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Sample records for allergic inflammatory cells

  1. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  2. The inflammatory nature of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Durham, S R

    1998-12-01

    The allergic inflammatory response in allergic rhinitis has been studied extensively owing to the high frequency of the condition, the significant morbidity it causes and the accessibility of the nasal tissue. The allergic inflammatory response is characterized by IgE synthesis, IgE-dependent mast cell activation and infiltration of the nasal mucosa by T lymphocytes and eosinophils. The immediate-phase response is mediated by a range of inflammatory mediators (such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins), resulting in vasodilatation, oedema, mucus secretion, itching and sneezing. Individuals who experience a late-phase response have further nasal symptoms 4-24 h after the initial challenge with allergen. Results of nasal biopsy studies indicate that the late-phase allergic response involves T-lymphocyte activation, production of TH2-type cytokines and tissue eosinophilia. Corticosteroids potently inhibit T-lymphocyte responses, and clinical studies in subjects with allergic rhinitis have demonstrated that they are extremely effective in blocking both early- and late-phase allergic reactions. Topical aqueous triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray represents a novel formulation of a topical corticosteroid for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Data from controlled clinical studies indicate that it is effective in treating seasonal and perennial disease, is well tolerated, does not suppress adrenocortical function, is odourless, and can be administered as a once-daily dose. PMID:9988430

  3. Mosla punctulata Inhibits Mast Cell-mediated Allergic Reactions Through the Inhibition of Histamine Release and Inflammatory Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Je, I. G.; Shin, T. Y.; Kim, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic inflammatory diseases such as food allergy, asthma, sinusitis and atopic dermatitis are increasing worldwide. This study examined the effects of aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. Aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic and immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis and it also reduced intracellular calcium level and down-streamed histamine release from mast cells. In addition, aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata decreased gene expression and secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha, an important proinflammatory cytokine, in mast cells. The inhibitory effect on tumour necrosis factor alpha expression was nuclear factor kappa B dependent. The results indicate that aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata inhibited mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction by suppressing histamine release and expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha, and involvement of calcium and nuclear factor kappa B in these effects. Hence it can be concluded that, the aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata might be a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders. PMID:24591741

  4. Mosla dianthera inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic reactions through the inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun . E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of Mosla dianthera (Maxim.) (AEMD) on the mast cell-mediated allergy model and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of drugs for the treatment of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. AEMD inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. AEMD decreased immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. AEMD attenuated intracellular calcium level and release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80. Furthermore, AEMD attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated TNF-{alpha}, IL-8 and IL-6 secretion in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of AEMD on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. AEMD decreased PMA and A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B. Our findings provide evidence that AEMD inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  5. Calpain activity and expression are increased in splenic inflammatory cells associated with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Shields, D C; Schaecher, K E; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    1999-09-01

    Since calcium-activated neutral proteinase (calpain) activity and expression are significantly increased in activated glial/inflammatory cells in the central nervous system of animals with autoimmune demyelinating diseases, this enzyme may also play a role in peripheral organ systems in these diseases. In this study, the activity and expression of calpain and the endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, were evaluated at transcriptional and translational levels in spleens of Lewis rats with acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Calpain activity and translational expression were increased by 475.5% and 44.3% respectively, on day 4 post-induction in adjuvant controls and animals with EAE. These levels remained elevated compared to normal controls on days 8 and 12. Calpastatin translational expression was similarly increased at these time points although transcriptional expression was not significantly altered at any time following induction of EAE. Likewise, transcriptional expression of mu-calpain was unchanged following induction, while small increases in m-calpain transcriptional expression were observed on days 2 and 8. Most calpain expression was observed in activated splenic macrophages at day 8 post-induction even though activated T cells were also calpain positive. In spinal cords of animals with EAE, calpain expression was significantly increased in rats with severe disease compared to those exhibiting only mild symptoms at day 12 post-induction. Thus, prior to symptomatic EAE, increased calpain activity and expression in peripheral lymphoid organs may play an important role in T cell migration and subsequent disease progression. PMID:10496171

  6. Inhibitory effects of BiRyuChe-bang on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions and inflammatory cytokines production.

    PubMed

    Moon, Phil-Dong; Choi, Il Sang; Go, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Byong-Joo; Kang, Sang Woo; Yoon, Sunhee; Han, Seung-Jun; Nam, Sun-Young; Oh, Hyun-A; Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Young-Sick; Kim, Ju-Sung; Kim, Myong-Jo; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2013-01-01

    BiRyuChe-bang (BRC) is a Korean prescription medicine, which has been used to treat allergic rhinitis at Kyung Hee Medical Center. In this work, we investigated the effects of BRC on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions and inflammatory cytokines production, and identified the active component of BRC. Histamine release was measured from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). Ear swelling and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) were examined in mouse models. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-induced inflammatory cytokines production was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used for the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was analyzed by Western blotting. BRC significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced ear swelling response, histamine release from RPMCs, PCA activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE, and PMA plus A23187-induced inflammatory cytokines production (p < 0.05). In addition, BRC dose-dependently inhibited the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 as well as the activation of NF-κB in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. BRC inhibited the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice induced with PCA. Several components of BRC, such as 1,8-Cineole, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, α-Pinene, and α-Terpineol, significantly inhibited the release of histamine from RPMCs (p < 0.05). Among these components, Linalyl acetate was the most effective for inhibiting histamine release. These results indicate that BRC has a potential regulatory effect on allergic and inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  7. The role of TRPV1 in the CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammatory response of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Samivel, Ramachandran; Kim, Dae Woo; Son, Hye Ran; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Ji Hye; Bae, Jun-Sang; Chung, Young-Jun; Chung, Phil-Sang; Raz, Eyal; Mo, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which has been identified as a molecular target for the activation of sensory neurons by various painful stimuli, was reported to regulate the signaling and activation of CD4+ T cells. However, the role of TRPV1 in CD4+ T cell in allergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. In this study, TRPV1 expression was localized in CD4+ T cells. Both knockout and chemical inhibition of TRPV1 suppressed Th2/Th17 cytokine production in CD4 T cells and Jurkat T cells, respectively, and can suppress T cell receptor signaling pathways including NF-κB, MAP kinase, and NFAT. In TRPV1 knockout allergic rhinitis (AR) mice, eosinophil infiltration, Th2/Th17 cytokines in the nasal mucosa, and total and ova-specific IgE levels in serum decreased, compared with wild-type AR mice. The TRPV1 antagonists, BCTC or theobromine, showed similar inhibitory immunologic effects on AR mice models. In addition, the number of TRPV1+/CD4+ inflammatory cells increased in the nasal mucosa of patients with AR, compared with that of control subjects. Thus, TRPV1 activation on CD4+ T cells is involved in T cell receptor signaling, and it could be a novel therapeutic target in AR.

  8. The role of TRPV1 in the CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammatory response of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hye Ran; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Ji Hye; Bae, Jun-Sang; Chung, Young-Jun; Chung, Phil-Sang; Raz, Eyal; Mo, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which has been identified as a molecular target for the activation of sensory neurons by various painful stimuli, was reported to regulate the signaling and activation of CD4+ T cells. However, the role of TRPV1 in CD4+ T cell in allergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. In this study, TRPV1 expression was localized in CD4+ T cells. Both knockout and chemical inhibition of TRPV1 suppressed Th2/Th17 cytokine production in CD4 T cells and Jurkat T cells, respectively, and can suppress T cell receptor signaling pathways including NF-κB, MAP kinase, and NFAT. In TRPV1 knockout allergic rhinitis (AR) mice, eosinophil infiltration, Th2/Th17 cytokines in the nasal mucosa, and total and ova-specific IgE levels in serum decreased, compared with wild-type AR mice. The TRPV1 antagonists, BCTC or theobromine, showed similar inhibitory immunologic effects on AR mice models. In addition, the number of TRPV1+/CD4+ inflammatory cells increased in the nasal mucosa of patients with AR, compared with that of control subjects. Thus, TRPV1 activation on CD4+ T cells is involved in T cell receptor signaling, and it could be a novel therapeutic target in AR. PMID:26700618

  9. Inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators in primary and cultured cells by a Chinese herbal medicine formula for allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lenon, George B; Xue, Charlie CL; Story, David F; Thien, Frank CK; McPhee, Sarah; Li, Chun G

    2007-01-01

    Background We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. Methods Compound 48/80-induced histamine release was studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Production of leukotriene B4 induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied in porcine neutrophils using an HPLC assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production was studied in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells by immune-enzyme assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined in Raw 264.7 cells, using western blotting techniques. Results RCM-101 (1–100 μg/mL) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from Raw 264.7 cells. Over the range 1 – 10 μg/mL, it inhibited A23187-induced leukotriene B4 production in porcine neutrophils. In addition, RCM-101 (100 μg/mL) inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein but did not affect that of COX-1. Conclusion The findings indicate that RCM-101 inhibits the release and/or synthesis of histamine, leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in cultured cells. These interactions of RCM-101 with multiple inflammatory mediators are likely to be related to its ability to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis. PMID:17302969

  10. Oleanolic acid controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivitis, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases.

  11. SG-HQ2 inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Pil-Hoon; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Seo, Seung-Yong; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-(8-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzamide) (SG-HQ2), a synthetic analogue of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and the possible mechanism of action. Mast cells play major roles in immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses by the release of histamine, lipid-derived mediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We previously reported the potential effects of gallic acid using allergic inflammation models. For incremental research, we synthesized the SG-HQ2 by the modification of functional groups from gallic acid. SG-HQ2 attenuated histamine release by the reduction of intracellular calcium in human mast cells and primary peritoneal mast cells. The inhibitory efficacy of SG-HQ2 was similar with gallic acid. Enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6 in activated mast cells was significantly diminished by SG-HQ2 100 times lower concentration of gallic acid. This inhibitory effect was mediated by the reduction of nuclear factor-κB. In animal models, SG-HQ2 inhibited compound 48/80-induced serum histamine release and immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Our results indicate that SG-HQ2, an analogue of gallic acid, might be a possible therapeutic candidate for mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory diseases through suppression of histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  12. SG-HQ2 inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Pil-Hoon; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-(8-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzamide) (SG-HQ2), a synthetic analogue of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and the possible mechanism of action. Mast cells play major roles in immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses by the release of histamine, lipid-derived mediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We previously reported the potential effects of gallic acid using allergic inflammation models. For incremental research, we synthesized the SG-HQ2 by the modification of functional groups from gallic acid. SG-HQ2 attenuated histamine release by the reduction of intracellular calcium in human mast cells and primary peritoneal mast cells. The inhibitory efficacy of SG-HQ2 was similar with gallic acid. Enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6 in activated mast cells was significantly diminished by SG-HQ2 100 times lower concentration of gallic acid. This inhibitory effect was mediated by the reduction of nuclear factor-κB. In animal models, SG-HQ2 inhibited compound 48/80-induced serum histamine release and immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Our results indicate that SG-HQ2, an analogue of gallic acid, might be a possible therapeutic candidate for mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory diseases through suppression of histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25349218

  13. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  14. HIF-1 expression is associated with CCL2 chemokine expression in airway inflammatory cells: implications in allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is complex and characterized by cellular infiltrates and activity of many cytokines and chemokines. Both the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and chemokine CCL2 have been shown to play pivotal roles in allergic airway inflammation. The interrelationship between these two factors is not known. We hypothesized that the expression of HIF-1 and CCL2 may be correlated and that the expression of CCL2 may be under the regulation of HIF-1. Several lines of evidence are presented to support this hypothesis. Methods The effects of treating wild-type OVA (ovalbumin)-sensitized/challenged mice with ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), which upregulate HIF, on CCL2 expression, were determined. Mice conditionally knocked out for HIF-1β was examined for their ability to mount an allergic inflammatory response and CCL2 expression in the lung after intratracheal exposure to ovalbumin. The association of HIF-1α and CCL2 levels was also measured in endobronchial biopsies and bronchial fluid of asthma patients after challenge. Results We show that both HIF-1α and CCL2 were upregulated during an OVA (ovalbumin)-induced allergic response in mice. The levels of HIF-1α and CCL2 were significantly increased following treatment with a pharmacological agent which upregulates HIF-1α, ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB). In contrast, the expression levels of HIF-1α and CCL2 were decreased in the lungs of mice that have been conditionally knocked out for ARNT (HIF-1β) following sensitization with OVA when compared to levels in wild type mice. In asthma patients, the levels of HIF-1α and CCL2 increased after challenge with the allergen. Conclusions These data suggest that CCL2 expression is regulated, in part, by HIF-1 in the lung. These findings also demonstrate that both CCL2 and HIF-1 are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:22823210

  15. Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response to allergens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which Treg cells fail to maintain tolerance in patients with allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how Treg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the "dual" functionality of Treg cells in patients with allergic diseases: how Treg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a proallergic inflammatory environment can skew Treg cells toward a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in patients with chronic allergic diseases by promoting Treg cell stability and function. PMID:27596705

  16. [Helper T cell paradigm: Th17 and regulatory T cells involved in autoimmune inflammatory disorders, pathogen defense and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Noma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The helper T cell paradigm, divided into two distinct subsets, Th1 and Th2 cells, characterized by distinct cytokine and functions, has been expanded to IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Th1 cells producing IFN-γ are involved in delayed-type hypersensitivity, effective in intracellular pathogens defense, while Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-25 and has a central role in IgE production, eosinophilic inflammation, and the protection for helminthic parasite infection. Th17 cell lineages, expressing IL-17 family of cytokines and IL-23-mediated functions on T cells, plays a role in immune response to fungi and extracellular pathogens and autoimmune inflammatory disorders. Th17 cells are required the combination of IL-6 and TGF-β and the transcription factors, RORC2/RORgt (mice) and STAT3 for differentiation, and produce IL-17, IL-22, IL-17F, IL-21 and CCL20. FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells produce TGF-β and IL-10, which regulate effector T cells, and thus maintain peripheral tolerance. Four functionally unique CD4+ T cells, including the regulatory T (Treg) cells are now involved in the regulation of immune responses to pathogens, self-antigens and allergens. Any defect in the entire CD4+T cell population might results in human diseases. In this review, the biology of Th17 cells and Treg cells and their role in immune diseases are presented.

  17. [Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic oral vaccines?].

    PubMed

    Lomholt, H B; Kilian, M

    1996-09-16

    Recent data suggest clinical efficacy of specific antigens delivered at mucosal sites in the treatment of certain organ specific autoimmune diseases. This approach appears non-toxic and has no side effects. Phase I/II human trials on multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis show positive outcomes. Furthermore, animal studies point to beneficial effects on uveitis, diabetes mellitus, transplantation reactions and allergic diseases. The immunological mechanism is oral tolerance, a well known principle for induction of a systemic hyporesponse to specific antigens. The tolerance is most pronounced on delayed type hypersensibility and IgE-mediated reactions. At least three different mechanisms mediate the tolerance. Low doses of antigen induce active suppression, intermediate doses induce clonal T-cell anergy, and high doses induce clonal T-cell deletion. The recent improvements in the understanding of the mechanisms of oral tolerance have fueled an interest in manipulating this principle to develop anti-inflammatory vaccines. PMID:8966773

  18. Non-pulmonary allergic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease: A qualitative review

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, David S; Shum, Mili; Hsieh, Jennifer; Blonski, Wojciech; Greenwald, David A

    2014-01-01

    While the etiological underpinnings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly complex, it has been noted that both clinical and pathophysiological similarities exist between IBD and both asthma and non-pulmonary allergic phenomena. In this review, several key points on common biomarkers, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and nutritional and probiotic interventions for both IBD and non-pulmonary allergic diseases are discussed. Histamine and mast cell activity show common behaviors in both IBD and in certain allergic disorders. IgE also represents a key immunoglobulin involved in both IBD and in certain allergic pathologies, though these links require further study. Probiotics remain a critically important intervention for both IBD subtypes as well as multiple allergic phenomena. Linked clinical phenomena, especially sinonasal disease and IBD, are discussed. In addition, nutritional interventions remain an underutilized and promising therapy for modification of both allergic disorders and IBD. Recommending new mothers breastfeed their infants, and increasing the duration of breastfeeding may also help prevent both IBD and allergic diseases, but requires more investigation. While much remains to be discovered, it is clear that non-pulmonary allergic phenomena are connected to IBD in a myriad number of ways and that the discovery of common immunological pathways may usher in an era of vastly improved treatments for patients. PMID:25170192

  19. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  20. Clara cells drive eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Ehmke, M; Marsh, L M; Dietze, J; Dudda, J C; Conrad, M L; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2012-02-01

    Development of allergic asthma is a complex process involving immune, neuronal and tissue cells. In the lung, Clara cells represent a major part of the "immunomodulatory barrier" of the airway epithelium. To understand the contribution of these cells to the inflammatory outcome of asthma, disease development was assessed using an adjuvant-free ovalbumin model. Mice were sensitised with subcutaneous injections of 10 μg endotoxin-free ovalbumin in conjunction with naphthalene-induced Clara cell depletion. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung strongly reduced eosinophil influx, which correlated with decreased eotaxin levels and, moreover, diminished the T-helper cell type 2 inflammatory response, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13. In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness was increased. Further investigation revealed Clara cells as the principal source of eotaxin in the lung. These findings are the first to show that Clara airway epithelial cells substantially contribute to the infiltration of eotaxin-responsive CCR3+ immune cells and augment the allergic immune response in the lung. The present study identifies Clara cells as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory lung diseases such as allergic asthma.

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, a novel candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace metal for eukaryotes. The roles of Zn in the numerous physiological functions have been elucidated. Bamboo salt contains Zn that was shown to have anti-inflammatory effect and other health benefits. Nanoparticles of various types have found application in the biology, medicine, and physics. Here we synthesized tetrapod-like, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NP; diameter 200 nm, source of Zn) using a radio frequency thermal plasma system and investigated its effects on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reactions. ZO-NP was found to inhibit the productions and mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. In these stimulated cells, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activations were abolished by ZO-NP, and the expressions of receptor interacting protein2 (RIP2) and IκB kinaseβ (IKKβ) induced by PAMCI were reduced. On the other hand, ZO-NP alone increased the expressions of RIP2 and IKKβ in normal condition. ZO-NP inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in the PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, ZO-NP significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. These findings indicate that ZO-NP effectively ameliorates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction, and suggest that ZO-NP be considered a potential therapeutic for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases.

  2. [T-cells regulate the immune-response in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Böttcher, I

    2008-10-01

    Allergic diseases show a broad variety of symptoms, depending on the type of allergen and the location where it interacts with the human body. Contact of allergens with the upper respiratory tract result in conjunctivitis or allergic rhinitis. Apart from antigenpresenting cells, T-cells do play an important role in this hypersensibility reaction. Due to the production and secretion of cytokines, T-lymphocytes induce and maintain the corresponding Th-immuneresponse. In addition to regulatory functions, T-cells have potential influence on the chronic progression of allergic inflammatory reactions of the nasal mucosa and are therefore interesting target cells for specific immunotherapy as well as corticosteroid treatment. This article shows the specific function of T-cells during allergic rhinitis and reveals the basics for understanding the mechanism of immunotherapy and chronification of inflammatory allergic diseases of the nasal mucosa. PMID:18839392

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of Pentaherb formula, Moutan Cortex (Danpi) and gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kelly Y P; Hu, Shuiqing; Chan, Ben C L; Wat, Elaine C L; Lau, Clara B S; Hon, Kam L; Fung, Kwok P; Leung, Ping C; Hui, Patrick C L; Lam, Christopher W K; Wong, Chun K

    2013-01-01

    Pentaherb formula (PHF) has been proven to improve the quality of life of children with atopic dermatitis without side effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of PHF, Moutan Cortex (Danpi/DP) and gallic acid (GA) using human basophils (KU812 cells), which are crucial effector cells in allergic inflammation. PHF, DP and GA could significantly suppress the expression of allergic inflammatory cytokine IL-33-upregulated intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and the release of chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8 and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from KU812 cells (all p < 0.05). With the combined use of dexamethasone (0.01 μg/mL) and GA (10 μg/mL), the suppression of ICAM-1 expression and CCL5 and IL-6 release of IL-33-activated KU812 cells were significantly greater than the use of GA alone (all p < 0.05). The suppression of the IL-33-induced activation of intracellular signalling molecules p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kB and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase in GA-treated KU812 cells could be the underlying mechanism for the suppression on ICAM-1, chemokines and cytokines. The combined use of dexamethasone with the natural products PHF or DP or GA might therefore enhance the development of a novel therapeutic modality for allergic inflammatory diseases with high potency and fewer side effects.

  4. Pathogenic memory type Th2 cells in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yusuke; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Ryoji; Tumes, Damon J; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2014-02-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity. Memory CD4 T helper (Th) cells are central to acquired immunity, and vaccines for infectious diseases are developed based on this concept. However, memory Th cells also play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma. We refer to these populations as 'pathogenic memory Th cells.' Here, we review recent developments highlighting the functions and characteristics of several pathogenic memory type Th2 cell subsets in allergic inflammation. Also discussed are the similarities and differences between pathogenic memory Th2 cells and recently identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), focusing on cytokine production and phenotypic profiles.

  5. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Morris, Abigail; Wang, Bo; Waern, Ida; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Page, Clive; Schmidt, Eric P; Wernersson, Sara; Li, Jin-Ping; Spina, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/-) mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT) control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil) recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  6. Ripe fruit of Rubus coreanus inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Choi, Phil Hyung; Yoo, Jin-Su; Jeon, Hoon; Chae, Byeong-Suk; Park, Jeong-Suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a water extract of the ripe fruits of Rubus coreanus Miq. (Rosaceae) (RFRC) on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. RFRC dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and serum histamine release in mice. RFRC reduced the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. RFRC attenuated histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and human mast cells by the reduction of intracellular calcium. RFRC decreased the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of RFRC on cytokine production was nuclear factor (NF)-κB- and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent. In addition, RFRC suppressed the activation of caspase-1. Our findings provide evidence that RFRC inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions, and for the involvement of calcium, NF-κB, MAPKs and caspase-1 in these effects. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effects of RFRC provide affirmative proof of a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22075758

  7. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  8. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  9. Anti-allergic Inflammatory Triterpenoids Isolated from the Spikes of Prunella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Choia, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah

    2016-01-01

    Twelve known triterpenoids (1-12) and two steroids (13 and 14) have been isolated from the spike of the plant Prunella vulgaris. Among them, 2α,3α,23-trihydroxyursa-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid (10) was isolated for the first time from this plant. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and release of histamine in human mast cells. β-Amyrin (5), 10, and euscaphic acid (12) showed suppression of histamine release with percentage inhibitions of 46.7, 57.9, and 54.2%, respectively. In addition, 5 and 10 showed strong inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 in the test for pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that compounds 5 and 10 largely contribute to the anti-allergic inflammatory effect of P. vulgaris. PMID:26996013

  10. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  11. The association between maternal psychological stress and inflammatory cytokines in allergic young children

    PubMed Central

    Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Anan, Ayumi; Shibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children. Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months) who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS) for perceived stress. Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant. Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children. PMID:26819847

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of donkey's and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Jirillo, Felicita; Magrone, Thea

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, donkey's and goat's milk consumption has been reevaluated for its potential benefits to human health. For example, in infants with intolerance to cow's milk, donkey's milk represents a good alternative due to its chemical characteristics similar to those of human milk. On the other hand, goat's milk in virtue of its higher content in short chain, medium chain, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids than that of cow's milk, is more digestible than the bovine counterpart. From an immunological point of view, donkey's milk is able to induce release of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines from normal human peripheral blood lymphomononuclear cells, thus maintaining a condition of immune homeostasis. Similarly, goat's milk has been shown to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses in an in vitro human system, also inhibiting the endotoxin-induced activation of monocytes. Finally, in these milks the presence of their own microbiota may normalize the human intestinal microbiota with a cascade of protective effects at intestinal mucosal sites, even including triggering of intestinal T regulatory cells. In the light of the above considerations, donkey's and goat's milk should be recommended as a dietary supplement in individuals with inflammatory and allergic conditions, even including elderly people.

  13. Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, inhibits type I-IV allergic inflammation and pro-inflammatory enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yun; Kim, Chang Jong

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Forsythia koreana, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic effects in animal models. In addition, arctigenin inhibited eosinophil peroxidase and activated myeloperoxidase in inflamed tissues. In this study, we tested the effects of arctigenin on type I-IV allergic inflammation and pro-inflammatory enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Arctigenin significantly inhibited the heterologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced by ovalbumin in mice at 15 mg/kg, p.o., and compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells at 10 microM. Arctigenin (15 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited reversed cutaneous anaphylaxis. Further, arctigenin (15 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the Arthus reaction to sheep's red blood cells, decreasing the hemolysis titer, the hemagglutination titer, and the plaque-forming cell number for SRBCs. In addition, arctigenin significantly inhibited delayed type hypersensitivity at 15 mg/kg, p.o. and the formation of rosette-forming cells at 45 mg/kg, p.o. Contact dermatitis induced by picrylchloride and dinitrofluorobenzene was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by surface treatment with arctigenin (0.3 mg/ear). Furthermore, arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-1 and 2, 5-lipoxygenase, phospholipase A2, and phosphodiesterase. Our results show that arctigenin significantly inhibited B- and T-cell mediated allergic inflammation as well as pro-inflammatory enzymes.

  14. A novel microbe-based treatment that attenuates the inflammatory profile in a mouse model of allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Biala, Agnieszka; Huff, Ryan D.; Bosiljcic, Momir; Gunn, Hal; Kalyan, Shirin; Hirota, Jeremy A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for effective new and innovative treatments for asthma. It is becoming increasingly evident that bacterial stimulation can have beneficial effects at attenuating allergic airway disease through immune modulation. Our aim was to test the ability of a novel inactivated microbe-derived therapeutic based on Klebsiella (KB) in a model of allergic airway disease in mice. BALB/c mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) for two weeks. Mice were treated prophylactically via subcutaneous route with either KB or placebo for one week prior to HDM exposure and throughout the two week exposure period. 24 hours after the last exposure, lungs were analysed for inflammatory cell infiltrate, gene expression, cytokine levels, goblet cell metaplasia, and serum was analysed for allergen-specific serum IgE levels. HDM exposed mice developed goblet cell hyperplasia, elevated allergen-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, and a concomitant increase in TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. Treatment with KB attenuated HDM-mediated airway eosinophilia, total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell numbers, BAL TH2 cytokine production, and goblet cell metaplasia. Our prophylactic intervention study illustrates the potential of subcutaneous treatment with bacterial derived biologics as a promising approach for allergic airway disease treatment. PMID:27734946

  15. Soy biodiesel emissions have reduced inflammatory effects compared to diesel emissions in healthy and allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Stephen H; Wood, Charles E; Williams, Marc A; Cyphert, Jaime M; Boykin, Elizabeth H; Daniels, Mary J; Copeland, Lisa B; King, Charly; Krantz, Todd Q; Richards, Judy H; Andrews, Debora L; Jaskot, Richard H; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (B0), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) concentrations of 50, 150, or 500 μg/m(3). Studies in healthy mice showed greater levels of neutrophils and MIP-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid 2 h after a single 4-h exposure to B0 compared with mice exposed to B20 or B100. No consistent differences in BAL cells and biochemistry, or hematological parameters, were observed after 5 d or 4 weeks of exposure to any of the emissions. Air-exposed HDM-allergic mice had significantly increased responsiveness to methacholine aerosol challenge compared with non-allergic mice. Exposure to any of the emissions for 4 weeks did not further increase responsiveness in either non-allergic or HDM-allergic mice, and few parameters of allergic inflammation in BAL fluid were altered. Lung and nasal pathology were not significantly different among B0-, B20-, or B100-exposed groups. In HDM-allergic mice, exposure to B0, but not B20 or B100, significantly increased resting peribronchiolar lymph node cell proliferation and production of T(H)2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and IL-17 in comparison with air-exposed allergic mice. These results suggest that diesel exhaust at a relatively high concentration (500 μg/m(3)) can induce inflammation acutely in healthy mice and exacerbate some components of allergic responses, while comparable concentrations of B20 or B100 soy biodiesel fuels did not elicit responses different from those caused by air exposure alone.

  16. Anti-allergic effects of Lycopus lucidus on mast cell-mediated allergy model

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Kim, InKyeom; Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Chang-Duk; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lim, Jong-Pil; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2005-12-15

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the aqueous extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. (Labiatae) (LAE) decreases mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction. The immediate-type allergic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. LAE has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, its specific mechanism of action is still unknown. LAE was anally administered to mice for high and fast absorption. LAE inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. LAE decreased the local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. LAE dose-dependently reduced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Furthermore, LAE decreased the secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of LAE on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. LAE attenuated PMA plus A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, and specifically blocked activation of p38 MAPK, but not that of c-jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our findings provide evidence that LAE inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, p38 MAPK, and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  17. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: Involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, IL (interleukin)-1{beta}, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-{kappa}B and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. - Research Highlights: > Discovery of drugs for the allergic inflammation is important in human health. > Chrysin is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. > Chrysin

  18. Rapamycin attenuates airway hyperreactivity, goblet cells, and IgE in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mushaben, Elizabeth M; Kramer, Elizabeth L; Brandt, Eric B; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Le Cras, Timothy D

    2011-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates environmental cues, promotes cell growth/differentiation, and regulates immune responses. Although inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin has potent immunosuppressive activity, mixed effects have been reported in OVA-induced models of allergic asthma. We investigated the impact of two rapamycin treatment protocols on the major characteristics of allergic asthma induced by the clinically relevant allergen, house dust mite (HDM). In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were exposed to 10 intranasal HDM doses over a period of 24 d and treated with rapamycin simultaneously during the sensitization/exposure period. In protocol 2, rapamycin was administered after the mice had been sensitized to HDM (i.p. injection) and prior to initiation of two intranasal HDM challenges over 4 d. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR), IgE, inflammatory cells, cytokines, leukotrienes, goblet cells, and activated T cells were assessed. In protocol 1, rapamycin blocked HDM-induced increases in AHR, inflammatory cell counts, and IgE, as well as attenuated goblet cell metaplasia. In protocol 2, rapamycin blocked increases in AHR, IgE, and T cell activation and reduced goblet cell metaplasia, but it had no effect on inflammatory cell counts. Increases in IL-13 and leukotrienes were also blocked by rapamycin, although increases in IL-4 were unaffected. These data demonstrated that rapamycin can inhibit cardinal features of allergic asthma, including increases in AHR, IgE, and goblet cells, most likely as a result of its ability to reduce the production of two key mediators of asthma: IL-13 and leukotrienes. These findings highlight the importance of the mTOR pathway in allergic airway disease. PMID:22021618

  19. Rapamycin attenuates airway hyperreactivity, goblet cells, and IgE in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mushaben, Elizabeth M; Kramer, Elizabeth L; Brandt, Eric B; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Le Cras, Timothy D

    2011-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates environmental cues, promotes cell growth/differentiation, and regulates immune responses. Although inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin has potent immunosuppressive activity, mixed effects have been reported in OVA-induced models of allergic asthma. We investigated the impact of two rapamycin treatment protocols on the major characteristics of allergic asthma induced by the clinically relevant allergen, house dust mite (HDM). In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were exposed to 10 intranasal HDM doses over a period of 24 d and treated with rapamycin simultaneously during the sensitization/exposure period. In protocol 2, rapamycin was administered after the mice had been sensitized to HDM (i.p. injection) and prior to initiation of two intranasal HDM challenges over 4 d. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR), IgE, inflammatory cells, cytokines, leukotrienes, goblet cells, and activated T cells were assessed. In protocol 1, rapamycin blocked HDM-induced increases in AHR, inflammatory cell counts, and IgE, as well as attenuated goblet cell metaplasia. In protocol 2, rapamycin blocked increases in AHR, IgE, and T cell activation and reduced goblet cell metaplasia, but it had no effect on inflammatory cell counts. Increases in IL-13 and leukotrienes were also blocked by rapamycin, although increases in IL-4 were unaffected. These data demonstrated that rapamycin can inhibit cardinal features of allergic asthma, including increases in AHR, IgE, and goblet cells, most likely as a result of its ability to reduce the production of two key mediators of asthma: IL-13 and leukotrienes. These findings highlight the importance of the mTOR pathway in allergic airway disease.

  20. Cohabitation with a sick partner increases allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; de Lima, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; dos Santos Franco, Adriana Lino; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Palermo-Neto, João

    2014-11-01

    results suggest that allergic lung inflammatory response exacerbation in CSP mice is a consequence of the psychological stress induced by forced cohabitation with the sick partner. Strong involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through adrenaline and noradrenaline release and a shift of the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile toward a Th2 response were considered to be the mechanisms underlying the cell recruitment to the animal's airways.

  1. Cell phone allergic contact dermatitis: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Rajpara, Anand; Feldman, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    The combination of increased cell phone ownership and unlimited usage plans has led to a situation in which metal cell phone parts may come into contact with the cell phone user's ear and face for prolonged periods of time. Thus, it is not surprising that recent reports of facial allergic contact dermatitis to cell phone metals have begun to emerge. In this paper we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to cell phone metal and review all other reports on the subject. We also discuss what the implications of cell phone contact dermatitis are for dermatologists and patients.

  2. Regulation of allergic lung inflammation by endothelial cell transglutaminase 2.

    PubMed

    Soveg, Frank; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Campbell, Jackson; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Mutlu, Gökhan M; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2015-09-15

    Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an enzyme with multiple functions, including catalysis of serotonin conjugation to proteins (serotonylation). Previous research indicates that TG2 expression is upregulated in human asthma and in the lung endothelium of ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mice. It is not known whether endothelial cell TG2 is required for allergic inflammation. Therefore, to determine whether endothelial cell TG2 regulates allergic inflammation, mice with an endothelial cell-specific deletion of TG2 were generated, and these mice were sensitized and challenged in the airways with OVA. Deletion of TG2 in endothelial cells blocked OVA-induced serotonylation in lung endothelial cells, but not lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, deletion of endothelial TG2 reduced allergen-induced increases in respiratory system resistance, number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage, and number of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Endothelial cell deletion of TG2 did not alter expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines, or chemokines that regulate leukocyte recruitment, consistent with other studies, demonstrating that deletion of endothelial cell signals does not alter lung cytokines and chemokines during allergic inflammation. Taken together, the data indicate that endothelial cell TG2 is required for allergic inflammation by regulating the recruitment of eosinophils into OVA-challenged lungs. In summary, TG2 functions as a critical signal for allergic lung responses. These data identify potential novel targets for intervention in allergy/asthma.

  3. Human skin safety test of green tea cell extracts in condition of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Sun Young; Chang, Hui Kyoung; Baek, Seok Yun; Chung, Jin Oh; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2012-06-01

    Various kinds of positive effects of green tea extracts had been studied for long time which included anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and cardiometabolic effects. Although topical steroid and non-steroidal calcineurin inhibitors may control clinical symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis, some of patients also present allergic reaction to these topical agents. Therefore, we have tried green tea extracts for managing this skin disorder with expectation of anti-inflammatory effect without potential side effects including skin irritation and toxic responses. The toxicity test of green tea extract also did not show any sign of irritation in the skin throughout the test period. Moderate severity of allergic contact dermatitis presented satisfactory clinical outcome at second week follow-up which was final visit of outpatient. This result mean that green tea extract has a positive effect for managing allergic contact dermatitis but its potency and efficacy seem to be so not strong enough to control moderate severity allergy skin lesion. In this pilot study, we were able to conclude that green tea cell extracts might be applied for potential anti-inflammatory soaking without skin toxicity.

  4. Anti-allergic effects of nilotinib on mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis like reactions.

    PubMed

    El-Agamy, Dina S

    2012-04-01

    Nilotinib is a new orally bioavailable potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of BCR-ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. However, its effect on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is still not known. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of nilotinib on the anaphylactic allergic reaction and study its possible mechanism(s) of action. Nilotinib administration prevented systemic anaphylaxis in mice, mediated by compound 48/80, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Also, nilotinib significantly inhibited (P<0.05) allergic paw edema in rats. Furthermore, nilotinib significantly decreased (P<0.05) the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in a dose dependent manner. In addition, nilotinib dose-dependently reduced histamine release from the rat peritoneal mast cells activated either by compound 48/80 or by ovalbumin. Moreover, nilotinib attenuated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in the rat peritoneal mast cells. These findings provide evidence that nilotinib inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and so it could be a candidate as an anti-allergic agent.

  5. Effects of MK-801 and amphetamine treatments on allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz de Paula, Viviane; Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzmann; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Palermo-Neto, João

    2013-08-01

    Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter within the Central Nervous System (CNS) and modifies immune cell activity. In lymphocytes, NMDA glutamate receptors regulate intracellular calcium, the production of reactive oxygen species and cytokine synthesis. MK-801, a NMDA receptor open-channel blocker, inhibits calcium entry into mast cells, thereby preventing mast cell degranulation. Several lines of evidence have shown the involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced effects. AMPH treatment has been reported to modify allergic lung inflammation. This study evaluated the effects of MK-801 (0.25mg/kg) and AMPH (2.0mg/kg), given alone or in combination, on allergic lung inflammation in mice and the possible involvement of NMDA receptors in this process. In OVA-sensitized and challenged mice, AMPH and MK-801 given alone decreased cellular migration into the lung, reduced IL-13 and IL10 levels in BAL supernatant, reduced ICAM-1 and L-selectin expression in granulocytes in the BAL and decreased mast cell degranulation. AMPH treatment also decreased IL-5 levels. When both drugs were administered, treatment with MK-801 reversed the decrease in the number of eosinophils and neutrophils induced by AMPH in the BAL of OVA-sensitized and challenged mice as well as the effects on the expression of L-selectin and ICAM-1 in granulocytes, the IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in BAL supernatants and increased mast cell degranulation. At the same time, treatment with MK-801, AMPH or with MK-801+AMPH increased corticosterone serum levels in allergic mice. These results are discussed in light of possible indirect effects of AMPH and MK-801 via endocrine outflow from the CNS (i.e., HPA-axis activity) to the periphery and/or as a consequence of the direct action of these drugs on immune cell activity, with emphasis given to mast cell participation in the allergic lung response of mice.

  6. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of IκB kinase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Je, In-Gyu; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hui-Hun; Lee, Soyoung; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    As the importance of allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma, research on potential drug candidates becomes more necessary. Mast cells play an important role as initiators of allergic responses through the release of histamine; therefore, they should be the target of pharmaceutical development for the management of allergic inflammation. In our previous study, anti-allergic effect of extracts of Amomum xanthioides was demonstrated. To further investigate improved candidates, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (TMB) was isolated from methanol extracts of A. xanthioides. TMB dose-dependently attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting calcium influx. TMB decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-4 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Increased expression of these cytokines was caused by translocation of nuclear factor-κB into the nucleus, and it was hindered by suppressing activation of IκB kinase complex. To confirm the effect of TMB in vivo, the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models were used. In the ASA model, hypothermia was decreased by oral administration of TMB, which attenuated serum histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 levels. Increased pigmentation of Evans blue was reduced by TMB in a dose-dependent manner in the PCA model. Our results suggest that TMB is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts through the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. - Highlights: • TMB reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • TMB inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • TMB suppressed both active and passive anaphylaxis. • Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of TMB might be due to the blocking IKK complex. • TMB might be a candidate for the treatment of

  7. Roseotoxin B Improves Allergic Contact Dermatitis through a Unique Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Involving Excessive Activation of Autophagy in Activated T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingqi; Hu, Chunhui; Wu, Xingxin; Wang, Shiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Chen, Wei; Shen, Yan; Tan, Renxiang; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    An immunosuppressant agent with negligible or acceptable toxicity may provide a better therapeutic strategy for treatment of allergic contact dermatitis. We identified a natural cyclopeptide, roseotoxin B, that effectively suppressed cell proliferation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated T cells but exhibited little naive T-cell toxicity at concentrations of 0.3-1 μmol/L. In addition, roseotoxin B inhibited the activation of AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, suppressed cell cycle-related signaling, caused G0/G1 phase arrest, reduced ribosomal protein-S3 (RPS3)-dependent NF-κB-mediated IL-2 production, and increased autophagy in activated T cells. Furthermore, picryl chloride-induced allergic contact dermatitis was significantly ameliorated by roseotoxin B in mice. The effects of roseotoxin B were inhibited in LC3-knockout mice, indicating that roseotoxin B acts in an autophagy-dependent manner in T-cell-mediated skin diseases. Overall, this study showed a mechanism for roseotoxin B-induced autophagic cell death and provided a unique perspective on autophagy-mediated down-regulation of NF-κB signaling in activated T cells. The unique anti-inflammatory mechanism of roseotoxin B against activated T lymphocytes in allergic contact dermatitis suggests that it could be a potential target for the treatment of immune-related skin diseases.

  8. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  9. Natural killer cell NKG2D and granzyme B are critical for allergic pulmonary inflammation⋆

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Nazanin; Lambert, Laura; Triulzi, Chiara; Openshaw, Peter J.M.; Guerra, Nadia; Culley, Fiona J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diverse roles of innate immune cells in the pathogenesis of asthma remain to be fully defined. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that can regulate adaptive immune responses. NK cells are activated in asthma; however, their role in allergic airway inflammation is not fully understood. Objective We investigated the importance of NK cells in house dust mite (HDM)-triggered allergic pulmonary inflammation. Specifically, we aimed to determine the role of the major NK-cell activating receptor NKG2D and NK-cell effector functions mediated by granzyme B. Methods Allergic airway inflammation was induced in the airways of mice by repeated intranasal HDM extract administration and responses in wild-type and NKG2D-deficient mice were compared. Adoptive transfer studies were used to identify the cells and mechanisms involved. Results Mice that lacked NKG2D were resistant to the induction of allergic inflammation and showed little pulmonary eosinophilia, few airway TH2 cells, and no rise in serum IgE after multiple HDM-allergen exposures. However, NKG2D was not required for pulmonary inflammation after a single inoculation of allergen. NKG2D-deficient mice showed no alteration in responses to respiratory virus infection. Transfer of wild-type NK cells (but not CD3+ cells) into NKG2D-deficient mice restored allergic inflammatory responses only if the NK cells expressed granzyme B. Conclusions These studies established a pivotal role for NK-cell NKG2D and granzyme B in the pathogenesis of HDM-induced allergic lung disease, and identified novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:24290277

  10. Vaccination against Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis with T Cell Receptor Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Mark D.; Winters, Steven T.; Olee, Tsaiwei; Powell, Henry C.; Carlo, Dennis J.; Brostoff, Steven W.

    1989-11-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system mediated by CD4+ T cells reactive with myelin basic protein (MBP). Rats were rendered resistant to the induction of EAE by vaccination with synthetic peptides corresponding to idiotypic determinants of the β chain VDJ region and Jα regions of the T cell receptor (TCR) that are conserved among encephalitogenic T cells. These findings demonstrate the utility of TCR peptide vaccination for modulating the activity of autoreactive T cells and represent a general therapeutic approach for T cell--mediated pathogenesis.

  11. Role of Crosstalk between Epithelial and Immune Cells, the Epimmunome, in Allergic Rhinitis Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Yamashita, Keiji; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Nagaya, Tomonori; Ito, Fumie; Ichimiya, Shingo; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis has been dramatically increasing worldwide. As conventional therapies for allergic rhinitis, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, nasal sprays and allergen immunotherapy, have limitations, the development of new drugs is required. Recent studies have revealed that epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are able to control immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells, thereby acting as 'master switches' in allergic disease. In addition, new roles have been identified for follicular helper T cells and regulatory B cells in allergic disease, and they are considered to be promising targets for new therapies. Thus, crosstalk between epithelial and immune cells, the epimmunome, underlies the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Greater understanding of the epimmunome may lead to breakthroughs in the development of new treatments for allergic rhinitis and will help us cure many patients suffering from its severe symptoms in the future. PMID:27116609

  12. In Vitro Model for Studying Esophageal Epithelial Differentiation and Allergic Inflammatory Responses Identifies Keratin Involvement in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    KC, Kiran; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Sherrill, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial differentiation is an essential physiological process that imparts mechanical strength and barrier function to squamous epithelia. Perturbation of this process can give rise to numerous human diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, in which antigenic stimuli can penetrate the weakened epithelial barrier to initiate the allergic inflammatory cascade. We recently described a simplified air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system that facilitates the study of differentiated squamous epithelia in vitro. Herein, we use RNA sequencing to define the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur within the ALI system during epithelial differentiation and in response to allergic inflammation. We identified 2,191 and 781 genes that were significantly altered upon epithelial differentiation or dysregulated in the presence of interleukin 13 (IL-13), respectively. Notably, 286 genes that were modified by IL-13 in the ALI system overlapped with the gene signature present within the inflamed esophageal tissue from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an allergic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by elevated IL-13 levels, altered epithelial differentiation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Pathway analysis of these overlapping genes indicated enrichment in keratin genes; for example, the gene encoding keratin 78, an uncharacterized type II keratin, was upregulated during epithelial differentiation (45-fold) yet downregulated in response to IL-13 and in inflamed esophageal tissue from patients. Thus, our findings delineate an in vitro experimental system that models epithelial differentiation that is dynamically regulated by IL-13. Using this system and analyses of patient tissues, we identify an altered expression profile of novel keratin differentiation markers in response to IL-13 and disease activity, substantiating the potential of this combined approach to identify relevant molecular processes that contribute to human allergic

  13. Transcription factor NFAT1 controls allergic contact hypersensitivity through regulation of activation induced cell death program

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Gi-Cheon; Hwang, Ji Sun; Kim, Young; Chae, Chang-Suk; Nam, Jong Hee; Jun, Chang-Duk; Rudra, Dipayan; Surh, Charles D.; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is an inflammatory skin disease mediated by allergen specific T cells. In this study, we investigated the role of transcription factor NFAT1 in the pathogenesis of contact hypersensitivity. NFAT1 knock out (KO) mice spontaneously developed CHS-like skin inflammation in old age. Healthy young NFAT1 KO mice displayed enhanced susceptibility to hapten-induced CHS. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from NFAT1 KO mice displayed hyper-activated properties and produced significantly enhanced levels of inflammatory T helper 1(Th1)/Th17 type cytokines. NFAT1 KO T cells were more resistant to activation induced cell death (AICD), and regulatory T cells derived from these mice showed a partial defect in their suppressor activity. NFAT1 KO T cells displayed a reduced expression of apoptosis associated BCL-2/BH3 family members. Ectopic expression of NFAT1 restored the AICD defect in NFAT1 KO T cells and increased AICD in normal T cells. Recipient Rag2−/− mice transferred with NFAT1 KO T cells showed more severe CHS sensitivity due to a defect in activation induced hapten-reactive T cell apoptosis. Collectively, our results suggest the NFAT1 plays a pivotal role as a genetic switch in CD4+/CD8+ T cell tolerance by regulating AICD process in the T cell mediated skin inflammation. PMID:26777750

  14. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  15. Increased B Cell ADAM10 in Allergic Patients and Th2 Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Lauren Folgosa; Martin, Rebecca K; Zellner, Hannah B; Irani, Anne-Marie; Uram-Tuculescu, Cora; El Shikh, Mohey Eldin; Conrad, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    ADAM10, as the sheddase of the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23), promotes IgE production and thus is a unique target for attenuating allergic disease. Herein, we describe that B cell levels of ADAM10, specifically, are increased in allergic patients and Th2 prone WT mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J). While T cell help augments ADAM10 expression, Balb WT B cells exhibit increased ADAM10 in the naïve state and even more dramatically increased ADAM10 after anti-CD40/IL4 stimulation compared C57 (Th1 prone) WT B cells. Furthermore, ADAM17 and TNF are reduced in allergic patients and Th2 prone mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J) compared to Th1 prone controls. To further understand this regulation, ADAM17 and TNF were studied in C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice deficient in ADAM10. C57-ADAM10B-/- were more adept at increasing ADAM17 levels and thus TNF cleavage resulting in excess follicular TNF levels and abnormal secondary lymphoid tissue architecture not noted in Balb-ADAM10B-/-. Moreover, the level of B cell ADAM10 as well as Th context is critical for determining IgE production potential. Using a murine house dust mite airway hypersensitivity model, we describe that high B cell ADAM10 level in a Th2 context (Balb/c WT) is optimal for disease induction including bronchoconstriction, goblet cell metaplasia, mucus, inflammatory cellular infiltration, and IgE production. Balb/c mice deficient in B cell ADAM10 have attenuated lung and airway symptoms compared to Balb WT and are actually most similar to C57 WT (Th1 prone). C57-ADAM10B-/- have even further reduced symptomology. Taken together, it is critical to consider both innate B cell levels of ADAM10 and ADAM17 as well as Th context when determining host susceptibility to allergic disease. High B cell ADAM10 and low ADAM17 levels would help diagnostically in predicting Th2 disease susceptibility; and, we provide support for the use ADAM10 inhibitors in treating Th2 disease.

  16. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells: at the cross-roads in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    van Rijt, Leonie; von Richthofen, Helen; van Ree, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways that affects millions of people worldwide. Allergic asthma is a T helper 2 cell (Th2)-mediated disease, in which Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are closely associated with the symptoms. IL-4 is needed by B cells to switch toward an IgE response, IL-5 recruits and activates eosinophils while IL-13 increases mucus production. The identification of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), which are able to rapidly produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial derived cytokines, implicated a new key player besides Th2 cells. ILCs constitute a family of innate lymphocytes distinct from T and B cells. ILC2s are located in various epithelial compartments in mice and human, including the lung. The recent finding of increased numbers of ILC2s in the airways of severe asthma patients prompts further research to clarify their immunological function. Murine studies have shown that ILC2s are an early innate source of IL-5 and IL-13 after allergen exposure, which induce airway eosinophilic infiltration, mucus hyperproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness but not allergen-specific IgE production. ILC2s contribute to the initiation as well as to the maintenance of the adaptive type 2 immune response. Here, we review the recent progress on our understanding of the role of ILC2s in the immunopathology of allergic asthma, in particular by studies using murine models which have elucidated fundamental mechanisms by which ILC2s act.

  17. Accumulation of sup 111 In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J. )

    1989-05-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules.

  18. Effect of Chicoric Acid on Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Young; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Jin, Jong Sik; Bang, Keuk Soo; Eom, Ye-Jin; Hong, Chul-Hee; Nugroho, Agung; Park, Hee-Jun; An, Hyo-Jin

    2015-12-24

    Chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid), is a natural phenolic compound found in a number of plants, such as chicory (Cichorium intybus) and Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and analgesic activities. Although these biological effects of chicoric acid have been investigated, there are no reports of its antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effects in human mast cells (HMC)-1 or anaphylactic activity in a mouse model. Therefore, we investigated the antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effect of chicoric acid and its underlying mechanisms of action using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Chicoric acid decreased the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. We studied the inhibitory effects of chicoric acid on the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activation of caspase-1. However, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was not sufficient to abrogate the stimulus. In addition, we investigated the ability of chicoric acid to inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis in vivo. Oral administration of chicoric acid at 20 mg/kg inhibited histamine release and protected mice against compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic mortality. These results suggest that chicoric acid has an antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effect that involves modulating mast cell-mediated allergic responses. Therefore, chicoric acid could be an efficacious agent for allergy-related inflammatory disorders. PMID:26593037

  19. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Secor, Eric R; Szczepanek, Steven M; Castater, Christine A; Adami, Alexander J; Matson, Adam P; Rafti, Ektor T; Guernsey, Linda; Natarajan, Prabitha; McNamara, Jeffrey T; Schramm, Craig M; Thrall, Roger S; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr), a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). However, sBr's effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes). OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET(+) cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c(+) dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of tilmicosin in a noninfectious mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Ci, Xinxin; Chu, Xiao; Xiang, Hua; Li, Xiangchao; Deng, Xuming

    2011-12-01

    Tilmicosin, a semi-synthetic tylosin-derived macrolide antibiotic commonly used by veterinarians, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, possible use in asthma treatment has not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of tilmicosin using a murine asthma model. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p.) or nasal administration of ovalbumin. Tilmicosin (10 and 20 mg/kg) treatment resulted in a marked reduction in the presence of several types of immune cells and cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of mice. Levels of ovalbumin-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) were significantly decreased following treatment with tilmicosin (10 and 20 mg/kg). Histological studies using H&E (haematoxylin and eosin) and AB-PAS (alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff) staining demonstrated that tilmicosin substantially inhibited both ovalbumin-induced inflammatory cells in lung tissues and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway. These findings provided new insight into the immunopharmacological role of tilmicosin in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma.

  1. Anti-allergic activity of R-phycocyanin from Porphyra haitanensis in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingmei; Wang, Youzhao; Cao, Minjie; Pan, Tzuming; Yang, Yang; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Lechang; Liu, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased in Asian countries. Marine algae have been proposed as the potential resource for anti-allergic therapeutics. The present study was aimed at isolating R-phycocyanin (RPC) from Porphyra haitanensis and determining the anti-allergy potential of RPC in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells. In animal experiments, RPC could effectively reduce tropomyosin (TM)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine levels, alleviate allergy symptoms and jejunum tissue inflammation in mice, and inhibit the expression and release of cytokines (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13) in peritoneal lavage fluid. In spleen lymphocyte experiments, high purity of RPC skewed the immunological function of CD4(+) T cells towards Th1 activity. A higher expression of interferon (IFN)-γ was induced by a synergistic effect of TM and RPC. Through the Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase 2 signaling pathways, IFN-γ synthesis was induced by RPC in combination with TM. Anti-allergic effect of RPC was evaluated in IgE-mediated rat mast RBL-2H3 cells. The results demonstrated that RPC inhibited allergy markers, including the release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine and ROS in antigen-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. RPC also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α). In conclusion, RPC decreased allergic sensitization against TM by blocking Th2 cell polarization as well as suppressed the release of allergic-mediators in antigen-stimulated mast cells. It may be used as a functional food component or active pharmaceutical ingredient for allergic patients.

  2. Anti-allergic activity of R-phycocyanin from Porphyra haitanensis in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingmei; Wang, Youzhao; Cao, Minjie; Pan, Tzuming; Yang, Yang; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Lechang; Liu, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased in Asian countries. Marine algae have been proposed as the potential resource for anti-allergic therapeutics. The present study was aimed at isolating R-phycocyanin (RPC) from Porphyra haitanensis and determining the anti-allergy potential of RPC in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells. In animal experiments, RPC could effectively reduce tropomyosin (TM)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine levels, alleviate allergy symptoms and jejunum tissue inflammation in mice, and inhibit the expression and release of cytokines (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13) in peritoneal lavage fluid. In spleen lymphocyte experiments, high purity of RPC skewed the immunological function of CD4(+) T cells towards Th1 activity. A higher expression of interferon (IFN)-γ was induced by a synergistic effect of TM and RPC. Through the Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase 2 signaling pathways, IFN-γ synthesis was induced by RPC in combination with TM. Anti-allergic effect of RPC was evaluated in IgE-mediated rat mast RBL-2H3 cells. The results demonstrated that RPC inhibited allergy markers, including the release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine and ROS in antigen-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. RPC also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α). In conclusion, RPC decreased allergic sensitization against TM by blocking Th2 cell polarization as well as suppressed the release of allergic-mediators in antigen-stimulated mast cells. It may be used as a functional food component or active pharmaceutical ingredient for allergic patients. PMID:25746371

  3. Recent advances in understanding the roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Kyoko; Orihara, Kanami; Emi-Sugie, Maiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsuda, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disorders commonly involve both chronic tissue inflammation and remodeling caused by immunological reactions to various antigens on tissue surfaces. Due to their anatomical location, vascular endothelial cells are the final responders to interact with various exogenous factors that come into contact with the epithelial surface, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and antigens. Recent studies have shed light on the important roles of endothelial cells in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. For instance, endothelial cells have the greatest potential to produce several key molecules that are deeply involved in allergic inflammation, such as periostin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17). Additionally, endothelial cells were recently shown to be important functional targets for IL-33--an essential regulator of allergic inflammation. Notably, almost all endothelial cell responses and functions involved in allergic inflammation are not suppressed by corticosteroids. These corticosteroid-refractory endothelial cell responses and functions include TNF-α-associated angiogenesis, leukocyte adhesion, IL-33-mediated responses and periostin and TARC production. Therefore, these unique responses and functions of endothelial cells may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of various allergic disorders, especially their refractory processes. Here, we review recent studies, including ours, which have elucidated previously unknown pathophysiological roles of vascular endothelial cells in allergic inflammation and discuss the possibility of endothelium-targeted therapy for allergic disorders.

  4. Clusterin Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Attenuating CCL20-Mediated Dendritic Cell Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gyong Hwa; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Moon, Keun-Ai; Park, So Young; Park, Sunjoo; Lee, Kyoung Young; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Lee, Heung Kyu; Cho, You Sook

    2016-03-01

    Recruitment and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in the lungs are critical for Th2 responses in asthma, and CCL20 secreted from bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) is known to influence the recruitment of DCs. Because asthma is a disease that is closely associated with oxidative stress, we hypothesized that clusterin, an oxidative stress regulatory molecule, may have a role in the development of allergic airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine whether clusterin regulates CCL20 production from the BECs and the subsequent DC recruitment in the lungs. To verify the idea, clusterin knockout (Clu(-/-)), clusterin heterogeneous (Clu(+/-)), and wild-type mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) extract to induce allergic airway inflammation. We found that the total number of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the lung was increased in Clu(-/-) and Clu(+/-) mice. Of these immune cells, inflammatory DCs (CD11b(+)CD11c(+)) and Ly6C(high) monocyte populations in the lung were significantly increased, which was accompanied by increased levels of various chemokines, including CCL20 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased oxidative stress markers in the lung. Moreover, HDM-stimulated human BECs with either up- or downregulated clusterin expression showed that CCL20 secretion was negatively associated with clusterin expression. Interestingly, clusterin also reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which is related to induction of CCL20 expression after HDM stimulation. Thus, the antioxidant property of clusterin is suggested to regulate the expression of CCL20 in BECs and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory DCs in the airway. PMID:26826245

  5. Clusterin Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Attenuating CCL20-Mediated Dendritic Cell Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gyong Hwa; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Moon, Keun-Ai; Park, So Young; Park, Sunjoo; Lee, Kyoung Young; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Lee, Heung Kyu; Cho, You Sook

    2016-03-01

    Recruitment and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in the lungs are critical for Th2 responses in asthma, and CCL20 secreted from bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) is known to influence the recruitment of DCs. Because asthma is a disease that is closely associated with oxidative stress, we hypothesized that clusterin, an oxidative stress regulatory molecule, may have a role in the development of allergic airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine whether clusterin regulates CCL20 production from the BECs and the subsequent DC recruitment in the lungs. To verify the idea, clusterin knockout (Clu(-/-)), clusterin heterogeneous (Clu(+/-)), and wild-type mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) extract to induce allergic airway inflammation. We found that the total number of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the lung was increased in Clu(-/-) and Clu(+/-) mice. Of these immune cells, inflammatory DCs (CD11b(+)CD11c(+)) and Ly6C(high) monocyte populations in the lung were significantly increased, which was accompanied by increased levels of various chemokines, including CCL20 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased oxidative stress markers in the lung. Moreover, HDM-stimulated human BECs with either up- or downregulated clusterin expression showed that CCL20 secretion was negatively associated with clusterin expression. Interestingly, clusterin also reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which is related to induction of CCL20 expression after HDM stimulation. Thus, the antioxidant property of clusterin is suggested to regulate the expression of CCL20 in BECs and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory DCs in the airway.

  6. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of the essential oil and active compounds from Cordia verbenacea.

    PubMed

    Passos, Giselle F; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Pianowski, Luiz F; Campos, Maria M; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-21

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) and some of its active compounds were evaluated. Systemic treatment with the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (300-600mg/kg, p.o.) reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, myeloperoxidase activity and the mouse oedema elicited by carrageenan, bradykinin, substance P, histamine and platelet-activating factor. It also prevented carrageenan-evoked exudation and the neutrophil influx to the rat pleura and the neutrophil migration into carrageenan-stimulated mouse air pouches. Moreover, Cordia verbenacea oil inhibited the oedema caused by Apis mellifera venom or ovalbumin in sensitized rats and ovalbumin-evoked allergic pleurisy. The essential oil significantly decreased TNFalpha, without affecting IL-1beta production, in carrageenan-injected rat paws. Neither the PGE(2) formation after intrapleural injection of carrageenan nor the COX-1 or COX-2 activities in vitro were affected by the essential oil. Of high interest, the paw edema induced by carrageenan in mice was markedly inhibited by both sesquiterpenic compounds obtained from the essential oil: alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene (50mg/kg, p.o.). Collectively, the present results showed marked anti-inflammatory effects for the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea and some active compounds, probably by interfering with TNFalpha production. Cordia verbenacea essential oil or its constituents might represent new therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  8. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  9. Inhibition of Release of Vasoactive and Inflammatory Mediators in Airway and Vascular Tissues and Macrophages By a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula for Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie Changli; Thien, Francis Chung Kong; Story, David Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Herbal therapies are being used increasingly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pharmacological actions and cellular targets of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101), which was previously shown to be effective in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rat and guinea pig isolated tissues (trachea and aorta) were used to study the effects of RCM-101 on responses to various mediators. Production of leukotriene B4 in porcine neutrophils and of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO) in Raw 264.7 cells were also measured. In rat and guinea pig tracheal preparations, RCM-101 inhibited contractile responses to compound 48/80 but not those to histamine (guinea pig preparations) or serotonin (rat preparations). Contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal preparations to carbachol and leukotriene C4, and relaxant responses to substance P and prostaglandin E2 were not affected by RCM-101. In rat aortic preparations, precontracted with phenylephrine, endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were not affected by RCM-101. However, RCM-101 inhibited relaxations to l-arginine in endothelium-denuded rat aortic preparations, which had been pre-incubated with lipopolysaccharide. RCM-101 did not affect leukotriene B4 formation in isolated porcine neutrophils, induced by the calcium ionophore A23187; however, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells).The findings indicate that RCM-101 may have multiple inhibitory actions on the release and/or synthesis of inflammatory mediators involved in allergic rhinitis. PMID:17549238

  10. The TNF-Family Cytokine TL1A Promotes Allergic Immunopathology through Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meylan, Françoise; Hawley, Eric T.; Barron, Luke; Barlow, Jillian L.; Penumetcha, Pallavi; Pelletier, Martin; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Richard, Arianne C.; Hayes, Erika T.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Chen, Xi; Paul, William E.; Wynn, Thomas A.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Siegel, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The TNF-family cytokine TL1A (TNFSF15) costimulates T cells and promotes diverse T-cell dependent models of autoimmune disease through its receptor DR3. TL1A polymorphisms also confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Here we find that allergic pathology driven by constitutive TL1A expression depends on IL-13, but not T, NKT, mast cells or commensal intestinal flora. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) express surface DR3 and produce IL-13 and other type 2 cytokines in response to TL1A. DR3 is required for ILC2 expansion and function in the setting of T cell dependent and independent models of allergic disease. By contrast, DR3 deficient ILC2 can still differentiate, expand and produce IL-13 when stimulated by IL-25 or IL-33, and mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths. These data identify costimulation of ILC2 as a novel function of TL1A important for allergic lung disease, and suggest that TL1A may be a therapeutic target in these settings. PMID:24368564

  11. Characterizing the inhibitory action of zinc oxide nanoparticles on allergic-type mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Feltis, B N; Elbaz, A; Wright, P F A; Mackay, G A; Turney, T W; Lopata, A L

    2015-08-01

    The development of nanoparticles (NPs) for commercial products is undergoing a dramatic expansion. Many sunscreens and cosmetics now use zinc oxide (ZnO) or titania (TiO2) NPs, which are effective ultraviolet (UV) filters. Zinc oxide topical creams are also used in mild anti-inflammatory treatments. In this study we evaluated the effect of size and dispersion state of ZnO and TiO2 NPs, compared to "bulk" ZnO, on mast cell degranulation and viability. ZnO and TiO2 NPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering and disc centrifugation. Rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells and primary mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were exposed to ZnO and TiO2 NPs of different sizes (25-200 nm) and surface coatings at concentrations from 1 to 200 μg/mL. The effect of NPs on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent mast cell degranulation was assessed by measuring release of both β-hexosaminidase and histamine via colorimetric and ELISA assays. The intracellular level of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions were measured using zinquin ethyl ester and Fluo-4 AM fluorescence probes, respectively. Cellular viability was determined using the soluble tetrazolium-based MTS colorimetric assay. Exposure of RBL-2H3 and primary mouse BMMC to ZnO NPs markedly inhibited both histamine and β-hexosaminidase release. This effect was both particle size and dispersion dependent. In contrast, TiO2 NPs did not inhibit the allergic response. These effects were independent of cytotoxicity, which was observed only at high concentrations of ZnO NPs, and was not observed for TiO2 NPs. The inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on mast cells were inversely proportional to particle size and dispersion status, and thus these NPs may have greater potential than "bulk" zinc in the inhibition of allergic responses.

  12. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrat...

  13. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: role of inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Rong; Yang, Guojun; Li, Guohong

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and other forms of ischemic brain injury. Experimentally and clinically, the brain responds to ischemic injury with an acute and prolonged inflammatory process, characterized by rapid activation of resident cells (mainly microglia), production of proinflammatory mediators, and infiltration of various types of inflammatory cells (including neutrophils, different subtypes of T cells, monocyte/macrophages, and other cells) into the ischemic brain tissue. These cellular events collaboratively contribute to ischemic brain injury. Despite intense investigation, there are still numerous controversies concerning the time course of the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the brain and their pathogenic roles in ischemic brain injury. In this review, we provide an overview of the time-dependent recruitment of different inflammatory cells following focal cerebral I/R. We discuss how these cells contribute to ischemic brain injury and highlight certain recent findings and currently unanswered questions about inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. PMID:20130219

  14. Dietary Enrichment with 20% Fish Oil Decreases Mucus Production and the Inflammatory Response in Mice with Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Hartman, Jaye; Skinner, Monica M.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Fischer, Kay A.; Vorachek, William R.; Bobe, Gerd; Valentine, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks. At 8 and 10 weeks, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of saline (10 control-fed mice) or OVA (30 remaining mice). Once at 10 weeks and on 3 consecutive days during week 12, mice were challenged by nebulizing with saline or OVA. Mice were euthanized 24 hours after the last challenge and blood was collected for plasma FA analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to determine cell composition and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-13) concentrations. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) + mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue were quantified using morphometric analysis. Relative abundance of mRNA for mucin (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) genes were compared with ß-actin by qPCR. Supplementation with either corn oil or fish oil effectively altered plasma FA profiles towards more (n-6) FA or (n-3) FA, respectively (P < 0.0001). Sensitization and challenge with OVA increased the proportion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, and decreased the proportion of macrophages and concentrations of IL-13 in BAL fluid; increased the percentage of PAS+ mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue; and increased gene expression of mucins (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in lung tissue of control-fed mice. Dietary PUFA reversed the increase in PAS+ mucus-producing cells (P = 0.003). In addition, dietary

  15. Rosae Multiflorae Fructus Hot Water Extract Inhibits a Murine Allergic Asthma Via the Suppression of Th2 Cytokine Production and Histamine Release from Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang Ho; Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chai, Ok Hee

    2016-09-01

    Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions are involved in many allergic diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis. In Korea, where it has been used as a traditional medicine, Rosae Multiflorae fructus (RMF) is known to have potent antioxidative, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities and to have no obvious acute toxicity. However, its specific effect on asthma is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether or not RMF hot water extracts (RMFW) could inhibit ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and evaluated compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation to elucidate the mechanisms of asthma inhibition by RMFW. Oral administration of RMFW decreased the number of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the lungs of mice challenged by OVA and downregulated histological changes such as eosinophil infiltration, mucus accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and collagen fiber deposits. In addition, RMFW significantly reduced T helper 2 cytokines, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6 levels in the BAL fluid of mice challenged by OVA. Moreover, RMFW suppressed compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation and inhibited histamine release from mast cells induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that RMFW may act as an antiallergic agent by inhibitingTh2 cytokine production from Th2 cells and histamine release from mast cells, and could be used as a therapy for patients with Th2-mediated or mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:27574849

  16. Nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin(+) cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin(+) cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin(+) cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin(+) stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin(+) cells-but not in endothelial cells only- increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis. PMID:27586429

  17. In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of H1 Antihistamines in Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bocşan, Corina I.; Bujor, Adriana I.; Miron, Nicolae; Vesa, Ştefan C.; Deleanu, Diana; Buzoianu, Anca D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis is characterized by a chronic inflammation of nasal mucosa and represents a risk factor for asthma occurrence. H1 antihistamines reduce the symptoms of rhinitis, but some compounds may have anti-inflammatory properties. Aims: We evaluated the plasma level of some cytokines in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) and their evolution after a 4-week treatment with H1 anti-histamines, as well as the risk of asthma after 1.5 years. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Methods: Eighty-five patients with PAR and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The patients with PAR were randomly divided into 2 groups: 41 patients treated with 5 mg/day desloratadine and 44 patients under 5 mg/day levocetirizine for 4 weeks. The clinical and biological evaluations were performed before and after treatment and included rhinitis symptoms and total symptoms score, type of sensitization, and plasmatic levels of total IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Results: IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly increased in patients with PAR compared to healthy volunteers (5.85 vs 3.12, p<0.001 and 2.32 vs 1.06, p<0.001, respectively). Both H1 antihistamines reduce all symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including nasal congestion and the plasmatic level of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α, after 4 weeks of treatment. The reduction of cytokine levels was not influenced by patients’ age, sex, duration or severity of rhinitis, or type of sensitization. Levocetirizine has a superior effect compared to desloratadine in reducing the rhinitis symptoms and cytokines’ level. Twenty eight (32.9%) of the patients presented asthma symptoms after 1.5 years. The occurrence of asthma was influenced by house dust sensitization (OR-14.6; CI 95% 1.8–116.3; p=0.01), but baseline values of cytokines were not predictive factors for its appearance. Conclusion: Levocetirizine and desloratadine as a prolonged therapy reduce plasmatic levels of some pro-inflammatory

  18. Nestin+ cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin+ cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin+ cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin+ cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin+ cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin+ stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin+ cells—but not in endothelial cells only— increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis. PMID:27586429

  19. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Koo, H N; Myung, N I; Shin, M K; Kim, J W; Kim, D K; Kim, K S; Kim, H M; Lee, Y M

    2001-02-01

    The crude drug "Siberian Ginseng (SG)" has long been used in empirical Oriental medicine for the nonspecific enhancement of resistance in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell cultured SG by oral administration in mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. SG dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic allergy with doses of 10(-2) to 1 g/kg 1 h before oral administration. Of special note, SG inhibited systemic allergy with the dose of 1 g/kg by 25%. SG (1 g/kg) also inhibited passive cutaneous allergic reaction by 51%. SG dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. When SG (0.01 mg/ml) was added, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 in antidinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody-stimulated mast cells was inhibited 39.5% and 23.3%, respectively. In addition, SG inhibited anti-DNP IgE antibody-stimulated TNF-alpha protein expression in mast cells. Our studies provide evidence that SG may be beneficial in the treatment of various types of allergic diseases.

  20. Ligation of TLR7 on CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppresses allergic lung inflammation via regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan R; Amu, Sylvie; Saunders, Sean P; Hams, Emily; Blackshields, Gordon; Leonard, Martin O; Weaver, Casey T; Sparwasser, Tim; Sheils, Orla; Fallon, Padraic G

    2015-06-01

    cells have been described as having the capacity to regulate cellular immune responses and suppress inflammatory processes. One such regulatory B-cell population is defined as IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) cells. Previous work has identified an expansion of these cells in mice infected with the helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. Here, microarray analysis of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from mice infected with S. mansoni demonstrated significantly increased Tlr7 expression, while CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from uninfected mice also demonstrated elevated Tlr7 expression. Using IL-10 reporter, Il10(-/-) and Tlr7(-/-) mice, we formally demonstrate that TLR7 ligation of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells increases their capacity to produce IL-10. In a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation, the adoptive transfer of TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells reduced airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. Using DEREG mice to deplete FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells in allergen-sensitized mice, we show that that TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppress airway hyperresponsiveness via a T regulatory cell dependent mechanism. These studies identify that TLR7 stimulation leads to the expansion of IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells, which can suppress allergic lung inflammation via T regulatory cells.

  1. Ligation of TLR7 on CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppresses allergic lung inflammation via regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan R; Amu, Sylvie; Saunders, Sean P; Hams, Emily; Blackshields, Gordon; Leonard, Martin O; Weaver, Casey T; Sparwasser, Tim; Sheils, Orla; Fallon, Padraic G

    2015-06-01

    cells have been described as having the capacity to regulate cellular immune responses and suppress inflammatory processes. One such regulatory B-cell population is defined as IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) cells. Previous work has identified an expansion of these cells in mice infected with the helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. Here, microarray analysis of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from mice infected with S. mansoni demonstrated significantly increased Tlr7 expression, while CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from uninfected mice also demonstrated elevated Tlr7 expression. Using IL-10 reporter, Il10(-/-) and Tlr7(-/-) mice, we formally demonstrate that TLR7 ligation of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells increases their capacity to produce IL-10. In a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation, the adoptive transfer of TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells reduced airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. Using DEREG mice to deplete FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells in allergen-sensitized mice, we show that that TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppress airway hyperresponsiveness via a T regulatory cell dependent mechanism. These studies identify that TLR7 stimulation leads to the expansion of IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells, which can suppress allergic lung inflammation via T regulatory cells. PMID:25763771

  2. Divergent T-Cell Cytokine Patterns in Inflammatory Arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. K.; Seipelt, E.; Sieper, J.

    1994-08-01

    A major immunoregulatory mechanism in inflammatory infections and allergic diseases is the control of the balance of cytokines secreted by Th1/Th2 subsets of T helper (Th) cells. This might also be true in autoimmune diseases; a Th2 pattern that prevents an effective immune response in infections with intracellular bacteria may favor immunosuppression in autoimmune diseases. The pattern of cytokine expression was compared in the synovial tissue from patients with a typical autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and with a disorder with similar synovial pathology but driven by persisting exogenous antigen, reactive arthritis. We screened 12 rheumatoid and 9 reactive arthritis synovial tissues by PCR and in situ hybridization for their expression of T-cell cytokines. The cytokine pattern differs significantly between the two diseases; rheumatoid arthritis samples express a Th1-like pattern whereas in reactive arthritis interferon γ expression is accompanied by that of interleukin 4. Studying the expression of cytokines by in situ hybridization confirmed the results found by PCR; they also show an extremely low frequency of cytokine-transcribing cells. In a double-staining experiment, it was demonstrated that interleukin 4 is made by CD4 cells. These experiments favor the possibility of therapeutic intervention in inflammatory rheumatic diseases by means of inhibitory cytokines.

  3. An Imbalance between Frequency of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells and CCR4+ and CCR9+ Circulating Helper T Cells Is Associated with Active Perennial Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Galicia-Carreón, J.; Santacruz, C.; Ayala-Balboa, J.; Robles-Contreras, A.; Perez-Tapia, S. M.; Garfias, Y.; Hong, E.; Jiménez-Martínez, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is one of the most common eye disorders in ophthalmology. In mice models, it has been suggested that control of allergic conjunctivitis is a delicate balance between Tregs and inflammatory migrating effector cells. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of Tregs and the frequency of homing receptors expressing cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC). The analyses of phenotypic markers on CD4+ T cells and both soluble or intracellular cytokines were performed by flow cytometry. CD4+CD25+ cells were 15 times more frequent in PBMC from patients than HC; the vast majority of these CD4+CD25+ cells were FOXP3−, and most of CD4+ T cells were CCR4+ and CCR9+ cells. Upon allergen-stimulation, no significant changes were observed in frequency of Treg; however, an increased frequency of CD4+CCR4+CCR9+ cells, CD4+CD103+ cells and CD4+CD108+ cells with increased IL-5, IL-6, and IL-8 production was observed. These findings suggest an immune dysregulation in PAC, characterized by diminished frequency of Tregs and increased frequency of circulating activated CD4+ T cells; upon allergen-stimulation, these cells were expressing cell-surface molecules related to mucosa homing and were able to trigger an inflammatory microenvironment. PMID:24368924

  4. Allergic Disease and Autoimmune Effectors Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, Menachem; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    Allergy and autoimmunity result from dysregulation of the immune system. Until recently, it was generally accepted that the mechanisms that govern these disease processes are quite disparate; however, new discoveries suggest possible common pathogenetic effector pathways. This review illustrates the concomitant presentation of these conditions and the potential relationship or common mechanism in some cases, by looking at the key elements that regulate the immune response in both allergic and autoimmunite conditions: mast cells, antibodies, T cells, cytokines, and genetic determinants. The parallel appearance of allergic and autoimmune conditions in the some patients may reveal that such aberrations of the immune system have a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Mast cells, which play a key role in allergic reactions, and the wealth of inflammatory mediators they express, make it likely that they have profound effects on many autoimmune processes. Activation of protein kinases by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses may contribute to both allergic and autoimmune diseases. The presence of autoantibodies in some allergic conditions suggests an autoimmune basis for these conditions. Because of the central role T cells play in immune reactivity, the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci have long been considered important candidates for common disease susceptibility within the immune system such as asthma, atopy, and autoimmunity. Immunomodulation is the key to a successful treatment of allergic and autoimmune conditions. PMID:12885156

  5. Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Kim, Nam Wook; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Her, Erk; Kim, Bo Kyung; Seo, Dong Wan; Chang, Hyun Wook; Moon, Tae Chul; Han, Jeung Whan; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo . E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr

    2007-05-01

    The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC{sub 50} values were 29 {+-} 1.5 {mu}g/ml for antigen stimulation and 57 {+-} 3.4 {mu}g/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-{alpha}. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Methyleugenol on IgE-Mediated Allergic Inflammation in RBL-2H3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are common. Therefore, the discovery of therapeutic drugs for these conditions is essential. Methyleugenol (ME) is a natural compound with antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the antiallergic effect of ME on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses and its antiallergy mechanism in the mast cell line, RBL-2H3. We found that ME significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 4, and was not cytotoxic at the tested concentrations (0–100 μM). Additionally, ME markedly reduced the production of the proinflammatory lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and leukotriene C4 (LTC4). We further evaluated the effect of ME on the early stages of the FcεRI cascade. ME significantly inhibited Syk phosphorylation and expression but had no effect on Lyn. Furthermore, it suppressed ERK1/2, p38, and JNK phosphorylation, which is implicated in proinflammatory cytokine expression. ME also decreased cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. These results suggest that ME inhibits allergic response by suppressing the activation of Syk, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, cPLA2, and 5-LO. Furthermore, the strong inhibition of COX-2 expression may also contribute to the antiallergic action of ME. Our study provides further information about the biological functions of ME. PMID:25960618

  7. Inhibitory effect of methyleugenol on IgE-mediated allergic inflammation in RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng; Chen, Feilong; Ling, Xiao; Huang, Yao; Zheng, Xiaomei; Tang, Qingfa; Tan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are common. Therefore, the discovery of therapeutic drugs for these conditions is essential. Methyleugenol (ME) is a natural compound with antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the antiallergic effect of ME on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses and its antiallergy mechanism in the mast cell line, RBL-2H3. We found that ME significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 4, and was not cytotoxic at the tested concentrations (0-100 μM). Additionally, ME markedly reduced the production of the proinflammatory lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and leukotriene C4 (LTC4). We further evaluated the effect of ME on the early stages of the FcεRI cascade. ME significantly inhibited Syk phosphorylation and expression but had no effect on Lyn. Furthermore, it suppressed ERK1/2, p38, and JNK phosphorylation, which is implicated in proinflammatory cytokine expression. ME also decreased cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. These results suggest that ME inhibits allergic response by suppressing the activation of Syk, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, cPLA2, and 5-LO. Furthermore, the strong inhibition of COX-2 expression may also contribute to the antiallergic action of ME. Our study provides further information about the biological functions of ME.

  8. STAT6 and PARP Family Members in the Development of T Cell-dependent Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this review, we summarize the role of STAT6 in allergic diseases, its interaction with the co-factor PARP14 and the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 and PARP14 regulate gene transcription. PMID:27574499

  9. STAT6 and PARP Family Members in the Development of T Cell-dependent Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Purna; Kaplan, Mark H

    2016-08-01

    Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this review, we summarize the role of STAT6 in allergic diseases, its interaction with the co-factor PARP14 and the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 and PARP14 regulate gene transcription. PMID:27574499

  10. Staphylococcus δ-toxin promotes mouse allergic skin disease by inducing mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuumi; Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B.; Chan, Susana M.; Muñoz-Planillo, Raul; Hasegawa, Mizuho; Villaruz, Amer E.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; McGavin, Martin J.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Otto, Michael; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15 to 30% of children and ~5% of adults in industrialized countries1. Although the pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood, the disease is mediated by an abnormal immunoglobulin E (IgE) immune response in the setting of skin barrier dysfunction2. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to IgE-mediated allergic disorders including AD3. Upon activation, MCs release their membrane-bound cytosolic granules leading to the release of multiple molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of AD and host defense4. More than 90% of AD patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in the lesional skin whereas most healthy individuals do not harbor the pathogen5. Several Staphylococcal exotoxins (SEs) can act as superantigens and/or antigens in models of AD6. However, the role of these SEs in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report that culture supernatants of S. aureus contain potent MC degranulation activity. Biochemical analysis identified δ-toxin as the MC degranulation-inducing factor produced by S. aureus. MC degranulation induced by δ-toxin depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and calcium (Ca2+) influx, but unlike that mediated by IgE crosslinking, it did not require the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). In addition, IgE enhanced δ-toxin-induced MC degranulation in the absence of antigen. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates recovered from AD patients produced high levels of δ-toxin. Importantly, skin colonization with S. aureus, but not a mutant deficient in δ-toxin, promoted IgE and IL-4 production, as well as inflammatory skin disease. Furthermore, enhancement of IgE production and dermatitis by δ-toxin was abrogated in KitW-sh/W-sh MC-deficient mice and restored by MC reconstitution. These studies identify δ-toxin as a potent inducer of MC degranulation and suggest a mechanistic link between S. aureus colonization and allergic skin disease. PMID:24172897

  11. CD39/CD73 and the imbalance of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Tang, Hua-Ping; Shi, Guo-Chao; Wan, Huan-Ying; Tang, Wei; Hou, Xiao-Xia; Pan, Li-Na; Shi, Bao-Yu; Tao, Lian-Qin

    2013-11-01

    In the immune system, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain self‑tolerance and Th17 cells mediate inflammatory responses. CD39 is expressed on the surface of a subset of naturally occurring human Tregs that are important in constraining pathogenic Th17 cells. Additional studies have shown that Tregs differentiate into interleukin‑17 (IL‑17)+Foxp3+ T cells. Our previous study indicated an imbalance of Th17 and Tregs in allergic asthma; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), CD39 and CD73 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the proportion of IL‑17+Foxp3+ T cells, and CD39 and CD73 expressed by CD4+ T cells and Tregs in the peripheral blood of the subjects. The results of the present study demonstrated an increased frequency of CD4+Foxp3+IL‑17+ T cells in moderate to severe asthma. A deficiency in CD39 expressed on the surface of CD4+ T cells and Tregs was observed in asthma patients. The expression of CD39 and CD73 on the surface of CD4+ T cells and Tregs was negatively correlated with the number of Th17 cells. These results indicated that the plasticity of Tregs transforming to IL‑17+Foxp3+CD4+ T cells, the reduced frequency of CD39+ Tregs and less effective suppression of IL‑17 production by residual CD39+ Tregs leads to an imbalance of Th17 and Tregs in asthma. Therefore, enhanced CD39 activity is hypothesized to prevent the progression of asthma.

  12. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS. PMID:27051450

  13. Location, Location, Location: Localized Memory Cells Take Residence in the Allergic Lung.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Clare M; Harker, James A

    2016-01-19

    Understanding the localization of cells is important as local environmental cues influence both phenotype and effector function. In this issue of Immunity, Pepper and colleagues find that allergen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells are maintained by IL-2 and are key drivers of allergic pathology.

  14. Location, Location, Location: Localized Memory Cells Take Residence in the Allergic Lung.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Clare M; Harker, James A

    2016-01-19

    Understanding the localization of cells is important as local environmental cues influence both phenotype and effector function. In this issue of Immunity, Pepper and colleagues find that allergen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells are maintained by IL-2 and are key drivers of allergic pathology. PMID:26789918

  15. An Interleukin-33-Mast Cell-Interleukin-2 Axis Suppresses Papain-Induced Allergic Inflammation by Promoting Regulatory T Cell Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hideaki; Arae, Ken; Unno, Hirotoshi; Miyauchi, Kousuke; Toyama, Sumika; Nambu, Aya; Oboki, Keisuke; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Motomura, Kenichiro; Matsuda, Akira; Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Narushima, Seiko; Kajiwara, Naoki; Iikura, Motoyasu; Suto, Hajime; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Takahashi, Takao; Karasuyama, Hajime; Okumura, Ko; Azuma, Miyuki; Moro, Kazuyo; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Galli, Stephen J.; Koyasu, Shigeo; Kubo, Masato; Sudo, Katsuko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nakae, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY House dust mite-derived proteases contribute to allergic disorders in part by disrupting epithelial barrier function. Interleukin-33 (IL-33), produced by lung cells after exposure to protease allergens, can induce innate-type airway eosinophilia by activating natural helper (NH) cells, a member of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), to secrete Th2 type-cytokines. Because IL-33 also can induce mast cells (MCs) to secrete Th2 type-cytokines, MCs are thought to cooperate with NH cells in enhancing protease or IL-33-mediated innate-type airway eosinophilia. However, we found that MC-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice exhibited exacerbated protease-induced lung inflammation associated with reduced numbers of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Moreover, IL-2 produced by IL-33-stimulated MCs promoted expansion of numbers of Treg cells, thereby suppressing development of papain- or IL-33-induced airway eosinophilia. We have thus identified a unique anti-inflammatory pathway that can limit induction of innate-type allergic airway inflammation mediated by NH cells. PMID:26200013

  16. An Interleukin-33-Mast Cell-Interleukin-2 Axis Suppresses Papain-Induced Allergic Inflammation by Promoting Regulatory T Cell Numbers.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hideaki; Arae, Ken; Unno, Hirotoshi; Miyauchi, Kousuke; Toyama, Sumika; Nambu, Aya; Oboki, Keisuke; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Motomura, Kenichiro; Matsuda, Akira; Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Narushima, Seiko; Kajiwara, Naoki; Iikura, Motoyasu; Suto, Hajime; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Takahashi, Takao; Karasuyama, Hajime; Okumura, Ko; Azuma, Miyuki; Moro, Kazuyo; Akdis, Cezmi A; Galli, Stephen J; Koyasu, Shigeo; Kubo, Masato; Sudo, Katsuko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nakae, Susumu

    2015-07-21

    House dust mite-derived proteases contribute to allergic disorders in part by disrupting epithelial barrier function. Interleukin-33 (IL-33), produced by lung cells after exposure to protease allergens, can induce innate-type airway eosinophilia by activating natural helper (NH) cells, a member of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), to secrete Th2 type-cytokines. Because IL-33 also can induce mast cells (MCs) to secrete Th2 type-cytokines, MCs are thought to cooperate with NH cells in enhancing protease or IL-33-mediated innate-type airway eosinophilia. However, we found that MC-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice exhibited exacerbated protease-induced lung inflammation associated with reduced numbers of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Moreover, IL-2 produced by IL-33-stimulated MCs promoted expansion of numbers of Treg cells, thereby suppressing development of papain- or IL-33-induced airway eosinophilia. We have thus identified a unique anti-inflammatory pathway that can limit induction of innate-type allergic airway inflammation mediated by NH cells.

  17. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22053313

  18. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  19. Environmental Estrogens Induce Mast Cell Degranulation and Enhance IgE-Mediated Release of Allergic Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Goldblum, Randall M.; Watson, Cheryl S.; Brooks, Edward G.; Estes, D. Mark; Curran, Edward M.; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi

    2007-01-01

    Background Prevalence and morbidity of allergic diseases have increased over the last decades. Based on the recently recognized differences in asthma prevalence between the sexes, we have examined the effect of endogenous estrogens on a key element of the allergic response. Some lipophilic pollutants have estrogen-like activities and are termed environmental estrogens. These pollutants tend to degrade slowly in the environment and to bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in the food chain; they also have long biological half-lives. Objectives Our goal in this study was to identify possible pathogenic roles for environmental estrogens in the development of allergic diseases. Methods We screened a number of environmental estrogens for their ability to modulate the release of allergic mediators from mast cells. We incubated a human mast cell line and primary mast cell cultures derived from bone marrow of wild type and estrogen receptor α (ER-α )–deficient mice with environmental estrogens with and without estradiol or IgE and allergens. We assessed degranulation of mast cells by quantifying the release of β -hexosaminidase. Results All of the environmental estrogens tested caused rapid, dose-related release of β -hexosaminidase from mast cells and enhanced IgE-mediated release. The combination of physiologic concentrations of 17β -estradiol and several concentrations of environmental estrogens had additive effects on mast cell degranulation. Comparison of bone marrow mast cells from ER-α –sufficient and ER-α –deficient mice indicated that much of the effect of environmental estrogens was mediated by ER-α . Conclusions Our findings suggest that estrogenic environmental pollutants might promote allergic diseases by inducing and enhancing mast cell degranulation by physiologic estrogens and exposure to allergens. PMID:17366818

  20. DUOX1 mediates persistent epithelial EGFR activation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway remodeling during allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Habibovic, Aida; Hristova, Milena; Heppner, David E.; Danyal, Karamatullah; Ather, Jennifer L.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M.W.; Irvin, Charles G.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Lundblad, Lennart K.; Dixon, Anne E.; Geiszt, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation with mucous metaplasia and airway remodeling are hallmarks of allergic asthma, and these outcomes have been associated with enhanced expression and activation of EGFR signaling. Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin as well as constitutive EGFR activation in cultured nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects compared with nonasthmatic controls and in lung tissues of mice during house dust mite–induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation. EGFR activation was associated with cysteine oxidation within EGFR and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, and both amphiregulin production and oxidative EGFR activation were diminished by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of the epithelial NADPH oxidase dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1). DUOX1 deficiency also attenuated several EGFR-dependent features of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation, including neutrophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production (IL-33, IL-13), mucous metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and central airway resistance. Moreover, targeted inhibition of airway DUOX1 in mice with previously established HDM-induced allergic inflammation, by intratracheal administration of DUOX1-targeted siRNA or pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibitors, reversed most of these outcomes. Our findings indicate an important function for DUOX1 in allergic inflammation related to persistent EGFR activation and suggest that DUOX1 targeting may represent an attractive strategy in asthma management. PMID:27812543

  1. Penaeus monodon tropomyosin induces CD4 T-cell proliferation in shrimp-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Delgado, Julio C; Ravkov, Eugene; Eckels, David D; Georgelas, Ann; Pavlov, Igor Y; Cusick, Matthew; Sebastian, Kate; Gleich, Gerald J; Wagner, Lori A

    2012-04-01

    Shellfish allergy affects approximately 2% of the population and can cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, swelling, difficulty breathing, and, in some cases, anaphylaxis. Tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen and binds IgE in two-thirds of patients. A total of 38 shrimp-allergic patients and 20 negative control subjects were recruited and evaluated on the basis of history, skin prick testing, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to shrimp tropomyosin or shrimp tropomyosin-derived peptides. Of the classically allergic patients by history, 59% tested positive for serum shrimp IgE antibodies. Of patients with shrimp-specific IgE in sera, 70% also had significant IgE levels specific for shrimp tropomyosin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from classically shrimp-allergic patients proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in response to to tropomyosin. In addition, a T-cell line derived from a shrimp-allergic patient proliferated specifically in response to tropomyosin-derived peptides. These studies suggest a strategy for immunotherapy using a tropomyosin-derived T-cell epitope vaccination.

  2. Association between reduced copy-number at T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) and childhood allergic asthma: A possible role for somatic mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle M; Bracken, Michael B; Murk, William K; Hoh, Josephine; Dewan, Andrew T

    2010-08-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs which affects more than 6.5 million American children. A family-based genome-wide association study of copy-number variation identified an association between decreased copy-number at TCRgamma and childhood allergic asthma. TCRgamma encodes the T-cell receptor gamma glycoprotein, a cell-surface protein found on T-cells and involved in cell-mediated immunity. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we sought to determine if copy-number variation at TCRalpha, TCRbeta or TCRgamma was associated with childhood allergic asthma in an independent cohort of 94 cases and 455 controls using DNA from buccal swabs. Copy-number variation at these loci is well-known, but appears to be dominated by somatic mutations. Genotyping results indicated that copy-number variants at these genes are largely somatic mutations, as inheritance did not show Mendelian consistency. In these mosaic cell populations, copy-number was significantly reduced among asthmatic children at TCRgamma (p=0.0199), but was not associated at TCRalpha or TCRbeta (p=0.7972 and 0.8585, respectively). These findings support the association between reduced copy-number at TCRgamma and childhood allergic asthma. Further work is needed to resolve whether reduced copy-number at TCRgamma predisposes individuals to asthma, or whether deletion of this gene is a somatic response to the disease. PMID:20553737

  3. Characteristics of Human Turbinate-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Affected by Allergic Condition of Donor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Cho, Hye Kyung; Park, Sang Hi; Lee, WeonSun; Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Dong Chang; Park, Sun Hwa; Lim, Mi Hyun; Back, Sang A; Yun, Byeong Gon; Sun, Dong Il; Kang, Jun Myung; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human turbinates (hTMSCs) have not been investigated in allergic rhinitis. We evaluated the influence of allergic state of the donor on the characteristics, proliferation, and differentiation potential of hTMSCs, compared with hTMSCs derived from non-allergic patients. hTMSCs were isolated from five non-allergic and five allergic patients. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in hTMSCs was measured by FACS, and cell proliferation was measured using a cell counting kit. Cytokine secretion was analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. The osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials of hTMSCs were evaluated by histology and gene expression analysis. In allergic patients, FACS analysis showed that TLR3 and TLR4 were more highly expressed on the surface of hTMSCs than TLR2 and TLR5. The proliferation of hTMSCs was not influenced by the presence of TLR priming. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IP-10, and RANTES was upregulated after the TLR4 priming. The differentiation potential of hTMSCs was not influenced by TLR priming. These characteristics of hTMSCs were similar to those of hTMSCs from non-allergic patients. We conclude that the allergic condition of the donor does not influence TLR expression, proliferation, or immunomodulatory potential of hTMSCs.

  4. Phosphodiesterase 4B is essential for TH2-cell function and development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Catherine Jin, S.-L.; Goya, Sho; Nakae, Susumu; Wang, Dan; Bruss, Matthew; Hou, Chiaoyin; Umetsu, Dale; Conti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Background Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling modulates functions of inflammatory cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and type 4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are essential components of this pathway. Induction of the PDE4 isoform PDE4B is necessary for Toll-like receptor signaling in monocytes and macrophages and is associated with T cell receptor/CD3 in T cells; however, its exact physiological function in the development of allergic asthma remains undefined. Objectives We investigated the role of PDE4B in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and TH2-driven inflammatory responses. Methods Wild-type and PDE4B−/− mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and AHR measured in response to inhaled methacholine. Airway inflammation was characterized by analyzing leukocyte infiltration and cytokine accumulation in the airways. Ovalbumin-stimulated cell proliferation and TH2 cytokine production were determined in cultured bronchial lymph node cells. Results Mice deficient in PDE4B do not develop AHR. This protective effect was associated with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment to the lungs and decreased TH2 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Defects in T-cell replication, TH2 cytokine production, and dendritic cell migration were evident in cells from the airway-draining lymph nodes. Conversely, accumulation of the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ was not affected in PDE4B−/− mice. Ablation of the orthologous PDE4 gene PDE4A has no impact on airway inflammation. Conclusion By relieving a cAMP-negative constraint, PDE4B plays an essential role in TH2-cell activation and dendritic cell recruitment during airway inflammation. These findings provide proof of concept that PDE4 inhibitors with PDE4B selectivity may have efficacy in asthma treatment. PMID:21047676

  5. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  6. Necessary and sufficient role for T helper cells to prevent fungal dissemination in allergic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Paul C; Roberts, Luz; Fields, Anna; Knight, Morgan; Qian, Yuping; Delclos, George L; Han, Shuhua; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B

    2011-11-01

    Mucosal immune responses to fungal infection range from T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-directed allergic inflammation to Th1-predominant neutrophilic inflammation, but the mechanisms directing these divergent mucosal immune outcomes and the role of T cells in host defense against mucosal fungal infections are not known. Here we examined the mouse mucosal immune responses to 12 filamentous environmental fungal species over a broad range of exposure doses and determined the requirement of T cells for host defense. For all tested fungi, low-grade conidium exposures induced Th2- and eosinophil-predominant allergic lung disease, whereas higher exposures led to rapid conversion to neutrophil- and Th1 cell-predominant inflammation, a phenomenon we term immune phenotype switching. All fungal exposure doses were further linked to the secretion of interleukin-17A (IL-17A). Fungal infections with Curvularia lunata and Aspergillus fumigatus were typically confined to the airway during allergic inflammation but became locally invasive and disseminated to the brain at higher conidium challenge doses, in association with predominant Th1 responses. Fungal dissemination occurred at relatively low challenge doses with the conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus administered to recombinase activating gene 1 (Rag-1)-deficient mice, which lack B and T cells, but B cell-deficient μMT mice and T helper cell-reconstituted Rag-1-deficient mice were comparable to wild-type mice in preventing fungal dissemination. Our findings demonstrate that Th2 cell-predominant allergic responses followed by immune phenotype switching and fungal dissemination are highly predictable outcomes with progressive fungal infectious burdens and that T helper cell responses are protective against lethal fungal dissemination.

  7. Differences in allergic inflammatory responses between urban PM2.5 and fine particle derived from desert-dust in murine lungs.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa; Sun, Guifan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-04-15

    The biological and chemical natures of materials adsorbed onto fine particulate matter (PM2.5) vary by origin and passage routes. The exacerbating effects of the two samples-urban PM2.5 (U-PM2.5) collected during the hazy weather in a Chinese city and fine particles (ASD-PM2.5) collected during Asian sand dust (ASD) storm event days in Japan-on murine lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in PM2.5. The amounts of β-glucan and mineral components were higher in ASD-PM2.5 than in U-PM2.5. On the other hand, organic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were higher in U-PM2.5 than in ASD-PM2.5. When BALB/c mice were intratracheally instilled with U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 (total 0.4 mg/mouse) with or without ovalbumin (OVA), various biological effects were observed, including enhancement of eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium, synergic increase of OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines and a chemokine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increase of serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE. Data demonstrate that U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 induced allergic inflammatory changes and caused lung pathology. U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 increased F4/80(+) CD11b(+) cells, indicating that an influx of inflammatory and exudative macrophages in lung tissue had occurred. The ratio of CD206 positive F4/80(+) CD11b(+) cells (M2 macrophages) in lung tissue was higher in the OVA+ASD-PM2.5 treated mice than in the OVA+U-PM2.5 treated mice. These results suggest that the lung eosinophilia exacerbated by both PM2.5 is due to activation of a Th2-associated immune response along with induced M2 macrophages and the exacerbating effect is greater in microbial element (β-glucan)-rich ASD-PM2.5 than in organic chemical-rich U-PM2.5. PMID:26917405

  8. DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

  9. Vascular Inflammatory Cells in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, David G.; Marvar, Paul J.; Titze, Jens M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients, and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease. PMID:22586409

  10. Do inflammatory cells influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy?

    PubMed

    Koh, Timothy J; Pizza, Francis X

    2009-06-01

    Most research on muscle hypertrophy has focused on the responses of muscle cells to mechanical loading; however, a number of studies also suggest that inflammatory cells may influence muscle hypertrophy. Neutrophils and macrophages accumulate in skeletal muscle following increased mechanical loading, and we have demonstrated that macrophages are essential for hypertrophy following synergist ablation. Whether neutrophils are required remains to be determined. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs impair adaptive responses of skeletal muscle in both human and animal experiments suggesting that the routine use of such drugs could impair muscle performance. Much remains to be learned about the role of inflammatory cells in muscle hypertrophy, including the molecular signals involved in calling neutrophils and macrophages to skeletal muscle as well as those that regulate their function in muscle. In addition, although we have demonstrated that macrophages produce growth promoting factors during muscle hypertrophy, the full range of functional activities involved in muscle hypertrophy remains to be determined. Further investigation should provide insight into the intriguing hypothesis that inflammatory cells play integral roles in regulating muscle hypertrophy.

  11. Airway Fibrinogenolysis and the Initiation of Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Mak, Garbo; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Knight, J. Morgan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    The past 15 years of allergic disease research have produced extraordinary improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway allergic diseases such as asthma. Whereas it was previously viewed as largely an immunoglobulin E-mediated process, the gradual recognition that T cells, especially Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells and Th17 cells, play a major role in asthma and related afflictions has inspired clinical trials targeting cytokine-based inflammatory pathways that show great promise. What has yet to be clarified about the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders, however, are the fundamental initiating factors, both exogenous and endogenous, that drive and sustain B- and T-cell responses that underlie the expression of chronic disease. Here we review how proteinases derived from diverse sources drive allergic responses. A central discovery supporting the proteinase hypothesis of allergic disease pathophysiology is the role played by airway fibrinogen, which in part appears to serve as a sensor of unregulated proteinase activity and which, when cleaved, both participates in a novel allergic signaling pathway through Toll-like receptor 4 and forms fibrin clots that contribute to airway obstruction. Unresolved at present is the ultimate source of airway allergenic proteinases. From among many potential candidates, perhaps the most intriguing is the possibility such enzymes derive from airway fungi. Together, these new findings expand both our knowledge of allergic disease pathophysiology and options for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25525732

  12. Lentiviral shRNA against KCa3.1 inhibits allergic response in allergic rhinitis and suppresses mast cell activity via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hai; Zheng, Chunquan; Li, Jing; Yang, Chen; Hu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium ion channel-3.1 (KCa3.1) plays a pivotal role in the potassium-calcium exchange involved in atopy. This study aimed to explore the impact of lentiviral-mediated shRNA silencing KCa3.1 on allergic response in a murine allergic rhinitis (AR) model. The BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: untreated AR group, negative control AR group, lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA treated AR group and normal control group. Concentrations of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE, histamine and leukotrienes C4 (LTC4) in serum, and IL-4, IL-9 and IL-17 in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were analyzed. Goblet cells and mast cells were counted. KCa3.1 positive cells were counted after immunolabelling by immunofluorescence method. KCa3.1, Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), and tryptase mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, P815 cell line was used to explore the role and mechanism of lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA on mast cells. The results showed that LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated allergic responses in LV-KCa3.1-shRNA treated mice. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively suppressed KCa3.1 levels and phosphorylation of AKT in P815 cells, leading to the downregulation of tryptase, IL-6 and IL-8 levels. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated the allergic responses in AR and suppressed mast cell activity by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26272420

  13. Allergic manifestation by black gram (Vigna mungo) proteins in allergic patients, BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Roy, Ruchi; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of black gram (Vigna mungo) induced allergic reactions are reported from several parts of the world including Asia and Australia. But, a thorough exploration of the allergic reactions induced by black gram proteins is still lacking. Therefore, efforts have been made to explore black gram allergy using in vivo and in vitro approaches. In this study, Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) assay and IgE immunoblotting were carried out to identify clinically relevant allergens of black gram. BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells were used for elucidation of allergenic reactions of black gram proteins. Further, this study was extended to screen black gram sensitive patients among nasobronchial allergic patients on the basis of clinical history, skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE levels and IgE immunoblotting. Enhanced levels of specific IgE, IgG1/IgG2a (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), clinical symptoms, pathological indications in the lungs, intestine and spleen were evident in black gram sensitized BALB/c mice. Moreover, the expression of Th2 cytokine transcripts and GATA-3/T-bet ratio was found enhanced in the treated group. In vitro studies on RBL-2H3 cells,showed increased release of β-hexosaminidase (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), cysteinyl leukotriene (p<0.05) and prostaglandin D2 (p < 0.05). Further, 8.5% of screened patients were found allergic to black gram and concomitant sensitization with other allergens has shown the possibility of further enhancement in allergenic problem. Conclusively, the present study suggested that black gram consumption may be responsible for inducing immediate type of allergic sensitization in susceptible subjects.

  14. Tolerization of a type I allergic immune response through transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Ulrike; Linhart, Birgit; Pilat, Nina; Gattringer, Martina; Bagley, Jessamyn; Muehlbacher, Ferdinand; Iacomini, John; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2008-06-15

    Allergy represents a hypersensitivity disease that affects >25% of the population in industrialized countries. The underlying type I allergic immune reaction occurs in predisposed atopic individuals in response to otherwise harmless Ags (i.e., allergens) and is characterized by the production of allergen-specific IgE, an allergen-specific T cell response, and the release of biologically active mediators such as histamine from mast cells and basophils. Regimens permanently tolerizing an allergic immune response still need to be developed. We therefore retrovirally transduced murine hematopoietic stem cells to express the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 on their cell membrane. Transplantation of these genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells led to durable multilineage molecular chimerism and permanent immunological tolerance toward the introduced allergen at the B cell, T cell, and effector cell levels. Notably, Phl p 5-specific serum IgE and IgG remained undetectable, and T cell nonresponsiveness persisted throughout follow-up (40 wk). Besides, mediator release was specifically absent in in vitro and in vivo assays. B cell, T cell, and effector cell responses to an unrelated control allergen (Bet v 1) were unperturbed, demonstrating specificity of this tolerance protocol. We thus describe a novel cell-based strategy for the prevention of allergy.

  15. Benzaldehyde suppresses murine allergic asthma and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Young; Park, Chang-Shin; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Heo, Min-Jeong; Kim, Young Hyo

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the antiallergic effects of oral benzaldehyde in a murine model of allergic asthma and rhinitis, we divided 20 female BALB/c mice aged 8-10 weeks into nonallergic (intraperitoneally sensitized and intranasally challenged to normal saline), allergic (intraperitoneally sensitized and intranasally challenged to ovalbumin), and 200- and 400-mg/kg benzaldehyde (allergic but treated) groups. The number of nose-scratching events in 10 min, levels of total and ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum, differential counts of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, titers of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in BAL fluid, histopathologic findings of lung and nasal tissues, and expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3), inflammation (COX-2), antioxidation (extracellular SOD, HO-1), and hypoxia (HIF-1α, VEGF) in lung tissue were evaluated. The treated mice had significantly fewer nose-scratching events, less inflammatory cell infiltration in lung and nasal tissues, and lower HIF-1α and VEGF expressions in lung tissue than the allergic group. The number of eosinophils and neutrophils and Th2 cytokine titers in BAL fluid significantly decreased after the treatment (P<0.05). These results imply that oral benzaldehyde exerts antiallergic effects in murine allergic asthma and rhinitis, possibly through inhibition of HIF-1α and VEGF.

  16. Precursor B Cells Increase in the Lung during Airway Allergic Inflammation: A Role for B Cell-Activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Malmhäll, Carina; Rådinger, Madeleine; Ramos-Ramirez, Patricia; Lu, You; Deák, Tünde; Semitekolou, Maria; Gaga, Mina; Sjöstrand, Margareta; Lötvall, Jan; Bossios, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Background B cells, key cells in allergic inflammation, differentiate in the bone marrow and their precursors include pro-B, pre-B and immature B cells. Eosinophil progenitor cells increase in the lung after allergen exposure. However, the existence and possible role of B cell precursors in the lung during allergic inflammation remains elusive. Methods A BALB/c mouse model of allergic airway inflammation was utilized to perform phenotypic and quantification analyses of pro-B and pre-B cells in the lung by flow cytometry. B cell maturation factors IL-7 and B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and their receptors (CD127 and BAFFR, BCMA, TACI, respectively) were also evaluated in the lung and serum. The effect of anti-BAFF treatment was investigated both in vivo (i.p. administration of BAFF-R-Ig fusion protein) and in vitro (colony forming cell assay). Finally, BAFF levels were examined in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Results Precursor pro and pre-B cells increase in the lung after allergen exposure, proliferate in the lung tissue in vivo, express markers of chemotaxis (CCR10 and CXCR4) and co-stimulation (CD40, CD86) and are resistant to apoptosis (Bax). Precursor B cells express receptors for BAFF at baseline, while after allergen challenge both their ligand BAFF and the BCMA receptor expression increases in B cell precursors. Blocking BAFFR in the lung in vivo decreases eosinophils and proliferating precursor B cells. Blocking BAFFR in bone marrow cultures in vitro reduces pre-B colony formation units. BAFF is increased in the BAL of severe asthmatics. Conclusion Our data support the concept of a BAFF-mediated role for B cell precursors in allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27513955

  17. Mast cells and basophils are essential for allergies: mechanisms of allergic inflammation and a proposed procedure for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Heng; Zhang, Hui-Yun; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Dong; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The current definition of allergy is a group of IgE-mediated diseases. However, a large portion of patients with clinical manifestations of allergies do not exhibit elevated serum levels of IgE (sIgEs). In this article, three key factors, ie soluble allergens, sIgEs and mast cells or basophils, representing the causative factors, messengers and primary effector cells in allergic inflammation, respectively, were discussed. Based on current knowledge on allergic diseases, we propose that allergic diseases are a group of diseases mediated through activated mast cells and/or basophils in sensitive individuals, and allergic diseases include four subgroups: (1) IgE dependent; (2) other immunoglobulin dependent; (3) non-immunoglobulin mediated; (4) mixture of the first three subgroups. According to our proposed definition, pseudo-allergic-reactions, in which mast cell or basophil activation is not mediated via IgE, or to a lesser extent via IgG or IgM, should be non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Specific allergen challenge tests (SACTs) are gold standard tests for diagnosing allergies in vivo, but risky. The identification of surface membrane activation markers of mast cells and basophils (CD203c, CCR3, CD63, etc) has led to development of the basophil activation test (BAT), an in vitro specific allergen challenge test (SACT). Based on currently available laboratory allergy tests, we here propose a laboratory examination procedure for allergy. PMID:23974516

  18. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  19. Role of CD8^+ T Cells in Murine Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Le; Pernis, Benvenuto

    1992-05-01

    The course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, is affected by immunoregulatory T lymphocytes. When animals are immunized with encephalitogenic peptide of myelin basic protein and recover from the first episode of EAE, they become resistant to a second induction of this disease. Animals depleted of CD8^+ T cells by antibody-mediated clearance were used to examine the role of CD8^+ T cells in EAE. These cells were found to be major participants in the resistance to a second induction of EAE but were not essential for spontaneous recovery from the first episode of the disease.

  20. Airborne lipid antigens mobilize resident intravascular NKT cells to induce allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Seth T; Thomas, Seddon Y; Ferreira, Caroline M; Bai, Li; Krausz, Thomas; Savage, Paul B; Bendelac, Albert

    2011-09-26

    Airborne exposure to microbial cell wall lipids such as lipopolysaccharide triggers innate immune responses that regulate susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation. α-Glycosylceramides represent another widespread class of microbial lipids that directly stimulate innate-like, IL-4- and IL-13-producing, CD1d-restricted NKT cells. In this study, we demonstrate that NKT cells constitutively accumulate and reside in the microvasculature of the mouse lung. After a single airborne exposure to lipid antigen, they promptly extravasate to orchestrate the formation of peribronchiolar and interstitial lymphohistiocytic granulomas containing numerous eosinophils. Concomitant airborne exposure to ovalbumin (OVA) induces the priming of OVA-specific Th2 cells and IgE antibodies by the same dendritic cell coexpressing CD1d and MHC class II. Although NKT cell activation remains confined to the lipid-exposed lung and draining lymph nodes, Th2 cells recirculate and seed the lung of a parabiotic partner, conferring susceptibility to OVA challenge months after the initial exposure, in a manner independent of NKT cells and CD1d. Thus, transient recruitment and activation of lung-resident intravascular NKT cells can trigger long-term susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation.

  1. MicroRNA-26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 Loop Regulates Allergic Inflammation and Allergic Inflammation-promoted Enhanced Tumorigenic and Metastatic Potential of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yoojung; Kim, Youngmi; Eom, Sangkyung; Kim, Misun; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Hyuna; Noh, Kyeonga; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Choe, Jongseon; Kim, Young Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-05-29

    Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) knock-out mouse experiments showed that COX-2 was necessary for in vivo allergic inflammation, such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive systemic anaphylaxis, and triphasic cutaneous allergic reaction. TargetScan analysis predicted COX-2 as a target of miR-26a and miR-26b. miR-26a/-26b decreased luciferase activity associated with COX-2-3'-UTR. miR-26a/-26b exerted negative effects on the features of in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation by targeting COX-2. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and SNAIL, but not COX-2, to the promoter sequences of miR-26a and miR-26b. Cytokine array analysis showed that the induction of chemokines, such as MIP-2, in the mouse passive systemic anaphylaxis model occurred in a COX-2-dependent manner. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and COX-2 to the promoter sequences of MIP-2. In vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation was accompanied by the increased expression of MIP-2. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the expression of MIP-2. Allergic inflammation enhanced the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells and induced positive feedback involving cancer cells and stromal cells, such as mast cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. miR-26a mimic and miR-26b mimic negatively regulated the positive feedback between cancer cells and stromal cells and the positive feedback among stromal cells. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the enhanced tumorigenic potential by allergic inflammation. COX-2 was necessary for the enhanced metastatic potential of cancer cells by allergic inflammation. Taken together, our results indicate that the miR26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 loop regulates allergic inflammation and the feedback relationship between allergic inflammation and the enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential.

  2. Treatment with anti-OX40L or anti-TSLP does not alter the frequency of T regulatory cells in allergic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Baatjes, A J; Smith, S G; Dua, B; Watson, R; Gauvreau, G M; O'Byrne, P M

    2015-11-01

    OX40-OX40L interactions and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are important in the induction and maintenance of Th2 responses in allergic disease, whereas T regulatory cells (Treg) have been shown to suppress pro-inflammatory Th2 responses. Both OX40L and TSLP have been implicated in the negative regulation of Treg. The effect of anti-asthma therapies on Treg is not well known. Our aim was to assess the effects of two monoclonal antibody therapies (anti-OX40L and anti-TSLP) on Treg frequency using a human model of allergic asthma. We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory effects of these therapies would result in an increase in circulating Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(low) Foxp3(+) cells) frequency. We measured Treg using flow cytometry, and our results showed that neither allergen challenge nor monoclonal antibody therapy altered circulating Treg frequency. These data highlight the need for assessment of airway Treg and for a more complete understanding of Treg biology so as to develop pharmacologics/biologics that modulate Treg for asthma therapy. PMID:26213896

  3. A Potential link between Bacterial Pathogens and Allergic Conjunctivitis by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ruzhi; Su, Zhitao; Lu, Fan; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Xiaobo; de Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2014-01-01

    The association and mechanism of bacteria linking to the allergic inflammation have not been well elucidated. This study was to explore a potential link between bacterial pathogens and allergic conjunctivitis by dendritic cells (DCs). Bone marrow-derived DCs from BALB/c and MyD88 knockout mice were treated with or without bacterial pathogens or thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Two murine models of the topical challenge with LPS or flagellin and experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) were used for in vivo study. The mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription and real time PCR, and protein production was evaluated by ELISA, Western blotting, immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. TSLP mRNA and protein were found to be largely induced by DCs challenged with microbial pathogens, highly by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin. The expression of MyD88, NFκB1, NFκB2 and RelA accompanied by NFκB p65 nuclear translocation and TSLP induction were significantly stimulated by flagellin, but blocked by TLR5 antibody or NFκB inhibitor in DCs from MyD88+/+ but not MyD88−/− mice. TSLP promoted the expression of CD40, CD80, OX40 ligand (OX40L), IL-13 and CCL17 by DCs. TSLP-producing DCs were identified in vivo in ocular surface conjunctiva and draining cervical lymph nodes from two murine models of topical challenge with LPS or flagellin, and EAC in BALB/c mice. TSLP/TSLPR/OX40L signaling was observed in DCs of EAC mice. Our findings demonstrate that DCs not only respond to TSLP, but also produce TSLP via TLR/MyD88/NFκB pathways in response to bacterial pathogens, suggesting a potential link between bacteria and allergic disease. PMID:24486456

  4. The ectoenzyme E-NPP3 negatively regulates ATP-dependent chronic allergic responses by basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih Han; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kusu, Takashi; Kayama, Hisako; Okumura, Ryu; Ikeda, Kayo; Shimada, Yosuke; Takeda, Akira; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Kurashima, Yosuke; Sato, Shintaro; Umemoto, Eiji; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Karasuyama, Hajime; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2015-02-17

    Crosslinking of the immunoglobulin receptor FcεRI activates basophils and mast cells to induce immediate and chronic allergic inflammation. However, it remains unclear how the chronic allergic inflammation is regulated. Here, we showed that ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 3 (E-NPP3), also known as CD203c, rapidly induced by FcεRI crosslinking, negatively regulated chronic allergic inflammation. Basophil and mast cell numbers increased in Enpp3(-/-) mice with augmented serum ATP concentrations. Enpp3(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to chronic allergic pathologies, which was reduced by ATP blockade. FcεRI crosslinking induced ATP secretion from basophils and mast cells, and ATP activated both cells. ATP clearance was impaired in Enpp3(-/-) cells. Enpp3(-/-)P2rx7(-/-) mice showed decreased responses to FcεRI crosslinking. Thus, ATP released by FcεRI crosslinking stimulates basophils and mast cells for further activation causing allergic inflammation. E-NPP3 decreases ATP concentration and suppresses basophil and mast cell activity. PMID:25692702

  5. Acoustofluidic Transfer of Inflammatory Cells from Human Sputum Samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Sixing; Ren, Liqiang; Huang, Po-Hsun; Yao, Xianglan; Cuento, Rosemarie A; McCoy, J Philip; Cameron, Craig E; Levine, Stewart J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-06-01

    For sputum analysis, the transfer of inflammatory cells from liquefied sputum samples to a culture medium or buffer solution is a critical step because it removes the inflammatory cells from the presence of residual dithiothreitol (DTT), a reagent that reduces cell viability and interferes with further sputum analyses. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic platform for transferring inflammatory cells using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a SSAW field to actively transfer inflammatory cells from a solution containing residual DTT to a buffer solution. The viability and integrity of the inflammatory cells are maintained during the acoustofluidic-based cell transfer process. Our acoustofluidic technique removes residual DTT generated in sputum liquefaction and facilitates immunophenotyping of major inflammatory cells from sputum samples. It enables cell transfer in a continuous flow, which aids the development of an automated, integrated system for on-chip sputum processing and analysis. PMID:27183317

  6. Tricin derivatives as anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic constituents from the aerial part of Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Su; Baek, Yoon-Su; Eun, Cheong-Su; Yu, Mi-Hee; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Dae-Kyun; Bang, Myun-Ho; Yang, Seun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Methanol extract of Zizania latifolia was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O. From the EtOAc layers, a new flavonolignan along with a known flavone and three known flavonolignans, tricin (1), salcolin A (2), salcolin B (3), and salcolin C (4), were isolated through repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography. The chemical structure of the new flavonolignan was determined to be tricin-4'-O-[erythro-β-guaiacyl-(7″-O-methyl)-glyceryl] ether and was named salcolin D (5) based on physicochemical and spectroscopic data, including FT-NMR and ESI-MS. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Compounds 2-5, tricin derivatives, all exhibited higher anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy activities than tricin. In particular, salcolin D (5) was shown to have the strongest inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells as well as β-hexosaminidase release in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. These results suggest that the presence of tricin derivatives conveys allergy and inflammation treatment ability to Z. latifolia. PMID:25559019

  7. Elevated and cross‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sumithra; Aslam, Aamir; Misbah, Siraj A.; Salio, Mariolina; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Moody, D Branch

    2015-01-01

    The role of CD1a‐reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a‐reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a‐transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T‐cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN‐γ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 producing CD1a‐reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom‐derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells were cross‐responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a‐reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein‐specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. PMID:26518614

  8. Inhibitory effects of mulberry fruit extract in combination with naringinase on the allergic response in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Kim, Na Yeon; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Hyung Don; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic action of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) or MFE in combination with naringinase (MFEN) in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and investigated the mechanisms responsible for the anti-allergic effects of MFEN. β-hexosaminidase release assay was used to measure the amount of β-hexosaminidase released from the cells, and ELISA was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We found that MFE significantly reduced the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 10.59 mg/ml) and TNF-α (IC(50), 4.87 mg/ml). Moreover, MFEN enhanced the inhibitory effects on the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 123.10 µg/ml) and TNF-α (IC(50), 65.01 µg/ml). Furthermore, MFEN had no cytotoxicity at the concentration range used to exert the anti-allergic effects. In addition, we evaluated the effects of MFEN on the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MFEN markedly reduced the formation of PGD(2) (IC(50), 6.47 µg/ml) and LTC(4) (IC(50), 0.31 µg/ml), but not LTB(4) (IC(50), 25.75 µg/ml). In mechanistic analyses, we measured the phosphorylation of Syk, Lyn and Fyn by immunoblot analysis. MFEN significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not that of Lyn or Fyn. MFEN also suppressed the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2, protein kinase C (PKC)δ, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, JNK, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase, as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, these results suggest that MFEN exerts potent inhibitory effects on allergic response through the suppression of the activation of the FcεRI signaling cascade. Our data demonstrating the anti-allergic effects of MFEN may provide further

  9. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  10. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  11. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  12. Cassia tora Seed Extract and Its Active Compound Aurantio-obtusin Inhibit Allergic Responses in IgE-Mediated Mast Cells and Anaphylactic Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-10-21

    Cassia tora seed is widely used due to its various biological properties including anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been no report of the effects of C. tora seed extract (CTE) on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this research, we demonstrated the effects of CTE and its active compound aurantio-obtusin on IgE-sensitized allergic reactions in mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed degranulation, histamine production, and reactive oxygen species generation and inhibited the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4. CTE and aurantio-obtusin also suppressed the prostaglandin E2 production and expression of cyclooxygenase 2. Furthermore, CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed IgE-mediated FcεRI signaling such as phosphorylation of Syk, protein kinase Cμ, phospholipase Cγ, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. CTE and aurantio-obtusin blocked mast cell-dependent PCA in IgE-mediated mice. These results suggest that CTE and aurantio-obtusin are a beneficial treatment for allergy-related diseases. PMID:26434611

  13. Neurology of allergic inflammation and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J

    2002-05-01

    Afferent nerves, derived from the trigeminal ganglion, and postganglionic autonomic nerves, derived from sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia expressing many different neurotransmitters, innervate the nose. Reflexes that serve to optimize the air-conditioning function of the nose by altering sinus blood flow, or serve to protect the nasal mucosal surface by mucus secretion, vasodilatation, and sneezing, can be initiated by a variety of stimuli, including allergen, cold air, and chemical irritation. Activation of nasal afferent nerves can also have profound effects on respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and airway caliber (the diving response). Dysregulation of the nerves in the nose plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Axon reflexes can precipitate inflammatory responses in the nose, resulting in plasma extravasation and inflammatory cell recruitment, while allergic inflammation can produce neuronal hyper-responsiveness. Targeting the neuronal dysregulation in the nose may be beneficial in treating upper airway disease. PMID:11918862

  14. CD8+ T cells implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Macardle, Peta

    2014-01-01

    Fungi in paranasal sinuses are characteristic and considered a major pathogenic factor in a subset of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients, known as allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). CD8+ T cells are enriched in AFRS sinuses but their role in fungal-specific responses is unknown. Alternaria alternata– and Aspergillus fumigatus–specific T lymphocyte responses were investigated in 6 AFRS patients, 10 eosinophilic mucus CRS (EMCRS) patients, 10 CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNPs) patients, 6 allergic rhinitis with fungal allergy (ARFA) patients, and five controls. Fungal-specific proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was studied prospectively. Proliferating cells were examined for CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD25 expression. Relevant clinical characteristics, fungal allergy, detection of fungi in sinuses, and CD4+ and CD8+ composition of sinus T cells were also examined. CD4+ T-cell division to fungi occurred in all samples, regardless of fungal allergy or CRS. Fungal-specific CD8+ T-cell division occurred in all ARFA and control samples and the majority of CRSwNP patients; however, CD8+ T cells failed to proliferate in AFRS and EMCRS patients. The CD8+ T cells from AFRS patients also did not up-regulate the activation marker, CD25, with fungal antigen exposure. Presence of A. alternata– and A. fumigatus–specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation in healthy individuals, ARFA, and CRSwNP patients suggests that both T-cell subsets may be important in immune responses to these fungi. In AFRS and EMCRS patients, only fungal-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation occurred; hence, a lack of CD8+ T-cell proliferation and activation in the presence of sinus eosinophilic mucus in these patients, regardless of fungal allergy, is a novel finding. This raises the question whether a dysfunctional CD8+ T-cell response predisposes to ineffective clearance and accumulation of fungi in the sinuses of susceptible patients. PMID:25565051

  15. Differences in allergen-induced T cell activation between allergic asthma and rhinitis: Role of CD28, ICOS and CTLA-4

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Th2 cell activation and T regulatory cell (Treg) deficiency are key features of allergy. This applies for asthma and rhinitis. However with a same atopic background, some patients will develop rhinitis and asthma, whereas others will display rhinitis only. Co-receptors are pivotal in determining the type of T cell activation, but their role in allergic asthma and rhinitis has not been explored. Our objective was to assess whether allergen-induced T cell activation differs from allergic rhinitis to allergic rhinitis with asthma, and explore the role of ICOS, CD28 and CTLA-4. Methods T cell co-receptor and cytokine expressions were assessed by flow cytometry in PBMC from 18 house dust mite (HDM) allergic rhinitics (R), 18 HDM allergic rhinitics and asthmatics (AR), 13 non allergic asthmatics (A) and 20 controls, with or without anti-co-receptors antibodies. Results In asthmatics (A+AR), a constitutive decrease of CTLA-4+ and of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells was found, with an increase of IFN-γ+ cells. In allergic subjects (R + AR), allergen stimulation induced CD28 together with IL-4 and IL-13, and decreased the proportion of CTLA-4+, IL-10+ and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells. Anti-ICOS and anti-CD28 antibodies blocked allergen-induced IL-4 and IL-13. IL-13 production also involved CTLA-4. Conclusions T cell activation differs between allergic rhinitis and asthma. In asthma, a constitutive, co-receptor independent, Th1 activation and Treg deficiency is found. In allergic rhinitis, an allergen-induced Treg cell deficiency is seen, as well as an ICOS-, CD28- and CTLA-4-dependent Th2 activation. Allergic asthmatics display both characteristics. PMID:21356099

  16. Allergic Sensitization Underlies Hyperreactive Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses in Coincident Filarial Infection.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro H; Bonne-Année, Sandra; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santiago, Helton C; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-10-01

    Among the various hypotheses put forward to explain the modulatory influence of helminth infection on allergic effector responses in humans, the IL-10-induced suppression of Th2-associated responses has been the leading candidate. To explore this helminth/allergy interaction more fully, parasite- and allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in 12 subjects with filarial infections, and coincident allergic sensitization (filarial [Fil](+)allergy [A](+)) were compared with the responses to three appropriate control groups (Fil(-)A(-) [n = 13], Fil(-)A(+) [n = 12], Fil(+)A(-) [n = 11]). The most important findings revealed that Fil(+)A(+) had marked (p < 0.0001 for all cytokines) increases in parasite Ag-driven Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), Th9 (IL-9), and the regulatory (IL-10) cytokines when compared with Fil(+)A(-) Moreover, using multiparameter flow cytometry, filarial parasite Ag induced a marked increase in not only the frequency of CD4(+) T cells producing IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, and TNF-α in Fil(+)A(+) when compared with Fil(+)A(-) patients, but also in the frequencies of polyfunctional Th2-like (CD4(+)IL-4(+)IL-5(+) and CD4(+)IL-2(+)IL-4(+)IL-5(+)TNF-α(+)) cells. The Th2-associated responses seen in the Fil(+)A(+) group were correlated with serum IgE levels (p < 0.01, r = 0.5165 for IL-4; p < 0.001, r = 0.5544 for IL-5; and p < 0.001, r = 0.4901 for IL-13) and levels of circulating eosinophils (p < 0.0116, r = 0.5656) and their degranulation/activation products (major basic protein [p < 0.001, r = 0.7353] and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin [p < 0.01, r = 0.7059]). CD4(+) responses to allergen were not different (to a large extent) among the groups. Taken together, our data suggest that allergic sensitization coincident with filarial infection drives parasite Ag-specific T cell hyperresponsiveness, which is characterized largely by an augmented Th2-dominated immune response. PMID:27566825

  17. Chronic inflammatory cells with epithelial cell characteristics in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Noga, E J; Dykstra, M J; Wright, J F

    1989-09-01

    Certain cells that participate in the chronic inflammatory response of teleost fishes have many features typical of epithelioid cells of mammals. Such features include high metabolic activity, frequent phagolysosomes, and cytoplasmic interdigitations between adjacent cells; however, the epithelioid granulomas formed in response to certain diseases in teleost fishes also have several features associated with epithelial cells. Cases of ulcerative mycosis or acid-fast bacterial infection in Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), fungal infection in silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), and mycobacteriosis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) had epithelioid cells that were joined together by well-formed desmosomes with tonofilaments. "Mature granulomas" of the ulcerative mycosis-infected menhaden stained positively for cytokeratin, a cytoskeletal protein that is considered to be highly specific for epithelial cells. The consistent presence of these heretofore unrecognized epithelial features suggest that they may be characteristic of certain types of cells participating in piscine chronic inflammation. PMID:2686148

  18. Mast Cells and Influenza A Virus: Association with Allergic Responses and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amy C.; Temple, Rachel M.; Obar, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a widespread infectious agent commonly found in mammalian and avian species. In humans, IAV is a respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal infections associated with significant morbidity in young and elderly populations, and has a large economic impact. Moreover, IAV has the potential to cause both zoonotic spillover infection and global pandemics, which have significantly greater morbidity and mortality across all ages. The pathology associated with these pandemic and spillover infections appear to be the result of an excessive inflammatory response leading to severe lung damage, which likely predisposes the lungs for secondary bacterial infections. The lung is protected from pathogens by alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, tissue resident alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. The importance of mast cells during bacterial and parasitic infections has been extensively studied; yet, the role of these hematopoietic cells during viral infections is only beginning to emerge. Recently, it has been shown that mast cells can be directly activated in response to IAV, releasing mediators such histamine, proteases, leukotrienes, inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral chemokines, which participate in the excessive inflammatory and pathological response observed during IAV infections. In this review, we will examine the relationship between mast cells and IAV, and discuss the role of mast cells as a potential drug target during highly pathological IAV infections. Finally, we proposed an emerging role for mast cells in other viral infections associated with significant host pathology. PMID:26042121

  19. Nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 mediate survival of pulmonary plasma cells during the allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Abram, Melanie; Wegmann, Michael; Fokuhl, Verena; Sonar, Sanchaita; Luger, Elke Olga; Kerzel, Sebastian; Radbruch, Andreas; Renz, Harald; Zemlin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    Allergen-specific Abs play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of allergic airway inflammation. During secondary immune responses, plasma cell survival and Ab production is mediated by extrinsic factors provided by the local environment (survival niches). It is unknown whether neurotrophins, a characteristic marker of allergic airway inflammation, influence plasma cell survival in the lung. Using a mouse model of allergic asthma, we found that plasma cells from the lung and spleen are distinct subpopulations exhibiting differential expression patterns of neurotrophins and their receptors (Trks). In vitro, the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) led to a dose-dependent increase in viability of isolated pulmonary plasma cells due to up-regulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl2 pathway. In parallel, the expression of transcription factors that stimulate the production of immunoglobulins (X-box binding protein 1 and NF-kappaB subunit RelA) was enhanced in plasma cells treated with NGF and NT3. These findings were supported in vivo. When the NGF pathway was blocked by intranasal application of a selective TrkA inhibitor, sensitized mice showed reduced numbers of pulmonary plasma cells and developed lower levels of allergen-specific and total serum IgE in response to OVA inhalation. This suggests that in the allergic airway inflammation, NGF/TrkA-mediated pulmonary IgE production contributes significantly to serum-IgE levels. We conclude that the neurotrophins NGF and NT3 act as survival factors for pulmonary plasma cells and thus are important regulators of the local Ab production in the allergic airway disease.

  20. An aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand acts on dendritic cells and T cells to suppress the Th17 response in allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Hu, Guo-Hua; Kang, Hou-Yong; Yao, Hong-Bing; Kou, Wei; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Cheng; Hong, Su-Ling

    2014-05-01

    A predominant Th17 population is a marker of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) exhibits strong immunomodulation potential via regulation of the differentiation of T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) after activation by its ligand, such as 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of AhR on Th17 differentiation by investigating the action of ITE on DCs and CD4(+) T cells from patients with AR. In all, 26 AR patients and 12 healthy controls were included in this study. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 in the culture supernatant and the presence of Th17 cells in CD4(+) T cells and DC-CD4(+) T-cell co-culture system were measured before and after treatment with ITE. We show that ITE significantly induced cell secretion of IL-10 and inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 production in DCs, and promoted IL-10 production and suppressed IL-17 expression in CD4(+) T cells in vitro. It also suppressed the expansion of Th17 cells in vitro. Our work demonstrates that ITE acts on DCs and CD4(+) T cells to inhibit the Th17 response that suppresses AR; the AhR-DC-Th17 axis may be an important pathway in the treatment of AR. ITE, a nontoxic AhR ligand, attenuated the Th17 response; thus, it appears to be a promising therapeutic candidate for suppressing the inflammatory responses associated with AR.

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation response plays an important role in host survival, and it also leads to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bowel diseases, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and various neurodegenerative diseases. During the course of inflammation, the ROS level increases. In addition to ROS, several inflammatory mediators produced at the site lead to numerous cell-mediated damages. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder resulting from a dysfunctional epithelial, innate and adaptive immune response to intestinal microorganisms. The methods involving indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats with macroscopic changes of IBD, myeloperoxidase assay, microscopic (histologic) characters and biochemical parameters are discussed.

  2. Xanthii Fructus inhibits allergic response in the ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Nam-Gil; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Im, Yong-Seok; Lee, Ka-Yeon; Jun-Kum, Chang; Kim, Ho-Seok; Cho, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthii Fructus (XF) is widely used in traditional anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory Asian medicine. Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by markedly increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the nasal mucosa. We investigated the effects of XF in the allergen-induced rhinitis model. Materials and Methods: Following ovalbumin (OVA)/alum intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7 and 14, the BALB/c mice (albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mice) were challenged intranasally with OVA for 10 days a week after the last sensitization. The number of sneezes was recorded for 10 days; additionally, the levels of cytokines, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific serum IgE were estimated. Eosinophil infiltration, thickness of nasal mucosa and expression of caspase-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the effect of XF on the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) in human mast cell-1 (HMC-1), by Western blotting. Results: The administration of XF significantly decreased sneezing and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). XF inhibited the changes in thickness of the nasal septum, influx of eosinophils and expression of capase-1. In addition, XF inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB in phorbol-myristate-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion: This study suggests that XF acts a potent anti-allergic drug which alleviates the allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model. PMID:26664025

  3. Silencing Nociceptor Neurons Reduces Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E; Burkett, Patrick R; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J F; Pascal, Maud A; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L; Tran, Johnathan V; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Bean, Bruce P; Levy, Bruce D; Woolf, Clifford J

    2015-07-15

    Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation, we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8(+) sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large-pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin- or house-dust-mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4(+) and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  4. Silencing nociceptor neurons reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E.; Burkett, Patrick R.; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J.F.; Pascal, Maud A.; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L.; Tran, Johnathan V.; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M.; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Bean, Bruce P.; Levy, Bruce D.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8+ sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4+ and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  5. Inflammatory Kinetics and Efficacy of Anti-inflammatory Treatments on Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Benjamin A; Purmessur, Devina; Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Weinberg, Alan; Cho, Samuel K.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Human nucleus pulposus (NP) cell culture study investigating response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), effectiveness of clinically available anti-inflammatory drugs, and interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines. Objective To characterize the kinetic response of pro-inflammatory cytokines released by human NP cells to TNFα stimulation and the effectiveness of multiple anti-inflammatories with 3 sub-studies: Timecourse, Same-time blocking, Delayed blocking. Summary of Background Data Chronic inflammation is a key component of painful intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Improved efficacy of anti-inflammatories requires better understanding of how quickly NP cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and which pro-inflammatory mediators are most therapeutically advantageous to target. Methods Degenerated human NP cells (n=10) were cultured in alginate with or without TNFα (10ng/mL). Cells were incubated with one of four anti-inflammatories (anti-IL-6 receptor/atlizumab, IL-1 receptor anatagonist, anti-TNFα/infliximab and sodium pentosan polysulfate/PPS) in two blocking-studies designed to determine how intervention timing influences drug efficacy. Cell viability, protein and gene expression for IL-1β, IL-6 & IL-8 were assessed. Results Timecourse: TNFα substantially increased the amount of IL-6, IL-8 & IL-1β, with IL-1β and IL-8 reaching equilibrium within ~72 hours (IL-1β: 111±40pg/mL, IL-8: 8478±957pg/mL), and IL-6 not reaching steady state after 144 hours (1570±435 pg/mL). Anti-TNFα treatment was most effective at reducing the expression of all cytokines measured when added at the same time as TNFα stimulation. Similar trends were observed when drugs were added 72 hours after TNFα stimulation, however, no anti-inflammatories significantly reduced cytokine levels compared to TNF control. Conclusion IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were expressed at different rates and magnitudes suggesting different roles for these cytokines in disease

  6. Regulatory T cells and immune regulation of allergic diseases: roles of IL-10 and TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Palomares, O; Martín-Fontecha, M; Lauener, R; Traidl-Hoffmann, C; Cavkaytar, O; Akdis, M; Akdis, C A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has significantly increased in industrialized countries. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) remains as the only curative treatment. The knowledge about the mechanisms underlying healthy immune responses to allergens, the development of allergic reactions and restoration of appropriate immune responses to allergens has significantly improved over the last decades. It is now well-accepted that the generation and maintenance of functional allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells and regulatory B (Breg) cells are essential for healthy immune responses to environmental proteins and successful AIT. Treg cells comprise different subsets of T cells with suppressive capacity, which control the development and maintenance of allergic diseases by various ways of action. Molecular mechanisms of generation of Treg cells, the identification of novel immunological organs, where this might occur in vivo, such as tonsils, and related epigenetic mechanisms are starting to be deciphered. The key role played by the suppressor cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β produced by functional Treg cells during the generation of immune tolerance to allergens is now well established. Treg and Breg cells together have a role in suppression of IgE and induction of IgG4 isotype allergen-specific antibodies particularly mediated by IL-10. Other cell types such as subsets of dendritic cells, NK-T cells and natural killer cells producing high levels of IL-10 may also contribute to the generation of healthy immune responses to allergens. In conclusion, better understanding of the immune regulatory mechanisms operating at different stages of allergic diseases will significantly help the development of better diagnostic and predictive biomarkers and therapeutic interventions.

  7. Allergic sensitization: host-immune factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased permeability of the epithelium, which is more susceptible to environmental triggers. Allergens and co-factors from the environment interact with innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like and protease-activated receptors on epithelial cells, stimulating them to produce cytokines that drive T-helper 2-like adaptive immunity in allergy-prone individuals. In this milieu, the next cells interacting with allergens are the dendritic cells lying just underneath the epithelium: plasmacytoid DCs, two types of conventional DCs (CD11b + and CD11b-), and monocyte-derived DCs. It is now becoming clear that CD11b+, cDCs, and moDCs are the inflammatory DCs that instruct naïve T cells to become Th2 cells. The simple paradigm of non-overlapping stable Th1 and Th2 subsets of T-helper cells is now rapidly being replaced by that of a more complex spectrum of different Th cells that together drive or control different aspects of allergic inflammation and display more plasticity in their cytokine profiles. At present, these include Th9, Th17, Th22, and Treg, in addition to Th1 and Th2. The spectrum of co-stimulatory signals coming from DCs determines which subset-characteristics will dominate. When IL-4 and/or IL-13 play a dominant role, B cells switch to IgE-production, a process that is more effective at young age. IgE-producing plasma cells have been shown to be long-lived, hiding in the bone-marrow or inflammatory tissues where they cannot easily be targeted by therapeutic intervention. Allergic sensitization is a complex interplay between the allergen in its environmental context and the tendency of the host’s innate and adaptive immune cells to be skewed towards allergic inflammation

  8. Differential T-Helper Cell Polarization after Allergen-Specific Stimulation of Autologous Dendritic Cells in Polysensitized Allergic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashjaei, Kazem; Bublin, Merima; Smole, Ursula; Lengger, Nina; Hafner, Christine; Breiteneder, Heimo; Wagner, Stefan; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in the induction and regulation of adaptive immune responses by polarizing T-helper (Th) cells. In allergic disease this response is dominated by Th2 cells. It is still unclear whether the activation of Th cells by DCs in atopic individuals is allergen specific. Methods Monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) obtained from polysensitized patients were stimulated with purified Bet v 1, Phl p 5 and Act d 10, and the surface marker expression was analysed. Proliferation and cytokine profiles of autologous naïve CD4+ T cells co-cultured with allergen-pulsed MoDCs were assessed. Results The addition of either Bet v 1 or Phl p 5 did not further increase the expression of surface markers from matured MoDCs in all study groups. In co-cultures, autologous naïve CD4+ T cells proliferated when DCs obtained from individuals allergic to birch and grass pollen were stimulated with Bet v 1 and Phl p 5, respectively. In the co-culture supernatants, significantly increased levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were detected. This effect correlated with the sensitization background and was absent when applying an unspecific allergen, Act d 10. The levels of IL-10 in supernatants of MoDCs and the levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in supernatants of T cells remained unchanged upon stimulation with allergens. Conclusions In this study we observed that allergen-specific stimulation of MoDCs induces T-cell proliferation and upregulation of Th2-type cytokines. Interestingly, this Th2 polarization was only observed in cells stimulated with the allergen to which the patients were sensitized. PMID:25792188

  9. Gallic acid-grafted chitooligosaccharides suppress antigen-induced allergic reactions in RBL-2H3 mast cells.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-09-29

    In this study, a bioactive derivative of chitooligosaccharides (3-5 kDa) was synthesized via grafting of gallic acid onto chitooligosaccharides (G-COS) to enhance anti-allergic activity. Hence, G-COS was evaluated for its capabilities against allergic reactions in RBL-2H3 mast cells sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific immunoglobulin E antibody and stimulated by antigen dinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin. It was revealed that G-COS exhibited significant inhibition on histamine release and production as well as intracellular Ca(2+) elevation at the concentration of 200μg/ml. Likewise, the suppressive effects of G-COS on expression and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were evidenced. Moreover, G-COS treatment caused a remarkable blockade on degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) protein, translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Notably, the inhibitory activities of G-COS on allergic reactions were found as a consequence of suppression of FcεRI expression in antigen-stimulated cells. Accordingly, G-COS was suggested to be a promising candidate of novel inhibitors against allergic reactions.

  10. Long term evaluation of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in a feline model of chronic allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Trzil, Julie E; Masseau, Isabelle; Webb, Tracy L; Chang, Chee-hoon; Dodam, John R; Cohn, Leah A; Liu, Hong; Quimby, Jessica M; Dow, Steven W; Reinero, Carol R

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) decrease airway eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and remodeling in murine models of acutely induced asthma. We hypothesized that MSCs would diminish these hallmark features in a chronic feline asthma model. Objective To document effects of allogeneic, adipose-derived MSCs on airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and remodeling over time and investigate mechanisms by which MSCs alter local and systemic immunologic responses in chronic experimental feline allergic asthma. Methods Cats with chronic, experimentally-induced asthma received six intravenous infusions of MSCs (0.36–2.5X10E7 MSCs/infusion) or placebo bimonthly at the time of study enrollment. Cats were evaluated at baseline and longitudinally for one year. Outcome measures included: bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology to assess airway eosinophilia; pulmonary mechanics and clinical scoring to assess AHR; and thoracic computed tomographic (CT) scans to assess structural changes (airway remodeling). CT scans were evaluated using a scoring system for lung attenuation (LA) and bronchial wall thickening (BWT). To assess mechanisms of MSC action, immunologic assays including allergen-specific IgE, cellular IL-10 production, and allergen-specific lymphocyte proliferation were performed. Results There were no differences between treatment groups or over time with respect to airway eosinophilia or AHR. However, significantly lower LA and BWT scores were noted in CT images of MSC-treated animals compared to placebo-treated cats at month 8 of the study (LA p=0.0311; BWT p=0.0489). No differences were noted between groups in the immunologic assays. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance When administered after development of chronic allergic feline asthma, MSCs failed to reduce airway inflammation and AHR. However, repeated administration of MSCs at the start of study did reduce computed tomographic measures of airway remodeling by month 8, though

  11. Critical role for syndecan-4 in dendritic cell migration during development of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Polte, Tobias; Petzold, Susanne; Bertrand, Jessica; Schütze, Nicole; Hinz, Denise; Simon, Jan C; Lehmann, Irina; Echtermeyer, Frank; Pap, Thomas; Averbeck, Marco

    2015-07-13

    Syndecan-4 (SDC4), expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and activated T cells, plays a crucial role in DC motility and has been shown as a potential target for activated T-cell-driven diseases. In the present study, we investigate the role of SDC4 in the development of T-helper 2 cell-mediated allergic asthma. Using SDC4-deficient mice or an anti-SDC4 antibody we show that the absence or blocking of SDC4 signalling in ovalbumin-sensitized mice results in a reduced asthma phenotype compared with control animals. Most importantly, even established asthma is significantly decreased using the anti-SDC4 antibody. The disturbed SDC4 signalling leads to an impaired motility and directional migration of antigen-presenting DCs and therefore, to a modified sensitization leading to diminished airway inflammation. Our results demonstrate that SDC4 plays an important role in asthma induction and indicate SDC4 as possible target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  12. Bronchodilator and Anti-Inflammatory Action of Theophylline in a Model of Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Urbanova, A; Kertys, M; Simekova, M; Mikolka, P; Kosutova, P; Mokra, D; Mokry, J

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) represent a super-family of 11 enzymes hydrolyzing cyclic nucleotides into inactive 5' monophosphates. Inhibition of PDEs leads to a variety of cellular effects, including airway smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of cellular inflammation, and immune responses. In this study we focused on theophylline, a known non-selective inhibitor of PDEs. Theophylline has been used for decades in the treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. It has a narrow therapeutic window and belongs to the drugs whose plasma concentration should be monitored. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma theophylline concentration and to determine its relevance to pharmacological effects after single and longer term (7 days) administration of theophylline at different doses (5, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) in guinea pigs. Airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by repeated exposure to ovalbumin. Theophylline reduced specific airway resistance in response to histamine nebulization, measured in a double chamber body plethysmograph. A decrease in tracheal smooth muscle contractility after cumulative doses of histamine and acetylcholine was confirmed in vitro. A greater efficacy of theophylline after seven days long treatment indicates the predominance of its anti-inflammatory activity, which may be involved in the bronchodilating action. PMID:27334733

  13. Bronchodilator and Anti-Inflammatory Action of Theophylline in a Model of Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Urbanova, A; Kertys, M; Simekova, M; Mikolka, P; Kosutova, P; Mokra, D; Mokry, J

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) represent a super-family of 11 enzymes hydrolyzing cyclic nucleotides into inactive 5' monophosphates. Inhibition of PDEs leads to a variety of cellular effects, including airway smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of cellular inflammation, and immune responses. In this study we focused on theophylline, a known non-selective inhibitor of PDEs. Theophylline has been used for decades in the treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. It has a narrow therapeutic window and belongs to the drugs whose plasma concentration should be monitored. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma theophylline concentration and to determine its relevance to pharmacological effects after single and longer term (7 days) administration of theophylline at different doses (5, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) in guinea pigs. Airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by repeated exposure to ovalbumin. Theophylline reduced specific airway resistance in response to histamine nebulization, measured in a double chamber body plethysmograph. A decrease in tracheal smooth muscle contractility after cumulative doses of histamine and acetylcholine was confirmed in vitro. A greater efficacy of theophylline after seven days long treatment indicates the predominance of its anti-inflammatory activity, which may be involved in the bronchodilating action.

  14. Protection of islet cells from inflammatory cell death in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Burkart, V; Kolb, H

    1993-01-01

    Islet cells cocultured with activated macrophages are lysed within 15 h in vitro. We showed previously that nitric oxide generated by macrophages is a major mediator of islet cell death. We have now probed several pathways to interfere with the chain of events leading to islet cell death. Scavenging of extracellular oxygen radicals by superoxide dismutase and catalase did not improve islet cell survival. Scavenging of extra- and intracellular oxygen radicals by two potent substances, citiolone and dimethyl-thiourea, also did not reduce islet cell lysis, while a lipid-soluble scavenger, probucol, provided partial protection. These findings argue against a synergistic action of nitric oxide and oxygen radicals in islet cell toxicity. The inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase by 3-aminobenzamide significantly improved islet cell survival. Selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, such as indomethacin or acetylsalicylic acid, did not improve islet cell survival. Full protection was seen in the presence of NDGA, an inhibitor of lipoxygenase, and partial suppression was caused by BW755c, an inhibitor of both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase. We conclude that inflammatory islet cell death caused by activated macrophages involves the activation of arachidonic acid metabolism and of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, but that scavenging of oxygen free radicals provides little protection from lysis. PMID:8348756

  15. Allergen-specific MHC class II tetramer+ cells are detectable in allergic, but not in nonallergic, individuals.

    PubMed

    Macaubas, Claudia; Wahlstrom, Jan; Galvão da Silva, Ana Paula; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Sønderstrup, Grete; Kwok, William W; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2006-04-15

    Allergen-specific cells are present in very low frequency in peripheral blood of humans, and differ in function in allergic and nonallergic individuals. We report in this study that soluble class II MHC tetramers can be used to directly identify and study such allergen epitope-specific CD4+ T cells in humans. We identified the major antigenic epitope of rye grass allergen Lol p 1 in HLA-DRB1*0401 individuals using HLA-DR*0401 transgenic mice and peripheral blood cells from HLA-DR*0401 individuals. Using DRB1*0401 tetramers loaded with this major epitope of Lol p 1, we detected allergen-specific CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of DRB1*0401 rye grass allergic individuals after ex vivo expansion with allergen. These tetramer-positive cells produced IL-4, but little IFN-gamma. In contrast, we were unable to detect rye grass tetramer-positive cells in cultures from HLA-DR*0401 nonallergic individuals, even after expansion with IL-2. Thus, our results suggest that rye grass allergen-specific T cells in DR*0401 nonallergic subjects are present at very low levels (e.g., because of deletion or suppression), differ in a fundamental way in their requirement for ex vivo expansion (e.g., they may be anergic), or use TCRs distinct from those of allergic individuals. Thus, analysis using DRB1*0401 tetramers loaded with a major epitope of Lol p 1 indicates that allergen-specific CD4+ T cells in nonallergic individuals are distinct from those in allergic subjects.

  16. Restoration of the normal Clara cell phenotype after chronic allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix D; Quintar, Amado A; Leimgruber, Carolina; García, Luciana; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Torres, Alicia I; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2013-01-01

    Bronchiolar Clara cells play a critical role in lung homoeostasis. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic allergy on these cells and the efficacy of budesonide (BUD) and montelukast (MK) in restoring their typical phenotypes after ovalbumin-induced chronic allergy in mice. Chronic allergy induced extensive bronchiolar Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS)-positive metaplasia. In addition, cells accumulated numerous big electron-lucent granules negative for Clara cell main secretory protein (CC16), and consequently, CC16 was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavage. A concomitant reduction in SP-D and CYP2E1 content was observed. The phenotypic changes induced by allergy were pharmacologically reversed by both treatments; MK was more efficient than BUD in doing so. MK decreased AB/PAS reactivity to control levels whereas they remained persistently elevated after BUD. Moreover, most non-ciliated cells recovered their normal morphology after MK, whereas for BUD normal cells coexisted with ‘transitional’ cells that contained remnant mucous granules and stained strongly for CC16 and SP-D. Glucocorticoids were also less able to reduce inflammatory infiltration and maintained higher percentage of neutrophils, which may have contributed to prolonged mucin expression. These results show that chronic allergy-induced mucous metaplasia of Clara cells affects their defensive mechanisms. However, anti-inflammatory treatments were able to re-establish the normal phenotype of Clara cell, with MK being more efficient at restoring a normal profile than BUD. This study highlights the role of epithelial cells in lung injuries and their contribution to anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:23998365

  17. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26771600

  18. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  19. Synergistic Effect between Amoxicillin and TLR Ligands on Dendritic Cells from Amoxicillin-Delayed Allergic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Quintero, Maria J.; Torres, Maria J.; Blazquez, Ana B.; Gómez, Enrique; Fernandez, Tahia D.; Doña, Inmaculada; Ariza, Adriana; Andreu, Inmaculada; Melendez, Lidia; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin, a low-molecular-weight compound, is able to interact with dendritic cells inducing semi-maturation in vitro. Specific antigens and TLR ligands can synergistically interact with dendritic cells (DC), leading to complete maturation and more efficient T-cell stimulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and the TLR2, 4 and 7/8 agonists (PAM, LPS and R848, respectively) in TLR expression, DC maturation and specific T-cell response in patients with delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to amoxicillin. Monocyte-derived DC from 15 patients with DTH to amoxicillin and 15 controls were cultured with amoxicillin in the presence or absence of TLR2, 4 and 7/8 agonists (PAM, LPS and R848, respectively). We studied TLR1-9 gene expression by RT-qPCR, and DC maturation, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production by flow cytometry. DC from both patients and controls expressed all TLRs except TLR9. The amoxicillin plus TLR2/4 or TLR7/8 ligands showed significant differences, mainly in patients: AX+PAM+LPS induced a decrease in TLR2 and AX+R848 in TLR2, 4, 7 and 8 mRNA levels. AX+PAM+LPS significantly increased the percentage of maturation in patients (75%) vs. controls (40%) (p=0.036) and T-cell proliferation (80.7% vs. 27.3% of cases; p=0.001). Moreover, the combinations AX+PAM+LPS and AX+R848 produced a significant increase in IL-12p70 during both DC maturation and T-cell proliferation. These results indicate that in amoxicillin-induced maculopapular exanthema, the presence of different TLR agonists could be critical for the induction of the innate and adaptive immune responses and this should be taken into account when evaluating allergic reactions to these drugs. PMID:24066120

  20. Myocardin Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Inflammatory Activation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ackers-Johnson, Matthew; Talasila, Amarnath; Sage, Andrew P; Long, Xiaochun; Bot, Ilze; Morrell, Nicholas W; Bennett, Martin R; Miano, Joseph M.; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis, the cause of 50% of deaths in westernised societies, is widely regarded as a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inflammatory activation in response to local pro-inflammatory stimuli contributes to disease progression and is a pervasive feature in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, it is of considerable therapeutic importance to identify mechanisms that regulate the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results We report that myocardin, a powerful myogenic transcriptional coactivator, negatively regulates VSMC inflammatory activation and vascular disease. Myocardin levels are reduced during atherosclerosis, in association with phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells. Myocardin deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE−/− mice. Conversely, increased myocardin expression potently abrogates the induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in VSMCs. Expression of myocardin in VSMCs reduces lipid uptake, macrophage interaction, chemotaxis and macrophage-endothelial tethering in vitro, and attenuates monocyte accumulation within developing lesions in vivo. These results demonstrate that endogenous levels of myocardin are a critical regulator of vessel inflammation. Conclusions We propose myocardin as a guardian of the contractile, non-inflammatory VSMC phenotype, with loss of myocardin representing a critical permissive step in the process of phenotypic transition and inflammatory activation, at the onset of vascular disease. PMID:25614278

  1. Impact of TRPV3 on the development of allergic dermatitis as a dendritic cell modulator.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Kasai, Erika; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Shichijo, Michitaka; Sakata, Tsuneaki; Yoshioka, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), which functions as a thermosensor in keratinocytes, plays an important role in the development of allergic and itchy dermatitis in rodents. Although real-time PCR analysis using lesional and non-lesional skin samples from patients with atopic dermatitis showed that TRPV3 was expressed in lesional skin, the role that TRPV3 plays in patients with dermatitis is still relatively obscure. Here, we determined whether TRPV3 was a dendritic cell (DC) modulator using DS-Nh mice with a gain-of-function mutation in TRPV3 (TRPV3Gly573Ser), because increasing skin temperature is associated with the modulation of dermal dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, increased responses to haptens by skin and DCs were observed in DS-Nh mice compared with those from DS mice with wild-type TRPV3. Increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) responses were also observed in keratinocytes from DS-Nh mice compared with those from DS mice. Taken together, we propose that the DS-Nh mouse is a good model to use in order to better understand the role of this orphan channel and that TRPV3 may represent a new therapeutic target in certain types of dermatitis through the control of DCs.

  2. Histamine suppresses regulatory T cells mediated by TGF-β in murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tamaka, Kyoko; Seike, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Tamio; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress effector T cells and ameliorate contact hypersensitivity (CH); however, the role of Tregs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) has not been assessed. Repeated elicitation of CH has been used to produce CACD models in mice. We previously showed that the presence of histamine facilitates the creation of eczematous lesions in this model using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) (-/-) mice. Therefore, the effects of histamine on Tregs in the CACD model were investigated in this study. CACD was developed by repeated epicutaneous application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) murine skin to assess the effects of histamine in CACD. Histamine aggravated CACD in the murine model and suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin. Histamine also suppressed the level of TGF-β1 in this model. Recombinant TGF-β1 or anti-TGF-β1 antibody was injected into the dorsal dermis of HDC (+/+) mice daily just before TNCB challenge to determine the effects of histamine-regulated TGF-β on the Treg population in CACD. Recombinant TGF-β1 injection promoted the infiltration of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10; however, anti-TGF-β1 antibody injection suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10. Histamine suppresses the number of Tregs in CACD, and this effect is mediated by TGF-β.

  3. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes target airway CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells to suppress allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Daniels, N J; Hyde, E; Ghosh, S; Seo, K; Price, K M; Hoshino, K; Kaisho, T; Okada, T; Ronchese, F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is driven by the recognition of inhaled allergen by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the airway and lung. Allergen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can strongly reduce airway inflammation, however, the mechanism of their inhibitory activity is not fully defined. We used mouse models to show that allergen-specific CTLs reduced early cytokine production by Th2 cells in lung, and their subsequent accumulation and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In addition, treatment with specific CTLs also increased the proportion of caspase(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in mediastinal lymph node (MLN), and decreased the numbers of CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs in the lung. This decrease required expression of the cytotoxic mediator perforin in CTLs and of the appropriate MHC-antigen ligand on DCs, suggesting that direct CTL-DC contact was necessary. Lastly, lung imaging experiments revealed that in airway-challenged mice XCR1-GFP(+) DCs, corresponding to the CD103(+) DC subset, and XCR1-GFP(-) CD11c(+) cells, which include CD11b(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages, both clustered in the areas surrounding the small airways and were closely associated with allergen-specific CTLs. Thus, allergen-specific CTLs reduce allergic airway inflammation by depleting CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DC populations in the lung, and may constitute a mechanism through which allergic immune responses are regulated.

  4. Prevention of allergic rhinitis by ginger and the molecular basis of immunosuppression by 6-gingerol through T cell inactivation.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yuki; Nakahashi, Emiko; Obayashi, Momoko; Sugihara, Kento; Qiao, Shanlou; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yajima, Ichiro; Goto, Yuji; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Takeda, Kozue

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of allergies has recently been increasing worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma, hay fever and other allergic diseases. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its extracts have been valued for their medical properties including antinausea, antiinflammation, antipyresis and analgesia properties. In this study, we investigated the antiallergic effects of ginger and 6-gingerol, a major compound of ginger, using a mouse allergy model and primary/cell line culture system. In mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis, oral administration of 2% ginger diet reduced the severity of sneezing and nasal rubbing by nasal sensitization of OVA and suppressed infiltration of mast cells in nasal mucosa and secretion of OVA-specific IgE in serum. 6-Gingerol inhibited the expression of not only Th2 cytokines but also Th1 cytokines in OVA-sensitized spleen cells. Accordingly, 6-gingerol suppressed in vitro differentiation of both Th1 cells and Th2 cells from naïve T cells. In addition, 6-gingerol suppressed both superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)- and anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation. 6-Gingerol also abrogated PMA plus ionomycin- and SEB-induced IL-2 production in T cells, suggesting that 6-gingerol affected T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction rather than the antigen-presentation process. Indeed, 6-gingerol inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases, calcium release and nuclear localization of c-fos and NF-κB by PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that 6-gingerol suppresses cytokine production for T cell activation and proliferation, thereby not causing B cell and mast cell activation and resulting in prevention or alleviation of allergic rhinitis symptoms. PMID:26403321

  5. Prevention of allergic rhinitis by ginger and the molecular basis of immunosuppression by 6-gingerol through T cell inactivation.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yuki; Nakahashi, Emiko; Obayashi, Momoko; Sugihara, Kento; Qiao, Shanlou; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yajima, Ichiro; Goto, Yuji; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Takeda, Kozue

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of allergies has recently been increasing worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma, hay fever and other allergic diseases. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its extracts have been valued for their medical properties including antinausea, antiinflammation, antipyresis and analgesia properties. In this study, we investigated the antiallergic effects of ginger and 6-gingerol, a major compound of ginger, using a mouse allergy model and primary/cell line culture system. In mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis, oral administration of 2% ginger diet reduced the severity of sneezing and nasal rubbing by nasal sensitization of OVA and suppressed infiltration of mast cells in nasal mucosa and secretion of OVA-specific IgE in serum. 6-Gingerol inhibited the expression of not only Th2 cytokines but also Th1 cytokines in OVA-sensitized spleen cells. Accordingly, 6-gingerol suppressed in vitro differentiation of both Th1 cells and Th2 cells from naïve T cells. In addition, 6-gingerol suppressed both superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)- and anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation. 6-Gingerol also abrogated PMA plus ionomycin- and SEB-induced IL-2 production in T cells, suggesting that 6-gingerol affected T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction rather than the antigen-presentation process. Indeed, 6-gingerol inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases, calcium release and nuclear localization of c-fos and NF-κB by PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that 6-gingerol suppresses cytokine production for T cell activation and proliferation, thereby not causing B cell and mast cell activation and resulting in prevention or alleviation of allergic rhinitis symptoms.

  6. [Anthocyanidin inhibits immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in mast cells].

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Ri; Hong, Hai; Jin, Guang-Yu; Li, Ying-Zhe; Li, Guang-Zhao; Yan, Guang-Hai

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate the anti-allergic effect of anthocyanidin and to explore its possible mechanism. The experiments of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction (PCA) and colorimetry were used to determine the effect of anthocyanidin on degranulation of mast cells in vivo. For in vitro study, various concentrations of anthocyanidin (100, 50 and 25 micromol x L(-1)) were added to the culture medium of mast cells cultured with 100 microg x L(-1) of dinitrophenyl (DNP) specific IgE overnight. The azelastine (100 micromol x L(-1)) was selected as the positive control. The antigen (DNP-human serum albumin, DNP-HAS)-induced release of degranulation was measured by enzymatic assay, histamine was determined by EIA, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured by Western blotting, separately. In addition, the effects of anthocyanidin on phosphorylation of NF-kappaB, p38MAPK and Akt were observed by Western blotting. The results showed that treatments with anthocyanidin (100 and 50 mg x kg(-1)) were followed by a decrease in PCA of rats. Anthocyanidin (100 and 50 micromol x L(-1)) obviously suppressed the degranulation from mast cells, whereas results from anthocyanidin (100 and 50 micromol x L(-1)) group indicated significant inhibitory effect on histamine, the calcium uptake, TNF-alpha, IL-6, phosphorylation of NF-kappaB, p38MAPK and Akt of mast cells induced by antigen. Anthocyanidin may suppress the anaphylactic reaction by inhibiting the action of mast cells. NF-kappaB, p38MAPK and Akt at least in part contribute to this event. PMID:22493802

  7. Calpeptin Attenuated Apoptosis and Intracellular Inflammatory Changes in Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Kenkichi; Das, Arabinda; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2011-01-01

    In idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), extracellular inflammatory stimulation is considered to induce secondary intracellular inflammatory changes including expression of major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) and to produce self-sustaining loop of inflammation. We hypothesize that activation of calpain, a Ca2+-sensitive protease, bridges between these extracellular inflammatory stress and intracellular secondary inflammatory changes in muscle cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of rat L6 myoblast cells with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) caused expression of MHC-I and inflammation related transcription factors (phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B). We also demonstrated that treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced apoptotic changes and activation of calpain and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, we found that post-treatment with calpeptin attenuated the intracellular changes induced by IFN-γ or TNF-α. Our results indicate that calpain inhibition attenuates apoptosis and secondary inflammatory changes induced by extracellular inflammatory stimulation in the muscle cells. These results suggest calpain as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of IIMs. PMID:21290412

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of Columbianetin on activated human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Na, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Su-Jin; Rim, Hong-Kun; Myung, Noh-Yil; Moon, Phil-Dong; Han, Na-Ra; Seo, Jae-Uk; Kang, Tae-Hee; Kim, Jae-Joong; Choi, Youngjin; Kang, In-Cheol; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, You-Ah; Seo, Young-Wan; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, we extracted Corydalis heterocarpa with various solvents in order to find the bioactive constituents that demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects. We isolated the active compound, Columbianetin. Anti-inflammatory effect of Columbianetin has been reported but the precise effects of Columbianetin in experimental models have remained unknown. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Columbianetin on the production of histamine, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by using the human mast cell line (HMC-1). Various concentrations of Columbianetin were treated before the activation of HMC-1 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore, A23187. PMA plus A23187 significantly increased IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha production compared with media control (p<0.05). We also show that the increased cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha level was significantly inhibited by Columbianetin in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Maximal inhibition rates of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha production by Columbianetin were about 102.6%, 101.1%, 95.8%, and 103.9%, respectively. Columbianetin inhibited expression of COX-2. In addition, the effect of Columbianetin was investigated on the histamine release from HMC-1 stimulated by substance P, which promotes histamine release. Columbianetin also inhibited the histamine release by substance P. In conclusion, these results indicate that Columbianetin may be helpful in regulating mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory responses.

  9. Regulation of T Cell Receptor Signaling by DENND1B in TH2 Cells and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiao-Wen; Hojer, Caroline D; Zhou, Meijuan; Wu, Xiumin; Wuster, Arthur; Lee, Wyne P; Yaspan, Brian L; Chan, Andrew C

    2016-01-14

    The DENN domain is an evolutionary conserved protein module found in all eukaryotes and serves as an exchange factor for Rab-GTPases to regulate diverse cellular functions. Variants in DENND1B are associated with development of childhood asthma and other immune disorders. To understand how DENND1B may contribute to human disease, Dennd1b(-/-) mice were generated and exhibit hyper-allergic responses following antigen challenge. Dennd1b(-/-) TH2, but not other TH cells, exhibit delayed receptor-induced T cell receptor (TCR) downmodulation, enhanced TCR signaling, and increased production of effector cytokines. As DENND1B interacts with AP-2 and Rab35, TH2 cells deficient in AP-2 or Rab35 also exhibit enhanced TCR-mediated effector functions. Moreover, human TH2 cells carrying asthma-associated DENND1B variants express less DENND1B and phenocopy Dennd1b(-/-) TH2 cells. These results provide a molecular basis for how DENND1B, a previously unrecognized regulator of TCR downmodulation in TH2 cells, contributes to asthma pathogenesis and how DENN-domain-containing proteins may contribute to other human disorders.

  10. Regulation of allergic inflammation by the ectoenzyme E-NPP3 (CD203c) on basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih Han; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released from dying or damaged cells, as well as from activated cells. Once secreted, extracellular ATP induces several immune responses via P2X and P2Y receptors. Basophils and mast cells release ATP upon FcεRI-crosslinking, and ATP activates basophils and mast cells in an autocrine manner. Nucleotide-converting ectoenzymes, such as E-NTPD1, E-NTPD7, and E-NPP3, inhibit ATP-dependent immune responses by hydrolyzing ATP, thereby contributing to immune response regulation. E-NPP3 is a well-known activation marker for human basophils. E-NPP3's physiologic function has recently been disclosed in mice. E-NPP3 is rapidly induced on basophils and mast cells after FcεRI-crosslinking and hydrolyzes extracellular ATP on cell surfaces to prevent ATP-dependent excess activation of basophils and mast cells. In the absence of E-NPP3, basophils and mast cells are overactivated and mice suffer from severe chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the ATP-hydrolyzing ectoenzymes E-NPP3 has a nonnegligible role in the regulation of basophil- and mast cell-mediated allergic responses.

  11. Mitochondrial respiration controls lysosomal function during inflammatory T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Dolores Ledesma, Maria; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4+ T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration-deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward pro-inflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD+ levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify novel strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases. PMID:26299452

  12. Mast cells mediate acute inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liping; Jennings, Timothy A.; Eaton, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Implanted biomaterials trigger acute and chronic inflammatory responses. The mechanisms involved in such acute inflammatory responses can be arbitrarily divided into phagocyte transmigration, chemotaxis, and adhesion to implant surfaces. We earlier observed that two chemokines—macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1—and the phagocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18)/surface fibrinogen interaction are, respectively, required for phagocyte chemotaxis and adherence to biomaterial surfaces. However, it is still not clear how the initial transmigration of phagocytes through the endothelial barrier into the area of the implant is triggered. Because implanted biomaterials elicit histaminic responses in the surrounding tissue, and histamine release is known to promote rapid diapedesis of inflammatory cells, we evaluated the possible role of histamine and mast cells in the recruitment of phagocytes to biomaterial implants. Using i.p. and s.c. implantation of polyethylene terephthalate disks in mice we find: (i) Extensive degranulation of mast cells, accompanied by histamine release, occurs adjacent to short-term i.p. implants. (ii) Simultaneous administration of H1 and H2 histamine receptor antagonists (pyrilamine and famotidine, respectively) greatly diminishes recruitment and adhesion of both neutrophils (<20% of control) and monocytes/macrophages (<30% of control) to implants. (iii) Congenitally mast cell-deficient mice also exhibit markedly reduced accumulation of phagocytes on both i.p. and s.c implants. (iv) Finally, mast cell reconstitution of mast cell-deficient mice restores “normal” inflammatory responses to biomaterial implants. We conclude that mast cells and their granular products, especially histamine, are important in recruitment of inflammatory cells to biomaterial implants. Improved knowledge of such responses may permit purposeful modulation of both acute and chronic inflammation affecting implanted biomaterials. PMID

  13. Systemic Administration of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Ameliorates Murine Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Louise J; Collins, Helen L; Thompson, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    The expression of various cell surface molecules and the production of certain cytokines are important mechanisms by which dendritic cells (DC) are able to bias immune responses. This paper describes the effects of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on DC phenotype and function. TNF-α treatment resulted in upregulation of MHC class II and CD86 in the absence of increased cell surface CD40 and CD80 or the production of IL-12. Additionally TNF-α treated cells were able to bias T cell responses towards an anti-inflammatory profile. On a note of caution this tolerogenic phenotype of the DC was not stable upon subsequent TLR-4 ligation as a 4 hour pulse of the TNF-α treated DC with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in the restoration of IL-12 production and an enhancement of their T cell stimulatory capacity which resulted in an increased IFN-γ production. However, TNF-α treated DC, when administered in vivo, were shown to ameliorate disease in collagen induced arthritis, an experimental model of inflammatory joint disease. Mice receiving TNF-α treated DC but not LPS matured DC had a delayed onset, and significantly reduced severity, of arthritis. Disease suppression was associated with reduced levels of collagen specific IgG2a and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration into affected joints. In summary the treatment of DC with TNF-α generates an antigen presenting cell with a phenotype that can reduce the pro-inflammatory response and direct the immune system towards a disease modifying, anti-inflammatory state. PMID:19156221

  14. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  15. Differential effects of rapamycin and dexamethasone in mouse models of established allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mushaben, Elizabeth M; Brandt, Eric B; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Le Cras, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in cell growth/differentiation, integrating environmental cues, and regulating immune responses. Our lab previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin prevented house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Here, we utilized two treatment protocols to investigate whether rapamycin, compared to the steroid, dexamethasone, could inhibit allergic responses during the later stages of the disease process, namely allergen re-exposure and/or during progression of chronic allergic disease. In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized to HDM (three i.p. injections) and administered two intranasal HDM exposures. After 6 weeks of rest/recovery, mice were re-exposed to HDM while being treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone. In protocol 2, mice were exposed to HDM for 3 or 6 weeks and treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone during weeks 4-6. Characteristic features of allergic asthma, including IgE, goblet cells, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), inflammatory cells, cytokines/chemokines, and T cell responses were assessed. In protocol 1, both rapamycin and dexamethasone suppressed goblet cells and total CD4(+) T cells including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells in the lung tissue, with no effect on AHR or total inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rapamycin also suppressed IgE, although IL-4 and eotaxin 1 levels were augmented. In protocol 2, both drugs suppressed total CD4(+) T cells, including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells and IgE levels. IL-4, eotaxin, and inflammatory cell numbers were increased after rapamycin and no effect on AHR was observed. Dexamethasone suppressed inflammatory cell numbers, especially eosinophils, but had limited effects on AHR. We conclude that while mTOR signaling is critical during the early phases of allergic asthma, its role is much more limited once disease is established.

  16. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  18. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach.

  19. Cinnamon Ameliorates Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice via Regulatory T Cells: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach. PMID:25569428

  20. AN EMERGING ROLE FOR THE LIPID MEDIATOR SPHINGOSINE-1-PHOSPHATE IN MAST CELL EFFECTOR FUNCTION AND ALLERGIC DISEASE*

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Ana; Rivera, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles regulating functions of diverse biological systems, including the immune system. S1P affects immune cell function mostly by acting through its receptors at the cell membrane but it can also induce S1P receptor-independent responses in the cells where it is generated. S1P produced in allergically stimulated mast cells mediates degranulation, cytokine and lipid mediator production, and migration of mast cells towards antigen by mechanisms that are both S1P receptor-dependent and independent. Even in the absence of an antigen challenge, the differentiation and responsiveness of mast cells can be affected by chronic exposure to elevated S1P from a non-mast cell source, which may occur under pathophysiological conditions, potentially leading to the hyper-responsiveness of mast cells. The role of S1P extends beyond the regulation of the function of mast cells to the regulation of the surrounding or distal environment. S1P is exported out of antigen-stimulated mast cells and into the extracellular space and the resulting S1P gradient within the tissue may influence diverse surrounding tissue cells and several aspects of the allergic disease, such as inflammation or tissue remodeling. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that vasoactive mediators released systemically by mast cells induce the production of S1P in non-hematopoietic compartments, where it plays a role in regulating the vascular tone and reducing the hypotension characteristic of the anaphylactic shock and thus helping the recovery. The dual actions of S1P, promoting the immediate response of mast cells, while controlling the systemic consequences of mast cell activity will be discussed in detail. PMID:21713655

  1. Cell-to-cell distances between tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells have the potential to distinguish functionally active from suppressed inflammatory cells.

    PubMed

    Nagl, S; Haas, M; Lahmer, G; Büttner-Herold, M; Grabenbauer, G G; Fietkau, R; Distel, L V

    2016-05-01

    Beyond their mere presence, the distribution pattern of inflammatory cells is of special interest. Our hypothesis was that random distribution may be a clear indicator of being non-functional as a consequence of lack of interaction. Here, we have assessed the implication of cell-to-cell distances among inflammatory cells in anal squamous cell carcinoma and a possible association with survival data. Thirty-eight patients suffering from anal carcinoma were studied using tissue microarrays, double staining immunohistochemistry, whole slide scanning and image analysis software. Therapy consisted of concurrent radiochemotherapy. Numbers of stromal and intraepithelial tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells (TIC) and the distances between cells were quantified. Double-staining of FoxP3(+) cells with either CD8(+), CD1a(+) or CD20(+) cells was performed. Measured cell-to-cell distances were compared to computer simulated cell-to-cell distances leading to the assumption of non-randomly distributed and therefore functional immune cells. Intraepithelial CD1a(+) and CD20(+) cells were randomly distributed and therefore regarded as non-functional. In contrary, stromal CD20(+) cells had a non-random distribution pattern. A non-random distance between CD20(+) and FoxP3(+) cells was associated with a clearly unfavorable outcome. Measured distances between FoxP3(+) cells were distinctly shorter than expected and indicate a functional active state of the regulatory T cells (Treg). Analysis of cell-to-cell distances between TIC has the potential to distinguish between suppressed non-functional and functionally active inflammatory cells. We conclude that in this tumor model most of the CD1a(+) cells are non-functional as are the intraepithelial CD20(+) cells, while stromal CD20(+) cells and FoxP3(+) cells are functional cells. PMID:27467940

  2. Inhibition of IgE-dependent histamine release from human dispersed lung mast cells by anti-allergic drugs and salbutamol.

    PubMed Central

    Church, M. K.; Hiroi, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of the anti-allergic drugs, sodium cromoglycate (SCG), lodoxamide, traxanox, RU31156 and the beta-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol to inhibit IgE-dependent histamine and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) release was assessed using human dispersed lung mast cells. The anti-allergic drugs were weak inhibitors of histamine release, high concentrations (100-1000 microM) producing less than 35% inhibition. Salbutamol produced 39% inhibition at 10 microM. The efficacy of both SCG and salbutamol was inversely related to the concentration of anti-IgE used for challenge and to the degree of histamine release. Rapid tachyphylaxis was observed with all anti-allergic drugs but not with salbutamol. Cross-tachyphylaxis was observed between SCG and the other anti-allergic drugs, suggesting a common mechanism of action. No cross-tachyphylaxis was observed between SCG and salbutamol. SCG was significantly (P less than 0.001) more effective in inhibiting PGD2 than it was histamine release. Preferential inhibition of PGD2 compared with histamine release was less marked (P less than 0.05) with salbutamol and not significant with the other anti-allergic drugs. Mast cells dispersed by enzymatic digestion of human lung released more histamine on immunological challenge than mechanically dispersed cells obtained by fine chopping of tissue. Enzyme treatment of mechanically dispersed cells removed this difference. Enzymatically and mechanically dispersed cells responded similarly to the inhibitory effects of SCG and salbutamol. Our results suggest that salbutamol is a more effective inhibitor of mediator release from human lung mast cells than anti-allergic drugs. However, with the low levels of mediator release achieved during an allergic reaction in man in vivo, both salbutamol and SCG are likely to be effective inhibitors of both preformed and newly generated mediators. PMID:2435353

  3. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Chigbu, DeGaulle I; Coyne, Alissa M

    2015-01-01

    Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

  4. Variable beta-glucans production by different states of Eurotium amstelodami explains differences in inflammatory responses in airway cells.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Millon, Laurence; Rognon, Bénédicte; Roussel, Sandrine; Botterel, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane; Reboux, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Eurotium amstelodami, a mold frequently identified in housing and farm air samples, is a suspected cause of respiratory diseases such as allergic alveolitis, atopic asthma, and organic dust toxic syndrome. This fungus is present in the air in three different states (ascospores, conidia, and hyphae). The aim of this study was to test in vitro the differential inflammatory response of airway cells exposed to 1,3 betaglucanase-treated protein extract (BGPE), from E. amstelodami ascospores, conidia, and hyphae. Confluent cells from the A549 cell line were inoculated with calibrated BGPE issued from the three fungal forms. The levels of eight cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammatory responses were measured after 8 h of exposure. Beta-d-glucan (BDG) was quantified in total fungal extract as well as in the BGPE from the three fungal states. Hyphal BGPE were the only ones to induce a marked inflammatory response and they contain higher quantities of BDG. The present study adds to the growing body of evidence that beta-glucan from fungal hyphae play a crucial role in respiratory diseases. PMID:21851418

  5. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  6. Toxocara canis and the allergic process.

    PubMed

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira de; Castro, Cynthia Aparecida de; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl Filho, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-09-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  7. CTAB-coated gold nanorods elicit allergic response through degranulation and cell death in human basophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Ka Lun; Chen, Huanjun; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Jianfang; Ho, Ho Pui; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kong, Siu Kai

    2012-07-01

    The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs.The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30435j

  8. Abietic acid attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a mouse allergic asthma model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Zhaoyu, Liu; Xiangming, Fang; Chunyi, Lin; Jiayu, Pan; Lu, Shen; Jitao, Chen; Liangcai, Chen; Jifang, Liu

    2016-09-01

    Abietic acid (AA), one of the terpenoids isolated from Pimenta racemosa var. grissea, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, the anti-allergic effects of AA remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic effects of AA in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma murine model. The model of mouse asthma was established by induction of OVA. AA (10, 20, 40mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1h after the OVA treatment on days 21 to 23. At 24h after the last challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes, cytokines production, and NF-κB expression. The results showed that AA attenuated lung histopathologic changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AA also inhibited OVA-induced the nitric oxide (NO), IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and OVA-specific IgE production, as well as NF-κB activation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that AA exhibited protective effects against OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice and the possible mechanism was involved in inhibiting NF-κB activation. PMID:27318791

  9. Co-stimulation-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 by allergen-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Piattoni, S; Bistoni, O; Grignani, F; Bertotto, A

    1996-07-01

    Chemokines, which include interleukin (IL)-8, are a family of pro-inflammatory molecules with potent chemoattractant activity on neutrophils, as well as other cell types. IL-8 can be recovered from many inflammatory sites. To test the hypothesis that Th2-type allergen-specific T cells, known to be the main cell type governing the allergic inflammation, are a source of IL-8 and to investigate whether IL-8 release is influenced by the nature of the in vitro mitogenic or co-mitogenic stimulation, cypress-specific T-cell clones (TCC) were generated from five allergic subjects during in vitro seasonal exposure to the allergen. Purified cypress extract was produced directly from freshly collected pollen and used for in vitro stimulation of PBMC bulk cultures. After 5 days priming and a further 7 day period of IL-2-driven cell expansion, monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD2 and CD28 were adopted for in vitro restimulation of allergen-specific cell lines or, subsequently, secondary established TCC. The induction of apoptosis was detected by propidium iodide (PI) cytofluorimetric assay. Basal and co-stimulation-induced IL-8 production was measured by an ELISA method. Both cypress-specific T-cell lines and TCC secreted appreciable amounts of IL-8. By cross-linking T-cell lines or Th2 CD4+ TCC with CD3, CD2 or CD28 MoAbs, the authors observed a great stimulation-induced IL-8 secretion, preferentially after CD2 or combined CD2/CD28 stimulation. In addition, CD4+ clones released large amounts of IL-8 into culture supernatants after CD2 stimulation while undergoing programmed cell death (30-40% hypodiploid DNA profile of PI-stained cells). In contrast, CD3 crosslinking was unable to determine the release of IL-8 or the induction of apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that incomplete TcR engagement by allergen may lead to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines with a contemporary induction of apoptosis in a significant number of target cells. This phenomenon may

  10. Increased circulating inflammatory endothelial cells in blacks with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Woollard, John R; Herrmann, Sandra M; Gloviczki, Monika L; Saad, Ahmed; Juncos, Luis A; Calhoun, David A; Rule, Andrew D; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2013-09-01

    Morbidity and mortality attributable to hypertension are higher in black essential hypertensive (EH) compared with white EH patients, possibly related to differential effects on vascular injury and repair. Although circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) preserve endothelial integrity, inflammatory endothelial cells (IECs) detach from sites of injury and represent markers of vascular damage. We hypothesized that blood levels of IECs and inflammatory markers would be higher in black EH compared with white EH patients. Inferior vena cava and renal vein levels of CD34+/KDR+ (EPC) and VAP-1+ (IEC) cells were measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting in white EH and black EH patients under fixed sodium intake and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, and compared with systemic levels in normotensive control subjects (n=19 each). Renal vein and inferior vena cava levels of inflammatory cytokines and EPC homing factors were measured by Luminex. Blood pressure, serum creatinine, lipids, and antihypertensive medications did not differ between white and black EH patients, and EPC levels were decreased in both. Circulating IEC levels were elevated in black EH patients, and inversely correlated with EPC levels (R(2)=0.58; P=0.0001). Systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines and EPC homing factors were higher in black EH compared with white EH patients, and correlated directly with IECs. Renal vein inflammatory cytokines, EPCs, and IECs did not differ from their circulating levels. Most IECs expressed endothelial markers, fewer expressed progenitor cell markers, but none showed lymphocyte or phagocytic cell markers. Thus, increased release of cytokines and IECs in black EH patients may impair EPC reparative capacity and aggravate vascular damage, and accelerate hypertension-related complications.

  11. Triglycerides potentiate the inflammatory response in rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Budick-Harmelin, Noga; Dudas, Jozsef; Demuth, Julia; Madar, Zecharia; Ramadori, Giuliano; Tirosh, Oren

    2008-12-01

    Accumulation of fat in the liver, also known as steatosis, may lead to inflammation and tissue damage. Kupffer cells (KCs) are the resident macrophages of the liver and have an important role in inflammatory reactions. The inflammatory response of isolated rat KCs to endotoxin in the presence of lipids was investigated in this study. KCs were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and triglycerides (TGs) alone or in combination. TGs had no effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, but adding TGs to LPS enhanced the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), compared with LPS treatment alone. Increased DNA binding of NF-kappaB transcription factor was seen on simultaneous exposure of the cells to TGs and LPS, which was accompanied by decreased intracellular ROS production and increased GSH levels. The inflammation-potentiating effect of TGs on iNOS expression was abolished on NF-kappaB inhibition. This enhanced inflammatory response might indicate a contribution of lipids to the inflammatory conditions in the fatty liver by increased activation of KCs. PMID:18710323

  12. Triglycerides potentiate the inflammatory response in rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Budick-Harmelin, Noga; Dudas, Jozsef; Demuth, Julia; Madar, Zecharia; Ramadori, Giuliano; Tirosh, Oren

    2008-12-01

    Accumulation of fat in the liver, also known as steatosis, may lead to inflammation and tissue damage. Kupffer cells (KCs) are the resident macrophages of the liver and have an important role in inflammatory reactions. The inflammatory response of isolated rat KCs to endotoxin in the presence of lipids was investigated in this study. KCs were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and triglycerides (TGs) alone or in combination. TGs had no effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, but adding TGs to LPS enhanced the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), compared with LPS treatment alone. Increased DNA binding of NF-kappaB transcription factor was seen on simultaneous exposure of the cells to TGs and LPS, which was accompanied by decreased intracellular ROS production and increased GSH levels. The inflammation-potentiating effect of TGs on iNOS expression was abolished on NF-kappaB inhibition. This enhanced inflammatory response might indicate a contribution of lipids to the inflammatory conditions in the fatty liver by increased activation of KCs.

  13. 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol inhibits release of inflammatory mediators in immunoglobulin E-mediated mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Yong; Ro, Jai Youl; Lee, Chang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiallergic effect of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), an intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponins, was investigated in guinea pig lung mast cells and mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells activated by a specific antigen/antibody reaction. Methods Increasing concentrations of PPT were pretreated 5 min prior to antigen stimulation, and various inflammatory mediator releases and their relevant cellular signaling events were measured in those cells. Results PPT dose-dependently reduced the release of histamine and leukotrienes in both types of mast cells. Especially, in activated bone marrow-derived mast cells, PPT inhibited the expression of Syk protein, cytokine mRNA, cyclooxygenase-1/2, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2), as well as the activities of various protein kinase C isoforms, mitogen-activated protein kinases, PLA2, and transcription factors (nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1). Conclusion PPT reduces the release of inflammatory mediators via inhibiting multiple cellular signaling pathways comprising the Ca2+ influx, protein kinase C, and PLA2, which are propagated by Syk activation upon allergic stimulation of mast cells. PMID:26199549

  14. Formulated extract from multiple citrus peels impairs dendritic cell functions and attenuates allergic contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Lin, Yi-Chin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lin, Ping-Yi; Suzawa, Michiko; Wang, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that gold lotion (GL), a formulated product made from the peels of six citrus fruits, has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of GL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function. Our experimental results have shown that GL significantly impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion, suppressed the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I/II and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86), increased phagocytic capacity, and reduced propensity to stimulate the autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation of LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, we found that oral administration of GL attenuated the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models. Subsequently, our molecular mechanism studies showed that GL interfered with LPS-induced MAPK-JNK, p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In an essence, these findings are the first report to provide new insight in the immunopharmacological role of GL in terms of its effects on DC.

  15. Formulated extract from multiple citrus peels impairs dendritic cell functions and attenuates allergic contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Lin, Yi-Chin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lin, Ping-Yi; Suzawa, Michiko; Wang, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that gold lotion (GL), a formulated product made from the peels of six citrus fruits, has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of GL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function. Our experimental results have shown that GL significantly impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion, suppressed the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I/II and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86), increased phagocytic capacity, and reduced propensity to stimulate the autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation of LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, we found that oral administration of GL attenuated the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models. Subsequently, our molecular mechanism studies showed that GL interfered with LPS-induced MAPK-JNK, p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In an essence, these findings are the first report to provide new insight in the immunopharmacological role of GL in terms of its effects on DC. PMID:24566093

  16. Plasma cell granuloma of the lung (inflammatory pseudotumor).

    PubMed

    Fassina, A S; Rugge, M; Scapinello, A; Viale, G; Dell'Orto, P; Ninfo, V

    1986-10-31

    A case of plasma cell granuloma (PCG) of the lung in a 54-year old man is reported. PCG is a rare benign lesion that usually presents as a solitary nodule in the lung (coin lesion) at routine X-ray examination. Microscopically it consists of a granulomatous tissue where the major components are mature plasma cells. The immunohistochemical demonstration of polyclonality of plasma cells, excluding the diagnosis of plasmacytoma, confirms the inflammatory pseudotumoral nature of this lesion, although the etiology remains obscure. The presence of lymphocytes, histiocytes, macrophages, blood vessels with prominent endothelial cells and peripheral sclero-hyalinized connective tissue may pose problems in the differential diagnosis with sclerosing hemangioma, pseudolymphoma, nodular amyloidosis, pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma, chronic abscess and neoplasms of true histiocytic origin. The term inflammatory pseudotumor is preferable in describing this type of lesion. PMID:3798575

  17. Mitochondrial Respiration Controls Lysosomal Function during Inflammatory T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4(+) T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation, and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward proinflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD(+) levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases.

  18. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  19. Inflammatory cell infiltration of tumors: Jekyll or Hyde.

    PubMed

    Talmadge, James E; Donkor, Moses; Scholar, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration of tumors contributes either positively or negatively to tumor invasion, growth, metastasis, and patient outcomes, creating a Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde conundrum when examining mechanisms of action. This is due to tumor heterogeneity and the diversity of the inflammatory cell phenotypes that infiltrate primary and metastatic lesions. Tumor infiltration by macrophages is generally associated with neoangiogenesis and negative outcomes, whereas dendritic cell (DC) infiltration is typically associated with a positive clinical outcome in association with their ability to present tumor antigens (Ags) and induce Ag-specific T cell responses. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) also infiltrate tumors, inhibiting immune responses and facilitating tumor growth and metastasis. In contrast, T cell infiltration of tumors provides a positive prognostic surrogate, although subset analyses suggest that not all infiltrating T cells predict a positive outcome. In general, infiltration by CD8(+) T cells predicts a positive outcome, while CD4(+) cells predict a negative outcome. Therefore, the analysis of cellular phenotypes and potentially spatial distribution of infiltrating cells are critical for an accurate assessment of outcome. Similarly, cellular infiltration of metastatic foci is also a critical parameter for inducing therapeutic responses, as well as establishing tumor dormancy. Current strategies for cellular, gene, and molecular therapies are focused on the manipulation of infiltrating cellular populations. Within this review, we discuss the role of tumor infiltrating, myeloid-monocytic cells, and T lymphocytes, as well as their potential for tumor control, immunosuppression, and facilitation of metastasis. PMID:17717638

  20. Diesel exposure suppresses natural killer cell function and resolution of eosinophil inflammation: a randomized controlled trial of exposure in allergic rhinitics.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Erica A; Noah, Terry L; Zhou, Haibo; Chehrazi, Claire; Robinette, Carole; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Müller, Loretta; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-05-06

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to exacerbate allergic inflammation, including virus-induced eosinophil activation in laboratory animals. We have previously shown that in human volunteers with allergic rhinitis a short-term exposure to DE prior to infection with the live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) increases markers of allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa. Specifically, levels of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) were significantly enhanced in individuals exposed to DE prior to inoculation with LAIV and this effect was maintained for at least seven days. However, this previous study was limited in its scope of nasal immune endpoints and did not explore potential mechanisms mediating the prolonged exacerbation of allergic inflammation caused by exposure to DE prior to inoculation with LAIV. In this follow-up study, the methods were modified to expand experimental endpoints and explore the potential role of NK cells. The data presented here suggest DE prolongs viral-induced eosinophil activation, which was accompanied by decreased markers of NK cell recruitment and activation. Separate in vitro studies showed that exposure to DE particles decreases the ability of NK cells to kill eosinophils. Taken together, these follow-up studies suggest that DE-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation in the context of viral infections may be mediated by decreased activity of NK cells and their ability to clear eosinophils.

  1. Systemic administration of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells induces experimental allergic asthma in mice upon aerosol antigen rechallenge.

    PubMed

    Graffi, Sebastian J; Dekan, Gerhard; Stingl, Georg; Epstein, Michelle M

    2002-05-01

    Antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) have been used extensively as cellular vaccines to induce a myriad of protective immune responses. Adoptive transfer of antigen-pulsed DCs is especially effective at generating Th1 and CD8 immune responses. However, recently this strategy has been shown to induce Th2 cells when DCs are administered locally into the respiratory tract. We sought to address whether systemic rather than local antigen-pulsed DC administration could induce Th2 experimental allergic asthma. We found that OVA-pulsed splenic DCs injected intraperitoneally induced polarized Th2 allergic lung disease upon secondary OVA aerosol challenge. Disease was characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation, excess mucus production, airway hyperresponsiveness, and OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE. In addition, unusual pathology characterized by macrophage alveolitis and multinucleated giant cells was observed. These data show that systemic administration of antigen-pulsed DCs and subsequent aeroantigen challenge induces Th2 immunity. These findings have important implications for the development of DC-based vaccines.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Loranthus parasiticus on IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses in RBL-2H3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Kim, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    The mistletoe Loranthus parasiticus has been used as a compound for traditional medicine in Northeast Asia for a long time and is known to possess neuroprotective action. Nonetheless, the effect of Loranthus parasiticus on allergic responses remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated whether the water extract of Loranthus parasiticus (LPE) could inhibit IgE-mediated allergic responses in RBL-2H3 cells. LPE inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 184.5 μg/mL) and the formation of tumor necrosis factor-α (IC50, 84.27 μg/mL), interleukin-4 (IC50, 93.43 μg/mL), prostaglandin E2 (IC50, 84.10 μg/mL), prostaglandin D2, and leukotriene C4 (IC50, 43.27 μg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPE inhibited phosphorylation of Syk, PLCγ1/2, PKCδ, ERK, JNK, p38, and Akt. In the late phase, LPE decreased 5-lipoxygenase phosphorylation and COX-2 expression but not cPLA2 phosphorylation. Additionally, LPE included total phenolic compounds (10.72 mg/g dry weight) and total flavonoids (56.20 mg/g dry weight). These results suggest that the phenolic compounds or flavonoids contained in LPE may be associated with antiallergic activity. The phenolic compounds and flavonoids in LPE are antiallergic phytochemicals capable of inhibiting the activation of the FcεRI signaling cascade in mast cells. Such effects may provide further information for the development of a phytomedicine for allergic diseases. PMID:27761061

  3. Roles of Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 on mast cell-mediated host defense, pseudoallergic drug reactions, and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Hariharan; Gupta, Kshitij; Ali, Hydar

    2016-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs), which are granulated tissue-resident cells of hematopoietic lineage, contribute to vascular homeostasis, innate/adaptive immunity, and wound healing. However, MCs are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as anaphylaxis, food allergy, rhinitis, itch, urticaria, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. In addition to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the largest group of membrane receptor proteins and the most common targets of drug therapy. Antimicrobial host defense peptides, neuropeptides, major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, and many US Food and Drug Administration-approved peptidergic drugs activate human MCs through a novel GPCR known as Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2; formerly known as MrgX2). Unique features of MRGPRX2 that distinguish it from other GPCRs include their presence both on the plasma membrane and intracellular sites and their selective expression in MCs. In this article we review the possible roles of MRGPRX2 on host defense, drug-induced anaphylactoid reactions, neurogenic inflammation, pain, itch, and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as urticaria and asthma. We propose that host defense peptides that kill microbes directly and activate MCs through MRGPRX2 could serve as novel GPCR targets to modulate host defense against microbial infection. Furthermore, mAbs or small-molecule inhibitors of MRGPRX2 could be developed for the treatment of MC-dependent allergic and inflammatory disorders.

  4. Roles of MAS-related G protein coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2) on mast cell-mediated host defense, pseudoallergic drug reactions and chronic inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Hariharan; Gupta, Kshitij; Ali, Hydar

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs), which are granulated tissue-resident cells of hematopoietic lineage, contribute to vascular homeostasis, innate/adaptive immunity and wound healing. MCs are, however, best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases such as anaphylaxis, food allergy, rhinitis, itch, urticaria, atopic dermatitis and asthma. In addition to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the largest group of membrane receptor proteins and are the most common targets of drug therapy. Antimicrobial host defense peptides (HDPs), neuropeptides (NPs), major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and many FDA approved peptidergic drugs activate human MCs via a novel GPCR known as MAS-related G protein coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2; formerly known as MrgX2). Unique features of MRGPRX2 that distinguish it from other GPCRs include their presence both on plasma membrane and intracellular sites and their selective expression in MCs. In this article, we review the possible roles of MRGPRX2 on host defense, drug-induced anaphylactoid reactions, neurogenic inflammation, pain, itch and chronic inflammatory diseases such as urticaria and asthma. We propose that HDPs that kill microbes directly and activate MCs via MRGPRX2 could serve as novel GPCR targets to modulate host defense against microbial infection. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors of MRGPRX2 could be developed for the treatment of MC-dependent allergic and inflammatory disorders. PMID:27448446

  5. Roles of Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 on mast cell-mediated host defense, pseudoallergic drug reactions, and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Hariharan; Gupta, Kshitij; Ali, Hydar

    2016-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs), which are granulated tissue-resident cells of hematopoietic lineage, contribute to vascular homeostasis, innate/adaptive immunity, and wound healing. However, MCs are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as anaphylaxis, food allergy, rhinitis, itch, urticaria, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. In addition to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the largest group of membrane receptor proteins and the most common targets of drug therapy. Antimicrobial host defense peptides, neuropeptides, major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, and many US Food and Drug Administration-approved peptidergic drugs activate human MCs through a novel GPCR known as Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2; formerly known as MrgX2). Unique features of MRGPRX2 that distinguish it from other GPCRs include their presence both on the plasma membrane and intracellular sites and their selective expression in MCs. In this article we review the possible roles of MRGPRX2 on host defense, drug-induced anaphylactoid reactions, neurogenic inflammation, pain, itch, and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as urticaria and asthma. We propose that host defense peptides that kill microbes directly and activate MCs through MRGPRX2 could serve as novel GPCR targets to modulate host defense against microbial infection. Furthermore, mAbs or small-molecule inhibitors of MRGPRX2 could be developed for the treatment of MC-dependent allergic and inflammatory disorders. PMID:27448446

  6. Emerging roles for platelets as immune and inflammatory cells.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Craig N; Aggrey, Angela A; Chapman, Lesley M; Modjeski, Kristina L

    2014-05-01

    Despite their small size and anucleate status, platelets have diverse roles in vascular biology. Not only are platelets the cellular mediator of thrombosis, but platelets are also immune cells that initiate and accelerate many vascular inflammatory conditions. Platelets are linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, malaria infection, transplant rejection, and rheumatoid arthritis. In some contexts, platelet immune functions are protective, whereas in others platelets contribute to adverse inflammatory outcomes. In this review, we will discuss platelet and platelet-derived mediator interactions with the innate and acquired arms of the immune system and platelet-vessel wall interactions that drive inflammatory disease. There have been many recent publications indicating both important protective and adverse roles for platelets in infectious disease. Because of this new accumulating data, and the fact that infectious disease continues to be a leading cause of death globally, we will also focus on new and emerging concepts related to platelet immune and inflammatory functions in the context of infectious disease.

  7. Assessment of Bet v 1-specific CD4+ T cell responses in allergic and nonallergic individuals using MHC class II peptide tetramers.

    PubMed

    Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Wambre, Erik; Maillère, Bernard; von Hofe, Eric; Louise, Anne; Balazuc, Anne Marie; Bohle, Barbara; Ebo, Didier; Leboulaire, Christophe; Garcia, Gilles; Moingeon, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we used HLA-DRB1*0101, DRB1*0401, and DRB1*1501 peptide tetramers combined with cytokine surface capture assays to characterize CD4(+) T cell responses against the immunodominant T cell epitope (peptide 141-155) from the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, in both healthy and allergic individuals. We could detect Bet v 1-specific T cells in the PBMC of 20 birch pollen allergic patients, but also in 9 of 9 healthy individuals tested. Analysis at a single-cell level revealed that allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells from healthy individuals secrete IFN-gamma and IL-10 in response to the allergen, whereas cells from allergic patients are bona fide Th2 cells (producing mostly IL-5, some IL-10, but no IFN-gamma), as corroborated by patterns of cytokines produced by T cell clones. A fraction of Bet v 1-specific cells isolated from healthy, but not allergic, individuals also expresses CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor, and Foxp 3, indicating that they represent regulatory T cells. In this model of seasonal exposure to allergen, we also demonstrate the tremendous dynamics of T cell responses in both allergic and nonallergic individuals during the peak pollen season, with an expansion of Bet v 1-specific precursors from 10(-6) to 10(-3) among circulating CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Allergy vaccines should be designed to recapitulate such naturally protective Th1/regulatory T cell responses observed in healthy individuals.

  8. T cell derived IL-10 is dispensable for tolerance induction in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Stefanie; Dolch, Anja; Surianarayanan, Sangeetha; Dorn, Britta; Bewersdorff, Mayte; Alessandrini, Francesca; Behrendt, Rayk; Karp, Christopher L; Muller, Werner; Martin, Stefan F; Roers, Axel; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory mechanisms initiated by allergen-specific immunotherapy are mainly attributed to T cell derived IL-10. However, it has not been shown that T cell derived IL-10 is required for successful tolerance induction (TI). Here, we analyze cellular sources and the functional relevance of cell type specific IL-10 during TI in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. While TI was effective in IL-10 competent mice, neutralizing IL-10 prior to tolerogenic treatment completely abrogated the beneficial effects. Cellular sources of IL-10 during TI were identified by using transcriptional reporter mice as T cells, B cells, and to a lesser extent DCs. Interestingly, TI was still effective in mice with T cell, B cell, B and T cell, or DC-specific IL-10 deficiency. In contrast, TI was not possible in mice lacking IL-10 in all hematopoetic cells, while it was effective in bone marrow (BM) chimera that lacked IL-10 only in nonhematopoetic cells. Taken together, allergen-specific tolerance depends on IL-10 from hematopoetic sources. The beneficial effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy cannot solely be attributed to IL-10 from T cells, B cells, or even DCs, suggesting a high degree of cellular redundancy in IL-10-mediated tolerance. PMID:27287239

  9. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26718326

  10. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  11. Carboxylated, heteroaryl-substituted chalcones as inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression for use in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Charles Q; Ni, Liming; Worsencroft, Kimberly J; Ye, Zhihong; Weingarten, M David; Simpson, Jacob E; Skudlarek, Jason W; Marino, Elaine M; Suen, Ki-Ling; Kunsch, Charles; Souder, Amy; Howard, Randy B; Sundell, Cynthia L; Wasserman, Martin A; Sikorski, James A

    2007-03-22

    Starting from a simple chalcone template, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to a series of carboxylated, heteroaryl-substituted chalcone derivatives as novel, potent inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Correlations between lipophilicity determined by calculated logP values and inhibitory efficacy were observed among structurally similar compounds of the series. Various substituents were found to be tolerated at several positions of the chalcone backbone as long as the compounds fell into the right range of lipophilicity. The chalcone alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety seemed to be the pharmacophore required for inhibition of VCAM-1 expression. Compound 19 showed significant antiinflammatory effects in a mouse model of allergic inflammation, indicating that this series of compounds might have therapeutic value for human asthma and other inflammatory disorders. PMID:17323940

  12. Stem cells as potential therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Mishra, Manoj K.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Singh, Shree Ram

    2010-01-01

    The rates of incidence and prevalence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are rising. Estimates indicate >1 million new cases of IBD in the United States annually. The conventional therapies available for IBD range from anti-inflammatory drugs to immunosuppressive agents, but these therapies generally fail to achieve satisfactory results due to their side effects. Interest in a new therapeutic option, that is, biological therapy, has gained much momentum recently due to its focus on different stages of the inflammatory process. Stem cell (SC) research has become a new direction for IBD therapy due to our recent understanding of cell populations involved in the pathogenic process. To this end, hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells are receiving more attention from IBD investigators. The intestinal environment, with its crypts and niches, supports incoming embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells and allows them to engraft and differentiate. The above findings suggest that, in the future, SC-based therapy will be a promising alternative to conventional therapy for IBD. In this review, we discuss SCs as potential therapeutic targets for future treatment of IBD. PMID:20515838

  13. Periostin in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Kenji; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Inamitsu, Masako; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  14. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  15. IκB kinase β inhibitor, IMD-0354, prevents allergic asthma in a mouse model through inhibition of CD4(+) effector T cell responses in the lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Maślanka, Tomasz; Otrocka-Domagała, Iwona; Zuśka-Prot, Monika; Mikiewicz, Mateusz; Przybysz, Jagoda; Jasiecka, Agnieszka; Jaroszewski, Jerzy J

    2016-03-15

    IκB kinase (IKK) is important for nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation under inflammatory conditions. It has been demonstrated that IMD-0354, i.e. a selective inhibitor of IKKβ, inhibited allergic inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. The present study attempts to shed light on the involvement of CD4(+) effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells in the anti-asthmatic action of IMD-0354. The animals were divided into three groups: vehicle treated, PBS-sensitized/challenged mice (PBS group); vehicle treated, OVA-sensitized/challenged mice (OVA group); and IMD-0354-treated, OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. The analyzed parameters included the absolute counts of Treg cells (Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+)), activated Teff cells (Foxp3(-)CD25(+)CD4(+)) and resting T cells (CD25(-)CD4(+)) in the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs), lungs and peripheral blood. Moreover, lung histopathology was performed to evaluate lung inflammation. It was found that the absolute number of cells in all studied subsets was considerably increased in the MLNs and lungs of mice from OVA group as compared to PBS group. All of these effects were fully prevented by treatment with IMD-0354. Histopathological examination showed that treatment with IMD-0354 protected the lungs from OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation. Our results indicate that IMD-0354 exerts anti-asthmatic action, at least partially, by blocking the activation and clonal expansion of CD4(+) Teff cells in the MLNs, which, consequently, prevents infiltration of the lungs with activated CD4(+) Teff cells. The beneficial effects of IMD-0354 in a mouse model of asthma are not mediated through increased recruitment of Treg cells into the MLNs and lungs and/or local generation of inducible Treg cells. PMID:26868187

  16. Evaluation of CD4+ T cells proliferating to grass pollen in seasonal allergic subjects by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    RIMANIOL, A C; GARCIA, G; TILL, S J; CAPEL, F; GRAS, G; BALABANIAN, K; EMILIE, D; HUMBERT, M

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize T-cell responses to Phleum pratense in grass pollen allergic individuals and healthy controls using the fluorescent dye PKH26. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with P. pratense, or with recall antigens, and CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ T-cells that had proliferated were analysed by flow cytometry. In the presence of P. pratense CD4+/CD3+ T-cells proliferated more in grass pollen sensitive atopic patients than in nonallergic controls or in nongrass pollen sensitive atopic subjects. PPD and TT recall antigens elicited uniformly high proliferation in all T-cell subsets. Only half of pollen sensitive patients also had an increased proliferation of CD3+/CD8+ T-cells in response to P. pratense. We determined precursor frequency of CD4+ T cells in the original population that responded to P. pratense and found values ranging from 1 × 10−3 to 0·6 × 10−1, in the same range as those measured for PPD and TT. In conclusion, grass pollen sensitive atopic patients show enhanced CD4+ T-cell reactivity to P. pratense, and this could be related to the presence of elevated numbers of circulating allergen-specific CD4+ T cells. This flow cytometric method should allow the identification of other phenotypic markers such as intracellular cytokines in allergen specific responding CD4+ T cells. PMID:12653839

  17. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  18. Targeting Mast Cells and Basophils with Anti-FcεRIα Fab-Conjugated Celastrol-Loaded Micelles Suppresses Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Xianyang; Lin, Lihui; Xie, Guogang; Cui, Zelin; Li, Jia; Wang, Yuping; Li, Li

    2015-12-01

    Mast cells and basophils are effector cells in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Targeted elimination of these cells may be a promising strategy for the treatment of allergic disorders. Our present study aims at targeted delivery of anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles toward FcεRIα receptors expressed on mast cells and basophils to have enhanced anti-allergic effect. To achieve this aim, we prepared celastrol-loaded (PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO, Pluronic) polymeric nanomicelles using thin-film hydration method. The anti-FcεRIα Fab Fragment was then conjugated to carboxyl groups on drug-loaded micelles via EDC amidation reaction. The anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles revealed uniform particle size (93.43 ± 12.93 nm) with high loading percentage (21.2 ± 1.5% w/w). The image of micelles showed oval and rod like. The anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated micelles demonstrated enhanced cellular uptake and cytotoxity toward target KU812 cells than non-conjugated micelles in vitro. Furthermore, diffusion of the drug into the cells allowed an efficient induction of cell apoptosis. In mouse model of allergic asthma, treatment with anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated micelles increased lung accumulation of micelles, and significantly reduced OVA-sIgE, histamine and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α) levels, eosinophils infiltration and mucus production. In addition, in mouse model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles treatment significantly decreased extravasated evan's in the ear. These results indicate that anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles can target and selectively kill mast cells and basophils which express FcεRIα, and may be efficient reagents for the treatment of allergic disorders and mast cell related diseases.

  19. Thiram modulates pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kurpios-Piec, Dagmara; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Kowalewski, Cezary; Gajewska, Beata; Rahden-Staroń, Iwonna

    2015-02-01

    Thiram (TMTD) is a widely used dithiocarbamate pesticide and fungicide and is one of potent contact allergens. In the light of known properties, thiram is also considered to be used as an inhibitor of inflammation. To investigate whether known pro-oxidative properties of thiram might be involved in immunogenic mechanisms, we carried out an in vitro study aimed at analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of NF-κB, expression of iNOS and COX-2, production of NO, PGE2 and IL-1β in murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). The cells were treated by thiram alone (0.5 µg/mL; 2 μM and 2 µg/mL; 8 μM) or concomitantly with bacterial endotoxin (LPS; 1 μg/mL). LPS was used as an endotoxin that triggers changes characteristic for inflammatory state of the cell. TMTD increased ROS production, level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and activated NF-κB. The consequence of NF-κB activation was the increase of IL-1β and NO production characteristic for inflammation. However, we did not observe changes in PGE2 concentration. We observed expression of iNOS, COX-2 proteins and NO and PGE2 production in macrophages treated with thiram concomitantly with LPS lower than those in cells stimulated with LPS alone. Thiram (2 µg/mL) decreased NF-κB activation and production of LPS-induced IL-1β. In conclusion, we demonstrated changes induced by TMTD characteristic for inflammation. Hence, it can be supposed that they may participate in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis induced by thiram. However, when TMTD acts concomitantly with LPS, it decreases the intensity of inflammation state in RAW 264.7.

  20. High content cell-based assay for the inflammatory pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-07-01

    Cellular inflammation is a non-specific immune response to tissue injury that takes place via cytokine network orchestration to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. However chronic inflammation that lasts for a longer period, plays the key role in human diseases like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways may be effective in targeting and modulating their outcome. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that effectively combines the pro-inflammatory features with the pro-apoptotic potential. Increased levels of TNF-α observed during acute and chronic inflammatory conditions are believed to induce adverse phenotypes like glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid profile. Natural products e. g., amygdalin, cinnamic acid, jasmonic acid and aspirin have proven efficacy in minimizing the TNF-α induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Cell lysis-free quantum dot (QDot) imaging is an emerging technique to identify the cellular mediators of a signaling cascade with a single assay in one run. In comparison to organic fluorophores, the inorganic QDots are bright, resistant to photobleaching and possess tunable optical properties that make them suitable for long term and multicolor imaging of various components in a cellular crosstalk. Hence we tested some components of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during TNF-α induced inflammation and the effects of aspirin in HepG2 cells by QDot multicolor imaging technique. Results demonstrated that aspirin showed significant protective effects against TNF-α induced cellular inflammation. The developed cell based assay paves the platform for the analysis of cellular components in a smooth and reliable way.

  1. Possible Involvement of the Inhibition of NF-κB Factor in Anti-Inflammatory Actions That Melatonin Exerts on Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, M D; García-Moreno, H; González-Yanes, C; Calvo, J R

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin is a molecule endogenously produced in a wide variety of immune cells, including mast cells (RBL-2H3). It exhibits immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. The physiologic mechanisms underlying these activities of melatonin have not been clarified in mast cells. This work is designed to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of action of melatonin on activated mast cells. RBL-2H3 were pre-treated with exogenous melatonin (MELx) at physiological (100nM) and pharmacological (1 mM) doses for 30 min, washed and activated with PMACI (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187) for 2 h and 12 h. The data shows that pre-treatment of MELx in stimulated mast cells, significantly reduced the levels of endogenous melatonin production (MELn), TNF-α and IL-6. These effects are directly related with the MELx concentration used. MELx also inhibited IKK/NF-κB signal transduction pathway in stimulated mast cells. These results indicate a molecular basis for the ability of melatonin to prevent inflammation and for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases through the down-regulation of mast cell activation. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1926-1933, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Immunologic Targeting of FOXP3 in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Eoin; Cheng, Qing; Aggarwal, Anshu; Patel, Pujan; Williams, Monique M.; Boczkowski, David; Lyerly, H. Kim; Morse, Michael A.; Devi, Gayathri R.

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead transcription factor FOXP3 is necessary for induction of regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) and their immunosuppressive function. We have previously demonstrated that targeting Tregs by vaccination of mice with murine FOXP3 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells (DCs) elicits FOXP3-specific T cell responses and enhances tumor immunity. It is clear that FOXP3 expression is not restricted to T-cell lineage and herein, using RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and western immunoblot we demonstrate for the first time that FOXP3 is expressed in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells, SUM149 (triple negative, ErbB1-activated) and SUM190 (ErbB2-overexpressing). Importantly, FOXP3-specific T cells generated in vitro using human FOXP3 RNA-transfected DCs as stimulators efficiently lyse SUM149 cells. Interestingly, an isogenic model (rSUM149) derived from SUM149 with an enhanced anti-apoptotic phenotype was resistant to FOXP3-specific T cell mediated lysis. The MHC class I cellular processing mechanism was intact in both cell lines at the protein and transcription levels suggesting that the resistance to cytolysis by rSUM149 cells was not related to MHC class I expression or to the MHC class I antigen processing machinery in these cells. Our data suggest that FOXP3 may be an effective tumor target in IBC cells however increased anti-apoptotic signaling can lead to immune evasion. PMID:23341929

  3. Capparis ovata treatment suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression and ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ozgun-Acar, Ozden; Celik-Turgut, Gurbet; Gazioglu, Isil; Kolak, Ufuk; Ozbal, Seda; Ergur, Bekir U; Arslan, Sevki; Sen, Alaattin; Topcu, Gulacti

    2016-09-15

    Since ancient times, Capparis species have been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Our recent investigations have suggested Capparis ovata's potential anti-neuroinflammatory application for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study was designed to precisely determine the underlying mechanism of its anti-neuroinflammatory effect in a mouse model of MS. C. ovata water extract (COWE) was prepared using the plant's fruit, buds, and flower parts (Turkish Patent Institute, PT 2012/04,093). We immunized female C57BL/6J mice with MOG35-55/CFA. COWE was administered at a daily dose of 500mg/kg by oral gavage either from the day of immunization (T1) or at disease onset (T2) for 21days. Gene expression analysis was performed using a Mouse Multiple Sclerosis RT² Profiler PCR Array, and further determinations and validations of the identified genes were performed using qPCR. Whole-genome transcriptome profiling was analyzed using Agilent SurePrint G3 Mouse GE 8X60K microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to brain sections of the control and treated mice to examine the degree of degeneration. COWE was further fractionated and analyzed phytochemically using the Zivak Tandem Gold Triple Quadrupole LC/MS-MS system. COWE remarkably suppressed the development of EAE in T1, and the disease activity was completely inhibited. In the T2 group, the maximal score was significantly reduced compared with that of the parallel EAE group. The COWE suppression of EAE was associated with a significantly decreased expression of genes that are important in inflammatory signaling, such as TNFα, IL6, NF-κB, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCK10. On the other hand, the expression of genes involved in myelination/remyelination was significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analysis further supported these effects, showing that the number of infiltrating immune cells was decreased in the brains of COWE-treated animals. In addition, differential

  4. Capparis ovata treatment suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression and ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ozgun-Acar, Ozden; Celik-Turgut, Gurbet; Gazioglu, Isil; Kolak, Ufuk; Ozbal, Seda; Ergur, Bekir U; Arslan, Sevki; Sen, Alaattin; Topcu, Gulacti

    2016-09-15

    Since ancient times, Capparis species have been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Our recent investigations have suggested Capparis ovata's potential anti-neuroinflammatory application for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study was designed to precisely determine the underlying mechanism of its anti-neuroinflammatory effect in a mouse model of MS. C. ovata water extract (COWE) was prepared using the plant's fruit, buds, and flower parts (Turkish Patent Institute, PT 2012/04,093). We immunized female C57BL/6J mice with MOG35-55/CFA. COWE was administered at a daily dose of 500mg/kg by oral gavage either from the day of immunization (T1) or at disease onset (T2) for 21days. Gene expression analysis was performed using a Mouse Multiple Sclerosis RT² Profiler PCR Array, and further determinations and validations of the identified genes were performed using qPCR. Whole-genome transcriptome profiling was analyzed using Agilent SurePrint G3 Mouse GE 8X60K microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to brain sections of the control and treated mice to examine the degree of degeneration. COWE was further fractionated and analyzed phytochemically using the Zivak Tandem Gold Triple Quadrupole LC/MS-MS system. COWE remarkably suppressed the development of EAE in T1, and the disease activity was completely inhibited. In the T2 group, the maximal score was significantly reduced compared with that of the parallel EAE group. The COWE suppression of EAE was associated with a significantly decreased expression of genes that are important in inflammatory signaling, such as TNFα, IL6, NF-κB, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCK10. On the other hand, the expression of genes involved in myelination/remyelination was significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analysis further supported these effects, showing that the number of infiltrating immune cells was decreased in the brains of COWE-treated animals. In addition, differential

  5. Essential Contribution of CD4+ T Cells to Antigen-Induced Nasal Hyperresponsiveness in Experimental Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomoe; Kaminuma, Osamu; Saeki, Mayumi; Kitamura, Noriko; Matsuoka, Kunie; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Mori, Akio; Hiroi, Takachika

    2016-01-01

    Nasal hyperresponsiveness (NHR) is a characteristic feature of allergic rhinitis (AR); however, the pathogenesis of NHR is not fully understood. In this study, during the establishment of an experimental AR model using ovalbumin-immunized and -challenged mice, augmentation of the sneezing reaction in response to nonspecific proteins as well as a chemical stimulant was detected. Whether NHR is independent of mast cells and eosinophils was determined by using mast cell- and eosinophil-deficient mice. NHR was suppressed by treatment with anti-CD4 antibody, suggesting the pivotal contribution of CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, antigen challenge to mice to which in vitro-differentiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells but not naïve CD4+ T cells had been adoptively transferred led to the development of equivalent NHR. Since antigen-specific IgE and IgG were not produced in these mice and since antigen-specific IgE-transgenic mice did not develop NHR even upon antigen challenge, humoral immunity would be dispensable for NHR. CD4+ T cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AR via induction of NHR, independent of IgE-, mast cell-, and eosinophil-mediated responses. PMID:26752722

  6. Transfer of allergic airway responses with antigen-primed CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, A; Mishima, H; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Hamid, Q; Martin, J G

    1995-01-01

    Activated CD4+ helper T cells have been demonstrated in asthmatic airways and postulated to play a central role in eliciting allergic inflammation; direct evidence of their involvement seems to be lacking. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells have the potential to induce allergic responses to antigen challenge, and tested this hypothesis in a model of allergic bronchoconstriction, the Brown Norway rat, using the approach of adoptive transfer. Animals were actively sensitized to either ovalbumin (OVA) or BSA and were used as donors of T cells. W3/25(CD4)+ or OX8(CD8)+ T cells were isolated from the cervical lymph nodes of sensitized donors and transferred to naive BN rats. 2 d after adoptive transfer recipient rats were challenged by OVA inhalation, and changes in lung resistance (RL), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and serum levels of antigen-specific IgE were studied. After OVA challenge recipients of OVA-primed W3/25+ T cells exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the entire 8-h observation period and had significant bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia, which was detected by immunocytochemistry using an antimajor basic protein mAb. Recipients of BSA-primed W3/25+ T cells or OVA-primed OX8+ T cells failed to respond to inhaled OVA. OVA-specific immunoglobulin E was undetectable by ELISA or skin testing in any of the recipient rats after adoptive transfer. In conclusion, antigen-induced airway bronchoconstriction and eosinophilia were successfully transferred by antigen-specific W3/25+ T cells in Brown Norway rats. These responses were dependent on antigen-primed W3/25+ T cells and appeared to be independent of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. This study provides clear evidence for T cell mediated immune mechanisms in allergic airway responses in this experimental model. Images PMID:7657805

  7. Pea seedling histaminase as a novel therapeutic approach to anaphylactic and inflammatory disorders. A plant histaminase in allergic asthma and ischemic shock.

    PubMed

    Masini, Emanuela; Bani, Danielle; Marzocca, Cosimo; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru; Mannaioni, Pier Francesco; Federico, Rodolfo; Mondovì, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Amine oxidases (AOs) are ubiquitous enzymes involved in the metabolism of biogenic amines. Copper AOs (Cu-AOs) catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amine groups of several biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine. In the present review, the effects of a plant amine oxidase (Cu-AO, histaminase, EC1.4.3.6) purified from pea seedlings in the modulation of IgE-mediated allergic reactions, and in the prevention of cardiac and splachnic postischemic reperfusion damage are reported. PMID:17619775

  8. Hyaluronan fragments as mediators of inflammation in allergic pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen, leading to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to allergens may experience a greater degree of tissue injury followed by airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. In addition, turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a hallmark of tissue injury and repair. This review focuses on the role of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the ECM, in pulmonary injury and repair with an emphasis on allergic asthma. Both the synthesis and degradation of the ECM are critical contributors to tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmented HA accumulates during tissue injury and functions in ways distinct from the larger native polymer. There is gathering evidence that HA degradation products are active participants in stimulating the expression of inflammatory genes in a variety of immune cells at the injury site. In this review, we will consider recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that are associated with HA accumulation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the asthmatic lung. PMID:25582403

  9. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Mario M.; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W.; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R.; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host’s immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986

  10. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Mario M; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D; Macpherson, Andrew J; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-11-17

    Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host's immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986

  11. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Mario M; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D; Macpherson, Andrew J; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-11-17

    Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host's immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions.

  12. Dual oxidase regulates neutrophil recruitment in allergic airways.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sandra; Linderholm, Angela; Franzi, Lisa; Kenyon, Nicholas; Grasberger, Helmut; Harper, Richart

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced reactive oxygen species production in allergic airways is well described and correlates with increased airway contractions, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia, and mucus hypersecretion. There is also an abundance of interleukin-4/interleukin-13 (IL-4/IL-13)- or interleukin-5-secreting cells that are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We postulated that the dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2), members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family that release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the respiratory tract, are critical proteins in the pathogenesis of allergic airways. DUOX activity is regulated by cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13, and DUOX-mediated H2O2 influences several important features of allergic asthma: mucin production, IL-8 secretion, and wound healing. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of DUOXs to the development of allergic asthma in a murine model. To accomplish this goal, we utilized a DUOXA-deficient mouse model (Duoxa(-/-)) that lacked maturation factors for both DUOX1 and DUOX2. Our results are the first to demonstrate evidence of DUOX protein and DUOX functional activity in murine airway epithelium. We also demonstrate that DUOXA maturation factors are required for airway-specific H2O2 production and localization of DUOX to cilia of fully differentiated airway epithelial cells. We compared wild-type and Duoxa(-/-) mice in an ovalbumin exposure model to determine the role of DUOX in allergic asthma. In comparison to DUOX-intact mice, Duoxa(-/-) mice had reduced mucous cell metaplasia and lower levels of TH2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, increased airway resistance in response to methacholine was observed in Duoxa(+/+) mice, as expected, but was absent in Duoxa(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, Duoxa(-/-) mice had decreased influx of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue sections associated with a lower level of the

  13. Glucose and Inflammatory Cells Decrease Adiponectin in Epicardial Adipose Tissue Cells: Paracrine Consequences on Vascular Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Trasancos, Ángel; Guerola-Segura, Raquel; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Álvarez, Ezequiel; García-Acuña, José María; Fernández, Ángel Luis; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Eiras, Sonia

    2016-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a source of energy for heart that expresses the insulin-sensitizer, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic protein, adiponectin. But, in coronary artery disease, adiponectin production declines. Our objective was to determine its regulation by glucose and inflammation in stromal cells from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and its paracrine effect on endothelial cells. Stromal cells of EAT and SAT were obtained from patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Adipogenesis was induced at 117, 200, or 295 mg/dl glucose, with or without macrophage-conditioned medium (MCM). Expression of adiponectin, GLUT-4 and the insulin receptor was analyzed by real-time PCR. The paracrine effect of stromal cells was determined in co-cultures with endothelial cells, by exposing them to high glucose and/or MCM, and, additionally, to leukocyte-conditioned medium from patients with myocardial infarction. The endothelial response was determined by analyzing vascular adhesion molecule expression. Our results showed a U-shaped dose-response curve of glucose on adiponectin in EAT, but not in SAT stromal cells. Conversely, MCM reduced the adipogenesis-induced adiponectin expression of EAT stromal cells. The presence of EAT stromal increased the inflammatory molecules of endothelial cells. This deleterious effect was emphasized in the presence of inflammatory cell-conditioned medium from patients with myocardial infarction. Thus, high glucose and inflammatory cells reduced adipogenesis-induced adiponectin expression of EAT stromal cells, which induced an inflammatory paracrine process in endothelial cells. This inflammatory effect was lower in presence of mature adipocytes, producers of adiponectin. These results contribute to understanding the role of EAT dysfunction on coronary atherosclerosis progression.

  14. Chemokine receptor expression by inflammatory T cells in EAE.

    PubMed

    Mony, Jyothi Thyagabhavan; Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines direct cellular infiltration to tissues, and their receptors and signaling pathways represent targets for therapy in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The chemokine CCL20 is expressed in choroid plexus, a site of entry of T cells to the central nervous system (CNS). The CCL20 receptor CCR6 has been reported to be selectively expressed by CD4(+) T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17 (Th17 cells). Th17 cells and interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-producing Th1 cells are implicated in induction of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have assessed whether CCR6 identifies specific inflammatory T cell subsets in EAE. Our approach was to induce EAE, and then examine chemokine receptor expression by cytokine-producing T cells sorted from CNS at peak disease. About 7% of CNS-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells produced IFNγ in flow cytometric cytokine assays, whereas less than 1% produced IL-17. About 1% of CD4(+) T cells produced both cytokines. CCR6 was expressed by Th1, Th1+17 and by Th17 cells, but not by CD8(+) T cells. CD8(+) T cells expressed CXCR3, which was also expressed by CD4(+) T cells, with no correlation to cytokine profile. Messenger RNA for IFNγ, IL-17A, and the Th1 and Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and RORγt was detected in both CCR6(+) and CXCR3(+) CD4(+) T cells. IFNγ, but not IL-17A mRNA expression was detected in CD8(+) T cells in CNS. CCR6 and CD4 were co-localized in spinal cord infiltrates by double immunofluorescence. Consistent with flow cytometry data some but not all CD4(+) T cells expressed CCR6 within infiltrates. CD4-negative CCR6(+) cells included macrophage/microglial cells. Thus we have for the first time directly studied CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the CNS of mice with peak EAE, and determined IFNγ and IL17 expression by cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3. We show that neither CCR6 or CXCR3 align with CD4 T cell subsets, and Th1 or mixed Th1+17 predominate in EAE.

  15. Anti-Allergic Action of Aged Black Garlic Extract in RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA2, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  16. Anti-allergic action of aged black garlic extract in RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E₂ and leukotriene B₄ at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA₂, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  17. Inhibitory effects of Juglans mandshurica leaf on allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions-induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-03-01

    Allergic dermatitis among common skin diseases is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder caused by genetic, environmental, allergens as well as microbial factors. Allergic dermatitis patients clinically present skin erythematous plaques, eruption, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine levels. The leaf of walnut tree Juglans mandshurica Maxim (JM) is consumed food and traditional phytomedicine in Asia, China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of JM on allergic dermatitis has been reported. Here, we demonstrated the effect of JM against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions. 0.5% JM or 1% dexamethasone (positive control) applied to the dorsal skin inhibited development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-13, were significantly reduced by JM treatment. Thus JM can inhibit development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators, and may be an effective alternative therapy for allergic dermatitis.

  18. Biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory response of human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Agrawal, Anshu; Said, Hamid M

    2016-09-01

    The water-soluble biotin (vitamin B7) is indispensable for normal human health. The vitamin acts as a cofactor for five carboxylases that are critical for fatty acid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency is associated with various diseases, and mice deficient in this vitamin display enhanced inflammation. Previous studies have shown that biotin affects the functions of adaptive immune T and NK cells, but its effect(s) on innate immune cells is not known. Because of that and because vitamins such as vitamins A and D have a profound effect on dendritic cell (DC) function, we investigated the effect of biotin levels on the functions of human monocyte-derived DCs. Culture of DCs in a biotin-deficient medium (BDM) and subsequent activation with LPS resulted in enhanced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-12p40, IL-23, and IL-1β compared with LPS-activated DCs cultured in biotin-sufficient (control) and biotin-oversupplemented media. Furthermore, LPS-activated DCs cultured in BDM displayed a significantly higher induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 indicating Th1/Th17 bias in T cells compared with cells maintained in biotin control or biotin-oversupplemented media. Investigations into the mechanisms suggested that impaired activation of AMP kinase in DCs cultured in BDM may be responsible for the observed increase in inflammatory responses. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory responses of DCs. This may therefore be one of the mechanism(s) that mediates the observed inflammation that occurs in biotin deficiency. PMID:27413170

  19. Photoreceptor Cells Produce Inflammatory Mediators That Contribute to Endothelial Cell Death in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tonade, Deoye; Liu, Haitao; Kern, Timothy S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies suggest that photoreceptor cells regulate local inflammation in the retina in diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine if photoreceptor cells themselves produce inflammatory proteins in diabetes and if soluble factors released by photoreceptors in elevated glucose induce inflammatory changes in nearby cells. Methods Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the outer retina (photoreceptors) from the inner retina in nondiabetic and diabetic mice. Diabetes-induced changes in the expression of inflammatory targets were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were carried out to determine if photoreceptors in vitro and ex vivo release soluble mediators that can stimulate nearby cells. Photoreceptor contribution to leukocyte-mediated endothelial cell death was tested using coculture models. Results Messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression levels for inflammatory proteins intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) were increased in photoreceptors cells in diabetes. In vitro and ex vivo studies show that photoreceptor cells in elevated glucose release mediators that can induce tumor necrosis factor-α in leukocytes and endothelial cells, but not in glia. The soluble mediators released by photoreceptor cells in elevated glucose are regulated by transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) signaling. In contrast to enhanced leukocyte-mediated killing of endothelial cells by leukocytes from wild-type diabetic mice, leukocytes from diabetic mice lacking photoreceptor cells (opsin−/−) did not kill endothelial cells. Conclusions These data indicate that photoreceptor cells are a source of inflammatory proteins in diabetes, and their release of soluble mediators can contribute to the death of retinal capillaries

  20. Heparanase augments inflammatory chemokine production from colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Naoki; Higashi, Nobuaki; Kogane, Yusuke; Waki, Michihiko; Shida, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshio; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2016-01-22

    To explore possible roles of heparanase in cancer-host crosstalk, we examined whether heparanase influences expression of inflammatory chemokines in colorectal cancer cells. Murine colorectal carcinoma cells incubated with heparanase upregulated MCP-1, KC, and RANTES genes and released MCP-1 and KC proteins. Heparanase-dependent production of IL-8 was detected in two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Addition of a heparanase inhibitor Heparastatin (SF4) did not influence MCP-1 production, while both latent and mature forms of heparanase augmented MCP-1 release, suggesting that heparanase catalytic activity was dispensable for MCP-1 production. In contrast, addition of heparin to the medium suppressed MCP-1 release in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, targeted suppression of Ext1 by RNAi significantly suppressed cell surface expression of heparan sulfate and MCP-1 production in colon 26 cells. Taken together, it is concluded that colon 26 cells transduce the heparanase-mediated signal through heparan sulfate binding. We propose a novel function for heparanase independent of its endoglycosidase activity, namely as a stimulant for chemokine production. PMID:26713365

  1. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17a) cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1). Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases. PMID:27403198

  2. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17a) cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1). Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases. PMID:27403198

  3. Distinct expression and function of the novel mouse chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-5 in lung allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned a novel mouse CC chemokine cDNA from the lung during an allergic inflammatory reaction. The protein encoded by this cDNA is chemotactic for eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Based on its similarities in sequence and function with other CC chemokines, we have named it mouse monocyte chemotactic protein-5 (mMCP- 5). Under noninflammatory conditions, expression of mMCP-5 in the lymph nodes and thymus is constitutive and is generally restricted to stromal cells. Neutralization of mMCP-5 protein with specific antibodies during an allergic inflammatory reaction in vivo resulted in a reduction in the number of eosinophils that accumulated in the lung. Moreover, mMCP- 5 mRNA expression in vivo is regulated differently from that of other major CC chemokines in the lung during the allergic reaction, including Eotaxin. The presence of lymphocytes is essential for expression of mMCP-5 by alveolar macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the lung, and the induction of mMCP-5 RNA occurs earlier than that of the eosinophil chemokine Eotaxin during allergic inflammation. In contrast to Eotaxin, mRNA for mMCP-5 can be produced by mast cells. From these results, we postulate that mMCP-5 plays a pivotal role during the early stages of allergic lung inflammation. PMID:8920881

  4. Dendritic Cell-Mediated T Cell Proliferation -A Functional Bioindicator of Inflammatory Source-Specific Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we found that dendritic cells (DC) were sensitive functional bioindicators of ambient PM (APM) exposure mediating Th2-allergic inflammation in the draining lymph nodes. Here, the ability of bone-marrow-derived DC (DC) and putative BM-derived basophils (Ba) to present a...

  5. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Numerous risk factors for endothelial cell inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis have been identified, including inhalation of ultrafine particles. Recently, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) such as titanium (TiO2) NPs have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications. However, there are also great concerns surrounding potential adverse health effects in vascular systems. Although TiO2 NPs are known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, the associated signaling pathways have not been well studied. The focus of this work, therefore, deals with examination of the cellular signaling pathways responsible for TiO2 NP-induced endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, primary vascular endothelial cells were treated with TiO2 NPs for 2-16h at concentrations of 0-50 μg/mL. TiO2 NP exposure increased cellular oxidative stress and DNA binding of NF-κB. Further, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 was increased in cells exposed to TiO2 NPs. TiO2 NPs also significantly increased induction of mRNA and protein levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Pretreatment with inhibitors for NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), oxidative stress (epigallocatechin gallate and apocynin), Akt (LY294002), ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 (SB203580) significantly attenuated TiO2 NP-induced MCP-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression. These data indicate that TiO2 NPs can induce endothelial inflammatory responses via redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways.

  6. Circulating Inflammatory Cells Are Associated with Vein Graft Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Katherine; Murray-Wijelath, Jacqui; Yagi, Mayumi; Kohler, Ted; Hatsukami, Thomas; Clowes, Alexander; Sobel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective Infrainguinal autogenous vein grafts are especially prone to narrowing and failure, and both inflammatory and thrombotic pathways are implicated. Platelets and monocytes are the key thrombo-inflammatory cells that arrive first at sites of vascular injury. These cells have potent interactions that recruit and activate one another, propagating thrombotic and inflammatory responses within the vessel wall. We therefore hypothesized that elevated levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates might be associated with stenosis, and could possibly discriminate between patients with or without vein graft stenosis. Design of Study Thirty-six vascular surgery patients were studied, in a stable quiescent period after infrainguinal autogenous vein graft bypasses for occlusive disease. Eighteen patients had hemodynamically significant graft stenoses confirmed by imaging, and 18 were free from stenosis. The level of platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA) in whole blood was quantified after blood draw using 2-color flow cytometry. Three measurements were made per sample: the basal, in-vivo level of aggregates (Baseline PMA); the predisposition to spontaneously generate PMA (Spontaneous PMA); and PMA generation by the addition of exogenous thrombin receptor activating peptide (Stimulated PMA). The baseline, in-vivo level of PMA was estimated by immediate flow analysis. The predisposition to spontaneously generate PMA was measured after in-vitro incubation. Responsiveness to thrombin stimulation of the blood was quantified by the in vitro dose response to an exogenous thrombin receptor activating peptide (sfllrn). Results Baseline PMA levels were similar in patients with vein graft stenosis vs. non-stenosis (14.8% ±3.2 versus 10.1% ±1.5 respectively, mean ±sem). However, patients with stenosis showed higher Spontaneous PMA levels (58.5% ±4.5 vs. 28.3 % ±4.3, P< .01), and higher Stimulated PMA levels (P< .001, ANOVA). Covariables of smoking, diabetes, statin or antithrombotic

  7. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  8. The Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1 Induces Different Responses in Dendritic Cells of Birch Pollen Allergic and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  9. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  10. Broncho-Vaxom Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Restoring GSK3β-Related T Regulatory Cell Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Yu, Dehong; Zeng, Xianping; Deng, Mengxia; Sun, Yueqi; Wen, Weiping; Li, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of bacterial extracts (eg, Broncho-Vaxom (BV)) has been proposed to attenuate asthma through modulating Treg cells. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully characterized. This study sought to assess the effects of oral administration of BV on GSK-3β expression and Treg cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice models. Method Asthmatic mice models were established with OVA challenge and treated with oral administration of BV. Next, infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophil and neutrophils, mucous metaplasia, levels of Th1/Th2/Treg-typed cytokines and expression of GSK3β and Foxp3 were examined in asthmatic mice models by histological analysis, Bio-Plex and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of Treg cells were evaluated in cultured splenocytes by flow cytometry in the presence of BV or GSK3β siRNA interference. Results We found significant decrease of infiltrated inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in asthmatic mice models after oral administration of BV. Oral administration of BV was shown to significantly suppress mucus metaplasia, Th2-typed cytokine levels and GSK3β expression while increasing Foxp3 production in asthmatic mice models. Moreover, BV significantly enhanced GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells in cultured spleen cells in vitro. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that oral administration of BV is capable of attenuating airway inflammation in asthmatic mice models, which may be associated with GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells. PMID:24667347

  11. Neuroantigen-Specific CD4 Cells Expressing Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-3 in a Mutually Exclusive Manner Prevail in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    PubMed

    Karulin, Alexey Y; Quast, Stefan; Hesse, Maike D; Lehmann, Paul V

    2012-08-24

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is mediated by neuroantigen-specific pro-inflammatory T cells of the Th1 and Th17 effector class. Th-17 cells can be clearly defined by expression of IL-17, but not IFN-γ, IL-2 or IL-3. Th1 cells do not express IL-17, but it is unclear presently to what extent they co-express the cytokines canonically assigned to Th1 immunity (i.e., IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-3) and whether CD4 cells producing these cytokines indeed belong to a single Th1 lineage. It is also unclear to what extent the Th1 response in EAE entails polyfunctional T cells that co-express IFN-γ and IL-2. Therefore, we dissected the Th1 cytokine signature of neuroantigen-specific CD4 cells studying at single cell resolution co-expression of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-3 using dual color cytokine ELISPOT analysis. Shortly after immunization, in the draining lymph nodes (dLN), the overall cytokine signature of the neuroantigen-specific CD4 cells was highly type 1-polarized, but IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-3 were each secreted by different CD4 cells in a mutually exclusive manner. This single cell - single cytokine profile was stable through the course of chronic EAE-polyfunctional CD4 cells co-expressing IL-2 and IFN-γ presented less than 5% of the neuroantigen-specific T cells, even in the inflamed CNS itself. The neuroantigen-specific CD4 cells that expressed IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-3 in a mutually exclusive manner exhibited similar functional avidities and kinetics of cytokine production, but showed different tissue distributions. These data suggest that Th1 cells do not belong to a single lineage, but different Th1 subpopulations jointly mediate Th1 immunity.

  12. Glucose consumption of inflammatory cells masks metabolic deficits in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Heiko; Walberer, Maureen; Ladwig, Anne; Rueger, Maria A.; Neumaier, Bernd; Endepols, Heike; Hoehn, Mathias; Fink, Gereon R.; Schroeter, Michael; Graf, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells such as microglia need energy to exert their functions and to maintain their cellular integrity and membrane potential. Subsequent to cerebral ischemia, inflammatory cells infiltrate tissue with limited blood flow where neurons and astrocytes died due to insufficient supply with oxygen and glucose. Using dual tracer positron emission tomography (PET), we found that concomitant with the presence of inflammatory cells, transport and consumption of glucose increased up to normal levels but returned to pathological levels as soon as inflammatory cells disappeared. Thus, inflammatory cells established sufficient glucose supply to satisfy their energy demands even in regions with insufficient supply for neurons and astrocytes to survive. Our data suggest that neurons and astrocytes died from oxygen deficiency and inflammatory cells metabolized glucose non-oxidatively in regions with residual availability. As a consequence, glucose metabolism of inflammatory cells can mask metabolic deficits in neurodegenerative diseases. We further found that the PET tracer did not bind to inflammatory cells in severely hypoperfused regions and thus only a part of the inflammation was detected. We conclude that glucose consumption of inflammatory cells should be taken into account when analyzing disease-related alterations of local cerebral metabolism. PMID:26747749

  13. Houttuynia cordata Thunb inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NFκB signaling pathway in HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Joe; Seo, Hye-Sook; Kim, Gyung-Jun; Jeon, Chan Yong; Park, Jong Hyeong; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Sun-Ju; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is widely used in oriental medicine as a remedy for inflammation. However, at present there is no explanation for the mechanism by which HCT affects the production of inflammatory cytokines. The current study aimed to determine the effect of an essence extracted from HCT on mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Inflammatory cytokine production induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus a calcium ionophore, A23187, was measured in the human mast cell line, HMC-1, incubated with various concentrations of HCT. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secreted protein levels were measured using an ELISA assay. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR analysis. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were examined by western blot analysis. The NF-κB promoter activity was examined by luciferase assay. It was observed that HCT inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced TNF-α and IL-6 secretion and reduced the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. It was also noted that HCT suppressed the induction of NF-κB activity, inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα in stimulated HMC-1 cells. It was concluded that HCT is an inhibitor of NF-κB and cytokines blocking mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. These results indicate that HCT may be used for the treatment of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23846481

  14. Cross-talk between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghadban, Sara; Kaissi, Samira; Homaidan, Fadia R.; Naim, Hassan Y.; El-Sabban, Marwan E.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves functional impairment of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), concomitant with the infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells. We explored the reciprocal paracrine and direct interaction between human IECs and macrophages (MΦ) in a co-culture system that mimics some aspects of IBD. We investigated the expression of intercellular junctional proteins in cultured IECs under inflammatory conditions and in tissues from IBD patients. IECs establish functional gap junctions with IECs and MΦ, respectively. Connexin (Cx26) and Cx43 expression in cultured IECs is augmented under inflammatory conditions; while, Cx43-associated junctional complexes partners, E-cadherin, ZO-1, and β-catenin expression is decreased. The expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in IBD tissues is redistributed to the basal membrane of IEC, which is associated with decrease in junctional complex proteins’ expression, collagen type IV expression and infiltration of MΦ. These data support the notion that the combination of paracrine and hetero-cellular communication between IECs and MΦs may regulate epithelial cell function through the establishment of junctional complexes between inflammatory cells and IECs, which ultimately contribute to the dys-regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier. PMID:27417573

  15. Cross-talk between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghadban, Sara; Kaissi, Samira; Homaidan, Fadia R; Naim, Hassan Y; El-Sabban, Marwan E

    2016-07-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves functional impairment of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), concomitant with the infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells. We explored the reciprocal paracrine and direct interaction between human IECs and macrophages (MΦ) in a co-culture system that mimics some aspects of IBD. We investigated the expression of intercellular junctional proteins in cultured IECs under inflammatory conditions and in tissues from IBD patients. IECs establish functional gap junctions with IECs and MΦ, respectively. Connexin (Cx26) and Cx43 expression in cultured IECs is augmented under inflammatory conditions; while, Cx43-associated junctional complexes partners, E-cadherin, ZO-1, and β-catenin expression is decreased. The expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in IBD tissues is redistributed to the basal membrane of IEC, which is associated with decrease in junctional complex proteins' expression, collagen type IV expression and infiltration of MΦ. These data support the notion that the combination of paracrine and hetero-cellular communication between IECs and MΦs may regulate epithelial cell function through the establishment of junctional complexes between inflammatory cells and IECs, which ultimately contribute to the dys-regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of glaucocalyxin B in microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ping; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yanke; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Fali; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohu; Gao, Bo; Zhen, Xuechu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Long Tai

    2015-05-01

    Over-activated microglia is involved in various kinds of neurodegenerative process including Parkinson, Alzheimer and HIV dementia. Suppression of microglial over activation has emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of neuroinflammation-based neurodegeneration. In the current study, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, which were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f.) var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, were investigated in cultured microglia cells. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB), one of five ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia cells. In addition, GLB inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GLB strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in BV-2 microglia cells. Finally, GLB exhibited neuroprotective effect by preventing over-activated microglia induced neurotoxicity in a microglia/neuron co-culture model. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the GLB possesses anti-nueroinflammatory activity, and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:26003084

  17. Expression of Th1, Th2, lymphocyte trafficking and activation markers on CD4+ T-cells of Hymenoptera allergic subjects and after venom immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Carmen M; Urra, José M; Alfaya, Teresa; Roca, Federico De La; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings can be fatal and represent a reduction in the quality of life. The immune mechanisms involved in venom allergic subjects are barely known. Nevertheless, a shift towards a Th1-type response with an increase in IFNγ levels has been observed after venom immunotherapy (VIT). There is currently no information available about the expression of markers on CD4+ T-cells or their involvement in venom allergy, nor following VIT. For this, we have studied the expression of Th1 and Th2-cell markers, homing receptors and activation markers on CD4+ T-cells of subjects who presented systemic allergic reactions, mainly to Polistes dominulus, and after receiving a 4-month conventional VIT protocol. The markers studied were: CD26 (Th1), CD30 (Th2), CXCR4, CXCR3 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), CD154 (CD40L), CD152 (CTLA-A), and ICOS. We also determined the IL-4 (Th2) and IFNγ (Th1) intracellular cytokine levels in T-cells and carried out a basophil activation test (BAT). Comparing venom allergic subjects with non-allergic healthy controls, we have found up-regulation of CD26, CXCR4, CXCR3, CD154 and ICOS. Conversely, a down-regulation of CD30, CD154 and CD152 occurred upon immune intervention, whereas the remaining markers were not affected. Equally, VIT has been shown to be effective, as evidenced by the decrease of basophil degranulation and increase of IFNγ levels in T-cells after the fourth month of treatment. These new findings highlight the possible application of these surface molecules as markers to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects sensitized to Hymenoptera venom, as well as revealing information about the immune changes associated with VIT.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin via suppression of inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Cheol; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Wun-Jae; Jung, Won-Kyo; Seo, Su Kil; Choi, Il-Whan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2010-12-01

    Cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces the bioactive compound cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine). Although cordycepin has been shown to have pharmacological, immunological stimulating, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities, its activities and cellular mechanisms during microglial activation have yet to be elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of cordycepin on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia. We also investigated the effects of cordycepin on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and on phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). After LPS stimulation, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was detected in BV2 microglia. However, we found that cordycepin significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE₂, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a concentration-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, cordycepin suppressed NF-κB translocation by blocking IkappaB-α (IκB-α) degradation and inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK-1/2, JNK, and p38 kinase. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effect of cordycepin on LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediator production in BV2 microglia is associated with the suppression of the NF-κB, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, cordycepin may be useful in treating neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting inflammatory mediator production in activated microglia. PMID:20937401

  19. Anti-Allergic Effect of Oroxylin A from Oroxylum indicum Using in vivo and in vitro Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ae-Yeon; Kang, Saeromi; Park, Soo-Jin; Huang, Jin; Im, Dong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Oroxylum indicum has long been used in Asian traditional medicine to prevent and treat respiratory diseases, diabetes, diarrhea and other conditions. Oroxylin A is a flavone that is present in Oroxylum indicum and in Scutellaria baicalensis. Because the root extracts of both plants have been shown to have anti-allergic effects, the authors investigated whether oroxylin A is likely to have beneficial effects on allergic asthma using female Balb/c mice and rat RBL-2H3 mast cells. Antigen-induced degranulation was measured in vitro by measuring β-hexosaminidase activity. A murine ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma model was used to test the in vivo efficacy of oroxylin A. Sensitization and challenge of ovalbumin induced allergic asthma responses, the accumulations of eosinophils and Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues. Oroxylin A administration decreased numbers of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, and reduced the expression and secretion of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13, in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histologic studies showed oroxylin A reduced inflammatory signs and mucin production in lungs. These findings provide evidence that oroxylin A has potential use as an anti-allergic therapeutic. PMID:27133260

  20. Beneficial effect of annexin A1 in a model of experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Alexandre D; Andrade, Teresa Raquel M; Mello, Cláudia B; Ramos, Lisandra; Gil, Cristiane D; Oliani, Sonia M

    2015-05-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a 37 kDa glucocorticoid-regulated protein, is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator effective in terminating acute inflammatory response, and its role in allergic settings has been poorly studied. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the mechanism of action of ANXA1 in intraocular inflammation using a classical model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic conjunctivitis (AC). OVA-immunised Balb/c mice, wild-type (WT) and ANXA1-deficient (AnxA1(-/-)), were challenged with eye drops containing OVA on days 14-16 with a subset of WT animals pretreated intraperitoneally with the peptide Ac2-26 (N-terminal region of ANXA1) or dexamethasone (DEX). After 24 h of the last ocular challenge, WT mice treated with Ac2-26 and DEX had significantly reduced clinical signs of conjunctivitis (chemosis, conjunctival hyperaemia, lid oedema and tearing), plasma IgE levels, leukocyte (eosinophil and neutrophil) influx and mast cell degranulation in the conjunctiva compared to WT controls. These anti-inflammatory effects of DEX were associated with high endogenous levels of ANXA1 in the ocular tissues as detected by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, Ac2-26 administration was effective to reduce IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, eotaxin and RANTES in the eye and lymph nodes compared to untreated WT animals. The lack of ANXA1 produced an exacerbated allergic response as detected by the density of the inflammatory cell influx to the conjunctiva and the cytokine/chemokine release. These different effects observed for Ac2-26 were correlated with diminished level of activated ERK at 24 h in the ocular tissues compared to untreated OVA group. Our findings demonstrate the protective effect of ANXA1 during the inflammatory allergic response suggesting this protein as a potential target for new ocular inflammation therapies.

  1. Upregulation of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells is associated with Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Fukun; An, Liyun; Wang, Xianling

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator preferentially expressed on Th1 cells. Allergic asthma is a clinical syndrome well characterized by Th1/Th2 imbalance. To investigate the role of Tim-3 in the pathogenesis of asthma and its relationship with Th1/Th2 imbalance, a total of 40 patients with allergic asthma and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Expression of Tim-3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance as well as the relationship between them was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Th1/Th2 cytokines in the culture supernatant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD4(+) T cells and B cells were sorted and co-cultured in vitro, and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Total IgG/IgE in the culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The mRNA level of T-bet and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in allergic asthma patients, while GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly increased. Expression of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells was much higher in allergic asthma patients and it was negatively correlated with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio or IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio. Blocking of Tim-3 significantly increased Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in the culture supernatant of PBMCs. Blocking of Tim-3 dramatically reduced the production of IgG and IgE in the co-culture supernatant of CD4(+) T cells and B cells. In conclusion, Tim-3 was up-regulated in allergic asthma patients and related with the Th1/Th2 imbalance. Blocking of Tim-3 may be of therapeutic benefit by enhancing the Th1 cytokines response, down-regulating the Th2 cytokines response, and reducing IgG/IgE production.

  2. Upregulation of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells is associated with Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Fukun; An, Liyun; Wang, Xianling

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator preferentially expressed on Th1 cells. Allergic asthma is a clinical syndrome well characterized by Th1/Th2 imbalance. To investigate the role of Tim-3 in the pathogenesis of asthma and its relationship with Th1/Th2 imbalance, a total of 40 patients with allergic asthma and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Expression of Tim-3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance as well as the relationship between them was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Th1/Th2 cytokines in the culture supernatant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD4(+) T cells and B cells were sorted and co-cultured in vitro, and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Total IgG/IgE in the culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The mRNA level of T-bet and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in allergic asthma patients, while GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly increased. Expression of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells was much higher in allergic asthma patients and it was negatively correlated with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio or IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio. Blocking of Tim-3 significantly increased Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in the culture supernatant of PBMCs. Blocking of Tim-3 dramatically reduced the production of IgG and IgE in the co-culture supernatant of CD4(+) T cells and B cells. In conclusion, Tim-3 was up-regulated in allergic asthma patients and related with the Th1/Th2 imbalance. Blocking of Tim-3 may be of therapeutic benefit by enhancing the Th1 cytokines response, down-regulating the Th2 cytokines response, and reducing IgG/IgE production. PMID:26064278

  3. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  4. Disrupted regulatory T cell homeostasis in inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pedros, Christophe; Duguet, Fanny; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Chabod, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In the gut, where billions of non-self-antigens from the food and the microbiota are present, the immune response must be tightly regulated to ensure both host protection against pathogenic microorganisms and the absence of immune-related pathologies. It has been well documented that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in this context. Indeed, Tregs are able to prevent excessive inflammation, which can lead to the rupture of intestinal homeostasis observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Both the worldwide incidence and prevalence of such diseases have increased throughout the latter part of the 20th century. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how Tregs suppress the colitogenic immune cells to establish new treatments for patients suffering from IBDs. In this review, we will first summarize the results obtained in animal model studies that highlight the importance of Tregs in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and describe the specific suppressive mechanisms involved. Next, our current knowledge about Tregs contribution to human IBDs will be reviewed, as well as the current therapeutic perspective on using Tregs for clinical IBD treatment and the challenges that remain to be resolved to ensure both the safety and effectiveness of these therapies in targeting this critical immune-regulatory cell population. PMID:26811641

  5. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND MAST CELL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FICUS RELIGIOSA

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, S.; Thirugnanasambantham, P.; Reddy, M. Kannappa; Narasimhan, S.; Subramaniam, G. Anantha

    1990-01-01

    The aqueous extract of bark of Ficus religiosa was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory effect and for its protective effect on mast cells against degranulation. A significant anti-inflammatory effect was observed in both acute and chronic models of inflammation. The extract also protected mast cells from degranulation induced by various degranulatiors. The observed anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect may be responsible for the beneficial effect of Ficus religiosa in kumkum dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:22556521

  6. Anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect of ficus religiosa.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, S; Thirugnanasambantham, P; Reddy, M K; Narasimhan, S; Subramaniam, G A

    1990-10-01

    The aqueous extract of bark of Ficus religiosa was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory effect and for its protective effect on mast cells against degranulation. A significant anti-inflammatory effect was observed in both acute and chronic models of inflammation. The extract also protected mast cells from degranulation induced by various degranulatiors. The observed anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect may be responsible for the beneficial effect of Ficus religiosa in kumkum dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:22556521

  7. Current concept of allergic skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Polak, L

    1980-10-01

    Synopsis On the basis of literature and experimental work the present views on the mechanism of the development of allergic skin reactions of the contact type are reviewed. Precursors of effector cells originating from stem cells are stimulated by the antigenic complex formed by the application of the hapten to the skin. Autologous skin proteins and macrophages play an important role in this preparatory and antigen recognition phases. Activated T lymphocytes proliferate in the draining lymph node and differentiate into effector and memory cells. The former react to a repeated application of the hapten with release of mediators inducing a skin inflammatory reaction. The latter produce further effector cells thus enhancing the degree of contact sensitivity (booster effect). The hapten application also activates a specific control mechanism consisting of lymphocytes with the same specificity but adverse activity. These cells, called suppressors, restrict the development of further effector cells thus limiting the degree of contact sensitivity. Elimination of suppressor cells leads to an enhancement of the degree of contact sensitivity whereas an intended extreme activation of these cells induces a state of specific immunological unresponsiveness (tolerance).

  8. Inhibition of mammalian DNA polymerases and the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses by tyrosol from used activated charcoal waste generated during sake production.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Yoshiaki; Onodera, Takefumi; Kuriyama, Isoko; Sakamoto, Yuka; Nishikori, Shu; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    The components adsorbed onto activated charcoal following the fermentation process of the Japanese rice wine "sake" have been studied with the aim of identifying suitable applications for this industrial food waste product. The absorbed materials were effectively extracted from the charcoal, and inhibited the activity of several mammalian DNA polymerases (pols). Subsequent purification of the extract afforded tyrosol [4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol] as the active component, which selectively inhibited the activity of 11 mammalian pols with IC50 values in the range of 34.3-46.1 μM. In contrast, this compound did not influence the activities of plant or prokaryotic pols or any of the other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. Tyrosol suppressed both anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects in vivo, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, and immunoglobulin E-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice. These results suggested that this byproduct formed during the sake-brewing process could be used as an anti-inflammatory and/or antiallergic agent.

  9. Role of T-helper type 2 cytokines in down-modulation of fas mRNA and receptor on the surface of activated CD4(+) T cells: molecular basis for the persistence of the allergic immune response.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Fizzotti, M; Bassotti, G; Russano, A; Droetto, S; Bistoni, O; Grignani, F; Bertotto, A

    1998-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for persistence of T lymphocytes at the sites of allergic inflammation are not completely understood. Activated T cells, usually expressing Fas on their surface, undergo activation-induced apoptotic death, thus limiting the dangerous consequences of a persistent immune reaction. We have previously shown that pulmonary T lymphocytes from untreated asthmatic subjects do not express surface Fas receptors nor do they contain Fas mRNA, yet they display normal levels of Fas ligand. This is not an inherited defect and is confined to mucosal T cells. To gain insights into the mechanism responsible for these findings, we performed a set of experiments with both purified Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen and recombinant human cytokines: interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, transforming growth factor beta1, interferon gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In vitro exposure of purified CD4(+) lymphocytes to allergen yielded only transient up-regulation of surface Fas but did not influence susceptibility to Fas-mediated cell death. T-helper type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and GM-CSF) had a dose-dependent and specific inhibitory effect on Fas mRNA, suggesting a new fundamental biological role in the survival of inflammatory cells during allergen exposure. PMID:9837865

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Chiurazzi, Romina; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Argenziano, Mariana A; Soto, Ariadna; Picchio, Mariano S; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells. PMID:22952678

  11. Silencing of c-kit with small interference RNA attenuates inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Tao; Dong, Jia-Jia; Liao, Zeng-Lin; Wen, Fu-Qiang

    2012-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by the inflammation of the airways due to infiltration and activation of several inflammatory cells that produce cytokines. c-kit, a proto-oncogene that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor, has been found to be associated with allergic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether silencing of c-kit with small interference RNA (siRNA) would attenuate inflammation in allergic asthma. A mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma was treated with systemic administration of anti-c-kit siRNA to inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene. siRNAs were injected through the vena caudalis. We measured inflammatory response in both anti-c-kit siRNA-treated and control mice. Systemic administration of siRNA could effectively inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells (eosinophils and lymphocytes) into the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, we found that c-kit siRNA can decrease the production of the T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-5, but has no influence on IFN-γ generation. These results show that inhibition of c-kit expression with siRNA can reduce the inflammatory response in allergic asthma.

  12. Differential activation of dendritic cells by toll-like receptors causes diverse differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells from allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Deifl, S.; Kitzmüller, C.; Steinberger, P.; Himly, M.; Jahn-Schmid, B.; Fischer, G. F.; Zlabinger, G. J.; Bohle, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background To avert the differentiation of allergen-specific Th2 cells in atopic individuals is a major goal in the prevention and therapy of IgE-mediated allergy. We aimed to compare different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists regarding their effects on antigen-presenting cells and the differentiation of naïve T cells from allergic patients. Methods Monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDC) from allergic patients were stimulated with Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 ligand), FSL-1 (TLR2/6 ligand), monophosphoryl lipid (MPL)-A, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, both TLR4 ligands), and flagellin (TLR5 ligand). Allergen uptake and upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD58, CCR7 and PD-L1 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Functional maturation of mdDC was tested in mixed leukocyte reactions, and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and members of the IL-12 family was assessed. TLR-ligand-activated mdDC were used to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells, and cytokine responses were assessed in supernatants and intracellularly. Results All TLR ligands except flagellin enhanced allergen uptake. All TLR ligands induced functional maturation of mdDC with differential expression of surface molecules and cytokines and promoted the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing T cells. LPS-matured mdDC exclusively induced Th1-like responses, whereas mdDC stimulated with the other TLR ligands induced both Th1- and Th0-like cells. Pam3CSK4 and flagellin additionally induced Th2-like cells. Th1-like responses were associated with higher expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules, PD-L1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-12p70. None of the TLR-ligand-stimulated mdDC induced IL-10- or IL-17-producing T cells. Conclusion Different TLR ligands differently influence T-cell responses due to varying activation of the three signals relevant for T-cell activation, that is, antigen presentation, co-stimulation and cytokine milieu. PMID:25093709

  13. Ancillary therapy of intranasal T-LysYal® for patients with allergic, non-allergic, and mixed rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Taliente, S; Fiorella, M L; Quaranta, N; Ciancio, G; Russo, C; Mola, P; Ciofalo, A; Zambetti, G; Caruso Armone, A; Cantone, E; Ciprandi, G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated pathogenesis. Frequently, patients have the two disorders associated: such as mixed rhinitis (MR). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a fundamental component of the human connective tissue. HA may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activities. Recently, an intranasal HA formulation was proposed: a supramolecular system containing lysine hyaluronate, thymine and sodium chloride (T-LysYal®). This randomized study investigated whether intranasal T-LysYal® (rinoLysYal®, Farmigea, Italy) was able to reduce symptom severity, endoscopic features, and nasal cytology in 89 patients (48 males and 41 females, mean age 36.3±7.1 years) with AR, NAR, and MR. Patients were treated with intranasal T-LysYal® or isotonic saline solution as adjunctive therapy to nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine for 4 weeks. Patients were visited at baseline, after treatment and after 4-week follow-up. Intranasal T-LysYal® treatment significantly reduced the quote of patients with symptoms, endoscopic features, and inflammatory cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that intranasal T-LysYal® is able, as ancillary therapy, to significantly improve patients with AR, NAR, and MR, and its effect is long lasting. PMID:27049100

  14. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  15. Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Joseph; Richard, Nathalie; Mussler, Bernd; Raederstorff, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients transiently or chronically modulate functional and biochemical characteristics of cells and tissues both in vivo and in vitro. The influence of tomato aqueous extract (TAE) on the in vitro inflammatory response of activated human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and macrophages was investigated. Its effect on endothelial dysfunction (ED) was analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), PBLs and HUVECs were incubated with TAE. They were activated with LPS or TNF-α in order to induce inflammatory processes and ED, respectively. Inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules were measured by immune assay-based multiplex analysis. Gene expression was quantified by RT-PCR. TAE altered the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12) and chemokines (CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL10/IP-10) in PBLs. TAE reduced ED-associated expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) in endothelial cell. In macrophages, the production of nitric oxide, PGE2, cytokines and ILs (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12), which reflects chronic inflammatory processes, was reduced. Adenosine was identified as the main bioactive of TAE. Thus, TAE had cell-specific and context-dependent effects. We infer from these in vitro data, that during acute inflammation TAE enhances cellular alertness and therefore the sensing of disturbed immune homeostasis in the vascular-endothelial compartment. Conversely, it blunts inflammatory mediators in macrophages during chronic inflammation. A novel concept of immune regulation by this extract is proposed. PMID:26840280

  16. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR. PMID:26012287

  17. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR.

  18. T cell treatment with small interfering RNA for suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 modulates allergic airway responses in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Atsushi; Inoue, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takako; Matsunaga, Yuko; Matsuno, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kan-O, Keiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Tsuda-Eguchi, Miyuki; Nagakubo, Daisuke; Yoshie, Osamu; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kubo, Masato; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2011-04-01

    CD4(+) T cells, particularly T helper (Th) 2 cells, play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins control the balance of CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Mice that lack SOCS3 in T cells by crossing SOCS3-floxed mice with Lck-Cre-transgenic mice have reduced allergen-induced eosinophilia in the airways. Here, we studied the effects of SOCS3 silencing with small interfering (si) RNA in primary CD4(+) T cells on Th2 cell differentiation and on asthmatic responses in mice. Th2 cells were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor-transgenic mice in vitro and transferred into recipient mice. Transfection of SOCS3-specific siRNA attenuated Th2 response in vitro. Adoptive transfer of SOCS3-siRNA T cells exhibited markedly suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia after OVA challenge, with a concomitant decrease in OVA-specific CD4(+) T cell accumulation in the airways. To investigate the mechanism of this impaired CD4(+) T cell accumulation, we inactivated SOCS3 of T cells by crossing SOCS3-floxed (SOCS3(flox/flox)) mice with CD4-Cre transgenic mice. CD4-Cre × SOCS3(flox/flox) mice exhibited fewer IL-4-producing cells and more reduced eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids than control mice in a model of OVA-induced asthma. Expression of CCR3 and CCR4 in CD4(+) T cells was decreased in CD4-Cre × SOCS3(flox/flox) mice. CCR4 expression was also decreased in CD4(+) T cells after transfer of SOCS3 siRNA-treated T cells. These findings suggest that the therapeutic modulation of SOCS3 expression in CD4(+) T cells might be effective in preventing the development of allergic asthma.

  19. Intranasal sirna targeting c-kit reduces airway inflammation in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Hui; Li, Ya-Ming; Wang, Sheng-Yu; Diao, Xin; Liu, Kai-Ge

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway inflammation caused by infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells that produce cytokines. Many studies have revealed that c-kit, a proto-oncogene, and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), play an important role in the development of asthmatic inflammation. Intranasal small interference RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles targeting specific viral gene could inhibit airway inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether silencing of c-kit with intranasal small interference RNA could reduce inflammation in allergic asthma. A mouse model of experimental asthma was treated with intranasal administration of anti-c-kit siRNA to inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene. We assessed the inflammatory response in both anti-c-kit siRNA-treated and control mice. Local administration of siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of the c-kit gene and reduced airway mucus secretion and the infiltration of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, c-kit siRNA reduced the production of SCF, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-5, but had no effect on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) generation. These results show that intranasal siRNA nanoparticles targeting c-kit can decrease the inflammatory response in experimental allergic asthma.

  20. Bcl6 Controls the Th2 Inflammatory Activity of Regulatory T Cells by Repressing Gata3 Function

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Deepali V.; Sehra, Sarita; Nguyen, Evelyn T.; Jadhav, Rohit; Englert, Kate; Shinnakasu, Ryo; Hangoc, Giao; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Nakayama, Toshinori; Perumal, Narayanan B.; Kaplan, Mark H.; Dent, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional repressor Bcl6 is a critical arbiter of T helper cell fate, promoting the follicular helper (Tfh) lineage while repressing other T helper cell lineages. Bcl6-deficient (Bcl6-/-) mice develop a spontaneous and severe Th2-type inflammatory disease, thus warranting assessment of Bcl6 in Treg cell function. Bcl6-/- Tregs were competent at suppressing T cell proliferation in vitro and Th1-type colitogenic T cell responses in vivo. In contrast, Bcl6-/- Treg cells strongly exacerbated lung inflammation in a model of allergic airway disease, and promoted higher Th2 responses, including systemic up-regulation of microRNA-21. Further, Bcl6-/- Tregs were selectively impaired at controlling Th2 responses but not Th1 and Th17 responses, in mixed chimeras of Bcl6-/- bone marrow with Foxp3-/- bone marrow. Bcl6-/- Tregs displayed increased levels of the Th2 transcription factor Gata3 and other Th2 and Treg genes. Bcl6 potently repressed Gata3 transcriptional transactivation, providing a mechanism for the increased expression of Th2 genes by Bcl6-/- Tregs. Gata3 has a critical role in regulating Foxp3 expression and functional fitness of Tregs, however, the signal that regulates Gata3 and restricts its transactivation of Th2 cytokines in Tregs has remained unexplored. Our results identify Bcl6 as an essential transcription factor regulating Gata3 activity in Tregs. Thus, Bcl6 represents a crucial regulatory layer in the Treg functional program, required for specific suppression of Gata3 and Th2 effector responses by Tregs. PMID:23053511

  1. Allergic conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to allergy-causing substances, a substance called histamine is released by your body. The blood vessels ... white blood cell called mast cells from releasing histamine. These drops are given along with antihistamines. These ...

  2. Cells from Degenerative Intervertebral Discs Demonstrate Unfavorable Responses to Mechanical and Inflammatory Stimuli: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Coelho, J. Paulo; Vo, Nam V.; Pacek, Corey; Westrick, Edward; Kang, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mechanical forces and inflammatory signaling influence intervertebral disc matrix homeostasis. We hypothesized that annulus fibrosus cells from degenerative discs would have altered responses to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli compared with cells isolated from normal discs. Design Annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits with normal and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed degenerative discs created by annular stab. Cells were cultured with and without inflammatory and mechanical stimuli (tensile strain). After 4 or 24 hrs, the mRNA expression of inflammatory, catabolic, and anabolic genes was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Baseline gene expression differences were noted between cells from normal and degenerative discs. Degenerative cells demonstrated a more proinflammatory response profile to inflammatory and mechanical stimuli and loss of the beneficial effects of mechanical signaling. Decreased expression of catabolic and anabolic genes was observed in degenerative cells under conditions of inflammatory and mechanical stimuli. Conclusions These data demonstrate that degenerative cells have a decreased capacity to respond positively to beneficial levels of mechanical strain and demonstrate an exaggerated response to an inflammatory stimulus. This may, in part, help to explain differential responses to motion-based therapies in patients with intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:22760106

  3. Anti-allergic effects of So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis model.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jin Mo; Hong, Se Hyang; Kim, Soon Re; Choi, Han-Seok; Seo, Hye Sook; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Shin, Yong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. The Korean herbal medicine, So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT) has been typically used for the treatment of AR for hundreds of years. In the present study, we investigated whether SCRT suppresses the progression of AR in animal model. AR was induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Treatment with SCRT was assessed to study the effect of SCRT on AR in mice. Histological analysis, multiplex cytokine assay, blood analysis, cell viability assay, RT-PCR and Elisa assay were performed to verify inhibitory effect of SCRT on AR. SCRT reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells into nasal cavity. SCRT reduced infiltration of mast cells into nasal mucosa. SCRT reduced the levels of cytokines (IL-4 and LIF) in the serum. SCRT reduced the levels of leukocytes in the blood. SCRT decreased cell viability of HMC-1 cells and splenocyte. SCRT suppressed IL-4 level in HMC-1 cells and splenocyte cells in a dose-dependent manner. SCRT suppressed IL-6 level and TNF-α level in splenocyte. SCRT suppresses the progression of AR induced by OVA. SCRT might be a useful drug for the treatment of AR.

  4. Two mast cell stabilizers, pemirolast potassium 0.1% and nedocromil sodium 2%, in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shulman, David G

    2003-01-01

    This randomized, double-masked, active-control, parallel-group trial compared the mast cell stabilizers pemirolast potassium 0.1% and nedocromil sodium 2% in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Pemirolast is currently indicated for four-times-daily administration, nedocromil, for twice-daily dosing. Both ophthalmic solutions were instilled bilaterally twice a day for 8 weeks. The study involved four office visits and two telephone contacts. Participants evaluated their symptoms daily in take-home diaries (itching was the primary efficacy variable) and completed questionnaires to assess comfort. Of a total enrollment of 80, 78 patients completed the study. No significant differences were found between pemirolast and nedocromil on any signs or symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis (redness, chemosis, itching, eyelid swelling). At each visit, pemirolast was rated significantly more comfortable than nedocromil. A significantly higher percentage of the pemirolast group experienced no signs or symptoms at work or school (58% vs 28%; P = .005). The number of adverse events did not differ significantly between groups. Twice-daily administration of pemirolast potassium was as efficacious and safe as twice-daily nedocromil sodium in the 8-week treatment of ragweed allergic conjunctivitis and was superior to nedocromil in comfort. Increased comfort with pemirolast may increase patient satisfaction and compliance with therapy.

  5. Expression of Toll-like Receptor 9 in nose, peripheral blood and bone marrow during symptomatic allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Mattias; Benson, Mikael; Erjefält, Jonas S; Jansson, Lennart; Uddman, Rolf; Björnsson, Sven; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Adner, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease of the upper airway mucosa that also affects leukocytes in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a receptor for unmethylated CpG dinucleotides found in bacterial and viral DNA. The present study was designed to examine the expression of TLR9 in the nasal mucosa and in leukocytes derived from different cellular compartments during symptomatic allergic rhinitis. Methods The study was based on 32 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and 18 healthy subjects, serving as controls. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and after allergen challenge. Bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid were sampled outside and during pollen season. The expression of TLR9 in tissues and cells was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. Results TLR9 was found in several cell types in the nasal mucosa and in different leukocyte subpopulations derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid. The leukocyte expression was generally higher in bone marrow than in peripheral blood, and not affected by symptomatic allergic rhinitis. Conclusion The widespread expression of TLR9 in the nasal mucosa along with its rich representation in leukocytes in different compartments, demonstrate the possibility for cells involved in allergic airway inflammation to directly interact with bacterial and viral DNA. PMID:17328813

  6. Targeted inhibition of KCa3.1 channel attenuates airway inflammation and remodeling in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Jian-Rong; Wang, Yan-Xia; Xu, Guang-Ni; Xu, Zu-Peng; Yang, Kai; Wu, Da-Zheng; Cui, Yong-Yao; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2013-06-01

    KCa3.1 has been suggested to be involved in regulating cell activation, proliferation, and migration in multiple cell types, including airway inflammatory and structural cells. However, the contributions of KCa3.1 to airway inflammation and remodeling and subsequent airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in allergic asthma remain to be explored. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the roles of KCa3.1 and the potential therapeutic value of KCa3.1 blockers in chronic allergic asthma. Using real-time PCR, Western blotting, or immunohistochemical analyses, we explored the precise role of KCa3.1 in the bronchi of allergic mice and asthmatic human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs). We found that KCa3.1 mRNA and protein expression were elevated in the bronchi of allergic mice, and double labeling revealed that up-regulation occurred primarily in airway smooth muscle cells. Triarylmethane (TRAM)-34, a KCa3.1 blocker, dose-dependently inhibited the generation and maintenance of the ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation associated with increased Th2-type cytokines and decreased Th1-type cytokine, as well as subepithelial extracellular matrix deposition, goblet-cell hyperplasia, and AHR in a murine model of asthma. Moreover, the pharmacological blockade and gene silencing of KCa3.1, which was evidently elevated after mitogen stimulation, suppressed asthmatic human BSMC proliferation and migration, and arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. In addition, the KCa3.1 activator 1-ethylbenzimidazolinone-induced membrane hyperpolarization and intracellular calcium increase in asthmatic human BSMCs were attenuated by TRAM-34. We demonstrate for the first time an important role for KCa3.1 in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and remodeling in allergic asthma, and we suggest that KCa3.1 blockers may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for asthma.

  7. [Role of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 in allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Julia, Valérie; Staumont-Salle, Delphine; Dombrowicz, David

    2016-03-01

    Allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis are diseases mainly resulting from the activation of Th2 cells, that produce cytokines favouring IgE production and eosinophilia but also of Th1 cells, that contribute to inflammation chronicity. Lymphocyte recruitment and retention of Th cells in target organs are 2 key events for asthma and atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. While lymphocyte migration is regulated by chemokines and lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins, factors involved in lymphocyte retention and survival within inflammatory tissues remain poorly understood. Recent works show that, in allergic diseases, there is an increased expression of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its unique receptor CX3CR1 and that this chemokine does not act as chemoattractant. In allergic asthma, CX3CR1 expression regulates Th2 and Th1 cell survival in the inflammatory lung, while, in atopic dermatitis, it regulate Th2 and Th1 cell retention into the inflammatory site. Use of peptides blocking fractalkine binding to its receptor is currently tested in the treatment of asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  8. In vitro evaluation of intestinal epithelial TLR activation in preventing food allergic responses.

    PubMed

    de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C; DeMeo, Mark T; Fox, Susan; Garssen, Johan; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L

    2014-10-01

    Alterations in the gut microbiota composition are associated with food allergy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to microbial stimuli. We studied the effects of the ligation of TLRs on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in preventing an allergic effector response. IEC monolayers (T84 cells) were co-cultured with CD3/28-activated PBMCs from healthy controls or atopic patients and simultaneously apically exposed to TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9 ligands. The barrier integrity of T84 cell monolayers was significantly reduced upon co-culture with PBMCs of food allergic subjects compared to healthy subjects. Apical exposure of IECs to a TLR9 ligand prevented PBMC-induced epithelial barrier disruption. Using PBMCs from food allergic subjects, apical TLR9 activation on IECs increased the IFN-γ/IL-13 and IL-10/IL-13 ratio, while suppressing pro-inflammatory IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α production in an IEC-dependent manner. Hence, the activation of apical TLR9 on IECs, potentially by microbiota-derived signals, may play an important role in the prevention of allergic inflammation. PMID:25058467

  9. THE EFFECTS OF COMBINATORIAL EXPOSURE OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES ON AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RELEASE OF CHEMOTACTIC MEDIATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 15 million individuals nationally. Within the inflamed asthmatic airway there exist complex interactions between many cells and the cytokines they release, in particular mast cells, eosinophils, T-lymphocy...

  10. Urban Particulate Matter-Activated Human Dendritic Cells Induce the Expansion of Potent Inflammatory Th1, Th2, and Th17 Effector Cells.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Nick C; Pfeffer, Paul E; Mann, Elizabeth H; Kelly, Frank J; Corrigan, Christopher J; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M; Lee, Tak H

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to urban particulate matter (UPM) exacerbates asthmatic lung inflammation. Lung dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for stimulating T cell immunity and in maintaining airway tolerance, but they also react to airway UPM. The adjuvant role of UPM in enhancing primary immune responses by naive cells to allergen has been reported, but the direct effects of UPM-activated DCs on the functionality of human memory CD4 T cells (Tms), which constitute the majority of T cells in the lung, has not been investigated. Blood CD1c(+) DCs were purified and activated with UPM in the presence or absence of house dust mite or tetanus toxoid control antigen. 5-(and -6)-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled blood Tms were cocultured with autologous DCs, T cell proliferation and effector function were assessed using flow cytometry, and secreted cytokines were measured by combined bead array. UPM-DCs elicited IFN-γ and IL-13 secretion and induced proliferation in Tms isolated from both allergic patients with asthma and healthy control subjects, whereas only IL-13 was produced by Tms from patients with atopic asthma stimulated by house dust mite-loaded DCs. UPM-DCs drove the expansion and differentiation of a mixed population of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell effectors through a mechanism that was dependent on major histocompatibility class II but not on cytokine-driven expansion. The data suggest that UPM not only has adjuvant properties but is also a source of antigen that stimulates the generation of Th2, Th1, and Th17 effector phenotypes, which have been implicated in both exacerbations of asthma and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26196219

  11. Urban Particulate Matter-Activated Human Dendritic Cells Induce the Expansion of Potent Inflammatory Th1, Th2, and Th17 Effector Cells.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Nick C; Pfeffer, Paul E; Mann, Elizabeth H; Kelly, Frank J; Corrigan, Christopher J; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M; Lee, Tak H

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to urban particulate matter (UPM) exacerbates asthmatic lung inflammation. Lung dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for stimulating T cell immunity and in maintaining airway tolerance, but they also react to airway UPM. The adjuvant role of UPM in enhancing primary immune responses by naive cells to allergen has been reported, but the direct effects of UPM-activated DCs on the functionality of human memory CD4 T cells (Tms), which constitute the majority of T cells in the lung, has not been investigated. Blood CD1c(+) DCs were purified and activated with UPM in the presence or absence of house dust mite or tetanus toxoid control antigen. 5-(and -6)-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled blood Tms were cocultured with autologous DCs, T cell proliferation and effector function were assessed using flow cytometry, and secreted cytokines were measured by combined bead array. UPM-DCs elicited IFN-γ and IL-13 secretion and induced proliferation in Tms isolated from both allergic patients with asthma and healthy control subjects, whereas only IL-13 was produced by Tms from patients with atopic asthma stimulated by house dust mite-loaded DCs. UPM-DCs drove the expansion and differentiation of a mixed population of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell effectors through a mechanism that was dependent on major histocompatibility class II but not on cytokine-driven expansion. The data suggest that UPM not only has adjuvant properties but is also a source of antigen that stimulates the generation of Th2, Th1, and Th17 effector phenotypes, which have been implicated in both exacerbations of asthma and chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Levalbuterol-Induced 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Activity in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Matthew J.; Kostin, Shannon F.; Burgess, Edward J.; Hoyt, Laura R.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Lundblad, Lennart K.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Airway epithelial NF-κB activation is observed in asthmatic subjects and is a cause of airway inflammation in mouse models of allergic asthma. Combination therapy with inhaled short-acting β2-agonists and corticosteroids significantly improves lung function and reduces inflammation in asthmatic subjects. Corticosteroids operate through a number of mechanisms to potently inhibit NF-κB activity. Since β2-agonists can induce expression of 11β-HSD1, which converts inactive 11-keto corticosteroids into active 11-hydroxy corticosteroids, thereby potentiating the effects of endogenous glucocorticoids, we examined whether this mechanism is involved in the inhibition of NF-κB activation induced by the β-agonist albuterol in airway epithelial cells. Treatment of transformed murine Club cells (MTCC) with (R)-albuterol (levalbuterol), but not with (S)- or a mixture of (R + S)- (racemic) albuterol, augmented mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1. MTCC were stably transfected with luciferase (luc) reporter constructs under transcriptional regulation by NF-κB (NF-κB/luc) or glucocorticoid response element (GRE/luc) consensus motifs. Stimulation of NF-κB/luc MTCC with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) induced luc activity, which was inhibited by pretreatment with (R)-, but not (S)- or racemic albuterol. Furthermore, pretreatment of GRE/luc MTCC with (R)-, but not with (S)- or racemic albuterol, augmented 11-keto corticosteroid (cortisone) induced luc activity, which was diminished by the 11β-HSD inhibitor glycyrrhetinic acid (18β-GA), indicating that there was a conversion of inactive 11-keto to active 11-hydroxy corticosteroids. LPS- and TNFα-induced NF-κB/luc activity was diminished in MTCC cells treated with a combination of cortisone and (R)-albuterol, an effect that was inhibited by 18β-GA. Finally, pretreatment of MTCC cells with the combination of cortisone and (R)-albuterol diminished LPS- and TNFα-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine

  13. How stem cells speak with host immune cells in inflammatory brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Stefano; Cossetti, Chiara

    2013-09-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised great expectations that diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) may be ameliorated by the development of non-hematopoietic stem cell medicines. Yet, the application of adult stem cells as CNS therapeutics is challenging and the interpretation of some of the outcomes ambiguous. In fact, the initial idea that stem cell transplants work only via structural cell replacement has been challenged by the observation of consistent cellular signaling between the graft and the host. Cellular signaling is the foundation of coordinated actions and flexible responses, and arises via networks of exchanging and interacting molecules that transmit patterns of information between cells. Sustained stem cell graft-to-host communication leads to remarkable trophic effects on endogenous brain cells and beneficial modulatory actions on innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo, ultimately promoting the healing of the injured CNS. Among a number of adult stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are being extensively investigated for their ability to signal to the immune system upon transplantation in experimental CNS diseases. Here, we focus on the main cellular signaling pathways that grafted MSCs and NPCs use to establish a therapeutically relevant cross talk with host immune cells, while examining the role of inflammation in regulating some of the bidirectionality of these communications. We propose that the identification of the players involved in stem cell signaling might contribute to the development of innovative, high clinical impact therapeutics for inflammatory CNS diseases.

  14. The life (and death) of CD4+CD28null T cells in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dumitriu, Ingrid E

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the development and perpetuation of several disorders and T lymphocytes orchestrate the inflammatory immune response. Although the role of T cells in inflammation is widely recognized, specific therapies that tackle inflammatory networks in disease are yet to be developed. CD4+CD28null T cells are a unique subset of helper T lymphocytes that recently shot back into the limelight as potential catalysts of inflammation in several inflammatory disorders such as autoimmunity, atherosclerosis and chronic viral infections. In contrast to conventional helper T cells, CD4+CD28null T cells have an inbuilt ability to release inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules that can damage tissues and amplify inflammatory pathways. It comes as no surprise that patients who have high numbers of these cells have more severe disease and poor prognosis. In this review, I provide an overview on the latest advances in the biology of CD4+CD28null T cells. Understanding the complex functions and dynamics of CD4+CD28null T cells may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention to prevent progression of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26190355

  15. The impact of anti-inflammatory cytokines on the pancreatic β-cell

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Morgan, N G

    2014-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been invested to understand the mechanisms by which pro-inflammatory cytokines mediate the demise of β-cells in type 1 diabetes but much less attention has been paid to the role of anti-inflammatory cytokines as potential cytoprotective agents in these cells. Despite this, there is increasing evidence that anti-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-13 can exert a direct influence of β-cell function and viability and that the circulating levels of these cytokines may be reduced in type 1 diabetes. Thus, it seems possible that targeting of anti-inflammatory pathways might offer therapeutic potential in this disease. In the present review, we consider the evidence implicating IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 as cytoprotective agents in the β-cell and discuss the receptor components and downstream signaling pathways that mediate these effects. PMID:25322830

  16. CD11b+ and Sca-1+ Cells Exert the Main Beneficial Effects of Systemically Administered Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells in a Murine Model of Mixed Th2/Th17 Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Fernanda F.; Borg, Zachary D.; Goodwin, Meagan; Coffey, Amy L.; Wagner, Darcy E.; Rocco, Patricia R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic administration of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMCs) or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) reduces inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of Th2-mediated eosinophilic allergic airway inflammation. However, since BMDMCs are a heterogeneous population that includes MSCs, it is unclear whether the MSCs alone are responsible for the BMDMC effects. To determine which BMDMC population(s) is responsible for ameliorating AHR and lung inflammation in a model of mixed Th2-eosinophilic and Th17-neutrophilic allergic airway inflammation, reminiscent of severe clinical asthma, BMDMCs obtained from normal C57Bl/6 mice were serially depleted of CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD3, CD19, CD31, or Sca-1 positive cells. The different resulting cell populations were then assessed for ability to reduce lung inflammation and AHR in mixed Th2/Th17 allergic airway inflammation induced by mucosal sensitization to and challenge with Aspergillus hyphal extract (AHE) in syngeneic C56Bl/6 mice. BMDMCs depleted of either CD11b-positive (CD11b+) or Sca-1-positive (Sca-1+) cells were unable to ameliorate AHR or lung inflammation in this model. Depletion of the other cell types did not diminish the ameliorating effects of BMDMC administration. In conclusion, in the current model of allergic inflammation, CD11b+ cells (monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells) and Sca-1+ cells (MSCs) are responsible for the beneficial effects of BMDMCs. Significance This study shows that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMCs) are as effective as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in ameliorating experimental asthma. It also demonstrates that not only MSCs present in the pool of BMDMCs are responsible for BMDMCs’ beneficial effects but also monocytes, which are the most important cell population to trigger these effects. All of this is in the setting of a clinically relevant model of severe allergic airways inflammation and thus

  17. Toward protein biomarkers for allergy: CD4+ T cell proteomics in allergic and nonallergic subjects sampled in and out of pollen season.

    PubMed

    Blüggel, Martin; Spertini, François; Lutter, Petra; Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Audran, Régine; Corthésy, Blaise; Müllner, Stefan; Blum, Stephanie; Wattenberg, Andreas; Mercenier, Annick; Affolter, Michael; Kussmann, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Allergy is an immunological disorder of the upper airways, lung, skin, and the gut with a growing prevalence over the last decades in Western countries. Atopy, the genetic predisposition for allergy, is strongly dependent on familial inheritance and environmental factors. These observations call for predictive markers of progression from atopy to allergy, a prerequisite to any active intervention in neonates and children (prophylactic interventions/primary prevention) or in adults (immunomodulatory interventions/secondary prevention). In an attempt to identify early biomarkers of the "atopic march" using minimally invasive sampling, CD4+ T cells from 20 adult volunteers (10 healthy and 10 with respiratory allergies) were isolated and quantitatively analyzed and their proteomes were compared in and out of pollen season (± antigen exposure). The proteome study based on high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis revealed three candidate protein markers that distinguish the CD4+ T cell proteomes of normal from allergic individuals when sampled out of pollen season, namely Talin 1, Nipsnap homologue 3A, and Glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory protein. Three proteins were found differentially expressed between the CD4+ T cell proteomes of normal and allergic subjects when sampled during pollen season: carbonyl reductase, glutathione S-transferase ω 1, and 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase. The results were partly validated by Western blotting. PMID:21410266

  18. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A suppresses murine innate allergic inflammation by blocking group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) activation

    PubMed Central

    Toki, Shinji; Goleniewska, Kasia; Reiss, Sara; Zhou, Weisong; Newcomb, Dawn C; Bloodworth, Melissa H; Stier, Matthew T; Boyd, Kelli L; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Subramaniam, Sriram; Peebles, R Stokes

    2016-01-01

    Background Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are an important source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 that are critical to the allergic airway phenotype. Previous studies reported that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA) downregulated adaptive allergic immune responses; however, the effect of HDAC inhibition on the early innate allergic immune response is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of TSA on innate airway inflammation mediated by ILC2 activation. Methods BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with Alternaria extract, exogenous recombinant mouse IL-33 (rmIL-33) or the respective vehicles for four consecutive days following TSA or vehicle treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and lungs were harvested 24 h after the last challenge. Results We found that TSA treatment significantly decreased the number of ILC2 expressing IL-5 and IL-13 in the lungs challenged with Alternaria extract or rmIL-33 compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). TSA treatment significantly decreased protein expression of IL-5, IL-13, CCL11 and CCL24 in the lung homogenates from Alternaria extract-challenged mice or rmIL-33-challenged mice compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). Further, TSA treatment significantly decreased the number of perivascular eosinophils and mucus production in the large airways that are critical components of the asthma phenotype (p<0.05). TSA did not change early IL-33 release in the BAL fluids; however, TSA decreased lung IL-33 expression from epithelial cells 24 h after last Alternaria extract challenge compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions These results reveal that TSA reduces allergen-induced ILC2 activation and the early innate immune responses to an inhaled protease-containing aeroallergen. PMID:27071418

  19. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wei-Xu, Hu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Hui-Ping, Wei; Wen-Ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang; Guo-Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0.05), and eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte infiltration and edema were significantly reduced or absent in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues (P < 0.05) in the combined 0.1% anti-IL-1β- and TNF-α IgY-treated guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  20. An indoxyl compound 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, suppresses activation of Fyn kinase in mast cells and IgE-mediated allergic responses in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Kim, Do-Kyun; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Her, Erk; Park, Yeong Min; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2015-06-15

    Mast cells, constituents of virtually all organs and tissues, are critical cells in IgE-mediated allergic responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of an indoxyl chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, on IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mice. CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed antigen-stimulated degranulation in murine mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.8 μM) and human mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.0 μM). CAC-0982 also inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α in mast cells. Furthermore, CAC-0982 suppressed the mast cell-mediated allergic responses in mice in a dose-dependent manner (ED{sub 50} 27.9 mg/kg). As for the mechanism, CAC-0982 largely suppressed the phosphorylation of Syk and its downstream signaling molecules, including LAT, Akt, Erk1/2, p38, and JNK. Notably, the tyrosine kinase assay of antigen-stimulated mast cells showed that CAC-0982 inhibited Fyn kinase, one of the upstream tyrosine kinases for Syk activation in mast cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CAC-0982 may be used as a new treatment for regulating IgE-mediated allergic diseases through the inhibition of the Fyn/Syk pathway in mast cells. - Highlights: • The anti-allergic effect of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, was measured. • CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen. • CAC-0982 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. • CAC-0982 suppresses mast cells through inhibition of Fyn activation in mast cells.

  1. Monocytic cell differentiation from band-stage neutrophils under inflammatory conditions via MKK6 activation

    PubMed Central

    Köffel, René; Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Warszawska, Joanna; Hennig, Annika; Wagner, Karin; Jörgl, Almut; Gubi, Daniela; Moser, Doris; Hladik, Anastasiya; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Fischer, Michael B.; van den Berg, Wim; Koenders, Marije; Scheinecker, Clemens; Gesslbauer, Bernhard; Knapp, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    During inflammation, neutrophils are rapidly mobilized from the bone marrow storage pool into peripheral blood (PB) to enter lesional sites, where most rapidly undergo apoptosis. Monocytes constitute a second wave of inflammatory immigrates, giving rise to long-lived macrophages and dendritic cell subsets. According to descriptive immunophenotypic and cell culture studies, neutrophils may directly “transdifferentiate” into monocytes/macrophages. We provide mechanistic data in human and murine models supporting the existence of this cellular pathway. First, the inflammatory signal–induced MKK6-p38MAPK cascade activates a monocyte differentiation program in human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor–dependent neutrophils. Second, adoptively transferred neutrophils isolated from G-CSF–pretreated mice rapidly acquired monocyte characteristics in response to inflammatory signals in vivo. Consistently, inflammatory signals led to the recruitment of osteoclast progenitor cell potential from ex vivo–isolated G-CSF–mobilized human blood neutrophils. Monocytic cell differentiation potential was retained in left-shifted band-stage neutrophils but lost in neutrophils from steady-state PB. MKK6-p38MAPK signaling in HL60 model cells led to diminishment of the transcription factor C/EBPα, which enabled the induction of a monocytic cell differentiation program. Gene profiling confirmed lineage conversion from band-stage neutrophils to monocytic cells. Therefore, inflammatory signals relayed by the MKK6-p38MAPK cascade induce monocytic cell differentiation from band-stage neutrophils. PMID:25214442

  2. Inflammatory environment and oxidized LDL convert circulating human proangiogenic cells into functional antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Luca; Chiesa, Mattia; Saporiti, Federica; Colombo, Gualtiero I; Pesce, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    The function of human circulating PACs has been described extensively. However, little focus has been placed on understanding how these cells differ in their functions in the presence of microenvironments mimicking vascular inflammation. We hypothesized that exposure to proinflammatory cytokines or the oxLDL, an autoantigen abundant in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, converts PACs into immune-modulating/proinflammatory cells. Hence, we examined the effect of oxLDL and inflammatory stimuli on their phenotype by use of a functional genomics model based on secretome and whole genome transcriptome profiling. PACs obtained from culturing a PBMC fraction in angiogenic medium were primed with DC differentiation cytokines and then exposed to proinflammatory cytokines or oxLDL. Under these conditions, PACs converted into APCs, expressed maturation markers CD80 and CD83, and showed an increased up-regulation of CD86. APCcy and APCox induced a robust T cell BrdU incorporation. Despite a similar ability to induce lymphocyte proliferation, APCcy and APCox differed for the secretory pathway and mRNA expression. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes identified 4 gene "clusters," showing reciprocal modulation in APCcy vs. APCox, justifying, according to functional genomics analyses, a different putative function of the cells in antigen processing. Together, these data show that treatment with inflammatory cytokines or oxLDL converts human PAC phenotypes and functions into that of APCs with similar lymphocyte-activating ability but distinct maturation degree and paracrine functions.

  3. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Silveira e Souza, Adriana Maria Mariano; Mazucato, Vivian Marino; Jamur, Maria Célia; Oliver, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization. PMID:21490812

  4. Inflammation severely alters thyroid hormone signaling in the central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rat: Direct impact on OPCs differentiation failure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mercedes; Baldassarro, Vito A; Sivilia, Sandra; Giardino, Luciana; Calzà, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is severely impaired by inflammatory cytokines and this could lead to remyelination failure in inflammatory/demyelinating diseases. Due to the role of thyroid hormone in the maturation of OPCs and developmental myelination, in this study we investigated (i) the possible occurrence of dysregulation of thyroid hormone signaling in the CNS tissue during experimental neuroinflammation; (ii) the possible impact of inflammatory cytokines on thyroid hormone signaling and OPCs differentiation in vitro. The disease model is the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in female Dark-Agouti rats, whereas in vitro experiments were carried out in OPCs derived from neural stem cells. The main results are the following: (i) a strong upregulation of cytokine mRNA expression level was found in the spinal cord during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; (ii) thyroid hormone signaling in the spinal cord (thyroid hormone receptors; deiodinase; thyroid hormone membrane transporter) is substantially downregulated, due to the upregulation of the thyroid hormone inactivating enzyme deiodinase 3 and the downregulation of thyroid hormone receptors, as investigated at mRNA expression level; (iii) when exposed to inflammatory cytokines, deiodinase 3 is upregulated in OPCs as well, and OPCs differentiation is blocked; (iv) deiodinase 3 inhibition by iopanoic acid recovers OPCs differentiation in the presence on inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that cellular hypothyroidism occurs during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, possibly impacting on thyroid hormone-dependent cellular processes, including maturation of OPCs into myelinating oligodendrocytes. GLIA 2016;64:1573-1589. PMID:27404574

  5. Individuals with increased inflammatory response to ozone demonstrate muted signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to ozone activates innate immune function and causes neutrophilic (PMN) airway inflammation that in some individuals is robustly elevated. The interplay between immuno-inflammatory function and genomic signaling in those with heightened inflammatory responsiveness to ozone is not well understood. Objectives Determine baseline predictors and post exposure discriminators for the immuno-inflammatory response to ozone in inflammatory responsive adult volunteers. Methods Sputum induction was performed on 27 individuals before and after a two hour chamber exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone. Subjects were classified as inflammatory responders or non-responders to ozone based on their PMN response. Innate immune function, inflammatory cell and cytokine modulation and transcriptional signaling pathways were measured in sputum. Results Post exposure, responders showed activated innate immune function (CD16: 31,004 MFI vs 8988 MFI; CD11b: 44,986 MFI vs 24,770 MFI; CD80: 2236 MFI vs 1506 MFI; IL-8: 37,603 pg/ml vs 2828 pg/ml; and IL-1β: 1380 pg/ml vs 318 pg/ml) with muted signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways. In contrast, non-responders displayed decreased innate immune activity (CD16, CD80; phagocytosis: 2 particles/PMN vs 4 particles/PMN) post exposure that was accompanied by a heightened signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways. Conclusions Inflammatory responsive and non responsive individuals to ozone show an inverse relationship between immune cell trafficking and immuno-inflammatory functional responses to ozone. These distinct genomic signatures may further our understanding about ozone-induced morbidity in individuals with different levels of inflammatory responsiveness. PMID:23033980

  6. Inflammation and Inflammatory Cells in Myocardial Infarction and Reperfusion Injury: A Double-Edged Sword.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most common cause of cardiac injury, and subsequent reperfusion further enhances the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and cell death programs. Therefore, inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltration are the hallmarks of MI and reperfusion injury. Ischemic cardiac injury activates the innate immune response via toll-like receptors and upregulates chemokine and cytokine expressions in the infarcted heart. The recruitment of inflammatory cells is a dynamic and superbly orchestrated process. Sequential infiltration of the injured myocardium with neutrophils, monocytes and their descendant macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes contributes to the initiation and resolution of inflammation, infarct healing, angiogenesis, and ventricular remodeling. Both detrimental effects and a beneficial role in the pathophysiology of MI and reperfusion injury may be attributed to the subset heterogeneity and functional diversity of these inflammatory cells. PMID:27279755

  7. Inflammation and Inflammatory Cells in Myocardial Infarction and Reperfusion Injury: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most common cause of cardiac injury, and subsequent reperfusion further enhances the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and cell death programs. Therefore, inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltration are the hallmarks of MI and reperfusion injury. Ischemic cardiac injury activates the innate immune response via toll-like receptors and upregulates chemokine and cytokine expressions in the infarcted heart. The recruitment of inflammatory cells is a dynamic and superbly orchestrated process. Sequential infiltration of the injured myocardium with neutrophils, monocytes and their descendant macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes contributes to the initiation and resolution of inflammation, infarct healing, angiogenesis, and ventricular remodeling. Both detrimental effects and a beneficial role in the pathophysiology of MI and reperfusion injury may be attributed to the subset heterogeneity and functional diversity of these inflammatory cells. PMID:27279755

  8. Sleep deprivation attenuates inflammatory responses and ischemic cell death.

    PubMed

    Weil, Zachary M; Norman, Greg J; Karelina, Kate; Morris, John S; Barker, Jacqueline M; Su, Alan J; Walton, James C; Bohinc, Steven; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2009-07-01

    Although the biological function of sleep remains uncertain, the consequences of sleep deprivation are well-described and are reported to be detrimental to cognitive function and affective well-being. Sleep deprivation also is strongly associated with elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We used a mouse model of cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation to test the hypothesis that acute sleep deprivation would exacerbate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after global ischemia. The resulting data led to a rejection of our hypothesis that sleep deprivation is necessarily detrimental. Indeed, acute sleep deprivation (ASD) was associated with a reduction in ischemia-induced interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) gene expression and attenuation of neuronal damage in the hippocampus. Further, sleep deprivation increased gene expression of two anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10 that are associated with improved ischemic outcome. To determine whether the anti-inflammatory properties of ASD were specific to ischemia, mice were treated systemically with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammogen. Acute sleep deprivation attenuated the central and peripheral increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and increased IL-10 expression. Together, the ischemia and LPS data suggest that, ASD produces an anti-inflammatory bias that could be exploited to improve medical procedures that are compromised by inflammation. PMID:19409382

  9. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    disease would modulate the innate immune response to MWCNTs. We hypothesized that Th2 cytokines and the allergic asthmatic microenvironment would alter MWCNT-induced inflammasome activation and IL- 1beta secretion both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were differentiated into macrophages and exposed to MWCNTs and or recombinant Th2 cytokines, specifically IL-4 and/or IL-13. Exposure of THP-1 cells to MWCNTs alone caused dose-dependent secretion of IL-1beta, while co-exposure to IL-4 and/or IL-13 suppressed MWCNT-induced IL-1beta. Further analysis determined that IL-4 and IL-13 were phosphorylating the protein signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) and subsequently inhibiting inflammasome activation and function through suppression of caspase-1, a cysteine protease responsible for cleavage of pro-IL-1beta into an active, secretable form. In vivo, wild-type C57BL6 mice were sensitized intranasally with HDM allergen and exposed to MWCNTs via oropharyngeal aspiration. Treatment with MWCNTs alone induced secretion of IL-1beta in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) one day post-exposure, while sensitization with HDM prior to MWCNT exposure suppressed MWCNT-induced IL-1beta. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of lung sections from exposed animals showed that HDM sensitization inhibited MWCNT-induced pro-casapse-1 protein expression, responsible for inflammasome activation, in the airway epithelium and macrophages. MWCNT exposure combined with HDM sensitization increased inflammatory cell infiltration and subsequent acute lung inflammation and chronic fibrosis. Analysis of the systemic effects of MWCNT exposure during allergic airway sensitization showed that MWCNTs and/or HDM allergen upregulated STAT3 mRNA expression in the lungs, liver, and spleen of exposed animals, and at the same induced mixed T helper (Th) responses in the different tissues. Collectively, these data suggest that the allergic microenvironment

  10. How Stem Cells Speak with Host Immune Cells in Inflammatory Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Stefano; Cossetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised great expectations that diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) may be ameliorated by the development of non-hematopoietic stem cell medicines. Yet, the application of adult stem cells as CNS therapeutics is challenging and the interpretation of some of the outcomes ambiguous. In fact, the initial idea that stem cell transplants work only via structural cell replacement has been challenged by the observation of consistent cellular signaling between the graft and the host. Cellular signaling is the foundation of coordinated actions and flexible responses, and arises via networks of exchanging and interacting molecules that transmit patterns of information between cells. Sustained stem cell graft-to-host communication leads to remarkable trophic effects on endogenous brain cells and beneficial modulatory actions on innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo, ultimately promoting the healing of the injured CNS. Among a number of adult stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are being extensively investigated for their ability to signal to the immune system upon transplantation in experimental CNS diseases. Here, we focus on the main cellular signaling pathways that grafted MSCs and NPCs use to establish a therapeutically relevant cross talk with host immune cells, while examining the role of inflammation in regulating some of the bidirectionality of these communications. We propose that the identification of the players involved in stem cell signaling might contribute to the development of innovative, high clinical impact therapeutics for inflammatory CNS diseases. PMID:23633288

  11. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders.

  12. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders. PMID:27251783

  13. Novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents: allergic disease and innovative treatments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Coelho, Pedro B; Oliveira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Anti-allergic agents are used to treat a great variety of diseases which usually involve an inflammation reaction. These compounds act by inhibiting the release and the effects of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine) in the target tissue. The purpose of anti-allergy therapy is to deliver the drug to its local of action in a therapeutic concentration, minimizing the undesired side effects. In order to solve some of the anti-allergic agents' physicochemical drawbacks and the limitations associated to conventional pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. poor solubility and absorption, skin permeation, stability), novel drug delivery systems, such as cyclodextrins, liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, nano and microparticles, have been developed. Depending on the allergic condition, several administration routes are used to deliver anti-allergic agents, each with its own disadvantages to overcome. In the literature, there are a vast number of papers concerning novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents, making it difficult to evaluate the information and the promising outcomes. The aim of the present review article is to compile the recent (i.e. in the new millennium) improvements of novel drug delivery technology focusing on the achievement of anti-allergic therapeutic delivery. The potential intrinsic benefits of these systems will reflect an increased therapeutic adherence and better patients' life quality. A critical prospect of future clinical trial directions will also be discussed. PMID:25895551

  14. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  16. Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe attenuates allergic asthma induced by ovalbumin challenge.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Hui-Seong; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-09-01

    Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe (ZM) is a traditional medicine, used to treat inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of ZM on the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells and in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced allergic asthma. Mice received OVA sensitization on day 0 and 14, and were challenged with OVA between days 21 and 23. ZM was administered to the mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg, 1 h prior to OVA challenge. In LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells, ZM significantly decreased nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α production in a concentration‑dependent manner, and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), TNF‑α and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9 was reduced. In addition, treatment with ZM decreased the inflammatory cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the mice, and reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)‑4, IL‑5, IL‑13, eotaxin and immunoglobulin E. ZM also reduced airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA‑challenged mice, and attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells and mucus production in the airways, with a decrease in the expression of iNOS and MMP‑9 in lung tissue. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ZM effectively inhibits inflammatory responses. Therefore, it may be that ZM has potential as a therapeutic agent for use in inflammatory diseases.

  17. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 as a new therapeutic target during inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Derive, Marc; Massin, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    The Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a recently identified molecule involved in monocytic activation and inflammatory response. It belongs to a family related to Natural Killer cell-receptors and is expressed on neutrophils, mature monocytes and macrophages. The engagement of TREM-1 synergizes with several Toll Like Receptors (TLR) and/or NOD Like Receptors (NLR) activation in amplifying the inflammatory response mediated by microbial components or danger signals. The implication of TREM-1 during experimental models of acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, as well as during cancer, begins to understand. Furthermore, the modulation of the TREM-1 signaling pathway by the use of small synthetic peptides derived from its extracellular moiety confers interesting survival advantages during experimental murine septic shock and protects from organ damage during other inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances on TREM-1 biology and highlights the promises of its therapeutic modulation. PMID:21487478

  18. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value. PMID:26706728

  19. [Monoclonal antibody therapy for allergic asthma].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masanori; Matsuse, Takeshi

    2002-03-01

    Allergic responses at the level of the respiratory system are mostly mediated by IgE-dependent mechanisms. The first selective anti-IgE therapy, a recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody(rhuMAb-E25), binds with high affinity to the Fc epsilon RI receptor binding site on IgE, thereby reducing the amount of free IgE available to bind to Fc epsilon RI receptors on mast cells and basophils. In addition, administration of rhuMAb-E25 indirectly reduces Fc epsilon RI receptor density on cells involved in allergic responses. rhuMAb-E25 has been shown to reduce allergic responses in atopic individuals and to improve symptoms and reduce rescue medication and corticosteroid use in patient with allergic asthma. The clinical effectiveness of rhuMAb-E25 supports the central role of IgE in allergic reaction and the viability of anti-IgE therapy as an effective immunological intervention for allergic asthma.

  20. Protective effect of curcumin on acute airway inflammation of allergic asthma in mice through Notch1-GATA3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lei; Zhang, Weixi; Nie, Ying; Yu, Gang; Liu, Liu; Lin, Li; Wen, Shunhang; Zhu, Lili; Li, Changchong

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin, a natural product derived from the plant Curcuma longa, has been found to have anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and antifibrosis effects. It has been reported that curcumin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice through inhibiting NF-κB and its downstream transcription factor GATA3. It also has been proved the antineoplastic effect of curcumin through down-regulating Notch1 receptor and its downstream nuclear transcription factor NF-κB levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on acute allergic asthma and its underlying mechanisms. 36 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (normal, asthma, asthma+budesonide and asthma+curcumin groups). BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) and lung tissues were analyzed for airway inflammation and the expression of Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, Notch4 and the downstream transcription factor GATA3. Our findings showed that the levels of Notch1 and Notch2 receptors were up-regulated in asthma group, accompanied by the increased expression of GATA3. But the expression of Notch2 receptor was lower than Notch1 receptor. Curcumin pretreatment improved the airway inflammatory cells infiltration and reversed the increasing levels of Notch1/2 receptors and GATA3. Notch3 receptor was not expressed in all of the four groups. Notch4 receptor protein and mRNA expression level in the four groups had no significant differences. The results of the present study suggested that Notch1 and Notch2 receptor, major Notch1 receptor, played an important role in the development of allergic airway inflammation and the inhibition of Notch1-GATA3 signaling pathway by curcumin can prevent the development and deterioration of the allergic airway inflammation. This may be a possible therapeutic option of allergic asthma.

  1. Aluminum induces inflammatory and proteolytic alterations in human monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ligi, D; Santi, M; Croce, L; Mannello, F

    2015-11-01

    The increasing exposure to aluminum has been linked with the development of different human pathologies (e.g., breast cancer, myofasciitis, neurodegenerative diseases), probably due to the consistent presence of aluminum salts in widely diffused cosmetic products and vaccines. However, the mechanisms underlying immunologic and proliferative alterations still remain unknown. In the present study we investigated the ability of different aluminum compounds (i.e., aluminum chloride vs Imject® Alum, a mixture of aluminum and magnesium hydroxide) to trigger both inflammatory and proteolytic responses in U-937 human monocytic cell line. We demonstrated, by multiplex immunoassay analyses, that monocytic cells treated with both Imject Alum and aluminum chloride showed different and peculiar expression profiles of 27 inflammatory mediators and 5 matrix metalloproteinases, with respect to untreated control cells. In particular, we found dose-dependent significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemoattractant chemokines; whereas among metalloproteinases, only collagenolytic protease showed a significant dose-dependent increase in Imject-treated cells with respect to controls and Al-chloride treated cells. Noteworthy, we found only in Imject Alum-treated cells the significant positive correlations among collagenolytic metalloproteinase and increased expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, suggesting a possible involvement of aluminum in regulating the acute inflammatory responses. In agreement to emerging evidences, for the first time we demonstrated that the treatment of monocyte cells with aluminum-based adjuvant is able to induce an inflammatory status and a proteolytic cascade activation. In fact, the cell treatment with Imject Alum induced increased levels of several cytokines and proteinases, suggesting these monocyte mediators as possible biomarkers for aluminum-linked diseases. The identification of the biochemical pathways

  2. A comparative analysis of mast cell quantification in five common dermatoses: lichen simplex chronicus, psoriasis, lichen planus, lupus, and insect bite/allergic contact dermatitis/nummular dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikhil; Mohammadi, Amir; Rhatigan, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    There is a large body of literature demonstrating an important role of mast cells in adaptive and innate immunity. The distribution of mast cells in the skin varies in different parts of the body. It is well known that mast cells are important for effector functions of classic IgE-associated allergic disorders as well as in host defense against infective agents and influence the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. We aimed to quantify mast cells in five common dermatoses and compare them statistically with respect to the immunostains. We retrieved paraffin-embedded tissue sections from the archives of the Pathology Department at the UF, Jacksonville, for five cases with each of the above diagnosis from the last three years. We performed CD-117 and tolidine blue stains on each one of them. The presence or absence of mast cells was evaluated and quantified. We observed that, in the skin, mast cells are mainly located close to the vessels, smooth muscle cells, hair follicles, and nerve ending. Our study showed that the mast cell distribution pattern is different across the two methods of staining for the five aforesaid dermatoses. The other important observation was the dendritic morphology of the mast cells.

  3. Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory responses by inflexanin B in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Youn; Sul, Donggeun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Yoo, Ki-Yeol; Park, So-Young

    2013-02-01

    Microglia are a type of resident macrophage that functions as an inflammation modulator in the central nervous system. Over-activation of microglia by a range of stimuli disrupts the physiological homeostasis of the brain, and induces inflammatory response and degenerative processes, such as those implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of inflexanin B in murine microglial BV2 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated BV2 cells and induced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokines (interleukins-1β and -6, and tumour necrosis factor α). The LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators was associated with the enhancement of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) including ERK1/2 and JNK. Conversely, pretreatment of cells with inflexanin B (10 and 20 μg/mL) significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. This was accompanied with the reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and reduced activation of MAPKs. These results suggest that inflexanin B attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory process by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. PMID:23458198

  4. Calpain inhibition attenuates intracellular changes in muscle cells in response to extracellular inflammatory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Kenkichi; Das, Arabinda; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), comprising of polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion-body myositis, are characterized by muscle weakness and various types of inflammatory changes in muscle cells. They also show non-inflammatory changes, including perifascicular atrophy, mitochondrial changes, and amyloid protein accumulation. It is possible that some molecules/mechanisms bridge the extracellular inflammatory stimulation and intracellular non-inflammatory changes. One such mechanism, Ca2+ influx leading to calpain activation has been proposed. In this study, we demonstrated that post-treatment with calpeptin (calpain inhibitor) attenuated intracellular changes to prevent apoptosis (Wright staining) through both mitochondrial pathway (increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio) and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway (activation of caspase-12), which were induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulation in rat L6 myoblast cells. Our results also showed that calpeptin treatment inhibited the expression of calpain, aspartyl protease cathepsin D, and amyloid precursor protein. Thus, our results indicate that calpain inhibition plays a pivotal role in attenuating muscle cell damage from inflammatory stimulation due to IFN-γ, and this may suggest calpain as a possible therapeutic target in IIMs. PMID:20673830

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Apigenin on LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators and AP-1 Factors in Human Lung Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Hegde, Shubha M; Nagesh, Rashmi; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2016-02-01

    Apigenin is one of the plant flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables, acting as an important nutraceutical component. It is recognized as a potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory molecule. In the present study, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and activator protein-1 (AP-1) factors in human lung A549 cells was investigated. The anti-inflammatory activity of apigenin on LPS-induced inflammation was determined by analyzing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and different AP-1 factors. Apigenin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α), and AP-1 proteins (c-Jun, c-Fos, and JunB) including nitric oxide production. Study confirms the anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory mediators and AP-1 factors involved in the inflammation and its importance in the treatment of lung inflammatory diseases. PMID:26276128

  6. Systemic Administration of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Extracellular Vesicles Ameliorates Aspergillus Hyphal Extract-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in Immunocompetent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Fernanda F.; Borg, Zachary D.; Goodwin, Meagan; Sokocevic, Dino; Wagner, Darcy E.; Coffey, Amy; Antunes, Mariana; Robinson, Kristen L.; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Kourembanas, Stella; Thane, Kristen; Hoffman, Andrew M.; McKenna, David H.; Rocco, Patricia R.M.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies demonstrate that administration of either conditioned media (CM) or extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and other sources are as effective as the MSCs themselves in mitigating inflammation and injury. The goal of the current study was to determine whether xenogeneic administration of CM or EVs from human bone marrow-derived MSCs would be effective in a model of mixed Th2/Th17, neutrophilic-mediated allergic airway inflammation, reflective of severe refractory asthma, induced by repeated mucosal exposure to Aspergillus hyphal extract (AHE) in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 mice. Systemic administration of both CM and EVs isolated from human and murine MSCs, but not human lung fibroblasts, at the onset of antigen challenge in previously sensitized mice significantly ameliorated the AHE-provoked increases in airway hyperreactivity (AHR), lung inflammation, and the antigen-specific CD4 T-cell Th2 and Th17 phenotype. Notably, both CM and EVs from human MSCs (hMSCs) were generally more potent than those from mouse MSCs (mMSCs) in most of the outcome measures. The weak cross-linking agent 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride was found to inhibit release of both soluble mediators and EVs, fully negating effects of systemically administered hMSCs but only partly inhibited the ameliorating effects of mMSCs. These results demonstrate potent xenogeneic effects of CM and EVs from hMSCs in an immunocompetent mouse model of allergic airway inflammation and they also show differences in mechanisms of action of hMSCs versus mMSCs to mitigate AHR and lung inflammation in this model. Significance There is a growing experience demonstrating benefit of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based cell therapies in preclinical models of asthma. In the current study, conditioned media (CM) and, in particular, the extracellular vesicle fraction obtained from the CM were as potent as the

  7. Epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics of asthma and allergic disease is a field that has expanded greatly in the last decade. Previously thought only in terms of cell differentiation, it is now evident the epigenetics regulate many processes. With T cell activation, commitment toward an allergic phenotype is tightly regulated by DNA methylation and histone modifications at the Th2 locus control region. When normal epigenetic control is disturbed, either experimentally or by environmental exposures, Th1/Th2 balance can be affected. Epigenetic marks are not only transferred to daughter cells with cell replication but they can also be inherited through generations. In animal models, with constant environmental pressure, epigenetically determined phenotypes are amplified through generations and can last up to 2 generations after the environment is back to normal. In this review on the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases we review basic epigenetic mechanisms and discuss the epigenetic control of Th2 cells. We then cover the transgenerational inheritance model of epigenetic traits and discuss how this could relate the amplification of asthma and allergic disease prevalence and severity through the last decades. Finally, we discuss recent epigenetic association studies for allergic phenotypes and related environmental risk factors as well as potential underlying mechanisms for these associations. PMID:24932182

  8. Heparanase induces inflammatory cell recruitment in vivo by promoting adhesion to vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Lever, Rebecca; Rose, Mark J; McKenzie, Edward A; Page, Clive P

    2014-06-15

    Heparanase (HPSE1) is known to be involved in mechanisms of metastatic tumor cell migration. This enzyme selectively cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), which are ubiquitously expressed in mammals and are known to be involved in regulating the activity of an array of inflammatory mediators. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of human recombinant heparanase, the inactive precursor of this enzyme (proheparanase) and enzymatically inactivated heparanase, on inflammatory cell recruitment in the rat and on human leukocyte-endothelial adhesion in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of heparanase (500 μg) induced a significant inflammatory cell infiltrate in the rat, as assessed by peritoneal lavage 4 h later. Intravital microscopy of the mesenteric microcirculation of anesthetized rats showed an increase in rolling and adherent cells in postcapillary venules that was sensitive to heparin, a nonselective inhibitor of heparanase activity. In vitro, heparanase augmented the adhesion of human neutrophils and mononuclear cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Proheparanase had similar effects to the active enzyme both with respect to leukocyte accumulation in the peritoneal cavity and adhesion in vitro. However, heat-inactivated heparanase induced cell adhesion in vitro but was without effect in vivo. Together, these data indicate a role for heparanase in inflammatory cell trafficking in vivo that appears to require enzymatic activity.

  9. BIM-EL localization: The key to understanding anoikis resistance in inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Cassandra L; Schafer, Zachary T

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic and rare type of breast cancer, accounting for 2-6% of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases each year. The highly metastatic nature of IBC cells remains poorly understood. Here we describe our recent data regarding the ability of IBC cells to overcome anoikis. PMID:27308529

  10. Characterization of NLRP12 during the Development of Allergic Airway Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Irving C.; Lich, John D.; Arthur, Janelle C.; Jania, Corey M.; Roberts, Reid A.; Callaway, Justin B.; Tilley, Stephen L.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 22 members of the nucleotide binding-domain, leucine rich repeat-containing (NLR) family, less than half have been functionally characterized. Of those that have been well studied, most form caspase-1 activating inflammasomes. NLRP12 is a unique NLR that has been shown to attenuate inflammatory pathways in biochemical assays and mediate the lymph node homing of activated skin dendritic cells in contact hypersensitivity responses. Since the mechanism between these two important observations remains elusive, we further evaluated the contribution of NLRP12 to organ specific adaptive immune responses by focusing on the lung, which, like skin, is exposed to both exogenous and endogenous inflammatory agents. In models of allergic airway inflammation induced by either acute ovalbumin (OVA) exposure or chronic house dust mite (HDM) antigen exposure, Nlrp12−/− mice displayed subtle differences in eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the airways. However, the overall development of allergic airway disease and airway function was not significantly altered by NLRP12 deficiency. Together, the combined data suggest that NLRP12 does not play a vital role in regulating Th2 driven airway inflammation using common model systems that are physiologically relevant to human disease. Thus, the allergic airway inflammation models described here should be appropriate for subsequent studies that seek to decipher the contribution of NLRP12 in mediating the host response to agents associated with asthma exacerbation. PMID:22291998

  11. Pten Cell Autonomously Modulates the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Response to Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shaina N; Cluster, Andrew S; Signer, Robert A J; Voigtmann, Jenna; Monlish, Darlene A; Schuettpelz, Laura G; Magee, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-14

    Pten negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and is required to maintain quiescent adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Pten has been proposed to regulate HSCs cell autonomously and non-cell autonomously, but the relative importance of each mechanism has not been directly tested. Furthermore, the cytokines that activate the PI3K pathway upstream of Pten are not well defined. We sought to clarify whether Pten cell autonomously or non-cell autonomously regulates HSC mobilization. We also tested whether Pten deficiency affects the HSC response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interferon-α (IFNα) since these cytokines induce HSC mobilization or proliferation, respectively. We show that Pten regulates HSC mobilization and expansion in the spleen primarily via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Pten-deficient HSCs do not require G-CSF to mobilize, although they are hyper-sensitized to even low doses of exogenous G-CSF. Pten-deficient HSCs are similarly sensitized to IFNα. Pten therefore modulates the HSC response to inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Pten Cell Autonomously Modulates the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Response to Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shaina N; Cluster, Andrew S; Signer, Robert A J; Voigtmann, Jenna; Monlish, Darlene A; Schuettpelz, Laura G; Magee, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-14

    Pten negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and is required to maintain quiescent adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Pten has been proposed to regulate HSCs cell autonomously and non-cell autonomously, but the relative importance of each mechanism has not been directly tested. Furthermore, the cytokines that activate the PI3K pathway upstream of Pten are not well defined. We sought to clarify whether Pten cell autonomously or non-cell autonomously regulates HSC mobilization. We also tested whether Pten deficiency affects the HSC response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interferon-α (IFNα) since these cytokines induce HSC mobilization or proliferation, respectively. We show that Pten regulates HSC mobilization and expansion in the spleen primarily via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Pten-deficient HSCs do not require G-CSF to mobilize, although they are hyper-sensitized to even low doses of exogenous G-CSF. Pten-deficient HSCs are similarly sensitized to IFNα. Pten therefore modulates the HSC response to inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27185281

  13. Poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory cell penetrating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rush Lloyd, II

    Inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cause $127.8 billion in US healthcare expenditures each year and are the cause of disability for 27% of disabled persons in the United States. Current treatment options rarely halt disease progression and often result in significant unwanted and debilitating side effects. Our laboratory has previously developed a family of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) which inhibit the activity of mitogen activated protein kinase activate protein kinase 2 (MK2). MK2 mediates the inflammatory response by activating Tristetraprline (TTP). Once activated, TTP rapidly stabilizes AU rich regions of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA which allows translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines to occur. Blocking MK2 with our labs CPPs yields a decrease in inflammatory activity but CPPs by are highly non specific and prone to rapid enzymatic degradation in vivo.. In order to increase the potency of MK2 inhibiting CPPs we have developed a novel nanoparticle drug carrier composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid). This drug carrier has been shown to have preliminary efficacy in vitro and ex vivo for suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production when releasing CPPs. This thesis will present progress made on three aims: Specific Aim 1) Create and validate a NIPAm based drug delivery system that mimics the binding and release previously observed between cell penetrating peptides and glycosaminoglycans. Specific Aim 2) Engineer degradability into poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles to enable more drug to be released and qualify that system in vitro. Specific Aim 3) Validate poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in an ex vivo inflammatory model. Overall we have developed a novel anionic nanoparticle system that is biocompatible and efficient at loading and releasing cell penetrating peptides to inflamed tissue. Once loaded with a CPP the nanoparticle drug complex is

  14. Inflammatory regulatory T cells in the microenvironments of ulcerative colitis and colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kryczek, Ilona; Wang, Lin; Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Zhao, Ende; Cui, Tracy; Wei, Shuang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yin; Vatan, Linda; Szeliga, Wojciech; Greenson, Joel K; Roliński, Jacek; Zgodzinski, Witold; Huang, Emina; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Zou, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are thought to express negligible levels of effector cytokines, and inhibit immune responses and inflammation. Here, we have identified a population of IL-8(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells in human peripheral blood, which is selectively increased in the microenvironments of ulcerative colitis and colon carcinoma. Phenotypically, this population is minimally overlapping with IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells, and is different from IL-8(-)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells in the same microenvironment. 40-60% of IL-8(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells exhibit naive phenotype and express CD127, whereas IL-8(-)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells are basically memory T cells and express minimal CD127. The levels of CXCR5 expression are higher in IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) cells than in IL-8(-)Foxp3(+) cells. IL-2 and TGFβ induce IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Exogenous Foxp3 expression promotes IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and inhibits effector cytokine IFNγ and IL-2 expression. Furthermore, Foxp3 binds to IL-8 proximal promoter and increases its activity. Functionally, IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells inhibit T cell proliferation and effector cytokine production, but stimulate inflammatory cytokine production in the colon tissues, and promote neutrophil trafficking through IL-8. Thus, IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) cells may be an "inflammatory" Treg subset, and possess inflammatory and immunosuppressive dual biological activities. Given their dual roles and localization, these cells may be in a unique position to support tumor initiation and development in human chronic inflammatory environment. PMID:27622054

  15. Inflammatory response of a prostate stromal cell line induced by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Im, S J; Han, I H; Kim, J H; Gu, N Y; Seo, M Y; Chung, Y H; Ryu, J S

    2016-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of sexually transmitted infection, is known as a surface-dwelling protozoa, trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissue from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis by immunoperoxidase assay or PCR. However, the immune response of prostate stromal cells infected with T. vaginalis has not been investigated. Our objective was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce an inflammatory response in prostate stromal cells. Incubation of a human prostate stromal myofibroblast cells (WPMY-1) with live T. vaginalis T016 increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2. In addition, TLR4, ROS, MAPK and NF-κB expression increased, while inhibitors of TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB reduced CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Medium conditioned by incubation of WPMY-1 cells with T. vaginalis stimulated the migration of human neutrophils and monocytes (THP-1 cells). We conclude that T. vaginalis increases CXCL8 and CCL2 production by human prostate stromal cells by activating TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB, and this in turn attracts neutrophils and monocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis. PMID:26832322

  16. Inflammatory response of a prostate stromal cell line induced by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Im, S J; Han, I H; Kim, J H; Gu, N Y; Seo, M Y; Chung, Y H; Ryu, J S

    2016-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of sexually transmitted infection, is known as a surface-dwelling protozoa, trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissue from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis by immunoperoxidase assay or PCR. However, the immune response of prostate stromal cells infected with T. vaginalis has not been investigated. Our objective was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce an inflammatory response in prostate stromal cells. Incubation of a human prostate stromal myofibroblast cells (WPMY-1) with live T. vaginalis T016 increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2. In addition, TLR4, ROS, MAPK and NF-κB expression increased, while inhibitors of TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB reduced CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Medium conditioned by incubation of WPMY-1 cells with T. vaginalis stimulated the migration of human neutrophils and monocytes (THP-1 cells). We conclude that T. vaginalis increases CXCL8 and CCL2 production by human prostate stromal cells by activating TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB, and this in turn attracts neutrophils and monocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis.

  17. T-cell immunosenescence and inflammatory response in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Mika; Kubo, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Douple, Evan B; Nakachi, Kei

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we summarize the long-term effects of A-bomb radiation on the T-cell system and discuss the possible involvement of attenuated T-cell immunity in the disease development observed in A-bomb survivors. Our previous observations on such effects include impaired mitogen-dependent proliferation and IL-2 production, decreases in naive T-cell populations, and increased proportions of anergic and functionally weak memory CD4 T-cell subsets. In addition, we recently found a radiation dose-dependent increase in the percentages of CD25(+)/CD127(-) regulatory T cells in the CD4 T-cell population of the survivors. All these effects of radiation on T-cell immunity resemble effects of aging on the immune system, suggesting that ionizing radiation might direct the T-cell system toward a compromised phenotype and thereby might contribute to an enhanced immunosenescence. Furthermore, there are inverse, significant associations between plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and the relative number of naïve CD4 T cells, also suggesting that the elevated levels of inflammatory markers found in A-bomb survivors can be ascribed in part to T-cell immunosenescence. We suggest that radiation-induced T-cell immunosenescence may result in activation of inflammatory responses and may be partly involved in the development of aging-associated and inflammation-related diseases frequently observed in A-bomb survivors.

  18. Reconciling the effects of inflammatory cytokines on mesenchymal cell osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sagar; James, Aaron W; Blough, Jordan; Donneys, Alexis; Wang, Stewart C; Cederna, Paul S; Buchman, Steven R; Levi, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    Therapies using mesenchymal stem cells are a popular current avenue for development and utilization, especially in the fields of de novo tissue engineering (Sanchez-Ramos J, Song S, Cardozo-Pelaez F, et al. Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro. Exp Neurol 2000;164:247.) or tissue regeneration after physical injury (Kitoh H, Kitakoji T, Tsuchiya H, et al. Transplantation of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma during distraction osteogenesis-a preliminary result of three cases. Bone 2004;35:892; Shumakov VI, Onishchenko NA, Rasulov MF, Krasheninnikov ME, Zaidenov VA. Mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells more effectively stimulate regeneration of deep burn wounds than embryonic fibroblasts. Bull Exp Biol Med 2003;136:192; Bruder SP, Fink DJ, Caplan AI. Mesenchymal stem cells in bone development, bone repair, and skeletal regeneration therapy. J Cell Biochem 1994;56:283.). The osteogenic potential of these cells is of particular interest, given their recent usage for the closure of critical-sized bone defects and other nonhealing bone scenarios such as a nonunion. Recent literature suggests that inflammatory cytokines can significantly impact the osteogenic potential of these cells. A review of relevant, recent literature is presented regarding the impact of the inflammatory cascade on the osteogenic differentiation of these cells and how this varies across species. Finally, we identify areas of conflicting or absent evidence regarding the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells in response to inflammatory cytokines.

  19. Triclosan Alters Anti-microbial and Inflammatory Responses of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wallet, Mark A.; Calderon, Nadia L.; Alonso, Tess R.; Choe, Christina S.; Catalfamo, Dana L.; Lalane, Charles J.; Neiva, Kathleen G.; Panagakos, Foti; Wallet, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are a class of pathologies wherein oral microbes induce harmful immune responses in a susceptible host. Therefore, an agent which can both reduce microbial burden and lessen pathogenesis of localized inflammation would have beneficial effects in periodontal disease. 2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl-ether [triclosan] is currently used in oral care products due to broad spectrum anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective To determine effects of triclosan on the response of oral epithelial cells to stimulation with the inflammatory microbial product lipopolysaccharide [LPS], a ligand for toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4]. Materials/Methods Primary human oral epithelial cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and/or absence of triclosan after which expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, β-defensins, micro-RNAs [miRNAs] or TLR signaling pathway proteins were evaluated. Results Here we demonstrate that triclosan is a potent inhibitor of oral epithelial cell LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by inducing miRNA regulation of the TLR-signaling pathway. Triclosan was not a pan-suppresser of oral epithelial cell responses as β-defensin 2 [βD2] and βD3 were upregulated by triclosan following LPS-stimulation. Conclusions These data demonstrate both a novel anti-microbial mechanism by which triclosan improves plaque control and an additional anti-inflammatory property which could have beneficial effects in periodontal disease resolution. PMID:24079913

  20. IL‐10 differentially controls the infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and antigen‐presenting cells during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia‐Te; Rosas, Marcela; Davies, Luke C.; Giles, Peter J.; Tyrrell, Victoria J.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.; Topley, Nicholas; Humphreys, Ian R.; Fraser, Donald J.; Jones, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory activation and recruitment of defined myeloid populations is essential for controlling the bridge between innate and adaptive immunity and shaping the immune response to microbial challenge. However, these cells exhibit significant functional heterogeneity and the inflammatory signals that differentially influence their effector characteristics are poorly characterized. In this study, we defined the phenotype of discrete subsets of effective antigen‐presenting cells (APCs) in the peritoneal cavity during peritonitis. When the functional properties of these cells were compared to inflammatory monocyte‐derived macrophages we noted differential responses to the immune‐modulatory cytokine IL‐10. In contrast to the suppressive actions of IL‐10 on inflammatory macrophages, the recruitment of APCs was relatively refractory and we found no evidence for selective inhibition of APC differentiation. This differential response of myeloid cell subsets to IL‐10 may thus have limited impact on development of potentially tissue‐damaging adaptive immune responses, while restricting the magnitude of the inflammatory response. These findings may have clinical relevance in the context of peritoneal dialysis patients, where recurrent infections are associated with immune‐mediated membrane dysfunction, treatment failure, and increased morbidity. PMID:27378515

  1. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  2. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Seoane, Samuel; Eiro, Noemi; Gonzalez, Francisco; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) in uveitis. To do that, uveitis was induced in rats after footpad injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells after LPS challenge were used to test anti-inflammatory effect of CM-hUCESCs 'ìn vitro'. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interkeukin-6, interkeukin-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the anti-inflammatory interkeukin-10. Leucocytes from aqueous humor (AqH) were quantified in a Neubauer chamber, and eye histopathological analysis was done with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, using a human cytokine antibody array we evaluated CM-hUCESCs to determine mediating proteins. Results showed that administration of CM-hUCESCs significantly reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines both 'in vitro' and 'in vivo', and decreased leucocytes in AqH and ocular tissues. High levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects were found in CM-hUCESCs, suggesting a possible role of these factors in reducing intraocular inflammation. In summary, treatment with CM-hUCESCs significantly reduces inflammation in uveitis. Our data indicate that CM-hUCESCs could be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent for patients suffering from ocular inflammation. PMID:27381329

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Seoane, Samuel; Eiro, Noemi; Gonzalez, Francisco; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) in uveitis. To do that, uveitis was induced in rats after footpad injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells after LPS challenge were used to test anti-inflammatory effect of CM-hUCESCs 'ìn vitro'. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interkeukin-6, interkeukin-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the anti-inflammatory interkeukin-10. Leucocytes from aqueous humor (AqH) were quantified in a Neubauer chamber, and eye histopathological analysis was done with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, using a human cytokine antibody array we evaluated CM-hUCESCs to determine mediating proteins. Results showed that administration of CM-hUCESCs significantly reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines both 'in vitro' and 'in vivo', and decreased leucocytes in AqH and ocular tissues. High levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects were found in CM-hUCESCs, suggesting a possible role of these factors in reducing intraocular inflammation. In summary, treatment with CM-hUCESCs significantly reduces inflammation in uveitis. Our data indicate that CM-hUCESCs could be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent for patients suffering from ocular inflammation.

  5. Blocking Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Release Modulates Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Response to Porphyromonas Gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Ezel; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a major role in the progression of disease. Anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were reported to be absent or reduced in diseased periodontal tissues, suggesting an imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. We have tested the hypothesis that there is cellular cross-talk mediated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and that blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1) production will enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to P. gingivalis. Methods PBMC were isolated from individuals diagnosed with chronic periodontitis or healthy individuals and cultured for 24 hours. Concanavalin-A (ConA) was used as an activator of lymphocyte function. Live and heat-killed P .gingivalis or lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis was used as the bacterial stimulants. TNF-α and IL-1 production was neutralized by specific antibodies against TNF-α and IL-1α or β. Culture supernatants were evaluated by ELISA for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 production. Results Live P. gingivalis did not result in any significant IL-10 or IL-4 release while heat-killed P. gingivalis led to a significant increase in IL-10 levels compared to unstimulated or live P. gingivalis-stimulated cells from both healthy and periodontitis individuals. Overall, PBMC from patients with chronic periodontitis produced significantly lower IL-10 in response to ConA and P. gingivalis suggesting chronic suppression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Blocking the pro-inflammatory cytokine response did not result in any substantial change in IL-10 or IL-4 response to live P. gingivalis. Blocking the pro-inflammatory cytokine response restored IL-10 production by cells from chronic periodontitis in response to P. gingivalis LPS. Conclusion These findings suggest that PBMC from patients with chronic

  6. Distribution and immunophenotype of the inflammatory cell population in the benign lymphoepithelial lesion (Mikulicz's disease).

    PubMed

    Andrade, R E; Hagen, K A; Manivel, J C

    1988-08-01

    Benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLL) is an autoimmune process characterized by swelling and diffuse inflammation of the major salivary glands. Autoantibodies have been isolated from lymphocyte cultures obtained from affected salivary glands, but the pathogenesis is still unknown. Previous studies have shown that the predominant population of inflammatory cells is represented by helper T cells, with only brief mention of the B cell population. Twenty-five surgical specimens from patients with BLL were studied immunohistochemically. Antisera used included monoclonal antibodies LN-1 and LN-2 for B cells, LN-3 for cells expressing human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) antigens, UCHL-1 for T cells, Leu-7 for natural killer (NK) cells, and T suppressor lymphocytes and the polyclonal antibody to S100 protein for dendritic cells. A peculiar distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate was observed in all cases, characterized by the presence of very irregular "germinal centers" with pseudopod-like extensions surrounding epimyoepithelial islands. Lymphoid cells in this location were reactive with LN-1 and LN-2 antibodies. These structures were surrounded by a "mantle" of mixed small B and T lymphocytes. A well-defined "interfollicular" zone was composed of cells strongly reactive with UCHL-1 and LN-3 antibodies, indicating the presence and activation of T cells. Dendritic cells defined by S100 and LN-2 reactivity were intermixed with epimyoepithelial cells, and were identified in 18 cases. Epithelial expression of HLA-DR antigens was restricted to inflamed areas. In contrast to previous reports denying the presence of Leu-7-positive cells in these lesions, cells reactive for this antibody were identified in 13 of 20 cases, predominantly within germinal centers. The presence of dendritic cells, complex organization of the inflammatory infiltrate into well-defined B cell proliferation centers and activated interfollicular T areas, and the abnormal expression of HLA-DR antigens in

  7. Role of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Allergic Airway Inflammation Endotypes.

    PubMed

    Amin, K; Janson, C; Bystrom, J

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology. The cells are, however, likely disease causing in asthma with a late onset, which is often associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Assessment of eosinophilia, fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and periostin are markers that have emerged useful in assessing and monitoring asthma severity and endotype. Current scientific knowledge suggests that eosinophils are recruited by the inflammatory environment, activated by the innate interleukin (IL)-33 and prevented from apoptosis by both lymphocytes and innate immune cells such as type two innate immune cells. Eosinophils contain four specific granule proteins that exhibit an array of toxic and immune-modulatory activates. The granule proteins can be released by different mechanisms. Additionally, eosinophils contain a number of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators as well as radical oxygen species that might contribute to the disease both by the recruitment of other cells and the direct damage to supporting cells, leading to exacerbations and tissue fibrosis. This review aimed to outline current knowledge how eosinophils are recruited, activated and mediate damage to tissues and therapies used to control the cells. PMID:27167590

  8. The composition of cigarette smoke determines inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung in COPD mouse models.

    PubMed

    John, Gerrit; Kohse, Katrin; Orasche, Jürgen; Reda, Ahmed; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Schmid, Otmar; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Önder

    2014-02-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is caused by exposure to toxic gases and particles, most often CS (cigarette smoke), leading to emphysema, chronic bronchitis, mucus production and a subsequent decline in lung function. The disease pathogenesis is related to an abnormal CS-induced inflammatory response of the lungs. Similar to active (mainstream) smoking, second hand (sidestream) smoke exposure severely affects respiratory health. These processes can be studied in vivo in models of CS exposure of mice. We compared the acute inflammatory response of female C57BL/6 mice exposed to two concentrations [250 and 500 mg/m3 TPM (total particulate matter)] of sidestream and mainstream CS for 3 days and interpreted the biological effects based on physico-chemical differences in the gas and particulate phase composition of CS. BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) was obtained to perform differential cell counts and to measure cytokine release. Lung tissue was used to determine mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory genes and to assess tissue inflammation. A strong acute inflammatory response characterized by neutrophilic influx, increased cytokine secretion [KC (keratinocyte chemoattractant), TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor α), MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein 2), MIP-1α and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1)], pro-inflammatory gene expression [KC, MIP-2 and MMP12 (matrix metalloproteinase 12)] and up-regulated GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) production was observed in the mainstream model. After sidestream exposure there was a dampened inflammatory reaction consisting only of macrophages and diminished GM-CSF levels, most likely caused by elevated CO concentrations. These results demonstrate that the composition of CS determines the dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitment in COPD mouse models. Different initial inflammatory processes might contribute to COPD pathogenesis in significantly varying ways, thereby

  9. The composition of cigarette smoke determines inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung in COPD mouse models.

    PubMed

    John, Gerrit; Kohse, Katrin; Orasche, Jürgen; Reda, Ahmed; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Schmid, Otmar; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Önder

    2014-02-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is caused by exposure to toxic gases and particles, most often CS (cigarette smoke), leading to emphysema, chronic bronchitis, mucus production and a subsequent decline in lung function. The disease pathogenesis is related to an abnormal CS-induced inflammatory response of the lungs. Similar to active (mainstream) smoking, second hand (sidestream) smoke exposure severely affects respiratory health. These processes can be studied in vivo in models of CS exposure of mice. We compared the acute inflammatory response of female C57BL/6 mice exposed to two concentrations [250 and 500 mg/m3 TPM (total particulate matter)] of sidestream and mainstream CS for 3 days and interpreted the biological effects based on physico-chemical differences in the gas and particulate phase composition of CS. BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) was obtained to perform differential cell counts and to measure cytokine release. Lung tissue was used to determine mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory genes and to assess tissue inflammation. A strong acute inflammatory response characterized by neutrophilic influx, increased cytokine secretion [KC (keratinocyte chemoattractant), TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor α), MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein 2), MIP-1α and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1)], pro-inflammatory gene expression [KC, MIP-2 and MMP12 (matrix metalloproteinase 12)] and up-regulated GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) production was observed in the mainstream model. After sidestream exposure there was a dampened inflammatory reaction consisting only of macrophages and diminished GM-CSF levels, most likely caused by elevated CO concentrations. These results demonstrate that the composition of CS determines the dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitment in COPD mouse models. Different initial inflammatory processes might contribute to COPD pathogenesis in significantly varying ways, thereby

  10. The composition of cigarette smoke determines inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung in COPD mouse models

    PubMed Central

    John, Gerrit; Kohse, Katrin; Orasche, Jürgen; Reda, Ahmed; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Schmid, Otmar; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Önder

    2013-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is caused by exposure to toxic gases and particles, most often CS (cigarette smoke), leading to emphysema, chronic bronchitis, mucus production and a subsequent decline in lung function. The disease pathogenesis is related to an abnormal CS-induced inflammatory response of the lungs. Similar to active (mainstream) smoking, second hand (sidestream) smoke exposure severely affects respiratory health. These processes can be studied in vivo in models of CS exposure of mice. We compared the acute inflammatory response of female C57BL/6 mice exposed to two concentrations [250 and 500 mg/m3 TPM (total particulate matter)] of sidestream and mainstream CS for 3 days and interpreted the biological effects based on physico-chemical differences in the gas and particulate phase composition of CS. BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) was obtained to perform differential cell counts and to measure cytokine release. Lung tissue was used to determine mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory genes and to assess tissue inflammation. A strong acute inflammatory response characterized by neutrophilic influx, increased cytokine secretion [KC (keratinocyte chemoattractant), TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor α), MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein 2), MIP-1α and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1)], pro-inflammatory gene expression [KC, MIP-2 and MMP12 (matrix metalloproteinase 12)] and up-regulated GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) production was observed in the mainstream model. After sidestream exposure there was a dampened inflammatory reaction consisting only of macrophages and diminished GM-CSF levels, most likely caused by elevated CO concentrations. These results demonstrate that the composition of CS determines the dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitment in COPD mouse models. Different initial inflammatory processes might contribute to COPD pathogenesis in significantly varying ways, thereby

  11. Inflammatory IL-15 is required for optimal memory T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Martin J.; Pewe, Lecia L.; Hancox, Lisa S.; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Varga, Steven M.; Harty, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to rapidly proliferate and produce effector cytokines, memory CD8+ T cells increase protection following reexposure to a pathogen. However, low inflammatory immunizations do not provide memory CD8+ T cells with a proliferation advantage over naive CD8+ T cells, suggesting that cell-extrinsic factors enhance memory CD8+ T cell proliferation in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate that inflammatory signals are critical for the rapid proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells following infection. Using murine models of viral infection and antigen exposure, we found that type I IFN–driven expression of IL-15 in response to viral infection prepares memory CD8+ T cells for rapid division independently of antigen reexposure by transiently inducing cell-cycle progression via a pathway dependent on mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). Moreover, exposure to IL-15 allowed more rapid division of memory CD8+ T cells following antigen encounter and enhanced their protective capacity against viral infection. Together, these data reveal that inflammatory IL-15 promotes optimal responses by memory CD8+ T cells. PMID:26241055

  12. Regulatory immune cells in regulation of intestinal inflammatory response to microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Y; Liu, Z

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal lumen harbors nearly 100 trillion commensal bacteria that exert crucial function for health. An elaborate balance between immune responses and tolerance to intestinal microbiota is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. This process depends on diverse regulatory mechanisms, including both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation of the homeostasis between intestinal immune systems and microbiota has been shown to be associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in genetically susceptible populations. In this review, we discuss the recent progress reported in studies of distinct types of regulatory immune cells in the gut, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, alternatively activated macrophages, dendritic cells, and innate lymphoid cells, and how dysfunction of this immune regulatory system contributes to intestinal diseases such as IBD. Moreover, we discuss the manipulation of these regulatory immune cells as a potential therapeutic method for management of intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:26080708

  13. Infiltration by inflammatory cells required for solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation enhancement of skin tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, R; Halliday, G M

    2001-05-01

    In this study we compared the effects of subinflammatory and inflammatory doses of solar-simulated ultraviolet (UV) radiation on enhancement of skin tumor growth, sensitization to haptens and cellular changes within the epidermis of C3H/HeN mice. Tumors transplanted into mice 3 days after exposure to inflammatory, but not subinflammatory, doses of UV radiation had a higher growth rate than those tumors inoculated into unirradiated control mice. Both doses of UV radiation suppressed the induction of contact hypersensitivity and induced tolerance when hapten was painted onto the skin 3 days after irradiation. Skin exposed to the higher, but not the lower, dose of UV radiation contained significantly increased numbers of CD11b+, CD45+ MHC class II- and CD45+ MHC class II(hi) inflammatory cells 3 days post-irradiation. The immunosuppression correlated with a reduction in Langerhans cells and dendritic epidermal T cells. Collectively, this suggests that suppression to contact sensitizers is due to the UV radiation effects on Langerhans cells and dendritic epidermal T cells. While these effects may also suppress the induction of anti-tumor immunity, at higher doses of UV radiation inflammatory cells may enhance tumor growth by a non-immunological mechanism.

  14. The assessment of inflammatory activity and toxicity of treated sewage using RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Makene, Vedastus W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater samples were evaluated using RAW264.7 cells as a bioassay model. The RAW264.7 cell cultures were exposed to sterile filtered wastewater samples collected from a sewage treatment plant. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‐1 and XTT assays. Inflammatory effects of samples were assessed by determination of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6). The NO was estimated using the Griess reaction and IL‐6 was measured by enzyme‐linked immunoassay. All samples had no toxicity effects to RAW264.7 cells, however they significantly (P < 0.001) induced NO and IL‐6 production. The highest NO (12.5 ± 0.38 μM) and IL‐6 (25383.84 ± 2327 pg/mL) production was induced by postbiofiltration sample. Final effluent induced the lowest inflammatory response, which indicates effective sewage treatment. In conclusion, wastewater samples can induce inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 cells. The RAW264.7 cells, therefore, can be used as a model for monitoring the quality of treated sewage. PMID:26900395

  15. Cell Death and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Autophagy in the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cell death mechanisms have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and mice. Recent studies suggested that a complex crosstalk between autophagy/apoptosis, microbe sensing, and enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress in the epithelium could play a critical role in these diseases. In addition, necroptosis, a relatively novel programmed necrosis-like pathway associated with TNF receptor activation, seems to be also present in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and in specific animal models for intestinal inflammation. This review attempts to cover new data related to cell death mechanisms and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25126549

  16. CCR9 Is a Key Regulator of Early Phases of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    López-Pacheco, C.; Soldevila, G.; Du Pont, G.; Hernández-Pando, R.

    2016-01-01

    Airway inflammation is the most common hallmark of allergic asthma. Chemokine receptors involved in leukocyte recruitment are closely related to the pathology in asthma. CCR9 has been described as a homeostatic and inflammatory chemokine receptor, but its role and that of its ligand CCL25 during lung inflammation remain unknown. To investigate the role of CCR9 as a modulator of airway inflammation, we established an OVA-induced allergic inflammation model in CCR9-deficient mice. Here, we report the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 as early as 6 hours post-OVA challenge in eosinophils and T-lymphocytes. Moreover, in challenged CCR9-deficient mice, cell recruitment was impaired at peribronchial and perivenular levels. OVA-administration in CCR9-deficient mice leads to a less inflammatory cell recruitment, which modifies the expression of IL-10, CCL11, and CCL25 at 24 hours after OVA challenge. In contrast, the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 was not affected in CCR9-deficient mice compared to WT mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CCR9 and CCL25 expressions are induced in the early stages of airway inflammation and they have an important role modulating eosinophils and lymphocytes recruitment at the first stages of inflammatory process, suggesting that they might be a potential target to regulate inflammation in asthma. PMID:27795621

  17. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  18. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  20. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  1. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  2. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  3. Analysis of Cytokine Production by Peanut-Reactive T Cells Identifies Residual Th2 Effectors in Highly Allergic Children Who Received Peanut Oral Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Julia A.; Commins, Scott P.; Agrawal, Rachana; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Yu, Mingxi D.; Cronin, Julia; Heymann, Peter W.; Pomes, Anna; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Workman, Lisa; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Only limited evidence is available regarding the cytokine repertoire of effector T cells associated with peanut allergy, and how these responses relate to IgE antibodies to peanut components. Objective To interrogate T-cell effector cytokine populations induced by Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 among peanut allergic (PA) children in the context of IgE, and to evaluate their modulation during oral immunotherapy (OIT). Methods Peanut-reactive effector T cells were analyzed in conjunction with specific IgE profiles in PA children using intracellular staining and multiplex assay. Cytokine-expressing T cell subpopulations were visualized using SPICE. Results Ara h 2 dominated the antibody response to peanut as judged by prevalence and quantity among a cohort of children with IgE to peanut. High IgE (>15 kUA/L) was almost exclusively associated with dual sensitization to Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and was age-independent. Among PA children, IL-4-biased responses to both major allergens were induced, regardless of whether IgE antibodies to Ara h 1 were present. Among subjects receiving OIT in whom high IgE was maintained, Th2 reactivity to peanut components persisted despite clinical desensitization and modulation of allergen-specific immune parameters including augmented specific IgG4 antibodies, Th1 skewing and enhanced IL-10. The complexity of cytokine-positive subpopulations within peanut-reactive IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ T cells was similar to that observed in those who received no OIT, but was modified with extended therapy. Nonetheless, high Foxp3 expression was a distinguishing feature of peanut-reactive IL-4+ T cells irrespective of OIT, and a correlate of their ability to secrete type 2 cytokines. Conclusion Though total numbers of peanut-reactive IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ T cells are modulated by OIT in highly allergic children, complex T-cell populations with pathogenic potential persist in the presence of recognized immune markers of successful immunotherapy. [Clinical

  4. Cerebral regulatory T cells restrain microglia/macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via IL-10.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav Roy; Winters, Ali; Yang, Shao-Hua; Jin, Kunlin

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells maintain the immune tolerance and prevent inflammatory responses in the periphery. However, the presence of Treg cells in the CNS under steady state has not been studied. Here, for the first time, we show a substantial TCRαβ (+) CD4(+) Foxp3(+) T-cell population (cerebral Treg cells) in the rat cerebrum, constituting more than 15% of the cerebral CD4(+) T-cell compartment. Cerebral Treg cells showed an activated/memory phenotype and expressed many Treg-cell signature genes at higher levels than peripheral Treg cells. Consistent with their activated/memory phenotype, cerebral Treg cells robustly restrained the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of brain microglia/macrophages, suggesting a role in maintaining the cerebral homeostasis by inhibiting the neuroinflammation. In addition, brain astrocytes were the helper cells that sustained Foxp3 expression in Treg cells through IL-2/STAT5 signaling, showing that the interaction between astrocytes and Treg cells contributes to the maintenance of Treg-cell identity in the brain. Taken together, our work represents the first study to characterize the phenotypic and functional features of Treg cells in the rat cerebrum. Our data have provided a novel insight for the contribution of Treg cells to the immunosurveillance and immunomodulation in the cerebrum under steady state.

  5. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  6. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  7. Impact of Adiponectin Overexpression on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Verbout, Norah G.; Williams, Alison S.; Kasahara, David I.; Wurmbrand, Allison P.; Halayko, Andrew J.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma. Obese individuals have decreased circulating adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that transgenic overexpression of adiponectin would attenuate allergic airways inflammation and mucous hyperplasia in mice. To test this hypothesis, we used mice overexpressing adiponectin (Adipo Tg). Adipo Tg mice had marked increases in both serum adiponectin and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid adiponectin. Both acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge protocols were used. In both protocols, OVA-induced increases in total BAL cells were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice. In the acute protocol, OVA-induced increases in several IL-13 dependent genes were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, even though IL-13 per se was not affected. With chronic exposure, though OVA-induced increases in goblet cells numbers per millimeter of basement membrane were greater in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, mRNA abundance of mucous genes in lungs was not different. Also, adiponectin overexpression did not induce M2 polarization in alveolar macrophages. Our results indicate that adiponectin protects against allergen-induced inflammatory cell recruitment to the airspaces, but not development of goblet cell hyperplasia. PMID:23861690

  8. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  9. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    PubMed Central

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC in vitro and in vivo. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, dexamethasone, meclofenamic acid, flufenamic acid and mefenamic acid were tested in UCC HeLa, VIPA, INBL and SiHa cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was evaluated in vitro. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid presented with slight to moderate toxicity (10–40% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM) in certain cell lines, while meclofenamic acid exhibited significant cytotoxicity in all essayed cell lines (50–90% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM). The meclofenamic acid was tested in murine models (immunodeficient and immunocompetent) of UCC, which manifested a significant reduction in tumor growth and increased mouse survival. It was demonstrated that of the evaluated anti-inflammatory drugs, meclofenamic acid was the most cytotoxic, with a significant antitumor effect in murine models. Subsequent studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical utility of this drug. PMID:26622892

  10. Helicobacter bilis Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase Enhances Inflammatory Stress Response via Oxidative Stress in Colon Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Sundus; Mejías-Luque, Raquel; Kalali, Behnam; Bolz, Christian; Gerhard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter bilis (H. bilis) infection is associated with cases of inflammatory bowel Disease, thyphlocolitis, hepatitis and cholecystitis. However, little is known about the bacterial virulence determinants or the molecular mechanisms involved. Recently, H. bilis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (HBgGT) was shown to be a virulence factor decreasing host cell viability. Bacterial gGTs play a key role in synthesis and degradation of glutathione and enables the bacteria to utilize extracellular glutamine and glutathione as sources of glutamate. gGT-mediated loss of cell viability has so far been linked to DNA damage via oxidative stress, but the signaling cascades involved herein have not been described. In this study, we identified enhanced ROS production induced by HBgGT as a central factor involved in the activation of the oxidative stress response cascades, which finally activate CREB, AP-1 and NF-κB in H. bilis infected colon cancer cells. IL-8, an important pro-inflammatory chemokine that is a common downstream target of these transcription factors, was up-regulated upon H. bilis infection in an HBgGT dependent manner. Moreover, the induction of these signaling responses and inflammatory cytokine production in host cells could be linked to HBgGT-mediated glutamine deprivation. This study implicates for the first time HBgGT as an important regulator of signaling cascades regulating inflammation in H. bilis infected host epithelial cells that could be responsible for induction of inflammatory disorders by the bacterium. PMID:24009737

  11. Contribution of vascular cell-derived cytokines to innate and inflammatory pathways in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Loppnow, Harald; Buerke, Michael; Werdan, Karl; Rose-John, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is a central element of atherogenesis. Innate pathways contribute to vascular inflammation. However, the initial molecular process(es) starting atherogenesis remain elusive. The various risk factors, represented by particular compounds (activators), may cause altered cellular functions in the endothelium (e.g. vascular endothelial cell activation or -dysfunction), in invading cells (e.g. inflammatory mediator production) or in local vessel wall cells (e.g. inflammatory mediators, migration), thereby triggering the innate inflammatory process. The cellular components of innate immunology include granulocytes, natural killer cells and monocytes. Among the molecular innate constituents are innate molecules, such as the toll-like receptors or innate cytokines. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are among the innate cytokines. Cytokines are potent activators of a great number of cellular functions relevant to maintain or commove homeostasis of the vessel wall. Within the vessel wall, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can significantly contribute to the cytokine-dependent inflammatory network by: (i) production of cytokines, (ii) response to cytokines and (iii) cytokine-mediated interaction with invading leucocytes. The cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 are involved in SMC-leucocyte interaction. The IL-6 effects are proposed to be mediated by trans-signalling. Dysregulated cellular functions resulting from dysregulated cytokine production may be the cause of cell accumulation, subsequent low-density lipoprotein accumulation and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). The deposition of ECM, increased accumulation of leucocytes and altered levels of inflammatory mediators may constitute an ‘innate-immunovascular-memory’ resulting in an ever-growing response to anew invasion. Thus, SMC-fostered inflammation, promoted by invading innate cells, may be a potent component for development and acceleration of atherosclerosis. PMID:21199323

  12. Potential therapeutic utility of mesenchymal stem cells in inflammatory bowel disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, Ahmed G; Ata, Hazem M; Salman, Tarek M; Rashed, Laila A; Sabry, Dina; Schaalan, Mona F

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were found to provide an effective therapeutic role in inflammatory diseases by modulating inflammatory responses and tissue regeneration by their differentiation ability. The present work sought to demonstrate the potential therapeutic use of MSCs in treating chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mice. A new model to induce chronic IBD based on alternative administration periods of Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) was established. Mice were divided into 2 groups; one was treated with MSCs and the other was treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Assessment of therapeutic efficacy of MSCs was by measuring weight, stool scoring, histopathological examination, and measuring the gene expression of inflammatory markers: Interleukin-23 (IL-23), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The results showed that DSS administration causes bloody and watery stool, weight loss, and altered histopathologic picture. MSC treated mice showed a significant improvement in stool condition, weight gain, and normal histopathologic picture compared to the PBS treated mice. Moreover, gene expressions of inflammatory markers in the intestines of the MSC treated mice were also significantly lower than those of the PBS treated mice. In conclusion, the data here showed that MSCs have a clear potential efficacy in the treatment for IBD, as their immune modulation effects include inhibition in the expression of key inflammatory markers that each plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD.

  13. Administration of Reconstituted Polyphenol Oil Bodies Efficiently Suppresses Dendritic Cell Inflammatory Pathways and Acute Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Elisabetta; Vadrucci, Elisa; Delvecchio, Francesca Romana; Addabbo, Francesco; Bettini, Simona; Liou, Rachel; Monsurrò, Vladia; Huang, Alex Yee-Chen; Pizarro, Theresa Torres

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are natural compounds capable of interfering with the inflammatory pathways of several in vitro model systems. In this study, we developed a stable and effective strategy to administer polyphenols to treat in vivo models of acute intestinal inflammation. The in vitro suppressive properties of several polyphenols were first tested and compared for dendritic cells (DCs) production of inflammatory cytokines. A combination of the polyphenols, quercetin and piperine, were then encapsulated into reconstituted oil bodies (OBs) in order to increase their stability. Our results showed that administration of low dose reconstituted polyphenol OBs inhibited LPS-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion, including IL-6, IL-23, and IL-12, while increasing IL-10 and IL-1Rα production. Mice treated with the polyphenol-containing reconstituted OBs (ROBs) were partially protected from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and associated weight loss, while mortality and inflammatory scores revealed an overall anti-inflammatory effect that was likely mediated by impaired DC immune responses. Our study indicates that the administration of reconstituted quercetin and piperine-containing OBs may represent an effective and potent anti-inflammatory strategy to treat acute intestinal inflammation. PMID:24558444

  14. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  15. DMSO Represses Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Blood Cells and Reduces Autoimmune Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Elisia, Ingrid; Nakamura, Hisae; Lam, Vivian; Hofs, Elyse; Cederberg, Rachel; Cait, Jessica; Hughes, Michael R.; Lee, Leora; Jia, William; Adomat, Hans H.; Guns, Emma S.; McNagny, Kelly M.; Samudio, Ismael; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is currently used as an alternative treatment for various inflammatory conditions as well as for cancer. Despite its widespread use, there is a paucity of data regarding its safety and efficacy as well as its mechanism of action in human cells. Herein, we demonstrate that DMSO has ex-vivo anti-inflammatory activity using Escherichia coli- (E. coli) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-stimulated whole human blood. Specifically, we found that between 0.5%– 2%, DMSO significantly suppressed the expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, a significant reduction in monocyte viability was also observed at 2% DMSO, suggesting a narrow window of efficacy. Anti-inflammatory concentrations of DMSO suppressed E. coli-induced ERK1/2, p38, JNK and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting DMSO acts on these signaling pathways to suppress inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. Although DMSO induces the differentiation of B16/F10 melanoma cells in vitro, topical administration of DMSO to mice subcutaneously implanted with B16 melanoma cells was ineffective at reducing tumor growth, DMSO was also found to block mouse macrophages from polarizing to either an M1- or an M2-phenotype, which may contribute to its inability to slow tumor growth. Topical administration of DMSO, however, significantly mitigated K/BxN serum-induced arthritis in mice, and this was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the joints and white blood cell levels in the blood. Thus, while we cannot confirm the efficacy of DMSO as an anti-cancer agent, the use of DMSO in arthritis warrants further investigation to ascertain its therapeutic potential. PMID:27031833

  16. NLRC5 shields T lymphocytes from NK-cell-mediated elimination under inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ludigs, Kristina; Jandus, Camilla; Utzschneider, Daniel T.; Staehli, Francesco; Bessoles, Stéphanie; Dang, Anh Thu; Rota, Giorgia; Castro, Wilson; Zehn, Dietmar; Vivier, Eric; Held, Werner; Romero, Pedro; Guarda, Greta

    2016-01-01

    NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I (MHCI), which maintains high MHCI expression particularly in T cells. Recent evidence highlights an important NK–T-cell crosstalk, raising the question on whether NLRC5 specifically modulates this interaction. Here we show that NK cells from Nlrc5-deficient mice exhibit moderate alterations in inhibitory receptor expression and responsiveness. Interestingly, NLRC5 expression in T cells is required to protect them from NK-cell-mediated elimination upon inflammation. Using T-cell-specific Nlrc5-deficient mice, we show that NK cells surprisingly break tolerance even towards ‘self' Nlrc5-deficient T cells under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, during chronic LCMV infection, the total CD8+ T-cell population is severely decreased in these mice, a phenotype reverted by NK-cell depletion. These findings strongly suggest that endogenous T cells with low MHCI expression become NK-cell targets, having thus important implications for T-cell responses in naturally or therapeutically induced inflammatory conditions. PMID:26861112

  17. Human cord blood mononuclear cells decrease cytokines and inflammatory cells in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Shariff, Masood; Eadula, Ujwala; Alvarado, Felipe; Vasko, Mark; Sanberg, Paul R; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Delostia, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    We investigated whether human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells, can limit myocardial cytokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration in acute myocardial infarction. We permanently ligated the left coronary artery of rats and injected into the myocardium either Isolyte or 4 x 10(6) HUCBC in Isolyte and measured myocardial cytokines with antibody arrays at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours after infarction. We then measured with flow cytometry myocardial macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes at 12, 24, and 72 hours after infarctions in rats treated with either intramyocardial Isolyte or 4 x 10(6) HUCBC. In the Isolyte-treated hearts, between 2 and 12 hours after myocardial infarction, tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased from 6.7 +/- 0.9% to 52.3 +/- 4.7%, monocyte chemoattract protein increased from 9.5 +/- 1.2% to 39.8 +/- 2.1%, fractalkine increased from 11 +/- 1.5% to 28.1 +/- 1.3%, ciliary neurotrophic factor increased from 12.1 +/- 0.02% to 25.9 +/- 1.1%, macrophage inflammatory protein increased from 10.3 +/- 1.5% to 23.9.0 +/- 1.4%, interferon-gamma increased from 8.7 +/- 0.4% to 26.0 +/- 1.6%, interleukin-1beta increased from 6.1 +/- 0.04% to 19.0 +/- 1.2%, and IL-4 increased from 5.9 +/- 0.03% to 15 +/- 1.5% (all p < 0.001 compared with controls). The concentrations of fractalkine remained significantly increased at 72 hours after acute infarction. In contrast, the myocardial concentrations of these cytokines did not significantly change in HUCBC treated hearts at 2, 6, 12, 24, or 72 hours after infarction. The percentage of neutrophils increased from 0.04 +/- 0.2%/50,000 heart cells in the controls to 5.3 +/- 1.2%/50,000 heart cells 12 hours after infarction in Isolyte-treated hearts but averaged only 1.3 +/- 0.7%/50,000 heart cells in HUCBC treated hearts (p < 0.02). Thereafter, the percentages of neutrophils rapidly decreased at 24 and at 72 hours after infarction and

  18. Absinthin attenuates LPS-induced ALI through MIP-1α-mediated inflammatory cell infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nailiang; Xu, Yinghua; Cao, Zhongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by severe lung inflammation, and anti-inflammatory treatment is proposed to be a pertinent therapeutic strategy for the disease. Absinthin is a triterpene, extracted from a Chinese herb, with anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether absinthin can attenuate ALI in a mouse model of lung injury. Mice were treated with various concentrations (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80mg/kg) of absinthin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce ALI. We found that the administration of absinthin relieved LPS-induced acute lung injury, as suggested by reduced histological scores, wet-to-dry ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, and accumulation of inflammatory cells in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, we demonstrated that absinthin significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8); this effect could inhibit the accumulation of inflammatory cells in lung tissues through a mechanism dependent on MMP-8-mediated inactivation of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Therefore, we propose that absinthin is a promising novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of ALI.

  19. Influence of inflammatory and lipidic parameters on red blood cell distribution width in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Sarnago, Ana; Fuster, Oscar; Alis, Rafael; Romagnoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a routine red blood cell count parameter which has been shown to be associated with inflammatory parameters. Recently, some authors proposed that RDW seems to be a marker of an adverse lipidic profile. In order to clarify whether RDW is related to inflammation, plasma lipids, or both, we determined anthropometric, hematimetric, inflammatory and lipidic parameters in 1111 healthy subjects. RDW correlated directly with age, body mass index (BMI), inflammatory parameters (plasma viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, leukocyte and neutrophil count), and inversely with iron and hematimetric parameters (P <  0.05). When subjects were divided according to gender, RDW correlated inversely with triglycerides only in women (P <  0.05). When subjects were classified into RDW-quartiles, increased RDW values were accompanied by decreased serum iron levels and hematimetric indices (P <  0.01), whereas age and inflammatory markers increased according to RDW-quartiles (P <  0.001 and P <  0.05, respectively). However, plasma lipids did not change with increasing RDW-quartiles (P >  0.05). In the linear regression analysis, age, hemoglobin, MCV (beta coefficient: 0.202, -0.234, -0.316, P <  0.001) and fibrinogen (beta coefficient: 0.059, P = 0.048) were the only independent predictors of RDW. The present study indicates that RDW is associated with inflammatory markers and hematimetric indices, but not with plasma lipid levels in a healthy population. PMID:25159489

  20. Safflower Yellow regulates microglial polarization and inhibits inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated Bv2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Wang; Li, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yong-Fei; Ding, Zhi-Bin; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Liu, Jian-Chun; Jiang, Wei-Jia; Feng, Qian-Jin; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2016-03-01

    Activated microglia, especially polarized M1 cells, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radicals, thereby contributing directly to neuroinflammation and various brain disorders. Given that excessive or chronic neuroinflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) exacerbates neuronal damage, molecules that modulate neuroinflammation are candidates as neuroprotective agents. In this study, we provide evidence that Safflor yellow (SY), the main active component in the traditional Chinese medicine safflower, modulates inflammatory responses by acting directly on BV2 microglia. LPS stimulated BV2 cells to upregulate expression of TLR4-Myd88 and MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathways and to release IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. However, SY treatment inhibited expression of TLR4-Myd88 and p-38/p-JNK-NF-κB, downregulated expression of iNOS, CD16/32, and IL-12, and upregulated CD206 and IL-10. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SY exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on BV2 microglia, possibly through TLR-4/p-38/p-JNK/NF-κB signaling pathways and the conversion of microglia from inflammatory M1 to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. PMID:26634402

  1. Pre-clinical studies of Notch signaling inhibitor RO4929097 in inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Debeb, Bisrat G; Cohen, Evan N; Boley, Kimberly; Freiter, Erik M; Li, Li; Robertson, Fredika M; Reuben, James M; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Buchholz, Thomas A; Woodward, Wendy A

    2012-07-01

    Basal breast cancer, common among patients presenting with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), has been shown to be resistant to radiation and enriched in cancer stem cells. The Notch pathway plays an important role in self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells and contributes to inflammatory signaling which promotes the breast cancer stem cell phenotype. Herein, we inhibited Notch signaling using a gamma secretase inhibitor, RO4929097, in an in vitro model that enriches for cancer initiating cells (3D clonogenic assay) and conventional 2D clonogenic assay to compare the effect on radiosensitization of the SUM149 and SUM190 IBC cell lines. RO4929097 downregulated the Notch target genes Hes1, Hey1, and HeyL, and showed a significant reduction in anchorage independent growth in SUM190 and SUM149. However, the putative self-renewal assay mammosphere formation efficiency was increased with the drug. To assess radiosensitization of putative cancer stem cells, cells were exposed to increasing doses of radiation with or without 1 μM RO4929097 in their standard (2D) and self-renewal enriching (3D) culture conditions. In the conventional 2D clonogenic assay, RO4929097 significantly sensitized SUM190 cells to ionizing radiation and has a modest radiosensitization effect in SUM149 cells. In the 3D clonogenic assays, however, a radioprotective effect was seen in both SUM149 and SUM190 cells at higher doses. Both cell lines express IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines known to mediate the efficacy of Notch inhibition and to promote self-renewal of stem cells. We further showed that RO429097 inhibits normal T-cell synthesis of some inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, a potential mediator of IL-6 and IL-8 production in the microenvironment. These data suggest that additional targeting agents may be required to selectively target IBC stem cells through Notch inhibition, and that evaluation of microenvironmental influences may shed further light on the potential effects of this inhibitor.

  2. Acetaminophen Attenuates House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory J; Thrall, Roger S; Cloutier, Michelle M; Manautou, Jose E; Morris, John B

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, likely through pro-oxidant mechanisms. However, no studies have investigated the direct effects of APAP on the development of allergic inflammation. To determine the likelihood of a causal relationship between APAP and asthma pathogenesis, we explored the effects of APAP on inflammatory responses in a murine house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease. We hypothesized that APAP would enhance the development of HDM-induced allergic inflammation. The HDM model consisted of once daily intranasal instillations for up to 2 weeks with APAP or vehicle administration 1 hour prior to HDM during either week 1 or 2. Primary assessment of inflammation included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cytokine expression in lung tissue, and histopathology. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of HDM treatment were substantially diminished in APAP-treated groups compared with controls. APAP-treated groups had markedly reduced airway inflammation: including decreased inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid, lower cytokine expression in lung tissue, and less perivascular and peribronchiolar immune cell infiltration. The anti-inflammatory effect of APAP was not abrogated by an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism, suggesting that the effect was due to the parent compound or a non-P450 generated metabolite. Taken together, our studies do not support the biologic plausibility of the APAP hypothesis that APAP use may contribute to the causation of asthma. Importantly, we suggest the mechanism by which APAP modulates airway inflammation may provide novel therapeutic targets for asthma. PMID:27402277

  3. The role of autophagy in allergic inflammation: a new target for severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-Nan; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Trinh, Hoang Kim Tu; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Hae-Sim; Shin, Yoo Seob

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy has been investigated for its involvement in inflammatory diseases, but its role in asthma has been little studied. This study aimed to explore the possible role of autophagy and its therapeutic potential in severe allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) on days 0 and 14, followed by primary OVA challenge on days 28–30. The mice received a secondary 1 or 2% OVA challenge on days 44–46. After the final OVA challenge, the mice were assessed for airway responsiveness (AHR), cell composition and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). LC3 expression in lung tissue was measured by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Autophagosomes were detected by electron microscopy. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) treatment and Atg5 knockdown were applied to investigate the potential role of autophagy in allergic asthma mice. AHR, inflammation in BALF and LC3 expression in lung tissue were significantly increased in the 2% OVA-challenged mice compared with the 1% OVA-challenged mice (P<0.05). In addition, eosinophils showed prominent formation of autophagosomes and increased LC3 expression compared with other inflammatory cells in BALF and lung tissue. After autophagy was inhibited by 3-MA and Atg5 shRNA treatment, AHR, eosinophilia, interleukin (IL)-5 levels in BALF and histological inflammatory findings were much improved. Finally, treatment with an anti-IL-5 antibody considerably reduced LC3 II expression in lung homogenates. Our findings suggest that autophagy is closely correlated with the severity of asthma through eosinophilic inflammation, and its modulation may provide novel therapeutic approaches for severe allergic asthma. PMID:27364893

  4. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  5. What is the evidence for the role of TRP channels in inflammatory and immune cells?

    PubMed

    Parenti, A; De Logu, F; Geppetti, P; Benemei, S

    2016-03-01

    A complex network of many interacting mechanisms orchestrates immune and inflammatory responses. Among these, the cation channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family expressed by resident tissue cells, inflammatory and immune cells and distinct subsets of primary sensory neurons, have emerged as a novel and interrelated system to detect and respond to harmful agents. TRP channels, by means of their direct effect on the intracellular levels of cations and/or through the indirect modulation of a large series of intracellular pathways, orchestrate a range of cellular processes, such as cytokine production, cell differentiation and cytotoxicity. The contribution of TRP channels to the transition of inflammation and immune responses from a defensive early response to a chronic and pathological condition is also emerging as a possible underlying mechanism in various diseases. This review discusses the roles of TRP channels in inflammatory and immune cell function and provides an overview of the effects of inflammatory and immune TRP channels on the pathogenesis of human diseases.

  6. Necro-inflammatory response of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gu, H; Werner, J; Bergmann, F; Whitcomb, D C; Büchler, M W; Fortunato, F

    2013-01-01

    The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24 h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3 h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24 h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNFα expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNFα production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury.

  7. Necro-inflammatory response of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, H; Werner, J; Bergmann, F; Whitcomb, D C; Büchler, M W; Fortunato, F

    2013-01-01

    The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24 h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3 h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24 h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNFα expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNFα production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury. PMID:24091659

  8. Distribution of Th17 cells and Th1 cells in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chi, Li Jun; Xu, Wan Hai; Zhang, Zong Wen; Huang, Hui Tao; Zhang, Li Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2010-12-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system. Th17 and Th1 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of most autoimmune diseases, but little is known about their distribution and reciprocal relationship in CIDP. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of Th17, Th1, and Th17/Th1 cells in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The results showed that the frequency of Th17 cells was significantly higher in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) and CSF of active CIDP in comparison with remitting CIDP or to other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (ONDs), accompanied by similar findings for Th17/Th1 cells. Both active and remitting CIDP have higher percentage of Th1 cells in the CSF than OND. CSF protein levels positively correlated with the frequencies of Th17 cells either in the PBMCs or CSF of active CIDP, while there was no significant correlation with Th1 cells. In line with these observations, the levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in plasma and transcript factors retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt expressed by PBMCs were significantly higher in the active CIDP than remitting CIDP or OND. In summary, our preliminary findings suggest that elevated numbers of inflammatory T cells, especially for Th17 cells, might be an important determinant in the evolution of CIDP.

  9. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  10. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Huang, Huei-Mei; Lin, Chu-Lun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA) on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL-) 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4), MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN-) γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model. PMID:26495021

  11. Diesel exposure suppresses natural killer cell function and resolution of eosinophil inflammation: a randmonized controlled trial of exposure in allergic rhinitics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to exacerbate allergic inflammation, including virus induced eosinophil activation in laboratory animals. We have previously shown that in human volunteers with allergic rhinitis a short-term exposure to DE prior to infection with the live...

  12. The hookworm pharmacopoeia for inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Severine; Ferreira, Ivana; Loukas, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In the developed world, declining prevalence of parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Current treatments for these chronic inflammatory conditions have little to no effect on their prevalence and are referred to as "controllers" rather than cures. There has been limited success in therapeutically targeting allergic and autoimmune pathways, leaving an unmet need for development of effective anti-inflammatories. We discuss the benefit of hookworm infections and the parasite's ability to condition the immune system to prevent allergic asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. We then examine the immunomodulatory properties of selected hookworm-derived proteins in these two models of inflammation. While hookworm protein therapy has yet to be fully exploited, the identification of these proteins and the mechanisms by which they skew the immune system will provide new avenues for controlling and optimally reversing key pathological processes important in allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  13. The role of T helper type 17 cells in inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, S; Cooney, L A; Fox, D A

    2010-01-01

    While T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis for more than three decades, the focus on the T helper type 17 (Th17) subset of CD4 T cells and their secreted cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-17, is much more recent. Proinflammatory actions of IL-17 were first identified in the 1990s, but the delineation of a distinct Th17 subset in late 2005 has sparked great interest in the role of these cells in a broad range of immune-mediated diseases. This review summarizes current understanding of the role of Th17 cells and their products in both animal models of inflammatory arthritis and human immune-driven arthritides. PMID:19758374

  14. HSPA12B inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Xuehan; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Surong; Tu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, He; Li, Rongrong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the HSP70 protein family. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12B on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible mechanisms involved. A HUVECs inflammatory model was induced by LPS. Overexpression of HSPA12B in HUVECs was achieved by infection with recombinant adenoviruses encoding green fluorescence protein-HSPA12B. Knockdown of HSPA12B was achieved by siRNA technique. Twenty four hours after virus infection or siRNA transfection, HUVECs were stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 4 hrs. Endothelial cell permeability ability was determined by transwell permeability assay. The binding rate of human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with HUVECs was examined using myeloperoxidase assay. Cell migrating ability was determined by the wound-healing assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of interested genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The release of cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α was measured by ELISA. HSPA12B suppressed LPS-induced HUVEC permeability and reduced PMN adhesion to HUVECs. HSPA12B also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine expression. By contrast, knockdown of HSPA12B enhanced LPS-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, HSPA12B activated PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by Wortmannin completely abrogated the protection of HSPA12B against inflammatory response in HUVECs. Our results suggest that HSPA12B attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in HUVECs via activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. PMID:25545050

  15. Cinnamon extract reduces symptoms, inflammatory mediators and mast cell markers in murine IL-10(-/-) colitis.

    PubMed

    Hagenlocher, Yvonne; Hösel, Angela; Bischoff, Stephan C; Lorentz, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) shows an increasing prevalence and harm in western countries. Conventional therapies are associated with bad compliance and adverse side effects. Natural substances like cinnamon extract (CE) could be an additional therapy. We found recently that CE acts anti-inflammatory on mast cells - discussed of being relevant in IBD. Here, we analysed the effects of CE on murine IL-10(-/-) colitis as model for IBD. Mice were treated 12 weeks with or without CE in drinking water. Clinical scores and disease activity index were assessed. Colonic tissue samples were analysed for infiltration, tissue damage, bowel wall thickness, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, mast cell proteases, tight junction proteins, and NF-κB signaling. Following treatment with CE, symptoms of murine colitis as well as increased infiltration of immune cells, tissue damage and bowel wall thickness in colon tissue of IL-10(-/-) mice were diminished significantly. MIP-2, TNF, IFNγ, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and IL-1β as well as MC-CPA, MCP-1 and MCP-4 were strongly upregulated in IL-10(-/-) mice compared to WT, but noteworthy not in CE group. Expression of tight junction proteins was not influenced by CE. Phosphorylation of IκB was slightly down-regulated in CE treated IL-10(-/-) mice compared to IL-10(-/-) controls. In summary, CE decreases inflammatory symptoms and expression of inflammatory markers in murine IL-10(-/-) colitis. CE has no influence on tight junction proteins, but seems acting via reducing pro-inflammatory mediators and recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes probably by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. PMID:27012624

  16. Catecholamines—Crafty Weapons in the Inflammatory Arsenal of Immune/Inflammatory Cells or Opening Pandora’s Box§?

    PubMed Central

    Flierl, Michael A; Rittirsch, Daniel; Huber-Lang, Markus; Sarma, J Vidya; Ward, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that catecholamines (CAs), which regulate immune and inflammatory responses, derive from the adrenal medulla and from presynaptic neurons. Recent studies reveal that T cells also can synthesize and release catecholamines which then can regulate T cell function. We have shown recently that macrophages and neutrophils, when stimulated, can generate and release catecholamines de novo which, then, in an autocrine/paracrine manner, regulate mediator release from these phagocytes via engagement of adrenergic receptors. Moreover, regulation of catecholamine-generating enzymes as well as degrading enzymes clearly alter the inflammatory response of phagocytes, such as the release of proinflammatory mediators. Accordingly, it appears that phagocytic cells and lymphocytes may represent a major, newly recognized source of catecholamines that regulate inflammatory responses. PMID:18079995

  17. Inhibition of acidic mammalian chitinase by RNA interference suppresses ovalbumin-sensitized allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Jen; Liu, Yu-Kuo; Liu, Chao-Lin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Su, Chien-Chang; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Shen, Chia-Rui

    2009-12-01

    Asthma, a chronic helper T cell type 2-mediated inflammatory disease, is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Growing evidence suggests that increased expression of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In the present study, we sought to develop an RNA interference approach to suppress allergic asthma in mice through silencing of AMCase expression. Mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) were intratracheally administered a recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing short hairpin RNA (rAAV-shRNA) against AMCase. In OVA-sensitized mice, the development of allergic symptoms was significantly associated with elevated AMCase expression. After administration of rAAV-shRNA, there was a significant reduction of AMCase expression in the lung and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells of sensitized mice. Sensitized mice receiving rAAV-shRNA showed a significant improvement in allergic symptoms, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil infiltration, eotaxin, interleukin-13 secretion in BALF, and serum OVA-specific IgE level. Our data suggest the hyperexpression of AMCase in asthma can be suppressed by rAAV-mediated shRNA. Silencing AMCase expression by shRNA may be a promising therapeutic strategy in asthma.

  18. Test of the antiorthostatic suspension model on mice: effects on the inflammatory cell response.

    PubMed

    Fleming, S D; Rosenkrans, C F; Chapes, S K

    1990-04-01

    We tested the antiorthostatic suspension model for use as a 1G model to study the effects of factors that will be encountered during space travel on inflammation. We found no differences in inflammatory cells induced in antiorthostatically suspended mice. However, the superoxide response (used for oxidative killing of bacteria such as S. aureus) was impaired in antiorthostatically oriented mice compared to control mice. Elevated corticosterone levels were found in antiorthostatically suspended mice and indicate that stress may be a factor in the model. If the stress factor of the model correlates with the physiological stress of space flight, antiorthostatic suspension may be an acceptable model for studying inflammatory responses in mice.

  19. Test of the antiorthostatic suspension model on mice - Effects on the inflammatory cell response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenkrans, Charles F., Jr.; Chapes, Stephen K.; Fleming, Sherry D.

    1990-01-01

    The antiorthostatic suspension model was tested for use as a 1G model to study the effects of factors that will be encountered during space travel on inflammation. No differences were found in inflammatory cells induced in antiorthostatically suspended mice. However, the superoxide response (used for oxidative killing of bacteria such as S. aureus) was impaired in antiorthostatically oriented mice compared to control mice. Elevated corticosterone levels were found in antiorthostatically suspended mice, indicating that stress may be a factor in the model. If the stress factor of the model correlates with the physiological stress of space flight, antiorthostatic suspension may be an acceptable model for studying inflammatory responses in mice.

  20. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  1. Impaired B lymphopoiesis in old age: a role for inflammatory B cells?

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard L

    2013-12-01

    Continued generation of new B cells within the bone marrow is required throughout life. However, in old age, B lymphopoiesis is inhibited at multiple developmental stages from hematopoietic stem cells through the late stages of new B cell generation. While changes in B cell precursor subsets, as well as alterations in the supporting bone marrow microenvironment, in old age have been known for the last 20 years, only more recently have insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible become clarified. Our recent discovery that B cells in aged mice are pro-inflammatory and can diminish B cell generation within the bone marrow suggests a potential mechanism of inappropriate "B cell feedback" which contributes to a bone marrow microenvironment unfavorable to B lymphopoiesis. We hypothesize that the consequences of a pro-inflammatory microenvironment in old age are (1) reduced B cell generation and (2) alteration in the "read-out" of the antibody repertoire. Both of these likely ensue from reduced expression of the surrogate light chain (λ5 + VpreB) and consequently reduced expression of the pre-B cell receptor (preBCR), critical to pre-B cell expansion and Vh selection. In old age, B cell development may progressively be diverted into a preBCR-compromised pathway. These abnormalities in B lymphopoiesis likely contribute to the poor humoral immunity seen in old age.

  2. Establishment and Characterization of a New Cell Line of Canine Inflammatory Mammary Cancer: IPC-366

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J.; Illera, Maria J.; Lopez, Mirtha S.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Reuben, James M.; Illera, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as a natural model for human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The aim of this study was to characterize a new cell line from IMC (IPC-366) for the comparative study of both IMC and IBC. Tumors cells from a female dog with clinical IMC were collected. The cells were grown under adherent conditions. The growth, cytological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of IPC-366 were evaluated. Ten female Balb/SCID mice were inoculated with IPC-366 cells to assess their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Chromosome aberration test and Karyotype revealed the presence of structural aberration, numerical and neutral rearrangements, demonstrating a chromosomal instability. Microscopic examination of tumor revealed an epithelial morphology with marked anysocytosis. Cytological and histological examination of smears and ultrathin sections by electron microscopy revealed that IPC-366 is formed by highly malignant large round or polygonal cells characterized by marked atypia and prominent nucleoli and frequent multinucleated cells. Some cells had cytoplasmic empty spaces covered by cytoplasmic membrane resembling capillary endothelial cells, a phenomenon that has been related to s vasculogenic mimicry. IHC characterization of IPC-366 was basal-like: epithelial cells (AE1/AE3+, CK14+, vimentin+, actin-, p63-, ER-, PR-, HER-2, E-cadherin, overexpressed COX-2 and high Ki-67 proliferation index (87.15 %). At 2 weeks after inoculating the IPC-366 cells, a tumor mass was found in 100 % of mice. At 4 weeks metastases in lung and lymph nodes were found. Xenograph tumors maintained the original IHC characteristics of the female dog tumor. In summary, the cell line IPC-366 is a fast growing malignant triple negative cell line model of inflammatory mammary carcinoma that can be used for the comparative

  3. Phytoncide Extracted from Pinecone Decreases LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukyung; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Hai Chon; Petriello, Michael C; Kim, Bae Yong; Do, Jeong Tae; Lim, Dae-Seog; Lee, Hong Gu; Han, Sung Gu

    2016-03-01

    Mastitis is a prevalent inflammatory disease that remains one of the main causes of poor quality of milk. Phytoncides are naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compounds derived from plants and trees. To determine if treatment with phytoncide could decrease the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses, mammary alveolar epithelial cells (MAC-T) were pretreated with phytoncide (0.02% and 0.04% (v/v)) followed by LPS treatment (1 and 25 μg/ml). The results demonstrated that phytoncide downregulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Additionally, LPS-induced activation of ERK1/2, p38, and Akt was attenuated by phytoncide. Treatment of cells with known pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), and Akt (LY294002) confirmed the association of these signaling pathways with the observed alterations in COX-2 expression. Moreover, phytoncide attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation and superoxide production, and, finally, treatment with phytoncide increased Nrf2 activation. Results suggest that phytoncide can decrease LPS-induced inflammation in MAC-T cells.

  4. Caffeine prevents LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Ryu, Su-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2016-03-25

    Caffeine is a white crystalline xanthine alkaloid found in the seeds of coffee plants and leaves of the tea bush. In this study, we evaluated whether caffeine exerts anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of caffeine in the presence or absence of LPS. Caffeine decreased the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide (NO). Caffeine treatment also reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6 and IL-12, and decreased both IL-6 secretion and phosphorylated p38MAPK expression in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Caffeine inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) via IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, caffeine inhibited LPS-induced NO production in zebrafish. These results suggest that caffeine may suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells by regulating NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation.

  5. Laparotomy in mice induces blood cell expression of inflammatory and stress genes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fred; Isoda, Fumiko; Mobbs, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Surgical trauma induces immune and stress responses although its effects on postsurgical inflammatory and stress gene expression remain poorly characterized. This study sought to improve current scientific knowledge by investigating the effects of laparotomy on mouse blood cell inflammatory and stress gene expression. Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2% isoflurane or 2% isoflurane with laparotomy and sacrificed 4 h postintervention. Blood was collected and blood cell expression of 158 genes central to inflammatory and stress responses was assayed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays. Mice subjected to isoflurane with laparotomy, compared with mice receiving isoflurane alone, had >2-fold upregulation of genes in inflammation (Osm, IL1rn, IL1b, and Csf1), oxidative stress (Hmox1), heat shock (Hspa1b), growth arrest (Cdkn1a), and DNA repair (Ugt1a2). These genes demonstrated similar expression patterns by Pearson correlation and cluster analysis. Thus, laparotomy induces coordinated, postsurgical blood cell expression of unique inflammatory and stress genes whose roles in influencing surgical outcomes need further investigation.

  6. Laparotomy in Mice Induces Blood Cell Expression of Inflammatory and Stress Genes

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Fumiko; Mobbs, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Surgical trauma induces immune and stress responses although its effects on postsurgical inflammatory and stress gene expression remain poorly characterized. This study sought to improve current scientific knowledge by investigating the effects of laparotomy on mouse blood cell inflammatory and stress gene expression. Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2% isoflurane or 2% isoflurane with laparotomy and sacrificed 4 h postintervention. Blood was collected and blood cell expression of 158 genes central to inflammatory and stress responses was assayed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays. Mice subjected to isoflurane with laparotomy, compared with mice receiving isoflurane alone, had >2-fold upregulation of genes in inflammation (Osm, IL1rn, IL1b, and Csf1), oxidative stress (Hmox1), heat shock (Hspa1b), growth arrest (Cdkn1a), and DNA repair (Ugt1a2). These genes demonstrated similar expression patterns by Pearson correlation and cluster analysis. Thus, laparotomy induces coordinated, postsurgical blood cell expression of unique inflammatory and stress genes whose roles in influencing surgical outcomes need further investigation. PMID:25406893

  7. Caffeine prevents LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Ryu, Su-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2016-03-25

    Caffeine is a white crystalline xanthine alkaloid found in the seeds of coffee plants and leaves of the tea bush. In this study, we evaluated whether caffeine exerts anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of caffeine in the presence or absence of LPS. Caffeine decreased the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide (NO). Caffeine treatment also reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6 and IL-12, and decreased both IL-6 secretion and phosphorylated p38MAPK expression in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Caffeine inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) via IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, caffeine inhibited LPS-induced NO production in zebrafish. These results suggest that caffeine may suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells by regulating NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. PMID:26852703

  8. Soluble Mediators in Platelet Concentrates Modulate Dendritic Cell Inflammatory Responses in an Experimental Model of Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Perros, Alexis J; Christensen, Anne-Marie; Flower, Robert L; Dean, Melinda M

    2015-10-01

    The transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs) is widely used to treat thrombocytopenia and severe trauma. Ex vivo storage of PCs is associated with a storage lesion characterized by partial platelet activation and the release of soluble mediators, such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), RANTES, and interleukin (IL)-8. An in vitro whole blood culture transfusion model was employed to assess whether mediators present in PC supernatants (PC-SNs) modulated dendritic cell (DC)-specific inflammatory responses (intracellular staining) and the overall inflammatory response (cytometric bead array). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was included in parallel cultures to model the impact of PC-SNs on cell responses following toll-like receptor-mediated pathogen recognition. The impact of both the PC dose (10%, 25%) and ex vivo storage period was investigated [day 2 (D2), day 5 (D5), day 7 (D7)]. PC-SNs alone had minimal impact on DC-specific inflammatory responses and the overall inflammatory response. However, in the presence of LPS, exposure to PC-SNs resulted in a significant dose-associated suppression of the production of DC IL-12, IL-6, IL-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β and storage-associated suppression of the production of DC IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-8. For the overall inflammatory response, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and inflammatory protein (IP)-10 were significantly suppressed and IL-8, IL-10, and IL-1β significantly increased following exposure to PC-SNs in the presence of LPS. These data suggest that soluble mediators present in PCs significantly suppress DC function and modulate the overall inflammatory response, particularly in the presence of an infectious stimulus. Given the central role of DCs in the initiation and regulation of the immune response, these results suggest that modulation of the DC inflammatory profile is a probable mechanism contributing to transfusion-related complications. PMID:26133961

  9. Equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stephanie; Barsova, Jekaterina; Campos, Isabel; Frampton, Arthur R

    2016-08-30

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. Strains of EHV-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral DNA polymerase (nucleotide A2254>G2254: amino acid N752→D752) are isolated from EHM afflicted horses at higher frequencies than EHV-1 strains that do not harbor this mutation. Due to the correlation between the DNA Pol mutation and EHM disease, EHV-1 strains that contain the mutation have been designated as neurologic. In this study, we measured virus replication, cell to cell spread efficacy, and host inflammatory responses in equine endothelial cells infected with 12 different strains of EHV-1. Two strains, T953 (Ohio 2003) (neurologic) and Kentucky A (KyA) (non-neurologic), have well described disease phenotypes while the remaining strains used in this study are classified as neurologic or non-neurologic based solely on the presence or absence of the DNA pol mutation, respectively. Results show that the neurologic strains do not replicate better or spread more efficiently in endothelial cells. Also, the majority of the host inflammatory genes were modulated similarly regardless of EHV-1 genotype. Analyses of host gene expression showed that a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, as well as CCL5, IL-6 and TNF-α were consistently up-regulated in endothelial cells infected with each EHV-1 strain. The identification of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells that are modulated by EHV-1 provides further insight into the factors that contribute to the immunopathology observed after infection and may also reveal new targets for disease intervention. PMID:27527764

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Raghav, S K; Gupta, B; Agrawal, C; Goswami, K; Das, H R

    2006-03-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is used for several therapeutic purposes worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of plant extract of Ruta graveolens on murine macrophage cells (J-774) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induces inflammatory response by stimulating the production of nitric oxide and other mediators. Significant inhibition (p=0.01 to p<0.002) of the LPS-induced nitric oxide production was observed in cells treated with plant extract in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition observed for the extract was significantly higher than that observed for rutin, a flavonoid constituent of the plant. At 40 microM rutin, a comparable concentration of this flavonoid in the highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of plant extract was used in this study; a 20% inhibition (p=0.058) was observed. Inhibition in inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene expression in the cells treated with the plant extract suggests an inhibition at the transcription level. Interestingly, a concomitant decrease in transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene has also been observed in cells treated with the plant extract and this inhibition is significantly higher than that observed with the highest concentration of rutin (80 microM) used in the study. As an inflammatory response, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 enzymes leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. Hence, the significant inhibitory effects on both of these inflammatory mediators unravel a novel anti-inflammatory action of this plant.

  11. Polygonum multiflorum Decreases Airway Allergic Symptoms in a Murine Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Wang, Chien-N; Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Chiu, Chun-Lung; Liu, Leroy F; Lin, Hung-Yun; Wu, Reen

    2016-01-01

    The root of Polygonum multiflorum (also called He-Shou-Wu in Chinese) is a common herb and medicinal food in Asia used for its anti-aging properties. Our study investigated the therapeutic potential of an extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum (PME) in allergic asthma by using a mouse model. Feeding of 0.5 and 1 mg/mouse PME inhibited ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma symptoms, including airway inflammation, mucus production, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), in a dose-dependent manner. To discern PME's mechanism of action, we examined the profile and cytokine production of inflammatory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We found that eosinophils, the main inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lung of OVA-immunized mice, significantly decreased after PME treatment. Th2 cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], decreased in PME-treated mice. Elevated mRNA expression of Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 in the lung tissue was also inhibited after oral feeding of PME in OVA-immunized mice. Thus, we conclude that PME produces anti-asthma activity through the inhibition of Th2 cell activation. PMID:26916919

  12. Bee venom phospholipase A2 suppresses allergic airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model through the induction of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Baek, Hyunjung; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Gihyun; Lee, Hyeonhoon; Kang, Geun-Hyung; Lee, Gyeseok; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-12-01

    Bee venom (BV) is one of the alternative medicines that have been widely used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously demonstrated that BV induces immune tolerance by increasing the population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in immune disorders. However, the major component and how it regulates the immune response have not been elucidated. We investigated whether bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) exerts protective effects that are mediated via Tregs in OVA-induced asthma model. bvPLA2 was administered by intraperitoneal injection into control and OVA-challenged mice. The Treg population, total and differential bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count, Th2 cytokines, and lung histological features were assessed. Treg depletion was used to determine the involvement of Treg migration and the reduction of asthmatic symptoms. The CD206-dependence of bvPLA2-treated suppression of airway inflammation was evaluated in OVA-challenged CD206(-/-) mice. The bvPLA2 treatment induced the Tregs and reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in the OVA-challenged mice. Th2 cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were reduced in bvPLA2-treated mice. Although bvPLA2 suppressed the number of inflammatory cells after OVA challenge, these effects were not observed in Treg-depleted mice. In addition, we investigated the involvement of CD206 in bvPLA2-mediated immune tolerance in OVA-induced asthma model. We observed a significant reduction in the levels of Th2 cytokines and inflammatory cells in the BALF of bvPLA2-treated OVA-induced mice but not in bvPLA2-treated OVA-induced CD206(-/-) mice. These results demonstrated that bvPLA2 can mitigate airway inflammation by the induction of Tregs in an OVA-induced asthma model. PMID:26734460

  13. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  14. Dietary ω3 fatty acid exerts anti-allergic effect through the conversion to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Jun; Arita, Makoto; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Harada, Takashi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Nagasawa, Risa; Shikata, Shiori; Nagatake, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Eri; Kurashima, Yosuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Arai, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, but the immune-metabolic progression from dietary oil remains to be investigated. Here we identified 17,18-epoxyeicostetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE) as an anti-allergic metabolite generated in the gut from dietary ω3 α-linolenic acid (ALA). Biochemical and imaging mass spectrometry analyses revealed increased ALA and its metabolites, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the intestines of mice receiving ALA-rich linseed oil (Lin-mice). In murine food allergy model, the decreased incidence of allergic diarrhea in Lin-mice was due to impairment of mast cell degranulation without affecting allergen-specific serum IgE. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry-based mediator lipidomics identified 17,18-EpETE as a major ω3 EPA-derived metabolite generated from dietary ALA in the gut, and 17,18-EpETE exhibits anti-allergic function when administered in vivo. These findings suggest that metabolizing dietary ω3 PUFAs generates 17,18-EpETE, which is an endogenous anti-allergic metabolite and potentially is a therapeutic target to control intestinal allergies. PMID:26065911

  15. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  16. Thymosin β4-sulfoxide attenuates inflammatory cell infiltration and promotes cardiac wound healing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark A; Smart, Nicola; Dubé, Karina N; Bollini, Sveva; Clark, James E; Evans, Hayley G; Taams, Leonie S; Richardson, Rebecca; Lévesque, Mathieu; Martin, Paul; Mills, Kevin; Riegler, Johannes; Price, Anthony N; Lythgoe, Mark F; Riley, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    The downstream consequences of inflammation in the adult mammalian heart are formation of a non-functional scar, pathological remodelling and heart failure. In zebrafish, hydrogen peroxide released from a wound is the initial instructive chemotactic cue for the infiltration of inflammatory cells, however, the identity of a subsequent resolution signal(s), to attenuate chronic inflammation, remains unknown. Here we reveal that thymosin β4-sulfoxide lies downstream of hydrogen peroxide in the wounded fish and triggers depletion of inflammatory macrophages at the injury site. This function is conserved in the mouse and observed after cardiac injury, where it promotes wound healing and reduced scarring. In human T-cell/CD14+ monocyte co-cultures, thymosin β4-sulfoxide inhibits interferon-γ, and increases monocyte dispersal and cell death, likely by stimulating superoxide production. Thus, thymosin β4-sulfoxide is a putative target for therapeutic modulation of the immune response, resolution of fibrosis and cardiac repair. PMID:23820300

  17. Anti-inflammatory functions of purpurogallin in LPS-activated human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, In-Chul; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2012-03-01

    Enzymatic oxidation of commercially available pyrogallol was efficiently transformed to an oxidative product, purpurogallin. Purpurogallin plays an important role in inhibiting glutathione S-transferase, xanthine oxidase, catechol O-methyltransferase activities and is effective in the cell protection of several cell types. However, the anti-inflammatory functions of purpurogallin are not well studied. Here, we determined the effects of purpurogallin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated proinflammatory responses. The results showed that purpurogallin inhibited LPS-mediated barrier hyper-permeability, monocyte adhesion and migration and such inhibitory effects were significantly correlated with the inhibitory functions of purpurogallin on LPS-mediated cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecules, intracellular cell adhesion molecule, E-selectin). Furthermore, LPS-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) releases from HUVECs were inhibited by purpurogallin. Given these results, purpurogallin showed its anti-inflammatory activities and could be a candidate as a therapeutic agent for various systemic inflammatory diseases. [BMB reports 2012; 45(3): 200-205].

  18. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress the Stretch–Induced Inflammatory miR-155 and Cytokines in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Li, Yi-Shuan Julie; Zhou, Jing; Shih, Yu-Ru Vernon; Miller, Marina; Broide, David; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng; Chien, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Current research in pulmonary pathology has focused on inflammatory reactions initiated by immunological responses to allergens and irritants. In addition to these biochemical stimuli, physical forces also play an important role in regulating the structure, function, and metabolism of the lung. Hyperstretch of lung tissues can contribute to the inflammatory responses in asthma, but the mechanisms of mechanically induced inflammation in the lung remain unclear. Our results demonstrate that excessive stretch increased the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs), including IL-8. This increase of IL-8 secretion was due to an elevated microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression, which caused the suppression of Src homology 2 domain–containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) production and the subsequent activation of JNK signaling. In vivo studies in our asthmatic mouse model also showed such changes in miR-155, IL-8, and SHIP1 expressions that reflect inflammatory responses. Co-culture with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) reversed the stretch-induced hBEC inflammatory responses as a result of IL-10 secretion by hMSCs to down-regulate miR-155 expression in hBECs. In summary, we have demonstrated that mechanical stretch modulates the homeostasis of the hBEC secretome involving miR-155 and that hMSCs can be used as a potential therapeutic approach to reverse bronchial epithelial inflammation in asthma. PMID:23967196

  19. [Effects of rutaecarpine on inflammatory cytokines in insulin resistant primary skeletal muscle cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Wen; Nie, Xu-Qiang; Shi, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Yuan, Ye; Bian, Ka

    2014-08-01

    It is now well established that inflammation plays an important role in the development of numerous chronic metabolic diseases including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Skeletal muscle is responsible for 75% of total insulin-dependent glucose uptake; consequently, skeletal muscle IR is considered to be the primary defect of systemic IR development. Our pre- vious study has shown that rutaecarpine (Rut) can benefit blood lipid profile, mitigate inflammation, and improve kidney, liver, pan- creas pathology status of T2DM rats. However, the effects of Rut on inflammatory cytokines in the development of IR-skeletal muscle cells have not been studied. Thus, our objective was to investigate effects of Rut on inflammatory cytokines interleukiri (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in insulin resistant primary skeletal muscle cells (IR-PSMC). Primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells were prepared from 5 neonate SD rats, and the primary rat skeletal muscle cells were identified by cell morphology, effect of ru- taecarpine on cell proliferation by MTT assay. IR-PSMC cells were induced by palmitic acid (PA), the glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase and peroxidase (GOD-POD) method. The effects of Rut on inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in IR-PSMC cells were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The results show that the primary skeletal muscle cells from neonatal rat cultured for 2-4 days, parallel alignment regularly, and cultured for 7 days, cells fused and myotube formed. It was shown that Rut in concentration 0-180. 0 μmol x L(-1) possessed no cytotoxic effect towards cultured primary skeletal muscle cells. However, after 24 h exposure to 0.6 mmol x L(-1) PA, primary skeletal muscle cells were able to induce a state of insulin resistance. The results obtained indicated significant decrease (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α production by cultured IR-PSMC cells when incubating 24

  20. Protection of Tregs, Suppression of Th1 and Th17 Cells, and Amelioration of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis by a Physically-Modified Saline

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases, the autoreactive T cells overcome the resistance provided by the regulatory T cells (Tregs) due to a decrease in the number of Foxp3-expressing Tregs. Therefore, upregulation and/or maintenance of Tregs during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate Tregs and achieve immunomodulation. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) and PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), was found to upregulate Foxp3 and enrich Tregs in MBP-primed T cells. Moreover, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3 and PNS60, inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of iNOS in MBP-primed splenocytes. Incubation of the cells with an NO donor abrogated the RNS60-mediated upregulation of Foxp3. These results suggest that RNS60 boosts Tregs via suppression of NO production. Consistent to the suppressive activity of Tregs towards autoreactive T cells, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3, or PNS60, suppressed the differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells and shifted the balance towards a Th2 response. Finally, RNS60 treatment exhibited immunomodulation and ameliorated adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, via Tregs. These results describe a novel immunomodulatory property of RNS60 and suggest its exploration for therapeutic intervention in MS and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:23284794

  1. Protection of Tregs, suppression of Th1 and Th17 cells, and amelioration of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by a physically-modified saline.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Susanta; Martinson, Jeffrey A; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases, the autoreactive T cells overcome the resistance provided by the regulatory T cells (Tregs) due to a decrease in the number of Foxp3-expressing Tregs. Therefore, upregulation and/or maintenance of Tregs during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate Tregs and achieve immunomodulation. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) and PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), was found to upregulate Foxp3 and enrich Tregs in MBP-primed T cells. Moreover, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3 and PNS60, inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of iNOS in MBP-primed splenocytes. Incubation of the cells with an NO donor abrogated the RNS60-mediated upregulation of Foxp3. These results suggest that RNS60 boosts Tregs via suppression of NO production. Consistent to the suppressive activity of Tregs towards autoreactive T cells, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3, or PNS60, suppressed the differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells and shifted the balance towards a Th2 response. Finally, RNS60 treatment exhibited immunomodulation and ameliorated adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, via Tregs. These results describe a novel immunomodulatory property of RNS60 and suggest its exploration for therapeutic intervention in MS and other autoimmune disorders.

  2. Inflammatory cytokine-mediated evasion of virus-induced tumors from NK cell control

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Polic, Bojan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Infections with DNA tumor viruses, including members of the polyomavirus family, often result in tumor formation in immune-deficient hosts. The complex control involved in antiviral and antitumor immune responses during these infections can be studied in murine polyomavirus (PyV)-infected mice as a model. We found that NK cells efficiently kill cells derived from PyV-induced salivary gland tumors in vitro in an NKG2D (effector cell) -RAE-1 (target cell) - dependent manner, but in T cell-deficient mice NK cells only delay but do not prevent the development of PyV-induced tumors. Here we show that the PyV-induced tumors have infiltrating functional NK cells. The freshly removed tumors, however, lack surface RAE-1 expression, and the tumor tissues produce soluble factors that down-regulate RAE-1. These factors include the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, and TNF. Each of these cytokines down-regulate RAE-1 expression and susceptibility to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages infiltrating the PyV-induced tumors produce high amounts of IL-1β and TNF. Thus, our data suggest a new mechanism whereby inflammatory cytokines generated in the tumor environment lead to evasion of NK cell-mediated control of virus-induced tumors. PMID:23772039

  3. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  4. The need for patient-focused therapy for children and teenagers with allergic rhinitis: a case-based review of current European practice.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra F; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Scadding, Glenis; Roberts, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common problem in childhood and adolescence, with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The treatment modalities for allergic rhinitis include allergen avoidance, anti-inflammatory symptomatic treatment and allergen specific immunotherapy. In this review, four cases of children with allergic rhinitis are presented to illustrate how the recently published EAACI Guidelines on Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis can be implemented in clinical practice.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate inflammatory processes in the heart and lung via inhibition of TNF signaling.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alessandra; Bedada, Fikru B; Uchida, Shizuka; Pöling, Jochen; Krüger, Marcus; Warnecke, Henning; Richter, Manfred; Kubin, Thomas; Herold, Susanne; Braun, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used to treat different clinical conditions although the mechanisms by which pathogenetic processes are affected are still poorly understood. We have previously analyzed the homing of bone marrow-derived MSC to diseased tissues characterized by a high degree of mononuclear cell infiltration and postulated that MSC might modulate inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrate that MSC mitigate adverse tissue remodeling, improve organ function, and extend lifespan in a mouse model of inflammatory dilative cardiomyopathy (DCM). Furthermore, MSC attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury indicating a general role in the suppression of inflammatory processes. We found that MSC released sTNF-RI, which suppressed activation of the NFκBp65 pathway in cardiomyocytes during DCM in vivo. Substitution of MSC by recombinant soluble TNF-R partially recapitulated the beneficial effects of MSC while knockdown of TNF-R prevented MSC-mediated suppression of the NFκBp65 pathway and improvement of tissue pathology. We conclude that sTNF-RI is a major part of the paracrine machinery by which MSC effect local inflammatory reactions. PMID:27435289

  6. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators.

  7. Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation Restores Inflammatory Balance of Cytokines after ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Alestalo, Kirsi; Miettinen, Johanna A.; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Huikuri, Heikki; Lehenkari, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) launches an inflammatory response and a repair process to compensate cardiac function. During this process, the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is important for optimal cardiac repair. Stem cell transplantation after AMI improves tissue repair and increases the ventricular ejection fraction. Here, we studied in detail the acute effect of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC) transplantation on proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods Patients with STEMI treated with thrombolysis followed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly assigned to receive either BMMNC or saline as an intracoronary injection. Cardiac function was evaluated by left ventricle angiogram during the PCI and again after 6 months. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured from plasma samples up to 4 days after the PCI and the intracoronary injection. Results Twenty-six patients (control group, n = 12; BMMNC group, n = 14) from the previously reported FINCELL study (n = 80) were included to this study. At day 2, the change in the proinflammatory cytokines correlated with the change in the anti-inflammatory cytokines in both groups (Kendall’s tau, control 0.6; BMMNC 0.7). At day 4, the correlation had completely disappeared in the control group but was preserved in the BMMNC group (Kendall’s tau, control 0.3; BMMNC 0.7). Conclusions BMMNC transplantation is associated with preserved balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after STEMI in PCI-treated patients. This may partly explain the favorable effect of stem cell transplantation after AMI. PMID:26690350

  8. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:27180569

  9. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:27180569

  10. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil exhibits anti-inflammatory property by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators in human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Liu, Po-Len; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2008-08-01

    Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anticancer, and cholesterol lowering activities. In this study, our aim was to examine the effects of TRF on LPS-induced inflammatory response through measuring the production of inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-4, and IL-8), cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in human monocytic (THP-1) cells. At concentrations 0.5-5.0 microg/mL, TRF dose-dependently protected against LPS-induced cell death. At same concentrations, TRF also showed potent anti-inflammatory activity as demonstrated by a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS (1 microg/mL)-induced release of NO and PGE(2), and a significant decrease in the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. TRF at 1.0 microg/mL significantly blocked the LPS induction of iNOS and COX-2 expression, but not COX-1. This anti-inflammatory activity was further supported by the inhibition of NF-kappaB expression. These results conclude that TRF possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, and its mechanism of action could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 production, as well as NF-kappaB expression. PMID:18481320

  11. Airway Epithelial Regulation of Allergic Sensitization in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Poynter, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    While many of the contributing cell types and mediators of allergic asthma are known, less well understood are the factors that influence the development of allergic responses that lead to the development of allergic asthma. As the first airway cell type to respond to inhaled factors, the epithelium orchestrates downstream interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4+ T cells that quantitatively and qualitatively dictate the degree and type of the allergic asthma phenotype, making the epithelium of critical importance for the genesis of allergies that later manifest in allergic asthma. Amongst the molecular processes of critical importance in airway epithelium is the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). This review will focus primarily on the genesis of pulmonary allergies and the participation of airway epithelial NF-κB activation therein, using examples from our own work on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and genetic modulation of airway epithelial NF-κB activation. In addition, the mechanisms through which Serum Amyloid A (SAA), an NF-κB-regulated, epithelial-derived mediator, influences allergic sensitization and asthma severity will be presented. Knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes regulating allergic sensitization in the airways has the potential to provide powerful insight into the pathogenesis of allergy, as well as targets for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:22579987

  12. Inflammatory monocytes are potent antitumor effectors controlled by regulatory CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pommier, Arnaud; Audemard, Alexandra; Durand, Aurélie; Lengagne, Renée; Delpoux, Arnaud; Martin, Bruno; Douguet, Laetitia; Le Campion, Armelle; Kato, Masashi; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Auffray, Cédric; Lucas, Bruno; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the impact of immune cell populations on metastatic development in a model of spontaneous melanoma [mice expressing the human RET oncogene under the control of the metallothionein promoter (MT/ret mice)]. In this model, cancer cells disseminate early but remain dormant for several weeks. Then, MT/ret mice develop cutaneous metastases and, finally, distant metastases. A total of 35% of MT/ret mice develop a vitiligo, a skin depigmentation attributable to the lysis of normal melanocytes, associated with a delay in tumor progression. Here, we find that regulatory CD4+ T cells accumulate in the skin, the spleen, and tumor-draining lymph nodes of MT/ret mice not developing vitiligo. Regulatory T-cell depletion and IL-10 neutralization led to increased occurrence of vitiligo that correlated with a decreased incidence of melanoma metastases. In contrast, inflammatory monocytes/dendritic cells accumulate in the skin of MT/ret mice with active vitiligo. Moreover, they inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism, and both their depletion and reactive oxygen species neutralization in vivo increased tumor cell dissemination. Altogether, our data suggest that regulatory CD4+ T cells favor tumor progression, in part, by inhibiting recruitment and/or differentiation of inflammatory monocytes in the skin. PMID:23878221

  13. Bone Marrow Stem/Progenitor Cells Attenuate the Inflammatory Milieu Following Substitution Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Sturm, Renea M.; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Substitution urethroplasty for the treatment of male stricture disease is often accompanied by subsequent tissue fibrosis and secondary stricture formation. Patients with pre-existing morbidities are often at increased risk of urethral stricture recurrence brought upon in-part by delayed vascularization accompanied by overactive inflammatory responses following surgery. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the functional utility of a cell/scaffold composite graft comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) to modulate inflammation and wound healing in a rodent model of substitution urethroplasty. Composite grafts demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects with regards to tissue macrophage and neutrophil density following urethral tissue analyses. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β and further resulted in an earlier transition to tissue remodeling and maturation with a shift in collagen type III to I. Grafted animals demonstrated a progressive maturation and increase in vessel size compared to control animals. Overall, MSC/CD34+ HSPC composite grafts reduce inflammation, enhance an earlier transition to wound remodeling and maturation concurrently increasing neovascularization in the periurethral tissue. We demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of a stem cell-seeded synthetic graft in a rodent substitution urethroplasty model. PMID:27762304

  14. [Periodontal diseases in adults. Immunohistochemical study of inflammatory cells and of collagen].

    PubMed

    Chomette, G; Auriol, M; Armbruster, D; Szpirglas, H; Vaillant, J M

    1987-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed on 9 gingival biopsy specimens from patients suffering of a periodontal disease comparatively to 7 control specimens from patients with inflammatory gingival hyperplasia of various causes and from healthy gums. We used mono or polyclonal antibodies as markers of the different types of inflammatory cells (T-1 lymphocytes and their subsets, B-lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells). In patients with periodontal disease, the high percentage of transformed T-lymphocytes with a majority of helpers was obvious. In controls, the inflammatory cells were principally B-lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. The characterization of different types of collagen produced by periodontal fibroblasts was performed by specific antibodies (anti I, III, V collagen sera). The respective ratio and the topographic distribution of those collagen substances were different in patients with periodontal disease and controls. In the first eventuality, one could find quite exclusively type I collagen. In the other group, type I collagen was associated with type III sub epithelial and type IV perivasor ar collagen. By means of these findings, the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease was discussed and its immune mechanism was suggested.

  15. CD38 is expressed on inflammatory cells of the intestine and promotes intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael; Schumacher, Valéa; Lischke, Timo; Lücke, Karsten; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Velden, Joachim; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme CD38 is expressed on a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and is involved in diverse processes such as generation of calcium-mobilizing metabolites, cell activation, and chemotaxis. Here, we show that under homeostatic conditions CD38 is highly expressed on immune cells of the colon mucosa of C57BL/6 mice. Myeloid cells recruited to this tissue upon inflammation also express enhanced levels of CD38. To determine the role of CD38 in intestinal inflammation, we applied the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model. Whereas wild-type mice developed severe colitis, CD38-/- mice had only mild disease following DSS-treatment. Histologic examination of the colon mucosa revealed pronounced inflammatory damage with dense infiltrates containing numerous granulocytes and macrophages in wild-type animals, while these findings were significantly attenuated in CD38-/- mice. Despite attenuated histological findings, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was only marginally lower in the colons of CD38-/- mice as compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, our results identify a function for CD38 in the control of inflammatory processes in the colon.

  16. Senescent cells as a source of inflammatory factors for tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Davalos, Albert R.; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Campisi, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Cellular senescence, which is associated with aging, is a process by which cells enter a state of permanent cell cycle arrest, therefore constituting a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. Recent studies sho