychiatry, an early start that provides valuable lessons. The microbiome is intimately connected to diet, nutrition, and other lifestyle variables; microbial-based psychopharmacology will need to consider this contextual application, otherwise the ceiling of clinical expectations will likely need to be lowered. PMID:27121424

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  14. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  15. An Exploratory Pilot Study of Genetic Marker for IgE-Mediated Allergic Diseases with Expressions of FcεR1α and Cε

    PubMed Central

    Liao, En-Chih; Chang, Ching-Yun; Hsieh, Chia-Wei; Yu, Sheng-Jie; Yin, Sui-Chu; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2015-01-01

    mRNA expression. These SNPs may be used as a disease marker for IgE-mediated allergic inflammation caused by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. PMID:25923080

  16. Asthma and allergic diseases in schoolchildren: third cross-sectional survey in the same primary school in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ahmet U; Karakaya, Gül; Bozkurt, Bülent; Sekerel, Bülent E; Kalyoncu, Ali F

    2004-12-01

    We investigated prevalence and determinants of asthma and allergic diseases in a cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren aged 6-14 in 2002. This was the third of a series of cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 1992 and 1997, in the same school in Ankara, Turkey. Questionnaire including information on house characteristics, dietary habits, past and current exposures and diseases were distributed to 1064 children (523 boys, 541 girls) and filled by the parents at home. Percentage of children having a pet was significantly higher (1992: 7.9, 1997: 22.9, 2002: 21), but that of passive smoking was significantly lower (1992: 74, 1997: 64, 2002: 64.1) in 1997 and 2002 when compared with 1992. Current prevalence percentage of asthma (1992: 8.3, 1997: 9.8, 2002: 6.4), wheeze (1992: 11.9, 1997: 13.3, 2002: 6.4), hay fever (1992: 15.4, 1997: 14.1, 2002: 7.2), and eczema (1992: 4, 1997: 4.3, 2002: 1.8) were significantly lower in 2002 compared with 1992. Multiple logistic regression analysis model for current wheeze included ingestion of cow's milk (no regular ingestion: reference, ORs and 95% CIs, <1 glass/day: 0.5, 0.3-1.0; at least 1 glass/day: 0.3, 0.2-0.7), ingestion of red meat (2.2, 1.2-3.8), and currently holding a dog (6.1, 1.6-23.4). Multiple logistic regression analysis model for current hay fever included ingestion of red meat (1.8, 1.1-2.9) and father's education (none of the parents finished secondary school: reference, secondary school to university: 0.5, 0.2-1.0). Our findings suggested that current prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases decreased among schoolchildren in Ankara, in the last 10 yr, and ingestion of milk and red meat could have a role in the occurrence of asthma and hay fever. Detailed assessment of dietary habits is required to test this hypothesis.

  17. The characteristics of indoor and outdoor fungi and their relation with allergic respiratory diseases in the southern region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arikoglu, Tugba; Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Coşkun, Taner; Otag, Feza; Yildirim, Didem Derici; Kuyucu, Semanur

    2016-06-01

    Indoor and outdoor fungal exposure has been shown to be associated with the development of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside homes and evaluate the association between fungal levels and allergic diseases in the southern region of Turkey. A total of 61 children admitted with respiratory complaints to the pediatric allergy clinic between September 2007 and November 2008 were included in this study. The air samples were obtained using the Air IDEAL volumetric air sampler longitudinally for 1 year. A comprehensive questionnaire was used for medical history and housing conditions. Skin prick test was performed to determine fungal sensitivity and spirometric indices were employed. The predominant indoor fungal species were Cladosporium (69.3 %), Penicillium (18.9 %), Aspergillus (6.5 %), and Alternaria (3.1 %). A strong correlation between indoor and outdoor fungal levels was detected for the Cladosporium species (p < 0.001, r = 0.72) throughout the year. Living in a detached home (p = 0.036) and the presence of cockroaches (p = 0.005) were associated with total indoor fungal levels. The presence of cockroaches (aOR 3.5; 95 % CI 0.95-13.10, p = 0.059) was also associated with fungal sensitization at the edge of significance. The statistical cutoff values of indoor and outdoor Cladosporium levels to predict symptomatic asthma were found to be >176 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.003, AUC 0.696; sensitivity 65.5 %; specificity 68.7 %) and >327 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.038; AUC 0.713; sensitivity 66.6 %; specificity 76.9 %), respectively. Children with respiratory symptoms are exposed to a considerable level of fungi inside and outside their homes. The prevention of fungal exposure may provide valuable intervention for respiratory diseases.

  18. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester: its protective role against certain major eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Ugurcu, Veli; Balci, Mehmet; Gurel, Ayse; Erden, Gonul; Cakmak, Ozlem; Akyol, Omer

    2014-11-01

    As an effective compound found mainly in the honeybee product propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been commonly utilized as a medicine and remedial agent, in a number of countries. Specifically, it might inhibit nuclear factor kappa B at micromolar concentrations and demonstrate antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiproliferative, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory features. This review article summarizes the recent progress regarding the favorable effects of CAPE on a number of eye disease models, including cataract and posterior capsule opacification, corneal diseases, retina and optic nerve-related diseases, ischemia/reperfusion injury of retina, inflammation and infection-related diseases. CAPE has been found to exhibit promising efficacy, with minimal adverse effects, in animal and cell culture studies of several eye diseases.

  19. Autoimmune bullous diseases with skin and eye involvement: Cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and pemphigus paraneoplastica.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Karen C; Leung, Theresa G; Moradi, Ahmadreza; Thorne, Jennifer E; Fine, Jo-David

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune blistering diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that mostly affect the skin and mucous membranes. Occasionally, other organ systems may be involved, depending on the unique pathophysiology of each disease. Cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and paraneoplastic pemphigus are distinct entities, but all have the potential to have cutaneous and ocular involvement. Awareness and early recognition of ocular involvement in these diseases is important given the increased risk for vision loss and blindness with delay in management. Several skin diseases may be associated with involvement of the external eye. The most common autoimmune diseases are cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and paraneoplastic pemphigus.

  20. Kidney and eye diseases: common risk factors, etiological mechanisms, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chee Wai; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is an emerging health problem worldwide. The eye shares striking structural, developmental, and genetic pathways with the kidney, suggesting that kidney disease and ocular disease may be closely linked. A growing number of studies have found associations of chronic kidney disease with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataract. In addition, retinal microvascular parameters have been shown to be predictive of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease shares common vascular risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity, and pathogenetic mechanisms including inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and microvascular dysfunction, with ocular diseases supporting the 'Common Soil Hypothesis.' In this review, we present major epidemiological evidence for these associations and explore underlying pathogenic mechanisms and common risk factors for kidney and ocular disease. Understanding the link between kidney and ocular disease can lead to the development of new treatment and screening strategies for both diseases.

  1. Efficacy of Carboxymethylcellulose and Hyaluronate in Dry Eye Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Kyeong; Park, Hwa Yeon; Hyon, Joon Young; Oh, Seung-Won; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong-Soo; Jung, Se Young; Um, Yoo Jin; Lee, Ga-Hye; Yang, Ji Hye

    2017-01-01

    Background The efficacy of two artificial tears, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronate (HA), was compared in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. The efficacy was compared in terms of the mean change from baseline in tear break-up time. The meta-analysis was conducted using both random and fixed effect models. The quality of the selected studies was assessed for risk of bias. Results Five studies were included involving 251 participants. Random effect model meta-analysis showed no significant difference between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease (pooled standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.452; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.911 to 0.007; P=0.053). In contrast, fixed effect model meta-analysis revealed significant improvements in the CMC group when compared to the HA group (pooled SMD=-0.334; 95% CI, -0.588 to -0.081; P=0.010). Conclusion The efficacy of CMC appeared to be better than that of HA in treating dry eye disease, although meta-analysis results were not statistically significant. Further research is needed to better elucidate the difference in efficacy between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease. PMID:28197326

  2. Allergic vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to blood vessels, primarily in the skin. Causes Hypersensitivity vasculitis is caused by an allergic reaction to ... affects people older than age 15. Often, the cause of the problem cannot be found even with ... vasculitis may look like necrotizing vasculitis , which can ...

  3. Age-related eye diseases: an emerging challenge for public health professionals.

    PubMed

    Gohdes, Dorothy M; Balamurugan, Appathurai; Larsen, Barbara A; Maylahn, Christopher

    2005-07-01

    In April 2004, The Eye Disease Prevalence Research Group published a series of articles that included age-specific estimates for the prevalence of low vision and blindness in whites, African Americans, and Hispanics living in the United States. Also included were age-, sex-, and ethnic-specific incidences of the following age-related eye diseases: diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. We reviewed the group's series of articles and highlighted key findings on the overall prevalence of and risk factors for age-related eye diseases, as well as opportunities to preserve and restore vision. We examined publications that show the public health impact of age-related eye diseases and the importance of projected increases in prevalence of low vision and blindness. Approximately 1 in 28 Americans aged older than 40 years is affected by low vision or blindness. Among community-dwelling adults, the prevalence of low vision and blindness increases dramatically with age in all racial and ethnic groups. Whites have higher rates of macular degeneration than African Americans, but glaucoma is more common among older African Americans. Between 2000 and 2020, the prevalence of blindness is expected to double. Age-related eye diseases are costly to treat, threaten the ability of older adults to live independently, and increase the risk for accidents and falls. To prevent vision loss and support rehabilitative services for people with low vision, it is imperative for the public health community to address the issue through surveillance, public education, and coordination of screening, examination, and treatment.

  4. The Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Samuel O.

    1964-01-01

    Allergic inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, like other atopic disorders, occurs primarily as the result of an antigenantibody reaction between external allergens and circulating skin-sensitizing antibodies. In addition, the disease process is frequently complicated by bacterial or viral infection. Effective treatment of allergic rhinitis, therefore, consists of: (1) changing the patient's environment in order to remove the offending allergens, (2) removing the patient from his environment, (3) altering the patient's response to environmental allergens by means of hyposensitization injections, (4) suppressing the allergic reaction with drugs, and (5) eliminating bacterial infection. Usually more than one of these therapeutic measures is required for the individual patient. PMID:14175878

  5. Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES).

    PubMed

    Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y

    2015-11-09

    We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40-80 years between 2004-2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25-1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25-2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05-2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26-7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality.

  6. Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES)

    PubMed Central

    Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40–80 years between 2004–2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25–1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24–2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25–2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26–7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality. PMID:26549406

  7. Fas deficiency in mice with the Balb/c background induces blepharitis with allergic inflammation and hyper-IgE production in conjunction with severe autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Suzuka; Futatsugi-Yumikura, Shizue; Fukuoka, Ayumi; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Kenji; Yonehara, Shin

    2013-05-01

    Fas (CD95) is a cell surface death receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which mediates apoptosis-inducing signaling when activated by Fas ligand or its agonistic antibody. lpr mice with a loss of apoptosis-inducing function mutation in the Fas gene develop systemic autoimmune disease and lymphadenopathy but not allergic inflammation. In the case of Fas mutations including lpr and knockout (KO), background genes determine the incidence and severity of lymphadenopathy and histopathological manifestation of systemic autoimmunity: MRL-lpr/lpr mice and C57BL/6-lpr/lpr or C57BL/6 Fas KO mice develop severe and minimum disease, respectively. We generated Fas KO mice with the Balb/c background that show severer autoimmune phenotypes than MRL-lpr/lpr mice, such as critical infiltration of mononuclear cells into lung, liver and spleen, elevated serum levels of auto-antibodies and a decreased life span. To our astonishment, Balb/c Fas KO mice spontaneously develop blepharitis with not only autoimmune inflammation with deposition of auto-antibody but also allergic inflammation with infiltration by eosinophils and mast cells and show the capacity to strongly increase serum level of IgE and IgG1 along with their aging. Thus, Fas expression regulates development of not only autoimmune disease but also allergic inflammation.

  8. Bromelain exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Eric R.; Carson, William F.; Cloutier, Michelle M.; Guernsey, Linda A.; Schramm, Craig M.; Wu, Carol A.; Thrall, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Bromelain, a clinically used pineapple extract and natural product, has reported anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bromelain treatment in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). Methods To establish AAD, mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal (i.p.) OVA/alum and challenged with daily OVA aerosols. Mice were treated i.p. with either saline, 2 or 6 mg/kg bromelain, twice daily for four consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage leukocytes and cytokines, lung histology, airway hyperresponsiveness, and lymphocyte populations via flow cytometry were compared between groups. Results Bromelain treatment of AAD mice resulted in reduced total BAL leukocytes, eosinophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and IL-13. Conclusion Bromelain attenuated development of AAD while altering CD4+ to CD8+ T lymphocyte populations. The reduction in AAD outcomes suggests that bromelain may have similar effects in the treatment of human asthma and hypersensitivity disorders. PMID:16337164

  9. Regulation of T Cell Receptor Signaling by DENND1B in TH2 Cells and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiao-Wen; Hojer, Caroline D; Zhou, Meijuan; Wu, Xiumin; Wuster, Arthur; Lee, Wyne P; Yaspan, Brian L; Chan, Andrew C

    2016-01-14

    The DENN domain is an evolutionary conserved protein module found in all eukaryotes and serves as an exchange factor for Rab-GTPases to regulate diverse cellular functions. Variants in DENND1B are associated with development of childhood asthma and other immune disorders. To understand how DENND1B may contribute to human disease, Dennd1b(-/-) mice were generated and exhibit hyper-allergic responses following antigen challenge. Dennd1b(-/-) TH2, but not other TH cells, exhibit delayed receptor-induced T cell receptor (TCR) downmodulation, enhanced TCR signaling, and increased production of effector cytokines. As DENND1B interacts with AP-2 and Rab35, TH2 cells deficient in AP-2 or Rab35 also exhibit enhanced TCR-mediated effector functions. Moreover, human TH2 cells carrying asthma-associated DENND1B variants express less DENND1B and phenocopy Dennd1b(-/-) TH2 cells. These results provide a molecular basis for how DENND1B, a previously unrecognized regulator of TCR downmodulation in TH2 cells, contributes to asthma pathogenesis and how DENN-domain-containing proteins may contribute to other human disorders.

  10. [Allergic reactions to the house-dust mite in children with obstructive disease of the respiratory tract (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Richter, I; Kriebel, I

    1975-09-12

    160 children with obstructive allergic disease of the respiratory tract were tested with the modified pricktest. 58 showed positive reactions to the house-dust mite. Typically, in the case history of these children, is the presence of the complaints throughout the year, especially at night and not in particular seasons. Although, the modified pricktest could be negative in children under 4 years of age, in later years an allergen could be found. Children who have typical-complaints in their case-history, but show weak cutaneous reactions, are admitted in hospital, and a bronchial provocationtest is carried out to study the action of the allergen on the affected organ. 28 of the 58 children with house-dust mite allergy showed only weak positive cutaneous reactions and had mild complaints. Avoidance measurements brought in almost 80 p.c. of these cases good results. We recommended specific hyposensibilisation for the remaining 30 patients; in 22 of these cases the recommendation was carried out. The positive effect of the specific hyposensibilisation was proved when compared to a controll series.

  11. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  12. Alteration of Galectin-3 in Tears of Patients with Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Yuichi; Mauris, Jerome; Woodward, Ashley M.; Dieckow, Julia; Amparo, Francisco; Dana, Reza; Mantelli, Flavio; Argüeso, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the expression, release, and proteolytic degradation of galectin-3 in patients with dry eye disease. Design Observational case series with a comparison group. Methods Tear washes and conjunctival impression cytology specimens were collected through standard procedures from 16 patients with dry eye and 11 age-matched healthy subjects. Galectin-3 content in tears was analyzed by quantitative Western blot, using recombinant galectin-3 protein to generate a calibration curve. The relative expression of galectin-3 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The cleavage of galectin-3 was studied in vitro using activated recombinant MMP9 and protease inhibitors. Results The concentration of galectin-3 protein in tears, but not galectin-3 expression in conjunctival epithelium, was significantly higher in tears of patients with dry eye (0.38 ng/μg total protein, range 0.04-1.36) compared to healthy subjects (0.12 ng/μg total protein, range 0.00-0.41) (P < .01). By Western blot, an intact (∼28.0 kDa) galectin-3 band was identified in tear samples from healthy subjects, whereas 50% of the dry eye samples were characterized by the additional presence of a partially degraded form (∼25.4 kDa). In our experiments, elevated expression of MMP9 in dry eye subjects correlated with the ability of active MMP9 to cleave galectin-3 from recombinant origin. Interestingly, cleavage of endogenous galectin-3 in tear samples was impaired using a broad-spectrum proteinase inhibitor cocktail, but not the pan-specific MMP inhibitor GM6001, suggesting the presence of proteases other than MMPs in promoting galectin-3 degradation in dry eye. Conclusions Our results indicate that release of cellular galectin-3 into tears is associated with epithelial dysfunction in dry eye, and that galectin-3 proteolytic cleavage may contribute to impaired ocular surface barrier function. PMID:25703476

  13. Subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone for the treatment of upper lid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Mi; Lee, Hwa; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2012-11-01

    Management of retraction of the upper lid during the congestive phase of thyroid eye disease is usually limited to conservative treatment. We evaluated the efficacy of subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone for the treatment of the upper lid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease.Thirty patients (43 eyes, 11 men and 19 women) with the upper lid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease were evaluated between May 2009 and September 2010. A dose of 0.5 mL of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL) was injected into the subconjunctival space at the upper margin of the tarsus. If the upper lid retraction had not improved or was still severe 2 weeks after the initial injection, then triamcinolone was injected repeatedly at 2-week intervals. Photographs were taken before the injection and at the follow-up visit, and lid parameters including marginal reflex distance 1, interpalpebral fissure height, total palpebral fissure area, the upper nasal palpebral fissure area, and the upper temporal palpebral fissure area were measured. Changes in the lid parameters after the injection were evaluated.The mean number of injections per patient was 2.67, and the mean (SD) follow-up period was 260.97 (91.10) days. All lid parameters improved significantly after the triamcinolone injection (all P's < 0.05). Nineteen of 22 patients in the congestive phase responded to the triamcinolone injection; however, 6 of 8 patients in the fibrotic phase did not respond to the triamcinolone injection. Complications associated with the triamcinolone injection included an increased intraocular pressure (2 patients) and a mild ptosis (1 patient).The subconjunctival triamcinolone injection is a simple and effective treatment option for the upper lid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease, and this treatment is more effective for the patients in the congestive phase.

  14. Will vaccination against human papillomavirus prevent eye disease? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D S; Powell, N; Fiander, A N

    2008-04-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in eye disease is controversial. However, a recent case illustrates the possible role of HPV in conjunctival squamous carcinoma and the potentially devastating effects of this disease. The development of two vaccines to prevent infection with HPV types most commonly associated with anogenital cancers has led to debate about the pros and cons of a national immunisation programme to prevent cervical cancer. The introduction of such a vaccination programme may have an additional beneficial effect on the occurrence of some head and neck, including ocular, cancers. This review discusses the nature of papillomaviruses, mechanisms of infection and carcinogenesis, the possible role of HPV in eye disease, and finally the likely impact of the new prophylactic vaccines.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  16. Associations between cat keeping, allergen exposure, allergic sensitization and atopic diseases: results from the Children of Lübeck Allergy and Environment Study (KLAUS).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Torsten; Stieger, Björn; Polzius, Rainer; Krauspe, Anja

    2009-06-01

    The role of cat keeping on the promotion of allergies is discussed controversially. We investigated the associations between cat keeping, allergen exposure, allergic sensitization and atopic diseases in pre-school children. A total of 606 children (5- to 6-yr old) were studied in the course of the mandatory school entrance examination. Information on doctor diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis, pet keeping and confounders was obtained by questionnaire. The prevalence of atopic eczema was determined by dermatological examination, allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick test, and the allergen exposure to cat allergen Fel d 1 was measured by a commercial wipe test. Cats were present in 16% of the households and results of the exposure categories (0-III) on cat allergen were 47.2%, 25.5%, 24.3% and 3.0% respectively. The prevalence of cat keeping increased significantly with exposure categories from 0.5% to 61.5% (p(trend) < 0.001). Children (6.3%) were sensitized to cat allergen and sensitization rates increased also significantly with exposure categories from 3.0% to 15.4% (p(trend) < 0.001). Children (9.3%) were diagnosed with atopic eczema and a positive history of asthma/rhinitis was given in 3.6% and 3.9% respectively. Sensitization to cat was associated with atopic eczema (23.3% vs. 7.4%; OR(adj.)= 3.8, CI: 1.4-10.8), asthma (12.5% vs. 3.7%; OR(adj.)= 4.9, CI: 1.1-21.2), allergic rhinitis (6.9% vs. 2.7%; OR(adj.)= 3.1, CI: 0.7-15.2) and any atopic disease (43.5% vs. 16.3%; OR(adj.)= 3.8, CI: 1.5-9.5). The data suggest a promoting effect of cat keeping for atopic diseases.

  17. Drosophila eye color mutants as therapeutic tools for Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Green, Edward W; Campesan, Susanna; Breda, Carlo; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V; Muchowski, Paul J; Schwarcz, Robert; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Giorgini, Flaviano

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein (htt). A pathological hallmark of the disease is the loss of a specific population of striatal neurons, and considerable attention has been paid to the role of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation in this process. The KP contains three neuroactive metabolites: 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), quinolinic acid (QUIN), and kynurenic acid (KYNA). 3-HK and QUIN are neurotoxic, and are increased in the brains of early stage HD patients, as well as in yeast and mouse models of HD. Conversely, KYNA is neuroprotective and has been shown to be decreased in HD patient brains. We recently used a Drosophila model of HD to measure the neuroprotective effect of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of kynurenine monoxygenase (KMO)-the enzyme catalyzing the formation of 3-HK at a pivotal branch point in the KP. We found that KMO inhibition in Drosophila robustly attenuated neurodegeneration, and that this neuroprotection was correlated with reduced levels of 3-HK relative to KYNA. Importantly, we showed that KP metabolites are causative in this process, as 3-HK and KYNA feeding experiments modulated neurodegeneration. We also found that genetic inhibition of the upstream KP enzyme tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) was neuroprotective in flies. Here, we extend these results by reporting that genetic impairment of KMO or TDO is protective against the eclosion defect in HD model fruit flies. Our results provide further support for the possibility of therapeutic KP interventions in HD.

  18. Animal models of allergic airways disease: where are we and where to next?

    PubMed

    Chapman, David G; Tully, Jane E; Nolin, James D; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M; Irvin, Charles G

    2014-12-01

    In a complex inflammatory airways disease such as asthma, abnormalities in a plethora of molecular and cellular pathways ultimately culminate in characteristic impairments in respiratory function. The ability to study disease pathophysiology in the setting of a functioning immune and respiratory system therefore makes mouse models an invaluable tool in translational research. Despite the vast understanding of inflammatory airways diseases gained from mouse models to date, concern over the validity of mouse models continues to grow. Therefore the aim of this review is twofold; firstly, to evaluate mouse models of asthma in light of current clinical definitions, and secondly, to provide a framework by which mouse models can be continually refined so that they continue to stand at the forefront of translational science. Indeed, it is in viewing mouse models as a continual work in progress that we will be able to target our research to those patient populations in whom current therapies are insufficient.

  19. Bowman lecture on the role of inflammation in degenerative disease of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, J V

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation, in the pathogenesis of many diseases previously thought to be strictly genetic, degenerative, metabolic, or endocrinologic in aetiology, has gradually entered the framework of a general mechanism of disease. This is exemplified by conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and the more recently described Metabolic Syndrome. Chronic inflammatory processes have a significant, if not primary role, in ophthalmic diseases, particularly in retinal degenerative diseases. However, inflammation itself is not easy to define, and some aspects of inflammation may be beneficial, in a process described as ‘para-inflammation' by Medhzitov. In contrast, the damaging effects of inflammation, mediated by pro-inflammatory macrophages through activation of the intracellular protein-signalling complexes, termed inflammasomes, are well recognised and are important therapeutic targets. In this review, the range of inflammatory processes in the eye is evaluated in the context of how these processes impact upon retinal degenerative disease, particularly diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:23288138

  20. The eye as a window to a rare disease: ectopia lentis and homocystinuria, a Pakistani perspective.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Maeirah; Muzaffar, Waqar; Ishaq, Mazhar

    2016-02-01

    Non-traumatic ectopia lentis has been associated with genetic diseases in a European population; however, no data are present in regards to this in a Pakistani demographic. In third world countries such as Pakistan, due to the lack of screening tests, this disease has the potential to remain undiagnosed till a later age, at which point the eye through the finding of ectopia lentis has potential to lead to the right diagnosis. Our purpose was to investigate Pakistani patients presenting with ectopia lentis who have underlying homocystinuria and establish a relationship between the two. Additionally, we elicited various systemic and ophthalmic features in these settings. Ten Pakistani patients presenting with decreased vision and ectopia lentis with concomitant homocystinuria were included in the study. Assessment of systemic and ophthalmic features was performed. All patients presented with visual deterioration. All 20 (100 %) eyes had ectopia lentis, of which, 15 (75 %) eyes had inferior subluxation, whereas five (25 %) eyes had anterior subluxation of the crystalline lens. Ectopia lentis and homocystinuria appear to have a strong correlation in Pakistani population. Ectopia lentis has the potential to serve as an important clue to its diagnosis, which may in turn lead to decreased morbidity if diagnosed in a timely fashion.

  1. Eclectic Ocular Comorbidities and Systemic Diseases with Eye Involvement: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zanón-Moreno, Vicente; García-Medina, José J.; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Nucci, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of several ocular diseases is more frequent than suspected. In spite of the refractive errors, one or more of the following can be detected simultaneously: glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eyes. In addition, as people age, ocular comorbidities are much more usually seen. Specific diseases are openly acknowledged to affect the eyes and vision, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension blood pressure, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, neurodegenerative disorders, hematologic malignancies, and/or systemic infections. Recent advances in early diagnosis and therapy of the ophthalmic pathologies have reinforced patient options to prevent visual impairment and blindness. Because of this, it is essential not to overlook sight-threatening conditions such as the ocular comorbidities and/or the eye involvement in the context of systemic disorders. Moreover, the important role of the multidisciplinary cooperation to improve and sustain management of patients affected with eclectic ocular comorbidities and/or systemic disorders with eye repercussion is specifically addressed. This review intends to shed light on these topics to help in making opportune diagnosis and appropriately managing the affected patients. PMID:27051666

  2. Normal and diseased personal eye modeling using age-appropriate lens parameters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ling; Shi, L.; Lewis, J. W. L.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized eye modeling of normal and diseased eye conditions is attractive due to the recent availability of detailed ocular measurements in clinic environments and the promise of its medical and industrial applications. In the customized modeling, the optical properties of the crystalline lens including the gradient refractive index, the lens bio-geometry and orientation are typically assigned with average lens parameters from literature since typically they are not clinically available. Although, through the optical optimization by assigning lens parameters as variables, the clinical measured wavefront aberration can be achieved, the optimized lens biometry and orientation often end up at edges of the statistical distribution. Without an effective validation of these models today, the fidelity of the final lens (and therefore the model) remains questionable. To develop a more reliable customized model without detailed lens information, we incorporate age-appropriate lens parameters as the initial condition of optical optimization. A biconic lens optimization was first performed to provide a correct lens profile for accurate lower order aberration and then followed by the wavefront optimization. Clinical subjects were selected from all ages with both normal and diseased corneal and refractive conditions. 19 ammetropic eyes ( + 4D to −11D), and 16 keratoconus eyes (mild to moderate with cylinder 0.25 to 6D) were modeled. Age- and gender-corrected refractive index was evaluated. Final models attained the lens shapes comparable to the statistical distribution in their age. PMID:22714237

  3. Randomized, Multicenter, Double–Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease. PMID:26865350

  4. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  5. Dataset of eye disease-related proteins analyzed using the unfolding mutation screen

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, Caitlyn L.; Sergeev, Yuri V.

    2016-01-01

    A number of genetic diseases are a result of missense mutations in protein structure. These mutations can lead to severe protein destabilization and misfolding. The unfolding mutation screen (UMS) is a computational method that calculates unfolding propensities for every possible missense mutation in a protein structure. The UMS validation demonstrated a good agreement with experimental and phenotypical data. 15 protein structures (a combination of homology models and crystal structures) were analyzed using UMS. The standard and clustered heat maps, and patterned protein structure from the analysis were stored in a UMS library. The library is currently composed of 15 protein structures from 14 inherited eye diseases including retina degenerations, glaucoma, and cataracts, and contains data for 181,110 mutations. The UMS protein library introduces 13 new human models of eye disease related proteins and is the first collection of the consistently calculated unfolding propensities, which could be used as a tool for the express analysis of novel mutations in clinical practice, next generation sequencing, and genotype-to-phenotype relationships in inherited eye disease. PMID:27922631

  6. Investigating rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in Parkinson's disease using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Gilat, Moran; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate diagnosis is essential for managing this condition. Furthermore, the emergence of idiopathic RBD in later life can represent a premotor feature, heralding the development of PD. Reliable, accurate methods for identifying RBD may offer a window for early intervention. This study sought to identify whether the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and three questionnaires focused on dream enactment were able to correctly identify patients with REM without atonia (RWA), the neurophysiological hallmark of RBD. Forty-six patients with PD underwent neurological and sleep assessment in addition to completing the RBDSQ, the RBD single question (RBD1Q), and the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). The REM atonia index was derived for all participants as an objective measure of RWA. Patients identified to be RBD positive on the RBDSQ did not show increased RWA on polysomnography (80% sensitivity and 55% specificity). However, patients positive for RBD on questionnaires specific to dream enactment correctly identified higher degrees of RWA and improved the diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires. This study suggests that the RBDSQ does not accurately identify RWA, essential for diagnosing RBD in PD. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-report measures of RBD need to focus questions on dream enactment behavior to better identify RWA and RBD. Further studies are needed to develop accurate determination and quantification of RWA in RBD to improve management of patients with PD in the future.

  7. Short-term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: An Assessment of Effect Modification by Prior Allergic Disease History

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Cho, Jaelim; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Shin, Dong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases. Methods Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR) increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season. Results A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3%) in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O3 concentration. IQR changes in NO2 and PM10 concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM10 concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7%) than in patients with no such history. Conclusions Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis. PMID:27744674

  8. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Flores, Alyssa M; Casey, Scott D; Felix, Christian M; Phuan, Puay W; Verkman, A S; Levin, Marc H

    2016-05-01

    Dry eye disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome, constitute a common problem in the aging population, with limited effective therapeutic options available. The cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a major prosecretory channel at the ocular surface. We investigated whether compounds that target CFTR can correct the abnormal tear film in dry eye. Small-molecule activators of human wild-type CFTR identified by high-throughput screening were evaluated in cell culture and in vivo assays, to select compounds that stimulate Cl(-)-driven fluid secretion across the ocular surface in mice. An aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine, CFTRact-K089, fully activated CFTR in cell cultures with EC50 ∼250 nM and produced an ∼8.5 mV hyperpolarization in ocular surface potential difference. When delivered topically, CFTRact-K089 doubled basal tear volume for 4 h and had no effect in CF mice. CFTRact-K089 showed sustained tear film bioavailability without detectable systemic absorption. In a mouse model of aqueous-deficient dry eye produced by lacrimal ablation, topical administration of 0.1 nmol CFTRact-K089 3 times daily restored tear volume to basal levels, preventing corneal epithelial disruption when initiated at the time of surgery and reversing it when started after development of dry eye. Our results support the potential utility of CFTR-targeted activators as a novel prosecretory treatment for dry eye.-Flores, A. M., Casey, S. D., Felix, C. M., Phuan, P. W., Verkman, A. S., Levin, M. H. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

  9. Thyroid eye disease: towards an evidence base for treatment in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Erin F; Smith, Terry J; Douglas, Raymond S

    2012-06-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. Incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis has hindered development of targeted therapies that might alter the natural course of disease. Smoking cessation and maintenance of euthyroidism appear to reduce the rate of onset and severity of TED. Recent evidence suggests that selenium may lessen the inflammatory symptoms in mild disease. Corticosteroids remain the primary treatment for patients with moderate to severe active TED. Surgical decompression is commonly undertaken in the chronic stable phase, and only rarely in the active phase when vision is threatened by compressive optic neuropathy. Orbital radiotherapy remains an adjunctive strategy during active disease. Targeted immunotherapies have the potential to alter disease progression, but further evidence is needed to establish safety and efficacy. In this article, we review evidence from prospective therapeutic trials of several treatment modalities. We focus on moderate to severe active TED.

  10. Saccadic Eye Movement Characteristics in Adult Niemann-Pick Type C Disease: Relationships with Disease Severity and Brain Structural Measures

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Larry A.; Bowman, Elizabeth A.; Velakoulis, Dennis; Fahey, Michael C.; Desmond, Patricia; Macfarlane, Matthew D.; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Adamson, Christopher L.; Walterfang, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. A parameter related to horizontal saccadic peak velocity was one of the primary outcome measures in the clinical trial assessing miglustat as a treatment for NPC. Neuropathology is widespread in NPC, however, and could be expected to affect other saccadic parameters. We compared horizontal saccadic velocity, latency, gain, antisaccade error percentage and self-paced saccade generation in 9 adult NPC patients to data from 10 age-matched controls. These saccadic measures were correlated with appropriate MRI-derived brain structural measures (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields, supplemental eye fields, parietal eye fields, pons, midbrain and cerebellar vermis) and with measures of disease severity and duration. The best discriminators between groups were reflexive saccade gain and the two volitional saccade measures. Gain was also the strongest correlate with disease severity and duration. Most of the saccadic measures showed strongly significant correlations with neurophysiologically appropriate brain regions. While our patient sample is small, the apparent specificity of these relationships suggests that as new diagnostic methods and treatments become available for NPC, a broader range of saccadic measures may be useful tools for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy. PMID:23226429

  11. Climate Change and Our Environment: The Effect on Respiratory and Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles S.; Alexis, Neil E.; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Cohn, John R.; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Horner, Elliott; Levetin, Estelle; Nel, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. This article provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth’s environment into their patient’s treatment plan. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated. Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments. Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas. Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens, whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may result in urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to meet changing environmental conditions. PMID:23687635

  12. Identification of genes differentially regulated by vitamin D deficiency that alter lung pathophysiology and inflammation in allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Foong, Rachel E; Bosco, Anthony; Troy, Niamh M; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H; Kicic, Anthony; Zosky, Graeme R

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with asthma risk. Vitamin D deficiency may enhance the inflammatory response, and we have previously shown that airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness is increased in vitamin D-deficient mice. In this study, we hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency would exacerbate house dust mite (HDM)-induced inflammation and alterations in lung structure and function. A BALB/c mouse model of vitamin D deficiency was established by dietary manipulation. Responsiveness to methacholine, airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, mucus cell metaplasia, lung and airway inflammation, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were assessed. Gene expression patterns in mouse lung samples were profiled by RNA-Seq. HDM exposure increased inflammation and inflammatory cytokines in BAL, baseline airway resistance, tissue elastance, and ASM mass. Vitamin D deficiency enhanced the HDM-induced influx of lymphocytes into BAL, ameliorated the HDM-induced increase in ASM mass, and protected against the HDM-induced increase in baseline airway resistance. RNA-Seq identified nine genes that were differentially regulated by vitamin D deficiency in the lungs of HDM-treated mice. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that protein expression of midline 1 (MID1) and adrenomedullin was differentially regulated such that they promoted inflammation, while hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated, which is associated with ASM remodeling, was downregulated. Protein expression studies in human bronchial epithelial cells also showed that addition of vitamin D decreased MID1 expression. Differential regulation of these genes by vitamin D deficiency could determine lung inflammation and pathophysiology and suggest that the effect of vitamin D deficiency on HDM-induced allergic airways disease is complex.

  13. Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  14. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  15. Desiccating stress-induced disruption of ocular surface immune tolerance drives dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, M; Keitelman, I; Sabbione, F; Trevani, A S; Giordano, M N; Galletti, J G

    2016-05-01

    Dry eye is an allegedly autoimmune disorder for which the initiating mechanisms and the targeted antigens in the ocular surface are not known, yet there is extensive evidence that a localized T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 effector T cell response is responsible for its pathogenesis. In this work, we explore the reconciling hypothesis that desiccating stress, which is usually considered an exacerbating factor, could actually be sufficient to skew the ocular surface's mucosal response to any antigen and therefore drive the disease. Using a mouse model of dry eye, we found that desiccating stress causes a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)- and time-dependent disruption of the ocular surface's immune tolerance to exogenous ovalbumin. This pathogenic event is mediated by increased Th1 and Th17 T cells and reduced regulatory T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Conversely, topical NF-κB inhibitors reduced corneal epithelial damage and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in the ocular surface of mice under desiccating stress. The observed effect was mediated by an augmented regulatory T cell response, a finding that highlights the role of mucosal tolerance disruption in dry eye pathogenesis. Remarkably, the NF-κB pathway is also involved in mucosal tolerance disruption in other ocular surface disorders. Together, these results suggest that targeting of mucosal NF-κB activation could have therapeutic potential in dry eye.

  16. High power visible diode laser for the treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Harlander, Maximilian; Nussbaumer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    We present a high power visible diode laser enabling a low-cost treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation, including the two leading causes of blindness worldwide (diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration) as well as retinopathy of prematurely born children, intraocular tumors and retinal detachment. Laser coagulation requires the exposure of the eye to visible laser light and relies on the high absorption of the retina. The need for treatment is constantly increasing, due to the demographic trend, the increasing average life expectancy and medical care demand in developing countries. The World Health Organization reacts to this demand with global programs like the VISION 2020 "The right to sight" and the following Universal Eye Health within their Global Action Plan (2014-2019). One major point is to motivate companies and research institutes to make eye treatment cheaper and easily accessible. Therefore it becomes capital providing the ophthalmology market with cost competitive, simple and reliable technologies. Our laser is based on the direct second harmonic generation of the light emitted from a tapered laser diode and has already shown reliable optical performance. All components are produced in wafer scale processes and the resulting strong economy of scale results in a price competitive laser. In a broader perspective the technology behind our laser has a huge potential in non-medical applications like welding, cutting, marking and finally laser-illuminated projection.

  17. Concise Review: Patient-Specific Stem Cells to Interrogate Inherited Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Joseph C; Wiley, Luke A; Burnight, Erin R; Songstad, Allison E; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2016-02-01

    Whether we are driving to work or spending time with loved ones, we depend on our sense of vision to interact with the world around us. Therefore, it is understandable why blindness for many is feared above death itself. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa, are major causes of blindness worldwide. The recent success of gene augmentation trials for the treatment of RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis has underscored the need for model systems that accurately recapitulate disease. With the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), researchers are now able to obtain disease-specific cell types that would otherwise be unavailable for molecular analysis. In the present review, we discuss how the iPSC technology is being used to confirm the pathogenesis of novel genetic variants, interrogate the pathophysiology of disease, and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments. Significance: Stem cell technology has created the opportunity to advance treatments for multiple forms of blindness. Researchers are now able to use a person's cells to generate tissues found in the eye. This technology can be used to elucidate the genetic causes of disease and develop treatment strategies. In the present review, how stem cell technology is being used to interrogate the pathophysiology of eye disease and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments is discussed.

  18. Concise Review: Patient-Specific Stem Cells to Interrogate Inherited Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Giacalone, Joseph C.; Wiley, Luke A.; Burnight, Erin R.; Songstad, Allison E.; Mullins, Robert F.; Stone, Edwin M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether we are driving to work or spending time with loved ones, we depend on our sense of vision to interact with the world around us. Therefore, it is understandable why blindness for many is feared above death itself. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa, are major causes of blindness worldwide. The recent success of gene augmentation trials for the treatment of RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis has underscored the need for model systems that accurately recapitulate disease. With the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), researchers are now able to obtain disease-specific cell types that would otherwise be unavailable for molecular analysis. In the present review, we discuss how the iPSC technology is being used to confirm the pathogenesis of novel genetic variants, interrogate the pathophysiology of disease, and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments. Significance Stem cell technology has created the opportunity to advance treatments for multiple forms of blindness. Researchers are now able to use a person’s cells to generate tissues found in the eye. This technology can be used to elucidate the genetic causes of disease and develop treatment strategies. In the present review, how stem cell technology is being used to interrogate the pathophysiology of eye disease and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments is discussed. PMID:26683869

  19. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  20. Near-infrared light as a possible treatment option for Parkinson's disease and laser eye injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSmet, Kristina; Buchmann, Ellen; Henry, Michele; Wong-Riley, Margaret; Eells, Janis; VerHoeve, Jim; Whelan, Harry

    2009-02-01

    Studies in our laboratory demonstrate that the action spectrum for stimulation of cytochrome oxidase activity and cellular ATP parallels the near-infrared absorption spectrum of cytochrome oxidase and that 660-680 nm irradiation upregulates cytochrome oxidase activity in cultured neurons. Treatment with nearinfrared light augments cellular energy production and neuronal viability following mitochondrial injury linking the actions of red to near-infrared light on mitochondrial metabolism in vitro and cell injury in vivo. NIR light treatment represents an innovative therapeutic approach for disease processes in which mitochondrial dysfunction is postulated to play a role including Parkinson's disease, laser eye injury and Age-related macular degeneration.

  1. The Role of the Immune Response in the Pathogenesis of Thyroid Eye Disease: A Reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, James T.; Choi, Dongseok; Wong, Amanda; Wilson, David J.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Harrington, Christina A.; Dailey, Roger A.; Ng, John D.; Steele, Eric A.; Czyz, Craig N.; Foster, Jill A.; Tse, David; Alabiad, Chris; Dubovy, Sander; Parekh, Prashant K.; Harris, Gerald J.; Kazim, Michael; Patel, Payal J.; White, Valerie A.; Dolman, Peter J.; Edward, Deepak P.; Alkatan, Hind M.; al Hussain, Hailah; Selva, Dinesh; Yeatts, R. Patrick; Korn, Bobby S.; Kikkawa, Don O.; Stauffer, Patrick; Planck, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although thyroid eye disease is a common complication of Graves’ disease, the pathogenesis of the orbital disease is poorly understood. Most authorities implicate the immune response as an important causal factor. We sought to clarify pathogenesis by using gene expression microarray. Methods An international consortium of ocular pathologists and orbital surgeons contributed formalin fixed orbital biopsies. RNA was extracted from orbital tissue from 20 healthy controls, 25 patients with thyroid eye disease (TED), 25 patients with nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI), 7 patients with sarcoidosis and 6 patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Tissue was divided into a discovery set and a validation set. Gene expression was quantified using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays which include 54,000 probe sets. Results Principal component analysis showed that gene expression from tissue from patients with TED more closely resembled gene expression from healthy control tissue in comparison to gene expression characteristic of sarcoidosis, NSOI, or granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Unsupervised cluster dendrograms further indicated the similarity between TED and healthy controls. Heat maps based on gene expression for cytokines, chemokines, or their receptors showed that these inflammatory markers were associated with NSOI, sarcoidosis, or GPA much more frequently than with TED. Conclusion This is the first study to compare gene expression in TED to gene expression associated with other causes of exophthalmos. The juxtaposition shows that inflammatory markers are far less characteristic of TED relative to other orbital inflammatory diseases. PMID:26371757

  2. Emulation of Physician Tasks in Eye-Tracked Virtual Reality for Remote Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Orlosky, Jason; Itoh, Yuta; Ranchet, Maud; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Morgan, John; Devos, Hannes

    2017-04-01

    For neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson's disease, early and accurate diagnosis is still a difficult task. Evaluations can be time consuming, patients must often travel to metropolitan areas or different cities to see experts, and misdiagnosis can result in improper treatment. To date, only a handful of assistive or remote methods exist to help physicians evaluate patients with suspected neurological disease in a convenient and consistent way. In this paper, we present a low-cost VR interface designed to support evaluation and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease and test its use in a clinical setting. Using a commercially available VR display with an infrared camera integrated into the lens, we have constructed a 3D virtual environment designed to emulate common tasks used to evaluate patients, such as fixating on a point, conducting smooth pursuit of an object, or executing saccades. These virtual tasks are designed to elicit eye movements commonly associated with neurodegenerative disease, such as abnormal saccades, square wave jerks, and ocular tremor. Next, we conducted experiments with 9 patients with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and 7 healthy controls to test the system's potential to emulate tasks for clinical diagnosis. We then applied eye tracking algorithms and image enhancement to the eye recordings taken during the experiment and conducted a short follow-up study with two physicians for evaluation. Results showed that our VR interface was able to elicit five common types of movements usable for evaluation, physicians were able to confirm three out of four abnormalities, and visualizations were rated as potentially useful for diagnosis.

  3. Conducting community-based, culturally specific, eye disease screening clinics for urban African Americans with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert M; Wolf, Fredric M; Musch, David C; Fitzgerald, James T; Johnson, Mark W; Nwankwo, Robin B; Robins, Lynne S; Oh, Mary S; Gillard, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for, and efficacy of, community-based culturally specific eye disease screening clinics for urban African Americans with diabetes. The study employed a variety of culturally specific methods in the design and performance of 43 community-based eye disease screening clinics in southeastern Michigan. One thousand, thirty-seven subjects were recruited for the study. Of that number, 817 identified themselves as African Americans and are the focus of this report. Of the 817 African-American patients screened, 84 (10%) needed to be examined by an ophthalmologist immediately (< 30 days), and 180 (22%) needed to be examined soon (within 1 to 3 months), while 544 (67%) were advised to return for another exam a year later. The project demonstrated that it was possible to use culturally specific techniques to identify a significant number of urban African Americans with diabetes in need of eye screening and treatment. However, lack of health insurance proved to be the primary barrier to receiving needed treatment. Although the project was successful, it is not a solution to what is essentially a health systems problem, ie, inadequate access to appropriate diabetes care for a significant number of our population.

  4. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases: a uniform approach--a MeDALL--GA2LEN--ARIA position paper.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P; Schünemann, H J; Togias, A; Akdis, M; Auffray, C; Bachert, C; Bieber, T; Bousquet, P J; Carlsen, K H; Casale, T B; Cruz, A A; Keil, T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Maurer, M; Ohta, K; Papadopoulos, N G; Roman Rodriguez, M; Samolinski, B; Agache, I; Andrianarisoa, A; Ang, C S; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ballester, F; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Basagaña, X; Bateman, E D; Bel, E H; Bedbrook, A; Beghé, B; Beji, M; Ben Kheder, A; Benet, M; Bennoor, K S; Bergmann, K C; Berrissoul, F; Bindslev Jensen, C; Bleecker, E R; Bonini, S; Boner, A L; Boulet, L P; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J L; Bush, A; Busse, W W; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Carr, W; Cesario, A; Chen, Y Z; Chiriac, A M; Costa, D J; Cox, L; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Darsow, U; Didi, T; Dolen, W K; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; El-Meziane, A; Fonseca, J A; Fokkens, W J; Fthenou, E; Gamkrelidze, A; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Gimeno-Santos, E; Guerra, S; Haahtela, T; Haddad, H; Hellings, P W; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hohmann, C; Howarth, P; Hourihane, J O; Humbert, M; Jacquemin, B; Just, J; Kalayci, O; Kaliner, M A; Kauffmann, F; Kerkhof, M; Khayat, G; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kogevinas, M; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Larenas, D; Lavi, I; Le, L T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Mahboub, B; Makela, M J; Martin, F; Martinez, F D; Marshall, G D; Mazon, A; Melen, E; Meltzer, E O; Mihaltan, F; Mohammad, Y; Mohammadi, A; Momas, I; Morais-Almeida, M; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Naclerio, R; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Nawijn, M C; Nyembue, T D; Oddie, S; O'Hehir, R E; Okamoto, Y; Orru, M P; Ozdemir, C; Ouedraogo, G S; Palkonen, S; Panzner, P; Passalacqua, G; Pawankar, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Pinart, M; Pison, C; Popov, T A; Porta, D; Postma, D S; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Ratomaharo, J; Reitamo, S; Rezagui, D; Ring, J; Roberts, R; Roca, J; Rogala, B; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Sheikh, A; Simons, F E R; Siroux, V; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P D; Smit, H A; Sooronbaev, T; Stein, R T; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Terreehorst, I; Toskala, E; Tremblay, Y; Valenta, R; Valeyre, D; Vandenplas, O; van Weel, C; Vassilaki, M; Varraso, R; Viegi, G; Wang, D Y; Wickman, M; Williams, D; Wöhrl, S; Wright, J; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zidarn, M; Zhong, N; Zuberbier, T

    2012-01-01

    Concepts of disease severity, activity, control and responsiveness to treatment are linked but different. Severity refers to the loss of function of the organs induced by the disease process or to the occurrence of severe acute exacerbations. Severity may vary over time and needs regular follow-up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies.

  5. The allergic march: can we prevent allergies and asthma?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    The allergic march is a progression of atopic disease from eczema to asthma, and then to allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. It appears to be caused by a regional allergic response with breakdown of the local epithelial barrier that initiates systemic allergic inflammation. Genetic and environmental factors predispose to developing the allergic march. There are data to support 4 possible interventions to prevent the allergic march from progressing to asthma: (1) supplements of dietary probiotics, (2) exclusive breast feeding during the first few months of life, or, alternatively (3) use of extensively hydrolyzed infant formulas, (4) treatment with inhalant allergen immunotherapy by either subcutaneous or sublingual methods.

  6. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN FIRST GRADE SCHOOL CHILDREN IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Kherkheulidze, M; Chkhaidze, I; Adamia, N; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of incidence of allergic rhinitis and respiratory infections and evaluation of quality of life of first grade school age children with allergic rhinitis. The cross sectional study in randomly selected regions and schools was conducted using specially developed parent questionnaire and mini rhino conjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (MiniRQLQ). On the first was used special questionnaire, and on the second phase MiniRQLQ was used in cases with allergic rhinitis. Total of 1530 parent of 6-8 years children were interviewed, 1499 first phase questionnaires and 174MiniRQLQ were analyzed by SPSS 19 program. From 1499 children 799 (53.3%) were girls and 700 (46.7%) - boys. The 810 (54%) live in urban, 524 (35%) in rural area and 165 (11%) in high mountains. The study revealed that 2.3% of children have respiratory infections 7-8 times per year, 19.9% 3-5 times, 53.4% 1-2 times and 24.2% became ill very rarely. There was statistically significant difference between the frequency of respiratory infection in rural and urban area (p<0,001).The frequency of chronic diseases reported by parents is 18.3% (n=274), from those 201 (73.3%) are allergic disorders (asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis), that is 13.4% of total respondents. The incidence of allergic rhinitis was 11.6%, most frequent symptom was rhinorrhea 168 (11.2%), recurrent sneezing episodes during last year was seen in 153 (10.2%), nasal pruritus was reported in 137 (9.1%), nasal obstruction in 117 (7.8%). The eye symptoms were reported in 62 (4.2%). The symptoms of allergic rhinitis is significantly higher in urban population then in rural area (P<0.02), as well as in boys (P<0.05). The 109 (62.6%) of respondents answer that symptoms and mostly nasal obstruction affected their quality of life, especially on recreational activities and sleep. In 91 (52.9%) patients with already diagnosed allergic rhinitis treatment was prescribed according international guidelines. In

  7. Plasmonic ELISA for the ultrasensitive detection of disease biomarkers with the naked eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rica, Roberto; Stevens, Molly M.

    2012-12-01

    In resource-constrained countries, affordable methodologies for the detection of disease biomarkers at ultralow concentrations can potentially improve the standard of living. However, current strategies for ultrasensitive detection often require sophisticated instruments that may not be available in laboratories with fewer resources. Here, we circumvent this problem by introducing a signal generation mechanism for biosensing that enables the detection of a few molecules of analyte with the naked eye. The enzyme label of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) controls the growth of gold nanoparticles and generates coloured solutions with distinct tonality when the analyte is present. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and HIV-1 capsid antigen p24 were detected in whole serum at the ultralow concentration of 1 × 10-18 g ml-1. p24 was also detected with the naked eye in the sera of HIV-infected patients showing viral loads undetectable by a gold standard nucleic acid-based test.

  8. [Using Guangming (GB37) acupoint to treat eye diseases: from historical suspense to modern clinical experiments].

    PubMed

    Huang, T; Wu, M Z

    2016-05-01

    Guangming (GB37) gained its name before the writing of Huang di Ming Tang Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Mingtang Classic), the earliest work of the art of acupuncture point. However, in acupuncture and moxibustion works before the Song Dynasty, this acupoint was not used to treat eye diseases. In Dou Hanqing's Zhen jiu biao you fu (Song to Elucidate Mysteries in Acupuncture Moxibustion), Guangming was used to treat oculopathy as an alias of Cuanzhu (BL2). Influenced by this, the alias "Guangming" was mistaken as Guangming (GB37) of the Gallbladder Meridian in the Bian que shen ying zhen jiu yu long jing (Bian Que Acupuncture and Moxibustion Jade Dragon Classic) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the symptom of eye itch was added to the indications of Guangming (GB37). This was wrongly informed in the later acupuncture and moxibustion works, and the modern scholars also accepted it and confirmed its effect by the clinical and experimental research.

  9. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  10. In Vitro Effects of Preserved and Unpreserved Anti-Allergic Drugs on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Patricia; Ropero, Inés; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Treatment with topical eye drops for long-standing ocular diseases like allergy can induce detrimental side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity of commercially preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic eye drops on the viability and barrier function of monolayer and stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial cells. Methods: Cells were treated with unpreserved ketotifen solution, benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-containing anti-allergic drugs (ketotifen, olopatadine, levocabastine) as well as BAC alone. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine cell viability. Effects of compounds on barrier function were analyzed measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) to determine paracellular permeability and rose bengal assays to evaluate transcellular barrier formation. Results: The BAC-preserved anti-allergic formulations and BAC alone significantly reduced cell viability, monolayer cultures being more sensitive to damage by these solutions. Unpreserved ketotifen induced the least diminution in cell viability. The extent of decrease of cell viability was clearly dependent of BAC presence, but it was also affected by the different types of drugs when the concentration of BAC was low and the short time of exposure. Treatment with BAC-containing anti-allergic drugs and BAC alone resulted in increased paracellular permeability and loss of transcellular barrier function as indicated by TEER measurement and rose bengal assays. Conclusions: The presence of the preservative BAC in anti-allergic eye drop formulations contributes importantly to the cytotoxic effects induced by these compounds. Stratified cell cultures seem to be a more relevant model for toxicity evaluation induced on the ocular surface epithelia than monolayer cultures. PMID:25100331

  11. Dry eye disease is associated with deterioration of mental health in male Japanese university staff.

    PubMed

    Tounaka, Kaoru; Yuki, Kenya; Kouyama, Keisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is defined as a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear-film instability, with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is thought to be associated with reduced quality of life (QOL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DED on health-related QOL in Japanese university sedentary office workers who are daily users of visual display terminal. In this study, 163 university staff (99 male and 64 female), aged 23-69 years, served as study subjects. Subjects were asked to answer the following three questions. (1) How often do your eyes feel dry? (2) How often do your eyes feel irritated? (3) Have you ever been diagnosed by a clinician as having dry eye syndrome? Sixty-eight subjects who answered "constantly," "often", or "sometimes" to both questions 1 and 2 were classified as the DED Group, and the remaining 95 were defined as the Non-DED Group. QOL was assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire, which consisted of 36 items to produce three summary scores, namely, mental, physical, and role/social component summary scores. For males, the DED Group had significantly lower scores than the Non-DED Group for mental component summary (MCS) (P = 0.005). In multiple regression analysis, MCS scores were adversely related to DED in males (P = 0.015). DED was associated with worsened QOL. DED should be regarded as a factor that can lead to deterioration of mental health.

  12. National Burden of Eye Diseases in Iran, 1990–2010; Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Elham; Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Alinia, Cyrus; Ashrafi, Elham; Mohammadi, S-Mehrdad; Lashay, Alireza; Sadeghi-Tari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to eye diseases and trends in DALYs in Iran has not been previously reported. The object of this study is to report the burden of eye diseases in Iran and to compare changes from 1990 to 2010 based on age and gender. Methods: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) are used to report DALYs for cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Results: Cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma were the 84th, 87th, 138th, and 151st causes of DALY in 1990 and the 89th, 72nd, 99th, and 137th in 2010, respectively. Cataract accounted for 0.085% of national DALY in 1990 and 0.09% in 2010, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders accounted for 0.42% in 1990 and 0.47% in 2010, macular degeneration accounted for 0.017% in 1990 and 0.071% in 2010 and glaucoma accounted for 0.0099% in 1990 and 0.025% in 2010. There was a steady increase in DALY with age for each eye disease for both genders and dichotomized for males and females from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is reflected in major ophthalmic and blinding diseases in the GBD data for Iran. The burden of macular degeneration is rising, followed by glaucoma. The burden of presbyopia affected individuals past their middle age. The burden of cataract manifested as a slower increase that could be attributable to better access to treatment. PMID:26957846

  13. Analysis of the association between air pollution and allergic diseases exposure from nearby sources of ambient air pollution within elementary school zones in four Korean cities.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-H; Lee, C-S; Jeon, J-M; Yu, S-D; Lee, C-W; Park, J-H; Shin, D-C; Lim, Y-W

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey elementary school students regarding the environmental conditions of their elementary schools and to assess the relationship between air pollution and allergic disease using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Therefore, this study was designed as a cross-sectional study. In this study, seven elementary schools were selected and they were classified into three categories. The selection included one school with no traffic-related or other pollutants, three with traffic-related pollutants, and three with traffic-related and other pollutants from industrial and filling station sources. The ISAAC questionnaire survey was given to all of the students except to those in the 1st grade who were presumed to be less likely to be exposed to the school environment than the remainder of the students attending those seven schools. The assessment of allergic disease was conducted on a total of 4,545 students. Three school zones with critical exposure were selected within each school and they were evaluated based on the levels of black carbon (BC), PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3. There was a significant increase in the risks based on the odds ratios of treatment experiences (within 1 year) for allergy-related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (a) in the school group with traffic-related pollutants and the school group with complex pollutants were 2.12 (1.41-3.19) and 1.59 (1.06-2.37), respectively, in comparison to the school groups with no exposure to pollutants. This was determined based on the odds ratio of symptoms and treatment experiences for allergy-related diseases by group based on the home town zone as a reference. Also, in the case of atopic dermatitis, the odds ratio of treatment experiences (within 1 year) was 1.42 (1.02-1.97), which indicated elevated risks compared to the students in the S1 school. A regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the

  14. [Azelastine in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Vakhabova, N T; Bakhritdinova, F A

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of azelastin (eye drops) in allergic conjunctivitis was evaluated. Ophthalmological, specific allergological, bacteriological, and cytological studies were carried out in 3 groups of patients. Group 1 was treated with claritin (orally), group 2 with azelastin (eye drops), and group 3 with both. The treatment was effective in all 3 groups. Regression of the clinical symptoms started earlier in groups 2 and 3 and was observed throughout the entire period of observation.

  15. Mas-related G protein coupled receptor-X2: A potential new target for modulating mast cell-mediated allergic and inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hydar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident immune cells that are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In addition to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the most common targets of drug therapy. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) is expressed on MCs and contributes to IgE and non-IgE-mediated responses in mice. Although NK-1R antagonists are highly effective in modulating experimental allergic and inflammatory responses in mice they lack efficacy in humans. This article reviews recent findings that demonstrate that while neuropeptides (NPs) activate murine MCs via NK-1R and Mas related G protein coupled receptor B2 (MrgprB2), they activate human MCs via Mas-related G protein coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2). Interestingly, conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity against mouse MrgprB2 but not human MRGPRX2. These findings suggest that the failure to translate studies with NK-1R antagonists from in vivo mouse studies to the clinic likely reflects their lack of effect on human MRGPRX2. A unique feature of MRGPRX2 that distinguishes it from other GPCRs is that it is activated by a diverse group of ligands that include; neuropeptides, cysteine proteases, antimicrobial peptides and cationic proteins released from activated eosinophils. Thus, the development of small molecule MRGPRX2-specific antagonists or neutralizing antibodies may provide new targets for the treatment of MC-mediated allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:28090599

  16. Successful Re-administration of Low-dose of Methimazole (MMI) in Graves' Disease Patients Who Experienced Allergic Cutaneous Reactions to MMI at Initial Treatment and Had Received Long-term Propylthiouracil (PTU)

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective When patients with Graves' disease show severe allergic cutaneous reactions, physicians often suggest that they undergo radioiodine therapy instead of receiving propylthiouracil (PTU), another antithyroid drug, because anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis can occur with PTU, especially with long-term use. However, some patients refuse radioiodine therapy and chose PTU. Sometimes PTU treatment may be prolonged. Since the frequency of adverse effects of methimazole (MMI) is dose-related, there is a possibility that we can re-administer a low dose without adverse effects to patients well-controlled with PTU who once experienced an allergic reaction to MMI. Methods I prospectively re-administered a low dose of MMI to patients who previously experienced an allergic reaction to MMI at initial treatment. The dose of re-administered MMI ranged from 5 mg twice a week to 5 mg daily. Patients Nine patients with Graves' disease who developed urticaria at initial treatment with MMI and had been treated with PTU for 6 to 21 years were recruited. Results Eight of the 9 patients were successfully controlled with MMI without allergic cutaneous reactions. Only one patient felt itchiness 2 days after switching to MMI. However, skin change was not observed. Conclusion If the patients show allergic cutaneous reactions as a side effect of MMI at the initial treatment for Graves' disease, then there is a strong possibility that such patients can tolerate a low dose of MMI without adverse effects after the disease activity has subsided. PMID:27853063

  17. Expression of Human β-Defensins in Conjunctival Epithelium: Relevance to Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Srihari; Miller, William L.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The goals of this study were to investigate whether β-defensins are differentially expressed in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with moderate dry eye when compared with normal subjects and whether proinflammatory cytokines or bacteria can modulate the expression of human β-defensins (hBDs)-1, -2, and -3 by conjunctival epithelial cells. Methods. RNA extracted from conjunctival impression cytology specimens of eight normal subjects and nine patients with moderate dry eye was used in RT-PCR to detect mRNA for hBDs-1, -2, and -3. Two conjunctival epithelial cell lines and primary cultured conjunctival epithelial cells were treated with proinflammatory cytokines or heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis were used to detect mRNA for hBD-1, -2, and -3 and protein secretion of hBD-2, respectively. Results. hBD-2 message was detected in RNA samples of eight of nine patients with dry eye, but not in any of the normal subjects’ samples, whereas hBD-1 and -3 were detected in all subjects tested. RT-PCR revealed an upregulation of hBD-2 but no difference in expression of hBD-1 and -3 in cultured conjunctival cells after a 24-hour treatment with 10 ng/mL interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (10 ng/mL) or heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 million colony-forming units; n = 3). hBD-2 expression was upregulated from 4 hours of treatment with IL-1β (at 10 ng/mL; (n = 2–3) and at a concentration of 0.1 ng/mL IL-1β (24-hour treatment; n = 2–3). Immunoblots demonstrated protein secretion results corresponding to the RT-PCR data. Conclusions. hBD-2 was expressed only in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with moderate dry eye. Because cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α induced the expression of hBD-2 by conjunctival epithelial cells and because increased proinflammatory cytokine activity is a feature of dry eye disease, it can be speculated that the hBD-2 upregulation observed in subjects with moderate

  18. Diagnosis of mild Alzheimer disease through the analysis of eye movements during reading.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Gerardo; Castro, Liliana R; Schumacher, Marcela; Agamennoni, Osvaldo E

    2015-03-01

    Reading requires the integration of several central cognitive subsystems, ranging from attention and oculomotor control to word identification and language comprehension. Reading saccades and fixations contain information that can be correlated with word properties. When reading a sentence, the brain must decide where to direct the next saccade according to what has been read up to the actual fixation. In this process, the retrieval memory brings information about the current word features and attributes into working memory. According to this information, the prefrontal cortex predicts and triggers the next saccade. The frequency and cloze predictability of the fixated word, the preceding words and the upcoming ones affect when and where the eyes will move next. In this paper we present a diagnostic technique for early stage cognitive impairment detection by analyzing eye movements during reading proverbs. We performed a case-control study involving 20 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 40 age-matched, healthy control patients. The measurements were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models, revealing that eye movement behavior while reading can provide valuable information about whether a person is cognitively impaired. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using word-based properties, proverbs and linear mixed-effect models for identifying cognitive abnormalities.

  19. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junmi; Tanaka, Hideo; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Nomura, Eiichi; Ito, Norihiko; Nomura, Naoko; Yamane, Masayuki; Hida, Tomonobu; Goshima, Yoshio; Hatano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A) in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW) in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U) eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α) release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future. PMID:25709899

  20. Portable retinal imaging for eye disease screening using a consumer-grade digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Simon; Larichev, Andrey; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The development of affordable means to image the retina is an important step toward the implementation of eye disease screening programs. In this paper we present the i-RxCam, a low-cost, hand-held, retinal camera for widespread applications such as tele-retinal screening for eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, and age-related ocular diseases. Existing portable retinal imagers do not meet the requirements of a low-cost camera with sufficient technical capabilities (field of view, image quality, portability, battery power, and ease-of-use) to be distributed widely to low volume clinics, such as the offices of single primary care physicians serving rural communities. The i-RxCam uses a Nikon D3100 digital camera body. The camera has a CMOS sensor with 14.8 million pixels. We use a 50mm focal lens that gives a retinal field of view of 45 degrees. The internal autofocus can compensate for about 2D (diopters) of focusing error. The light source is an LED produced by Philips with a linear emitting area that is transformed using a light pipe to the optimal shape at the eye pupil, an annulus. To eliminate corneal reflex we use a polarization technique in which the light passes through a nano-wire polarizer plate. This is a novel type of polarizer featuring high polarization separation (contrast ratio of more than 1000) and very large acceptance angle (>45 degrees). The i-RxCam approach will yield a significantly more economical retinal imaging device that would allow mass screening of the at-risk population.

  1. Registering eye movements during reading in Alzheimer's disease: difficulties in predicting upcoming words.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Gerardo; Laubrock, Jochen; Mandolesi, Pablo; Colombo, Oscar; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Reading requires the fine integration of attention, ocular movements, word identification, and language comprehension, among other cognitive parameters. Several of the associated cognitive processes such as working memory and semantic memory are known to be impaired by Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study analyzes eye movement behavior of 18 patients with probable AD and 40 age-matched controls during Spanish sentence reading. Controls focused mainly on word properties and considered syntactic and semantic structures. At the same time, controls' knowledge and prediction about sentence meaning and grammatical structure are quite evident when we consider some aspects of visual exploration, such as word skipping, and forward saccades. By contrast, in the AD group, the predictability effect of the upcoming word was absent, visual exploration was less focused, fixations were much longer, and outgoing saccade amplitudes were smaller than those in controls. The altered visual exploration and the absence of a contextual predictability effect might be related to impairments in working memory and long-term memory retrieval functions. These eye movement measures demonstrate considerable sensitivity with respect to evaluating cognitive processes in Alzheimer's disease. They could provide a user-friendly marker of early disease symptoms and of its posterior progression.

  2. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M.; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  3. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED.

  4. Increased Burden of Vision Impairment and Eye Diseases in Persons with Chronic Kidney Disease — A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chee Wai; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Gemmy Chui Ming; Tai, E. Shyong; Wong, Tien Y.; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), leading causes of blindness in elderly adults in previous studies. However, the association of CKD with visual impairment (VI) is not clear. We aimed to examine the association of CKD with VI and other age-related ocular diseases in a population-based sample of Asian adults. Methods We analyzed data from 10,033 adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED, 2004–11) Study. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 from serum creatinine. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity < 20/40 in the better eye. Cataract, retinopathy, DR, glaucoma and AMD were assessed using standardized ocular examination, retinal photography and visual field assessments. The associations of CKD with VI and ocular conditions were examined using logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol intake, education status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease. Findings The prevalence of VI and ocular disease were significantly higher in participants with CKD (36.1% and 84.7%) than in those without (12.9% and 54.3%, both p < 0.001). In multivariable models, CKD was significantly associated with VI (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.34 [1.14–1.58]), any ocular disease (1.28 [1.03–1.61]), cataract (1.24 [1.01–1.52]), any retinopathy (1.77 [1.45–2.15]), and DR (1.94 [1.47–2.54]). Interpretation The burden of VI and eye diseases is high among persons with CKD. Our findings suggest that it may be useful to screen for ocular disease and VI in persons with CKD. PMID:27077127

  5. [Toxocariasis in children and adolescents with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C risk groups: results of serological screening].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the presence of immunoglobulins class G to Toxocara canis antigens in the sera of children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases from HIV infection and hepatitis B and C risk groups. A total of 422 dwellers of the Republic of Altai, including 144 subjects aged 1 to 17 years, were examined. Toxocara antibodies were found in 18.8 +/- 3.3% of the children and in 21.9 +/- 2.5% of the adults. The infection rate in children with bronchopulmonary and allergic diseases was 27.1 +/- 5.8 and 14.3 +/- 5.0%, respectively; that in the hepatitis B and C risk groups was 13.1 +/- 6.2%. The children (n = 6) from the HIV infection risk group were seronegative. The infection rate in the adults from the HIV infection and hepatitis risk group was 19.2 +/- 3.5 and 24.3 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Diagnostic antibody titers in the children and adults were determined in 9.0 +/- 2.3 and 8.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Immunological assays should be used to rule out toxocariasis in the examinees. If there are seropositive results, specific antiparasitic threatment should be performed.

  6. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bains, Sonia N; Judson, Marc A

    2012-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by an exaggerated T(H)2 response to the ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA develops in a small fraction of patients with cystic fibrosis and asthma, suggesting that intrinsic host defects play a major role in disease susceptibility. This article reviews current understanding of the immunopathology, clinical and laboratory findings, and diagnosis and management of ABPA. It highlights clinical and laboratory clues to differentiate ABPA from cystic fibrosis and asthma, which are challenging given clinical and serologic similarities. A practical diagnostic algorithm and management scheme to aid in the treatment of these patients is outlined.

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  8. A mobile decision support system for red eye diseases diagnosis: experience with medical students.

    PubMed

    López, Marta Manovel; López, Miguel Maldonado; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Jimeno, José Carlos Pastor; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    A good primary health care is the base for a better healthcare system. Taking a good decision on time by the primary health care physician could have a huge repercussion. In order to ease the diagnosis task arise the Decision Support Systems (DSS), which offer counselling instead of refresh the medical knowledge, in a profession where it is still learning every day. The implementation of these systems in diseases which are a frequent cause of visit to the doctor like ophthalmologic pathologies are, which affect directly to our quality of life, takes more importance. This paper aims to develop OphthalDSS, a totally new mobile DSS for red eye diseases diagnosis. The main utilities that OphthalDSS offers will be a study guide for medical students and a clinical decision support system for primary care professionals. Other important goal of this paper is to show the user experience results after OphthalDSS being used by medical students of the University of Valladolid. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a decision algorithm will be developed and implemented by an Android mobile application. Moreover, the Quality of Experience (QoE) has been evaluated by the students through the questions of a short inquiry. The app developed which implements the algorithm OphthalDSS is capable of diagnose more than 30 eye's anterior segment diseases. A total of 67 medical students have evaluated the QoE. The students find the diseases' information presented very valuable, the appearance is adequate, it is always available and they have ever found what they were looking for. Furthermore, the students think that their quality of life has not been improved using the app and they can do the same without using the OphthalDSS app. OphthalDSS is easy to use, which is capable of diagnose more than 30 ocular diseases in addition to be used as a DSS tool as an educational tool at the same time.

  9. Eye movement analysis and cognitive processing: detecting indicators of conversion to Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marta LG Freitas; Camargo, Marina von Zuben A; Aprahamian, Ivan; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-01-01

    A great amount of research has been developed around the early cognitive impairments that best predict the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Given that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is no longer considered to be an intermediate state between normal aging and AD, new paths have been traced to acquire further knowledge about this condition and its subtypes, and to determine which of them have a higher risk of conversion to AD. It is now known that other deficits besides episodic and semantic memory impairments may be present in the early stages of AD, such as visuospatial and executive function deficits. Furthermore, recent investigations have proven that the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe structures are not only involved in memory functioning, but also in visual processes. These early changes in memory, visual, and executive processes may also be detected with the study of eye movement patterns in pathological conditions like MCI and AD. In the present review, we attempt to explore the existing literature concerning these patterns of oculomotor changes and how these changes are related to the early signs of AD. In particular, we argue that deficits in visual short-term memory, specifically in iconic memory, attention processes, and inhibitory control, may be found through the analysis of eye movement patterns, and we discuss how they might help to predict the progression from MCI to AD. We add that the study of eye movement patterns in these conditions, in combination with neuroimaging techniques and appropriate neuropsychological tasks based on rigorous concepts derived from cognitive psychology, may highlight the early presence of cognitive impairments in the course of the disease. PMID:25031536

  10. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  11. Overweight/Obesity and Respiratory and Allergic Disease in Children: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two

    PubMed Central

    Weinmayr, Gudrun; Forastiere, Francesco; Büchele, Gisela; Jaensch, Andrea; Strachan, David P.; Nagel, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity and asthma are increasing worldwide. A possible link between the two conditions has been postulated. Methods Cross-sectional studies of stratified random samples of 8–12-year-old children (n = 10 652) (16 centres in affluent and 8 centres in non-affluent countries) used the standardized methodology of ISAAC Phase Two. Respiratory and allergic symptoms were ascertained by parental questionnaires. Tests for allergic disease were performed. Height and weight were measured, and overweight and obesity were defined according to international definitions. Prevalence rates and prevalence odds ratios were calculated. Results Overweight (odds ratio = 1.14, 95%-confidence interval: 0.98; 1.33) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.67, 95%-confidence interval: 1.25; 2.21) were related to wheeze. The relationship was stronger in affluent than in non-affluent centres. Similar results were found for cough and phlegm, rhinitis and eczema but the associations were mostly driven by children with wheeze. There was a clear association of overweight and obesity with airways obstruction (change in FEV1/FVC, −0.90, 95%-confidence interval: −1.33%; −0.47%, for overweight and −2.46%, 95%-confidence interval: −3.84%; −1.07%, for obesity) whereas the results for the other objective markers, including atopy, were null. Conclusions Our data from a large international child population confirm that there is a strong relation of body mass index with wheeze especially in affluent countries. Moreover, body mass index is associated with an objective marker of airways obstruction (FEV1/FVC) but no other objective markers of respiratory and allergic disorders. PMID:25474308

  12. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Assisted 27-Gauge Vitrectomy in Eyes with Vitreoretinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kunikata, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT)-assisted 27-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) in eyes with vitreoretinal disease. Methods A retrospective, interventional case series performed at a single center, including 6 eyes with retinal disease that underwent iOCT-assisted 27-gauge MIVS. Results The advantages of iOCT were most notable when it was used to evaluate, in real time, different macular areas: the pre-macula, in vitreomacular traction or epiretinal membrane; the intra-macula, in macular edema or macular hole; and the sub-macula, in macular detachment. Real-time imaging and the minimization of shadows cast on the underlying tissues by the 27-gauge instrumentation made it possible to quickly select the best procedure at each critical juncture of the surgery. No patients experienced any complications. Conclusion Real-time iOCT imaging during 27-gauge MIVS provided excellent intraoperative visualization of retinal tissues without causing significant obstructions to the surgeon. The positive feedback from the system allowed the surgeon to better judge the necessity of additional surgical procedures. PMID:26265908

  13. Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin in the Clinical Management of Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scripsema, Nicole K.; Hu, Dan-Ning; Rosen, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids found within the retina and throughout the visual system. The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body. The highest concentration of xanthophylls is found within the retina, and this selective presence has generated many theories regarding their role in supporting retinal function. Subsequently, the effect of xanthophylls in the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases has been examined through epidemiological studies, animal studies, and clinical trials. This paper attempts to review the epidemiological studies and clinical trials investigating the effects of xanthophylls on the incidence and progression of various eye diseases. Observational studies have reported that increased dietary intake and higher serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), especially late AMD. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that xanthophyll supplementation increases macular pigment levels, improves visual function, and decreases the risk of progression to late AMD, especially neovascular AMD. Current publications on the preventive and therapeutic effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and retinopathy of prematurity have reported encouraging results. PMID:26819755

  14. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  15. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologic agents, or, finally, immunotherapy. Successful treatment requires accurate assessment of the offending agent and proper use of the above-mentioned modalities. PMID:21263880

  16. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity. Methods We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quantify changes in eye-hand coordination in early-stage PD patients (H&Y < 2.5) and age-matched controls. Timing and kinematics of eye and hand were quantified in four eye-hand coordination tasks (pro-tapping, dual planning, anti-tapping and spatial memory task). Results In the pro-tapping task, saccade initiation towards extrinsic goals was not impaired. However, in the dual planning and anti-tapping task initiation of saccades towards intrinsic goals was faster in PD patients. Hand movements were differently affected: initiation of the hand movement was only delayed in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. Overall, hand movements in PD patients were slower executed compared to controls. Interpretation Whereas initiation of saccades in an extrinsic goal-directed task (pro-tapping task) is not affected, early stage PD patients have difficulty in suppressing reflexive saccades towards extrinsic goals in tasks where the endpoint is an intrinsic goal (e.g. dual planning and anti-tapping task). This is specific for eye movements, as hand movements have delayed responses in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. This suggests that reported impairment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in early-stage PD patients affects only inhibition of eye movements. We conclude that timing and kinematics of eye and hand movements in visuomotor tasks are affected in PD patients. This result may have clinical significance by providing a behavioral marker for the early diagnosis of PD. PMID:23298720

  17. Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease – a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past studies suggest that maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against child wheeze but studies on asthma are limited. Our objective was to examine the relation between intake of vitamin D in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. Methods We examined data from 44,825 women enrolled during pregnancy in the longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002). We estimated vitamin D intake from diet and supplements based on information from a validated food frequency questionnaire completed in gestational week 25. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using data from phone interviews. We assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis by self-report at age 7 and asthma by using records from national registries. Current asthma at age 7 was defined as lifetime asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We calculated multivariable risk ratios with 95% CIs comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of vitamin D intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. Results The median (5%-95%ile) intake of total vitamin D was 11.7(3.0-19.4) μg/day (68% from supplements). In multivariable analysis, mothers in the highest (vs. lowest) quintile of total vitamin D intake were less likely to have children classified with current asthma at 7 years (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96, P = 0.02) and they were less likely to have children admitted to the hospital due to asthma (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 1.00, P = 0.05). We found no associations with child asthma at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis at 7 years. Conclusions Our findings suggest a weak inverse relationship between high total vitamin D and asthma outcomes in later, but not early, childhood. The data did not suggest a clear threshold of vitamin D intake above which risk of asthma was reduced. PMID:24176134

  18. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  19. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  20. Clinical application of eye movement tasks as an aid to understanding Parkinson's disease pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kikuro; Fukushima, Junko; Barnes, Graham R

    2017-03-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. Most PD patients suffer from somatomotor and oculomotor disorders. The oculomotor system facilitates obtaining accurate information from the visual world. If a target moves slowly in the fronto-parallel plane, tracking eye movements occur that consist primarily of smooth-pursuit interspersed with corrective saccades. Efficient smooth-pursuit requires appropriate target selection and predictive compensation for inherent processing delays. Although pursuit impairment, e.g. as latency prolongation or low gain (eye velocity/target velocity), is well known in PD, normal aging alone results in such changes. In this article, we first briefly review some basic features of smooth-pursuit, then review recent results showing the specific nature of impaired pursuit in PD using a cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit task. This task was initially used for monkeys to separate two major components of prediction (image-motion direction memory and movement preparation), and neural correlates were examined in major pursuit pathways. Most PD patients possessed normal cue-information memory but extra-retinal mechanisms for pursuit preparation and execution were dysfunctional. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. Some PD patients with normal cue-information memory changed strategy to initiate smooth tracking. Strategy changes were also observed to compensate for impaired pursuit during whole body rotation while the target moved with the head. We discuss PD pathophysiology by comparing eye movement task results with neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations of individual patients and further with monkey results, and suggest possible neural circuits for these functions/dysfunctions.

  1. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  2. Paving the way of systems biology and precision medicine in allergic diseases: the MeDALL success story: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy; EU FP7-CP-IP; Project No: 261357; 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Akdis, M; Auffray, C; Keil, T; Momas, I; Postma, D S; Valenta, R; Wickman, M; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Haahtela, T; Lambrecht, B N; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Koppelman, G H; Sunyer, J; Zuberbier, T; Annesi-Maesano, I; Arno, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; De Carlo, G; Forastiere, F; Heinrich, J; Kowalski, M L; Maier, D; Melén, E; Palkonen, S; Smit, H A; Standl, M; Wright, J; Asarnoj, A; Benet, M; Ballardini, N; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gehring, U; Guerra, S; Hohman, C; Kull, I; Lupinek, C; Pinart, M; Skrindo, I; Westman, M; Smagghe, D; Akdis, C; Albang, R; Anastasova, V; Anderson, N; Bachert, C; Ballereau, S; Ballester, F; Basagana, X; Bedbrook, A; Bergstrom, A; von Berg, A; Brunekreef, B; Burte, E; Carlsen, K H; Chatzi, L; Coquet, J M; Curin, M; Demoly, P; Eller, E; Fantini, M P; Gerhard, B; Hammad, H; von Hertzen, L; Hovland, V; Jacquemin, B; Just, J; Keller, T; Kerkhof, M; Kiss, R; Kogevinas, M; Koletzko, S; Lau, S; Lehmann, I; Lemonnier, N; McEachan, R; Mäkelä, M; Mestres, J; Minina, E; Mowinckel, P; Nadif, R; Nawijn, M; Oddie, S; Pellet, J; Pin, I; Porta, D; Rancière, F; Rial-Sebbag, A; Saeys, Y; Schuijs, M J; Siroux, V; Tischer, C G; Torrent, M; Varraso, R; De Vocht, J; Wenger, K; Wieser, S; Xu, C

    2016-11-01

    MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy; EU FP7-CP-IP; Project No: 261357; 2010-2015) has proposed an innovative approach to develop early indicators for the prediction, diagnosis, prevention and targets for therapy. MeDALL has linked epidemiological, clinical and basic research using a stepwise, large-scale and integrative approach: MeDALL data of precisely phenotyped children followed in 14 birth cohorts spread across Europe were combined with systems biology (omics, IgE measurement using microarrays) and environmental data. Multimorbidity in the same child is more common than expected by chance alone, suggesting that these diseases share causal mechanisms irrespective of IgE sensitization. IgE sensitization should be considered differently in monosensitized and polysensitized individuals. Allergic multimorbidities and IgE polysensitization are often associated with the persistence or severity of allergic diseases. Environmental exposures are relevant for the development of allergy-related diseases. To complement the population-based studies in children, MeDALL included mechanistic experimental animal studies and in vitro studies in humans. The integration of multimorbidities and polysensitization has resulted in a new classification framework of allergic diseases that could help to improve the understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of allergy as well as to better manage allergic diseases. Ethics and gender were considered. MeDALL has deployed translational activities within the EU agenda.

  3. Structural functional associations of the orbit in thyroid eye disease: Kalman filters to track extraocular rectal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L.; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention, and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  4. Structural Functional Associations of the Orbit in Thyroid Eye Disease: Kalman Filters to Track Extraocular Rectal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-02-27

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  5. The role of comprehensive eye exams in the early detection of diabetes and other chronic diseases in an employed population.

    PubMed

    Schaneman, Justin; Kagey, Amy; Soltesz, Stephen; Stone, Julie

    2010-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the cost benefit associated with comprehensive eye exams as a tool for the early detection of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. A retrospective, claims-based analysis was performed using U.S.-based employees and spouses from a large, national database. Individuals who received first notification of disease as a result of an eye exam were compared to individuals who did not receive early detection and presumably learned of their condition after further disease progression. Total health plan costs, lost time costs, and termination rates were calculated for the 12-month period after the index date. A sizable population first learned of their chronic condition through eye exams as no other claims-based evidence was found to suggest prior knowledge of the condition. All three disease cohorts with early detection during an eye exam had lower first-year health plan costs, missed fewer work days, and were less likely to terminate employment than the respective comparison groups. As employers strive to better manage health and business outcomes, comprehensive eye health exams can provide an opportunity for early disease detection and associated cost savings through referral to primary care providers and condition management programs.

  6. Structural Functional Associations of the Orbit in Thyroid Eye Disease: Kalman Filters to Track Extraocular Rectal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease. PMID:27127330

  7. Intranasal administration of a combination of choline chloride, vitamin C, and selenium attenuates the allergic effect in a mouse model of airway disease.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Preeti; Saw, Sanjay; Govindaraj, Dhanapal; Arora, Naveen

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory allergic disease is an inflammatory condition accompanied by oxidative stress. Supplementation of an anti-inflammatory agent with antioxidants may have a therapeutic effect. In this study, the effects of choline chloride in combination with antioxidants were evaluated via the intranasal route in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged on days 25-30 with cockroach extract (CE) and with a booster challenge on day 38. They were treated with choline chloride (ChCl; 1mg/kg), vitamin C (Vit C; 308.33 mg/kg), and selenium (Se; 1mg/kg) alone or in combination via the intranasal route on days 31, 33, 35, 37, and 39. The mice were sacrificed on day 40 to collect blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, and spleen. Mice immunized with CE showed a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation, Th2 cytokines, and the oxidative stress markers intracellular reactive oxygen species and 8-isoprostanes compared to the phosphate-buffered saline control group. A significant decrease was observed in these parameters with all the treatments (p<0.01). The highest decrease was noticed in the ChCl+Vit C+Se-treated group, with AHR decreased to the normal level. This group also showed the highest decrease in airway inflammation (p<0.001), IL-4 and IL-5 (p<0.001), IgE and IgG1 (p<0.001), NF-κB (p<0.001), and 8-isoprostane levels (p<0.001). Glutathione peroxidase activity, which was decreased significantly in CE-immunized mice, was restored to normal levels in this group (p<0.001). IL-10 level was decreased in CE-immunized mice and was restored to normal by combination treatment. The combination treatment induced FOXP3(+) cells in splenocyte culture, responsible for the upregulation of IL-10. In conclusion, the combination of choline chloride, vitamin C, and selenium via the intranasal route reduces AHR, inflammation, and oxidative stress, probably by causing IL-10 production by FOXP

  8. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05–1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08–1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  9. Towards Defining Molecular Determinants Recognized by Adaptive Immunity in Allergic Disease: An Inventory of the Available Data

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Kerrie; Greenbaum, Jason; Kim, Yohan; Vita, Randi; Chung, Jo; Peters, Bjoern; Broide, David; Goodman, Richard; Grey, Howard; Sette, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses associated with allergic reactions recognize antigens from a broad spectrum of plants and animals. Herein a meta-analysis was performed on allergy-related data from the immune epitope database (IEDB) to provide a current inventory and highlight knowledge gaps and areas for future work. The analysis identified over 4,500 allergy-related epitopes derived from 270 different allergens. Overall, the distribution of the data followed expectations based on the nature of allergic responses. Namely, the majority of epitopes were defined for B cells/antibodies and IgE-mediated reactivity, and relatively fewer T-cell epitopes, mostly CD4+/class II. Interestingly, the majority of food allergen epitopes were B-cells epitopes whereas a fairly even number of B- and T-cell epitopes were defined for airborne allergens. In addition, epitopes from nonhumans hosts were mostly T-cell epitopes. Overall, coverage of known allergens is sparse with data available for only ~17% of all allergens listed by the IUIS database. Thus, further research would be required to provide a more balanced representation across different allergen categories. Furthermore, inclusion of nonpeptidic epitopes in the IEDB also allows for inventory and analysis of immunological data associated with drug and contact allergen epitopes. Finally, our analysis also underscores that only a handful of epitopes have thus far been investigated for their immunotherapeutic potential. PMID:21403821

  10. Visual acuity and quality of life in dry eye disease: Proceedings of the OCEAN group meeting.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Del-Castillo, José; Labetoulle, Marc; Baudouin, Christophe; Rolando, Maurizio; Akova, Yonca A; Aragona, Pasquale; Geerling, Gerd; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Messmer, Elisabeth M; Boboridis, Kostas

    2017-04-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) results in tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, inflammation of the ocular surface and, ultimately, visual disturbance that can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. The effects on visual acuity result in difficulties with driving, reading and computer use and negatively impact psychological health. These effects also extend to the workplace, with a loss of productivity and quality of work causing substantial economic losses. The effects of DED and the impact on vision experienced by patients may not be given sufficient importance by ophthalmologists. Functional visual acuity (FVA) is a measure of visual acuity after sustained eye opening without blinking for at least 10 s and mimics the sustained visual acuity of daily life. Measuring dynamic FVA allows the detection of impaired visual function in patients with DED who may display normal conventional visual acuity. There are currently several tests and methods that can be used to measure dynamic visual function: the SSC-350 FVA measurement system, assessment of best-corrected visual acuity decay using the interblink visual acuity decay test, serial measurements of ocular and corneal higher order aberrations, and measurement of dynamic vision quality using the Optical Quality Analysis System. Although the equipment for these methods may be too large or unaffordable for use in clinical practice, FVA testing is an important assessment for DED.

  11. Biochemical basis for dominant inheritance, variable penetrance and maternal effects in RBP4 congenital eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Christopher M.; Nelson, Christine; Tarlè, Susan A.; Pribila, Jonathan T.; Bardakjian, Tanya; Woods, Sean; Schneider, Adele; Glaser, Tom

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Gestational vitamin A (retinol) deficiency poses a risk for ocular birth defects and blindness. We identified missense mutations in RBP4, encoding serum retinol binding protein (RBP), in three families with eye malformations of differing severity. The mutant phenotypes exhibit dominant inheritance but incomplete penetrance. Maternal inheritance significantly increases the probability of phenotypic expression. RBP normally delivers retinol from hepatic stores to peripheral tissues, including the placenta and fetal eye. The disease mutations greatly reduce retinol binding to RBP yet paradoxically increase RBP affinity for its cell surface receptor, STRA6. By occupying STRA6 nonproductively, the dominant-negative proteins are predicted to disrupt vitamin A delivery from wild-type proteins within the fetus but also, in the case of maternal transmission, at the placenta. These findings establish a previously uncharacterized mode of maternal inheritance, distinct from imprinting and oocyte-derived mRNA, and define a group of hereditary disorders plausibly modulated by dietary vitamin A levels. PMID:25910211

  12. Classification of iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients based on eye movements during sleep.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julie A E; Koch, Henriette; Frandsen, Rune; Kempfner, Jacob; Arvastson, Lars; Christensen, Soren R; Sorensen, Helge B D; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from the sleep disorder idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) have been observed to be in high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This makes it essential to analyze them in the search for PD biomarkers. This study aims at classifying patients suffering from iRBD or PD based on features reflecting eye movements (EMs) during sleep. A Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model was developed based on features extracted from two electrooculographic (EOG) signals measured as parts in full night polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from ten control subjects. The trained model was tested on ten other control subjects, ten iRBD patients and ten PD patients, obtaining a EM topic mixture diagram for each subject in the test dataset. Three features were extracted from the topic mixture diagrams, reflecting "certainty", "fragmentation" and "stability" in the timely distribution of the EM topics. Using a Naive Bayes (NB) classifier and the features "certainty" and "stability" yielded the best classification result and the subjects were classified with a sensitivity of 95 %, a specificity of 80% and an accuracy of 90 %. This study demonstrates in a data-driven approach, that iRBD and PD patients may exhibit abnorm form and/or timely distribution of EMs during sleep.

  13. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers s